Sample records for strength element hfse

  1. Volcanic sanidinites: an example for the mobilization of high field strength elements (HFSE) in magmatic systems

    Aßbichler, Donjá; Heuss-Aßbichler, Soraya; Müller, Dirk; Kunzmann, Thomas


    In earth science the mobility of high field strength elements (HFSE) is generally discussed in context of hydrothermal processes. Recent investigations mainly address processes in (late) magmatic-, metamorphic- and submarine hydrothermal systems. They have all in common that H2O is main solvent. The transport of HFSE is suggested to be favored by volatiles, like boron, fluorine, phosphate and sulfate (Jiang et al., 2005). In this study processes in magmatic system are investigated. Sanidinites are rare rocks of igneous origin and are found as volcanic ejecta of explosive volcanoes. They consist mainly of sanidine and minerals of the sodalite group. The very porous fabric of these rocks is an indication of their aggregation from a gaseous magmatic phase. The large sanidine crystals (up to several centimeters) are mostly interlocking, creating large cavities between some crystals. In these pores Zr crystallizes as oxide (baddeleyite, ZrO2) or silicate (zircon, ZrSiO4). The euhedral shape of these minerals is a further indication of their formation out of the gas phase. Furthermore, bubbles in glass observed in some samples are evidence for gas-rich reaction conditions during the formation of the sanidinites. The formation of sanidinites is suggested to be an example for solvothermal processes in natural systems. Solvothermal processes imply the solvation, transport and recrystallization of elements in a gas phase. Results obtained from whole rock analysis from sanidinites from Laacher See (Germany) show a positive correlation between LOI, sulfate, Cl, and Na with the HFSE like Zr. Na-rich conditions seem to ameliorate the solvothermal transport of Zr. All these features point to the formation of sanidinites in the upper part of a magma chamber, where fluid consisting of SO3 and Cl compounds in addition to H2O, CO2 and HFSE (high field strength elements) like Zr accumulate.

  2. Extreme high field strength element (HFSE) depletion and near-chondritic Nb/Ta ratios in Central Andean adakite-like lavas (~ 28°S, ~ 68°W)

    Goss, A. R.; Kay, S. M.


    The eruption of andesites with steep REE patterns and high Sr concentrations (adakite-like) in the northernmost Chilean flatslab region of the Central Andes spatially and temporally corresponds with the appearance of a marked HFSE (high field strength element) depletion in these lavas (La/Ta up to 95). Known as the Dos Hermanos and Pircas Negras andesites, these lavas erupted at the beginning (˜ 8 Ma), during (7-3 Ma), and immediately following (3-2 Ma) a period of tectonic instability characterized by eastward migration of the frontal volcanic arc. ICP-MS analyses of the HFSE reveal a range of chondritic (20-18) to subchondritic (18-11) Nb/Ta ratios in these lavas. Evident temporal trace element trends support a change from a rutile-bearing to an amphibole-bearing eclogitic residual assemblage in equilibrium with the mafic precursor magmas of these andesites. This change in residual mineralogy is contemporaneous with the onset of frontal arc migration in the region. Potential eclogitic sources for the Dos Hermanos and Pircas Negras adakitic andesites include mafic Andean lower crust and an additional flux of forearc crust transported to the sub-arc mantle via subduction erosion during the height of arc migration and Pircas Negras magmatism. Batch melting models of rutile- or amphibole-bearing eclogitic arc basalt in tandem with magma mixing calculations generate the observed adakitic signatures and near-chondritic Nb/Ta ratios of these Central Andean andesites.

  3. HFSE (High Field Strength Elements)-transport and U-Pb-Hf isotope homogenization mediated by Ca-bearing aqueous fluids at 2.04 Ga: Constraints from zircon, monazite, and garnet of the Venetia Klippe, Limpopo Belt, South Africa

    Zeh, A.; Gerdes, A.


    Results from laser-ablation inductively-coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and isotope dilution (ID) analyses of minerals and rocks from a single outcrop of the Venetia Klippe of the Limpopo Belt indicate that the U-Pb and Hf isotope system homogenized on the decimetre scale under amphibolite-facies conditions of ⩽645 ± 25 °C and ⩽7.0 ± 1.1 kbar, i.e. in the presence of an aqueous fluid phase. For a metabasite sample, homogenization is supported by isotope analyses of metamorphic zircon, garnet, and whole rock, which yield a six-point Lu-Hf isochron age of 2039.7 ± 3.4 Ma, with initial 176Hf/177Hf of 0.28126 ± 0.00001, and a U-Pb zircon age of 2042 ± 10 Ma. The occurrence of a few inherited magmatic zircon cores with ages up to 2705 Ma, and with significantly lower initial 176Hf/177Hf of 0.28112, however, indicate that homogenization was incomplete. For a chlorite-biotite-garnet schist isotope homogenization is reflected by within error identical zircon and monazite U-Pb ages of 2045 ± 10 Ma and 2041 ± 8 Ma, respectively, and by a zircon-garnet-whole rock Lu-Hf isochron age of 2083 ± 63 Ma, with an initial 176Hf/177Hf of 0.28140 ± 0.00003. Contemporaneous formation of metamorphic zircon, monazite and garnet in the chlorite schist is not only supported by the isotope data, but also by chlorite inclusions in all three minerals, and by inclusions of metamorphic zircon in garnet. The inclusion textures and the identical initial 176Hf/177Hf support the conclusion that metamorphic zircon grains precipitated from an aqueous fluid phase, after dissolution of zirconium-bearing phases elsewhere, followed by a major HFSE transport, and Hf isotope homogenization. This fluid perhaps was Ca-bearing, as is suggested by the fact that garnet in the schist sample is the only Ca-bearing phase, and that metamorphic monazite, dating the metamorphic peak, is partially replacement by apatite. The fact that the metamorphic zircon rims in the metabasite sample have

  4. The behaviour of the extended HFSE group (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, W, Mo) during the petrogenesis of mafic K-rich lavas: The Eastern Mediterranean case

    Kirchenbaur, M.; Münker, C.


    In arc lavas, elements of the extended high field strength element group (HFSE; Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, W, and Mo) are valuable tracers to unravel magma source processes. These elements can also help to identify residual mineral assemblages in subducting slabs and in the mantle. Most high-precision studies on HFSE behaviour to date only focused on intra-oceanic arc suites and data for mafic lavas of the K-rich series (medium-K, high-K and shoshonitic) are scarce. Arguably, K-rich series are the most incompatible element-rich end-members of subduction zone magmatism, and they often record sediment recycling into the mantle. Understanding HFSE fractionation in K-rich lavas can therefore provide important insight into the global HFSE budget. Here we present a comprehensive extended HFSE dataset obtained by isotope dilution on well-characterised K-rich lavas from the Eastern Mediterranean, also including subducting sediment samples drilled during DSDP Leg 13 and ODP Leg 160 South and West of Crete. The volcanic samples include mafic calc-alkaline lavas from the active Aegean Island arc (Santorini) and post-collisional Tertiary lavas from SE Bulgaria. The Santorini lavas record a hydrous sediment melt-mediated source overprint of a depleted mantle source by components from the subducting African plate. The Bulgarian lavas tap lithospheric mantle sources that were overprinted by fluid- and melt-like subduction components during Eocene subduction of the African Plate. The sediments in this study comprise silts/sands, marl oozes, limestones and clay-rich debris flows and approximate the bulk sediment subducted beneath the Hellenic arc. The marked enrichment of all HFSE in the lavas is controlled by the composition of the subducted sediments as shown by low 176Lu/177Hf (0.008630-0.02433) and Zr/Nb (11.3-29.4), combined with variable εHf (-3 to +11) and elevated W contents (up to 2.45 ppm) in the lavas. Nevertheless, the lavas display unfractionated ratios of Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf of 12

  5. One atmosphere experimental study on the partitioning of the HFSE between olivine, pyroxene and lunar basaltic melts in the CMAS + Fe + Ti system

    Padilha Leitzke, Felipe; Fonseca, Raúl O. C.; Michely, Lina T.


    Titanium is generally regarded as a minor element in the Bulk Silicate Earth (1265 μg/g), with average and maximum TiO2 contents of 1.06 and 5.57 wt. %, respectively. In the Moon, however, TiO2 can be found in concentrations as high as 17 wt. %. In order to better explain this enrichment, petrogenetic models require precise knowledge of major and trace elements fractionation under conditions similar to the ones that may have prevailed on the lunar mantle. Previous studies show that Fe-Ti-O melt species may affect the fractionation of the high-field strength elements (HFSE) between Fe-Ti oxides and silicate melt. However, there is a scarcity of data on the behaviour of these elements between silicates and lunar mare basalts with different TiO2 contents. To address this issue, we present results from an experimental campaign on a HFSE-doped basalt in the CMAS system with different amounts of Cr2O3 (0.1 - 1.5 wt.%), P2O5 (0.1 - 0.5 wt.%), FeO (0 -17 wt.%) and TiO2 (1 - 21 wt.%). Experiments were carried out in a vertical tube gas-mixing furnace with temperatures ranging from 1100 to 1300 °C and ΔFMQ from -5.2 to +6.6. Major and trace elements were acquired with the EMP and LA-ICP-MS, respectively. Our results for DHFSEsilicate/melt are in agreement with the literature for glasses with ca. 1.0 wt.% TiO2. Nevertheless, DHFSEolv/melt for 4+ and 5+ cations have a negative correlation until ca. 4.8 wt. % TiO2 in the silicate glass and after that values are constant until ca. 20 wt. % TiO2. This may be used to indicate that a melt complex may be present, since DTiolv/melt< 0.01. Regarding the DUolv/melt, values change by almost one order of magnitude from more incompatible at the more oxidizing experiments, where the main species present is U6+ to relatively more compatible at the more reducing experiments, where there is a greater contribution of U4+. Results for DHFSEopx/melt do not show any change over the range of TiO2 in the glass in this study, apart from the same

  6. Graphene contacts to a HfSe2/SnS2 heterostructure

    Su, Shanshan; Das, Protik; Ge, Supeng; Lake, Roger K.


    Two-dimensional (2D) heterostructures and all-2D contacts are of high interest for electronic device applications, and the SnS2/HfSe2 bilayer heterostructure with graphene contacts has some unique, advantageous properties. The SnS2/HfSe2 heterostructure is interesting because of the strong intermixing of the two conduction bands and the large work function of the SnS2. The band lineup of the well separated materials indicates a type II heterostructure, but the conduction band minimum of the SnS2/HfSe2 bilayer is a coherent superposition of the orbitals from the two layers with a spectral weight of 60% on the SnS2 and 40% on the HfSe2 for AA stacking. These relative weights can be either increased or reversed by an applied vertical field. A 3 ×3 supercell of graphene and a 2 ×2 supercell of SnS2/HfSe2 have a lattice mismatch of 0.1% and both the SnS2/HfSe2 conduction band at M and the graphene Dirac point at K are zone-folded to Γ . Placing graphene on the SnS2/HfSe2 bilayer results in large n-type charge transfer doping of the SnS2/HfSe2 bilayer, on the order of 1013/cm2, and the charge transfer is accompanied by a negative Schottky barrier contact for electron injection from the graphene into the SnS2/HfSe2 bilayer conduction band. Binding energies and the anti-crossing gaps of the graphene and the SnS2/HfSe2 electronic bands both show that the coupling of graphene to the HfSe2 layer is significantly larger than its coupling to the SnS2 layer. A tunneling Hamiltonian estimate of the contact resistance of the graphene to the SnS2/HfSe2 heterostructure predicts an excellent low-resistance contact.

  7. Dielectric strength test to protection elements for live lines works

    Carlos Eduardo Pinto-Salamanca


    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and assembly of a system of tests of sustained voltage to elements and equipment used in live line maneuvers through tests on gloves and dielectric rods, as these are the first points of contact to ensure safe operations. It means an advance for the creation of a laboratory certified in this type of tests at Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC Faculty of Duitama, considering that currently there are not laboratories that provide this service in Boyacá and Casanare. Dielectric strength tests were performed on personal protection elements and equipment under the parameters of ASTM D120, ASTM F496, ISO 60903, ASTM-F711 and IEEE 978, developing an assembly for testing gloves and dielectric rods with voltage levels up to 15 kV. The results validate the proposed system to outlook of circuit design and implementation, where tests were performed to establish dielectric capacities, in operating under open circuit conditions, with resistive load or short circuit. The compliance with the regulations established under the test sequences of safety parameters for the system and the follow-up to the tests was verified through the use of a management system for the generation of concepts of approval or rejection of the tested elements.

  8. HfSe2 thin films: 2D transition metal dichalcogenides grown by molecular beam epitaxy.

    Yue, Ruoyu; Barton, Adam T; Zhu, Hui; Azcatl, Angelica; Pena, Luis F; Wang, Jian; Peng, Xin; Lu, Ning; Cheng, Lanxia; Addou, Rafik; McDonnell, Stephen; Colombo, Luigi; Hsu, Julia W P; Kim, Jiyoung; Kim, Moon J; Wallace, Robert M; Hinkle, Christopher L


    In this work, we demonstrate the growth of HfSe2 thin films using molecular beam epitaxy. The relaxed growth criteria have allowed us to demonstrate layered, crystalline growth without misfit dislocations on other 2D substrates such as highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and MoS2. The HfSe2 thin films exhibit an atomically sharp interface with the substrates used, followed by flat, 2D layers with octahedral (1T) coordination. The resulting HfSe2 is slightly n-type with an indirect band gap of ∼ 1.1 eV and a measured energy band alignment significantly different from recent DFT calculations. These results demonstrate the feasibility and significant potential of fabricating 2D material based heterostructures with tunable band alignments for a variety of nanoelectronic and optoelectronic applications.

  9. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    Hoang, Cao linh


    The paper deals with the shear strength of prestressed hollow-core slabs determined by the theory of plasticity. Two failure mechanisms are considered in order to derive the solutions.In the case of sliding failure in a diagonal crack, the shear strength is determined by means of the crack sliding...

  10. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    Hoang, Cao linh


    The paper deals with the plastic shear strength of non shear reinforced T-beams.The influence of an un-reinforced flange on the shear capacity is investigated by considering a failure mechanism involving crack sliding in the web and a kind of membrane action over an effective width of the flange...

  11. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    Hoang, Cao linh


    The report deals with the shear strength of statically indeterminate reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement. Solutions for a number of beams with different load and support conditions have been derived by means of the crack sliding model developed by Jin- Ping Zhang.This model...

  12. Quantitative design of regulatory elements based on high-precision strength prediction using artificial neural network.

    Meng, Hailin; Wang, Jianfeng; Xiong, Zhiqiang; Xu, Feng; Zhao, Guoping; Wang, Yong


    Accurate and controllable regulatory elements such as promoters and ribosome binding sites (RBSs) are indispensable tools to quantitatively regulate gene expression for rational pathway engineering. Therefore, de novo designing regulatory elements is brought back to the forefront of synthetic biology research. Here we developed a quantitative design method for regulatory elements based on strength prediction using artificial neural network (ANN). One hundred mutated Trc promoter & RBS sequences, which were finely characterized with a strength distribution from 0 to 3.559 (relative to the strength of the original sequence which was defined as 1), were used for model training and test. A precise strength prediction model, NET90_19_576, was finally constructed with high regression correlation coefficients of 0.98 for both model training and test. Sixteen artificial elements were in silico designed using this model. All of them were proved to have good consistency between the measured strength and our desired strength. The functional reliability of the designed elements was validated in two different genetic contexts. The designed parts were successfully utilized to improve the expression of BmK1 peptide toxin and fine-tune deoxy-xylulose phosphate pathway in Escherichia coli. Our results demonstrate that the methodology based on ANN model can de novo and quantitatively design regulatory elements with desired strengths, which are of great importance for synthetic biology applications.


    Uvarova Tat'yana Erikovna


    Full Text Available The cyclic nature of effects of ice loading contributes to the formation of non-reversible deformations and defects of structural elements that may cause loss of the bearing capacity of the structure due to the accumulation of fatigue damages in dangerous sections. The damages in question are caused by moderate loads of multiple repeatability. In order to assess the number of cycles of ice loading that the structure may be exposed to without any substantial damages, the authors have developed a simulation model of ice load formation that serves as the basis for the analysis of the loading pattern that the structure is exposed to. This loading pattern is the initial one for the purposes of calculation of the fatigue resistance of structural elements to ice load effects. In the research, the authors provide for the joint application of the simulation model of ice load formation and the model of accumulation of fatigue damages to assess the ice resistance of a platform and its reliability from the viewpoint of its failure.

  14. BEAM 1.7: development for modelling fuel element and bundle buckling strength

    Cheng, G.; Xu, S.; Xu, Z.; Paul, U.K. [Atomic Energy of Canada, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)


    This paper describes BEAM, an AECL developed computer program, used to assess mechanical integrity of CANDU fuel bundles. The BEAM code has been developed to satisfy the need for buckling strength analysis of fuel bundles. Buckling refers to the phenomenon where a compressive axial load is large enough that a small lateral load can cause large lateral deflections. The buckling strength refers to the critical compressive axial load at which lateral instability is reached. The buckling strength analysis has practical significance for the design of fuel bundles, where the buckling strength of a fuel element/bundle is assessed so that the conditions leading to bundle jamming in the pressure tube are excluded. This paper presents the development and qualification of the BEAM code, with emphasis on the theoretical background and code implementation of the newly developed fuel element/bundle buckling strength model. (author)

  15. Characterization of macroscopic tensile strength of polycrystalline metals with two-scale finite element analysis

    Watanabe, Ikumu; Terada, Kenjiro; Neto, Eduardo Alberto de Souza; Perić, Djordje

    The objective of this contribution is to develop an elastic-plastic-damage constitutive model for crystal grain and to incorporate it with two-scale finite element analyses based on mathematical homogenization method, in order to characterize the macroscopic tensile strength of polycrystalline metals. More specifically, the constitutive model for single crystal is obtained by combining hyperelasticity, a rate-independent single crystal plasticity and a continuum damage model. The evolution equations, stress update algorithm and consistent tangent are derived within the framework of standard elastoplasticity at finite strain. By employing two-scale finite element analysis, the ductile behaviour of polycrystalline metals and corresponding tensile strength are evaluated. The importance of finite element formulation is examined by comparing performance of several finite elements and their convergence behaviour is assessed with mesh refinement. Finally, the grain size effect on yield and tensile strength is analysed in order to illustrate the versatility of the proposed two-scale model.

  16. Predicting mouse vertebra strength with micro-computed tomography-derived finite element analysis.

    Nyman, Jeffry S; Uppuganti, Sasidhar; Makowski, Alexander J; Rowland, Barbara J; Merkel, Alyssa R; Sterling, Julie A; Bredbenner, Todd L; Perrien, Daniel S


    As in clinical studies, finite element analysis (FEA) developed from computed tomography (CT) images of bones are useful in pre-clinical rodent studies assessing treatment effects on vertebral body (VB) strength. Since strength predictions from microCT-derived FEAs (μFEA) have not been validated against experimental measurements of mouse VB strength, a parametric analysis exploring material and failure definitions was performed to determine whether elastic μFEAs with linear failure criteria could reasonably assess VB strength in two studies, treatment and genetic, with differences in bone volume fraction between the control and the experimental groups. VBs were scanned with a 12-μm voxel size, and voxels were directly converted to 8-node, hexahedral elements. The coefficient of determination or R (2) between predicted VB strength and experimental VB strength, as determined from compression tests, was 62.3% for the treatment study and 85.3% for the genetic study when using a homogenous tissue modulus (E t) of 18 GPa for all elements, a failure volume of 2%, and an equivalent failure strain of 0.007. The difference between prediction and measurement (that is, error) increased when lowering the failure volume to 0.1% or increasing it to 4%. Using inhomogeneous tissue density-specific moduli improved the R (2) between predicted and experimental strength when compared with uniform E t=18 GPa. Also, the optimum failure volume is higher for the inhomogeneous than for the homogeneous material definition. Regardless of model assumptions, μFEA can assess differences in murine VB strength between experimental groups when the expected difference in strength is at least 20%.

  17. Effect of alkaline elements on the reactivity, strength and structural properties of blast furnace cokes

    A. Bhattacharyya


    Full Text Available The present study concerns itself on the adverse effects of alkaline elements like sodium and potassium on blast furnace cokes. To achieve a deeper insight on the effects of alkaline elements on coke reactivity and strength, industrial coke samples impregnated with different alkaline species in various amounts have been tested under standard conditions to find out their Coke Reactivity Index (CRI and Coke Strength after Reaction (CSR values. Scanning electron microscopy, petrographic and Raman Spectrometric investigations demonstrate the change of structural properties. The mechanism of catalysis has been postulated.

  18. Finite Element Analysis of Denosumab Treatment Effects on Vertebral Strength in Ovariectomized Cynomolgus Monkeys.

    Lee, David C; Varela, Aurore; Kostenuik, Paul J; Ominsky, Michael S; Keaveny, Tony M


    Finite element analysis has not yet been validated for measuring changes in whole-bone strength at the hip or spine in people after treatment with an osteoporosis agent. Toward that end, we assessed the ability of a clinically approved implementation of finite element analysis to correctly quantify treatment effects on vertebral strength, comparing against direct mechanical testing, in cynomolgus monkeys randomly assigned to one of three 16-month-long treatments: sham surgery with vehicle (Sham-Vehicle), ovariectomy with vehicle (OVX-Vehicle), or ovariectomy with denosumab (OVX-DMAb). After treatment, T12 vertebrae were retrieved, scanned with micro-CT, and mechanically tested to measure compressive strength. Blinded to the strength data and treatment codes, the micro-CT images were coarsened and homogenized to create continuum-type finite element models, without explicit porosity. With clinical translation in mind, these models were then analyzed for strength using the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-cleared VirtuOst software application (O.N. Diagnostics, Berkeley, CA, USA), developed for analysis of human bones. We found that vertebral strength by finite element analysis was highly correlated (R(2)  = 0.97; n = 52) with mechanical testing, independent of treatment (p = 0.12). Further, the size of the treatment effect on strength (ratio of mean OVX-DMAb to mean OVX-Vehicle, as a percentage) was large and did not differ (p = 0.79) between mechanical testing (+57%; 95% CI [26%, 95%]) and finite element analysis (+51% [20%, 88%]). The micro-CT analysis revealed increases in cortical thickness (+45% [19%, 73%]) and trabecular bone volume fraction (+24% [8%, 42%]). These results show that a preestablished clinical finite element analysis implementation-developed for human bone and clinically validated in fracture-outcome studies-correctly quantified the observed treatment effects of denosumab on vertebral strength in cynomolgus monkeys. One

  19. An experimental study of the partitioning of trace elements between rutile and silicate melt as a function of oxygen fugacity



    Full Text Available Subduction zone or arc magmas are known to display a characteristic depletion of High Field Strength Elements (HFSE relative to other similarly incompatible elements, which can be attributed to the presence of the accessory mineral rutile (TiO2 in the residual slab. Here we show that the partitioning behavior of vanadium between rutile and silicate melt varies from incompatible (∼0.1 to compatible (∼18 as a function of oxygen fugacity. We also confirm that the HFSE are compatible in rutile, with D(Ta> D(Nb>> (D(Hf>/∼ D(Zr, but that the level of compatibility is strongly dependent on melt composition, with partition coefficients increasing about one order of magnitude with increasing melt polymerization (or decreasing basicity. Our partitioning results also indicate that residual rutile may fractionate U from Th due to the contrasting (over 2 orders of magnitude partitioning between these two elements. We confirm that, in addition to the HFSE, Cr, Cu, Zn and W are compatible in rutile at all oxygen fugacity conditions.

  20. Prediction of Human Vertebral Compressive Strength Using Quantitative Computed Tomography Based Nonlinear Finite Element Method

    Ahad Zeinali


    Full Text Available Introduction: Because of the importance of vertebral compressive fracture (VCF role in increasing the patients’ death rate and reducing their quality of life, many studies have been conducted for a noninvasive prediction of vertebral compressive strength based on bone mineral density (BMD determination and recently finite element analysis. In this study, QCT-voxel based nonlinear finite element method is used for predicting vertebral compressive strength. Material and Methods: Four thoracolumbar vertebrae were excised from 3 cadavers with an average age of 42 years. They were then put in a water phantom and were scanned using the QCT. Using a computer program prepared in MATLAB, detailed voxel based geometry and mechanical characteristics of the vertebra were extracted from the CT images. The three dimensional finite element models of the samples were created using ANSYS computer program. The compressive strength of each vertebra body was calculated based on a linearly elastic-linearly plastic model and large deformation analysis in ANSYS and was compared to the value measured experimentally for that sample. Results: Based on the obtained results the QCT-voxel based nonlinear finite element method (FEM can predict vertebral compressive strength more effectively and accurately than the common QCT-voxel based linear FEM. The difference between the predicted strength values using this method and the measured ones was less than 1 kN for all the samples. Discussion and Conclusion: It seems that the QCT-voxel based nonlinear FEM used in this study can predict more effectively and accurately the vertebral strengths based on every vertebrae specification by considering their detailed geometric and densitometric characteristics.

  1. Influence of Finite Element Size in Residual Strength Prediction of Composite Structures

    Satyanarayana, Arunkumar; Bogert, Philip B.; Karayev, Kazbek Z.; Nordman, Paul S.; Razi, Hamid


    The sensitivity of failure load to the element size used in a progressive failure analysis (PFA) of carbon composite center notched laminates is evaluated. The sensitivity study employs a PFA methodology previously developed by the authors consisting of Hashin-Rotem intra-laminar fiber and matrix failure criteria and a complete stress degradation scheme for damage simulation. The approach is implemented with a user defined subroutine in the ABAQUS/Explicit finite element package. The effect of element size near the notch tips on residual strength predictions was assessed for a brittle failure mode with a parametric study that included three laminates of varying material system, thickness and stacking sequence. The study resulted in the selection of an element size of 0.09 in. X 0.09 in., which was later used for predicting crack paths and failure loads in sandwich panels and monolithic laminated panels. Comparison of predicted crack paths and failure loads for these panels agreed well with experimental observations. Additionally, the element size vs. normalized failure load relationship, determined in the parametric study, was used to evaluate strength-scaling factors for three different element sizes. The failure loads predicted with all three element sizes provided converged failure loads with respect to that corresponding with the 0.09 in. X 0.09 in. element size. Though preliminary in nature, the strength-scaling concept has the potential to greatly reduce the computational time required for PFA and can enable the analysis of large scale structural components where failure is dominated by fiber failure in tension.

  2. Fatigue in Welded High-Strength Steel Plate Elements under Stochastic Loading

    Agerskov, Henning; Petersen, R.I.; Martinez, L. Lopez


    The present project is a part of an investigation on fatigue in offshore structures in high-strength steel. The fatigue life of plate elements with welded attachments is studied. The material used has a yield stress of ~ 810-840 MPa, and high weldability and toughness properties. Fatigue test...... series with constant amplitude loading and with various types of stochastic loading have been carried through on test specimens in high-strength steel, and - for a comparison - on test specimens in conventional offshore structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 400-410 MPa.A comparison between constant...... amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results shows shorter fatigue lives in variable amplitude loading than should be expected from the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula. Furthermore, in general longer fatigue lives were obtained for the test specimens in high-strength steel than those...

  3. A Finite Element Analysis for Predicting the Residual Compressive Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Panels

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Jackson, Wade C.


    A simple analysis method has been developed for predicting the residual compressive strength of impact-damaged sandwich panels. The method is tailored for honeycomb core-based sandwich specimens that exhibit an indentation growth failure mode under axial compressive loading, which is driven largely by the crushing behavior of the core material. The analysis method is in the form of a finite element model, where the impact-damaged facesheet is represented using shell elements and the core material is represented using spring elements, aligned in the thickness direction of the core. The nonlinear crush response of the core material used in the analysis is based on data from flatwise compression tests. A comparison with a previous analysis method and some experimental data shows good agreement with results from this new approach.

  4. A Finite Element Analysis for Predicting the Residual Compression Strength of Impact-Damaged Sandwich Panels

    Ratcliffe, James G.; Jackson, Wade C.


    A simple analysis method has been developed for predicting the residual compression strength of impact-damaged sandwich panels. The method is tailored for honeycomb core-based sandwich specimens that exhibit an indentation growth failure mode under axial compression loading, which is driven largely by the crushing behavior of the core material. The analysis method is in the form of a finite element model, where the impact-damaged facesheet is represented using shell elements and the core material is represented using spring elements, aligned in the thickness direction of the core. The nonlinear crush response of the core material used in the analysis is based on data from flatwise compression tests. A comparison with a previous analysis method and some experimental data shows good agreement with results from this new approach.

  5. Finite element analysis of inclusion effects on high strength steel cord wire drawing

    Zhang, Guang-liang; Zhao, Tian-Zhang; Zhang, Shi-hong


    In wire drawing of high strength steel wire for the application in tier cords, the inclusion plays the key role resulting in wire fractures. The effects of inclusion size, position and shape on wire drawing is investigated via finite element analysis in this paper. A 3D finite element model is developed to analyze the effect of inclusion position on the risk of fracture, and a 2D axisymmetrical finite element model for an inclusion at the wire center is established to investigate the effects of inclusion size and shape on wire fracture. A damage model with the consideration of stress status and plastic strain increment is used to characterize the risk of wire fracture. Finite element analysis results indicate that wire fracture is very critical to the inclusion located at wire core, and inclusion with an elliptical shape and its long axis lining well with the wire axis. Finite element analysis also proves that with the use of 7 degree die instead of 9 degree die is able to reduce the risk of fractures by about 28%.

  6. Finite element analysis of residual stress in the welded zone of a high strength steel

    Li Yajiang; Wang Juan; Chen Maoai; Shen Xiaoqin


    The distribution of the residual stress in the weld joint of HQ130 grade high strength steel was investigated by means of finite element method (FEM) using ANSYS software. Welding was carried out using gas shielded arc welding with a heat input of 16 kJ/cm. The FEM analysis on the weld joint reveals that there is a stress gradient around the fusion zone of weld joint. The instantaneous residual stress on the weld surface goes up to 800 ∼ 1000 MPa and it is 500 ∼ 600 MPa, below the weld. The stress gradient near the fusion zone is higher than any other location in the surrounding area. This is attributed as one of the significant reasons for the development of cold cracks at the fusion zone in the high strength steel. In order to avoid such welding cracks, the thermal stress in the weld joint has to be minimized by controlling the weld heat input.

  7. A Finite Element Analysis on Static Strength of a Complex Section

    SUI Xin; FANG Shu-zhou; ZHANG Ping


    A static finite element analysis (FEA) of an impulsive controller section is presented. The boundary condition and a part of the loads are applied. Considering the grades of the stress around the holes being large, the dense grids are adjusted accordingly. Four cases with different loads are compared, thus the influences of different loads on the section are analyzed. Numerical results show that the maximum stress of the section is lower than the strength limit of the material,and the section will not be broken with the static loads.

  8. Element Geochemical Division of the Middle Segment of the Sanjiang(Three-River) Region

    沈上越; 魏启荣; 莫宣学; 喻学惠; 曾普盛; 胡长寿


    This paper describes the aim and principle of element geochemical division, the source of samples and data processing, the choice of divisional indices and the division of index value ranges. According to the geological structures and characteristic values (the accumulated value of enrichment coefficient) of the mantle-type elements (KT) this region can be divided into seven geochemical zones, i.e., the Yangtze basement, the Yangtze cover, the Jinshajiang paleo-Tethys, the Lancangjiang paleo-Tethys, the Lanping Mesozoic basin, the Indosinian granite, and the Himalayan granite. Again in accordance with the different characteristic val ues of high field strength elements (HFSE) (KNb) or radiogenic elements (KTh) 16 geochemi cal sub-zones can be divided. Meanwhile, this paper also discusses the rules of variation in char acteristic value of the various sub-zones and points out the characteristics of enrichment of ore forming elements in some of the sub-zones.

  9. Finite Element Modeling of the Inertia Friction Welding of Dissimilar High-Strength Steels

    Bennett, C. J.; Attallah, M. M.; Preuss, M.; Shipway, P. H.; Hyde, T. H.; Bray, S.


    Finite element (FE) process modeling of inertia friction welding between dissimilar high-strength steels, AerMet® 100 and SCMV, has been carried out using the DEFORM™-2D (v10.0) software. This model was validated against experimental data collected for a test weld performed between the materials; this included process data such as upset and rotational velocities as well as thermal data collected during the process using embedded thermocouples. The as-welded hoop residual stress from the FE model was also compared with experimental measurements taken on the welded component using synchrotron X-ray and neutron diffraction techniques. The modeling work considered the solid-state phase transformations which occur in the steels, and the trends in the residual stress data were well replicated by the model.

  10. Finite Element Modelling Full Vehicle Side Impact with Ultrahigh Strength Hot Stamped Steels

    Taylor, T.; Fourlaris, G.; Cafolla, J.


    "Hot stamped boron steel" 22MnB5 has been imperative in meeting the automotive industry's demand for materials exhibiting higher tensile strength in the final component. In this paper, the crash performance of three experimental grades developed for automotive hot stamping technologies, exhibiting wider tensile property ranges than 22MnB5, was validated by finite element modelling full vehicle side impact with the experimental material data applied to the B-pillar reinforcement. The superior anti-intrusive crash performance of grade 38MnB5 was demonstrated, with 11 mm less intrusion of the B-pillar reinforcement compared to 22MnB5. Moreover, the superior "impact-energy absorptive" crash performance of grade 15MnCr5 was demonstrated, with 0.15 kJ greater impact-energy absorption by the B-pillar reinforcement compared to 22MnB5.

  11. Effects of pre-existing discontinuities on the residual strength of rock mass - Insight from a discrete element method simulation

    Gao, F. Q.; Kang, H. P.


    When rock failure is unavoidable, the designer of engineering structures must know and account for the residual strength of the rock mass. This is particularly relevant in underground coal mine openings. Pre-existing discontinuities play an important role in the mechanical behavior of rock masses and thus it is important to understand the effects of such pre-existing discontinuities on the residual strength. For this purpose, the present study demonstrates a numerical analysis using a discrete element method simulation. The numerical results indicate that fracture intensity has no significant influence on the residual strength of jointed rock masses, independent of confining conditions. As confining pressures increase, both peak and residual strengths increase, with residual strength increasing at a faster rate. The finding was further demonstrated by analyzing documented laboratory compressive test data from a variety of rocks along with field data from coal pillars. A comprehensive interpretation of the finding was conducted using a cohesion-weakening-friction-strengthening (CWFS) model. The effect of rock bolts on rock mass strength was also evaluated by using a discrete element method model which suggested that rock bolts can significantly increases residual strength but have limited effect on increasing the peak strength of rock masses.

  12. Accuracy of specimen-specific nonlinear finite element analysis for evaluation of radial diaphysis strength in cadaver material.

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Takane; Ogawa, Yasufumi; Sukegawa, Koji; Rokkaku, Tomoyuki; Thoreson, Andrew Ryan; An, Kai-Nan; Takahashi, Kazuhisa


    The feasibility of a user-specific finite element model for predicting the in situ strength of the radius after implantation of bone plates for open fracture reduction was established. The effect of metal artifact in CT imaging was characterized. The results were verified against biomechanical test data. Fourteen cadaveric radii were divided into two groups: (1) intact radii for evaluating the accuracy of radial diaphysis strength predictions with finite element analysis and (2) radii with a locking plate affixed for evaluating metal artifact. All bones were imaged with CT. In the plated group, radii were first imaged with the plates affixed (for simulating digital plate removal). They were then subsequently imaged with the locking plates and screws removed (actual plate removal). Fracture strength of the radius diaphysis under axial compression was predicted with a three-dimensional, specimen-specific, nonlinear finite element analysis for both the intact and plated bones (bones with and without the plate captured in the scan). Specimens were then loaded to failure using a universal testing machine to verify the actual fracture load. In the intact group, the physical and predicted fracture loads were strongly correlated. For radii with plates affixed, the physical and predicted (simulated plate removal and actual plate removal) fracture loads were strongly correlated. This study demonstrates that our specimen-specific finite element analysis can accurately predict the strength of the radial diaphysis. The metal artifact from CT imaging was shown to produce an overestimate of strength.

  13. Effects of dose reduction on bone strength prediction using finite element analysis

    Anitha, D.; Subburaj, Karupppasamy; Mei, Kai; Kopp, Felix K.; Foehr, Peter; Noel, Peter B.; Kirschke, Jan S.; Baum, Thomas


    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dose reduction, by means of tube exposure reduction, on bone strength prediction from finite-element (FE) analysis. Fresh thoracic mid-vertebrae specimens (n = 11) were imaged, using multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT), at different intensities of X-ray tube exposures (80, 150, 220 and 500 mAs). Bone mineral density (BMD) was estimated from the mid-slice of each specimen from MDCT images. Differences in image quality and geometry of each specimen were measured. FE analysis was performed on all specimens to predict fracture load. Paired t-tests were used to compare the results obtained, using the highest CT dose (500 mAs) as reference. Dose reduction had no significant impact on FE-predicted fracture loads, with significant correlations obtained with reference to 500 mAs, for 80 mAs (R2  = 0.997, p analysis. Reduced CT dose will enable early diagnosis and advanced monitoring of osteoporosis and associated fracture risk.

  14. Influence of heterogeneity on rock strength and stiffness using discrete element method and parallel bond model

    Spyridon Liakas


    Full Text Available The particulate discrete element method (DEM can be employed to capture the response of rock, provided that appropriate bonding models are used to cement the particles to each other. Simulations of laboratory tests are important to establish the extent to which those models can capture realistic rock behaviors. Hitherto the focus in such comparison studies has either been on homogeneous specimens or use of two-dimensional (2D models. In situ rock formations are often heterogeneous, thus exploring the ability of this type of models to capture heterogeneous material behavior is important to facilitate their use in design analysis. In situ stress states are basically three-dimensional (3D, and therefore it is important to develop 3D models for this purpose. This paper revisits an earlier experimental study on heterogeneous specimens, of which the relative proportions of weaker material (siltstone and stronger, harder material (sandstone were varied in a controlled manner. Using a 3D DEM model with the parallel bond model, virtual heterogeneous specimens were created. The overall responses in terms of variations in strength and stiffness with different percentages of weaker material (siltstone were shown to agree with the experimental observations. There was also a good qualitative agreement in the failure patterns observed in the experiments and the simulations, suggesting that the DEM data enabled analysis of the initiation of localizations and micro fractures in the specimens.

  15. Shear bond strength of three dual-cured resin cements to dentin analyzed by finite element analysis

    Jongsma, L.A.; de Jager, N.; Kleverlaan, C.J.; Pallav, P.; Feilzer, A.J.


    Objectives To determine the shear bond strength to bovine dentin of dual-cured resin cements cured in different circumstances, the contraction stress and volumetric shrinkage in both polymerization modes, and to review the failure stress distribution at the cement-tooth interface with finite element

  16. Reducing the Ideal Shear Strengths of ZrB2 by High Efficient Alloying Elements (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt)

    Dai, Fu-Zhi; Zhou, Yanchun


    Activating the plasticity of ZrB2 is a promising approach to improve its key properties for applications in hypersonic vehicles, including high temperature strength and thermal shock resistance. The present work demonstrates that ideal shear strength of ZrB2, which is a good indicator of the critical stress for dislocation nucleation, can be significantly reduced by dissolving of appropriate alloying elements. Analyzing on the bonding nature of ZrB2 reveals that choosing alloying elements with low energy valence electrons will prevent electron transferring from alloying element to the electron deficient B-B π orbits, which will reduce the local stability of the region surrounding the alloying element. Under the criterion, elements with d electrons tending to be full-filled (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt, the full-filled state is associated with low energy level) are selected as promising candidates with their prominent efficiency in reducing ideal shear strengths verified by first-principles calculations. The results provide useful guidelines for further designs of ZrB2 based materials, especially for improving their mechanical properties.

  17. Reducing the Ideal Shear Strengths of ZrB2 by High Efficient Alloying Elements (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt).

    Dai, Fu-Zhi; Zhou, Yanchun


    Activating the plasticity of ZrB2 is a promising approach to improve its key properties for applications in hypersonic vehicles, including high temperature strength and thermal shock resistance. The present work demonstrates that ideal shear strength of ZrB2, which is a good indicator of the critical stress for dislocation nucleation, can be significantly reduced by dissolving of appropriate alloying elements. Analyzing on the bonding nature of ZrB2 reveals that choosing alloying elements with low energy valence electrons will prevent electron transferring from alloying element to the electron deficient B-B π orbits, which will reduce the local stability of the region surrounding the alloying element. Under the criterion, elements with d electrons tending to be full-filled (Ag, Au, Pd and Pt, the full-filled state is associated with low energy level) are selected as promising candidates with their prominent efficiency in reducing ideal shear strengths verified by first-principles calculations. The results provide useful guidelines for further designs of ZrB2 based materials, especially for improving their mechanical properties.

  18. Finite element analysis of the long-term fixation strength of cemented ceramic cups.

    Janssen, D.; Stolk, J.; Verdonschot, N.J.J.


    Clinical studies have shown that adequate fixation of ceramic cups using bone cement is difficult to achieve. As the cement-ceramic bond strength is low, a satisfactory fixation strength requires a cup design that allows mechanical interlocking, although such a design will probably promote cement

  19. Effect on Rare-Earth Element Lanthanum for Bond Strength of Electrodeposited Nickel

    Song Bo; Zhang Xinyu; Jin Lihong; Zhu Yuansong; Mu Tao; Sui Zhitong


    The bond strength of electrodeposited nickel from common electroplate liquid and rare-earth electroplate liquid was tested and contrasted. Electrodeposited nickel of high bond strength was obtained by method of electro-plate nickel with one step and special pretreatment on the surface of aluminum-alloy substrate. The bond strength between the aluminum-alloy substrate and the electrodeposited nickel was tested by the method of heat shock. Then the effect on the bond strength of the electrodeposited nickel from rare-earth compound, the thickness of the electrodeposited nickel,temperature and current density were analyzed. The experimental result shows that the bond strength between the aluminum-alloy substrate and the electrodeposited nickel is 26 MPa under the following condition( current density: 0.2 ~ 0.6 A · dm-2, thickness of the nickel electrodeposition: 8 ~ 15 μm, and temperature of the electroplate liquid: 8 ~ 25 ℃ ).

  20. Investigation of interlaminar shear strength in carbon epoxy and carbon epoxy carbon nanotubes using experimental and finite element technique

    P. Rama Lakshmi


    Full Text Available The present study concerns experimental and finite element analysis of carbon epoxy and carbon epoxy carbon nanotube composites to estimate interlaminar shear strength. Mechanical properties such as elastic ratios, thickness are varied for double notched specimen and the corresponding deflections and interlaminar shear strengths are estimated by ANSYS. From simple rule of mixtures, equivalent orthotropic material properties are estimated. These properties are provided as input in ANSYS to generate finite element model. Solid layered element is used to model double notch specimen. To estimate the properties of carbon epoxy carbon nanotube composite, initially finite element model of matrix and carbon nanotube is generated by properties individual material properties of both the materials. From the obtained stretch and stress, the equivalent material property of combined matrix and carbon nanotube is achieved. This property is provided as input in simple rule of mixtures to find out the equivalent orthotropic materials are determined. It is inferred that experiment results are in good agreement with results generated by ANSYS. The superiority of the presence of carbon nanotube in the composite is proved from experimental and finite element technique from the estimated fracture parameters.

  1. Ionization potentials, electron affinities, resonance excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and ionic radii of element Uus (Z = 117) and astatine.

    Chang, Zhiwei; Li, Jiguang; Dong, Chenzhong


    Multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method was employed to calculate the first five ionization potentials, electron affinities, resonance excitation energies, oscillator strengths, and radii for the element Uus and its homologue At. Main valence correlation effects were taken into account. The Breit interaction and QED effects were also estimated. The uncertainties of calculated IPs, EAs, and IR for Uus and At were reduced through an extrapolation procedure. The good consistency with available experimental and other theoretical values demonstrates the validity of the present results. These theoretical data therefore can be used to predict some unknown physicochemical properties of element Uus, Astatine, and their compounds.



    Full Text Available Caused by lightning damage to the external elements of construction of the aircraft, in the form of deformities, burn-through and erosive craters and also hidden defects in the affected area can cause a reduction in the strength of damaged parts. Fatigue tests of samples of rod construction elements damaged by lightning-like electrical discharges showed that for a symmetric cycle of variable loading at an amplitude of 100 kPa and a frequency of 50 Hz supply of fatigue strength decreased in 1,5-1,7 times, and fatigue life decreased in 25 times at local burns and in 70 times at annular burns. The main reason is education on the details of micro cracks in the area of erosive craters formed by discharge.

  3. Influence of Thermal Modification of Beech on the Strength of Longitudinally Connected Turned Elements by Rotational Welding Method

    Ivica Župčić; Marko Mijaković; Ivica Grbac


    Wood welding technique is a newer way of connecting wooden parts without using glue with the temperature usually achieved by friction of elements that are connected. During the welding process, due to the influence of pressure and temperature, the surface wood layer (lignin and polyoses) is melted. The research is based on an examination of the influence of thermal modification and the impact of water (room temperature) on the strength of welded joints. Test samples were longitudinally connec...

  4. Cytotype regulation by telomeric P elements in Drosophila melanogaster: variation in regulatory strength and maternal effects.

    Thorp, Michael W; Chapman, Eric J; Simmons, Michael J


    Strains carrying the X-linked telomeric P elements TP5 or TP6 varied in their ability to repress hybrid dysgenesis. The rank ordering of these strains was consistent across different genetic assays and was not related to the type of telomeric P element (TP5 or TP6) present. Strong repression of dysgenesis was associated with weak expression of mRNA from the telomeric P element and also with a reduced amount of mRNA from a transposase-producing P element contained within a transgene inserted on an autosome. A strictly maternal component of repression, transmitted independently of the telomeric P element, was detected in the daughters but not the sons of females from the strongest repressing strains. However, this effect was seen only when dysgenesis was induced by crossing these females to males from a P strain, not when it was induced by crossing them to males homozygous for a single transposase-producing P element contained within a transgene. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the P cytotype, the condition that regulates P elements, involves an RNA interference mechanism mediated by piRNAs produced by telomeric P elements such as TP5 and TP6 and amplified by RNAs produced by other P elements.

  5. Air sensitivity of MoS2, MoSe2, MoTe2, HfS2, and HfSe2

    Mirabelli, Gioele; McGeough, Conor; Schmidt, Michael; McCarthy, Eoin K.; Monaghan, Scott; Povey, Ian M.; McCarthy, Melissa; Gity, Farzan; Nagle, Roger; Hughes, Greg; Cafolla, Attilio; Hurley, Paul K.; Duffy, Ray


    A surface sensitivity study was performed on different transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) under ambient conditions in order to understand which material is the most suitable for future device applications. Initially, Atomic Force Microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy studies were carried out over a period of 27 days on mechanically exfoliated flakes of 5 different TMDs, namely, MoS2, MoSe2, MoTe2, HfS2, and HfSe2. The most reactive were MoTe2 and HfSe2. HfSe2, in particular, showed surface protrusions after ambient exposure, reaching a height and width of approximately 60 nm after a single day. This study was later supplemented by Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) cross-sectional analysis, which showed hemispherical-shaped surface blisters that are amorphous in nature, approximately 180-240 nm tall and 420-540 nm wide, after 5 months of air exposure, as well as surface deformation in regions between these structures, related to surface oxidation. An X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy study of atmosphere exposed HfSe2 was conducted over various time scales, which indicated that the Hf undergoes a preferential reaction with oxygen as compared to the Se. Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy showed that the blisters are Se-rich; thus, it is theorised that HfO2 forms when the HfSe2 reacts in ambient, which in turn causes the Se atoms to be aggregated at the surface in the form of blisters. Overall, it is evident that air contact drastically affects the structural properties of TMD materials. This issue poses one of the biggest challenges for future TMD-based devices and technologies.

  6. European column buckling curves and finite element modelling including high strength steels

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Stan, Tudor-Cristian


    Eurocode allows for finite element modelling of plated steel structures, however the information in the code on how to perform the analysis or what assumptions to make is quite sparse. The present paper investigates the deterministic modelling of flexural column buckling using plane shell element...

  7. Analysis of the Influence of Element's Entropy on the Bulk Metallic Glass (BMG) Entropy, Complexity, and Strength

    Namazi, Hamidreza; Akrami, Amin; Haghighi, Reza; Delaviz, Ali; Kulish, Vladimir V.


    Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) are disordered compounds without a long-range crystalline order. In this paper, we study the effect of an element's standard entropy on the BMG's entropy and complexity for four elements. In order to do this, we simulate the BMG structures first. Then we compute the entropy and fractal dimension of the resulting structures as measures of disorder and complexity, respectively. We verify our predictions via experiments. In doing so, we substitute the elements in separate experiments and compute the fractal dimension of the obtained BMG pattern. The results of our investigations show that there is a relation between the variations of elements' entropies and the variations of BMGs' entropy and fractality. On the other hand, measurement of the compressive strength for the obtained BMGs from experiments shows that by increasing the entropy and fractal dimension, BMG's compressive strength increases. The adaptive capability observed in this method could potentially be harnessed for targeted BMG production, depending on the specific design goal. The method discussed here is not only useful for analysis of BMG structures, but it can be applied to other structures.

  8. Comparative analysis of high temperature strength of platinum and its binary alloys with low content of alloying element

    Stanković Draško S.


    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of platinum and its binary alloys (containing alloying elements up to 10 mass% mechanical properties at high temperatures has been carried out. The goal of the analysis was to investigate new application possibilities for products based on platinum and platinum alloys, and to expand the existing database of platinum metals, originating from the RTB group, Serbia. Palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium and gold were used as alloying elements. In order to examine the effect of alloying elements’ low concentrations on the high-temperature platinum durability, creep rate, rupture time, tensile strength and relative elongation at high temperatures, up to 1400 °C, were determined. In addition, changes in the structure of dislocations were tracked. The summary of investigation results led to conclusion that, of all the alloying elements used, the best influence on high-temperature platinum durability has rhodium.


    Semina Yuliya Anatol'evna


    Full Text Available The behavior of reinforced concrete elements under some types of cyclic loads is described in the paper. The main aim of the investigations is research of the stress-strain state and strength of the inclined sections of reinforced concrete beam elements in conditions of systemic impact of constructive factors and the factor of external influence. To spotlight the problem of cyclic loadings three series of tests were conducted by the author. Firstly, the analysis of the tests showed that especially cyclic alternating loading reduces the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete beams and their crack resistance by 20 % due to the fatigue of concrete and reinforcement. Thus the change of load sign creates serious changes of stress-strain state of reinforced concrete beam elements. Low cycle loads of constant sign effect the behavior of the constructions not so adversely. Secondly, based on the experimental data mathematical models of elements’ strength were obtained. These models allow evaluating the impact of each factor on the output parameter not only separately, but also in interaction with each other. Furthermore, the material spotlighted by the author describes stress-strain state of the investigated elements, cracking mechanism, changes of deflection values, the influence of mode cyclic loading during the tests. Since the data on the subject are useful and important to building practice, the ultimate aim of the tests will be working out for improvement of nonlinear calculation models of span reinforced concrete constructions taking into account the impact of these loads, and also there will be the development of engineering calculation techniques of their strength, crack resistance and deformability.

  10. Relationship of magnetic field strength and brightness of fine-structure elements in the solar temperature minimum region

    Cook, J. W.; Ewing, J. A.


    A quantitative relationship was determined between magnetic field strength (or magnetic flux) from photospheric magnetograph observations and the brightness temperature of solar fine-structure elements observed at 1600 A, where the predominant flux source is continuum emission from the solar temperature minimum region. A Kitt Peak magnetogram and spectroheliograph observations at 1600 A taken during a sounding rocket flight of the High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph from December 11, 1987 were used. The statistical distributions of brightness temperature in the quiet sun at 1600 A, and absolute value of magnetic field strength in the same area were determined from these observations. Using a technique which obtains the best-fit relationship of a given functional form between these two histogram distributions, a quantitative relationship was determined between absolute value of magnetic field strength B and brightness temperature which is essentially linear from 10 to 150 G. An interpretation is suggested, in which a basal heating occurs generally, while brighter elements are produced in magnetic regions with temperature enhancements proportional to B.

  11. Crystal chemical control of clinopyroxene-melt partitioning in the Di-Ab-An system: implications for elemental fractionations in the depleted mantle

    Lundstrom, C. C.; Shaw, H. F.; Ryerson, F. J.; Williams, Q.; Gill, J.


    The partitioning of fifteen trace elements (Rb, Sr, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Nd, Sm, Gd, Yb, Hf, Ta, Pb and Th) between clinopyroxene and synthetic melt has been studied in two compositions along an isotherm in the diopside-albite-anorthite ternary at 1 bar pressure. The two compositions correspond to ~ Di65An35 and ~ Di55Ab45 and produce clinopyroxenes distinct in chemistry while melt compositions range from 49 wt % SiO2 to 61 wt. % SiO2. The partition coefficients of high field strength elements (HFSE) increase by factors of 2 to 8 in Di-An experiments relative to Di-Ab experiments while other elements show very little change (+/- 20%) between compositions. The change in HFSE partitioning correlates with increases in tetrahedral Al2O3 (IVAl) content of clinopyroxenes in the anorthite-bearing experiments. Changes in DTa/DNb also correlate with IVA1 based on a survey of previously published determinations.

  12. Compressive Strength Evaluation in Brazed ZrO2/Ti6Al4V Joints Using Finite Element Analysis

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kee, Se Ho; Jung, Flora; Heo, Yongku; Jung, Jae Pil


    This study aims to synthesize and evaluate the compressive strength of the ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint brazed using an active metal filler Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti, and its application to dental implants assuring its reliability to resist the compressive failure in the actual oral environment. The brazing was performed at a temperature of 750 °C for 30 min in a vacuum furnace under 5 × 10-6 Torr atmosphere. The microstructure of the brazed joint showed the presence of an Ag-rich matrix and a Cu-rich phase, and Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds were observed along the Ti-6Al-4V bonded interface. The compressive strength of the brazed ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint was measured by EN ISO 14801 standard test method. The measured compressive strength of the joint was ~1477 MPa—a value almost five times that of existing dental cements. Finite element analysis also confirmed the high von Mises stress values. The compressive strains in the samples were found concentrated near the Ti-6Al-4V position, matching with the position of the real fractured sample. These results suggest extremely significant compressive strength in ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joints using the Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti filler. It is believed that a highly reliable dental implant can be processed and designed using the results of this study.

  13. Effect of Stochastics of Dimensional Parameters of Hauling Laminated Bushless Chain Elements of Improved Structure on Their Bearing Strength

    Kryvyi Petro


    Full Text Available The distribution densities of dimensional parameters of a hauling laminated bushless chain of improved structure were investigated in this paper. The authors suggest calculating the non-uniform load of internal and external links plates by probability coefcient Km, for which the minimum, the most probable and the maximum values were determined. The formula for Km determination depending on plate size variety due to a gap random value Δ and plate elastic deformation value under permitted payload was obtained. The efect of stochastics of dimensional parameters of hauling laminated bushless chain elements on their bearing strength is proved.

  14. Rating of Spur Gear Strength Using Photoelasticity and the Finite Element Method

    Konstandinos G. Raptis


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Toothed gears are some of the most used machine elements for motion and power transmission between rotating shafts. This fact induces the need for improved reliability and higher endurance, which require precise and clear knowledge of the gear tooth stress field during meshing. Approach: This study considered the calculation of maximum stress at gear tooth root when the meshing gears are loaded at their most unfavorable contact point (highest point of single-tooth contact-HPSTC, using both numerical and experimental methods. Finite Element Method (FEM is used for the numerical stress analysis and photoelasticity is applied for the experimental investigation of the stress field. Results: The experimental results of the maximum dimensionless stress derived from the photoelasticity experiments are compared to the respective theoretical stress results of the finite element analysis. Conclusion: It was found that the deviation between the results of the applied methods falls between reasonable limits whereas it rises with increasing number of teeth of the large gear.

  15. Image-based micro-finite-element modeling for improved distal radius strength diagnosis: moving from bench to bedside.

    Pistoia, W; van Rietbergen, B; Lochmüller, E-M; Lill, C A; Eckstein, F; Rüegsegger, P


    Although osteoporosis is characterized by quantitative (mass) and qualitative (structural) changes, standard clinical techniques (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, DXA) only measure the former. Three-dimensional micro-finite-element (micro-FE) models based on high-resolution images can account for structural aspects as well, and it has recently been shown that an improved prediction of distal radius strength is possible with micro-FE analysis. A clinical application of this technique, however, is limited by its high imaging and computational demands. The objective of this study is to investigate if an improved prediction of bone strength can be obtained as well when only a small part of the radius is used for micro-FE modeling. Images of a 1-cm region of the metaphysis of the distal radius of 54 cadaver arms (mean age: 82 +/- 9 SD) made with a three-dimensional peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) device at 165- micro m resolution formed the basis for micro-FE models that were used to predict the bone failure load. Following imaging, specimens were experimentally compressed to failure to produce a Colles'-type fracture. Failure loads predicted from micro-FE analyses agreed well with those measured experimentally (R2 = 0.66, p radius strength.

  16. Crustal and Fault Strengths from Critical Taper Measurements: Insights into the behavior of Accretionary Wedges using Distinct-Element Models

    Strayer, L.; Suppe, J.


    It is increasingly clear that many major faults are weak relative to quasistatic friction because of dynamical effects involving the microprocesses of high-velocity friction and the energetics of large-scale fault rupture. Even at the toes of accretionary wedges where velocity strengthening is expected, large displacements can occur dynamically. We seek to better understand the relationship between the large-scale strength of such faults and of the crust containing them over a timescale much greater than seismic cycles. Critical-taper theory provides straightforward quantitative relationships between accretionary wedge geometry and absolute basal fault and wedge strengths with minimal assumptions. Wedge tapers constrain the far-field stresses under which detachments slip and wedges grow during wedge-growing events, whether they are dynamical or quasistatic. To date most applications of wedge mechanics to accretionary wedges involve analog and numerical modeling with largely conceptual insight, for example illuminating the role of geological heterogeneity. Here we demonstrate that recent theoretical advances that are successful in extracting absolute wedge and detachment strengths from the geometry of active wedges can also be applied to extract large-scale strengths in distinct element numerical models in both mechanically homogeneous and heterogeneous wedges. The distinct element method (DEM) is an ideal tool for the study and modeling of critical taper wedges: model wedges can be initially cohesive (bonded) or cohesionless. Faults and folds form naturally as the result of progressive bond breakage during shortening and wedge growth. Heterogeneity can be introduced by creating layered groups of particles of differing mechanical properties. The DEM suffers to some extent in that macro material properties cannot be directly prescribed but rather must be defined by a modest number of micro-properties and the process in necessarily iterative and developing a wide

  17. Root canal filling: fracture strength of fiber-reinforced composite-restored roots and finite element analysis.

    Rippe, Marília Pivetta; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Valandro, Luiz Felipe


    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of root canal filling techniques on root fracture resistance and to analyze, by finite element analysis (FEA), the expansion of the endodontic sealer in two different root canal techniques. Thirty single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with rotary files to a standardized working length of 14 mm. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin using plastic cylinders as molds, and allocated into 3 groups (n=10): G(lateral) - lateral condensation; G(single-cone) - single cone; G(tagger) - Tagger's hybrid technique. The root canals were prepared to a length of 11 mm with the #3 preparation bur of a tapered glass fiber-reinforced composite post system. All roots received glass fiber posts, which were adhesively cemented and a composite resin core was built. All groups were subjected to a fracture strength test (1 mm/min, 45°). Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. FEA was performed using two models: one simulated lateral condensation and Tagger's hybrid technique, and the other one simulated the single-cone technique. The second model was designed with an amount of gutta-percha two times smaller and a sealer layer two times thicker than the first model. The results were analyzed using von Mises stress criteria. One-way ANOVA indicated that the root canal filling technique affected the fracture strength (p=0.004). The G(lateral) and G(tagger) produced similar fracture strength values, while G(single-cone) showed the lowest values. The FEA showed that the single-cone model generated higher stress in the root canal walls. Sealer thickness seems to influence the fracture strength of restored endodontically treated teeth.

  18. Comparison of Tensile Strength of Composite Material Elements with Drilled and Molded-in Holes

    Langella, A.; Durante, M.


    Holes are generally obtained through drilling operations; this causes a property decrease for polymer composites reinforced by fibers, brought about by damage due to fiber continuity interruption, and to delamination between the laminate layers. In this study, specimens with circular holes, both drilled and molded-in, obtained in different ways, are tested in order to investigate on whether it is possible to avoid the decrease in mechanical properties of components with holes. In particular, a number of laminates were manufactured by RIFT (Resin Infusion under Flexible Tool), a closed mold process capable of obtaining large and complex forms, impregnating, under vacuum, a dry preform placed on the rigid mold. At specific points of these laminates, molded-in holes are generated during the resin infusion phase, operating in two different ways: displacing or cutting the fibers in the dry preform. Tensile tests were carried out in order to compare the mechanical properties of elements in composite materials which have molded-in holes generated during the impregnation process, with the properties of those with holes produced after the resin cure by drill operations.

  19. Estimation of the reliability of all-ceramic crowns using finite element models and the stress-strength interference theory.

    Li, Yan; Chen, Jianjun; Liu, Jipeng; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Weiguo; Zhang, Shaofeng


    The reliability of all-ceramic crowns is of concern to both patients and doctors. This study introduces a new methodology for quantifying the reliability of all-ceramic crowns based on the stress-strength interference theory and finite element models. The variables selected for the reliability analysis include the magnitude of the occlusal contact area, the occlusal load and the residual thermal stress. The calculated reliabilities of crowns under different loading conditions showed that too small occlusal contact areas or too great a difference of the thermal coefficient between veneer and core layer led to high failure possibilities. There results were consistent with many previous reports. Therefore, the methodology is shown to be a valuable method for analyzing the reliabilities of the restorations in the complicated oral environment.


    Berlian Arswendo Aditya


    Full Text Available Offshore Platform is a structure or construction which build in offshore territory to support the exploration process or the exploitation of mine. The main function of the offshore platform is to support the top construction including the operational facilities on the water during the operational time safely, in operational condition (normal even in stormy condition. Modelling of the structure fixed jacket platform, the environment load and the analysis system using Finite Element Methode software. The environmental load (wind,wave,steam according to 8 eyes wind (0⁰, 45⁰, 90⁰, 135⁰, 180⁰, 225⁰, 270⁰, and 315⁰. From the software analysis we can conclude that the biggest value of the Unity Check in stormy condition is 0.464 state in 766 member and the biggest value in Unity Check in operational condition is 0.396 state in 766 member. It is a good point because it suited with API RP2A WSD 2007, UC value (Unity Check ≤ 1.00. So in operational condition even in stormy, fixed jacket platform still be able to withstand the material  which is accepted. Another result from the minimum of Safety Factor in operational condition in 766 member has SF 2.00, beside in stormy condition which state in 766 member has 1.66 SF value. This result has a good point because it suited with API RP2A WSD 2007 which is in operational condition the minimum of SF value is 2.00 and in stormy condition the minimum of SF value is 1.5.

  1. The effects of alloying elements on tensile strength and the occurrence of delamination in cold-drawn hyper-eutectoid steel wires

    Park, D. B.; Lee, J. W.; Lee, Y. S.; Park, K. T.; Nam, W. J.


    The effects of alloying elements and initial interlamellar spacing on tensile strength and the occurrence of delamination in cold-drawn hyper-eutectoid steel wires were investigated under equivalent drawing conditions. The initial interlamellar spacing showed little influence on the occurrence of delamination. The addition of Cr effectively increased attainable tensile strength, since the added Cr not only increased tensile strength but also delayed delamination. The addition of Ni also increased attainable tensile strength, since the effect of the added Ni on delaying delamination prevailed over the tendency to decrease tensile strength and work hardening. The addition of Cr increased the attainable tensile strength more effectively than the addition of Ni in cold-drawn hyper-eutectoid steel wires, although the added Ni markedly delayed delamination-associated strain.

  2. Investigating the Influence of Micro-Arc Oxide Coating on Rigidity and Strength of Long Force Elements of Spacecraft

    V. K. Shatalov


    Full Text Available Outboard elements (arms, towers are widely used in spacecraft structure for setting-out of a payload; their high stiffness-weight ratio provides an opportunity to decrease the mass. The deployment unit is considered as an example of outboard structure. Its strength beams work under special conditions in operation. At the transportation stage beams are under considerable vibration loads. Therefore for increasing the natural resonance frequency it is rational to increase their rigidity. Using the micro-arc oxide coating suggests itself because the modulus of elasticity of the micro-arc oxide coating is more than that of the aluminium alloy. The beams suffer considerable bending load at the step of deploying; therefore the aluminium alloy with the micro-arc oxide coating must have suitable loading capacity, in addition to increased rigidity.Influence of micro-arc oxide coating on the rigidity and strength of tubes f rom aluminium alloy is investigated. It is determined that forming the micro-arc oxide coating on thin-walled tubes with a ratio of the coating area to the cross-section area of more than 25% is the most rational. In this case the rigidity of composite material considerably exceeds the rigidity of the aluminium alloy of the same cross-section while the redistribution of stresses in the surface coating of heterogeneous elasticity cross-section doesn’t cause the sudden increase of stresses. Also forming an attainable thickness of the micro-arc oxide coating on the surface of tube from aluminium alloy will be rational solution because the increase of attainable thickness of the microarc oxide coating provides an opportunity to form it on thick-walled tubes saving an acceptable, in the context of the strength, ratio of the coating area to the overall cross-section area.Micro-arc oxidation is an advanced method to form the wear resistant, resistant to corrosion, heat-shielding and electrically insulating coatings, but depending on the

  3. Impact of intraprosthetic drilling on the strength of the femoral stem in periprosthetic fractures: A finite element investigation.

    Brand, Stephan; Bauer, Michael; Petri, Maximilian; Schrader, Julian; Maier, Hans J; Krettek, Christian; Hassel, Thomas


    Treatment of periprosthetic femur fractures after total hip arthroplasty remains a major challenge in orthopedic surgery. Recently, a novel surgical technique using intraprosthetic screw fixation has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of drilling the femoral hip stem on integrity and strength of the implant. The hypothesis was that intraprosthetic drilling and screw fixation would not cause the load limit of the prosthesis to be exceeded and that deformation would remain within the elastic limit. A sawbone model with a conventional straight hip stem was used and a Vancouver C periprosthetic fracture was created. The fracture was fixed with a nine-hole less invasive stabilization system plate with two screws drilled and inserted through the femoral hip stem. Three different finite element models were created using ANSYS software. The models increased in complexity including joint forces and stress risers from three different dimensions. A variation of drilling positions was analyzed. Due to the complexity of the physiological conditions in the human femur, the most complex finite element model provided the most realistic results. Overall, significant changes in the stresses to the prosthesis caused by the drilling procedure were observed. While the stresses at the site of the bore hole decreased, the load increased in the surrounding stem material. This effect is more pronounced and further the holes were apart, and it was found that increasing the number of holes could counteract this. The maximum load was still found to be in the area of the prosthesis neck. No stresses above the load limit of titanium alloy were detected. All deformations of the prosthesis stem remained in the elastic range. These results may indicate a potential role for intraprosthetic screw fixation in the future treatment of periprosthetic femur fractures.

  4. Determination of dominant fibre orientations in fibre-reinforced high-strength concrete elements based on computed tomography scans

    Vicente, Miguel A.; González, Dorys C.; Mínguez, Jesús


    Computed tomography (CT) is a nondestructive technique, based on absorbing X-rays, that permits the visualisation of the internal structure of materials in micron-range resolution. In this paper, the CT scan is used to determine the position and orientation of the fibres in steel fibre-reinforced high-strength concrete elements. The aim of this paper was to present a numerical procedure, automated through a MATLAB routine specially developed by the authors, which enables, fast and reliable, to obtain the orientation of each and every one of the fibres and their centre of gravity. The procedure shown is directly extrapolated to any type of fibre-reinforced material, only if there is a wide difference between density of fibres and density of matrix. The mathematical basis of this procedure is very simple and robust. The result is a fast algorithm and a routine easy to use. In addition, the validation tests show that the error is almost zero. This algorithm can help the industry to implement the technology of CT in the protocols of product quality control.

  5. In vivo monitoring of bone-implant bond strength by microCT and finite element modelling.

    Stadelmann, Vincent A; Conway, Carl M; Boyd, Steven K


    Immediately after implantation, a dynamic process of bone formation and resorption takes place around an orthopaedic implant, influencing its mechanical fixation. The delay until complete fixation depends on local bone architecture and metabolism. Despite its importance, the temporal pattern of implant fixation is still unknown. The optimal duration of post-operative care is therefore difficult to establish for an individual situation, and a method to evaluate non-invasively the evolution of the mechanical stability would be a significant asset in a clinical environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of micro-finite element modelling based on in vivo micro-computed tomography to monitor longitudinally the contact between bone and implant and the implant strength in vivo. The model was first validated for screw pull-out in synthetic bone surrogate. Correlation coefficients of R(2) = 0.94 and 0.85 (p < 0.01) were measured between experimental and numerical results for stiffness and failure loads, respectively. Then, the mechanical integration of screws in the proximal tibia of 12 rats was monitored at seven time points over a period of 1 month. We observed significant increases (p < 0.05) of bone-screw contact (+28%), stiffness (+93%) and failure load (+71%) over the course of the experiment, and more than 75% of these changes occurred during the first 2 weeks. Limitations, such as image artefacts and radiation, still compromise the immediate clinical application of this method, but it has a promising potential in preclinical animal studies, as it provides very valuable data about the dynamic aspect of implant integration with considerably reduced animal resources.


    Arif GÜRAY


    Full Text Available In this work, the diagonal tensile strength of furniture edge joints such as wooden dowel, minifix, and alyan screw was investigated in panel-constructed boards for Suntalam and MDF Lam. For this purpose, a diagonal tensile strength test was applied to the 72 samples. According to the results, the maximum diagonal tensile strength was found to be in MDF Lam boards that jointed with alyan screw.

  7. Comparative analysis of strength and crack resistance of normal sections of bent elements of T-sections, made of rubber concrete, kauton reinforcement and concrete

    Potapov Yuriy


    Full Text Available One of the urgent tasks of development of the construction associated with the development of new building designs, the use of which provides increased strength, crack resistance, reducing the flow of construction materials, reducing the labor intensity, energy consumption and cost. Ensuring effective functioning of structures during their operation in the harsh environments associated not only with the task of developing materials of higher strength and corrosion resistance, but also composites of increased strength and crack resistance, as structural materials crack resistance is largely determined by the ability of the structure to prevent the formation and growth of cracks. For structures operating in conditions of chemical action, the question of crack resistance is paramount, as the disclosure of cracks in aggressive environment, penetrating deep into the section and causing corrosion of the reinforcement will significantly impair the ability of the load bearing capacity of the element as a whole. The results of experiments of polymer concrete beams of the cross T-profile and comparison of the results with those obtained in an experiment similar to concrete and kauton reinforced elements are given. The observations of the stress-strain state of polymer concrete of flexural members, strength and crack resistance of these elements are presented.

  8. Strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with various types of non-metallic fiber and rods reinforcement under static loading

    Nevskii, A. V.; Baldin, I. V.; Kudyakov, K. L.


    Adoption of modern building materials based on non-metallic fibers and their application in concrete structures represent one of the important issues in construction industry. This paper presents results of investigation of several types of raw materials selected: basalt fiber, carbon fiber and composite fiber rods based on glass and carbon. Preliminary testing has shown the possibility of raw materials to be effectively used in compressed concrete elements. Experimental program to define strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with non-metallic fiber reinforcement and rod composite reinforcement included design, manufacture and testing of several types of concrete samples with different types of fiber and longitudinal rod reinforcement. The samples were tested under compressive static load. The results demonstrated that fiber reinforcement of concrete allows increasing carrying capacity of compressed concrete elements and reducing their deformability. Using composite longitudinal reinforcement instead of steel longitudinal reinforcement in compressed concrete elements insignificantly influences bearing capacity. Combined use of composite rod reinforcement and fiber reinforcement in compressed concrete elements enables to achieve maximum strength and minimum deformability.

  9. Variation of Aging Precipitates and Mechanical Strength of Al-Cu-Li Alloys Caused by Small Addition of Rare Earth Elements

    Ma, Yun-long; Li, Jin-feng


    The effect of small rare earth (RE) addition of 0.11%Ce, 0.2%Er and 0.082%Sc on aging precipitates and mechanical strength of an Al-(3.3-4.2)Cu-1.2Li-X alloy were investigated. It is found that Cu-rich residual particles containing RE element exist in the solutionized alloy, which leads to a decrease of dissolved Cu concentration in the solutionized matrix. Like RE-free alloy, the main aging precipitate types in RE-containing alloy are T1 (Al2CuLi) and θ' (Al2Cu), but their fraction is decreased. The strength of the corresponding alloys is therefore lowered by the small RE addition. Combined with the analysis of some reported references, it is proposed that the effect of small RE addition on Al-Cu-Li alloy strength is also associated with the Cu and Li concentrations and their ratio.

  10. Influence of geometry and materials on the axial and torsional strength of the head-neck taper junction in modular hip replacements: A finite element study.

    Fallahnezhad, Khosro; Farhoudi, Hamidreza; Oskouei, Reza H; Taylor, Mark


    The assembly force is important in establishing the mechanical environment at the head-neck taper junction of modular hip replacements. Previous experimental results of the assembled taper junctions with different material combinations (Co-28Cr-6Mo and Ti-6Al-4V) reported similar axial strengths (pull-off loads), but lower torsional strengths (twist-off moments) for the CoCr/CoCr junction. However, mechanics of the junction and the strength behaviour have not been understood yet. A three dimensional finite element model of an isolated femoral head-neck junction was developed to explore the assembly and disassembly procedures, particularly the axial and torsional strengths for different material combinations and geometries. Under the same assembly load, the contacting length between the CoCr head and titanium neck was greater than that of in CoCr/CoCr. The contact length in the titanium neck was more sensitive to the assembly force when compared to the CoCr neck. For instance, with increasing the assembly force from 1890 to 3700N, the contact length increased by 88% for CoCr/Ti and 59% for CoCr/CoCr junctions. The torsional strength of the junction was related to the lateral deformation of the neck material due to the applied moment. The angular mismatch existing between the head and neck components was found to play the main role in the torsional strength of the junction. The smaller mismatch angle the higher torsional strength. It is suggested to consider reducing the mismatch angle, particularly in CoCr/CoCr junctions, and ensure a sufficiently high assembly force is applied by impaction for this combination.

  11. Fast trabecular bone strength predictions of HR-pQCT and individual trabeculae segmentation-based plate and rod finite element model discriminate postmenopausal vertebral fractures.

    Liu, X Sherry; Wang, Ji; Zhou, Bin; Stein, Emily; Shi, Xiutao; Adams, Mark; Shane, Elizabeth; Guo, X Edward


    Although high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) has advanced clinical assessment of trabecular bone microstructure, nonlinear microstructural finite element (µFE) prediction of yield strength using a HR-pQCT voxel model is impractical for clinical use due to its prohibitively high computational costs. The goal of this study was to develop an efficient HR-pQCT-based plate and rod (PR) modeling technique to fill the unmet clinical need for fast bone strength estimation. By using an individual trabecula segmentation (ITS) technique to segment the trabecular structure into individual plates and rods, a patient-specific PR model was implemented by modeling each trabecular plate with multiple shell elements and each rod with a beam element. To validate this modeling technique, predictions by HR-pQCT PR model were compared with those of the registered high-resolution micro-computed tomography (HR-µCT) voxel model of 19 trabecular subvolumes from human cadaveric tibia samples. Both the Young's modulus and yield strength of HR-pQCT PR models strongly correlated with those of µCT voxel models (r²  = 0.91 and 0.86). Notably, the HR-pQCT PR models achieved major reductions in element number (>40-fold) and computer central processing unit (CPU) time (>1200-fold). Then, we applied PR model µFE analysis to HR-pQCT images of 60 postmenopausal women with (n = 30) and without (n = 30) a history of vertebral fracture. HR-pQCT PR model revealed significantly lower Young's modulus and yield strength at the radius and tibia in fracture subjects compared to controls. Moreover, these mechanical measurements remained significantly lower in fracture subjects at both sites after adjustment for areal bone mineral density (aBMD) T-score at the ultradistal radius or total hip. In conclusion, we validated a novel HR-pQCT PR model of human trabecular bone against µCT voxel models and demonstrated its ability to discriminate vertebral fracture

  12. Prediction of incident hip fracture with the estimated femoral strength by finite element analysis of DXA Scans in the study of osteoporotic fractures.

    Yang, Lang; Palermo, Lisa; Black, Dennis M; Eastell, Richard


    A bone fractures only when loaded beyond its strength. The purpose of this study was to determine the association of femoral strength, as estimated by finite element (FE) analysis of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, with incident hip fracture in comparison to hip bone mineral density (BMD), Fracture Risk Assessment Tool (FRAX), and hip structure analysis (HSA) variables. This prospective case-cohort study included a random sample of 1941 women and 668 incident hip fracture cases (295 in the random sample) during a mean ± SD follow-up of 12.8 ± 5.7 years from the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (n = 7860 community-dwelling women ≥67 years of age). We analyzed the baseline DXA scans (Hologic 1000) of the hip using a validated plane-stress, linear-elastic finite element (FE) model of the proximal femur and estimated the femoral strength during a simulated sideways fall. Cox regression accounting for the case-cohort design assessed the association of estimated femoral strength with hip fracture. The age-body mass index (BMI)-adjusted hazard ratio (HR) per SD decrease for estimated strength (2.21; 95% CI, 1.95-2.50) was greater than that for total hip (TH) BMD (1.86; 95% CI, 1.67-2.08; p  0.05), FRAX scores (range, 1.32-1.68; p hip BMD or FRAX scores. The association of estimated strength with incident hip fracture was strong (Harrell's C index 0.770), significantly better than TH BMD (0.759; p  0.05). Similar findings were obtained for intracapsular and extracapsular fractures. In conclusion, the estimated femoral strength from FE analysis of DXA scans is an independent predictor and performs at least as well as FN BMD in predicting incident hip fracture in postmenopausal women. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  13. Predictions of thermal buckling strengths of hypersonic aircraft sandwich panels using minimum potential energy and finite element methods

    Ko, William L.


    Thermal buckling characteristics of hypersonic aircraft sandwich panels of various aspect ratios were investigated. The panel is fastened at its four edges to the substructures under four different edge conditions and is subjected to uniform temperature loading. Minimum potential energy theory and finite element methods were used to calculate the panel buckling temperatures. The two methods gave fairly close buckling temperatures. However, the finite element method gave slightly lower buckling temperatures than those given by the minimum potential energy theory. The reasons for this slight discrepancy in eigensolutions are discussed in detail. In addition, the effect of eigenshifting on the eigenvalue convergence rate is discussed.

  14. Prediction of the vertebral strength using a finite element model derived from low-dose biplanar imaging: benefits of subject-specific material properties.

    Sapin-de Brosses, Emilie; Jolivet, Erwan; Travert, Christophe; Mitton, David; Skalli, Wafa


    A finite element analysis on osteoporotic vertebrae. This study aims to validate subject-specific finite element models (FEMs) derived from a low-dose imaging system (EOS, Biospace Med, France) for the prediction of vertebral strength. The vertebrae are submitted to an eccentric compression force leading to compression and anterior bending. Given the aging population, osteoporosis and vertebral fractures are a major public health issue. A low bone mineral density (BMD) does not always explain incident fractures, and multifactorial analyses are required. In this context, FEMs based on quantitative computed tomography (QCT) have been proposed to predict vertebral strength in vitro or quantify effects of treatments. However, the clinical use of such a model for the in vivo follow-up of the whole spine is limited by the high-radiation dose induced by QCT and the lying position, which does not allow postural assessment with the same modality. Fourteen vertebrae were modeled using a parametric meshing method. The mesh was subject-specific using geometric parameters computed on the 3-dimensional (3D) reconstructions obtained from the EOS biplanar radiographs. The contribution of cortical bone was taken into account by modeling a cortico-cancellous shell whose properties were derived from experimental data. The effect of subject-specific bone Young's moduli derived from EOS vertebral areal BMD was quantified. The 3D position of the point-of-load application and the 3D orientation of the force was faithfully reproduced in the model to compare the predicted strength and experimental strength under the same loading conditions. The relative error of prediction decreased from 43% to 16% (2.5 times) when subject-specific mechanical properties, derived from EOS areal BMD, were implemented in the FEM compared with averaged material properties. The resulting subject-specific FEMs predicted vertebral strength with a level of significance close to the QCT-based models (r adjusted = 0

  15. Fastening of a High-Strength Composite Rod with a Splitted and Wedged End in a Potted Anchor 2. Finite-Element Analysis

    Kulakov, V. L.; Terrasi, G. P.; Arnautov, A. K.; Portnov, G. G.; Kovalov, A. O.


    A finite element analysis is carried out to determine the stress-strain state of anchors for round rods made of a high- modulus, high-strength unidirectional carbon-fiber reinforced plastic. The rods have splitted ends in which Duralumin wedges are glued. Three types of contact between the composite rods and a potted epoxy compound are considered: adhesion, adhesion-friction, and friction ones. The corresponding three-dimensional problems in the elastic statement are solved by the finite-element method (FEM) with account of nonlinear Coulomb friction. An analysis of stresses on the surface of the composite rod revealed the locations of high concentrations of operating stresses. The results of FEM calculations agree with experimental data.

  16. Relative Strengths of Promoters Provided by Common Mobile Genetic Elements Associated with Resistance Gene Expression in Gram-Negative Bacteria

    Kamruzzaman, Muhammad; Patterson, Jason D.; Shoma, Shereen; Ginn, Andrew N.; Partridge, Sally R.


    Comparison of green fluorescent protein expression from outward-facing promoters (POUT) of ISAba1, ISEcp1, and ISAba125 revealed approximate equivalence in strength, intermediate between PCS (strong) and PCWTGN-10 (weak) class 1 integron promoter variants, >30-fold stronger than POUT of ISCR1, and >5 times stronger than Ptac. Consistent with its usual role, PCWTGN-10 produces more mRNA from a “downstream” gfp gene transcriptionally linked to a “usual” PCWTGN-10-associated gene cassette than does POUT of ISAba1. PMID:26055385

  17. Using finite element method in the processof strength calculation for the pipeline supports in above-groundarea of "Zapolyar'e — NPS "PUR-PE" oil pipeline

    Surikov Vitaliy Ivanovich


    Full Text Available The present article studies a procedure of calculating the strength of pipeline support constructions of the above-ground oil trunk pipeline system «Zapolyar'e — oil pumping station «Pur-pe». The calculations of the supports stress-strain state are performed with the use of computer complex Ansys v13, which applies the finite element method. The article provides a short description of the construction of fixed, linear-sliding and free-sliding supports of the oil pipeline of above-ground routing, developed for the installation in complex climatic and geologic conditions of the far north. According to the operation specification for design — the support constructions have to maintain the resistance power and bearing capacity under the influence of the pipeline stress without sagging and considering the possible sagging of the neighboring support. The support constructions represent space structures with a complex geometry. Together with the complex geometry, contacting elements are present in the construction of the supports. There is also an interaction of the pile foundation and the nonhomogeneous foundation. The enumerated peculiarities of the construction and operating conditions of the supports considerably complicate the strength calculations by engineering methods. The method of numerical modeling (finite element method used in the article for the analysis of the supports’ operation under the stress is widely applied at the present time for calculations of space structures with a complex geometry. For the first time, while performing the supports’ strength calculations, the article considers the mutual deformation of the support, foundation grill and pile foundation in the ground, thus making it possible to consider real operation of the construction altogether. The main development stages of the calculation model “support — pile foundation — ground” in ANSYS, calculation and testing of the static strength of the support

  18. Strength Reduction Method for Stability Analysis of Local Discontinuous Rock Mass with Iterative Method of Partitioned Finite Element and Interface Boundary Element

    Tongchun Li


    element is proposed to solve the safety factor of local discontinuous rock mass. Slope system is divided into several continuous bodies and local discontinuous interface boundaries. Each block is treated as a partition of the system and contacted by discontinuous joints. The displacements of blocks are chosen as basic variables and the rigid displacements in the centroid of blocks are chosen as motion variables. The contact forces on interface boundaries and the rigid displacements to the centroid of each body are chosen as mixed variables and solved iteratively using the interface boundary equations. Flexibility matrix is formed through PFE according to the contact states of nodal pairs and spring flexibility is used to reflect the influence of weak structural plane so that nonlinear iteration is only limited to the possible contact region. With cohesion and friction coefficient reduced gradually, the states of all nodal pairs at the open or slip state for the first time are regarded as failure criterion, which can decrease the effect of subjectivity in determining safety factor. Examples are used to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  19. Adhesion Strength of Multi-element Coatings of the System (TiNbCrZrSiN

    U.S. Nyemchenko


    Full Text Available The mechanical characteristics of the multi-element coatings (TiNbCrZrSiN have been studied depending on the deposition process parameters, in particular the bias potential. X-ray diffraction spectra has shown, that the coating is formed on the basis of single-phase state of the fcc lattice, which in the case of nitrides has structural type NaCl. Hardness and elastic modulus of the coating (TiNbCrZrSiN varies from H = 24 GPa and E = 254 GPa to H = 28.9 GPa and E = 291 GPa. Coatings’ index of resistance to plastic deformation (H3/E2 has a value of 0.28.

  20. Nonlinear quasi-static finite element simulations predict in vitro strength of human proximal femora assessed in a dynamic sideways fall setup.

    Varga, Peter; Schwiedrzik, Jakob; Zysset, Philippe K; Fliri-Hofmann, Ladina; Widmer, Daniel; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Blauth, Michael; Windolf, Markus


    Osteoporotic proximal femur fractures are caused by low energy trauma, typically when falling on the hip from standing height. Finite element simulations, widely used to predict the fracture load of femora in fall, usually include neither mass-related inertial effects, nor the viscous part of bone׳s material behavior. The aim of this study was to elucidate if quasi-static non-linear homogenized finite element analyses can predict in vitro mechanical properties of proximal femora assessed in dynamic drop tower experiments. The case-specific numerical models of 13 femora predicted the strength (R(2)=0.84, SEE=540N, 16.2%), stiffness (R(2)=0.82, SEE=233N/mm, 18.0%) and fracture energy (R(2)=0.72, SEE=3.85J, 39.6%); and provided fair qualitative matches with the fracture patterns. The influence of material anisotropy was negligible for all predictions. These results suggest that quasi-static homogenized finite element analysis may be used to predict mechanical properties of proximal femora in the dynamic sideways fall situation.

  1. Strength of Plastics,

    evaluating the strength of structural elements is examined. The book is intended for design engineers, factory laboratory personnel, scientific research workers, and the design institutes. (Author-PL)

  2. Techniques in the development of a lower weight medical implants and strength validation using finite element methods.

    Sivarasu, Sudesh; Mathew, Lazar


    Artificial knees have been used in total knee arthroplasty for more than 6 decades. The major drawback of the medical implant is its weight, with the average weight of an artificial knee implant made of stainless steel and ultra-high-molecular-weight polyethylene being approximately 450 g. Tne weight of the natural knee removed during arthroplasty is weight is approximately 600 percent, which causes muscle fatigue and decreased knee functionality. Our research aimed to develop an artificial knee implant, in which the design is modified and corrected to make the implant weigh less. The implant weight was reduced by drilling holes in thicker areas of the implant. The radius of the drill holes and their length inside the implant were controlled by conducting simulation studies using finite element modelling (FEM) techniques. These effects of using drills on implants reduced the implant weight to approximately 25 g. Performance was validated by loading the implants to 2000 N, which is approximately 15x the average body weight, and showed satisfactory results in weight reduction and performance of the new implant models.

  3. Mobility of major and trace elements in the eclogite-fluid system and element fluxes upon slab dehydration

    Tsay, Alexandra; Zajacz, Zoltan; Ulmer, Peter; Sanchez-Valle, Carmen


    The equilibrium between aqueous fluids and allanite-bearing eclogite has been investigated to constrain the effect of temperature (T) and fluid composition on the stability of allanite and on the mobility of major and trace elements during the dehydration of eclogites. The experiments were performed at 590-800 °C and 2.4-2.6 GPa, and fluids were sampled as synthetic fluid inclusions in quartz using an improved entrapment technique. The concentrations and bulk partition coefficients were determined for a range of major (Mg, Ca, Na, Fe, Al, Ti) and 16 trace elements as a function of T and fluid composition. The results reveal a significant effect of T on element partitioning between the fluids and the solid mineral assemblage. The partition coefficients increase by more than an order of magnitude for most of the major and trace elements, and several orders of magnitude for light rare-earth elements (LREE) from 590 to 800 °C. The addition of various ligand species into the fluid at 700 °C results in distinctive trends on element partitioning. The concentrations and corresponding partition coefficients of most of the elements are enhanced upon addition of NaF to the fluid. In contrast, NaCl displays a nearly opposite effect by suppressing the solubilities of major elements and consequently affecting the mobility of trace elements that form stable complexes with alkali-(alumino)-silicate clusters in the fluid, e.g. high field strength elements (HFSE). The results further suggest that fluids in equilibrium with orthopyroxene and/or diopsidic clinopyroxene are peralkaline (ASI ∼0.1-0.7), whereas fluids in equilibrium with omphacitic pyroxene are more peraluminous (ASI ∼1.15). Therefore, natural aqueous fluids in equilibrium with eclogite at about 90 km depth will be slightly peraluminous in composition. Another important finding of this study is the relatively high capacity of aqueous fluids to mobilize LREE, which may be even higher than that of hydrous melts.

  4. Finite element analysis of strength for high capacity roller dollies%大载荷滚轮推车强度有限元分析

    郭子逸; 郑卫刚; 龚苏生


    In combination with UC 3D modeling software and ADINA software, the finite element models respectively for both the integral dolly and double-roller of high capacity roller dolly are established in the paper. Then based on the nonlinear contact method, the contact stress of the roller contact surface is analyzed. With comparison of the calculation results under the two conditions, it's concluded that the finite element result of double-roller is close to that by the traditional Hertz theory. The static strength calculation for the roller dolly is performed as well, providing theoretical basis for the design of high capacity roller dolly.%将UG三维建模软件和ADINA软件相结合,分别建立了大载荷滚轮推车的整体和双滚轮的有限元模型.基于非线性接触算法对滚轮接触面的接触应力进行分析,对比2种情况下的计算结果,得到双滚子的有限元结果与传统的赫兹理论较接近.同时对滚轮推车的结构静强度进行了计算,为大载荷滚轮推车的设计提供理论依据.

  5. Finite Element Analysis of X-cor Sandwich's Shear Strength%X-cor夹层结构剪切强度的有限元分析

    党旭丹; 史少杰; 肖军


    The finite element software was used to analyze the shear strength and failure mechanism of X-cor sandwich structure. I)uring the shear strength analysis, the failure criterion and materials stiffness degradation rules were proposed, and the failure process and modes of X cor sandwich structure were also clarified. According to the failure criterion, the elemems with stiffness degradation and their distributions in the finite element mode/were used to simulate the types and propagation path of the failure. And the failure mechanism of X cor sandwich was explained. The results show that tinder shear load the resin regions fail first; and then the multiple failure modes of Z-pin pull out from the face-sheet, Z-pin shear off and Z-pin buckling appeared. The finite element results were consistent well with the values of test result after comparison, which meant that the failure criterion and stiffness degradation rules were effective.%利用有限元软件分析了X-cor夹层结构的剪切强度及失效机理,提出了失效判据和材料刚度退化规则.明确了X-cor夹层结构的失效过程和模式;根据失效判据,采用有限元模型中发生刚度退化的单元及其分布模拟失效类型及扩展路径,说明了X-cor夹层结构的剪切失效机理。结果表明:在剪切载荷下,树脂区首先失效,然后是Z-pin拔出面板、Z-pin被剪断及Z-pin屈曲多重失效模式并存;有限元分析结果与试验数值吻合较好,说明了失效判据和刚度退化规则选择的有效性。

  6. Finite element modeling of shell shape in the freshwater turtle Pseudemys concinna reveals a trade-off between mechanical strength and hydrodynamic efficiency.

    Rivera, Gabriel; Stayton, C Tristan


    Aquatic species can experience different selective pressures on morphology in different flow regimes. Species inhabiting lotic regimes often adapt to these conditions by evolving low-drag (i.e., streamlined) morphologies that reduce the likelihood of dislodgment or displacement. However, hydrodynamic factors are not the only selective pressures influencing organismal morphology and shapes well suited to flow conditions may compromise performance in other roles. We investigated the possibility of morphological trade-offs in the turtle Pseudemys concinna. Individuals living in lotic environments have flatter, more streamlined shells than those living in lentic environments; however, this flatter shape may also make the shells less capable of resisting predator-induced loads. We tested the idea that "lotic" shell shapes are weaker than "lentic" shell shapes, concomitantly examining effects of sex. Geometric morphometric data were used to transform an existing finite element shell model into a series of models corresponding to the shapes of individual turtles. Models were assigned identical material properties and loaded under identical conditions, and the stresses produced by a series of eight loads were extracted to describe the strength of the shells. "Lotic" shell shapes produced significantly higher stresses than "lentic" shell shapes, indicating that the former is weaker than the latter. Females had significantly stronger shell shapes than males, although these differences were less consistent than differences between flow regimes. We conclude that, despite the potential for many-to-one mapping of shell shape onto strength, P. concinna experiences a trade-off in shell shape between hydrodynamic and mechanical performance. This trade-off may be evident in many other turtle species or any other aquatic species that also depend on a shell for defense. However, evolution of body size may provide an avenue of escape from this trade-off in some cases, as changes in

  7. Extreme High Field Strength Element Depletion and Chondritic Nb/Ta in Central Andean Adakite-like Lavas (~27° S, ~68° W)

    Goss, A. R.; Kay, S. M.


    We present new high precision ICP-MS HFSE data on ~30 samples from the adakite-like Pircas Negras (SiO2 =57-62 %; La/Yb= 20-60; Sr = 600-900 ppm, Cr to 200 ppm) and Dos Hermanos (SiO2 =56-59 %; La/Yb= 57-61; Sr = 1200-1500 ppm, Cr to 60 ppm) andesites from the southernmost Andean Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ). These andesites erupted in a broadened arc as the volcanic front was displaced about 50 km to the east between 8 and 3 Ma and likely reflect melting of a garnet bearing crustal source. Our data reveal a discrete change from chondritic Nb/Ta ratios (19-21) and low Zr/Sm (25-30) in older 8-7 Ma Dos Hermanos lavas to dominantly subchondritic Nb/Ta ratios (11-18) and higher Zr/Sm (30-45) in Hermanos (La/Ta= 90-100) lavas are best explained as hydrous and oxidizing conditions within the mantle wedge initially stabilized Ti-oxides (i.e. rutile) as the arc front migrated. These steeper REE patterns and high La/Ta are a transient feature measured in lavas erupting during the peak of arc migration, as mafic <2 Ma CVZ lavas to the north (~26° S) have lower La/Yb (< 20) and La/Ta (< 40). The observed temporal shift in Nb/Ta coupled with a general increase in Zr/Sm suggests a change from residual rutile to low-Mg amphibole within an eclogitic/granulitic crustal residue during the course of arc migration. A potential factor in explaining these data is that a transient period of increased subduction erosion associated with the migration of the frontal arc transported forearc crustal material into the progressively dehydrating mantle wedge. Partial melting of this eclogitized forearc material contributed to the transient adakite-like nature of the magmas erupted along the margin.

  8. Clinopyroxene-melt element partitioning during interaction between trachybasaltic magma and siliceous crust: Clues from quartzite enclaves at Mt. Etna volcano

    Mollo, S.; Blundy, J. D.; Giacomoni, P.; Nazzari, M.; Scarlato, P.; Coltorti, M.; Langone, A.; Andronico, D.


    A peculiar characteristic of the paroxysmal sequence that occurred on March 16, 2013 at the New South East Crater of Mt. Etna volcano (eastern Sicily, Italy) was the eruption of siliceous crustal xenoliths representative of the sedimentary basement beneath the volcanic edifice. These xenoliths are quartzites that occur as subspherical bombs enclosed in a thin trachybasaltic lava envelope. At the quartzite-magma interface a reaction corona develops due to the interaction between the Etnean trachybasaltic magma and the partially melted quartzite. Three distinct domains are observed: (i) the trachybasaltic lava itself (Zone 1), including Al-rich clinopyroxene phenocrysts dispersed in a matrix glass, (ii) the hybrid melt (Zone 2), developing at the quartzite-magma interface and feeding the growth of newly-formed Al-poor clinopyroxenes, and (iii) the partially melted quartzite (Zone 3), producing abundant siliceous melt. These features makes it possible to quantify the effect of magma contamination by siliceous crust in terms of clinopyroxene-melt element partitioning. Major and trace element partition coefficients have been calculated using the compositions of clinopyroxene rims and glasses next to the crystal surface. Zone 1 and Zone 2 partition coefficients correspond to, respectively, the chemical analyses of Al-rich phenocrysts and matrix glasses, and the chemical analyses of newly-formed Al-poor crystals and hybrid glasses. For clinopyroxenes from both the hybrid layer and the lava flow expected relationships are observed between the partition coefficient, the valence of the element, and the ionic radius. However, with respect to Zone 1 partition coefficients, values of Zone 2 partition coefficients show a net decrease for transition metals (TE), high-field strength elements (HFSE) and rare earth elements including yttrium (REE + Y), and an increase for large ion lithophile elements (LILE). This variation is associated with coupled substitutions on the M1, M2 and

  9. Finite Element Analysis of the Planetary Gear Bending Strength of Differential%差速器行星齿轮弯曲强度有限元分析

    姚春华; 林凤涛


    Taking the differential of a type of 400CC all梩errain vehicle as an example,the differential planetary gear of the three-dimensional entity modeling methods and the determination process of highest single tooth meshing point is discitssed.The method of using Pro/ENGINEER to build the three-dimensional modeling of differential planetary gear has been studied, and the solid modeling of planetary gear has been completed.Then the method of determining the highest meshing point of single tooth has been analyzed, and mechanical property of planetary gear has been analyzed by using the nonlinear finite element software ABAQUS.At last is the comparison of the result with traditional method.The theory basis is provided for the lightweight design of gear and fatigue life analysis.The results showed that,the bending strength of planetary gear satisfies the strength requirement, and the traditional calculation method results are relatively conservative.%以某型400CC全地形车差速器为例,对差速器行星齿轮的三维实体建模方法以及单齿最高啮合点的确定过程进行了阐述,探讨了利用Pro/ENGINEER对差速器行星齿轮三维造型的方法并进行了实体建模,分析了确定单齿最高啮合点的方法,通过非线性有限元软件ABAQUS对行星齿轮单齿的力学性能进行了计算分析,最后与齿轮弯曲强度传统计算方法进行了比较.并能够为齿轮的轻量化设计及疲劳寿命分析提供理论依据.结果表明:行星齿轮弯曲强度满足强度要求,传统计算方法计算结果相对保守.

  10. In-vivo assessment of femoral bone strength using Finite Element Analysis (FEA based on routine MDCT imaging: a preliminary study on patients with vertebral fractures.

    Hans Liebl

    Full Text Available To experimentally validate a non-linear finite element analysis (FEA modeling approach assessing in-vitro fracture risk at the proximal femur and to transfer the method to standard in-vivo multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT data of the hip aiming to predict additional hip fracture risk in subjects with and without osteoporosis associated vertebral fractures using bone mineral density (BMD measurements as gold standard.One fresh-frozen human femur specimen was mechanically tested and fractured simulating stance and clinically relevant fall loading configurations to the hip. After experimental in-vitro validation, the FEA simulation protocol was transferred to standard contrast-enhanced in-vivo MDCT images to calculate individual hip fracture risk each for 4 subjects with and without a history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures matched by age and gender. In addition, FEA based risk factor calculations were compared to manual femoral BMD measurements of all subjects.In-vitro simulations showed good correlation with the experimentally measured strains both in stance (R2 = 0.963 and fall configuration (R2 = 0.976. The simulated maximum stress overestimated the experimental failure load (4743 N by 14.7% (5440 N while the simulated maximum strain overestimated by 4.7% (4968 N. The simulated failed elements coincided precisely with the experimentally determined fracture locations. BMD measurements in subjects with a history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures did not differ significantly from subjects without fragility fractures (femoral head: p = 0.989; femoral neck: p = 0.366, but showed higher FEA based risk factors for additional incident hip fractures (p = 0.028.FEA simulations were successfully validated by elastic and destructive in-vitro experiments. In the subsequent in-vivo analyses, MDCT based FEA based risk factor differences for additional hip fractures were not mirrored by according BMD measurements. Our data suggests, that MDCT

  11. Prediction of bone strength by μCT and MDCT-based finite-element-models: How much spatial resolution is needed?

    Bauer, Jan S., E-mail: [Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany); Sidorenko, Irina [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany); Mueller, Dirk [Department of Radiology, Universität Köln (Germany); Baum, Thomas [Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany); Issever, Ahi Sema [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Radiology, Charite, Berlin (Germany); Eckstein, Felix [Institute of Anatomy and Musculoskeletal Research, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Rummeny, Ernst J. [Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Link, Thomas M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Raeth, Christoph W. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany)


    Objectives: Finite-element-models (FEM) are a promising technology to predict bone strength and fracture risk. Usually, the highest spatial resolution technically available is used, but this requires excessive computation time and memory in numerical simulations of large volumes. Thus, FEM were compared at decreasing resolutions with respect to local strain distribution and prediction of failure load to (1) validate MDCT-based FEM and to (2) optimize spatial resolution to save computation time. Materials and methods: 20 cylindrical trabecular bone specimens (diameter 12 mm, length 15–20 mm) were harvested from elderly formalin-fixed human thoracic spines. All specimens were examined by micro-CT (isotropic resolution 30 μm) and whole-body multi-row-detector computed tomography (MDCT, 250 μm × 250 μm × 500 μm). The resolution of all datasets was lowered in eight steps to ∼2000 μm × 2000 μm × 500 μm and FEM were calculated at all resolutions. Failure load was determined by biomechanical testing. Probability density functions of local micro-strains were compared in all datasets and correlations between FEM-based and biomechanically measured failure loads were determined. Results: The distribution of local micro-strains was similar for micro-CT and MDCT at comparable resolutions and showed a shift toward higher average values with decreasing resolution, corresponding to the increasing apparent trabecular thickness. Small micro-strains (ε{sub eff} < 0.005) could be calculated down to 250 μm × 250 μm × 500 μm. Biomechanically determined failure load showed significant correlations with all FEM, up to r = 0.85 and did not significantly change with lower resolution but decreased with high thresholds, due to loss of trabecular connectivity. Conclusion: When choosing connectivity-preserving thresholds, both micro-CT- and MDCT-based finite-element-models well predicted failure load and still accurately revealed the distribution of local micro-strains in

  12. Evaluation of polymerization shrinkage, polymerization shrinkage stress, wear resistance, and compressive strength of a silorane-based composite: A finite element analysis study

    Suresh Mitthra


    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the mechanical properties is important in predicting the clinical behavior of composites. Finite element analysis (FEA evaluates properties of materials replicating clinical scenario. Aim: This study evaluated polymerization shrinkage and stress, wear resistance (WR, and compressive strength (CS of silorane in comparison with two methacrylate resins. Settings and Design: This study design was a numerical study using FEA. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional (3D models of maxillary premolar with Class I cavities (2 mm depth, 4 mm length, and 2.5 mm width created and restored with silorane, nanohybrid, and microhybrid; Groups I, II, and III, respectively. Loads of 200–600 N were applied. Polymerization shrinkage was first determined by displacement produced in the X, Y, and Z planes. Maximum stress distribution due to shrinkage was calculated using AN SYS software. 3D cube models of composite resins were simulated with varying filler particle size. Similar loads were applied. WR and compressive stress were calculated: K W L/H and load/cross-sectional area, respectively. Statistical analysis done using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis, and Tukey's honestly significant difference test (P < 0.05. Results: Polymerization shrinkage (0.99% and shrinkage stress (233.21 Mpa of silorane were less compared to microhybrid (2.14% and 472.43 Mpa and nanohybrid (2.32% and 464.88 Mpa. Silorane (7.92×/1011 μm/mm3 and nanohybrid (7.79×/1011 showed superior WR than microhybrid (1.113×/1017. There was no significant difference in compressive stress among the groups. Conclusion: Silorane exhibited less polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress compared to methacrylates. Silorane and nanohybrid showed greater WR compared to microhybrid. CS of all groups was similar.

  13. Characterizing the influence of stress-induced microcracks on the laboratory strength and fracture development in brittle rocks using a finite-discrete element method-micro discrete fracture network FDEM-mDFN approach

    Pooya Hamdi; Doug Stead; Davide Elmo


    abstract Heterogeneity is an inherent component of rock and may be present in different forms including mineral heterogeneity, geometrical heterogeneity, weak grain boundaries and micro-defects. Microcracks are usually observed in crystalline rocks in two forms: natural and stress-induced; the amount of stress-induced microcracking increases with depth and in-situ stress. Laboratory results indicate that the physical properties of rocks such as strength, deformability, P-wave velocity and permeability are influenced by increase in microcrack intensity. In this study, the finite-discrete element method (FDEM) is used to model microcrack heterogeneity by introducing into a model sample sets of microcracks using the proposed micro discrete fracture network (mDFN) approach. The characteristics of the microcracks required to create mDFN models are obtained through image analyses of thin sections of Lac du Bonnet granite adopted from published literature. A suite of two-dimensional laboratory tests including uniaxial, triaxial compression and Brazilian tests is simulated and the results are compared with laboratory data. The FDEM-mDFN models indicate that micro-heterogeneity has a profound influence on both the me-chanical behavior and resultant fracture pattern. An increase in the microcrack intensity leads to a reduction in the strength of the sample and changes the character of the rock strength envelope. Spalling and axial splitting dominate the failure mode at low confinement while shear failure is the dominant failure mode at high confinement. Numerical results from simulated compression tests show that microcracking reduces the cohesive component of strength alone, and the frictional strength component remains unaffected. Results from simulated Brazilian tests show that the tensile strength is influenced by the presence of microcracks, with a reduction in tensile strength as microcrack intensity increases. The importance of microcrack heterogeneity in reproducing

  14. Kyanite Formation and Element Fractionation in the High-Al Eclogites from the Sulu UHP Metamorphic Terrane

    Yung-Hsin Liu


    Full Text Available Eclogite compositions are critical parameters for under standing chemical evolution in the Earth, particularly in subduction zones. A group of eclogites from the Sulu ultra-high pres sure (UHP metamorphic terrane in eastern China shows uncommon petrographic and compositional features. They are characterized by (1 zoisite porphyroblasts coexisting with inclusion-free, inclusion-containing, and net work kyanite, (2 high Al2O3 of 18.4 - 29.2% with high MgO of 8.59 - 11.3%, and (3 intensive HFSE-REE fractionations represented by [Zr/Sm]ch and [Ti/Gd]ch ratios of 0.1 - 3.9 and 1.1 - 9.0, respectively. High-pressure fluids played a major role on developing these features. Kyanite shows two textural varieties. KyI is inclusion-free and in apparent textural equilibrium with gar net and omphacite, implying formation from plagioclase break down. KyII includes kyanite networks and porphyroblasts; the former occurs mostly in gar net, whereas the latter encloses gar net and omphacite grains. KyII were crystallized at the expense of gar net and omphacite during eclogite-fluid interaction. The low [HREE]ch ratios of 1 - 2 indicate that the protoliths were arc cumulates. The well-de fined in verse Al2O3-SiO2 and Al2O3-CaO correlations are not the characteristics of igneous precursors; there fore, must reflect metamorphic modifications. The comparison to mafic cumulates shows that the low-Al samples are compositionally better representatives of protoliths. Mass balance calculations point to anolivine gabbronoritic protolith. The intensive HFSE-REE fractionations reflect compositional differences between two sample groups. Group I samples have superchondritic HFSE-REE ratios [(Nb/La, Zr/Sm, Ti/Gdch = 2 - 7] with depletions in LREE. In contrast, group II samples show HFSE depletions and LREE enrichments. These compositional differences were explained as reflecting element mobility during eclogite-fluid inter action. Released at temperatures > _ the high-pres sure

  15. 基于离散元法的煤炭运矿车强度计算%Strength calculation of underground coal dump truck based on discrete element method



    At present in structural strength analysis of underground dump truck, the pre-estimate of applied stress usually depends on experience and simple calculation, leading to large deviation. In the paper, the discrete element method is introduced to the finite element strength check. The coal material's discrete element model is established to simulate the material loaded process, and acquire the applied force of the truck body from coal material discrete element. Then the finite element software is used to conduct coupling and strength checking with the obtained data. The method can accurately apply the force of coal material to the finite element model, get the stress and strain of the vehicle body, and obtain the credible force of the hopper according to the calculation scale factor.%针对目前运矿车结构强度分析,施加载荷环节往往依靠经验或简单计算进行预估,分析结果不能完全真实地反映车体实际受力情况。将离散元方法引入到设备有限元强度校核中,建立煤料离散元模型,通过模拟装载过程,获取煤料离散单元对车体的作用力,然后将数据导入到有限元软件中进行耦合,进行强度校核。该方法真实地将煤料对车体的作用力准确地施加到有限元模型中,可得到车体应力应变,以及根据计算比例因子,得到料斗所受可信作用力。该研究将为改进运矿车的设计和使用性能,提高产品生产效率,提供强大依据。

  16. The Oscillator Strength of the Quantum Transitions in Multi-Resonant-Tunneling Structures Tours as Basic Elements of Quantum Cascade Lasers and Detectors in a Transverse Magnetic Field

    I.V. Boyko


    Full Text Available Using the model of a closed resonant tunneling structure developed the theory of the electron energy spectrum and oscillator strengths of the quantum electronic transitions between energy levels of this nanostructure. It is shown that by changing the intensity of the magnetic field can be in a wide range of electromagnetic waves to adjust the operating frequency of the radiation of a quantum cascade laser or detector, working on quantum transitions between the first and the third energy electronic states.


    A. S. Kalinichenko


    Full Text Available Scientific and practical interest is the application of alloying alloy-modifiers for secondary treatment of high-strength cast iron to stabilize the process of spheroidization graphite and achieving higher physical-mechanical properties of castings. The peculiarity of the high-strength cast irons manufacturing technology is their tendency to supercooling during solidification in the mold. This leads to the formation of shrinkage defects and structurally free cementite, especially in thin-walled sections of the finished castings. To minimize these effects in foundry practice during production of ductile iron the secondary inoculation is widely used. In this regard, the question of the choice of the additives with effective impact not only on the graphitization process but also on the formation of the metallic base of ductile iron is relevant. The aim of the present work is to study the peculiarities of structure formation in cast iron with nodular graphite when alloying alloy-modifier based on tin with additions of nanoparticles of titanium carbide, yttrium oxide and graphite nano-pipes is used for secondary treatment. Melting of iron in laboratory conditions was performed in crucible induction furnace IST-006 with an acid lining held. Spheroidizing treatment of melt was realized with magnesium containing alloying alloy FeSiMg7 by means of ladle method. Secondary treatment of high strength cast iron was carried out by addition of alloying alloy-modifier in an amount of 0.1% to the bottom of the pouring ladle. Cast samples for chemical composition analysis, study of microstructure, technological and mechanical properties of the resultant alloy were made. Studies have shown that the secondary treatment of high strength cast iron with developed modifier-alloying alloy results in formation of the perlite metallic base due to the tin impact and nodular graphite with regular shape under the influence of titanium carbide, yttrium oxide and graphite nano

  18. Experimental and finite element study of the effect of temperature and moisture on the tangential tensile strength and fracture behavior in timber logs

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur


    and numerical simulations by finite element modeling (FEM) concerning the TSt and fracture behavior of Norway spruce under various climatic conditions. Thin log disc specimens were studied to simplify the description of the moisture flow in the samples. The specimens designed for TS were acclimatized...

  19. Strength Finite Element Analysis of Bulldozer Drive Shaft%推土机传动轴强度有限元分析

    白鹏伟; 史青录; 程结结; 周绍利


    利用ANSYS Workbench软件建立某型号推土机转向离合器输入轴在转矩载荷作用下的有限元模型,并对其进行有限元分析,得到传动轴危险部位的应力与应变结果.结果表明在花键或有过渡圆角的部位最易发生失效.%A finite element model was set up by utilizing ANSYS Workbench software for the steering clutch input shaft in a certain type bulldozer under a turning torque load while carrying out a finite element analysis thereof to have got stress and strain results at dangerous positions of the drive shaft. The results show that failures are vulnerable to happen at positions of the spline and/or transit radius.

  20. Effects of alloy elements on mechanical properties of high strength PC steel bar%合金元素对高强 PC钢棒力学性能的影响

    张飞鹏; 董海鹏; 李永现; 毛伟吉; 王成彪


    In order to fulfill the requirements of strength , yield ratio and extension of high strength PC steel bar , effects of alloy elements content such as carbon , silicon, vanadium on mechanical properties of PC steel bar after heat treatment were studied .The results show that when the carbon content reaches 0.17%, the tensile strength begins to significantly improve after quenching .Increase of the silicon content is beneficial for improving the ductility of steel bar .However , the yield ratio would be increased .The yield ratio should be increased with existence of vanadium , but it is beneficial for improving the overall strength and plasticity of the steel bar .%为探索满足高强PC钢棒对强度、屈强比和延伸性等力学性能指标的要求,系统研究了合金元素碳、硅、钒等含量对高强PC钢棒热处理后力学性能的影响。结果表明,当碳含量达到0.17%时,淬火后抗拉强度开始显著提高;硅元素含量的提高有利于提高钢棒的延性,但屈强比也随之提高;钒元素的存在会有利于强度和塑性的整体提高,但也使钢棒屈强比提高。


    李玮; 段成红; 吴祥


    Carbon fibre composite materials are more and more used in industries, but the research on the properties is not deep enough. To save test cost, it is necessary to carry out theoretical simulation for the materials while performing experimental investigation. In this paper, ultimate strength of a carbon fibre composite material with a standard testing NOL-ring was calculated numerically by using ANSYS software with two simulation methods,namely node coupling and contacting. Circumferential stresses along the NOL-ring were given. Results show that errors between the two simulations and the test results are 23.6% and 5.6% respectively, indicating that using contacting method is more precise.%碳纤维复合材料在工业上的应用越来越广,但对其材料性质的研究还远不充分.为了节省试验经费,应在进行必要试验的同时对碳纤维复合材料的性质进行模拟计算.本文针对一标准试验,利用ANSYS软件的节点耦合技术和接触分析技术分别对某碳纤维复合材料制成的NOL环进行了拉伸破坏载荷下的强度计算,给出NOL环上各点的周向应力.结果发现,这两种模拟方法与试验值的误差分别为23.6%和5.6%,表明接触分析技术比较精确.

  2. Finite-element analysis to determine effect of monolimb flexibility on structural strength and interaction between residual limb and prosthetic socket.

    Lee, Winson C C; Zhang, Ming; Boone, David A; Contoyannis, Bill


    Monolimb refers to a kind of transtibial prostheses having the socket and shank molded into one piece of thermoplastic material. One of its characteristics is that the shank is made of a material that can deform during walking, which can simulate ankle joint motion to some extent. Changes in shank geometry can alter the stress distribution within the monolimb and at the residual limb-socket interface and, respectively, affect the deformability and structural integrity of the prosthesis and comfort perceived by amputees. This paper describes the development of a finite-element model for the study of the structural behavior of monolimbs with different shank designs and the interaction between the limb and socket during walking. The von Mises stress distributions in monolimbs with different shank designs at different walking phases are reported. With the use of distortion energy theory, possible failure was predicted. The effect of the stiffness of the monolimb shanks on the stress distribution at the limb-socket interface was studied. The results show a trend--the peak stress applied to the limb was lowered as the shank stiffness decreased. This information is useful for future monolimb optimization.

  3. Finite Element Analysis of Residual Strength of Pipe with Hemispheric Corrosion Defect%含半球形腐蚀缺陷钢管剩余强度的有限元分析

    杨专钊; 刘道新; 张晓化


    通过有限元方法分析了含单个不同深度半球形腐蚀缺陷钢管,在不同服役条件(压力状态)下的应力和应变状态,即缺陷深度和半径分别为1/8,1/4和1/2钢管公称壁厚时,得出不同状态下von Mises等效应力和von Mises等效应变分布情况.同时计算了含不同深度半球形缺陷管道的剩余强度,并给出剩余强度随缺陷深度的经验公式,结果显示含半球形缺陷管道剩余强度随缺陷深度的增加而线性降低.%The situation of stress and strain was analyzed by Finite Element Analysis (FEA) for the corroded line pipe by deferent inner pressures and with single hemispheric corrosion defects,of which the radius and depth were set as t/8,t/4 and t/2 (t,the pipe wall thickness) respectively.Meanwhile,the residual strength of the pipes with corresponding defects were calculated respectively,as well as the empirical equation that relates to the residual strength and depth-thickness ratio d/t,was established,which shown that the residual strength decreased linearly with the increasing d/t.

  4. Strength Training

    ... strengthens your heart and lungs. When you strength train with weights, you're using your muscles to ... see there are lots of different ways to train with weights. Try a few good basic routines ...

  5. Strength Training

    ... en español Entrenamiento de la fuerza muscular Strength training is a vital part of a balanced exercise routine that includes aerobic activity and flexibility exercises. Regular aerobic exercise, such as running or ...

  6. Application of finite element shear strength reduction method on calculation of Slope Safety Factor%有限元强度折减法在边坡安全系数计算中的应用

    黄硕鑫; 郭莉辉; 韩明峰; 王军生; 霍知亮


    在边坡稳定性的分析过程中,以有限元为代表的数值计算法,由于能够考虑边坡自身变形对其稳定性的影响、求解出变形过程中岩土体的应力应变状态、模拟边坡破坏的发展过程等特点,正得到广泛的应用,并且在工程设计中起到了至关重要的作用。文章阐述了强度折减法的基本原理,通过有限元强度折减法,对一个典型的粘性土边坡进行安全系数的运算,分析边坡失稳过程,与简化的毕肖普法计算结果十分接近。研究表明有限元法不需要其他基本假定,有限元分析结果满足岩土体的应力应变关系,并且满足力的平衡法则。因此对边坡进行非线性弹塑性的分析,计算结果能够更精确和可靠。计算示例说明,用有限元强度折减法对边坡进行稳定性分析是可行的,所以该方法可以在工程中广泛应用。%the numerical method representative of finite element has been widely used in analyzing slope stability ,playing a vital role in engineering design .The numerical method takes account of the im‐pact of slope variation on its stability and researches on the stress -strain state of rock and earth mass during the variation process .It can also stimulate the evolution of destruction of slope .The paper discus‐ses the fundamental principles of strength reduction method .Finite element strength reduction method is applied to calculate the safety factor of a typical cohesive soil slope and analyze the process of slope insta‐bility .The outcome is similar to what can be achieved through simplified bishop method . Research shows that the finite element method doesn’t require making any other basic assumptions .It satisfies the stress-strain relation of rock and earth mass and follows the law of equilibrium of forces .So it is more accurate and reliable to analyze the nonlinear elastoplastic feature of slopes . The calculation example shows that it is

  7. Finite Element Simulation of Surface Micro-pits Texture Cutting Tool Structure Strength%表面微坑织构刀具结构强度的有限元仿真

    王亮; 李亮; 戚宝运


    在月具前刀面置入微织构能够改善刀屑间的摩擦状况,提高刀具的切削性能.为了研究表面织构的置入对刀具的应力、变形等产生的影响,本文针对微坑阵列结构,通过有限元软件ABAQUS对表面微坑织构刀具的结构强度进行仿真.结果表明:微坑的置人在一定程度上降低了刀具强度,增大了刀尖变形.在本文的研究范围内,与微坑深度、间距相比,微坑直径对刀具强度影响较大.%Placing micro-texture in rake face can improve the friction condition between the cutting tool and chip, as well as the cutting performance of the tool. To study the effect of surface texture on the stress and deformation of the cutting tool, the structure strength of the surface micro-pits textured cutting tool was simulated through the finite element software ABAQUS in this article. The results showed that micro-pits texture, in a certain extent, reduced thestrength of the cutting tool and increased the deformation of the tool nose. Compared with the depth and distance of the micro-pits, the micro-pits diameter had a greater impact on the cutting tool strength.

  8. Compromised trabecular microarchitecture and lower finite element estimates of radius and tibia bone strength in adults with turner syndrome: a cross-sectional study using high-resolution-pQCT.

    Hansen, Stinus; Brixen, Kim; Gravholt, Claus H


    Although bone mass appear ample for bone size in Turner syndrome (TS), epidemiological studies have reported an increased risk of fracture in TS. We used high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT) to measure standard morphological parameters of bone geometry and microarchitecture, as well as estimated bone strength by finite element analysis (FEA) to assess bone characteristics beyond bone mineral density (BMD) that possibly contribute to the increased risk of fracture. Thirty-two TS patients (median age 35, range 20-61 years) and 32 healthy control subjects (median age 36, range 19-58 years) matched with the TS participants with respect to age and body-mass index were studied. A full region of interest (ROI) image analysis and a height-matched ROI analysis adjusting for differences in body height between groups were performed. Mean bone cross-sectional area was lower in TS patients in radius (-15%) and tibia (-13%) (both p radius (18%, p radius, -36% in tibia, both p radius, -22% in tibia, both p radius, -12% in tibia, both p radius, 23% in tibia, both p radius, and trabecular number in tibia. FEA estimated failure load was lower in TS patients in both radius (-11%) and tibia (-16%) (both p < 0.01) and remained significantly lower in the height-matched ROI analysis. Conclusively, TS patients had compromised trabecular microarchitecture and lower bone strength at both skeletal sites, which may partly account for the increased risk of fracture observed in these patients.

  9. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography and finite element analysis of bone strength at the distal radius in ovariectomized adult rhesus monkey demonstrate efficacy of odanacatib and differentiation from alendronate.

    Cabal, Antonio; Jayakar, Richa Y; Sardesai, Swanand; Phillips, Eual A; Szumiloski, John; Posavec, Diane J; Mathers, Parker D; Savitz, Alan T; Scott, Boyd B; Winkelmann, Christopher T; Motzel, Sherri; Cook, Lynn; Hargreaves, Richard; Evelhoch, Jeffrey L; Dardzinski, Bernard J; Hangartner, Thomas N; McCracken, Paul J; Duong, Le T; Williams, Donald S


    Translational evaluation of disease progression and treatment response is critical to the development of therapies for osteoporosis. In this study, longitudinal in-vivo monitoring of odanacatib (ODN) treatment efficacy was compared to alendronate (ALN) in ovariectomized (OVX) non-human primates (NHPs) using high-resolution peripheral computed tomography (HR-pQCT). Treatment effects were evaluated using several determinants of bone strength, density and quality, including volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), three-dimensional structure, finite element analysis (FEA) estimated peak force and biomechanical properties at the ultradistal (UD) radius at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 18 months of dosing in three treatment groups: vehicle (VEH), low ODN (2 mg/kg/day, L-ODN), and ALN (30 μg/kg/week). Biomechanical axial compression tests were performed at the end of the study. Bone strength estimates using FEA were validated by ex-vivo mechanical compression testing experiments. After 18months of dosing, L-ODN demonstrated significant increases from baseline in integral vBMD (13.5%), cortical thickness (24.4%), total bone volume fraction BV/TV (13.5%), FEA-estimated peak force (26.6%) and peak stress (17.1%), respectively. Increases from baseline for L-ODN at 18 months were significantly higher than that for ALN in DXA-based aBMD (7.6%), cortical thickness (22.9%), integral vBMD (12.2%), total BV/TV (10.1%), FEA peak force (17.7%) and FEA peak stress (11.5%), respectively. These results demonstrate a superior efficacy of ODN treatment compared to ALN at the UD radii in ovariectomized NHPs.

  10. Strength Reducing Elastic-Plastic Finite Element Method to Analyze the Deep Stability of Gravity Dam%重力坝深层抗滑稳定强度折减弹塑性有限元法

    孙伟; 庞俊蕊; 苏龙; 孙建生


    Combined with engineering requirements of the Qingyu Reservoir,the ANSYS finite element software was used to establish overflow grav-ity dam deep sliding stability elastic-plastic calculation model which considered the mechanical properties of weak structural plane of rock in the dam foundation. An analysis of the continuous variation of the distribution of horizontal displacement of dam foundation rock,the characteristics of the magnitude of change of feature points’displacement and the process of the dam foundation rock plastic zones developing to through the founda-tion was took to get the deep sliding stability safety factor of gravity dam by gradually increasing the shear strength reduction coefficient. The safety factor of Qingyu gravity dam analyzed by the strength reducing elastic-plastic finite element method is 3. 0-3. 2,and it is consistent with the limit equilibrium dual ramp stability calculation results 3. 039-3. 667 recommended by specifications. It shows that taking the slip plane displacement mutation and plastic zone perforation as the criterion to judge dam foundation instability and failure is reasonable.%结合清峪水库实际工程设计要求,运用ANSYS有限元软件,建立考虑坝基岩体软弱结构面力学特性的溢流重力坝深层抗滑稳定弹塑性计算模型。通过逐步增大抗剪强度的折减系数,分析研究坝基岩体的水平位移分布连续性变化规律、特征点位移变化幅度特性和坝基岩体塑性区域发展贯通过程。清峪水库重力坝深层抗滑稳定使用强度折减弹塑性有限元分析得到的安全系数为3.0~3.2,与规范推荐的刚体极限平衡双斜面稳定计算结果3.039~3.667具有一致性,表明采用滑移面上位移发生突变及塑性区贯通作为坝基失稳破坏的判断准则是合理的。

  11. Q460C高强度钢柱滞回性能有限元分析%Finite element analysis on hysteretic behavior of Q460c high strength steel box-section and H-section columns

    李国强; 王彦博; 陈素文; 崔嵬


    为进一步研究Q460C高强度钢柱的滞回性能,在已有试验研究的基础上,采用通用有限元分析软件ANSYS建立了数值模型,对Q460C高强度钢材焊接箱形和H形截面柱在常轴力和水平往复荷载作用下的滞回性能进行模拟,并研究了残余应力对高强度钢试件滞回性能的影响.将有限元分析结果与已有试验结果进行对比,两者吻合较好.研究结果表明:采用提出的Q460C高强度结构钢滞回模型进行有限元分析,能较为准确的预测Q460C高强度钢材焊接H形和箱形柱的滞回性能;试件内残余应力对Q460C高强度钢材焊接H形和箱形截面柱的滞回性能影响较小.%In order to further study the hysteretic behavior of Q460C high strength steel columns, a finite element ( FE) model was built up by using general FE analysis software ANSYS based on previous experimental study. Both welded box and H-section columns under constant axial load and horizontal cyclic loading were simulated. Moreover, the effect of residual stresses on the hysteretic behavior of Q460C steel welded box and H-section columns was evaluated. The FE analysis result shows good agreement with the existing experimental results conducted by authors. The proposed hysteretic model for Q460C high strength steel is proved to be accurate to be implemented in the numerical analysis. The comparison of FE analysis results with and without considering initial residual stresses shows that the influence of residual stresses on hysteretic behavior of Q460C high strength steel columns is negligible.


    付明堂; 梁醒培; 李恒


    采用有限元法对钢筋混凝土筒仓仓壁受力进行了静力有限元计算,得到了仓壁的详细应力分布情况,以及钢筋和混凝土共同受力时各自承担的环向拉力.基于计算结果对仓壁受力进行了分析,结果表明:我国的《混凝土筒仓设计规范》能够满足仓壁的静力强度要求.%The static stress of reinforced concrete silo wall was calculated using finite element method. The detailed stress distribution of the silo wall and the circumferential tensile forces respectively applied on the steel bar and concrete were obtained when the steel bar and concrete bore force together. Based on the calculation results, the article analyzed the force condition of the silo wall, and the results showed that the Code for design of reinforced concrete silos could meet the requirement for the static strength of the silo wall.

  13. The capacity of hydrous fluids to transport and fractionate incompatible elements and metals within the Earth's mantle

    Adam, John; Locmelis, Marek; Afonso, Juan Carlos; Rushmer, Tracy; Fiorentini, Marco L.


    silicate melts and aqueous fluids are thought to play critical roles in the chemical differentiation of the Earth's crust and mantle. Yet their relative effects are poorly constrained. We have addressed this issue by measuring partition coefficients for 50 trace and minor elements in experimentally produced aqueous fluids, coexisting basanite melts, and peridotite minerals. The experiments were conducted at 1.0-4.0 GPa and 950-1200°C in single capsules containing (either 40 or 50 wt %) H2O and trace element-enriched basanite glass. This allowed run products to be easily identified and analyzed by a combination of electron microprobe and LAM-ICP-MS. Fluid and melt compositions were reconstructed from mass balances and published solubility data for H2O in silicate melts. Relative to the basanite melt, the solutes from H2O-fluids are enriched in SiO2, alkalis, Ba, and Pb, but depleted in FeO, MgO, CaO, and REE. With increasing pressure, the mutual solubility of fluids and melts increases rapidly with complete miscibility between H2O and basanitic melts occurring between 3.0 and 4.0 GPa at 1100°C. Although LREE are favored over HREE in the fluid phase, they are less soluble than the HFSE (Nb, Ta, Zr, Hf, and Ti). Thus, the relative depletions of HFSE that are characteristic of arc magmas must be due to a residual phase that concentrates HFSE (e.g., rutile). Otherwise, H2O-fluids have the capacity to impart many of the geochemical characteristics that distinguish some rocks and melts from the deep mantle lithosphere (e.g., MARID and lamproites).

  14. Finite Element Numerical Analysis on Mining Stresses Path and Strength Characteristics of Bottom Aquifer%底部含水层采动应力路径及体变特征有限元数值分析



    Study of disturbing effects of mining activity to thick aqueous soil layer could provided scientific guarantee basis for safety mining of hidden mine below thick aqueous soil layer and had practical significance. Took 13021 working face of a coal mine at Yongeheng in Henan province as the study model, engineering geological model established through relative geological conditions and by means of finite element method, relative study was done on stress path and strength characteristics of specific monitoring position at bottom aquifer in mining process, the result indicated stress state and volumetric strain of each points were both controlled by working face advancing distance, which explained changing mechanism of mining water pressure at a certain degree.%研究采矿活动对厚松散含水层扰动影响是一项很有现实意义的工作,可以为厚松散含水层下隐伏矿井的安全开采提供科学保障依据。以河南永城煤田某矿13021工作面为研究原型,通过相关地质条件建立工程地质模型,借助有限元分析方法,对采动过程中底部含水层特定监测位置的应力路径及体变特征进行了相关研究,分析认为各点的应力状态及体积应变均受。工作面推进距离的控制,一定程度上解释了采动水压力的变化机制。

  15. Attitude Strength.

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A


    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  16. The structural strength of glass: hidden damage

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.


    We discuss “hidden damage” of glass by the rolling process, which results in heterogeneous distribution of microcracks on the edge surface of glass element, which are the fracture source deteriorating glass element strength. It is shown that removal of this damage on the edges of glass elements

  17. The structural strength of glass: hidden damage

    Veer, F.A.; Rodichev, Y.M.


    We discuss “hidden damage” of glass by the rolling process, which results in heterogeneous distribution of microcracks on the edge surface of glass element, which are the fracture source deteriorating glass element strength. It is shown that removal of this damage on the edges of glass elements incr

  18. 腐蚀缺陷管道剩余强度ANSYS有限元模拟可行性研究%Feasibility of finite element analysis on residual strength of pipeline with corrosion defects

    王勇; 李洋; 孙世斌; 张旭昀; 徐子怡; 毕凤琴


    以管道实测腐蚀缺陷为依据,用ANSYS有限元法计算含长方形、椭圆形和组合形腐蚀缺陷管道的应力、应变状态,根据第三强度失效准则确定腐蚀管道剩余强度,并结合室内管道承压实验进行了结果验证。结果表明:多个腐蚀缺陷间距对于最大等效应力存在临界值,当双点长方形腐蚀缺陷间距小于60 mm时存在干涉,其最大等效应力高于含单个缺陷管道;ANSYS有限元分析软件建模方法可靠,可以模拟含复杂腐蚀缺陷形状管道的受力状态;模拟结果与室内管道承压实验有较好的吻合度,相同条件下最大偏差小于8.6%。ANSYS有限元分析对于含复杂腐蚀缺陷管道模拟具有准确性和可靠性。%Based on the actual oilfield working condition,the stress and strain state of the pipeline with rectangular,elliptic and combined corrosion defects was calculated by using ANSYS software. According to the third failure criterion,the corrosion residual strength of the pipeline was determined. The experimental verification of finite element model was carried out based on the laboratory pipeline bulge test results. The results show that there exists a critical value between the defect span and maximum equivalent stress,and the double-point rectangular defects with high equivalent stress are dependent with each other when the span is lower than 60 mm. The modeling method of ANSYS is reliable,which can simulate complicated corrosion defects. The experimental and simulated results agree well with each other,and the maximum discrepancy is less than 8.6%. The ANSYS simulation exhibits better accuracy and reliability,and can be used for simulation of complicated corrosion defects.

  19. Residual strength of damaged marine structures

    Ghose, Dhruba J.; Nappi, Natale S.; Wiernicki, Christopher J.


    Traditionally assessment of ship's longitudinal strength has been made by comparing the elastic stresses at the deck or bottom shell to fractions of the material yield strength. This results in high reserve capacity due to inherent redundancies in ship structures. Residual strength, which is defined as the strength of the structure after damage, has rarely been considered either during design or at the time of repair. In this report, key elements required to undertake an engineering analysis to evaluate the residual strength have been identified. Emphasis has been placed on assessing the residual strength of marine structures damaged due to normal operating loads. Methods available to industry for evaluation of damage such as, fracture and ultimate strength have been summarized. An example problem, illustrating the application of an integrated approach to residual strength assessment on a particular ship type, is presented.

  20. Experimental Investigation and Finite Element Analysis of Prestressed High Strength Concrete Pile-Pile Cap Connections%PHC管桩与承台连接节点试验研究与有限元分析

    王铁成; 杨志坚; 赵海龙; 王文进


    Based on the results of four prestressed high strength concrete(PHC)pile-pile cap connections under cyclic loading,the failure patterns and the mode of the specimens are described. The strain of pile,anchor bars and carbon fiber-reinforced polymer(CFRP),hysteretic curve,bearing capacity and displacement ductility of connections are analyzed. The test results show that the cap of specimens appeared to be a squeezing failure. The anchor bars lost con-straint,and formed a hinge joint that resulted in the connection rotation being unrestricted and the rotation capacity of connection being increased. PHC pile reinforced by steel fiber and non-prestressed steel bars can improve the dis-placement ductility of connections. The connections should be designed with enough rotating capacity,which ensures that the cap will not be damaged by squeezing or prying due to the rotating of the pile end. The finite element software OpenSees was used to simulate the nonlinear behavior of pile-cap connections under cyclic loading. Comparison be-tween analytical and experimental results shows that the proposed modeling technique is capable of accurately describ-ing the cyclic behavior of the connections.%对4个预应力高强混凝土(PHC)管桩与承台连接节点进行了低周往复荷载试验,描述了试件的破坏过程和形态,分析了桩身混凝土、锚固钢筋以及碳纤维约束预应力混凝土管桩(CFRP)的应变,对构件的滞回曲线、承载力和位移延性等进行了研究。试验结果表明,在弯矩作用下,节点区域混凝土被压碎,节点区锚固钢筋约束减弱,形成铰接点,节点转动能力变大;在桩身混凝土中掺入钢纤维以及配置非预应力筋可以提高节点的位移延性;在进行节点设计时,应保证承台不会由于桩端转动时产生的挤压力或撬力作用过早地发生破坏。采用有限元分析软件OpenSees对节点在往复荷载作用下的受力性能进行了模拟分

  1. Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu

    Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.


    A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...... found a "universal" scaling relationship, where the f-electron bandwidth reduction due to correlation effects is shown to depend only upon the local density approximation (LDA) bandwidth and is otherwise independent of crystal structure and lattice constant....

  2. Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu

    Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.


    A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...... found a "universal" scaling relationship, where the f-electron bandwidth reduction due to correlation effects is shown to depend only upon the local density approximation (LDA) bandwidth and is otherwise independent of crystal structure and lattice constant....

  3. 基于有限元的新型赛车车架的强度及刚度计算与分析%Calculation and Analysis of Racing Car's Frame Strength and Stiffness Based on Finite Element Method



    During the new style racing car's design, it is an important task to analyze the reasonableness of the racing car's frame structure and calculate its static strength and stiffness. This paper takes the second generation racing car designed by XMUT for example and obtains the maximum car's frame strength and stiffness by static analysis of the frame. This can ensure the structural strength of car's frame and improve the whole performance of racing car.%在新型赛车的开发设计中,计算与分析车架结构合理性及其结构静态强度和刚度,是一项重要工作.以赛车车架为例,对其进行静力学分析,计算赛车车架的强度和刚度的极限位置,保证赛车车架结构强度等要求,对提高整车性能具有一定的参考价值.

  4. Finite element analysis on optimized arrangement of long list bolts group with high strength in steel truss bridges%钢桁桥长列高强螺栓群优选布置的有限元分析

    朱铭; 王荣辉; 黄永辉


    针对高强螺栓群在钢桁桥中受力性能复杂、优化布置困难的问题,采用有限元软件ANSYS建立了考虑接触状态的三维有限元实体模型,对4种不同的螺栓布置方式在拉力荷载作用下的板件相对位移、板件应力以及接触面的摩擦应力分布状态等进行了模拟,并对比分析了优选前后螺栓群布置的效果.结果表明:优选布置后的螺栓拼接接头应力状态变化不大;采用优选的布置方案可节省螺栓19%~25%.%In order to solve the problem of complicated structural behavior and difficult optimum arrangement of high-strength bolts group used in steel truss bridges, a 3D solid FEM model with the consideration of contact state was established by using software ANSYS to simulate the displacement between coreplate and buttcover plate, the normal stress on the plate and frictional stress state on the contact surface of four different high-strength bolts arrangements under tension force. The optimized effect was compared to the one before being optimized. The calculation results show that: when the optimized arrangement was used, the stress state of the high-strength bolts connections has a little change, but 19%~25%bolts can be saved. 3 tabs, 10 figs, 11 refs.

  5. A new digestion and chemical separation technique for rapid and highly reproducible determination of Lu/Hf and Hf isotope ratios in geological materials by mc-ICP-MS

    Bizzarro, Martin; Baker, J.A.; Ulfbeck, D.


    metaborate. High field strength elements (HFSE) and rare earth elements (REE) are separated from this solution by co-precipitation with iron hydroxide. The dissolved precipitate (in 2 mol l HCl) is loaded directly onto a standard cation exchange column which separates remaining sample matrix from the heavy...


    coldhardened by deforming to 83%. It was found that it has low static notch sensitivity (lower than that of heat-treated steels), that static strength raised appreciably by increased cold plastic deformation, and that its fatigue strength is raised substantially by mechanical polishing. (Author)

  7. Toxic Elements

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen


    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....

  8. An element

    Nakamura, K.; Iidzima, K.


    An anode of a light metal is used in the element, along with an electrolyte which consists of an ether solvent and an ionogenic additive in the form of a salt of dithiocarbamic acid. The element has good discharge characteristics.

  9. Strength and Balance Exercises

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Strength and Balance Exercises Updated:Sep 8,2016 If ... Be Safe While Being Active - Stretching & Flexibility Exercises - Strength & Balance Exercises - Problems & Solutions for Being Active - FAQs ...

  10. Strength optimized designs of thermoelastic structures

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard


    For thermoelastic structures the same optimal design does not simultaneously lead to minimum compliance and maximum strength. Compliance may be a questionable objective and focus for the present paper is on the important aspect of strength, quantified as minimization of the maximum von Mises stress...... to mathematical programming, which with a large number of both design variables and strength constraints, is found non-practical, we choose simple recursive iterations to obtain uniform energy density and find by examples that the obtained designs are close to fulfilling also strength maximization. In compliance...... minimization it may be advantageous to decrease the total volume, but for strength maximization it is argued that it is advantageous to keep the total permissible volume. With the thermoelastic analysis presented directly in a finite element formulation, simple explicit formulas for equivalent thermoelastic...

  11. Strength Training for Girls.

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda


    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  12. Strength Training for Girls.

    Connaughton, Daniel; Connaughton, Angela; Poor, Linda


    Strength training can be fun, safe, and appropriate for young girls and women and is an important component of any fitness program when combined with appropriate cardiovascular and flexibility activities. Concerns and misconceptions regarding girls' strength training are discussed, presenting general principles of strength training for children…

  13. Studies on the Nonlinear Finite Element Method for Buckling and Ultimate Strength of Stiffened Panels%加筋板屈曲和极限强度有限元计算方法研究

    万育龙; 朱旭光


    针对国际船级社协会双壳油船共同结构规范中加筋板屈曲和极限强度的计算要求,介绍了其技术背景和国内外相关研究现状,并通过分析各种因素对加筋板屈曲和极限强度的影响,研究国外相关技术文献,提出了一套完整的加强筋屈曲和极限强度有限元计算方法。与共同结构规范中要求的对标数据进行对比,验证了该方法的正确性。%The technical background and the current research status at home and abroad of the assessment requirements of buckling and ultimate strength of stiffened panels in IACS Common Structural Rules for Oil Tankers was introduced .An integrated FEA method was put forward based on the analysis of the influence of varied factors and the study on the relevant technical litera -tures.A comparison between the FEA results and the benchmark data in CSR was provided to verify the method .

  14. Efficiency of Iepsilon promoter-directed switch recombination in GFP expression-based switch constructs works synergistically with other promoter and/or enhancer elements but is not tightly linked to the strength of transcription.

    Zhang, Ke; Zhang, Ling; Yamada, Takechiyo; Vu, Michael; Lee, Anna; Saxon, Andrew


    One key unresolved issue in immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR) is how the accessibility of the switch region for CSR is controlled. To better understand the nature of accessibility control for human Ig CSR, we developed a novel inducible switch recombination assay based on expression of green fluorescence protein (GFP) from switch constructs undergoing substrate switch recombination (SSR). Efficient SSR depends on the cytokine-inducible Iepsilon promoter and co-stimulation with IL-4+anti-CD40. Characterization of SSR reveals that both S-S deletional recombination and S-S inversion occur. We show that the IL-4-inducible Iepsilon promoter (pIepsilon) selectively determines the efficiency of the accessibility for SSR. However, the pIepsilon-induced transcription, by itself,is not sufficient to direct efficient SSR. For efficient SSR, both pIepsilon-driven transcriptional activity and an additional promoter/enhancer-derived activity are required. The efficiency of SSR is not tightly correlated with the strength of the combined transcriptional activity. Our results suggest that the mechanism(s) underlying the transcriptional activity, e.g. DNA modification is important for controlling the accessibility for efficient switch recombination.

  15. 基于有限元的高速轨道客车电气柜强度与模态分析%Strength and Modal Analysis of High-speed Passenger Car in Electrical Cabinet Based on Finite Element Analysis

    崔高健; 张天一; 孙贺; 高传亮


    The finite element modal of the cabinet which used in CRH380C bullet train of Changchun railway vehicles co. Ltd was created using ANSYS Workbench finite element software. Finite element method is used to analyze the static strength of the cabinet,we gained the deformation supposition and stress distribution of the whole structure. Then ,we obtained the lower natural frequencies ,the corresponding mode of vibration and the mode shape animation of the PIS cabinet based on the modal analysis. The weakness of structure was found out and the optimization design was carried out according to the actual situation.%在有限元分析软件ANSYS Workbench中建立了长春高速轨道客车CRH380C型动车的电气柜有限元模型。应用有限元法对电气柜进行了静强度分析,从而得到电气柜整体结构的应力分布和形变。通过模态分析,得到低阶固有频率、相应的振型和振型动画,找出了结构的薄弱部位,并根据实际情况进行了结构优化。

  16. High strength, tough alloy steel

    Thomas, Gareth; Rao, Bangaru V. N.


    A high strength, tough alloy steel is formed by heating the steel to a temperature in the austenite range ( C.) to form a homogeneous austenite phase and then cooling the steel to form a microstructure of uniformly dispersed dislocated martensite separated by continuous thin boundary films of stabilized retained austenite. The steel includes 0.2-0.35 weight % carbon, at least 1% and preferably 3-4.5% chromium, and at least one other substitutional alloying element, preferably manganese or nickel. The austenite film is stable to subsequent heat treatment as by tempering (below C.) and reforms to a stable film after austenite grain refinement.

  17. Influence of constituents of concrete on its tensile strength and shear strength

    Desai, S.B.


    Research in concrete technology has promoted mixture proportion with the efficient use of aggregate, binders with optimum cement content, and industrial by-products as binder components; for example, pulverized fuel ash and slag cement. Compared with the normally used portland cement concrete, concrete elements made with specially designed mixtures are expected to have enhanced durability, which is attributable to improvement in their microstructure, reduction in voids, and increase in resistance to ingress of moisture and gases. This paper examines whether such attributes of different concretes could also improve their engineering properties; for example, increase the ratio of splitting tensile strength to compressive strength, better bond between steel and concrete, and, in the end, enhanced shear strength. It is also proposed to examine whether splitting tensile strength could be used, in place of the compressive strength, as a parameter in the design rules for estimating the nominal shear strength of concrete.

  18. Strength Modeling Report

    Badler, N. I.; Lee, P.; Wong, S.


    Strength modeling is a complex and multi-dimensional issue. There are numerous parameters to the problem of characterizing human strength, most notably: (1) position and orientation of body joints; (2) isometric versus dynamic strength; (3) effector force versus joint torque; (4) instantaneous versus steady force; (5) active force versus reactive force; (6) presence or absence of gravity; (7) body somatotype and composition; (8) body (segment) masses; (9) muscle group envolvement; (10) muscle size; (11) fatigue; and (12) practice (training) or familiarity. In surveying the available literature on strength measurement and modeling an attempt was made to examine as many of these parameters as possible. The conclusions reached at this point toward the feasibility of implementing computationally reasonable human strength models. The assessment of accuracy of any model against a specific individual, however, will probably not be possible on any realistic scale. Taken statistically, strength modeling may be an effective tool for general questions of task feasibility and strength requirements.

  19. The strength compass

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    Individual paper presentation: The ‘Strength Compass’. The results of a PhDresearch project among schoolchildren (age 6-16) identifying VIAstrengths concerning age, gender, mother-tongue-langue and possible child psychiatric diagnosis. Strengths-based interventions in schools have a theoretical...... foundation in research in VIA-strengths by Seligman & Peterson (2004) and in research on strengths by Linley (2008). Based on this research the VIA-test was created for adults and later for children and youths from the age of 10. For children younger than 10 years of age Peterson & Park (2011) have made...... interviews with the parents. For younger children there has been no possibility to test for strengths. In a Danish PhD project a tool to map children’s strengths was needed for children aged 6-16 and with permission from the VIA-institute ‘The Strength Compass’ was made in cooperation with The Danish...

  20. Cobalt: for strength and color

    Boland, Maeve A.; Kropschot, S.J.


    Cobalt is a shiny, gray, brittle metal that is best known for creating an intense blue color in glass and paints. It is frequently used in the manufacture of rechargeable batteries and to create alloys that maintain their strength at high temperatures. It is also one of the essential trace elements (or "micronutrients") that humans and many other living creatures require for good health. Cobalt is an important component in many aerospace, defense, and medical applications and is a key element in many clean energy technologies. The name cobalt comes from the German word kobold, meaning goblin. It was given this name by medieval miners who believed that troublesome goblins replaced the valuable metals in their ore with a substance that emitted poisonous fumes when smelted. The Swedish chemist Georg Brandt isolated metallic cobalt-the first new metal to be discovered since ancient times-in about 1735 and identified some of its valuable properties.

  1. The strength analysis of the scaffold based on contact element method%基于接触单元法的模板支撑结构的强度分析与优化

    任汨; 殷晨波; 周威


    采用Pro/E软件对装配式支撑结构节点进行建模,同时在Pro/E与ANSYS之间进行数据转换,利用ANSYS软件的接触单元法对结构进行有限元分析,分析结果与试验结果进行对比,数据吻合良好,针对结构挤压应力与变形过大的问题,对节点结构进行再优化,优化后的各参数值达到理论预期效果.%The support structure of the assembled model nodes is established by using Pro/E software, meanwhile the data is exchangebetween Pro/E and AXSYS, using the ANSYS software analyse the structural by the contact element method. Comparing the results withthe experimental results. Compressive stress and deformation for the structure of the problem of the node structurelater.

  2. Finite Element Analysis of the Remnant Strength of the Water -cooled Wall Tubes with Different Corrosion Pit Shapes%有限元分析不同形状腐蚀坑水冷壁管的剩余强度

    杨佳; 张轶桀; 顾天宏; 陈忠兵; 杨海松; 刘川


    ANSYS software is applied to analyze the remnant strength of the water -cooled wall tube with different corrosion pit shapes .The research results show that with cylinder corrosion pits ,when the corrosion diameter and corrosion depth reaches Ø5 mm-80% wall thickness ,Ø8 mm-70% wall thickness and Ø12 mm-60% wall thickness ,the tube can be thought of failure ;with sphere corrosion pits ,when the corrosion diameter and corrosion depth reaches 10 H-70% wall thickness ( H is the corrosion depth ) ,the tube can be thought of failure ;with rectangle corrosion pits ,when the corrosion diameter and corrosion depth reaches 6 H-60% wall thickness ,the tube can be considered as failure ;under the same size and corrosion depths of cylinder ,sphere and rectangle corrosion pits ,the tube with sphere pits is the safest and that with cylinder pits is most likely to fail .%基于ANSYS有限元软件,对含不同形状腐蚀坑水冷壁管剩余强度进行了研究。研究表明,将管壁上腐蚀坑简化为柱状,当腐蚀坑直径和腐蚀深度组合达到Ø5 mm-80%壁厚、Ø8 mm-70%壁厚、Ø12 mm-60%壁厚3种情况时,腐蚀坑直径和腐蚀深度增加则可认为腐蚀区失效;将腐蚀坑简化为球形,当腐蚀坑直径和腐蚀深度达到10 H-70%壁厚( H为腐蚀深度)时,腐蚀坑直径或深度增加则可认为腐蚀区域失效;将腐蚀坑简化为矩形,当腐蚀坑尺寸和腐蚀深度达到6 H-60%壁厚时,腐蚀深度和尺寸增加会造成腐蚀区域失效。相同尺寸和腐蚀深度的柱形坑、球形坑和矩形坑,球形坑最安全,柱形腐蚀坑最容易失效。

  3. Q460等级高强度钢材螺栓抗剪连接孔壁承压性能有限元分析%Finite Element Analysis of Bolted Connection in Q460 Grade High Strength Steels Under Static Shear

    潘斌; 石永久; 王元清


    运用三维实体有限元数值模拟方法,对9组Q460等级高强度钢材螺栓抗剪连接试验进行材料、几何、接触非线性分析,详细介绍了建立有限元模型的具体方法,给出了极限承载力的求解全过程,提出了影响其模拟精度的重要因素.根据端距、边距和螺栓间距的不同,采用有限元模型模拟出了连接板发生的孔壁承压破坏、净截面破坏等不同的破坏模式,通过有限元分析得到的极限承载力计算值与试验值十分接近.结果表明:建立的有限元模型能够准确模拟高强度钢材孔壁承压性能,选择合适的应力-应变关系和接触刚度是影响计算精度的关键.%A finite element model with three-dimensional solid elements was established to stimulate the bolted connection in nine groups of Q460 grade high strength steels. Non-linear material, geometrical and contact analysis were carried out to predict the load-displacement curves. The model-building procedure and solution programs were introduced in detail. Due to various end distance, edge distance and pitches, different failure modes were observed including end tear-out, bearing resistance and net-section facture. The effectiveness of the performed finite element analysis was verified by the comparison between calculation results and the experiment results. The results show that the finite element model in the paper can simulate bearing resistance of bolted connection in high strength steels. It's found that the appropriate stress-strain relations and contact stiffness are important parameters for accurate prediction.

  4. Elastic buckling strength of corroded steel plates

    Ahmad Rahbar-Ranji


    Corrosion makes structures more vulnerable to buckling and yielding failures. It is common practice to assume a uniform thickness reduction for general corrosion. To estimate the remaining strength of corroded structures, typically a much higher level of accuracy is required, since the actual corroded structures have irregular surfaces. Elastic buckling of simply supported rectangular corroded plates are studied with one- and both-sided irregular surfaces. Eigenvalue analysis by using finite element method (FEM) is employed for computing Euler stress. The influence of various geometric and corrosion characteristics are investigated and it is found that the aspect ratio of the plate, the average thickness diminution, the standard deviation of thickness diminution and the amount of corrosion loss have influence on the reduction of buckling strength of the corroded plates. Buckling strength of one- and both-sided corroded plates are the same. In plates with low value of aspect ratio, reduction of buckling strength is negligible. Reduction of buckling strength is more prominent in plates with higher aspect ratio. Reduction of buckling strength is very sensitive to the amount of corrosion loss; the higher the amount of corrosion loss, the more reduction of buckling strength. Reduction of buckling strength is less sensitive to the standard deviation of thickness diminution.

  5. 内置CFRP圆管的方钢管高强混凝土受弯构件力学性能的有限元分析%Finite Element Analysis On High Strength Concrete Filled Square Steel Tubular Beam With Inner CFRP Circular Tube

    任德斌; 裴伟; 李帼昌; 李欣


    In order to study the mechanical properties of high-strength concrete-filled square steel tubular beams with inner CFRP circular tube with finite element method and how CFRP and steel ratio affect it,nine high-strength concrete filled square steel tubular beams with inner CFRP circular tubes and three high-strength concrete filled square steel tutelar beams were analyzed with finite element software Abaqus. The moment-curvature curve and load-the strain curve were drawn by the analysis results. The analysis results show that under the condition of the same number of CFRP layers, the bearing capacity of high-strength concrete-filled square steel tubular beam improves with increase of steel ratio. Under the condition of the same slenderness ratio, the bearing capacity of high-strength concrete-filled square steel tubular beam improves obviously with increase of the number of CFRP layers. Moment-curvature curve of the beam can be divided into elastic stage, elastic-plastic stage, softening segment and springback section. CFRP can effectively improve performance of high-strength concrete-filled square steel tubular beams.%目的 研究配置率和含钢率的变化对内置CFRP圆管的方钢管高强混凝土受弯构件力学性能的影响,为试验研究提供理论基础.方法 利用数值分析的方法,采用有限元软件ABAQUS分别对9根内置CFRP圆管的方钢管高强混凝土受弯构件和3根普通方钢管高强混凝土受弯构件进行模拟对比分析.结果 保持CFRP配置率不变时,受弯构件的抗弯承载力随含钢率增大而有所提高;当含钢率保持不变时,受弯构件的抗弯承载力随CFRP圆管层数的增加而增大.CFRP圆管有助于提高构件抗弯刚度,内置CFRP圆管后,受弯构件挠度曲线沿构件长度方向呈正弦半波形态.结论 受弯构件中钢管与CFRP圆管具有较好的协同工作能力,内置CFRP圆管可以有效地改善方钢管高强混凝土受弯构件的力学性能.

  6. Strength Training and Your Child

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Strength Training and Your Child KidsHealth > For Parents > Strength Training ... prevent injuries and speed up recovery. About Strength Training Strength training is the practice of using free ...

  7. W与CuCrZr焊接应力的有限元分析及剪切强度的研究%Finite Element Analysis of Welding Stress and Shearing Strength of W and CuCrZr with OFC Interlayer

    张庆玲; 沈卫平; 王占朋; 赵晓林


    In order to investigate the welding of tungsten and CuCrZr for plasma facing components in a fusion test reactor, the welding stress without oxygen-free copper foil and with different thicknesses of oxygen-free copper interlayer. under different temperatures and pressures were analyzed by using finite element software ABAQUS. In the experiments, tungsten and CuCrZr were welded successfully using or without using oxygen-free copper as interlayer. The shear strength of the samples was tested and the micro-fracture morphology was observed by SEM. The results show that oxygen-free copper as interlayer can greatly increase the shear strength, the maximum shear strength is higher than 198MPa.and the shear fracture interface is located just in tungsten at a distance of about lmm from the seam. Results of finite element analysis show that the using of oxygen free copper as interlayer, lower welding temperature, higher welding pressure, and thicker interlayer of the oxygen-free copper can reduce welding stress effectively.%为了研究应用于聚变试验堆的面向等离子体部件中W与CuCrZr的焊接,选用有限元软件ABAQUS 对未用无氧铜箔、或使用不同厚度的无氧铜箔,及在不同温度、压力时的焊接应力进行了有限元分析.实验中使用、或未用无氧铜中间层均成功实现了W与CuCrZr的焊接.测定了焊接试样的剪切强度,并通过SEM观察了其断口形貌.实验结果表明,无氧铜箔的使用大大地提高了焊接强度,最高剪切强度高于198MPa,其剪切断口均位于距离焊缝1mm左右的钨块中,且在钨块中均出现了撕裂现象.ABAQUS有限元数值分析的结果表明,无氧铜箔很好地降低了W与CuCrZr之间的焊接应力,较低的焊接温度、较高的焊接压力、增加无氧铜箔的厚度均有助于减小W与CuCrZr之间的焊接应力.

  8. Bundled Hybrid Offset Riser Global Strength Analysis

    William C.Webster; Zhuang Kang; Wenzhou Liang; Youwei Kang; Liping Sun


    Bundled hybrid offset riser(BHOR)global strength analysis,which is more complex than single line offset riser global strength analysis,was carried out in this paper.At first,the equivalent theory is used to deal with BHOR,and then its global strength in manifold cases was analyzed,along with the use of a three-dimensional nonlinear time domain finite element program.So the max bending stress,max circumferential stress,and max axial stress in the BHOR bundle main section(BMS)were obtained,and the values of these three stresses in each riser were obtained through the "stress distribution method".Finally,the Max Von Mises stress in each riser was given and a check was made whether or not they met the demand.This paper provides a reference for strength analysis of the bundled hybrid offset riser and some other bundled pipelines.

  9. Strengths of Remarried Families.

    Knaub, Patricia Kain; And Others


    Focuses on remarried families' (N=80) perceptions of family strengths, marital satisfaction, and adjustment to the remarried situation. Results indicated that although most would like to make some changes, scores on the measurements used were high. A supportive environment was the most important predictor of family strength and success. (JAC)

  10. Building on Our Strengths.

    Hill, Robert


    Comments on the feeling that the American family is disintegrating, and that many criticisms traditionally made about Black families are now made about White families. Suggests that people need to stress family strengths. As an example, five major strengths of Black families are described: flexibility, work and achievement ethics, religiosity, and…

  11. Engineering properties of high strength lightweight concrete



    The strength to weight ratio of high strength lightweight concrete is not its only advantage. The artificial lightweight aggregate combines physically and, to a lesser extent, chemically with the surrounding cement matrix to produce an impermeable and durable concrete. The engineering properties of the concrete are sensitive to the proportions and nature of its constituents, and to its production methods. Supplementary cementing materials and chemical admixtures are used to develop the increased strength and durability. Thermal movements, shrinkage and creep are within workable limits. Fatigue resistance is probably at least as good as that achieved by equivalent strength normal density concretes but there is limited data on this topic. Deleterious effects of admixtures supplied in high dosages have not been identified but neither have they been investigated. The relationship between the tensile strength of the material and its uniaxial compressive strength is not robust. The shear capacity of structural elements is not adequately covered by most existing design codes. In common with all concretes, the stability of high strength lightweight concrete is reduced when water retained within it freezes or vaporises. A satisfactory freeze thaw behaviour can be readily achieved but, under fire conditions, the impermeability of the cement matrix limits the venting of water vapour at the concrete surface. Explosive failures can result. (Author)

  12. Strength of precast concrete shear joints reinforced with high-strength wire ropes

    Joergensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao; Hagsten, Lars German


    This paper concerns the in-plane shear strength of connections between precast concrete wall elements reinforced with looped high-strength wire ropes. The looped wire ropes are pre-installed in so-called ‘wire boxes’ which function as shear keys. Although only a small amount of research...... on the shear strength of such connections can be found in the literature, this type of connection is increasingly being used because wire ropes are much more construction-friendly than traditional U-bars. A rigid plastic upper bound model for the shear strength of wall connections reinforced with looped wire...... ropes that are pre-installed in wire boxes is presented along with test results on the shear strength of connections with double-wire boxes. It is shown that the plastic solution agrees well with both the obtained test results and results from previously conducted tests....

  13. Model kekuatan geser dan kekuatan tarik perlekatan copper alloy dengan resin akrilik setelah tin plating (Tensile strength and shear strength models bonds in between copper alloy and acrylic resin after tin plating

    Endanus Harijanto


    Full Text Available Tooth crown restoration was made in a complex system consisting of several elements, namely tensile strength and shear strength bond between copper alloy and acrylic resin after tin plating. The aim of this exemination was to find a model representing connection between tensile strength and shear strength in between copper alloy with acrylic resin in statistic method. In conclusion, this exemination utilizing a strength model = 0.645 + 1.237 × tensile strength resulted shear strength exemination. On the other hand, the utilization of a strength = –0.506 + 0.808 × shear strength resulted tensile strength exemination.

  14. Effect of solutes in binary columbium /Nb/ alloys on creep strength

    Klein, M. J.; Metcalfe, A. G.


    The effect of seven different solutes in binary columbium (Nb) alloys on creep strength was determined from 1400 to 3400 F for solute concentrations to 20 at.%, using a new method of creep-strength measurement. The technique permits rapid determination of approximate creep strength over a large temperature span. All of the elements were found to increase the creep strength of columbium except tantalum. This element did not strengthen columbium until the concentration exceeded 10 at.%. Hafnium, zirconium, and vanadium strengthed columbium most at low temperatures and concentrations, whereas tungsten, molybdenum, and rhenium contributed more to creep strength at high temperatures and concentrations.

  15. Strength of Hard Alloys,

    Partial replacement of titanium carbide by tantalum carbide in three-phase WC-TiC-Co alloys tends to have a favorable effect on mechanical properties such as fatigue strength under bending and impact durability.


    Tani, Laurits


    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  17. Probabilistic finite element analysis of high strength steel structures

    Waarts, P.H.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.


    In structural steel design the ultimate design limit is governed by full cross-sectional plasticity, where an elastic-perfectly plastic material behaviour is used. Hardening of the material is not used. Some loads are not considered such as settlements of supports and temperature loads in static ind

  18. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    Hoang, Cao linh


    model developed by Jin-Ping Zhang. The model takes into account the resistance against formation of cracks due to prestressing as well as the variation of the prestressing force in the transfer zone.Due to the fact that the anchorage of the reinforcement takes place by bond, a rotation failure, which...

  19. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    Hoang, Cao linh


    . The position of the crack in which sliding takes place is determined by the crack sliding model developed by Jin-Ping Zhang. The theoretical calculations are compared with test results reported in the literature. A good agreement has been found.A simplified method to calculate the shear capacity of T...


    Balent, R.


    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  1. Element Research.

    Herald, Christine


    Describes a research assignment for 8th grade students on the elements of the periodic table. Students use web-based resources and a chemistry handbook to gather information, construct concept maps, and present the findings to the full class using the mode of their choice: a humorous story, a slideshow or gameboard, a brochure, a song, or skit.…

  2. Strength of Fibrous Composites

    Huang, Zheng-Ming


    "Strength of Fibrous Composites" addresses evaluation of the strength of a fibrous composite by using its constituent material properties and its fiber architecture parameters. Having gone through the book, a reader is able to predict the progressive failure behavior and ultimate strength of a fibrous laminate subjected to an arbitrary load condition in terms of the constituent fiber and matrix properties, as well as fiber geometric parameters. The book is useful to researchers and engineers working on design and analysis for composite materials. Dr. Zheng-Ming Huang is a professor at the School of Aerospace Engineering & Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, China. Mr. Ye-Xin Zhou is a PhD candidate at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Hong Kong, China.

  3. Hand grip strength

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian


    in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...

  4. Spin Resonance Strength Calculations

    Courant, E. D.


    In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

  5. Spin resonance strength calculations



    In calculating the strengths of depolarizing resonances it may be convenient to reformulate the equations of spin motion in a coordinate system based on the actual trajectory of the particle, as introduced by Kondratenko, rather than the conventional one based on a reference orbit. It is shown that resonance strengths calculated by the conventional and the revised formalisms are identical. Resonances induced by radiofrequency dipoles or solenoids are also treated; with rf dipoles it is essential to consider not only the direct effect of the dipole but also the contribution from oscillations induced by it.

  6. High strength alloys

    Maziasz, Phillip James; Shingledecker, John Paul; Santella, Michael Leonard; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo; Sikka, Vinod Kumar; Vinegar, Harold J.; John, Randy Carl; Kim, Dong Sub


    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tublar that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  7. High strength alloys

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX


    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  8. Notch strength of composites

    Whitney, J. M.


    The notch strength of composites is discussed. The point stress and average stress criteria relate the notched strength of a laminate to the average strength of a relatively long tensile coupon. Tests of notched specimens in which microstrain gages have been placed at or near the edges of the holes have measured strains much larger that those measured in an unnotched tensile coupon. Orthotropic stress concentration analyses of failed notched laminates have also indicated that failure occurred at strains much larger than those experienced on tensile coupons with normal gage lengths. This suggests that the high strains at the edge of a hole can be related to the very short length of fiber subjected to these strains. Lockheed has attempted to correlate a series of tests of several laminates with holes ranging from 0.19 to 0.50 in. Although the average stress criterion correlated well with test results for hole sizes equal to or greater than 0.50 in., it over-estimated the laminate strength in the range of hole sizes from 0.19 to 0.38 in. It thus appears that a theory is needed that is based on the mechanics of failure and is more generally applicable to the range of hole sizes and the varieties of laminates found in aircraft construction.

  9. The Strength of Varying Tie Strength

    Bruggeman, Jeroen


    "The Strength of Weak Ties" argument (Granovetter 1973) says that the most valuable information is best collected through bridging ties with other social circles than one's own, and that those ties tend to be weak. Aral and Van Alstyne (2011) added that to access complex information, actors need strong ties ("high bandwidth") instead. These insights I generalize by pointing at actors' interest to avoid spending large resources on low value information. Weak ties are well-suited for relatively simple information at low transmission and tie maintenance costs, whereas for complex information, the best outcomes are expected for those actors who vary their bandwidths along with the value of information accessed. To support my claim I use all patents in the USA (two million) over the period 1975-1999. I also show that in rationalized fields, such as technology, bandwidth correlates highly with the value of information, which provides support for using this proxy if value can't be measured directly. Finally, I show ...

  10. Mass transfer and trace element redistribution during hydration of granulites in the Bergen Arcs, Norway

    Centrella, Stephen; Austrheim, Håkon; Putnis, Andrew


    The Bergen Arcs, located on the western coast of Norway, are characterized by Precambrian granulite facies rocks partially hydrated at amphibolite and eclogite facies conditions. At Hilland Radöy, granulite displays sharp hydration fronts across which the granulite facies assemblage composed of garnet (55%) and clinopyroxene (45%) is replaced by an amphibolite facies mineralogy defined by chlorite, epidote, and amphibole. The replacement of both phases is pseudomorphic and the overall reaction is isovolumetric. In the present study, LA ICPMS has been used to determine the trace element redistribution during the hydration. Although the bulk concentrations of the trace elements do not change, the LILE, HFSE, and REE losses and gains in replacing the garnet are qualitatively balanced by the opposite gains and losses associated with the replacement of clinopyroxene. From the REE compositions of the parent granulite and the product amphibolite, measured in μg/cm3, we conclude that the mass of rock lost to the fluid phase during the hydration is approximately 20%. This suggests a mechanism for coupling between the local stress generated by hydration reactions and mass transfer, dependent on the spatial scale over which the system is open.

  11. 49 CFR 587.15 - Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength.


    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength... Deformable Barrier § 587.15 Verification of aluminum honeycomb crush strength. The following procedure is used to ascertain the crush strength of the main honeycomb block and the bumper element honeycomb,...

  12. Patterns in intraspecific interaction strengths and the stability of food webs

    Altena, van C.; Hemerik, L.; Heesterbeek, J.A.P.; Ruiter, de P.C.


    A common approach to analyse stability of biological communities is to calculate the interaction strength matrix. Problematic in this approach is defining intraspecific interaction strengths, represented by diagonal elements in the matrix, due to a lack of empirical data for these strengths. Theoret

  13. Strength Pada Amalgam

    Sri Handayani


    Amalgam didefinisikan sebagai campuran dari dua atau beberapa logam (alloy) yang salah satunya adalali merkuri. Dental amalgam sendiri merupakan campuran dari merkuri (Hg), perak (Ag), timah (Sn), tembaga (Cu) dan bahan-bahan lain yang memiliki fungsinya masing-masing, dimana sebagian diantaranya akan saling mengatasi kekurangan yang ditimbulkan logam lain, jika logam tersebut dikombinasikan dengan perbandingan yang tepat. Amalgam mempunyai strength (kekuatan) yang cukup besar sehingga dap...

  14. Character strengths and virtues


    The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004). This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003), a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that l...

  15. How do granitoid magmas mix with each other? Insights from textures, trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic composition of apatite and titanite from the Matok pluton (South Africa)

    Laurent, Oscar; Zeh, Armin; Gerdes, Axel; Villaros, Arnaud; Gros, Katarzyna; Słaby, Ewa


    In plutonic systems, magma mixing is often modelled by mass balance based on whole-rock geochemistry. However, magma mixing is a chaotic process and chemical equilibration is controlled by non-linear diffusive-advective processes unresolved by the study of bulk samples. Here we present textural observations, LA-(MC-)ICP-MS trace element and Sr-Nd isotopic data of accessory apatites and titanites from a hybrid granodiorite of the Neoarchean Matok pluton (South Africa), collected in a zone of conspicuous mixing between mafic and felsic magmas. Apatite grains mostly show a pronounced zoning in CL images, corresponding to abrupt changes in REE and HFSE concentrations recording their transfer through compositionally different melt domains during mixing. These grains crystallized early, at temperatures of 950-1000 °C. Titanite grains crystallized at temperatures of 820-900 °C (Zr-in-sphene thermometry). They show limited intra-grain chemical variations but huge inter-grain compositional scatter in REE and HFSE, pinpointing crystallization within a crystal mush, from isolated melt pockets having different composition from one another owing to incomplete chemical homogenization and variable Rayleigh fractionation. These chemical-textural characteristics, in combination with partitioning models and Polytopic Vector Analysis, point to "self-mixing" between co-genetic dioritic and granodioritic/granitic magmas. Both resulted from differentiation of mantle-derived mafic melts, showing that mixing does not necessarily involve magmas from contrasted (crust vs. mantle) sources. Systematic variations in ɛNd t (-4.5 to -2.5) and 87Sr/86Sr(i) (0.703-0.707) of titanite and apatite grains/domains crystallized from the two magmas point to an isotopically inhomogeneous mantle source, which is not resolved by bulk-rock isotopic data. Interaction between the two magmas must have occurred at relatively high temperatures (ca. 900°C) so that their viscosity contrast remained low

  16. Strength Properties of Aalborg Clay

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    resulted in many damaged buildings in Aalborg. To provide sufficient bearing capacity it is therefore necessary either to remove the fill or to construct the building on piles. Both methods imply that the strength of Aalborg Clay is important for the construction. This paper evaluates the strength...... of Aalborg Clay by use of triaxial tests from four different locations. Both the drained strength (c and ϕ) and the undrained strength (cu) are assessed through two different methods: one where the strength is assumed to vary with the effective stress and another where the strength is found to be constant....

  17. Unified strength theory and its applications

    Yu, Mao-Hong


    This is a completely new theory dealing with the yield and failure of materials under multi-axial stresses. It provides a system of yield and failure criteria adopted for most materials, from metallic materials to rocks, concretes, soils, polymers etc. The Unified Strength Theory has been applied successfully to analyse the elastic limit, plastic limit capacities, the dynamic response behavior for some structures under static and moderate impulsive load, and may be implemented in some elasto-plastic finite element computer codes. The Unified Strength Theory is described in detail and by using this theory a series of results can be obtained. The Unified Strength Theory can improve the conservative Mohr-Coulomb Theory, and since intermediate principal stress is not taken into account in the Mohr-Coulomb theory and most experimental data is not pertainable to the Mohr-Coulomb Theory, a considerable economic benefit may be obtained. The book can also increase the effect of most commercial finite element computer ...


    The program included the testing and evaluation of commercial and military field- strength meters. It also included a study of the interpretation of...field- strength measurement data taken under multipath conditions. As part of the field- strength meter evaluation, five instruments, the AN/TRM-7, NF...interpretation of the measured data is the variability of field- strength values obtained over an area. Such variability is caused by the presence of multipath

  19. Strength Development for Young Adolescents

    McDaniel, Larry W.; Jackson, Allen; Gaudet, Laura


    Participation in strength training is important for older children or young adolescences who wish to improve fitness or participate in sports. When designing strength training programs for our youth this age group is immature anatomically, physiologically, and psychologically. For the younger or inexperienced group the strength training activities…

  20. Strength Training and Children's Health.

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.


    Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…

  1. Strength Training and Children's Health.

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.


    Provides an overview of the potential health benefits of strength training for children, discussing the role of strength training in preventing sports-related injuries and highlighting design considerations for such programs. The focus is on musculoskeletal adaptations to strength training that are observable in healthy children. Guidelines for…

  2. Strength of Rewelded Inconel 718

    Bayless, E.; Lovoy, C. V.; Mcllwain, M. C.; Munafo, P.


    Inconel 718, nickel-based alloy used extensively for high-temperature structural service, welded repeatedly without detriment to its strength. According to NASA report, tests show 12 repairs on same weld joint do not adversely affect ultimate tensile strenth, yield strength, fatigue strength, metallurgical grain structures, or ability of weld joint to respond to post weld heat treatments.

  3. An appropriate relationship between flexural strength and compressive strength of palm kernel shell conc

    Ibrahim Tunde Yusuf


    Full Text Available This paper presents the determination of an appropriate compressive–flexural strength model of palm kernel shell concrete (PKSC. The direct and indirect Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity (UPV measurements, with respective to mechanical properties of compression (cube and flexural (slab elements, of concrete at various mixes and water/cement (w/c ratios were made. A total of 225 cubes and 15 slabs of the PKSC were casted for nominal mixes of 1:1:1, 1:1:2 and 1:11/2:3, and varying (w/c ratios of 0.3–0.7 at interval of 0.1. The test elements were cured for 3, 7, 14, 28, 56 and 91 days in water at laboratory temperature. The elements were then subjected to nondestructive testing using the Pundit apparatus for determination of direct ultrasonic wave velocity and the elastic modulus at the various ages. The cubes were subsequently subjected to destructive compressive test. The 28-day compressive strength–UPV and strength–age statistical relationships at w/c ratio of 0.5 determined from the velocity–strength data set in linear, power, logarithm, exponential and polynomial trend forms. The polynomial trend line in the form y = aln(x at R2 value of 0.989, found appropriate, among others, was proposed for the formulation of the compressive strength–flexural strength model of PKSC at w/c ratio of 0.5.

  4. Compressive strength of continuous fiber unidirectional composites

    Thompson, Ronald H.

    Dow and Rosen's work in 1965 formed an intellectual framework for compressive strength of unidirectional composites. Compressive strength was explained in terms of micro-buckling, in which filaments are beams on an elastic foundation. They made simplifying assumptions, with a two dimensional idealization and linearized material properties. This study builds on their model, recognizing that the shear mode of instability drives unidirectional compressive strength. As a necessary corollary, the predictive methods developed in this study emphasize correct representation of composite shear stiffness. Non-linear effects related to matrix material properties, fiber misalignment, three dimensional representation, and thermal prestrains are taken into account. Four work streams comprise this study: first, development of a closed form analytical model; second, empirical methods development and model validation; third, creation and validation of a unit cell finite element model; and fourth, a patent application that leverages knowledge gained from the first three work streams. The analytical model characterizes the non-linearity of the matrix both with respect to shear and compressive loading. This improvement on existing analyses clearly shows why fiber modulus affects composite shear instability. Accounting for fiber misalignment in the model and experimental characterization of the fiber misalignment continuum are important contributions of this study. A simple method of compressive strength measurement of a small diameter monofilament glass-resin composite is developed. Sample definition and preparation are original, and necessary technologies are easily assessable to other researchers in this field. This study shows that glass fiber composites have the potential for high compressive strength. This potential is reached with excellent fiber alignment and suitable matrix characteristics, and results are consistent with model predictions. The unit cell three dimensional

  5. Compressive Strength of a Longitudinally Stiffened FRP Panel

    Riber, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Jørgen Juncher; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    A structural analysis of a cross stiffened orthotropic FRP panel subjected to uni-axial compressive load is crarried out. Analytical Calculations of the strength of the panel are presented and compared to finite element analysis performed by different authors. Both analytica and finite element ap...... approaches confirm an identical failrue scenario. In the present case, the load carrying capacity of the stiffened panel is limited by the plate stiffener debonding stress....

  6. On strength of porous material

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang


    The question of non-destructive testing of porous materials has always been of interest for the engineering profession. A number of empirically based MOE-MOR relations between stiffness (Modulus Of Elasticity) and strength (Modulus OF Rupture) of materials have been established in order to control...... to the theoretical research on non-destructive testing of such materials relating strength to stiffness and pore geometry.It is demonstrated that solutions for stiffness, tensile strength, and pore strength (damaging pore pressure, frost, fire) for some ideal porous materials can be determined theoretically only...... from knowing about pore geometry, solid phase stiffness, and zero-porosity strength. Pore geometry is the very important common denominator which controls both both stiffness and strength.The accurate results obtained are finally used to suggest generalizations with respect to strength in general...

  7. Hyperlipidemia affects multiscale structure and strength of murine femur.

    Ascenzi, Maria-Grazia; Lutz, Andre; Du, Xia; Klimecky, Laureen; Kawas, Neal; Hourany, Talia; Jahng, Joelle; Chin, Jesse; Tintut, Yin; Nackenhors, Udo; Keyak, Joyce


    To improve bone strength prediction beyond limitations of assessment founded solely on the bone mineral component, we investigated the effect of hyperlipidemia, present in more than 40% of osteoporotic patients, on multiscale structure of murine bone. Our overarching purpose is to estimate bone strength accurately, to facilitate mitigating fracture morbidity and mortality in patients. Because (i) orientation of collagen type I affects, independently of degree of mineralization, cortical bone׳s micro-structural strength; and, (ii) hyperlipidemia affects collagen orientation and μCT volumetric tissue mineral density (vTMD) in murine cortical bone, we have constructed the first multiscale finite element (mFE), mouse-specific femoral model to study the effect of collagen orientation and vTMD on strength in Ldlr(-/-), a mouse model of hyperlipidemia, and its control wild type, on either high fat diet or normal diet. Each µCT scan-based mFE model included either element-specific elastic orthotropic properties calculated from collagen orientation and vTMD (collagen-density model) by experimentally validated formulation, or usual element-specific elastic isotropic material properties dependent on vTMD-only (density-only model). We found that collagen orientation, assessed by circularly polarized light and confocal microscopies, and vTMD, differed among groups and that microindentation results strongly correlate with elastic modulus of collagen-density models (r(2)=0.85, p=10(-5)). Collagen-density models yielded (1) larger strains, and therefore lower strength, in simulations of 3-point bending and physiological loading; and (2) higher correlation between mFE-predicted strength and 3-point bending experimental strength, than density-only models. This novel method supports ongoing translational research to achieve the as yet elusive goal of accurate bone strength prediction.

  8. Melt/rock reaction at oceanic peridotite/gabbro transition as revealed by trace element chemistry of olivine

    Rampone, Elisabetta; Borghini, Giulio; Godard, Marguerite; Ildefonse, Benoit; Crispini, Laura; Fumagalli, Patrizia


    Several recent studies have documented that reactions between melt and crystal mush in primitive gabbroic rocks (via reactive porous flow) have an important control in the formation of the lower oceanic crust and the evolution of MORBs. In this context, olivine-rich rocks can form either by fractional crystallization of primitive melts or by open system reactive percolation of pre-existing (possibly mantle-derived) olivine matrix. To address this question, we performed in-situ trace element analyses (by LA-ICP-MS) of olivine from the Erro-Tobbio ophiolite Unit (Ligurian Alps), where mantle peridotites show gradational contacts with an hectometer-scale body of troctolites and plagioclase wehrlites, and both are cut by later decameter-wide lenses and dykes of olivine gabbros. Previous studies inferred that troctolites and olivine gabbros represent variably differentiated crystallization products from primitive MORB-type melts. Olivines in the three rock types (mantle peridotites, troctolites, olivine gabbros) exhibit distinct geochemical signature and well-defined elemental correlations. As expected, compatible elements (e.g. Ni) show the highest concentrations in peridotites (2580-2730 ppm), intermediate in troctolites (2050-2230 ppm) and lowest in gabbros (1355-1420 ppm), whereas moderate incompatible elements (e.g. Mn, Zn) show the opposite behaviour. By contrast, highly incompatible elements like Zr, Hf, Ti, HREE are variably enriched in olivines of troctolites, and the enrichment in absolute concentrations is coupled to development of significant HFSE/REE fractionation (ZrN/NdN up to 80). AFC modelling shows that such large ZrN/NdN ratios in olivines are consistent with a process of olivine assimilation and plagioclase crystallization at decreasing melt mass, in agreement with textural observations. In-situ trace element geochemistry of olivine, combined with microstructural investigations, thus appears a powerful tool to investigate reactive percolation and the

  9. Bone strength and material properties of the glenoid

    Frich, Lars Henrik; Jensen, N.C.; Odgaard, A.;


    The quality of the glenoid bone is important to a successful total shoulder replacement. Finite element models have been used to model the response of the glenoid bone to an implanted prosthesis. Because very little is known about the bone strength and the material properties at the glenoid, thes...

  10. New tungsten alloy has high strength at elevated temperatures


    Tungsten-hafnium-carbon alloy has tensile strengths of 88,200 psi at 3000 deg F and 62,500 psi at 3500 deg F. Possible industrial applications for this alloy would include electrical components such as switches and spark plugs, die materials for die casting steels, and heating elements.

  11. strength and ductility of forged 1200 aluminum alloy reinforced with ...


    Results show that forged composites with 106μm had a tensile strength .... W. Ag. Sn. Co. % Composition 0.243 0.004 0.005 0.08 0.01. Element. Ni. Cr. Mo. % Composition .... parameters on the porosity content in Al(Mg)-Al2O3 cast particulate ...

  12. A Finite Element Solution for Barrel Dynamic Stress

    ZENG Zhi-yin; NING Bian-fang; WANG Zai-sen


    With the APDL language of ANSYS finite element analysis software, the solution program for barrel dynamic stress is developed. The paper describes the pivotal problems of dynamic strength design and provides a foundation for realizing the engineering and programming of barrel dynamic strength design.

  13. Character strengths and virtues

    Mariana Gancedo


    Full Text Available The target of this work is to carry out a critical analysis about some of the underlying epistemological assumptions in Peterson and Seligman’s book Character Strengths and Virtues. A handbook and classifications (2004. This is a theoretical investigation that belongs to the epistemology of psychology field. According to the theory proposed by Serroni Copello (2003, a critic progress rational criterion is methodologically applied. The analysis points out some epistemological weakness that leads to incongruences in the statements and conclusions of the investigations, such as: the absence of a unified theory, a candid search of objectivity, and the superposition of implicit paradigms. It also takes notice of a causal and elementary logic -which goes against today’s scientific paradigm-, and the strong American culture zeitgeist present in the principles of Positive Psychology. Finally, some ethic problems are displayed, in particular the step taken from a descriptive attitude –characteristic of science- toward a prescriptive attitude –characteristic of moral codes-. 

  14. Commitee III.1 Ultimate Strength

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher


    This report addresses the subject of ductile collapse of ships and offshore structures and their components due to buckling and excessive yielding under overload conditions. Consideration is given to load-deflection predictions for components with fabrication imperfections and in-service damage a...... and to the ultimate strength and post-ultimate behaviour of structural systems in order to identify the reserve strength. The effect of uncertainties in the modelling on the strength predictions is highlighted in two design examples....


    The measurement of the strength of radio frequency fields at high frequency and above has followed practices which are standard for the measurement...of field strength at medium and low frequencies. Variability of measurements made in practical situations and a lack of reproducibility of...measurements made under apparently identical conditions has prompted an investigation of equipment and methods used in the determinations. The field strength

  16. Commitee III.1 Ultimate Strength

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher


    This report addresses the subject of ductile collapse of ships and offshore structures and their components due to buckling and excessive yielding under overload conditions. Consideration is given to load-deflection predictions for components with fabrication imperfections and in-service damage a...... and to the ultimate strength and post-ultimate behaviour of structural systems in order to identify the reserve strength. The effect of uncertainties in the modelling on the strength predictions is highlighted in two design examples....

  17. Physiological Effects of Strength Training and Various Strength Training Devices.

    Wilmore, Jack H.

    Current knowledge in the area of muscle physiology is a basis for a discussion on strength training programs. It is now recognized that the expression of strength is related to, but not dependent upon, the size of the muscle and is probably more related to the ability to recruit more muscle fibers in the contraction, or to better synchronize their…

  18. Overview to Strength Development and Strength Trainings in Children

    Mesut Hekim


    Full Text Available There are some important phases within psychomotor development process in children. Periods of movements related to sport appear in this phases. In this phase which contains 7-12 age period in children, a significant increment occurs in the physical and motoric development levels of children. Physical and motoric developments are supported by directing children in this age group to sport. In a plenty of studies, it was stated that participating to sports in children supports motoric features and physical development. Strength is one of the most important motoric features which develop via participating to sports. Children strength development is effected at positive direction by adaptation exercise made to support strength development. Psychomotor development basis are considered to obtain the best efficiency from workouts aimed strength development in children and to remove risks to be generate any injury/disability. In this research, strength development, contributions of participating in sports to strength development, strength training in children and children responses to strength training were all emphasized.

  19. The strength of heterogeneous volcanic rocks: A 2D approximation

    Heap, Michael J.; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Xu, Tao; Chen, Chong-feng; Tang, Chun'an


    Volcanic rocks typically contain heterogeneities in the form of crystals and pores. We investigate here the influence of such heterogeneity on the strength of volcanic rocks using an elastic damage mechanics model in which we numerically deform two-dimensional samples comprising low-strength elements representing crystals and zero-strength elements representing pores. These circular elements are stochastically generated so that there is no overlap in a medium representing the groundmass. Our modelling indicates that increasing the fraction of pores and/or crystals reduces the strength of volcanic rocks, and that increasing the pore fraction results in larger strength reductions than increasing the crystal fraction. The model also highlights an important weakening role for pore diameter, but finds that crystal diameter has a less significant influence for strength. To account for heterogeneity (pores and crystals), we propose an effective medium approach where we define an effective pore fraction ϕp‧ = Vp/(Vp + Vg) where Vp and Vg are the pore and groundmass fractions, respectively. Highly heterogeneous samples (containing high pore and/or crystal fractions) will therefore have high values of ϕp‧, and vice-versa. When we express our numerical samples (more than 200 simulations spanning a wide range of crystal and pore fractions) in terms of ϕp‧, we find that their strengths can be described by a single curve for a given pore diameter. To provide a predictive tool for the strength of heterogeneous volcanic rocks, we propose a modified version of 2D solution for the Sammis and Ashby (1986) pore-emanating crack model, a micromechanical model designed to estimate strength using microstructural attributes such as porosity, pore radius, and fracture toughness. The model, reformulated to include ϕp‧ (and therefore crystal fraction), captures the strength curves for our numerical simulations over a sample heterogeneity range relevant to volcanic systems. We find

  20. Airborne field strength monitoring

    J. Bredemeyer


    Full Text Available In civil and military aviation, ground based navigation aids (NAVAIDS are still crucial for flight guidance even though the acceptance of satellite based systems (GNSS increases. Part of the calibration process for NAVAIDS (ILS, DME, VOR is to perform a flight inspection according to specified methods as stated in a document (DOC8071, 2000 by the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO. One major task is to determine the coverage, or, in other words, the true signal-in-space field strength of a ground transmitter. This has always been a challenge to flight inspection up to now, since, especially in the L-band (DME, 1GHz, the antenna installed performance was known with an uncertainty of 10 dB or even more. In order to meet ICAO's required accuracy of ±3 dB it is necessary to have a precise 3-D antenna factor of the receiving antenna operating on the airborne platform including all losses and impedance mismatching. Introducing precise, effective antenna factors to flight inspection to achieve the required accuracy is new and not published in relevant papers yet. The authors try to establish a new balanced procedure between simulation and validation by airborne and ground measurements. This involves the interpretation of measured scattering parameters gained both on the ground and airborne in comparison with numerical results obtained by the multilevel fast multipole algorithm (MLFMA accelerated method of moments (MoM using a complex geometric model of the aircraft. First results will be presented in this paper.

  1. How the global layout of the mask influences masking strength.

    Ghose, Tandra; Hermens, Frouke; Herzog, Michael H


    In visual backward masking, the perception of a target is influenced by a trailing mask. Masking is usually explained by local interactions between the target and the mask representations. However, recently it has been shown that the global spatial layout of the mask rather than its local structure determines masking strength (Hermens & Herzog, 2007). Here, we varied the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues. We presented a vernier target followed by a mask with 25 elements. Performance deteriorated when the length of the two mask elements neighboring the target vernier was doubled. However, when the length of every second mask element was doubled, performance improved. When the luminance of the neighboring elements was doubled, performance also deteriorated but no improvement in performance was observed when every second element had a double luminance. For temporal manipulations, a complex nonmonotonic masking function was observed. Hence, changes in the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues lead to highly different results.

  2. Evaluation of concrete mechanical strength through porosity

    Olivares, M.


    Full Text Available The increasing on voids or pores in any material - if the rest of characteristics remains equal -always causes a decrease in their mechanical strength since the ratio volume/resistant mass is lower Following all these fact a well known conclusion rises: there is a relationship between compacity/porosity and mechanical strengths. The purpose of this research is to establish a new possible correlation between both concrete properties with independence of the proportions, type of cement, size of grain, age, use. etc. So it can be concluded that the results of this research allow the engineer or architect in charge of a restoration or reparation to determine the compression strength of a concrete element. A first step is to determine the porosity through a rather short number of tests. Subsequently, compression strength will be obtained applying just a mathematical formula.

    El aumento de huecos o poros de cualquier material, lo mismo que en otras circunstancias, redunda siempre en una merma de sus resistencias mecánicas, al haber menor volumen-masa resistente. En consecuencia, puede deducirse, que hay una relación entre la compacidad/porosidad y las resistencias mecánicas. En el presente trabajo se estudia una posible correlación entre ambas propiedades del hormigón con independencia de su dosificación, tipo de cemento, granulometría, edad, uso, etc. Las conclusiones obtenidas en la presente investigación permiten al técnico, encargado de una restauración o rehabilitación, determinar la resistencia a compresión de un elemento de hormigón, una vez hallada, de una forma sencilla, la porosidad de una muestra no muy voluminosa, mediante la aplicación de una simple fórmula matemática.

  3. Trace elements in Gem-Quality Diamonds - Origin and evolution of diamond-forming fluid inclusions

    Pearson, Graham; Krebs, Mandy; Stachel, Thomas; Woodland, Sarah; Chinn, Ingrid; Kong, Julie


    In the same way that melt inclusions in phenocrysts have expanded our idea of melt formation and evolution in basalts, studying fluids trapped in diamonds is providing important new constraints on the nature of diamond-forming fluids. Fibrous and cloudy diamonds trap a high but variable density of fluid inclusions and so have been extensively studied using major and trace element compositions. In contrast, constraining the nature of the diamond-forming fluid for high purity gem-quality diamonds has been restricted by the rarity of available high quality trace element data. This is due to the extremely low concentrations of impurities that gem diamonds contain - often in the ppt range. The recent discovery of fluids in gem diamonds showing similar major element chemistry to fluid-rich diamonds suggest that many diamonds may share a common spectrum of parental fluids. Here we test this idea further. Recent advances in analytical techniques, in particular the development of the "off-line" laser ablation pre-concentration approach, have allowed fully quantitative trace element data to be recovered from "fluid-poor", high quality gem diamonds. We present trace element data for gem diamonds from a variety of locations from Canada, S. Africa and Russia, containing either silicate or sulphide inclusions to examine possible paragenetic or genetic differences between fluids. REE abundance in the "gem" diamonds vary from 0.1 to 0.0001 x chondrite. To a first order, we observe the same spectrum of trace element compositions in the gem diamonds as that seen in fluid-rich "fibrous" diamonds, supporting a common origin for the fluids. REE patterns range from extremely flat (Ce/Yb)n 2.5 to 5 (commonly in sulphide-bearing diamonds) to >70, the latter having significantly greater inter-element HFSE/LILE fractionation. In general, the fluids from the sulphide-bearing diamonds are less REE-enriched than the silicate-bearing diamonds, but the ranges overlap significantly. The very

  4. Ultimate Strength, Committee III.1

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Estefan, S.; Fasano, E.;


    Concern for the ductile of ships and offshore structures and their structural components under ultimate conditions. Attention shall be given to the influence of fabrication imperfections and inservice damage and degradation on reserve strength. Uncertainties in strength models for design shall...

  5. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    Sørensen, Herman


    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  6. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    Sørensen, Herman


    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  7. 舞蹈训练中非平衡性力量训练研究--跨界训练舞蹈元素与体育元素的结合%A Study on Imbalanced Strength Training in Dance--Cross-disciplinary Combination of Training Elements in Dance and Physical Education

    孙力; 宋冬寒


    Strength training of muscle group in core areas can effectively increase the strength and stability of muscles. Core stability and core strength become hot topics in sports physiology and training studies. They also aroused attention in the field of dance training at fundamental skills. In recent years, core stability and core strength are gradually applied in the practice of dance training, and become an effective means for dancers to prevent injuries and develop physical stamina. BOSU trainers can not only develop dancers’ strength of core muscle group comprehensively, but also enhance dancers’ interpretation to works and their performances on stage, thus giving audiences enjoyment to art and helping dancers prevent waist injuries. Based on documentary analysis, expert interviews, observation method, mathematical statistics and experimental contrasts, combining the characteristics of dance major, this article makes an analysis on core strength of dancing, and gives suggestions on training methods for core strength.%核心区肌群力量训练可以很好地提升核心区域肌肉的力量和稳定性。“核心稳定性”(Core stability)和“核心力量”(Core strength)成为运动生理学和运动训练研究的热点问题,也引起舞蹈在基本功训练领域的关注,近几年来逐渐运用到舞蹈训练实践中,成为舞者发展体能和预防损伤的有效手段。博速球训练器不但能够全方位的发展舞蹈者的核心肌群力量,同时也有利于提高舞蹈者对作品的诠释和舞台展示,并给观众带来艺术上的享受,从而更好的预防舞者的腰部损伤。本文在运用文献资料法、专家访谈法和观察法、数理统计法、实验对照法的基础上,对舞蹈的核心力量特点进行了剖析,并结合舞蹈的专业特性提出相关的核心力量练习方法和建议。

  8. Strength Characteristics of Groundnut Leaf/Stem Ash (GLSA) Concrete

    Oseni, O. W.; Audu, M. T.


    The compressive strength properties of concrete are substantial factors in the design and construction of concrete structures. Compressive strength directly affects the degree to which the concrete can be able to carry a load over time. These changes are complemented by deflections, cracks etc., in the structural elements of concrete. This research investigated the effect of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) on the compressive strength of concrete at 0%, 5 %, 10 % and 15 % replacements of cement. The effect of the water-cement ratio on properties such as the compressive strength, slump, flow and workability properties of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) mixes with OPC were evaluated to determine whether they are acceptable for use in concrete structural elements. A normal concrete mix with cement at 100 % (i.e., GLSA at 0%) with concrete grade C25 that can attain an average strength of 25 N/mm2 at 28 days was used as a control at design water-cement ratios of 0.65 and grading of (0.5-32) mm from fine to coarse aggregates was tested for: (1) compressive strength, and the (2) slump and flow Test. The results and observations showed that the concrete mixes from GLSA at 5 - 15 % ratios exhibit: pozzolanic properties and GLSA could be used as a partial replacement for cement at these percentage mix ratios compared with the control concrete; an increase in the water-cement ratio showed a significant decrease in the compressive strength and an increase in workability. Therefore, it is important that all concrete mixes exude an acceptably designed water-cement ratio for compressive strength characteristics for use in structures, water-cement ratio is a significant factor.

  9. Remolded Undrained Strength of Soils

    HONG Zhen-shun(洪振舜); LIU Han-long(刘汉龙); NEGAMI Takehito


    Extensive data of undrained shear strength for various remolded soils are compiled to normalize the remolded undrained strength. Remolded soils have a wide spectrum of liquid limits ranging from 25% to 412%. It is found that the remolded undrained strength is a function of water content and liquid limit. Furthermore, a simple index designated as normalized water content w* is introduced for normalizing remolded undrained strength for various soils. The normalized water content w* is the ratio of water content to liquid limit. The relationship between the remolded undrained strength and the normalized water content can be expressed by a simple equation. The new simple equation is not only valuable theoretically for helping in assessing the in-situ mechanical behavior, but also useful to ocean engineering practice.


    NOZEMTСEV Alexandr Sergeevich


    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research aimed at development of nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete for construction. The developed concretes are of low average density and high ultimate compressive strength. It is shown that to produce this type of concrete one need to use hollow glass and aluminosilicate microspheres. To increase the durability of adhesion between cement stone and fine filler the authors offer to use complex nanodimensinal modifier based on iron hydroxide sol and silica sol as a surface nanomodifier for hollow microspheres. It is hypothesized that the proposed modifier has complex effect on the activity of the cement hydration and, at the same time increases bond strength between filler and cement-mineral matrix. The compositions for energy-efficient nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete which density is 1300…1500 kg/m³ and compressive strength is 40…65 MPa have been developed. The approaches to the design of high-strength lightweight concrete with density of less than 2000 kg/m³ are formulated. It is noted that the proposed concretes possess dense homogeneous structure and moderate mobility. Thus, they allow processing by vibration during production. The economic and practical implications for realization of high-strength lightweight concrete in industrial production have been justified.

  11. Penetrator strength effect in long-rod critical ricochet angle

    Daneshjou, K.; Shahravi, M. [Iran University of Science and Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    3D numerical simulations were performed in order to further investigate the role of penetrator strength in the interaction of long-rods and oblique targets. Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated with a full 3D explicit finite element method for various impact velocities and strength of target plates and projectiles. Numerical predictions were compared with existing two-dimensional analytical models and test results. It was predicted that critical ricochet angle increases with decreasing impact velocity and that higher ricochet angles were expected if higher strength target materials are employed. But there are differences between analytical models and 3D numerical simulation results or test results. The causes for these discrepancies are established by numerical simulations which explore the validity of the penetrator strength parameter in the analytical model as a physical entity. As a matter of fact, in this paper we first investigate the role of penetrator dynamic strength using two-dimensional simulation which resulted in different penetrator strengths out of different impact velocities. Next, by applying these amounts for penetrator strength in Rosenberg analytical model the critical ricochet angle is calculated. Finally, a comparison between the present analytical method with the 3D simulation and test results shows that the new analytical approach leads to modified results with respect to Rosenberg ones

  12. Brand Discrimination: An Implicit Measure of the Strength of Mental Brand Representations

    Mike Friedman; Thomas Leclercq


    While mental associations between a brand and its marketing elements are an important part of brand equity, previous research has yet to provide a sound methodology to measure the strength of these links. The following studies present the development and validation of an implicit measure to assess the strength of mental representations of brand elements in the mind of the consumer. The measure described in this paper, which we call the Brand Discrimination task, requires participants to ident...

  13. Multi-stage metasomatism revealed by trace element and Li isotope distributions in minerals of peridotite xenoliths from Allègre volcano (French Massif Central)

    Gu, Xiaoyan; Deloule, Etienne; France, Lydéric; Ingrin, Jannick


    The modal, chemical, and isotopic compositions of mantle peridotite are largely modified by metasomatic processes, which may affect them repeatedly. Xenoliths are commonly used to characterize those metasomatic processes along with the structure, and chemical and isotopic compositions of mantle domains. Nevertheless, the original mantle signatures born by mantle xenoliths are potentially obscured by the interactions occurring between the host magma and the xenolith itself. Here we attempt to identify to which degree the original Li content and isotopic composition, as well as other trace element contents of mantle xenoliths, can be modified by interaction with the host magma. Peridotite xenoliths that have suffered extensive exchange with the entraining magma were sampled in the solidified lava lake of Allègre, Southern French Massif Central, in order to decipher the signature related to peridotite-melt interaction, and to further unravel the evolution of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle. In-situ trace element analyses of clinopyroxene (Cpx) were performed via LA-ICP-MS, and the Li content and isotopic composition of pyroxene and olivine (Ol) via SIMS. Negative HFSE anomalies (Ti/Eu ratios as low as 437) and markedly high LREE/HREE ratios ((La/Yb)N as high as 79) are characteristic of mantle metasomatism at depth. Lithium isotope systematics indicates that at least two different metasomatic events affected the peridotite. Exceptionally high Li contents in Cpx (up to 50 ppm) and slight Li enrichment of Ol rims are ascribed to diffusive Li influx with a positive δ7Li value (+ 3.2‰) from the host magma after entrainment. Conversely, Ol cores preserve extremely light Li isotopic compositions (δ7Li as low as - 25‰) with high Li contents (up to 4.4 ppm) compared to normal mantle, indicating a metasomatic event that occurred before xenolith entrainment. The negative δ7Li signature of this early metasomatism may be related to subduction-related fluids

  14. Fatigue of concrete under compression: Database and proposal for high strength concrete

    Lantsoght, E.O.L.


    The compressive strength of concrete decreases as an element is subjected to cycles of loading. In a typical fatigue test for the concrete compressive strength, a concrete specimen (typically a cylinder) is loaded between a lower and upper stress limit. These limits are expressed as a fraction of th

  15. Fatigue of concrete under compression: Database and proposal for high strength concrete

    Lantsoght, E.O.L.


    The compressive strength of concrete decreases as an element is subjected to cycles of loading. In a typical fatigue test for the concrete compressive strength, a concrete specimen (typically a cylinder) is loaded between a lower and upper stress limit. These limits are expressed as a fraction of

  16. Discrete Element Modeling

    Morris, J; Johnson, S


    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.


    Y. L. Avanesov


    Full Text Available Subject of Research.The problems of insufficient strength of the EM log sensor are studied. The EM log sensor design for deep-sea vehicles is analyzed; a mathematical model of EM log sensor is built. The design and technological solutions that improve the performance of this type of log are shown. Method. The study was performed using the finite element method in the ANSYS software. The calculations were performed in the static structural module, in which the load was created in the way that simulated the external hydrostatic pressure. To check the reproducibility the analysis of model was carried out by built-in assessment of the quality elements. All materials are taken to be isotropic. Main Results. The ways of increasing the strength of outboard tools for measuring the ship speed are presented. Calculating results of the stress-strain state of devices under the influence of seawater at various depths were obtained by the method of finite element analysis. The technological features of the sensor production are shown. The recommendations for changing the log construction to increase its strength, supported by computer modeling, are given. Practical Relevance. The discussed ways of increasing the strength of the device enable to expand implementation area. The results can be applied in the modernization of the design and construction of new EM log sensor operating at high pressures.

  18. Chairside CAD/CAM materials. Part 2: Flexural strength testing.

    Wendler, Michael; Belli, Renan; Petschelt, Anselm; Mevec, Daniel; Harrer, Walter; Lube, Tanja; Danzer, Robert; Lohbauer, Ulrich


    Strength is one of the preferred parameters used in dentistry for determining clinical indication of dental restoratives. However, small dimensions of CAD/CAM blocks limit reliable measurements with standardized uniaxial bending tests. The objective of this study was to introduce the ball-on-three-ball (B3B) biaxial strength test for dental for small CAD/CAM block in the context of the size effect on strength predicted by the Weibull theory. Eight representative chairside CAD/CAM materials ranging from polycrystalline zirconia (e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent), reinforced glasses (Vitablocs Mark II, VITA; Empress CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and glass-ceramics (e.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent; Suprinity, VITA; Celtra Duo, Dentsply) to hybrid materials (Enamic, VITA; Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE) have been selected. Specimens were prepared with highly polished surfaces in rectangular plate (12×12×1.2mm(3)) or round disc (Ø=12mm, thickness=1.2mm) geometries. Specimens were tested using the B3B assembly and the biaxial strength was determined using calculations derived from finite element analyses of the respective stress fields. Size effects on strength were determined based on results from 4-point-bending specimens. A good agreement was found between the biaxial strength results for the different geometries (plates vs. discs) using the B3B test. Strength values ranged from 110.9MPa (Vitablocs Mark II) to 1303.21MPa (e.max ZirCAD). The strength dependency on specimen size was demonstrated through the calculated effective volume/surface. The B3B test has shown to be a reliable and simple method for determining the biaxial strength restorative materials supplied as small CAD/CAM blocks. A flexible solution was made available for the B3B test in the rectangular plate geometry. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik


    OBJECTIVES: To systematically review (1) psychometric properties of criterion isokinetic dynamometry testing of muscle strength in persons with poststroke hemiplegia (PPSH); and (2) literature that compares muscle strength in patients poststroke with that in healthy controls assessed by criterion...... isokinetic dynamometry. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. STUDY SELECTION: Included studies (1) enrolled participants with definite poststroke hemiplegia according to defined criteria; (2) assessed muscle strength or power by criterion isokinetic dynamometry; (3) had...... undergone peer review; and (4) were available in English or Danish. DATA EXTRACTION: The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Furthermore, comparisons of strength between paretic, nonparetic, and comparable healthy muscles...

  20. Biomineral Structure and Strength of Barnacle Exoskeletons

    Swift, Nathan


    Studying the construction of organic-inorganic compound structures through biomineralization is potentially very useful. During biomineral formation, organisms restructure naturally occurring minerals in conjunction with their own organically produced minerals to create new structures. While there is extensive knowledge about material properties and structure of the raw minerals themselves, insight into how specific biomineral structures and compounds contribute to an object's mechanical properties is lacking. In this study, the exoskeletons of barnacles from the genus Balanus were examined, both for their physical structure (how they're put together) and for their mechanical properties (strength, hardness, and elasticity). Scanning electron microscopy produced close-up, detailed images of the inner shell structure to determine what type of structure barnacles build during exoskeleton formation. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy was used to map the elemental components of the shells. Nanoindentation tested the mechanical properties of these mapped structures to determine how certain characteristics of the exoskeleton contribute to its mechanical properties.

  1. Statistical Analysis of Data for Timber Strengths

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard


    Statistical analyses are performed for material strength parameters from a large number of specimens of structural timber. Non-parametric statistical analysis and fits have been investigated for the following distribution types: Normal, Lognormal, 2 parameter Weibull and 3-parameter Weibull....... The statistical fits have generally been made using all data and the lower tail of the data. The Maximum Likelihood Method and the Least Square Technique have been used to estimate the statistical parameters in the selected distributions. The results show that the 2-parameter Weibull distribution gives the best...... fits to the data available, especially if tail fits are used whereas the Log Normal distribution generally gives a poor fit and larger coefficients of variation, especially if tail fits are used. The implications on the reliability level of typical structural elements and on partial safety factors...

  2. Fourier-based strength homogenization of porous media

    Bignonnet, François; Hassen, Ghazi; Dormieux, Luc


    An efficient numerical method is proposed to upscale the strength properties of heterogeneous media with periodic boundary conditions. The method relies on a formal analogy between strength homogenization and non-linear elasticity homogenization. The non-linear problems are solved on a regular discretization grid using the Augmented Lagrangian version of Fast Fourier Transform based schemes initially introduced for elasticity upscaling. The method is implemented for microstructures with local strength properties governed either by a Green criterion or a Von Mises criterion, including pores or rigid inclusions. A thorough comparison with available analytical results or finite element elasto-plastic simulations is proposed to validate the method on simple microstructures. As an application, the strength of complex microstructures such as the random Boolean model of spheres is then studied, including a comparison to closed-form Gurson and Eshelby based strength estimates. The effects of the microstructure morphology and the third invariant of the macroscopic stress tensor on the homogenized strength are quantitatively discussed.

  3. Fourier-based strength homogenization of porous media

    Bignonnet, François; Hassen, Ghazi; Dormieux, Luc


    An efficient numerical method is proposed to upscale the strength properties of heterogeneous media with periodic boundary conditions. The method relies on a formal analogy between strength homogenization and non-linear elasticity homogenization. The non-linear problems are solved on a regular discretization grid using the Augmented Lagrangian version of Fast Fourier Transform based schemes initially introduced for elasticity upscaling. The method is implemented for microstructures with local strength properties governed either by a Green criterion or a Von Mises criterion, including pores or rigid inclusions. A thorough comparison with available analytical results or finite element elasto-plastic simulations is proposed to validate the method on simple microstructures. As an application, the strength of complex microstructures such as the random Boolean model of spheres is then studied, including a comparison to closed-form Gurson and Eshelby based strength estimates. The effects of the microstructure morphology and the third invariant of the macroscopic stress tensor on the homogenized strength are quantitatively discussed.

  4. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in Stable Nickel Isotopes

    Evitts, Lee; Garnsworthy, Adam; Kibedi, Tibor; Super-e Collaboration


    Electric monopole (E 0) transition strengths are a sensitive probe for investigating nuclear structure and shape coexistence. There is a need for E 0 transition strengths in closed shell nuclei in order to develop our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the generation of electric monopole strength. Simultaneous detections of γ rays and internal conversion electrons must be measured in order to determine an E 0 transition strength. A series of measurements in the stable nickel isotopes were performed at the Australian National University. Excited states in 58 , 60 , 62Ni were populated via inelastic proton scattering. The CAESAR array of Compton-suppressed HPGe detectors was used to measure the (E 2 / M 1) mixing ratio of transitions from angular distributions of γ rays. The Super-e spectrometer was used to measure electron-gamma branching ratios in order to extract E 0 transition strengths for a number of Jπ ->Jπ transitions. An overview of the experiments will be presented, along with preliminary results for E 0 transition strengths between Jπ ≠ 0 states in the semi-magic nuclei, 58 , 60 , 62Ni. A comparison with the matrix elements obtained from a new microscopic model for E 0 transitions will be made. This work was supported in part by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC).

  5. Hardness and yield strength of dentin from simulated nano-indentation tests.

    Toparli, M; Koksal, N S


    The finite element method (FEM) is applied for studying the hardness (H) and yield strength (Y) of dentin subjected to a nano-indentation process. The nano-indentation experiments were simulated with the ABAQUS finite element software package. This test, performed with a spherical indenter, was simulated by axisymmetric finite element analysis. The load versus displacement was calculated during loading-unloading sequence for different elastic modulus (E) and yield strength. Hardness and maximum principal compressive and tensile stresses were plotted for different elastic modulus depending on yield strength. The dentin was assumed to be isotropic, homogenous and elasto-plastic. The theoretical results outlined in this study were compared with the experimental works reported in the literature and then hardness and yield strength of dentin was estimated.

  6. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien


    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  7. Strength analysis of filament-wound composite tubes

    Vasović Ivana


    Full Text Available The subject of this work is focused on strength analysis of filament-wound composite tubes made of E glass/polyester under internal pressure. The primary attention of this investigation is to develop a reliable computation procedure for stress, displacement and initial failure analysis of layered composite tubes. For that purpose we have combined the finite element method (FEM with corresponding initial failure criterions. In addition, finite element analyses using commercial code, MSC/NASTRAN, were performed to predict the behavior of filament wound structures. Computation results are compared with experiments. Good agreement between computation and experimental results are obtained.

  8. Resonance transition energies and oscillator strengths in lutetium and lawrencium.

    Zou, Yu; Fischer, C Froese


    The transition energies and oscillator strengths for nd (2)D(3/2)-(n+1)p (2)P(o)(1/2,3/2) transitions in Lu ( n = 5, Z = 71) and Lr ( n = 6, Z = 103) were calculated with the multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. The present study confirmed that the ground state of atomic Lr is [Rn]5f(14)7s(2)7p (2)P(o)(1/2). The calculation for Lr required wave function expansions of more than 330 000 configuration states. In Lu, the transition energies, with Breit and QED corrections included, agree with experiment to within 126 cm(-1). In lighter elements, core correlation is usually neglected but was found to be of extreme importance for these heavy elements, affecting the oscillator strengths by a factor of 3 and 2 in Lu and Lr, respectively.

  9. Investigation on the Relationship between Specimen Width and Breaking Strength of Geotextile

    商欣萍; 储才元


    The tensile properties of geotextile are analyzed with the boundary element method, with special emphasis put on the influence of specimen width on geotextile breaking strength.The theoretical and experimental results showed that narrow specimen would underestimate the tensile strength of the geotextile. During testing procedure, the lateral contraction of the specimen is the main reason that causes the breaking strength to be on the lower side. The theoretical results also indicate that the breaking strength of the geotextile would arrive at a fixed value when the specimen width is increased to a certain extent.

  10. Forecast Jointed Rock Mass Compressive Strength Using a Numerical Model

    Protosenya Anatoliy


    Full Text Available The method of forecasting the strength of the jointed rock mass by numerical modeling of finite element method in ABAQUS was described. The paper presents advantages of this method to solve the problem of determining the mechanical characteristics of jointed rock mass and the basic steps of creating a numerical geomechanical model of jointed rock mass and numerical experiment. Numerical simulation was carried out with jointed rock mass in order to obtain the ratio of strain and stress while loading the numerical model, determining parameters of quantitative assessment of the impact of the discontinuities orientation on the value of the compressive strength, compressive strength anisotropy. The results of the numerical experiment are compared with the data of experimental studies investigations. Innovative materials and structures are analyzed in this paper. The results that were obtained by calculation show qualitative agreement with the results of laboratory experiments of jointed rock mass.

  11. Bond strength of W-Cu/CuCr integrated material

    范志康; 梁淑华; 薛旭


    The bond strength of W-Cu/CuCr integrated material was investigated. The results show that the fracture of W-Cu/CuCr integrated material often takes place at W-Cu/CuCr interface. Some alloying elements enhance the bond of W and CuCr alloy, which results in the increase of the strength of the W-Cu/CuCr interface. And the fracture of the WCu/CuCr integrated material occurs in the CuCr alloy part, not at the W-Cu/CuCr interface. Chromium in CuCr alloy part of the integrated material can improve Cr diffusing from the CuCr alloy to W-Cu composite and can be alloyed (near the W-Cu/CuCr interface) in the W-Cu composite. Thus the strength of W-Cu/CuCr interface is also increased.

  12. Microstructure and bonding strength of Ni based alloy coating

    LIU Qing; SHAO Wen-bao; WU Chun-jing


    A Ni-Cr-B-Si coating technique was developed and successfully applied on austenite grey iron substrate in a conventional resistance furnace under graphite powder protection. The microstructure, phase distribution, chemical composition profile and microhardness along the coating layer depth were investigated. Shear strength of the coating was also tested. Microanalysis shows that the coating is consist of γ-Ni solution and γ-Ni+Ni3B lamellar eutectic, as well as small amount of Cr5B3 particles. Diffusion induced metallurgical bonding occurs at the coating/substrate interfaces, and the higher the temperature, the more sufficient elements diffused, the broader interfusion region and the larger bonding strength, but it has an optimum value. And the bonding strength at the interface can be enable to reach 250-270 MPa, which is nearly the same as that of processed by flame spray. The microhardness along the coating layer depth shows a gradient distribution manner.

  13. Microstructure and bonding strength of Ni-based alloy coating

    LIU Qing


    Full Text Available A Ni-Cr-B-Si coating technique was developed and successfully applied on austenite grey iron substrate in a conventional resistance furnace under graphite powder protection. The microstructure, phase distribution, chemical composition profile and microhardness along the coating layer depth were investigated. Shear strength of the coating was also tested. Microanalysis shows that the coating is consist of γ-Ni solution and γ-Ni+Ni3B lamellar eutectic, as well as small amount of Cr5B3 particles. Diffusion induced metallurgical bonding occurs at the coating/substrate interfaces, and the higher the temperature, the more sufficient elements diffused, the broader interfusion region and the larger bonding strength, but it has an optimum value. And the bonding strength at the interface can be enable to reach 250-270 MPa, which is nearly the same as that of processed by flame spray. The microhardness along the coating layer depth shows a gradient distribution manner.

  14. Compressive strength of delaminated aerospace composites.

    Butler, Richard; Rhead, Andrew T; Liu, Wenli; Kontis, Nikolaos


    An efficient analytical model is described which predicts the value of compressive strain below which buckle-driven propagation of delaminations in aerospace composites will not occur. An extension of this efficient strip model which accounts for propagation transverse to the direction of applied compression is derived. In order to provide validation for the strip model a number of laminates were artificially delaminated producing a range of thin anisotropic sub-laminates made up of 0°, ±45° and 90° plies that displayed varied buckling and delamination propagation phenomena. These laminates were subsequently subject to experimental compression testing and nonlinear finite element analysis (FEA) using cohesive elements. Comparison of strip model results with those from experiments indicates that the model can conservatively predict the strain at which propagation occurs to within 10 per cent of experimental values provided (i) the thin-film assumption made in the modelling methodology holds and (ii) full elastic coupling effects do not play a significant role in the post-buckling of the sub-laminate. With such provision, the model was more accurate and produced fewer non-conservative results than FEA. The accuracy and efficiency of the model make it well suited to application in optimum ply-stacking algorithms to maximize laminate strength.

  15. The strength of the hybrid braking calipers analysis

    Li Weitao; Yu Haiqing; Jiang Xiaoyan


    The braking system is an important part to ensure the safety of the vehicle, so the strength analysis is essential to the brake caliper. In this article, the forces will be mixed in the caliper brake systems theoretical analysis, and based on the actual working conditions established calipers ABAQUS finite element model to simulate calipers provide a theoretical basis for the structural design of the brake caliper.

  16. Data Element Registry Services

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  17. Element-ary Development.

    Schamp, Homer W., Jr.


    Describes the historic development of the periodic table from the four-element theory to the Lavoisier's table. Presents a table listing the old and new names of chemicals and the Lavoisier's table of elements. Lists two references. (YP)

  18. On Element SDD Approximability

    Avron, Haim; Toledo, Sivan


    This short communication shows that in some cases scalar elliptic finite element matrices cannot be approximated well by an SDD matrix. We also give a theoretical analysis of a simple heuristic method for approximating an element by an SDD matrix.

  19. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia: A Systematic Review of Muscle Strength Assessment and Muscle Strength Impairment.

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik


    To systematically review (1) psychometric properties of criterion isokinetic dynamometry testing of muscle strength in persons with poststroke hemiplegia (PPSH); and (2) literature that compares muscle strength in patients poststroke with that in healthy controls assessed by criterion isokinetic dynamometry. A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. Included studies (1) enrolled participants with definite poststroke hemiplegia according to defined criteria; (2) assessed muscle strength or power by criterion isokinetic dynamometry; (3) had undergone peer review; and (4) were available in English or Danish. The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Furthermore, comparisons of strength between paretic, nonparetic, and comparable healthy muscles were reviewed. Twenty studies covering 316 PPSH were included. High intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) inter- and intrasession reliability was reported for isokinetic dynamometry, which was independent of the tested muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity. Slightly higher ICC values were found for the nonparetic extremity. Standard error of the mean (SEM) values showed that a change of 7% to 20% was required for a real group change to take place for most muscle groups, with the knee extensors showing the smallest SEM% values. The muscle strength of paretic muscles showed deficits when compared with both healthy and nonparetic muscles, independent of muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity. Nonparetic muscles only showed minor strength impairments when compared with healthy muscles. Criterion isokinetic dynamometry is a reliable test in persons with stroke, generally showing marked reductions in muscle strength of paretic and, to a lesser degree, nonparetic muscles when compared with healthy controls, independent of muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity. Copyright

  20. Muscle strength in myasthenia gravis

    Cejvanovic, S; Vissing, J


    OBJECTIVE: Myasthenia gravis (MG) is characterized by fatigue and fluctuating muscle weakness as a result of impaired neuromuscular transmission (NMT). Although MG is a prototypic fatiguing disorder, little is known about how the condition affects fixed weakness, and if present, whether weakness...... is related to disease duration or gender. The aim of this study was to quantify the strength of patients with MG and investigate whether it is related to disease duration. METHODS: Eight muscle groups were tested by manual muscle testing and with a hand-held dynamometer in 38 patients with generalized MG...... and 37 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. The disease duration was recorded and compared with strength measures. RESULTS: On average, muscle strength was decreased by 28% compared with controls (Pmuscle...

  1. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    Bull, J. W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.;


    environmental awareness. Threats include resistance to change, and difficulty with interdisciplinary collaboration. Consideration of SWOT themes suggested five strategic areas for developing and implementing ES.The ES concept could improve decision-making related to natural resource use, and interpretation...... facilitate interdisciplinary research, ensuring decision-making that supports sustainable development........ Such an assessment could form the basis for improving ES thinking, further embedding it into environmental decisions and management.The Young Ecosystem Services Specialists (YESS) completed a Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis of ES through YESS member surveys. Strengths include the approach...

  2. Strength of Materials and Structures


    @@ All engineering structures designed according to modern principles have to be strong and sufficiently rigid. Scientists and engineers have long recognized the importance of the strength of materials and structures, and dedicated much their efforts to both fundamental and industrial research into the theory for vast engineering materials and various structures. A lot of engineers need to be familiar with the fundamental principles of strength in materials and structures in order to design structures to resist failures. This book is a very good one to provide them with these principles.

  3. Topological strength of magnetic skyrmions

    Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J. G. G. S.; Rodrigues, E. I. B.


    This work deals with magnetic structures that attain integer and half-integer skyrmion numbers. We model and solve the problem analytically, and show how the solutions appear in materials that engender distinct, very specific physical properties, and use them to describe their topological features. In particular, we found a way to model skyrmion with a large transition region correlated with the presence of a two-peak skyrmion number density. Moreover, we run into the issue concerning the topological strength of a vortex-like structure and suggest an experimental realization, important to decide how to modify and measure the topological strength of the magnetic structure.

  4. Elemental Chemical Puzzlers

    Thomas, Nicholas C.


    This paper provides nine short chemically based puzzles or problems extensible for use with students from middle school to college. Some of these will strengthen students' recognition of individual elements and element names. Others require students to focus on the salient properties of given chemical elements.

  5. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Camilo Méndez


    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  6. Musikalske elementer i musikaler

    Jensen, Linnea Reitan


    Denne masteroppgaven undersøker hvordan musikalske elementer kan bli brukt i musikaler for å påvirke den dramaturgiske helheten. Gjennom både musikalsk og dramaturgisk analyse viser jeg hvordan elementer i musikk kan ha innvirkning på forestillingens dramaturgi. In this master thesis I am aiming to examine the musical elements used in the songs in musicals. Music is an important element in the musical, and therefore I want to look at how some musical elements can contribute to the musical'...

  7. Strength Training and Your Child

    ... the bone. And the benefits may go beyond physical health. Young athletes may feel better about themselves as they get stronger. Who Can Do Strength Training? Kids and teens who are ready to participate in organized sports or activities such as baseball, soccer, or gymnastics ...

  8. Fast electromagnetic field strength probes

    Leferink, Frank; Serra, Ramiro


    Diode detectors and thermocouple detectors are conventionally used to measure electromagnetic field strength. Both detectors have some disadvantages for applications where a fast response and a high dynamic range is required. The diode detector is limited in dynamic range. The dynamic range is impor

  9. Strength training for the warfighter.

    Kraemer, William J; Szivak, Tunde K


    Optimizing strength training for the warfighter is challenged by past training philosophies that no longer serve the modern warfighter facing the "anaerobic battlefield." Training approaches for integration of strength with other needed physical capabilities have been shown to require a periodization model that has the flexibility for changes and is able to adapt to ever-changing circumstances affecting the quality of workouts. Additionally, sequencing of workouts to limit over-reaching and development of overtraining syndromes that end in loss of duty time and injury are paramount to long-term success. Allowing adequate time for rest and recovery and recognizing the negative influences of extreme exercise programs and excessive endurance training will be vital in moving physical training programs into a more modern perspective as used by elite strength-power anaerobic athletes in sports today. Because the warfighter is an elite athlete, it is time that training approaches that are scientifically based are updated within the military to match the functional demands of modern warfare and are given greater credence and value at the command levels. A needs analysis, development of periodized training modules, and individualization of programs are needed to optimize the strength of the modern warfighter. We now have the knowledge, professional coaches and nonprofit organization certifications with continuing education units, and modern training technology to allow this to happen. Ultimately, it only takes command decisions and implementation to make this possible.

  10. Modeling of Sylgard Adhesive Strength

    Stevens, Ralph Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Sylgard is the name of a silicone elastomeric potting material manufactured by Dow Corning Corporation.1 Although the manufacturer cites its low adhesive strength as a feature of this product, thin layers of Sylgard do in fact have a non-negligible strength, which has been measured in recent tensile and shear debonding tests. The adhesive strength of thin layers of Sylgard potting material can be important in applications in which components having signi cantly di erent thermal expansion properties are potted together, and the potted assembly is subjected to temperature changes. The tensile and shear tractions developed on the potted surfaces of the components can cause signi cant internal stresses, particularly for components made of low-strength materials with a high area-to-volume ratio. This report is organized as follows: recent Sylgard debonding tests are rst brie y summarized, with particular attention to the adhesion between Sylgard and PBX 9501, and also between Sylgard and aluminum. Next, the type of numerical model that will be used to simulate the debonding behavior exhibited in these tests is described. Then the calibration of the debonding model will be illustrated. Finally, the method by which the model parameters are adjusted (scaled) to be applicable to other, non- tested bond thicknesses is summarized, and all parameters of the model (scaled and unscaled) are presented so that other investigators can reproduce all of the simulations described in this report as well as simulations of the application of interest.

  11. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

    Bull, J.W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sitas, N.; Baulcomb, C.; Lambini, C.K.; Rawlins, M.; Baral, H.; Zähringer, J.; Carter-Silk, E.; Balzan, M.V.; Kenter, J.O.; Häyhä, T.; Petz, K.; Koss, R.


    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an

  12. Lightweight Aggregate Concrete. The materials in the precast elements

    Goltermann, Per; Larsen, Henning; Ingholt, N.U.


    The precast lightweight aggregate concrete (LAC) elements are used extensively in Denmark, where the use of precast elements domonates the building structures. Similar elements are used in other parts of Nothern Europe, which have lead to development of an European standard for precast LAC elements...... of LAC with open structure (prEN1520).The test results have shown that the formulas in prEN1520's revision are fairly correct and lead to slightly conservative estimates of the modulus of elasticity and flexural strength....

  13. Experimental approach for adhesion strength of ATF cladding

    Kim, Donghyun; Kim, Hyochan; Yang, Yongsik; In, Wangkee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haksung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    The quality of a coating depends on the quality of its adhesion bond strength between the coating and the underlying substrate. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the adhesion properties of the coating. There are many available test methods for the evaluation of coatings adhesion bond strength. Considering these restrictions of the coated cladding, the scratch test is useful for evaluation of adhesion properties compared to other methods. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the possibility of adhesion bond strength evaluation of ATF coated cladding by scratch testing on coatings cross sections. Experimental approach for adhesion strength of ATF coated cladding was investigated in the present study. The scratch testing was chosen as a testing method. Uncoated zircaloy-4 tube was employed as a reference and plasma spray and arc ion coating were selected as a ATF coated claddings for comparison. As a result, adhesion strengths of specimens affect the measured normal and tangential forces. For the future, the test will be conducted for CrAl coated cladding by laser coating, which is the most promising ATF cladding. Computational analysis with finite element method will also be conducted to analyze a stress distribution in the cladding tube.

  14. Theoretical Strength of Face-Centred-Cubic Single Crystal Copper Based on a Continuum Model

    LIU Xiao-Ming; LIU Zhan-Li; YOU Xiao-Chuan; NIE Jun-Feng; ZHUANG Zhuo


    The constitutive relation of single crystal copper based on atomistic potential is implemented to capture the nonlinear inter-atomic interactions. Uniaxial loading tests of single crystal copper with inter-atomic potential finite-element model are carried out to determine the corresponding ideal strength using the modified Born stability criteria. Dependence of the ideal strength on the crystallographic orientation is studied, and tension-compression asymmetry in ideal strength is also investigated. The results suggest that asymmetry for yielding strength of nano-materials may result from anisotropic character of crystal instability. Moreover, the results also reveal that the critical resolved shear stress in the direction of slip is not an accurate criterion for the ideal strength since it could not capture the dependence on the loading conditions and hydrostatic stress components for the ideal strength.

  15. Peach Bottom test element program. Final report

    Saurwein, J.J.; Holzgraf, J.F.; MIller, C.M.; Myers, B.F.; Wallroth, C.F.


    Thirty-three test elements were irradiated in the Peach Bottom high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) as part of the testing program for advanced HTGRs. Extensive postirradiation examinations and evaluations of 21 of these irradiation experiments were performed. The test element irradiations were simulated using HTGR design codes and data. Calculated fuel burnups, power profiles, fast neutron fluences, and temperatures were verified via destructive burnup measurements, gamma scanning, and in-pile thermocouple readings corrected for decalibration effects. Analytical techniques were developed to improve the quality of temperature predictions through feedback of nuclear measurements into thermal calculations. Dimensional measurements, pressure burst tests, diametral compression tests, ring-cutting tests, strip-cutting tests, and four-point bend tests were performed to measure residual stress, strain, and strength distributions in H-327 graphite structures irradiated in the test elements.

  16. Finite element procedures

    Bathe, Klaus-Jürgen


    Finite element procedures are now an important and frequently indispensable part of engineering analyses and scientific investigations. This book focuses on finite element procedures that are very useful and are widely employed. Formulations for the linear and nonlinear analyses of solids and structures, fluids, and multiphysics problems are presented, appropriate finite elements are discussed, and solution techniques for the governing finite element equations are given. The book presents general, reliable, and effective procedures that are fundamental and can be expected to be in use for a long time. The given procedures form also the foundations of recent developments in the field.

  17. Subduction—Modified Subcontinental Mantle in South China:Trace Element and Isotope Evidence in Basalts from Hainan Island

    张明; 解广轰; 等


    Cenozoic lavas from Hainan Island,South China,comprise quartz tholeiite,olivine tholeiite,alkali basalt,and basanite and form a continuous,tholeiite-dominated,compositional spectrum.Highly incompatible elements and their relationships with isotopes in these lavas are shown to be useful in evaluating mantle-source composition,whereas modeling suggests that ratios of elements with bulk partition coefficients significantly larger than those of Nb and Ta may be sensitive to partial melting.Th/Ta and La/Nb ratios of alkali basalts are lower than those of tholeiites,and they are all lower than those of the primitive mantle,These ratios correlate positively with 207Pb/204Pb and 87Sr/86Sr ratios.Such relationships can be explained by mixing of depleted and enriched source components.A depleted component is indicated by alkali basalt compositions and is similar to some depleted OIB (PREMA).The enriched component,similar to sediment compositions,is indicated by tholeiites with high LILE/HFSE,207Pb/204Pb,and 87Sr/86Sr ratios.In general,basalts from Hainan and the South China Basin(SCB)share common geochemical characters.e.g.high Rb/Sr,Th/Ta,207Pb/206Pb,and low Ba/Th ratios.Such a geochemical trend is comparable to that of EMII-type OIB and best explained as the result of subduction.Occurrence of these characteristics in both continental Hainan basalts and SCB seamout basalts indicates the presence of a South China geochemical domain that exists in the mantle region below the lithosphere.

  18. The ultimate strength of doubler plate reinforced Y-joints under compression loading

    FENQ Qi; TAN Jia-hua


    It is common practice in the offshore industry to solve the punching shear problem due to compression by using doubler plate. The finite-element method is a useful tool for studying this problem. The aim of this paper is to study the static strength of doubler plate reinforced Y-joints subjected to compression loading. The finite-element method is adopted in numerical parametric studies. The individual influences of the geometric parameters βand τd (doubler plate to chord wall thickness ratio) and ld/d1(dubler plate length to brace diameter ratio) on the ultimate strength are made clear. The results show the size of plate may have important effects on the strength of reinforced joints. It is found that the ultimate strength of Y-joints reinforced with appropriately proportioned doubler plates can be greatly improved nearly up tothree times to un-reinforced Y-joints.

  19. Main: -300ELEMENT [PLACE

    Full Text Available -300ELEMENT S000122 11-May-2006 (last modified) kehi Present upstream of the from the B-hordein gene of barley and the alpha-gliadin, gamma-gliadin, and low molecular weight glutenin... genes of wheat; See S000001 -300CORE; See S000002 -300MOTIF; -300 element; hordein; gliadin; glutenin; seed; wheat (Triticum aestivum) TGHAAARK ...

  20. A dry element

    Kimura, T.; Ota, A.


    The agglomerate for the element is made from activated charcoal powder, an electrically conducting additive and a neutral electrolyte. The activated charcoal makes up 30 to 50 percent of the weight of the agglomerate. It is a mixture of hydrophobized and unhydrophobized powder in a ratio of 85 to 70 to 15 to 30. The element has high discharge characteristics.

  1. A battery element

    Nakai, M.; Koboyasi, S.; Oisi, K.; Okadzaki, R.; Ota, A.


    An anode made of an alkaline or an alkaline earth metal and an electrolyte based on an organic solvent are used in the element. A mixture of Mn203 and Mn304 in a 9 to 1 to 3 to 7 ratio serves as the cathode. The element has a stable discharge curve at a nominal voltage of 1.5 volts.

  2. Strain-Rate Dependency of Strength of Soft Marine Deposits of the Gulf of Mexico


    abstract number: 090612-057 Strain-rate dependency of strength of soft marine deposits of the Gulf of Mexico Andrei Abelev and Philip Valent...from the Gulf of Mexico . The vane test may not always be the most accurate method of describing the undrained shear strength, mainly because it...deposits of the Gulf of Mexico 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER

  3. Target echo strength modelling at FOI, including results from the BeTSSi II workshop

    Östberg, Martin


    An overview of the target echo strength (TS) modelling capacity at the Swedish Defense Research Agency (FOI) is presented. The modelling methods described range from approximate ones, such as raytracing and Kirchhoff approximation codes, to high accuracy full field codes including boundary integral equation methods and finite elements methods. Illustrations of the applicability of the codes are given for a few simple cases tackled during the BeTTSi II (Benchmark Target Echo Strength Simulation) workshop held in Kiel 2014.

  4. The solar element

    Kragh, Helge


    Apart from hydrogen, helium is the most abundant chemical element in the universe, and yet it was only discovered on the Earth in 1895. Its early history is unique because it encompasses astronomy as well as chemistry, two sciences which the spectroscope brought into contact during the second half...... of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... elements might be different. The complex story of how helium became established as both a solar and terrestrial element involves precise observations as well as airy speculations. It is a story that is unique among the discovery histories of the chemical elements....

  5. Comparison of Remolded Shear Strength with Intrinsic Strength Line for Dredged Deposits

    DENG Dong-sheng


    Chandler proposed the intrinsic strength line to correlate the undrained shear strength of samples one-dimensionally consolidated from slurry with the void index proposed by Burland. The undrained shear strength on the intrinsic strength line is different from the remolded undrained shear strength that is an important parameter for design and construction of land reclamation. The void index is used in this study for normalizing the remolded strength behavior of dredged deposits. A quantitative relationship between remolded undrained shear strength and void index is established based on extensive data of dredged deposits available from sources of literature. Furthermore, the normalized remolded undrained shear strength is compared with intrinsic strength line. The comparison result indicates that the ratio of undrained shear strength on the intrinsic strength line over remolded undrained shear strength increases with an increase in applied consolidated stress.

  6. Lijiang: From Brand to Strength

    Gao Wentian; Bai Yifeng


    @@ The tourism industry is facing unprecedented challenges after the financial crisis.During this "financial winter",how much influence has Lijiang's tourism,the one that has been the pillar industry of Lijiang and important economic growth point received? And how does the government of Lijiang deal with this? How to transform it from "Brand Lijiang" to "Strength Lijiang"? Member of National People's Congress,Lijiang's deputy secretary of municipal party committee,and Mayor Wang Junzheng accepted an exclusive interview with our reporter.

  7. Prediction of underwater target strength

    WANG TongQing; Mohammad Amjad


    A model as well as its numerical method to calculate target strength of rigid body using Lighthill's acoustic analogy approach which developed from the propeller aircraft sound field study have been presented. The cases of ellipsoid target has been used to demonstrate the approach. The comparison of the numerical results with that of analytical formulation provides a satisfactory check for the validity of the approach. Some reasonable results have been discussed. The advantage of the present model is that it is suitable for any arbitrarily shaped rigid body moving with small Mach number.

  8. Strength and Microstructure of Ceramics


    material. Thus, in these two cases. thes)rnbols at left represent strength values for specimns that effo-. of heat treament on the R curve isbroke from...Vol. 22, p. 135, 1988. 9. "Effect of Heat Treatment on Crack-Resistance Curves in a Liquid-Phase- Sintered Alumina" S.J. Bennison, 11.M. Chan and B.R...Subvinucat "rack Growth and Other Time. and Environment.Dependwn Behavior In Crustat Rocks," J. Geophys. Res.. 39, 4137-52 (1984). 9. "Effect of Heat


    Robert Radtke


    The manufacture of thermally stable diamond (TSP) cutters for drill bits used in petroleum drilling requires the brazing of two dissimilar materials--TSP diamond and tungsten carbide. The ENDURUS{trademark} thermally stable diamond cutter developed by Technology International, Inc. exhibits (1) high attachment (shear) strength, exceeding 345 MPa (50,000 psi), (2) TSP diamond impact strength increased by 36%, (3) prevents TSP fracture when drilling hard rock, and (4) maintains a sharp edge when drilling hard and abrasive rock. A novel microwave brazing (MWB) method for joining dissimilar materials has been developed. A conventional braze filler metal is combined with microwave heating which minimizes thermal residual stress between materials with dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion. The process results in preferential heating of the lower thermal expansion diamond material, thus providing the ability to match the thermal expansion of the dissimilar material pair. Methods for brazing with both conventional and exothermic braze filler metals have been developed. Finite element modeling (FEM) assisted in the fabrication of TSP cutters controllable thermal residual stress and high shear attachment strength. Further, a unique cutter design for absorbing shock, the densification of otherwise porous TSP diamond for increased mechanical strength, and diamond ion implantation for increased diamond fracture resistance resulted in successful drill bit tests.

  10. Notch Fatigue Strength of a PM Disk Superalloy

    Gayda, John; Gabb, Timothy P.; Telesman, Jack


    New powder metallurgy (PM) disk superalloys, such as ME3, LSHR, and Alloy 10, have been developed in recent years which enable rim temperatures in turbine disk applications to approach 1300 F. Before these alloys can be utilized at 1300 F their long term durability must be ensured. One of the key requirements for disk rims is notch fatigue strength. This issue is extremely important and is a direct result of the blade attachment geometry employed at the disk rim. Further, the imposition of a dwell at maximum load, associated with take off and landing, can also affect notch fatigue strength. For these reasons a study has been undertaken to assess the notch dwell fatigue strength of a modern PM disk alloy through spin pit evaluation of a prototypical disk. The first element of this program involves screening potential heat treatments with respect to notch fatigue strength at 1300 F utilizing a conventional notch fatigue specimen with a stress concentration factor (K(sub t)) of 2 and a 90 sec dwell at peak load. The results of this effort are reported in this paper including the downselect of an optimal heat treatment, from a notch fatigue standpoint.

  11. Proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and strength training to gain muscle strength in elderly women

    Cesário, Denise Ferreira; Mendes, Geovânia Barbosa da Silva; Uchôa, Érica Patrícia Borba Lira; Veiga, Paulo Henrique Altran


    ...: To perform comparative analyze of results of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) techniques and strength training to gain muscle strength of biceps and quadriceps and grip in the elderly...

  12. Three Important Advances in Engineering Strength Theories

    YuMaohong; FanWen; MitustoshiYoshimine


    There are there great advances in the research on engineering strength theories in the latter half of the 20th Century. The first advance was the devel-opment of strength theory from the single-shear strength theory including the Tresca yield criterion and Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion to theoctahe-dral-shear strength theory; the second one was that from the octahedral-shear strength theory to the twin-shear strength theory; and the third wasthe theories from the single criteria to the unifiedstrength theory. These three advances are summa-rized in this paper. It is interesting and useful for re-searchers to choose an appropriate failure criterion in studying the strength of materials and struc-tures, for engineers to correctly use it and for stu-dents to understand strength theory.

  13. Finite element analysis of Polymer reinforced CRC columns under close-in detonation

    Riisgaard, Benjamin


    Polymer reinforced Compact Reinforced Composite, PCRC, is a Fiber reinforced Densified Small Particle system, FDSP, combined with a high strength longitudinal flexural rebar arrangement laced together with polymer lacing to avoid shock initiated disintegration of the structural element under blast...

  14. Effect of strength matching on the reliability of welded pipe with circumferential surface crack

    何柏林; 于影霞; 霍立兴; 张玉凤


    For different strength matching, the reliability index and failure probability of welded pressure pipe with circumferential surface crack were calculated using three dimensional stochastic finite element method. This method has overcome the shortcomings of conservative results in safety assessment with deterministic fracture mechanics method. The effects of external moment and the depth of the circumferential surface crack (a) on the reliability of pressure pipe were also calculated and discussed. The calculation results indicate that the strength matching has certain effect on the reliability of the welded pressure pipe with circumferential surface crack. The failure probability of welded pressure pipe with high strength matching is lower than that with low strength matching at the same conditions. The effects of strength matching on the failure probability and reliability index increased by adding external moment (M) and the depth of the circumferential surface crack (a).

  15. Flow Element Models

    Heiselberg, Per; Nielsen, Peter V.

    Air distribution in ventilated rooms is a flow process that can be divided into different elements such as supply air jets, exhaust flows, thermal plumes, boundary layer flows, infiltration and gravity currents. These flow elements are isolated volumes where the air movement is controlled...... by a restricted number of parameters, and the air movement is fairly independent of the general flow in the enclosure. In many practical situations, the most convenient· method is to design the air distribution system using flow element theory....

  16. Discovery of element 112

    Hofmann, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)


    The new elements 110, 111, and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. Due to strong shell effects the dominant decay mode is not fission, but emission of alpha particles. Theoretical investigations predict that maximum shell effects should exist in nuclei near proton number 114 and neutron number 184. Measurements give hope that isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical Superheavy Elements could be produced by fusion reactions using {sup 118}Pb as target. systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that transfer of nucleons is the important process to initiate the fusion.

  17. Finite element mesh generation

    Lo, Daniel SH


    Highlights the Progression of Meshing Technologies and Their ApplicationsFinite Element Mesh Generation provides a concise and comprehensive guide to the application of finite element mesh generation over 2D domains, curved surfaces, and 3D space. Organised according to the geometry and dimension of the problem domains, it develops from the basic meshing algorithms to the most advanced schemes to deal with problems with specific requirements such as boundary conformity, adaptive and anisotropic elements, shape qualities, and mesh optimization. It sets out the fundamentals of popular techniques

  18. Validity of strength hypothesis in damaged HT elbow evaluation

    Maile, K.; Sheng, S.; Purper, H. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt


    The influence of multiaxial load on long term creep behaviour was investigated in several research programs. The experimentally determined results of multiaxial loaded specimen were compared by way of a strength hypothesis with those of uniaxial data and the results of Finite Element calculation. It was found out that the validity of a strength hypothesis depends on the type of load and on deformation respectively failure criterions. Creep deformation is also influenced by the degree of multiaxiality. Full scale validation tests on bends of 0.6 Mo- and 12 Cr-steel, respectively, are being carried out. The obtained results from these tests confirm the results of the aforementioned tests with small scale specimens. To consider the effect of multiaxiality and additional (secondary) stresses in the life assessment of bends operating in the creep regime new approaches based on the aforementioned stress hypothesis are necessary. (authors). 2 refs., 12 figs.

  19. Diffusive fractionation of trace elements in basaltic melt

    Holycross, Megan E.; Bruce Watson, E.


    The chemical diffusivities of 25 trace elements (Sc, V, Rb, Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Yb, Lu, Hf, Ta, Th, and U) in basaltic melt were measured in diffusion couple experiments performed at 1 GPa pressure and temperatures from 1250 to 1500 °C. Trace element concentration gradients developed in the glasses were simultaneously characterized using laser ablation ICP/MS to create an internally consistent data set. A ratio-fitting technique was employed to accurately determine the relative diffusivities of the rare earth elements (REE). All diffusion coefficients conform to the expected Arrhenius relation D = D 0exp(- E a /RT), where the constant log( D 0, m2/s) ranges from -3.81 to -5.11 and E a ranges from 161.73 to 223.81 kJ/mol. The slowest diffusivities are obtained for the high-field-strength elements; the fastest diffusivities are obtained for the low-field-strength elements. Trace element diffusion in MORB follows the compensation law, where log D 0 is linearly correlated with E a. Arrhenius parameters for diffusion of trivalent REE monotonically increase from La to Lu and are near-linear functions of bond strength (the variation in Arrhenius parameters means that the diffusivities decrease monotonically from La to Lu at a given T). The new data for trace element diffusion in basaltic melt can be used to explore the potential for diffusive fractionation of trace elements using kinetic models. Concentrations of the slower-diffusing heavy REE may be altered relative to those of the faster-diffusing light REE as a diffusive boundary layer develops in melt-melt and crystal-melt systems. The results indicate that diffusion in basalt can be an effective mechanism to fractionate trace elements from one another.

  20. Improving the toughness of ultrahigh strength steel

    Soto, Koji


    The ideal structural steel combines high strength with high fracture toughness. This dissertation discusses the toughening mechanism of the Fe/Co/Ni/Cr/Mo/C steel, AerMet 100, which has the highest toughness/strength combination among all commercial ultrahigh strength steels. The possibility of improving the toughness of this steel was examined by considering several relevant factors.

  1. Muscle strength in patients with chronic pain

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Akkerman, L.; Wieringa, J.; Dijkstra, P.U.


    Objective: To analyse the influence of chronic pain on muscle strength. Design: Muscle strength of patients with unilateral nonspecific chronic pain, in an upper or lower limb, were measured according to a standardized protocol using a hand-held dynamometer. Before and after muscle strength

  2. 14 CFR 31.27 - Strength.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strength. 31.27 Section 31.27 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Strength Requirements § 31.27 Strength. (a) The structure must be able...

  3. Muscle strength in patients with chronic pain

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Akkerman, L.; Wieringa, J.; Dijkstra, P.U.


    Objective: To analyse the influence of chronic pain on muscle strength. Design: Muscle strength of patients with unilateral nonspecific chronic pain, in an upper or lower limb, were measured according to a standardized protocol using a hand-held dynamometer. Before and after muscle strength measurem

  4. Strengths and Satisfaction across the Adult Lifespan

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Vaillant, George E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.


    Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant study…

  5. Asteroid airburst altitude vs. strength

    Robertson, Darrel; Wheeler, Lorien; Mathias, Donovan


    Small NEO asteroids (<Ø140m) may not be a threat on a national or global level but can still cause a significant amount of local damage as demonstrated by the Chelyabinsk event where there was over $33 million worth of damage (1 billion roubles) and 1500 were injured, mostly due to broken glass. The ground damage from a small asteroid depends strongly on the altitude at which they "burst" where most of the energy is deposited in the atmosphere. The ability to accurately predict ground damage is useful in determining appropriate evacuation or shelter plans and emergency management.Strong asteroids, such as a monolithic boulder, fail and create peak energy deposition close to the altitude at which ram dynamic pressure exceeds the material cohesive strength. Weaker asteroids, such as a rubble pile, structurally fail at higher altitude, but it requires the increased aerodynamic pressure at lower altitude to disrupt and disperse the rubble. Consequently the resulting airbursts have a peak energy deposition at similar altitudes.In this study hydrocode simulations of the entry and break-up of small asteroids were performed to examine the effect of strength, size, composition, entry angle, and speed on the resulting airburst. This presentation will show movies of the simulations, the results of peak burst height, and the comparison to semi-analytical models.

  6. Correlation among electronegativity, cation polarizability, optical basicity and single bond strength of simple oxides

    Dimitrov, Vesselin, E-mail: [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8, Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)


    A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements in different valence states and with the most common coordination numbers has been searched on the basis of the similarity in physical nature of both quantities. In general, the cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. A systematic periodic change in the polarizability against the electronegativity has been observed in the isoelectronic series. It has been found that generally the optical basicity increases and the single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. The observed trends have been discussed on the basis of electron donation ability of the oxide ions and type of chemical bonding in simple oxides. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the single bond strength of simple oxides as a function of element electronegativity. A remarkable correlation exists between these independently obtained quantities. High values of electronegativity correspond to high values of single bond strength and vice versa. It is obvious that the observed trend in this figure is closely related to the type of chemical bonding in corresponding oxide. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements was searched. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed trends were discussed on the basis of type of chemical bonding in simple oxides.

  7. Finite elements modeling of delaminations in composite laminates

    Gaiotti, m.; Rizzo, C.M.; Branner, Kim;


    The application of composite materials in many structures poses to engineers the problem to create reliable and relatively simple methods, able to estimate the strength of multilayer composite structures. Multilayer composites, like other laminated materials, suffer from layer separation, i.e., d...... by finite elements using different techniques. Results obtained with different finite element models are compared and discussed.......The application of composite materials in many structures poses to engineers the problem to create reliable and relatively simple methods, able to estimate the strength of multilayer composite structures. Multilayer composites, like other laminated materials, suffer from layer separation, i...... of the buckling strength of composite laminates containing delaminations. Namely, non-linear buckling and post-buckling analyses are carried out to predict the critical buckling load of elementary composite laminates affected by rectangular delaminations of different sizes and locations, which are modelled...

  8. Divergent picornavirus IRES elements

    Belsham, Graham


    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements were first identified about 20 years ago within the 5' untranslated region of picornavirus RNAs. They direct a cap-independent mechanism of translation initiation on the viral RNA. Within the picornavirus family it is now known that there are four...... classes of IRES element which vary in size (450-270nt), they also have different, complex, secondary structures and distinct requirements for cellular proteins to allow them to function. This review describes the features of each class of picornavirus IRES element but focuses on the characteristics...... of the most recently described group, initially identified within the porcine teschovirus-1 RNA, which has strong similarities to the IRES elements from within the genomes of hepatitis C virus and the pestiviruses which are members of the flavivirus family. The selection of the initiation codon...

  9. New functionalities in abundant element oxides: ubiquitous element strategy.

    Hosono, Hideo; Hayashi, Katsuro; Kamiya, Toshio; Atou, Toshiyuki; Susaki, Tomofumi


    While most ceramics are composed of ubiquitous elements (the ten most abundant elements within the Earth's crust), many advanced materials are based on rare elements. A 'rare-element crisis' is approaching owing to the imbalance between the limited supply of rare elements and the increasing demand. Therefore, we propose a 'ubiquitous element strategy' for materials research, which aims to apply abundant elements in a variety of innovative applications. Creation of innovative oxide materials and devices based on conventional ceramics is one specific challenge. This review describes the concept of ubiquitous element strategy and gives some highlights of our recent research on the synthesis of electronic, thermionic and structural materials using ubiquitous elements.

  10. New roof element system

    Ditlev, Jesper; Rudbeck, Claus Christian


    The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs.......The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs....

  11. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Nonneman Dan J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  12. New roof element system

    Ditlev, Jesper; Rudbeck, Claus Christian


    The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs.......The aim of the project has been to develop an element system for warm deck roofs which, from a thermal and economical point of view, can deal with the future demands for heat loss coefficients for low slope roofs....

  13. Structural elements design manual

    Draycott, Trevor


    Gives clear explanations of the logical design sequence for structural elements. The Structural Engineer says: `The book explains, in simple terms, and with many examples, Code of Practice methods for sizing structural sections in timber, concrete,masonry and steel. It is the combination into one book of section sizing methods in each of these materials that makes this text so useful....Students will find this an essential support text to the Codes of Practice in their study of element sizing'.

  14. A battery element

    Vatanabe, U.; Aoki, K.; Ito, K.; Ogava, K.; Okadzaki, R.


    An anode made of a light metal is used in the element, along with an anhydrous liquid electrolyte and a cathode made of CuC12(CFn)x or another material. The current tap of the anode is made from aluminum, gold, silver or another metal of the platinum group and the current tap may be coated with this metal. The thickness of the coating is 0.1 to 1 micrometer. The element has a long storage life.

  15. Atoms, molecules & elements

    Graybill, George


    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  16. Gothic Writing Elements in A Christmas Carol



    Charles Dickens was the greatest critical realists in English literary. Almost all of his novels display his deep concern for the society and great sympathy for the low-class people. A Christmas Carol was written in 1843 when the society was unrest.The author created the gothic atmosphere himself, and put his characters into that situation and combined the gothic writing methods with the critical realism in order that the gothic elements could express a kind of strong convulsion, which could strength his criti⁃cism for the society. At the same time, the Gothicism also helped to deepen his criticism for the society.

  17. Trace elements in dialysis.

    Filler, Guido; Felder, Sarah


    In end-stage chronic kidney disease (CKD), pediatric nephrologists must consider the homeostasis of the multiple water-soluble ions that are influenced by renal replacement therapy (RRT). While certain ions such as potassium and calcium are closely monitored, little is known about the handling of trace elements in pediatric dialysis. RRT may lead to accumulation of toxic trace elements, either due to insufficient elimination or due to contamination, or to excessive removal of essential trace elements. However, trace elements are not routinely monitored in dialysis patients and no mechanism for these deficits or toxicities has been established. This review summarizes the handling of trace elements, with particular attention to pediatric data. The best data describe lead and indicate that there is a higher prevalence of elevated lead (Pb, atomic number 82) levels in children on RRT when compared to adults. Lead is particularly toxic in neurodevelopment and lead levels should therefore be monitored. Monitoring of zinc (Zn, atomic number 30) and selenium (Se, atomic number 34) may be indicated in the monitoring of all pediatric dialysis patients to reduce morbidity from deficiency. Prospective studies evaluating the impact of abnormal trace elements and the possible therapeutic value of intervention are required.

  18. Strength dynamics of weighted evolving networks

    Wu Jian-Jun; Gao Zi-You; Sun Hui-Jun


    In this paper, a simple model for the strength dynamics of weighted evolving networks is proposed to characterize the weighted networks. By considering the congestion effects, this approach can yield power law strength distribution appeared on the many real weighted networks, such as traffic networks, internet networks. Besides, the relationship between strength and degree is given. Numerical simulations indicate that the strength distribution is strongly related to the strength dynamics decline. The model also provides us with a better description of the real weighted networks.

  19. Strength Distribution Analysis of Typical Staple Fibers


    The strength of staple fiber is an important property for yarns and fabrics. Usually there are variations in individual fiber strength, and this will affect the final strength of yarns and fabrics. In this study, Weibull distribution function is used to analyze the strength distribution of various staplefibers. The strengths of wool, silk, cotton, flax, acrylic, polyester, glass, aramid and carbon fiber are tested. It isfound that the strengths of cotton, polyester, glass, aramid and carbon fiber fit well with the two-factor Weibulldistribution, while those of wool and silk with the threefactir Weibull distribution. However, the strength distributionof flax cannot be expressed by either two- or three-factor Weibull distribution convincingly.

  20. On strength of porous material

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang


    quality without damaging or destroying the material or the building component considered. The efficiency of MOE-MOR relations for this purpose depends very much on the homogeneity of porous material considered. For building materials like wood and concrete of normal or lower quality with a number......The question of non-destructive testing of porous materials has always been of interest for the engineering profession. A number of empirically based MOE-MOR relations between stiffness (Modulus Of Elasticity) and strength (Modulus OF Rupture) of materials have been established in order to control...... of irregularities only scattered MOE-MOR relations (clouds) can be established from which no really results can be read.For homogeneously produced porous materials, however, like modern ceramics and high performance concretes MOE-MOR relations can be presented which are reliable. The present paper contributes...

  1. Conditioned Reinforcement and Response Strength

    Shahan, Timothy A


    Stimuli associated with primary reinforcers appear themselves to acquire the capacity to strengthen behavior. This paper reviews research on the strengthening effects of conditioned reinforcers within the context of contemporary quantitative choice theories and behavioral momentum theory. Based partially on the finding that variations in parameters of conditioned reinforcement appear not to affect response strength as measured by resistance to change, long-standing assertions that conditioned reinforcers do not strengthen behavior in a reinforcement-like fashion are considered. A signposts or means-to-an-end account is explored and appears to provide a plausible alternative interpretation of the effects of stimuli associated with primary reinforcers. Related suggestions that primary reinforcers also might not have their effects via a strengthening process are explored and found to be worthy of serious consideration. PMID:20885815

  2. The Distribution of Subjective Memory Strength: List Strength and Response Bias

    Criss, Amy H.


    Models of recognition memory assume that memory decisions are based partially on the subjective strength of the test item. Models agree that the subjective strength of targets increases with additional time for encoding however the origin of the subjective strength of foils remains disputed. Under the fixed strength assumption the distribution of…

  3. The Mean Remaining Strength Of Systems In A Stress-Strength Model

    Gürler, Selma


    In this paper, we study the mean remaining strength of a component inthe stress-strength setup. We present the models for the mean remaining strength for systems consisting of n independent components underthe k-out-of-n:F , parallel and series configurations. We assume thatthe strengths of the components are nonidentically distributed randomvariables and components are designed under the common stress.

  4. Oscillator strengths for IR rovibrational transitions of CO

    Hure, J.M.; Roueff, E. (DAEC and URA, Meudon (France))


    The authors have solved the nuclear Schroedinger radial equation to derive wavefunctions and rovibrational energy levels of the carbon monoxide molecule [sup 12]C[sup 16]O in its ground electronic state X[sup 1][Sigma][sup +] at a spectroscopic accuracy. They then calculated the dipole matrix elements for transitions involving vibrational quantum numbers up to [upsilon] = 15 and rotational quantum numbers up to J = 200. Calculations were carried out for the fundamental ([Delta][upsilon] = 1) and the three first overtone ([Delta][upsilon] = 2, 3, 4) bands. For the transition matrix elements there is typically a 10% difference from previous results due to recent values of the dipole moment function. This gives a significant 20% difference for the absorption oscillator strengths which are computed for this set of 21,600 lines.

  5. Unified programs nationally? Strengths and weaknesses of the learning standards

    Ignacio Polo Martínez


    Full Text Available The inclusion of measurable learning standards as an element of the curriculum has definitely opened the door to the connection between the curriculum and external assessments. Since its origin, the potential impact of that element in improving our educational system has been defended and criticized. The truth is that in our country, though all regions are based on the same Royal Decree of core curriculum, and therefore the same reference for the evaluation, curriculum that ultimately applies to students ( teaching-learning- assessment from the different regions can have significant differences . This article proposes, from the analysis of various research , training programs, the plan of action for inspection and the author's own experience in processes of curriculum specifications , assess the potential strengths and weaknesses of the learning standards.

  6. Correlation between the strength of glass ionomer cements and their bond strength to bovine teeth.

    Hibino, Yasushi; Kuramochi, Ken-ichi; Harashima, Atsushi; Honda, Muneaki; Yamazaki, Atsushi; Nagasawa, Yuko; Yamaga, Taniichiro; Nakajima, Hiroshi


    This study examined the possible correlation between the strength of glass ionomers and their adhesive strength to bovine teeth. The shear bond strengths of three different brands of glass ionomer mixed at four different P/L ratios to bovine teeth were measured 24 hours after the cement specimens were prepared. The correlation between shear bond strength and mechanical strength reported in our previous study was also examined. No significant (p > 0.05) increases in the bond strength to bovine teeth were found in any of the cements when the mixing ratio increased. The present study showed no significant (p > 0.05) correlation between mechanical strength of cement and its bond strength to bovine teeth. Rather than trying to increase the strength of the cement, it would be more effective to enhance the adhesive bond strength through procedures such as surface conditioning or cleaning of the tooth structure when glass ionomers are used as luting agents.


    Dragan Radovanovic; Aleksandar Ignjatovic; Ratko Stankovic


    Strength training, or resistance training, is a form of physical conditioning used to increase the ability to resist force. Since muscular strength is required for success in many sports, it is logical to assume that stronger and more powerful young athletes will achieve better results. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of strength training on young athletes. An eight-week strength training program for developing muscle strength was performed in this study. Training protocol was...

  8. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Burley, H.H. [ed.


    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  9. Creativity Management Key Elements

    Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles


    Full Text Available Organizations are constantly looking towards innovation. In order to reach it they must foment creativity. This paper analyzes a series of elements considered in the organizational creativity management and proposes a model with the indispensable factors that organizations should consider to reach it. These elements are: culture and organizational environment, strategy, structure, communication, relation with customers, human resources (recruiting, training, job design, compensation, promotion, and performance evaluation, long term orientation and the organizational life cycle. Having the analysis of those elements as a basis, the indispensable pillars on management creativity are identified. The proposed model is based on 5 pillars: the alignment between strategic, culture and organizational structure, called by the authors 'Holy Trinity'; intern publicity; customer’s voice; recognition and a look towards future. Finally, the case of an innovative Peruvian enterprise is presented from the model’s perspective and the study conclusions.

  10. Elemental analysis in biotechnology.

    Hann, Stephan; Dernovics, Mihaly; Koellensperger, Gunda


    This article focuses on analytical strategies integrating atomic spectroscopy in biotechnology. The rationale behind developing such methods is inherently linked to unique features of the key technique in elemental analysis, which is inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: (1) the high sensitivity and selectivity of state of the art instrumentation, (2) the possibility of accurate absolute quantification even in complex matrices, (3) the capability of combining elemental detectors with chromatographic separation methods and the versatility of the latter approach, (4) the complementarity of inorganic and organic mass spectrometry, (5) the multi-element capability and finally (6) the capability of isotopic analysis. The article highlights the most recent bio-analytical developments exploiting these methodological advantages and shows the potential in biotechnological applications.

  11. Advanced finite element technologies

    Wriggers, Peter


    The book presents an overview of the state of research of advanced finite element technologies. Besides the mathematical analysis, the finite element development and their engineering applications are shown to the reader. The authors give a survey of the methods and technologies concerning efficiency, robustness and performance aspects. The book covers the topics of mathematical foundations for variational approaches and the mathematical understanding of the analytical requirements of modern finite element methods. Special attention is paid to finite deformations, adaptive strategies, incompressible, isotropic or anisotropic material behavior and the mathematical and numerical treatment of the well-known locking phenomenon. Beyond that new results for the introduced approaches are presented especially for challenging nonlinear problems.

  12. An alkaline element

    Arita, T.; Murakami, K.; Okha, K.


    A cathode with a dual layer active mass is installed in the disk shaped alkaline silver and zinc element. The first layer, which is turned towards the anode, contains 85 parts Ag2O, 5 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 10 parts graphite. The second layer, which contacts the bottom of the element, contains 35 parts Ag2O, 60 parts electrolytic MnO2 and 5 parts graphite. The electrical capacity of the first and second layers is 60 and 40, respectively. The first layer may be discharged with a high current density and the second layer with less current density. The element has high characteristics with comparatively low cost.

  13. Intelligent Elements for ISHM

    Schmalzel, John L.; Morris, Jon; Turowski, Mark; Figueroa, Fernando; Oostdyk, Rebecca


    There are a number of architecture models for implementing Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM) capabilities. For example, approaches based on the OSA-CBM and OSA-EAI models, or specific architectures developed in response to local needs. NASA s John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC) has developed one such version of an extensible architecture in support of rocket engine testing that integrates a palette of functions in order to achieve an ISHM capability. Among the functional capabilities that are supported by the framework are: prognostic models, anomaly detection, a data base of supporting health information, root cause analysis, intelligent elements, and integrated awareness. This paper focuses on the role that intelligent elements can play in ISHM architectures. We define an intelligent element as a smart element with sufficient computing capacity to support anomaly detection or other algorithms in support of ISHM functions. A smart element has the capabilities of supporting networked implementations of IEEE 1451.x smart sensor and actuator protocols. The ISHM group at SSC has been actively developing intelligent elements in conjunction with several partners at other Centers, universities, and companies as part of our ISHM approach for better supporting rocket engine testing. We have developed several implementations. Among the key features for these intelligent sensors is support for IEEE 1451.1 and incorporation of a suite of algorithms for determination of sensor health. Regardless of the potential advantages that can be achieved using intelligent sensors, existing large-scale systems are still based on conventional sensors and data acquisition systems. In order to bring the benefits of intelligent sensors to these environments, we have also developed virtual implementations of intelligent sensors.

  14. Characteristics of structural loess strength and preliminary framework for joint strength formula

    Rong-jian LI; Jun-ding LIU; Rui YAN; Wen ZHENG; Sheng-jun SHAO


    The strength of structural loess consists of the shear strength and tensile strength. In this study, the stress path, the failure envelope of principal stress ( Kf line), and the strength failure envelope of structurally intact loess and remolded loess were analyzed through three kinds of tests:the tensile strength test, the uniaxial compressive strength test, and the conventional triaxial shear strength test. Then, in order to describe the tensile strength and shear strength of structural loess comprehensively and reasonably, a joint strength formula for structural loess was established. This formula comprehensively considers tensile and shear properties. Studies have shown that the tensile strength exhibits a decreasing trend with increasing water content. When the water content is constant, the tensile strength of the structurally intact soil is greater than that of remolded soil. In the studies, no loss of the originally cured cohesion in the structurally intact soil samples was observed, given that the soil samples did not experience loading disturbance during the uniaxial compressive strength test, meaning there is a high initial structural strength. The results of the conventional triaxial shear strength test show that the water content is correlated with the strength of the structural loess. When the water content is low, the structural properties are strong, and when the water content is high, the structural properties are weak, which means that the water content and the ambient pressure have significant effects on the stress-strain relationship of structural loess. The established joint strength formula of structural loess effectively avoids overestimating the role of soil tensile strength in the traditional theory of Mohr-Coulomb strength.

  15. Elements of social security

    Hansen, Hans

    (Alte Länder). This is the 9th and last edition of the publication,covering income levels and rules for social security and personal taxation for 1999. Basis for the projections to 1999 income levels is the 1998 data (in some cases 1999 data)for OECD's Taxing Wages as reported by national experts.......Elements of Social Security is a comparative study of important elements of the social security systems in Denmark (DK), Sweden (S), Finland (FIN), Austria (A), Germany (D), the Netherlands (NL), Great Britain (GB) and Canada (CAN). It should be emphasized that Germany is the former West Germany...

  16. Rocket propulsion elements

    Sutton, George P


    The definitive text on rocket propulsion-now revised to reflect advancements in the field For sixty years, Sutton's Rocket Propulsion Elements has been regarded as the single most authoritative sourcebook on rocket propulsion technology. As with the previous edition, coauthored with Oscar Biblarz, the Eighth Edition of Rocket Propulsion Elements offers a thorough introduction to basic principles of rocket propulsion for guided missiles, space flight, or satellite flight. It describes the physical mechanisms and designs for various types of rockets' and provides an unders

  17. Finite element analysis


    Finite element analysis is an engineering method for the numerical analysis of complex structures. This book provides a bird's eye view on this very broad matter through 27 original and innovative research studies exhibiting various investigation directions. Through its chapters the reader will have access to works related to Biomedical Engineering, Materials Engineering, Process Analysis and Civil Engineering. The text is addressed not only to researchers, but also to professional engineers, engineering lecturers and students seeking to gain a better understanding of where Finite Element Analysis stands today.

  18. Finite elements and approximation

    Zienkiewicz, O C


    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  19. Elements of social security

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security is a comparative study of important elements of the social security systems in Denmark (DK), Sweden (S), Finland (FIN), Austria (A), Germany (D), the Netherlands (NL), Great Britain (GB) and Canada (CAN). It should be emphasized that Germany is the former West Germany...... (Alte Länder). This is the 9th and last edition of the publication,covering income levels and rules for social security and personal taxation for 1999. Basis for the projections to 1999 income levels is the 1998 data (in some cases 1999 data)for OECD's Taxing Wages as reported by national experts....

  20. Elements of linear space

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N


    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  1. Annihilators of nilpotent elements

    Abraham A. Klein


    Full Text Available Let x be a nilpotent element of an infinite ring R (not necessarily with 1. We prove that A(x—the two-sided annihilator of x—has a large intersection with any infinite ideal I of R in the sense that card(A(x∩I=cardI. In particular, cardA(x=cardR; and this is applied to prove that if N is the set of nilpotent elements of R and R≠N, then card(R\\N≥cardN.

  2. Archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements

    Wang, Haina; Peng, Nan; Shah, Shiraz Ali


    SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes, such as spind......SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes...

  3. An alkaline element

    Obi, F.


    A current tap pressed into the anode is installed in the central part of the top of the element. There is an internal top made of plastic under the top. There is a projection in the center of the top with an opening, through which the current tap is passed. The edge of the plastic top serves as an insulation lining between the metallic top and the body, which serves as the current tap for the cathode. A separator is placed between the anode and the cathode. Electrolyte leaks are prevented in the slotted disk elements.

  4. Effect of transition metal impurities on the strength of grain boundaries in vanadium

    Wu, Xuebang; Kong, Xiang-Shan; You, Yu-Wei; Liu, Wei; Liu, C. S., E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Chen, Jun-Ling; Luo, G.-N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)


    Effects of 3d (Ti-Ni), 4d (Zr-Pd), and 5d (Hf-Pt) transition metal impurities on strength of two representative vanadium grain boundaries (GBs), symmetric Σ3(111) and asymmetric Σ5(210), were studied by first-principles calculations within the framework of the Rice-Wang thermodynamic model and within the computational tensile test. The desirable elements to increase the GB cohesion were predicted based on their segregation and strengthening behaviors across the different GB sites. It reveals that the elements Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta are good choices for the GB cohesion enhancers. In addition, the GB strengthening by solutes is sensitive to the GB structures. The elements Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni decrease the GB strength of the Σ3(111) GB but they can increase the cohesion of the Σ5(210) GB. Furthermore, the origin of Ti-induced change of the GB strength was uncovered by analyzing the atomic bonds and electronic structures as well as the tensile strength. This work provides a theoretical guidance to screen promising alloying elements in V-based materials with improved resistance to GB decohesion and also helps us to understand the formation mechanism of Ti-rich precipitates in the V-Cr-Ti alloys under neutron or ion irradiation environments.

  5. Pull-Out Strength and Bond Behavior of Prestressing Strands in Prestressed Self-Consolidating Concrete.

    Long, Wu-Jian; Khayat, Kamal Henri; Lemieux, Guillaume; Hwang, Soo-Duck; Xing, Feng


    With the extensive use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) worldwide, it is important to ensure that such concrete can secure uniform in-situ mechanical properties that are similar to those obtained with properly consolidated concrete of conventional fluidity. Ensuring proper stability of SCC is essential to enhance the uniformity of in-situ mechanical properties, including bond to embedded reinforcement, which is critical for structural engineers considering the specification of SCC for prestressed applications. In this investigation, Six wall elements measuring 1540 mm × 2150 mm × 200 mm were cast using five SCC mixtures and one reference high-performance concrete (HPC) of normal consistency to evaluate the uniformity of bond strength between prestressing strands and concrete as well as the distribution of compressive strength obtained from cores along wall elements. The evaluated SCC mixtures used for casting wall elements were proportioned to achieve a slump flow consistency of 680 ± 15 mm and minimum caisson filling capacity of 80%, and visual stability index of 0.5 to 1. Given the spreads in viscosity and static stability of the SCC mixtures, the five wall elements exhibited different levels of homogeneity in in-situ compressive strength and pull-out bond strength. Test results also indicate that despite the high fluidity of SCC, stable concrete can lead to more homogenous in-situ properties than HPC of normal consistency subjected to mechanical vibration.

  6. Compression strength of a fibre composite main spar in a wind turbine blade

    Moelholt Jensen, F.


    In this report the strength of a wind turbine blade is found and compared with a full-scale test, made in the same project. Especially the post buckling behaviour of the compression flange is studied. Different compressive failure mechanisms are discussed and the limitations in using the Finite Element Method. A suggestion to the further work is made. (au)

  7. Assessment of Fatigue Strength of An Offshore Floating Production and Storage Unit

    刘建成; 顾永宁


    The procedure of assessment of structural fatigue strength of an offshore floating production and storage and offloadingunit(FPSO) in this paper. The emphasis is placed on the long-term prediction of wave induced loading, the refined finite el-ement model for hot spot stress calculation, the combination of stress components, and fatigue damage assessment based onS-N curve.

  8. Influence of temperature on strength and failure mechanisms of resistance welded thermoplastic composites joints

    Koutras, N.; Fernandez Villegas, I.; Benedictus, R.


    In this work, the effect of temperature exposure on the strength of resistance welded joints is analysed. Glass fibre polyphenylene sulphide (GF/PPS) laminates were joined using the resistance welding technique and a stainless steel metal mesh as the heating element. Single lap shear tests at temper

  9. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.


    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load-elongation cu......Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load......-elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides...

  10. Strength, flexibility, and maturity in adolescent athletes.

    Pratt, M


    The relationship between lower-extremity strength and flexibility and maturational status as measured by Tanner staging (TS) was assessed in 84 male high school athletes. The sum of one-repetition maximum lifts for knee extension and flexion was determined and flexibility was measured with the American Alliance of Health, Physical Education, Recreation, and Dance sit-and-reach test. Chronologic age, body weight, and percent fat were also recorded. Strength and flexibility were compared for each maturational and chronologic age category. Maturational age was better correlated with strength and flexibility than was chronologic age. All correlations were significant. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated significant correlations of TS and age with strength and flexibility. Tanner staging had greater predictive value than age for strength and flexibility. After adjusting for age, the relationship between TS and strength remained significant.

  11. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    Henriksen, Marius; Rosager, Sara; Aaboe, Jens


    Pain is the principal symptom in knee pathologies and reduced muscle strength is a common observation among knee patients. However, the relationship between knee joint pain and muscle strength remains to be clarified. This study aimed at investigating the changes in knee muscle strength following...... experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension...

  12. Complex spatiotemporal behavior in a chain of one-way nonlinearly coupled elements

    Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Berkemer, Rainer; Gorria, C.;


    The dynamics of asymmetrically coupled nonlinear elements is considered. It is shown that there are two distinctive regimes of oscillatory behavior of one-way nonlinearly coupled elements depending on the relaxation time and the strength of the coupling. In the subcritical regime when...... nonlinear model....

  13. Magnetic field distribution and element concentration on the CP2 star CU Virginis

    Glagolevskij, Y V; Hildebrandt, G; Scholz, G; Glagolevskij, Yu.V.


    We search for a relation between the published distributions of different elements and the calculated magnetic field structure, following from a dipole-quadrupole configuration, of the CP2 star CU Vir. The highest concentration of individual chemical elements on the stellar surface coincides obviously with the regions of the highest values of the magnetic field strength.

  14. An Integrated Structural Strength Analysis Method for Spar Type Floating Wind Turbine

    胡志强; 刘毅; 王晋


    An integrated structural strength analysis method for a Spar type floating wind turbine is proposed in this paper, and technical issues related to turbine structure modeling and stress combination are also addressed. The NREL-5MW “Hywind” Spar type wind turbine is adopted as study object. Time-domain dynamic coupled simulations are performed by a fully-coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool, FAST, on the purpose of obtaining the dynamic characteristics of the floating wind turbine, and determining parameters for design load cases of finite element calculation. Then design load cases are identified, and finite element analyses are performed for these design load cases. The structural stresses due to wave-induced loads and wind-induced loads are calculated, and then combined to assess the structural strength of the floating wind turbine. The feasibility of the proposed structural strength analysis method for floating wind turbines is then validated.

  15. Strength Training in Children and Adolescents

    Dahab, Katherine Stabenow; McCambridge, Teri Metcalf


    Context: Strength training in children, in combination with plyometric and/or agility training, has become an increasingly popular tactic for athletes to gain a competitive edge during the off-season. The present review clarifies some common myths associated with strength training in children, and it outlines the most current recommendations. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant studies on strength training in children and adolescents were reviewed (search results included studies indexed in PubMed...

  16. Development of a Female Atlas of Strengths


    Physiotherapy ; 1977, 63(2), 51-55. 31. Falkel, .3. Planter flexor strength testing using the cybex isokinetic dynanometer. Phys. Ther.; 1978, 58(7), 847...instances "heart attacks," or "cardiac arrest," strokes ,or pulmonary embolism. If this research project causes any physical injury to you, treatment...STUDY: Edwards, R.H.T. and Hyde, S. Methods of measuring muscle strength and fatigue. Physiotherapy ; 1977, 63(2), 51-55. KEYWORDS: Muscle strength tests

  17. Strength and failure modes of ceramic multilayers

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack; Linderoth, Søren


    A model was developed for the prediction of the tensile strength of thin, symmetric 3-layer sandwich specimens. The model predictions rationalize the effect of heat-treatment temperature on the strength of sandwich specimens consisting of an YSZ (Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia) substrate coated...... and propagating into the substrate. These predictions are consistent with microstructural observations of the fracture surfaces. A good agreement was found between the measured strength values and model predictions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  18. Behavior of high strength concrete columns under eccentric loads

    Hany A. Kottb


    Full Text Available In recent decades, high strength concrete (HSC has been widely accepted by designers and contractors to be used in concrete structures, especially in high compressive stress elements. The research aims to study the behavior of high strength concrete columns under eccentric compression using experimental and analytical programs. The research is divided into two main parts; the first part is an experimental investigation for ten square columns tested at the Cairo University Concrete Research Laboratory. The main studied parameters were eccentricity of the applied load, column slenderness ratio; and ratios of longitudinal and transverse reinforcement. The second part is analytical analysis using nonlinear finite element program ANSYS11 on nineteen columns (ten tested square columns and nine rectangular section columns to study the effect of the previous parameters on the column ultimate load, mid-height displacement, and column cracking patterns. The analyzed columns revealed a good agreement with the experimental results with an average difference of 16% and 17% for column ultimate load and mid-height displacement respectively. Results showed an excellent agreement for cracking patterns. Predictions of columns capacities using the interaction diagrams based on ACI 318-08 stress block parameters indicated a safe design procedure of HSC columns under eccentric compression, with ACI 318-08 being more conservative for moderate reinforced HSC columns.

  19. Interpreting finite element results for brittle materials in endodontic restorations.

    Pérez-González, Antonio; Iserte-Vilar, José L; González-Lluch, Carmen


    Finite element simulation has been used in last years for analysing the biomechanical performance of post-core restorations in endodontics, but results of these simulations have been interpreted in most of the works using von Mises stress criterion. However, the validity of this failure criterion for brittle materials, which are present in these restorations, is questionable. The objective of the paper is to analyse how finite element results for brittle materials of endodontic restorations should be interpreted to obtain correct conclusions about the possible failure in the restoration. Different failure criteria (Von Mises, Rankine, Coulomb-Mohr, Modified Mohr and Christensen) and material strength data (diametral tensile strength and flexural strength) were considered in the study. Three finite element models (FEM) were developed to simulate an endodontic restoration and two typical material tests: diametral tensile test and flexural test. Results showed that the Christensen criterion predicts similar results as the Von Mises criterion for ductile components, while it predicts similar results to all other criteria for brittle components. The different criteria predict different failure points for the diametral tensile test, all of them under multi-axial stress states. All criteria except Von Mises predict failure for flexural test at the same point of the specimen, with this point under uniaxial tensile stress. From the results it is concluded that the Christensen criterion is recommended for FEM result interpretation in endodontic restorations and that the flexural test is recommended to estimate tensile strength instead of the diametral tensile test.

  20. Strength of hydrogen bonds of water depends on local environment.

    Huš, Matej; Urbic, Tomaz


    In-depth knowledge of water-water potential is important for devising and evaluating simple water models if they are to accurately describe water properties and reflect various solvation phenomena. Water-water potential depends upon inter-molecular distance, relative orientation of water molecules, and also local environment. When placed at a favorable distance in a favorable orientation, water molecules exhibit a particularly strong attractive interaction called hydrogen bond. Although hydrogen bond is very important for its effects on the elements of life, industrial applications, and bulk water properties, there is no scientific consensus on its true nature and origin. Using quantum-mechanical methods, hydrogen bond strength was calculated in different local environments. A simple empirical linear relationship was discovered between maximum hydrogen bond strength and the number of water molecules in the local environment. The local environment effect was shown to be considerable even on the second coordination shell. Additionally, a negative linear correlation was found between maximum hydrogen bond strength and the distance, at which it was observed. These results provide novel insights into the nature of hydrogen bonding.

  1. Effect of specimen geometry on tensile strength of cortical bone.

    Feng, Liang; Jasiuk, Iwona


    We investigate the effect of specimen geometry on the ultimate tensile strength of cortical bone measured by a tensile test. This article is motivated by the fact that there is no clear consensus in the literature on a suitable specimen shape for cortical bone testing. We consider three commonly used tensile test specimen shapes: strip, dumbbell with sharp junctions, and dumbbell with rounded junctions. We conduct this study computationally, using a finite element method, and experimentally by testing porcine femurs. Our results show that local stress concentration factors in the specimen lead to reduced values in the measured tensile strength. The higher the stress concentrations are, the lower is the measured strength. We find that the strip specimens are not a good choice due to high stress concentrations. For the same reason, dumbbell specimens with sharp junctions between the grip and gage sections should also be avoided. The dumbbell shaped tensile test specimens with an arc transition and a maximized radius of fillet are a better choice because such geometry lowers stress concentrations.

  2. Thermal Insulation and Strength of Autoclaved Light Concrete

    YANG Ruochong; ZHU Jipeng; WU Zhishen; WU Zhiren; LI Min; PENG Changhai


    The primary objective of this study was to develop an autoclaved light concrete (ALC) material with ultra-thermal insulation property and to investigate the relationship between its physical characteristics and mechanical properties. Through tests of dry bulk density and compressive strength, relationship of physical characteristics and mechanical properties of samples were studied,resulting in a material with ultra-thermal insulation property. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) were applied to analyze the micro-morphology and elemental composition of samples. To identify the product phases, X-ray diffraction (XRD) was engaged. The test results showed that compressive strength and thermal coefficient were reduced with the increasing of aluminum powder within the mixtures. As a result the optimal thermal coefficient and compressive strength of samples were improved to 0.061 W/(m · k) and 1.2 MPa, respectively. SEM,EDX and XRD analyses showed that calcium silicate hydrate and tobermorite crystal were main resultant phases.

  3. Strength and stiffness reduction factors for infilled frames with openings

    Decanini, Luis D.; Liberatore, Laura; Mollaioli, Fabrizio


    Framed structures are usually infilled with masonry walls. They may cause a significant increase in both stiffness and strength, reducing the deformation demand and increasing the energy dissipation capacity of the system. On the other hand, irregular arrangements of the masonry panels may lead to the concentration of damage in some regions, with negative effects; for example soft story mechanisms and shear failures in short columns. Therefore, the presence of infill walls should not be neglected, especially in regions of moderate and high seismicity. To this aim, simple models are available for solid infills walls, such as the diagonal no-tension strut model, while infilled frames with openings have not been adequately investigated. In this study, the effect of openings on the strength and stiffness of infilled frames is investigated by means of about 150 experimental and numerical tests. The main parameters involved are identified and a simple model to take into account the openings in the infills is developed and compared with other models proposed by different researchers. The model, which is based on the use of strength and stiffness reduction factors, takes into account the opening dimensions and presence of reinforcing elements around the opening. An example of an application of the proposed reduction factors is also presented.

  4. Muscular strength after total hip arthroplasty

    Winther, Siri B; Husby, Vigdis S; Foss, Olav A; Wik, Tina S; Svenningsen, Svein; Engdal, Monika; Haugan, Kristin; Husby, Otto S


    Background and purpose Minimizing the decrease in muscular strength after total hip arthroplasty (THA) might allow patients to recover faster. We evaluated muscular strength in patients who were operated on using 3 surgical approaches. Patients and methods In a prospective cohort study, 60 patients scheduled for primary THA were allocated to the direct lateral, posterior, or anterior approach. Leg press and abduction strength were evaluated 2 weeks or less preoperatively, 2 and 8 days postoperatively, and at 6-week and 3-month follow-up. Results Differences in maximal strength change were greatest after 2 and 8 days. The posterior and anterior approaches produced less decrease in muscular strength than the direct lateral approach. 6 weeks postoperatively, the posterior approach produced greater increase in muscular strength than the direct lateral approach, and resulted in a greater increase in abduction strength than the anterior approach. At 3-month follow-up, no statistically significant differences between the groups were found. The operated legs were 18% weaker in leg press and 15% weaker in abduction than the unoperated legs, and the results were similar between groups. Interpretation The posterior and anterior approaches appeared to have the least negative effect on abduction and leg press muscular strength in the first postoperative week; the posterior approach had the least negative effect, even up to 6 weeks postoperatively. THA patients have reduced muscle strength in the operated leg (compared to the unoperated leg) 3 months after surgery. PMID:26141371

  5. Mechanical strength and stability of lithium aluminate

    Brimhall, J. L.


    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigated the strength and resistance to thermal shock of lithium aluminate annular pellets. The room temperature, axial compressive fracture strength of pellets made at Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES) varied from 80 to 133 ksi. The strength at 430 C (806 F) was to 30 to 40 percent lower. The strength at 900 C (1652 F) showed a wide variation with one measurement near 90 ksi. These strength values are consistent with other data and predictions made in the literature when the grain size and porosity of the microstructure are taken into account. In diametral compression tests, the fracture strengths were much lower due to the existence of tensile stresses in some pellet regions from this type of loading. However, the fracture stresses were still generally higher than those reported in the literature; this fracture resistance probably reflects the better quality of the pellets tested in this study. Measurements on pellets made at PNL indicated lower strengths compared to the WAES material. This strength difference could be accounted for by different processing technologies: material made at PNL was cold-pressed and sintered with high porosity whereas the WAES material was isostatically hot-pressed with high density. Thermal shocking of the material by ramping to 900 C in two minutes did not have an observable effect on the microstructure or the strength of any of the pellets.

  6. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates....... The obtained results indicate that the simplified analytical method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding-induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show...

  7. Strength properties of separators in alkaline solutions

    Danko, T. [Viskase Corp., Chicago, IL (United States)


    Battery separator non-wovens that were coated with regenerated cellulose via the viscose process were subjected to storage in 40% potassium hydroxide (KOH) over a two month period. Samples were periodically checked for wet MD tensile strength. The test showed that among the non-wovens, the polyamide retained about 93% of its initial tensile strength whereas polyvinyl alcohol and cellulosic non-wovens retained only 55% and 35%, respectively. Adding a viscose coating to the non-wovens improved tensile strength retention by 20--25% for the polyvinyl alcohol and cellulosic materials. The viscose-coated polyamide retained more than 98% of its initial tensile strength.

  8. Correlated Strength in Nuclear Spectral Function

    Rohe, D; Asaturyan, R; Baker, O K; Bültmann, S; Carasco, C C; Day, D; Ent, R; Fenker, H C; Garrow, K; Gasparian, A; Gueye, P; Hauger, M; Honegger, A; Jourdan, J; Keppel, C E; Kubon, G; Lindgren, R; Lung, A; Mack, D J; Mitchell, J H; Mkrtchyan, H G; Mocelj, D; Normand, K; Petitjean, T; Rondon, Oscar A; Segbefia, E; Sick, I; Stepanyan, S; Tang, L; Tiefenbacher, F; Vulcan, W F; Warren, G; Wood, S A; Yuan, L; Zeier, M; Zhu, H; Zihlmann, B


    We have carried out an (e,e'p) experiment at high momentum transfer and in parallel kinematics to measure the strength of the nuclear spectral function S(k,E) at high nucleon momenta k and large removal energies E. This strength is related to the presence of short-range and tensor correlations, and was known hitherto only indirectly and with considerable uncertainty from the lack of strength in the independent-particle region. This experiment confirms by direct measurement the correlated strength predicted by theory.



  10. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup


    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected...... that the simplified method is able to determine the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates with imperfections in the form of welding induced residual stresses and geometric deflections subjected to combined loads. Comparisons with experimental results show that the procedure has sufficient accuracy for practical...

  11. Correlated Strength in the Nuclear Spectral Function

    D. Rohe; C. S. Armstrong; R. Asaturyan; O. K. Baker; S. Bueltmann; C. Carasco; D. Day; R. Ent; H. C. Fenker; K. Garrow; A. Gasparian; P. Gueye; M. Hauger; A. Honegger; J. Jourdan; C. E. Keppel; G. Kubon; R. Lindgren; A. Lung; D. J. Mack; J. H. Mitchell; H. Mkrtchyan; D. Mocelj; K. Normand; T. Petitjean; O. Rondon; E. Segbefia; I. Sick; S. Stepanyan; L. Tang; F. Tiefenbacher; W. F. Vulcan; G. Warren; S. A. Wood; L. Yuan; M. Zeier; H. Zhu; B. Zihlmann


    We have carried out an (e,ep) experiment at high momentum transfer and in parallel kinematics to measure the strength of the nuclear spectral function S(k,E) at high nucleon momenta k and large removal energies E. This strength is related to the presence of short-range and tensor correlations, and was known hitherto only indirectly and with considerable uncertainty from the lack of strength in the independent-particle region. This experiment locates by direct measurement the correlated strength predicted by theory.

  12. Procedural Options for Measuring Muscle Strength

    Mindova S.


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to provide alternative means of measurement and evaluation of muscle strength in rehabilitation practice and diagnostics. In the last few years many electronic devices for evaluation of muscle strength have developed. Contemporary studies have shown that in addition to the standard manual muscle testing muscle strength can be assessed more objectively and analytically using electronic dynamometers and equipment. The strain gauges are used as a tool of precision in the industry that allows measurement of mechanical loads by dynamometers. By using these tools is possible to obtain continuous digital measurement and recording of muscle strength.

  13. Beam transport elements


    Two of the beam transport elements for the slow ejection system. On the left, a quadrupole 1.2 m long with a 5 cm aperture, capable of producing a gradient of 5000 gauss. On the right, a 1 m bending magnet with a 4 cm gap; its field is 20 000 gauss.

  14. Movies and Literary Elements.

    Keller, Rodney D.


    Recommends using movie clips to stimulate students' interest in reading a novel as well as to teach elements of fiction such as plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. Describes each clip and provides study questions. Includes a listing of movies made from books. (NH)

  15. Elements of Social Security

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  16. Light element ceramics

    Rao, KJ; Varma, KBR; Raju, AR


    An overview of a few structually important light element ceramics is presented. Included in the overview are silicon nitide, sialon, aluminium nitride, boron carbide and silicon carbide. Methods of preparation, characterization and industrial applications of these ceramics are summarized. Mechanical properties, industrial production techniques and principal uses of these ceramics are emphasized.

  17. Water, the intangible element

    Schotting, R.J.


    Water is the key to life. No living creature can survive without water. Too much water or polluted water are serious threats to mankind. Managing this intangible element is complex, not only in wet deltaic regions but also in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Combined efforts of the hydro(geo)lo

  18. CEDS Addresses: Rubric Elements

    US Department of Education, 2015


    Common Education Data Standards (CEDS) Version 4 introduced a common data vocabulary for defining rubrics in a data system. The CEDS elements support digital representations of both holistic and analytic rubrics. This document shares examples of holistic and analytic project rubrics, available CEDS Connections, and a logical model showing the…

  19. The elements of life

    Sergey P. Fedotov


    Full Text Available Article "Elements of Life" offers a hypothesis about the relationship of the phenomenon of traditional Chinese medicine with the physical laws. It shows the principle of forming a sequence of daily activity of the acupuncture meridians as a consequence of the Doppler effect in the process of flowing around the planet Earth by cosmic wind (by Ether. In accordance with this specification the daily structure of meridians had been built. It is suggested that the essence of the Chinese Qi (Chi are vibrations of a certain range in the medium. Consequently, it became possible to set the interrelation of frequencies of the visible spectrum with certain meridians. It is shown that the topological relationship of ancient (barrier points of the Five Elements (Wu-Shu points are associated with the wave lengths of the so-called Qi. It is shown also that the essence of the Wu-Xing law is based on daily circulation patterns of meridians. The examples of the surrounding world, including pulses processes in the human body, are confirming the above mentioned theses. A correlation diagram between the main elements by Dr. Samohotsky A.S. (dissertation "The experience of the definition of medical laws", 1946 and the Five Elements of traditional Chinese philosophy is established. The above represented hypotheses are yet introduced in practice in form of pulse spectral analysis system.

  20. Elements of Social Security

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  1. Elements of Social Security

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable...

  2. Elemental Chem Lab

    Franco Mariscal, Antonio Joaquin


    This educative material uses the symbols of 45 elements to spell the names of 32 types of laboratory equipment usually found in chemical labs. This teaching material has been divided into three puzzles according to the type of the laboratory equipment: (i) glassware as reaction vessels or containers; (ii) glassware for measuring, addition or…

  3. Reference: -300ELEMENT [PLACE

    Full Text Available -300ELEMENT Kreis M, Williamson MS, Forde J, Schmitz D, Clark J, Buxton B, Pywell J..., Marris C, Henderson J, Harris N, Shewry PR, Forde BG, Miflin BJ Differential gene expression in the developing barley endosperm. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B314:355-365 (1986) ...

  4. Inside finite elements

    Weiser, Martin


    All relevant implementation aspects of finite element methods are discussed in this book. The focus is on algorithms and data structures as well as on their concrete implementation. Theory is covered as far as it gives insight into the construction of algorithms. Throughout the exercises a complete FE-solver for scalar 2D problems will be implemented in Matlab/Octave.

  5. Finite element analysis and experimental verification of Polymer reinforced CRC improved for close-in detonation

    Riisgaard, Benjamin; Georgakis, Christos; Stang, Henrik


    Compact Reinforced Composite, CRC, is a high-strength cement-based composite that holds an enormous flexural and energy-absorbing capacity due to the close-spaced high strength steel reinforcement and a high-strength cement-based fiber DSP matrix. The material has been used in various constructions...... without breaching. This paper introduces an efficient method for implementing high fractions of polymer shock reinforcement in a CRC element. Experimental tests and explicit finite element analysis is used to demonstrate the potentials of this material. This paper also provides the reader...... with the information and data needed to formulate a simple material model for High-Strength Fiber-Reinforced Concrete suitable for predicting the responses of Polymer reinforced CRC under close-in detonations using the general purpose transient dynamic finite element program LS-DYNA....

  6. Effects of Eccentric Strength Training on Different Maximal Strength and Speed-Strength Parameters of the Lower Extremity.

    Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Szilvas, Elena; Hartmann, Hagen; Sander, Andre


    The aim of this investigation was to analyze the effects of an eccentric strength training protocol using supramaximal loads (>1 repetition maximum [1RM]) on different maximal and explosive strength parameters of the lower extremity. The eccentric maximal strength (EX max), maximal isometric strength ("maximal voluntary contraction" [MVC]), 1RM, explosive strength ("rate of force development" [RFD]), countermovement jump, and squat jump height were tested before and after a training period of 6 weeks. The training group was composed of 15 individuals with low-weight training experience and a control group of 13 subjects, also with a low-weight training experience. The lower extremities were trained 3 days per week using a 45° leg press. Each training session comprised 5 sets of 3 repetitions with a 6-minute rest between each set. The training weights were adjusted continuously during each training session and between training sessions. In each case, a load was chosen that could be lowered unilaterally in a controlled manner by the subjects. For the concentric part of the exercise, 2 investigators lifted the weight to the starting position. After 6 weeks, strength training with supramaximal loads showed a significant increase in EX max (28.2%, p strength training in the leg press generates equal and significant improvements in unilateral eccentric and bilateral eccentric-concentric maximal strength, with a nonsignificant transfer to vertical jump performances and unilateral isometric force production.

  7. Simulated weightlessness and synbiotic diet effects on rat bone mechanical strength

    Sarper, Hüseyin; Blanton, Cynthia; DePalma, Jude; Melnykov, Igor V.; Gabaldón, Annette M.


    This paper reports results on exposure to simulated weightlessness that leads to a rapid decrease in bone mineral density known as spaceflight osteopenia by evaluating the effectiveness of dietary supplementation with synbiotics to counteract the effects of skeletal unloading. Forty adult male rats were studied under four different conditions in a 2 × 2 factorial design with main effects of diet (synbiotic and control) and weight condition (unloaded and control). Hindlimb unloading was performed at all times for 14 days followed by 14 days of recovery (reambulation). The synbiotic diet contained probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactococcus lactis lactis and prebiotic fructooligosaccharide. This paper also reports on the development of a desktop three-point bending device to measure the mechanical strength of bones from rats subjected to simulated weightlessness. The importance of quantifying bone resistance to breakage is critical when examining the effectiveness of interventions against osteopenia resulting from skeletal unloading, such as astronauts experience, disuse or disease. Mechanical strength indices provide information beyond measures of bone density and microarchitecture that enhance the overall assessment of a treatment's potency. In this study we used a newly constructed three-point bending device to measure the mechanical strength of femur and tibia bones from hindlimb-unloaded rats fed an experimental synbiotic diet enriched with probiotics and fermentable fiber. Two calculated outputs for each sample were Young's modulus of elasticity and fracture stress. Bone major elements (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous) were quantified using ICP-MS analysis. Hindlimb unloading was associated with a significant loss of strength in the femur, and with significant reductions in major bone elements. The synbiotic diet did not protect against these unloading effects. Tibia strength and major elements were not reduced by hindlimb unloading, as was

  8. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott


    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  9. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott


    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  10. Understanding Bone Strength Is Not Enough.

    Hernandez, Christopher J; van der Meulen, Marjolein Ch


    Increases in fracture risk beyond what are expected from bone mineral density (BMD) are often attributed to poor "bone quality," such as impaired bone tissue strength. Recent studies, however, have highlighted the importance of tissue material properties other than strength, such as fracture toughness. Here we review the concepts behind failure properties other than strength and the physical mechanisms through which they cause mechanical failure: strength describes failure from a single overload; fracture toughness describes failure from a modest load combined with a preexisting flaw or damage; and fatigue strength describes failure from thousands to millions of cycles of small loads. In bone, these distinct failure mechanisms appear to be more common in some clinical fractures than others. For example, wrist fractures are usually the result of a single overload, the failure mechanism dominated by bone strength, whereas spinal fractures are rarely the result of a single overload, implicating multiple loading cycles and increased importance of fatigue strength. The combination of tissue material properties and failure mechanisms that lead to fracture represent distinct mechanistic pathways, analogous to molecular pathways used to describe cell signaling. Understanding these distinct mechanistic pathways is necessary because some characteristics of bone tissue can increase fracture risk by impairing fracture toughness or fatigue strength without impairing bone tissue strength. Additionally, mechanistic pathways to failure associated with fracture toughness and fatigue involve multiple loading events over time, raising the possibility that a developing fracture could be detected and interrupted before overt failure of a bone. Over the past two decades there have been substantial advancements in fracture prevention by understanding bone strength and fractures caused by a single load, but if we are to improve fracture risk prevention beyond what is possible now, we must

  11. The Research of Welding Residual Stress Based Finite Element Method

    Qinghua Bai


    Full Text Available Welding residual stress was caused by local heating during the welding process, tensile residual stress reduce fatigue strength and corrosion resistance, Compressive residual stress decreases stability limit. So it will produce brittle fracture, reduce working life and strength of workpiece; Based on the simulation of welding process with finite element method, calculate the welding temperature field and residual stress, and then measure residual stress in experiments, So as to get the best welding technology and welding parameters, to reduce welding residual stress effective, it has very important significance.

  12. High-Strength, Superelastic Compounds

    Stanford, Malcolm; Noebe, Ronald; Dellacorte, Christopher; Bigelow, Glen; Thomas, Fransua


    In a previous disclosure, the use of 60- NiTiNOL, an ordered intermetallic compound composed of 60 weight percent nickel and 40 weight percent titanium, was investigated as a material for advanced aerospace bearings due to its unique combination of physical properties. Lessons learned during the development of applications for this material have led to the discovery that, with the addition of a ternary element, the resulting material can be thermally processed at a lower temperature to attain the same desirable hardness level as the original material. Processing at a lower temperature is beneficial, not only because it reduces processing costs from energy consumption, but because it also significantly reduces the possibility of quench cracking and thermal distortion, which have been problematic with the original material. A family of ternary substitutions has been identified, including Hf and Zr in various atomic percentages with varying concentrations of Ni and Ti. In the present innovation, a ternary intermetallic compound consisting of 57.6 weight percent Ni, 39.2 weight percent Ti, and 3.2 weight percent Hf (54Ni-45Ti-1Hf atomic percent) was prepared by casting. In this material, Hf substitutes for some of the Ti atoms in the material. In an alternate embodiment of the innovation, Zr, which is close in chemical behavior to Hf, is used as the substitutional element. With either substitution, the solvus temperature of the material is reduced, and lower temperatures can be used to obtain the necessary hardness values. The advantages of this innovation include the ability to solution-treat the material at a lower temperature and still achieve the required hardness for bearings (at least 50 Rockwell C) and superelastic behavior with recoverable strains greater than 2%. Most structural alloys will not return to their original shape after being deformed as little as 0.2% (a tenth of that possible with superelastic materials like 60 NiTiNOL). Because lower temperatures

  13. Coupling Strength and System Size Induce Firing Activity of Globally Coupled Neural Network

    WEI Du-Qu; LUO Xiao-Shu; ZOU Yan-Li


    We investigate how firing activity of globally coupled neural network depends on the coupling strength C and system size N.Network elements are described by space-clamped FitzHugh-Nagumo (SCFHN) neurons with the values of parameters at which no firing activity occurs.It is found that for a given appropriate coupling strength,there is an intermediate range of system size where the firing activity of globally coupled SCFHN neural network is induced and enhanced.On the other hand,for a given intermediate system size level,there ex/sts an optimal value of coupling strength such that the intensity of firing activity reaches its maximum.These phenomena imply that the coupling strength and system size play a vital role in firing activity of neural network.

  14. Load carrying capacity of shear wall t-connections reinforced with high strength wire ropes

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Bryndom, Thor; Larsen, Michael


    Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction......-friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  15. Load Carrying Capacity of Shear Wall T-Connections Reinforced with High Strength Wire Ropes

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Bryndum, Thor; Larsen, Michael


    Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction......-friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  16. Notch sensitivity jeopardizes titanium locking plate fatigue strength.

    Tseng, Wo-Jan; Chao, Ching-Kong; Wang, Chun-Chin; Lin, Jinn


    Notch sensitivity may compromise titanium-alloy plate fatigue strength. However, no studies providing head-to-head comparisons of stainless-steel or titanium-alloy locking plates exist. Custom-designed identically structured locking plates were made from stainless steel (F138 and F1314) or titanium alloy. Three screw-hole designs were compared: threaded screw-holes with angle edges (type I); threaded screw-holes with chamfered edges (type II); and non-threaded screw-holes with chamfered edges (type III). The plates' bending stiffness, bending strength, and fatigue life, were investigated. The stress concentration at the screw threads was assessed using finite element analyses (FEA). The titanium plates had higher bending strength than the F1314 and F138 plates (2.95:1.56:1) in static loading tests. For all metals, the type-III plate fatigue life was highest, followed by type-II and type-I. The type-III titanium plates had longer fatigue lives than their F138 counterparts, but the type-I and type-II titanium plates had significantly shorter fatigue lives. All F1314 plate types had longer fatigue lives than the type-III titanium plates. The FEA showed minimal stress difference (0.4%) between types II and III, but the stress for types II and III was lower (11.9% and 12.4%) than that for type I. The screw threads did not cause stress concentration in the locking plates in FEA, but may have jeopardized the fatigue strength, especially in the notch-sensitive titanium plates. Improvement to the locking plate design is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks

    Majid Noorian Bidgoli


    Full Text Available Anisotropy of the strength and deformation behaviors of fractured rock masses is a crucial issue for design and stability assessments of rock engineering structures, due mainly to the non-uniform and non-regular geometries of the fracture systems. However, no adequate efforts have been made to study this issue due to the current practical impossibility of laboratory tests with samples of large volumes containing many fractures, and the difficulty for controlling reliable initial and boundary conditions for large-scale in situ tests. Therefore, a reliable numerical predicting approach for evaluating anisotropy of fractured rock masses is needed. The objective of this study is to systematically investigate anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks, which has not been conducted in the past, using a numerical modeling method. A series of realistic two-dimensional (2D discrete fracture network (DFN models were established based on site investigation data, which were then loaded in different directions, using the code UDEC of discrete element method (DEM, with changing confining pressures. Numerical results show that strength envelopes and elastic deformability parameters of tested numerical models are significantly anisotropic, and vary with changing axial loading and confining pressures. The results indicate that for design and safety assessments of rock engineering projects, the directional variations of strength and deformability of the fractured rock mass concerned must be treated properly with respect to the directions of in situ stresses. Traditional practice for simply positioning axial orientation of tunnels in association with principal stress directions only may not be adequate for safety requirements. Outstanding issues of the present study and suggestions for future study are also presented.




    Monte Carlo simulation and theoretical modeling are used to study the statistical failure modes in unidirectional composites consisting of elastic fibers in an elastic matrix. Both linear and hexagonal fiber arrays are considered, forming 2D and 3D composites, respectively. Failure is idealized using the chain-of-bundles model in terms of {delta}-bundles of length {delta}, which is the length-scale of fiber load transfer. Within each {delta}-bundle, fiber load redistribution is determined by local load-sharing models that approximate the in-plane fiber load redistribution from planar break clusters as predicted from 2D and 3D shear-lag models. As a result these models are 1D and 2D, respectively. Fiber elements have random strengths following either the Weibull or the power-law distribution with shape and scale parameters {rho} and {sigma}{sub {delta}}, respectively. Simulations of {delta}-bundle failure, reveal two regimes. When fiber strength variability is low (roughly {rho} > 2) the dominant failure mode is by growing clusters of fiber breaks up to instability. When this variability is high (roughly 0 < {rho} < 1) cluster formation is suppressed by a dispersed fiber failure mode. For these two cases, closed-form approximations to the strength distribution of a {delta}-bundle are developed under the local load-sharing model and an equal load-sharing model of Daniels, respectively. The results compare favorably with simulations on {delta}-bundles with up to 1500 fibers. The location of the transition in terms of {rho} is affected by the upper tail properties of the fiber strength distributions as well as the number of fibers.

  19. Anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks

    Majid Noorian Bidgoli; Lanru Jing


    Anisotropy of the strength and deformation behaviors of fractured rock masses is a crucial issue for design and stability assessments of rock engineering structures, due mainly to the non-uniform and non-regular geometries of the fracture systems. However, no adequate efforts have been made to study this issue due to the current practical impossibility of laboratory tests with samples of large volumes con-taining many fractures, and the difficulty for controlling reliable initial and boundary conditions for large-scale in situ tests. Therefore, a reliable numerical predicting approach for evaluating anisotropy of fractured rock masses is needed. The objective of this study is to systematically investigate anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks, which has not been conducted in the past, using a nu-merical modeling method. A series of realistic two-dimensional (2D) discrete fracture network (DFN) models were established based on site investigation data, which were then loaded in different directions, using the code UDEC of discrete element method (DEM), with changing confining pressures. Numerical results show that strength envelopes and elastic deformability parameters of tested numerical models are significantly anisotropic, and vary with changing axial loading and confining pressures. The results indicate that for design and safety assessments of rock engineering projects, the directional variations of strength and deformability of the fractured rock mass concerned must be treated properly with respect to the directions of in situ stresses. Traditional practice for simply positioning axial orientation of tunnels in association with principal stress directions only may not be adequate for safety requirements. Outstanding issues of the present study and suggestions for future study are also presented.

  20. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (USA). Dept. of Mining and Geological Engineering


    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young`s modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Corner strength enhancement of high strength cold-formed steel at normal room and elevated temperatures

    Ju CHEN; Wei-liang JIN


    In this study,the suitability of current design methods for the 0.2% proof yield strength of the comer regions for high strength cold-formed steel at norrnal room temperature was investigated.The current standard predictions are generally accurate for outer comer specimen but conservative for inner comer specimen.Based on the experimental results,an analytical model to predict the comer strength of high strength cold-formed steel at normal room temperature was also proposed.The comparison indicated that the proposed model predicted well the comer strength of high strength cold-formed steel not only at normal room temperature but also at elevated temperatures.It is shown that the predictions obtained from the proposed model agree well with the test results.Generally the comer strength enhancement of high strength cold-formed steel decreases when the temperature increases.

  2. Prediction of Splitting Tensile Strength from Cylinder Compressive Strength of Concrete by Support Vector Machine

    Kezhen Yan


    Full Text Available Compressive strength and splitting tensile strength are both important parameters that are utilized for characterization concrete mechanical properties. This paper aims to show a possible applicability of support vector machine (SVM to predict the splitting tensile strength of concrete from compressive strength of concrete, a SVM model was built, trained, and tested using the available experimental data gathered from the literature. All of the results predicted by the SVM model are compared with results obtained from experimental data, and we found that the predicted splitting tensile strength of concrete is in good agreement with the experimental data. The splitting tensile strength results predicted by SVM are also compared to those obtained by using empirical results of the building codes and various models. These comparisons show that SVM has strong potential as a feasible tool for predicting splitting tensile strength from compressive strength.

  3. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao


    deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The results reveal the effect of temperature, ash/deposit composition......, sintering duration, and steel type on the adhesion strength....




    This paper reports on the mechanical strength of highly porous ceramics in terms of the Weibull and Duxbury-Leath distributions. More than 1000 side-crushing strength tests on silica-catalyst carriers of various particle sizes have been performed in series. Within a series, preparation conditions we

  5. The Strengths Revolution: A Positive Psychology Perspective

    Peterson, Christopher


    Christopher Peterson received the Circle of Courage Award and made the following address in a symposium on "The Strength-Based Revolution" at Wayne State University in Detroit, Michigan (Peterson & Brendtro, 2008). Dr. Peterson shared personal reflections on the strengths movement, which is transforming youth development. His presentation shows…

  6. Surfactant effects on soil aggregate tensile strength

    Little is known regarding a soil aggregate's tensile strength response to surfactants that may be applied to alleviate soil water repellency. Two laboratory investigations were performed to determine surfactant effects on the tensile strength of 1) Ap horizons of nine wettable, agricultural soils co...

  7. Species independent strength grading of structural timber

    Ravenshorst, G.J.P.


    Timber as a construction material has been used for millennia, but the research field covering the prediction of the strength of structural timber is still in development. Currently, the common conception is that the determination of strength properties has to be determined for every wood species

  8. Deformed metals - structure, recrystallisation and strength

    Hansen, Niels; Juul Jensen, Dorte


    It is shown how new discoveries and advanced experimental techniques in the last 25 years have led to paradigm shifts in the analysis of deformation and annealing structures of metals and in the way the strength of deformed samples is related to structural parameters. This is described in three...... sections: structural evolution by grain subdivision, recovery and recrystallisation and strength-structure relationships....

  9. Lifetime and residual strength of materials

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang


    of load amplitude, load average, fractional time under maximum load, and load frequency.The analysis includes prediction of residual strength (re-cycle strength) during the process of load cycling. It is concluded that number of cycles to failure is a very poor design criterion. It is demonstrated how...

  10. Gluebond strength of laser cut wood

    Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber


    The degree of strength loss when gluing laser cut wood as compared to conventionally sawn wood and the amount of additional surface treatment needed to improve bond quality were assessed under normal furniture plant operating conditions. The strength of laser cut oak glued with polyvinyl acetate adhesive was reduced to 75 percent of sawn joints and gum was reduced 43...

  11. Impact of Hydrodynamics on Oral Biofilm Strength

    Paramonova, E.; Kalmykowa, O. J.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Sharma, P. K.


    Mechanical removal of oral biofilms is ubiquitously accepted as the best way to prevent caries and periodontal diseases. Removal effectiveness strongly depends on biofilm strength. To investigate the influence of hydrodynamics on oral biofilm strength, we grew single- and multi-species biofilms of S

  12. Oxide driven strength evolution of silicon surfaces

    Grutzik, Scott J.; Zehnder, Alan T., E-mail: [Field of Theoretical and Applied Mechanics, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States); Milosevic, Erik [Department of Nanoengineering, SUNY Polytechnic University, Albany, New York 12203 (United States); Boyce, Brad L. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-0889 (United States)


    Previous experiments have shown a link between oxidation and strength changes in single crystal silicon nanostructures but provided no clues as to the mechanisms leading to this relationship. Using atomic force microscope-based fracture strength experiments, molecular dynamics modeling, and measurement of oxide development with angle resolved x-ray spectroscopy we study the evolution of strength of silicon (111) surfaces as they oxidize and with fully developed oxide layers. We find that strength drops with partial oxidation but recovers when a fully developed oxide is formed and that surfaces intentionally oxidized from the start maintain their high initial strengths. MD simulations show that strength decreases with the height of atomic layer steps on the surface. These results are corroborated by a completely separate line of testing using micro-scale, polysilicon devices, and the slack chain method in which strength recovers over a long period of exposure to the atmosphere. Combining our results with insights from prior experiments we conclude that previously described strength decrease is a result of oxidation induced roughening of an initially flat silicon (1 1 1) surface and that this effect is transient, a result consistent with the observation that surfaces flatten upon full oxidation.

  13. 49 CFR 238.215 - Rollover strength.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rollover strength. 238.215 Section 238.215 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.215 Rollover strength. (a) Each passenger car shall be designed to rest on its side and...

  14. 46 CFR 160.017-17 - Strength.


    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strength. 160.017-17 Section 160.017-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Chain Ladder § 160.017-17 Strength. (a) Each chain ladder...

  15. 46 CFR 163.003-17 - Strength.


    ... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strength. 163.003-17 Section 163.003-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL CONSTRUCTION Pilot Ladder § 163.003-17 Strength. (a) Each pilot ladder must...

  16. Lifetime and residual strength of materials

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang


    of load amplitude, load average, fractional time under maximum load, and load frequency.The analysis includes prediction of residual strength (re-cycle strength) during the process of load cycling. It is concluded that number of cycles to failure is a very poor design criterion. It is demonstrated how...

  17. Examinations of factors influencing toe grip strength.

    Soma, Masayuki; Murata, Shin; Kai, Yoshihiro; Nakae, Hideyuki; Satou, Yousuke; Murata, Jun; Miyazaki, Junya


    [Purpose] This study examined the relationship between toe grip strength and its associated factors by focusing on factors that were suggested to have a relationship with toe grip strength in previous studies, aiming to clarify the factors influencing the toe grip strength of healthy women. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve healthy young women were selected for this study. Their toe grip strength, angular changes in their ankle joint during toe grip, maximum voluntary contraction activities of the rectus femoris, biceps femoris, and tibialis anterior muscles, and the medial head of the gastrocnemius muscles were measured using electromyography. Their toe curl ability, foot-arch height ratio, and weight were also measured. [Results] Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that the predictors of toe grip strength in the resulting model were foot-arch height ratio and the percentage of integrated electromyography (%IEMG) of the tibialis anterior muscle, as the dependent variables. This reveals that women whose tibialis anterior muscle %IEMG values and foot-arch height ratio are high have greater %IEMG values have greater toe grip strength. [Conclusion] These findings suggest a significant relationship between foot-arch height ratio and toe grip strength, with a reciprocal interaction. These findings further indicate that the risk of falls by the elderly could be decreased if toe grip strength were enhanced, by increasing the height of a low foot-arch with the help of an inserted insole.

  18. 46 CFR 127.420 - Strength.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strength. 127.420 Section 127.420 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OFFSHORE SUPPLY VESSELS CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENTS Construction of Windows, Visibility, and Operability of Coverings § 127.420 Strength. Each window or...

  19. 7 CFR 29.2555 - Strength.


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strength. 29.2555 Section 29.2555 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing...-Cured Tobacco (u.s. Types 22, 23, and Foreign Type 96) § 29.2555 Strength. The stress a tobacco leaf...

  20. 49 CFR 238.415 - Rollover strength.


    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rollover strength. 238.415 Section 238.415 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Equipment § 238.415 Rollover strength. (a) Each passenger car and power car shall be designed to rest on...

  1. 46 CFR 177.1020 - Strength.


    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strength. 177.1020 Section 177.1020 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS (UNDER 100 GROSS TONS) CONSTRUCTION AND ARRANGEMENT Window Construction and Visibility § 177.1020 Strength. Each window, port hole, and its means...

  2. 14 CFR 23.627 - Fatigue strength.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fatigue strength. 23.627 Section 23.627 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS... Fatigue strength. The structure must be designed, as far as practicable, to avoid points of...

  3. 7 CFR 29.2303 - Strength.


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strength. 29.2303 Section 29.2303 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... Strength. The stress a tobacco leaf can bear without tearing. (See chart, § 29.2351.)...

  4. 46 CFR 116.1020 - Strength.


    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Strength. 116.1020 Section 116.1020 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) SMALL PASSENGER VESSELS CARRYING MORE THAN 150 PASSENGERS OR WITH... Visibility § 116.1020 Strength. Each window, port hole, and its means of attachment to the hull or deck...

  5. 14 CFR 35.24 - Strength.


    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Strength. 35.24 Section 35.24 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Design and Construction § 35.24 Strength. The maximum stresses developed in...

  6. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran


    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength…

  7. Strength of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Disks

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter


    The paper deals with models, based on the theory of plasticity, to be used in strength assessments of reinforced concrete disks suffering from different kinds of cracking. Based on the assumption that the sliding strength of concrete is reduced in sections where cracks are located, solutions...

  8. Effects of Directional Exercise on Lingual Strength

    Clark, Heather M.; O'Brien, Katy; Calleja, Aimee; Corrie, Sarah Newcomb


    Purpose: To examine the application of known muscle training principles to tongue strengthening exercises and to answer the following research questions: (a) Did lingual strength increase following 9 weeks of training? (b) Did training conducted using an exercise moving the tongue in one direction result in strength changes for tongue movements in…

  9. Finite element analysis of an inflatable torus considering air mass structural element

    Gajbhiye, S. C.; Upadhyay, S. H.; Harsha, S. P.


    Inflatable structures, also known as gossamer structures, are at high boom in the current space technology due to their low mass and compact size comparing to the traditional spacecraft designing. Internal pressure becomes the major source of strength and rigidity, essentially stiffen the structure. However, inflatable space based membrane structure are at high risk to the vibration disturbance due to their low structural stiffness and material damping. Hence, the vibration modes of the structure should be known to a high degree of accuracy in order to provide better control authority. In the past, most of the studies conducted on the vibration analysis of gossamer structures used inaccurate or approximate theories in modeling the internal pressure. The toroidal shaped structure is one of the important key element in space application, helps to support the reflector in space application. This paper discusses the finite-element analysis of an inflated torus. The eigen-frequencies are obtained via three-dimensional small-strain elasticity theory, based on extremum energy principle. The two finite-element model (model-1 and model-2) have cases have been generated using a commercial finite-element package. The structure model-1 with shell element and model-2 with the combination of the mass of enclosed fluid (air) added to the shell elements have been taken for the study. The model-1 is computed with present analytical approach to understand the convergence rate and the accuracy. The convergence study is made available for the symmetric modes and anti-symmetric modes about the centroidal-axis plane, meeting the eigen-frequencies of an inflatable torus with the circular cross section. The structural model-2 is introduced with air mass element and analyzed its eigen-frequency with different aspect ratio and mode shape response using in-plane and out-plane loading condition are studied.

  10. Experimental and theoretical oscillator strengths of Mg i for accurate abundance analysis

    Pehlivan Rhodin, A.; Hartman, H.; Nilsson, H.; Jönsson, P.


    Context. With the aid of stellar abundance analysis, it is possible to study the galactic formation and evolution. Magnesium is an important element to trace the α-element evolution in our Galaxy. For chemical abundance analysis, such as magnesium abundance, accurate and complete atomic data are essential. Inaccurate atomic data lead to uncertain abundances and prevent discrimination between different evolution models. Aims: We study the spectrum of neutral magnesium from laboratory measurements and theoretical calculations. Our aim is to improve the oscillator strengths (f-values) of Mg i lines and to create a complete set of accurate atomic data, particularly for the near-IR region. Methods: We derived oscillator strengths by combining the experimental branching fractions with radiative lifetimes reported in the literature and computed in this work. A hollow cathode discharge lamp was used to produce free atoms in the plasma and a Fourier transform spectrometer recorded the intensity-calibrated high-resolution spectra. In addition, we performed theoretical calculations using the multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock program ATSP2K. Results: This project provides a set of experimental and theoretical oscillator strengths. We derived 34 experimental oscillator strengths. Except from the Mg i optical triplet lines (3p 3P°0,1,2-4s 3S1), these oscillator strengths are measured for the first time. The theoretical oscillator strengths are in very good agreement with the experimental data and complement the missing transitions of the experimental data up to n = 7 from even and odd parity terms. We present an evaluated set of oscillator strengths, gf, with uncertainties as small as 5%. The new values of the Mg i optical triplet line (3p 3P°0,1,2-4s 3S1) oscillator strength values are 0.08 dex larger than the previous measurements.

  11. Numerical evaluation of strength and deformability of fractured rocks

    Majid Noorian Bidgoli; Zhihong Zhao; Lanru Jing


    Knowledge of the strength and deformability of fractured rocks is important for design, construction and stability evaluation of slopes, foundations and underground excavations in civil and mining engineering. However, laboratory tests of intact rock samples cannot provide information about the strength and deformation behaviors of fractured rock masses that include many fractures of varying sizes, orientations and locations. On the other hand, large-scale in situ tests of fractured rock masses are economically costly and often not practical in reality at present. Therefore, numerical modeling becomes necessary. Numerical predicting using discrete element methods (DEM) is a suitable approach for such modeling because of their advantages of explicit representations of both fractures system geometry and their constitutive behaviors of fractures, besides that of intact rock matrix. In this study, to generically determine the compressive strength of fractured rock masses, a series of numerical experiments were performed on two-dimensional discrete fracture network models based on the realistic geometrical and mechanical data of fracture systems from field mapping. We used the UDEC code and a numerical servo-controlled program for controlling the progressive compressive loading process to avoid sudden violent failure of the models. The two loading conditions applied are similar to the standard laboratory testing for intact rock samples in order to check possible differences caused by such loading conditions. Numerical results show that the strength of fractured rocks increases with the increasing confining pressure, and that deformation behavior of fractured rocks follows elasto-plastic model with a trend of strain hardening. The stresses and strains obtained from these numerical experiments were used to fit the well-known Mohr-Coulomb (M-C) and Hoek-Brown (H-B) failure criteria, represented by equivalent material properties defining these two criteria. The results show

  12. Elements of quantum optics

    Meystre, Pierre


    Elements of Quantum Optics gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing. It also comprises discussions of cavity quantum electrodynamics and atom optics. The 4th edition includes a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light, and the input-output formalism needed to understand many problems in quantum optics. It also provides an expanded treatment of the minimum-coupling Hamiltonian and a simple derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, an important gateway to rese...

  13. Elements of String Cosmology

    Gasperini, Maurizio


    Preface; Acknowledgements; Notation, units and conventions; 1. A short review of standard and inflationary cosmology; 2. The basic string cosmology equations; 3. Conformal invariance and string effective action; 4. Duality symmetries and cosmological solutions; 5. Inflationary kinematics; 6. The string phase; 7. The cosmic background of relic gravitational waves; 8. Scalar perturbations and the anisotropy of the CMB radiation; 9. Dilaton phenomenology; 10. Elements of brane cosmology; Index.

  14. Quantum theory elements

    Bates, David Robert


    Quantum Theory: A Treatise in Three Volumes, I: Elements focuses on the principles, methodologies, and approaches involved in quantum theory, including quantum mechanics, linear combinations, collisions, and transitions. The selection first elaborates on the fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, exactly soluble bound state problems, and continuum. Discussions focus on delta function normalization, spherically symmetric potentials, rectangular potential wells, harmonic oscillators, spherically symmetrical potentials, Coulomb potential, axiomatic basis, consequences of first three postula

  15. Nuclear fuel element

    Meadowcroft, Ronald Ross; Bain, Alastair Stewart


    A nuclear fuel element wherein a tubular cladding of zirconium or a zirconium alloy has a fission gas plenum chamber which is held against collapse by the loops of a spacer in the form of a tube which has been deformed inwardly at three equally spaced, circumferential positions to provide three loops. A heat resistant disc of, say, graphite separates nuclear fuel pellets within the cladding from the plenum chamber. The spacer is of zirconium or a zirconium alloy.

  16. A sealing element

    Obi, F.; Takada, K.


    A sealing lining made of a mixture of polyethylene or polypropylene with an additive which prevents destruction of the lining is used in the element. The content of the additive in the mixture is 10 to 30 percent by mass. The additive basically consists of polyethylene. Carboxyl groups are introduced into the polymer as an anion and sodium, potassium and molybdenum are introduced as the cation.

  17. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, Henning; Hodges, P W


    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function...... and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals....

  18. Transitional $\\gamma$ strength in Cd isotopes

    Larsen, A C; Bürger, A; Goriely, S; Guttormsen, M; Görgen, A; Hagen, T W; Harissopulos, S; Nyhus, H T; Renstrøm, T; Schiller, A; Siem, S; Tveten, G M; Voinov, A V; Wiedeking, M


    The level densities and $\\gamma$-ray strength functions of $^{105,106,111,112}$Cd have been extracted from particle-$\\gamma$ coincidence data using the Oslo method. The level densities are in very good agreement with known levels at low excitation energy. The $\\gamma$-ray strength functions display no strong enhancement for low $\\gamma$ energies. However, more low-energy strength is apparent for $^{105,106}$Cd than for $^{111,112}$Cd. For $\\gamma$ energies above $\\approx$ 4 MeV, there is evidence for some extra strength, similar to what has been previously observed for the Sn isotopes. The origin of this extra strength is unclear; it might be due to $E1$ and $M1$ transitions originating from neutron skin oscillations or the spin-flip resonance, respectively.

  19. Extreme strength observed in limpet teeth

    Barber, Asa H.; Lu, Dun; Pugno, Nicola M.


    The teeth of limpets exploit distinctive composite nanostructures consisting of high volume fractions of reinforcing goethite nanofibres within a softer protein phase to provide mechanical integrity when rasping over rock surfaces during feeding. The tensile strength of discrete volumes of limpet tooth material measured using in situ atomic force microscopy was found to range from 3.0 to 6.5 GPa and was independent of sample size. These observations highlight an absolute material tensile strength that is the highest recorded for a biological material, outperforming the high strength of spider silk currently considered to be the strongest natural material, and approaching values comparable to those of the strongest man-made fibres. This considerable tensile strength of limpet teeth is attributed to a high mineral volume fraction of reinforcing goethite nanofibres with diameters below a defect-controlled critical size, suggesting that natural design in limpet teeth is optimized towards theoretical strength limits. PMID:25694539

  20. New Aperture Partitioning Element

    Griffin, S.; Calef, B.; Williams, S.

    Postprocessing in an optical system can be aided by adding an optical element to partition the pupil into a number of segments. When imaging through the atmosphere, the recorded data are blurred by temperature-induced variations in the index of refraction along the line of sight. Using speckle imaging techniques developed in the astronomy community, this blurring can be corrected to some degree. The effectiveness of these techniques is diminished by redundant baselines in the pupil. Partitioning the pupil reduces the degree of baseline redundancy, and therefore improves the quality of images that can be obtained from the system. It is possible to implement the described approach on an optical system with a segmented primary mirror, but not very practical. This is because most optical systems do not have segmented primary mirrors, and those that do have relatively low bandwidth positioning of segments due to their large mass and inertia. It is much more practical to position an active aperture partitioning element at an aft optics pupil of the optical system. This paper describes the design, implementation and testing of a new aperture partitioning element that is completely reflective and reconfigurable. The device uses four independent, annular segments that can be positioned with a high degree of accuracy without impacting optical wavefront of each segment. This mirror has been produced and is currently deployed and working on the 3.6 m telescope.

  1. Helium the disappearing element

    Sears, Wheeler M


    The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not...

  2. Tailoring of fiber-reinforced cementitious composites (FRCC) for flexural strength and reliability

    Obla, Karthikeyan Hariya

    Bending is the most common form of loading for many construction elements. The bending strength or Modulus of Rupture (MOR) and flexural ductility are therefore critical properties particularly for those elements which are not reinforced by rebars. Such elements include highway barriers, certain wall panels, thin sheet elements and small diameter pipes. The tensile and bending strengths of concrete are very low. In addition, as a brittle material, concrete also demonstrates a large variability in bending strength. A large variability in MOR leads to inefficient use of the material since the design strength has to be close to the lower bound of the material's strength distribution. The potential of fiber in improving MOR is well recognized in fiber reinforced concrete. The use of fiber to enhance material reliability is much less studied. This thesis addresses both aspects employing a combination of theoretical and experimental treatments. Research findings are reported as Part I and Part II of this thesis. Carbon fibers are increasingly attractive for reinforcing cementitious composites. They can be manufactured to yield a wide range in modulus and strength. Carbon fibers are non-corrosive, and fire and alkali. In addition, the price of pitch based carbon fibers are dropping rapidly to make them economically viable for the building and construction industries. In Part I of the thesis, a study on the optimization of the bending strength of carbon FRCC using a fracture based flexural model that links the fiber, interface, and matrix micro-parameters to composite bending strength is presented. Carbon fiber, interface and matrix parameters were tailored to yield optimal properties such as high MOR and ductility. Four point bend tests were conducted on CFRCCs to confirm the findings. Some problems specially affecting carbon FRCCs such as fiber breakage during mixing were also studied and its effects on composite uniaxial tensile properties analyzed by developing new

  3. Effect of wear on the burst strength of l-80 steel casing

    Irawan, S.; Bharadwaj, A. M.; Temesgen, B.; Karuppanan, S.; Abdullah, M. Z. B.


    Casing wear has recently become one of the areas of research interest in the oil and gas industry especially in extended reach well drilling. The burst strength of a worn out casing is one of the significantly affected mechanical properties and is yet an area where less research is done The most commonly used equations to calculate the resulting burst strength after wear are Barlow, the initial yield burst, the full yield burst and the rupture burst equations. The objective of this study was to estimate casing burst strength after wear through Finite Element Analysis (FEA). It included calculation and comparison of the different theoretical bursts pressures with the simulation results along with effect of different wear shapes on L-80 casing material. The von Misses stress was used in the estimation of the burst pressure. The result obtained shows that the casing burst strength decreases as the wear percentage increases. Moreover, the burst strength value of the casing obtained from the FEA has a higher value compared to the theoretical burst strength values. Casing with crescent shaped wear give the highest burst strength value when simulated under nonlinear analysis.

  4. Reliability of the ultimate strength of ship stiffened panel subjected to random corrosion degradation

    Feng, Guo-qing; Hu, Bing-nan; Ren, Hui-long


    Attentions have been increasingly paid to the influence of the corrosion on the ultimate strength of ship structures. In consideration of the random characteristics of the corrosion of ship structures, the method for the ultimate strength analysis of the ship stiffened panel structure subjected to random corrosion degradation is presented. According to the measured corrosion data of the bulk carriers, the distribution characteristics of the corrosion data for the stiffened panel on the midship deck are analyzed, and a random corrosion model is established. The ultimate strength of the corroded stiffened panel is calculated by the nonlinear finite element analysis. The statistical descriptions of the ultimate strength of the corroded stiffened panel are defined through the Monte Carlo simulations. A formula is proposed on the ultimate strength reduction of the stiffened panel as a function of the corrosion volume. The reliability analysis of the ultimate strength of the corroded deck stiffened panel is performed. It shows that both the corrosion data of the deck stiffened panel and the ultimate strength of the random corroded deck stiffened panel follow the log-normal distribution. The ultimate stress ratio of the stiffened panel is inversely proportional to the corrosion volume ratio.

  5. The sensitivity of the burst performance of impact damaged pressure vessels to material strength properties

    Lasn, K.; Vedvik, N. P.; Echtermeyer, A. T.


    This numerical study is carried out to improve the understanding of short-term residual strength of impacted composite pressure vessels. The relationship between the impact, created damage and residual strength is predicted by finite element (FE) analysis. The burst predictions depend largely on the strength properties used in the material models. However, it is typically not possible to measure all laminate properties on filament wound structures. Reasonable testing efforts are concentrated on critical properties, while obtaining other less sensitive parameters from e.g. literature. A parametric FE model is hereby employed to identify the critical strength properties, focusing on the cylindrical section of the pressure vessel. The model simulates an impactor strike on an empty vessel, which is subsequently pressurized until burst. Monte Carlo Simulations (MCS) are employed to investigate the correlations between strength related material parameters and the burst pressure. The simulations indicate the fracture toughness of the composite, hoop layer tensile strength and the yield stress of the PE liner as the most influential parameters for current vessel and impact configurations. In addition, the conservative variation in strength parameters is shown to have a rather moderate effect (COV ca. 7%) on residual burst pressures.

  6. A Model for Determining Strength for Embedded Elliptical Crack in Ultra-high-temperature Ceramics

    Ruzhuan Wang


    Full Text Available A fracture strength model applied at room temperature for embedded elliptical crack in brittle solid was obtained. With further research on the effects of various physical mechanisms on material strength, a thermo-damage strength model for ultra-high-temperature ceramics was applied to each temperature phase. Fracture strength of TiC and the changing trends with elliptical crack shape variations under different temperatures were studied. The study showed that under low temperature, the strength is sensitive to the crack shape variation; as the temperature increases, the sensitivities become smaller. The size of ellipse’s minor axes has great effect on the material strength when the ratio of ellipse’s minor and major axes is lower than 0.5, even under relatively high temperatures. The effect of the minor axes of added particle on material properties thus should be considered under this condition. As the crack area is set, the fracture strength decreases firstly and then increases with the increase of ratio of ellipse’s minor and major axes, and the turning point is 0.5. It suggests that for the added particles the ratio of ellipse’s minor and major axes should not be 0.5. All conclusions significantly coincided with the results obtained by using the finite element software ABAQUS.

  7. Residual Strength of Stiffened LY12CZ Aluminum Alloy Panels with Widespread Fatigue Damage

    Li Zhong; Ge Sen; Lu Guozhi; Chen Li; Ding Huiliang


    Experimental and analytical investigations on the residual strength of the stiffened LY12CZ aluminum alloy panels with widespread fatigue damage (WFD) are conducted. Nine stiffened LY12CZ aluminum alloy panels with three different types of damage are tested for residual strength. Each specimen is pre-cracked at rivet holes by saw cuts and subjected to a monotonically increasing tensile load until failure is occurred and the failure load is recorded. The stress intensity factors at the tips of the lead crack and the adjacent WFD cracks of the stiffened aluminum alloy panels are calculated by compounding approach and finite element method (FEM) respectively. The residual strength of the stiffened panels with WFD is evaluated by the engineering method with plastic zone linkup criterion and the FEM with apparent fracture toughness criterion respectively. The predicted residual strength agrees well with the experiment results. It indicates that in engineering practice these methods can be used for residual strength evaluation with the acceptable accuracy. It can be seen from this research that WFD can significantly reduce the residual strength and the critical crack length of the stiffened panels with WFD. The effect of WFD crack length on residual strength is also studied.

  8. Scale effects on the transverse tensile strength of graphite epoxy composites

    Obrien, T. Kevin; Salpekar, Satish A.


    The influence of material volume on the transverse tensile strength of AS4/3501-6 graphite epoxy composites was investigated. Tensile tests of 90 degree laminates with 3 different widths and 5 different thicknesses were conducted. A finite element analysis was performed to determine the influence of the grip on the stress distribution in the coupons and explain the tendency for the distribution of failure locations to be skewed toward the grip. Specimens were instrumented with strain gages and extensometers to insure good alignment and to measure failure strains. Data indicated that matrix dominated strength properties varied with the volume of material that was stressed, with the strength decreasing as volume increased. Transverse strength data were used in a volumetric scaling law based on Weibull statistics to predict the strength of 90 degree laminates loaded in three point bending. Comparisons were also made between transverse strength measurements and out-of-plane interlaminar tensile strength measurements from curved beam bending tests. The significance of observed scale effects on the use of tests for material screening, quality assurance, and design allowables is discussed.

  9. Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength

    Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan; Buchmiller, William C.


    K-Basin sludge will be stored in the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) at an interim storage location on Central Plateau before being treated and packaged for disposal. During the storage period, sludge in the STSCs may consolidate/agglomerate, potentially resulting in high-shear-strength material. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) plans to use water jets to retrieve K-Basin sludge after the interim storage. STP has identified shear strength to be a key parameter that should be bounded to verify the operability and performance of sludge retrieval systems. Determining the range of sludge shear strength is important to gain high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from the STSCs. The shear strength measurements will provide a basis for bounding sludge properties for mobilization and erosion. Thus, it is also important to develop potential simulants to investigate these phenomena. Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) show that high-uranium-content K-Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has 'paste' and 'chunks' with shear strengths of approximately 3-5 kPa and 380-770 kPa, respectively. High-uranium-content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185 C, 10 hours) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. These high values were estimated by measured unconfined compressive strength (UCS) obtained with a pocket penetrometer. Due to its ease of use, it is anticipated that a pocket penetrometer will be used to acquire additional shear strength data from archived K-Basin sludge samples stored at the PNNL Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) hot cells. It is uncertain whether the pocket penetrometer provides accurate shear strength measurements of the material. To assess the bounding material strength and

  10. The Character Strengths of Class Clowns

    Willibald F. Ruch


    Full Text Available Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of identified as a class clown, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker. Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park & Peterson, 2006 showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, generally class clown behaviors were shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors identified as the class clown and comic talent were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (disruptive rule-breaker, subversive joker were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  11. The character strengths of class clowns.

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer


    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  12. Character Strengths and Intellectual and Developmental Disability: A Strengths-Based Approach from Positive Psychology

    Niemiec, Ryan M.; Shogren, Karrie A.; Wehmeyer, Michael L.


    There has been limited focus in the disability field on assessing and intervening to promote strengths of character. However, character strengths have received significant attention in the broader field of positive psychology. This paper provides an overview of the growing science of character strengths and explores why and how character strengths…

  13. Fatigue strength of welded connections made of very high strength cast and rolled steels

    Pijpers, R.J.M.


    Although Very High Strength Steels (VHSS) with nominal strengths up to 1100 MPa have been available on the market for many years, the use of these steels in the civil engineering industry is still uncommon. The main objective of the research is the determination of the fatigue strength of welded con


    SELLES Miguel Angel


    Full Text Available Forming is the main problem when working with steel in sheet form. The friction between the working tool and the workpiece is very important, and a precise knowledge of friction in these fields for proper process design, tool design, surface quality and process control training is needed. Forming causes tangential forces, which act between the die and the workpiece, in a resisting relative movement between the two surfaces. The frictional force can be easily varied with adequate lubrication or altering the tool or workpiece surface roughness. This research is carried out to study these phenomena to decrease manufacturing costs, and improve production and forming. The material tested in this study is steel used in the automotive industry, more specifically in the manufacturing of car chassis.

  15. Finite-Element Micromechanical Strength Modeling and Parametric Investigation of Three-Dimensional Orthogonal Composites


    insulators for the composite electromagnetic railgun insulator, which exhibits delamination as its primary failure mode. In the current study, a armor or structural applications. In particular, with the electromagnetic railgun launcher, significant electromagnetic forces generated in the...This becomes a powerful tool by which the effects of changes to microgeometry on the mechanical performance of the material can be quickly explored

  16. The transuranium elements: From neptunium and plutonium to element 112

    Hoffman, D.C. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)


    Beginning in the 1930`s, both chemists and physicists became interested in synthesizing new artificial elements. The first transuranium element, Np, was synthesized in 1940. Over the past six decades, 20 transuranium elements have been produced. A review of the synthesis is given. The procedure of naming the heavy elements is also discussed. It appears feasible to produce elements 113 and 114. With the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator, it should be possible to reach the superheavy elements in the region of the spherical Z=114 shell, but with fewer neutrons than the N=184 spherical shell. 57 refs, 6 figs.

  17. Interband Plasmonics with p-block Elements

    Toudert, Johann


    We investigate the origin of the near-ultraviolet visible plasmonic properties of three elemental materials from the p-block: Bi, Sb and Ga, with the aim to achieve and exploit unconventional plasmonic effects beyond those provided by noble metals. At such aim, we review and analyze a broad range of optically-determined dielectric functions e of these elemental materials available in the literature, covering a wide photon energy range (from 0.03 to 24 eV). It is shown that the contribution of Drude-like carriers to e1 (real part of e) in the near-ultraviolet visible is negligible for Bi and Sb and moderate for Ga. In contrast, the interband transitions of these elemental materials show a high oscillator strength that yields a strong negative contribution to e1 in the near-ultraviolet visible. Therefore in these materials interband transitions are not a mere damping channel detrimental to plasmonic properties. Remarkably, these interband transitions induce fully (partially) the localized surface plasmon-like r...

  18. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shells

    Mustafa K. Ahmed


    Full Text Available This investigation is to develop a numerical model suitable for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete shells. A nine-node Lagrangian element Figure (1 with enhanced shear interpolation will be used in this study. Table (1 describes shape functions and their derivatives of this element.An assumed transverse shear strain is used in the formulation of this element to overcome shear locking. Degenerated quadratic thick plate elements employing a layered discrelization through the thickness will be adopted. Different numbers of layers for different thickness can be used per element. A number of layers between (6 and 10 have proved to be appropriate to represent the nonlinear material behavior in structures. In this research 8 layers will be adequate. Material nonlinearities due to cracking of concrete, plastic flow or crushing of concrete in compression and yield condition of reinforcing steel are considered. The maximum tensile strength is used as a criterion for crack initiation. Attention is given to the tension stiffening phenomenon and the degrading effect of cracking on the compressive and shear strength of concrete. Perfect bond between concrete and steel is assumed. Attention is given also to geometric nonlinearities. An example have been chosen in order to demonstrate the suitability of the models by comparing the predicted behaviour with the experimental results for shell exhibiting various modes of failure.

  19. Investigation of sport rock climbers’ handgrip strength

    Burak Gürer


    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate handgrip strengths of elite sportsmen who are involved in sport rock climbing. Study group was composed of 144 sportsmen from 22 countries who participated in Petzl Roc Trip sport rock climbing festival held in Turkey between 14 and 19 October 2014. Data were collected by using Takei Grip-D brand hand dynamometer. The data collected were analyzed and interpreted by statistical package programme (SPSS 16.0. Results show meaningful differences between sportsmen’s right handgrip strength and left handgrip strength. Sportsmen’s right handgrip strength was found to be higher. Results differed based on gender as well. Left and right handgrip strength of males was found to be higher to those of females. No significant relationships were detected based on nationality, age, history of climbing and period of experience in climbing. Relationships were observed between Turkish male and female climbers’ right and left handgrip strengths. As a result, it can be claimed that right hand is used more often in sport rock climbing compared to the left hand. It is also believed that fingers and technique are crucial in sport rock climbing. Practices to develop finger strength and techniques are suggested.

  20. Strength evaluation code STEP for brittle materials

    Ishihara, Masahiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment; Futakawa, Masatoshi


    In a structural design using brittle materials such as graphite and/or ceramics it is necessary to evaluate the strength of component under complex stress condition. The strength of ceramic materials is said to be influenced by the stress distribution. However, in the structural design criteria simplified stress limits had been adopted without taking account of the strength change with the stress distribution. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the strength of component on the basis of the fracture model for brittle material. Consequently, the strength evaluation program, STEP, on a brittle fracture of ceramic materials based on the competing risk theory had been developed. Two different brittle fracture modes, a surface layer fracture mode dominated by surface flaws and an internal fracture mode by internal flaws, are treated in the STEP code in order to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture. The STEP code uses stress calculation results including complex shape of structures analyzed by the generalized FEM stress analysis code, ABAQUS, so as to be possible to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture for the structures having complicate shapes. This code is, therefore, useful to evaluate the structural integrity of arbitrary shapes of components such as core graphite components in the HTTR, heat exchanger components made of ceramics materials etc. This paper describes the basic equations applying to the STEP code, code system with a combination of the STEP and the ABAQUS codes and the result of the verification analysis. (author)

  1. Development of predictive equations for lifting strengths.

    Kumar, S


    The purpose of the study was to determine relationship between lifting strengths of male and female subjects and body posture, type of lift (stoop or squat) and velocity of lift. Thirty normal young adults (18 males and 12 females) volunteered for the study. All subjects were required to perform a total of 56 tasks. Of these, 28 were stoop lifts and 28 were squat lifts. In each of the categories of stoop and squat lifts, the strengths were tested in standard posture, isokinetic (linear velocity of 500 mm/s), and isometric modes at half, three-quarters and full horizontal individual reach distances in sagittal, 30 degrees lateral and 60 degrees lateral planes. The strengths were measured using a static dynamic strength tester with a load cell and an IBM microcomputer with an A/D card. The peak and average strength values were extracted and statistically compared across conditions and gender (ANOVA). Finally a multiple regression analysis was carried out to predict strength as a function of reach, posture and velocity of lift. The ANOVA revealed a highly significant effect of gender, reach, plane and velocity (p capabilities for industrial application based on simple anthropometric and strength characteristics.

  2. Analysis and Design of Rolling Stock Elements

    M. V. Chugunov


    Full Text Available The work solves the problem of equal-strength design of the rolling stock elements in option of discrete equal-strength. For this purpose, has been developed the software built in SolidWorks and SolidWorks Simulation as an AddIn-application using necessary basic functionality and extending it in the specified part on the basis of API SolidWorks and COM technology.The SolidWorks software is used to develop a 3D-model for general force frame of the wagon as an assembly. As this assembly is quite complicated and includes many elements both standard, and non-standard type, 3D - specification is developed by 3Dvia Composer software, which is included in the article in the form of the gif-animation and via-roller. This means is very useful for the evident analysis of topology and geometrical properties of a design as a whole, facilitates a procedure of adequate formation of the FE model providing accuracy and profitability of computing. From the point of view of profitability and opportunities of definition of concentrators of stresses with a sufficient accuracy for practice the combined model including volume and shell FEM is optimum.In the work the analysis results of stress-strain state of a design are given in two options of static loading in the form of stress diagrams, the main areas of stress concentration are revealed.Results of equal-strength design in the form of thickness distribution on thin-walled elements of a design, considered within FEM as shells, are received. It is shown that the developed software doesn't allow optimum design results, however it is economically viable, simple in use and can be applied to the solution of problems of rational design in design practice.SolidWorks, as well as the majority of similar CADs, possess an open architecture and allow users to apply its functionality. This work continues a series of publications of the author of this paper and other authors concerning the API-based CAD/CAE adaptation and

  3. Elastic properties, strength and damage tolerance of pultruded composites

    Saha, Mrinal Chandra

    Pultruded composites are candidate materials for civil engineering infrastructural applications due their higher corrosion resistance and lower life cycle cost. Efficient use of materials like structural members requires thorough understanding of the mechanism that affects their response. The present investigation addresses the modeling and characterization of E-glass fiber/polyester resin matrix pultruded composites in the form of sheets of various thicknesses. The elastic constants were measured using static, vibration and ultrasonic methods. Two types of piezoelectric crystals were used in ultrasonic measurements. Finally, the feasibility of using a single specimen, in the form of a circular disk, was shown in measuring all the elastic constants using ultrasonic technique. The effects of stress gradient on tensile strength were investigated. A large number of specimens, parallel and transverse to the pultrusion direction, were tested in tension, 3-point flexure, and 4-point flexure. A 2-parameter Weibull model was applied to predict the tensile strength from the flexure tests. The measured and Weibull-predicted ratios did not show consistent agreement. Microstructural observations suggested that the flaw distribution in the material was not uniform, which appears to be a basic requirement for the Weibull distribution. Compressive properties were measured using a short-block compression test specimen of 44.4-mm long and 25.4-mm wide. Specimens were tested at 0°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90° orientations. The compression test specimen was modeled using 4-noded isoparametric layered plate and shell elements. The predicted elastic properties for the roving layer and the continuous strand mat layer was used for the finite element study. The damage resistance and damage tolerance were investigated experimentally. Using a quasi-static indentation loading, damage was induced at various incrementally increased force levels to investigate the damage growth process. Damage


    Flávio Fernando DEMARCO


    Full Text Available The bond strength of dentin adhesives to dentin has increased after each generation. Although dentin substratum is part of the bonding process, little importance has been given to measure dentin cohesive strength. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cohesive strength of dentin in human canines. Seventeen non carious canines were selected. All of them had been extracted for more than one year. The teeth were ground until dentin square samples with approximately 2 X 2 mm were obtained. They were embedded in acrylic resin and subjected to shear stress, in a Wolpert Machine, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean cohesive strength of dentin in shear mode was 33.95 (+-9.72 MPa. The fracture surfaces were observed under a X40 magnification. A finite element analysis was performed to observe the stress distribution as related to the shear test. The failure pattern was compatible with the shear test and also with the stress distribution in the finite element analysisA resistência de união dos adesivos dentinários tem sido aumentada com o desenvolvimento de cada nova geração. Pouca importância tem sido dada à resistência coesiva da dentina. A proposta deste estudo foi avaliar a resistência coesiva da dentina. Dezessete caninos humanos hígidos, os quais tinham sido extraídos há mais de um ano, foram usados. Os dentes foram desgastados até a obtenção de corpos-de-prova em dentina, de formato quadrangular, com tamanho aproximado de 2 X 2 mm. Os dentes foram incluídos em resina acrílica e, então, submetidos ao teste de cisalhamento em uma máquina de ensaios universais Wolpert, com uma velocidade de 0,5 mm/min. A resistência coesiva média da dentina no teste de cisalhamento foi de 33,95 (+- 9,72 MPa. O tipo de fratura foi analisado com um aumento de 40X. Foi realizada uma análise com elemento finito, para observar a distribuição do estresse relacionada com o teste de cisalhamento. O padrão de fratura encontrado foi compat

  5. Assessment of Residual Strength Based on Estimated Temperature of Post-Heated RC Columns

    Muhammad Yaqub


    Full Text Available The experience shows that fire-damaged concrete structures both technically and economically can be reinstated after fire due to high fire resistance and high residual strength. The residual strength of fire-damaged concrete structural member depends on the peak temperature reached during fire, fire duration and the distribution of temperature within the structural member. The assessment of the residual strength of post-heated concrete structural members in a professional way is a prime factor to take a decision about the reinstatement or demolition of fire-damaged structure. This paper provides an easy and efficient approach to predict the residual strength of reinforced concrete columns based on the estimated temperature which may have occurred within the concrete cross-section during a fire. A finite element model was developed to evaluate the distribution of temperature within the cross-section of the reinforced concrete columns. Twelve reinforced concrete square columns were heated experimentally up to 500°C at 150°C/hour. A comparison of the experimental temperature values of the tested columns was made with the model results. A good agreement was found between the experimental and the finite model results. Based on the temperature distribution obtained from the finite element model, the residual strength of concrete and reinforcement could be evaluated by using the relationships for concrete, steel and temperature proposed by various researchers.

  6. Method of securing filter elements

    Brown, Erik P.; Haslam, Jeffery L.; Mitchell, Mark A.


    A filter securing system including a filter unit body housing; at least one tubular filter element positioned in the filter unit body housing, the tubular filter element having a closed top and an open bottom; a dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element; and a socket in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element that receives the dimple in either the filter unit body housing or the top of the tubular filter element to secure the tubular filter element to the filter unit body housing.

  7. Sources of strength-training information and strength-training behavior among Japanese older adults.

    Harada, Kazuhiro; Shibata, Ai; Lee, Euna; Oka, Koichiro; Nakamura, Yoshio


    The promotion of strength training is now recognized as an important component of public health initiatives for older adults. To develop successful communication strategies to increase strength-training behavior among older adults, the identification of effective communication channels to reach older adults is necessary. This study aimed to identify the information sources about strength training that were associated with strength-training behaviors among Japanese older adults. The participants were 1144 adults (60-74 years old) randomly sampled from the registry of residential addresses. A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was conducted. The independent variables were sources of strength-training information (healthcare providers, friends, families, radio, television, newspapers, newsletters, posters, books, magazines, booklets, the Internet, lectures, other sources), and the dependent variable was regular strength-training behavior. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify potential relationships. After adjusting for demographic factors and all other information sources, strength-training information from healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet were positively related to regular strength-training behavior. The findings of the present study contribute to a better understanding of strength-training behavior and the means of successful communication directed at increasing strength training among older adults. The results suggest that healthcare providers, friends, books and the Internet are effective methods of communication for increasing strength-training behaviors among older adults.

  8. Strength Modeling of High-Strength Concrete with Hybrid Fibre Reinforcement

    A. Ravichandran


    Full Text Available The low tensile strength and limited ductility, the unavoidable deficiency, of concrete can be overcome by the addition of fibres. High strength concrete (HSC of 60 MPa containing hybrid fibres, combination of steel and polyolefin fibres, at different volume fraction of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0% were compared in terms of compressive, splitting tensile strength and flexural properties with HSC containing no fibres. Test results showed that the fibres when used in hybrid form could result in enhanced flexural toughness compared to steel fibre reinforced concrete [HSFRC]. The compressive strength of the fibre-reinforced concrete reached maximum at 1.5% volume fractions and the splitting tensile strength and modulus of rupture improved with increasing volume fraction. Strength models were established to predict the compressive and splitting tensile strength and modulus of rupture of the fibre-reinforced concrete. The models give prediction matching the measurements.

  9. It is elemental

    Delgado-Baquerizo, Manuel; Reich, Peter B.; Khachane, Amit N.


    It is well established that resource quantity and elemental stoichiometry play major roles in shaping below and aboveground plant biodiversity, but their importance for shaping microbial diversity in soil remains unclear. Here, we used statistical modeling on a regional database covering 179...... diversity and composition were primarily driven by variation in soil resource stoichiometry (total C:N:P ratios), itself linked to different land uses, and secondarily driven by other important biodiversity drivers such as climate, soil spatial heterogeneity, soil pH, root influence (plant-soil microbe...

  10. Elements of energy conversion

    Russell, Charles R


    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  11. Osteoporosis and trace elements

    Aaseth, J.; Boivin, G.; Andersen, Ole


    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine...... in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified...

  12. Elements of probability theory

    Rumshiskii, L Z


    Elements of Probability Theory presents the methods of the theory of probability. This book is divided into seven chapters that discuss the general rule for the multiplication of probabilities, the fundamental properties of the subject matter, and the classical definition of probability. The introductory chapters deal with the functions of random variables; continuous random variables; numerical characteristics of probability distributions; center of the probability distribution of a random variable; definition of the law of large numbers; stability of the sample mean and the method of moments

  13. Elements of real analysis

    Sprecher, David A


    This classic text in introductory analysis delineates and explores the intermediate steps between the basics of calculus and the ultimate stage of mathematics: abstraction and generalization.Since many abstractions and generalizations originate with the real line, the author has made it the unifying theme of the text, constructing the real number system from the point of view of a Cauchy sequence (a step which Dr. Sprecher feels is essential to learn what the real number system is).The material covered in Elements of Real Analysis should be accessible to those who have completed a course in

  14. Elements of analytical dynamics

    Kurth, Rudolph; Stark, M


    Elements of Analytical Dynamics deals with dynamics, which studies the relationship between motion of material bodies and the forces acting on them. This book is a compilation of lectures given by the author at the Georgia and Institute of Technology and formed a part of a course in Topological Dynamics. The book begins by discussing the notions of space and time and their basic properties. It then discusses the Hamilton-Jacobi theory and Hamilton's principle and first integrals. The text concludes with a discussion on Jacobi's geometric interpretation of conservative systems. This book will

  15. Analytical elements of mechanics

    Kane, Thomas R


    Analytical Elements of Mechanics, Volume 1, is the first of two volumes intended for use in courses in classical mechanics. The books aim to provide students and teachers with a text consistent in content and format with the author's ideas regarding the subject matter and teaching of mechanics, and to disseminate these ideas. The book opens with a detailed exposition of vector algebra, and no prior knowledge of this subject is required. This is followed by a chapter on the topic of mass centers, which is presented as a logical extension of concepts introduced in connection with centroids. A

  16. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio


    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  17. Elements of Architecture

    Elements of Architecture explores new ways of engaging architecture in archaeology. It conceives of architecture both as the physical evidence of past societies and as existing beyond the physical environment, considering how people in the past have not just dwelled in buildings but have existed...... and affective impacts, of these material remains. The contributions in this volume investigate the way time, performance and movement, both physically and emotionally, are central aspects of understanding architectural assemblages. It is a book about the constellations of people, places and things that emerge...

  18. Ring-laser gyroscope system using dispersive element(s)

    Smith, David D. (Inventor)


    A ring-laser gyroscope system includes a ring-laser gyroscope (RLG) and at least one dispersive element optically coupled to the RLG's ring-shaped optical path. Each dispersive element has a resonant frequency that is approximately equal to the RLG's lasing frequency. A group index of refraction defined collectively by the dispersive element(s) has (i) a real portion that is greater than zero and less than one, and (ii) an imaginary portion that is less than zero.

  19. Strength of Concrete Containing Basalt Fibre

    Parvez Imraan Ansari


    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparative study of effect of basalt fibre on compressive and split tensile strength of M40 grade concrete. The basalt fibre was mixed in concrete by (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5% of its total weight of cement in concrete. Results indicated that the strength increases with increase of basalt fibre content up to 1.0% beyond that there is a reduction in strength on increasing basalt fibre. The results show that the concrete specimen with 1.0% of basalt fibre gives better performance when it compared with 0.5%and 1.5% basalt fibre mix in concrete specimens.

  20. Strength of Concrete Containing Basalt Fibre


    This paper presents the comparative study of effect of basalt fibre on compressive and split tensile strength of M40 grade concrete. The basalt fibre was mixed in concrete by (0.5%, 1%, and 1.5%) of its total weight of cement in concrete. Results indicated that the strength increases with increase of basalt fibre content up to 1.0% beyond that there is a reduction in strength on increasing basalt fibre. The results show that the concrete specimen with 1.0% of basalt fibre gives be...

  1. Strength of Cracked Reinforced Concrete Disks

    Hoang, Cao Linh; Nielsen, Mogens Peter


    The paper deals with models, based on the theory of plasticity, to be used in strength assessments of reinforced concrete disks suffering from different kinds of cracking. Based on the assumption that the sliding strength of concrete is reduced in sections where cracks are located, solutions...... for the shear strength of disks with initial cracks and disks suffering from isotropic cracking are presented. Furthermore, in the case of isotropicly cracked disks subjected to arbitrary in-plane loading, a general yield condition is derived....

  2. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu


    The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  3. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao


    This study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000°C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off with the help of an electrically...... controlled arm. Higher sintering temperatures resulted in greater adhesion strengths, with a sharp increase observed near the melting point of the ash. Repetition of experiments with fixed operation conditions revealed considerable variation in the obtained adhesion strengths, portraying the stochastic...

  4. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu


    The strength of polycrystalline materials increases with decreasing grain size. Below a critical size, smaller grains might lead to softening, as suggested by atomistic simulations. The strongest size should arise at a transition in deformation mechanism from lattice dislocation activities to grain...... boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  5. EDITORIAL: King of the elements? King of the elements?

    Demming, Anna


    Throughout the history of science, carbon-based research has played a defining role in the development of a range of fundamental and technological fields. It was used in Avagadro's definition of the mole in the early 18th century, it provides the 'backbone' of molecules in organic compounds, and in the environmental debate currently raging in the press and international government discussions, the 'carbon footprint' has become the metric of our species' impact on our planet. Also in nanotechnology, with the discovery of various wonder materials, carbon is once again asserting its claim as king of the elements. Until the 1980s the only known forms of carbon were diamond, graphite and amorphous carbon, as in soot or charcoal. In 1985 Robert Curl, Harold Kroto and Richard Smalley reported the existence of fullerenes, spherical structures comprising hexagonal carbon rings [1], work for which they won the Nobel Prize for Chemistry in 1996 [2]. The discovery of fullerenes was followed in 1991 by Sumio Ijima with the discovery of rolled graphite sheets, the carbon nanotube [3]. The discovery of these novel carbon nanostructures inspired researchers in a range of fields, largely as a result of the extraordinary capacity for investigations of these structures to reveal ever more intriguing properties. One of the fascinating properties attributed to carbon nanotubes is their phenomenal strength, with a Young's modulus of single walled carbon nanotubes approaching a terapascal [4]. Ingenious methods of harnessing this strength have since been developed, including bucky paper, a term used to refer to a mat of randomly self-entangled carbon nanotubes. Steven Crannford and Markus Buehler have recently reported a novel computational technique for probing the mechanical properties of these structures and show that the Young's modulus of bucky paper can be tuned by manipulation of the carbon nanotube type and density [5]. The electrical properties of carbon nanotubes, which depend

  6. Finite element analysis of thermal stresses in optical storage media

    Evans, K. E.; Nkansah, M. A.; Abbott, S. J.


    Finite element techniques are used to calculate the thermal stresses generated in single-layer, optical storage thin films. The calculations predict that the thermal stresses generated by laser heating may reach values well beyond the strength of the media in times much less than that for pit formation by melting. Both dye-polymer and metal-based systems are considered with either air or substrate incident laser sources.

  7. Effects of rare earth elements on the microstructureand properties of magnesium alloy AZ91D


    The effects of rare earth elements on the microstructure and properties of magnesium alloy AZ91D alloy were studied. The different proportion of rare earth elements was added to the AZ91D and the tensile tests were carried out at different temperatures. The experimental results show that at room temperature or at 120℃ the AZ91D's strength decrease with the increasing amount of the rare earth elements. However, the ductility is improved. The influence of 0.14%Sb (mass fraction) on the AZ91D's strength is like that of rare earth elements (0.2%-0.4%) (mass fraction). Microstructure graphs demonstrate that appropriate amount of rare earth elements (0.1%-0.2%) can fine AZ91D's grain and improve its ductility.

  8. A new high strength stainless maraging spring steel with isotropic shaping capability

    Weber, H.R. [VACUUMSCHMELZE GmbH+Co. KG, Hanau (Germany)


    The production of complex shapes coupled with the demand for maximum final strength is called for by many design engineers in the fields of components, springs or elements for control technology, pneumatics, and hydraulics in order to meet the increasing trend to miniaturization and reducing the number of parts. A new FeNiCoMo-based maraging steel succeeds in combining the maximum strengths and isotropic shaping capability of non-stainless maraging steels with the anti-corrosive properties of austenitic CrNi steels. (orig.)

  9. Chrome-Free Paint Primer for Zn/Ni Plated High-Strength Steel (Briefing Charts)


    Chrome -Free Paint Primer for Zn/Ni Plated High- Strength Steel 11-19-14 Presentation at ASETSDefense 2014 George Zafiris Team: Mark Jaworowski, Mike...AND SUBTITLE Chrome -Free Paint Primer for Zn/Ni Plated High-Strength Steel 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) United Technologies Research


    Y. Chen; X. Chen; A.M. Guo; D.X. Luo; B.F. Xu; Z.X. Yuan; P.H. Li; S.K. Pu; S.B. Zhou


    The different chemical composition of silicon and manganese as well as different re-tained austenite fraction ranged from 4% to 10% of the high strength and high elon-gation steels were studied in the paper. The dislocations and carbon concentrationin retained austenite were observed by a transmission electron microscope and anelectric probe analyzer, respectively. The experimental results showed that silicon andmanganese are two fundamental alloying elements to stabilize austenite effectively butretaining austenite in different mechanisms. Meanwhile, the cooling processing playedan important role in controlling the fraction of retained austenite of the hot-rolledhigh strength and high plasticity steels.


    Adam PRZEMYK


    Full Text Available In this paper, the finite element method (FEM is used to calculate the strength of truck frames by integrating the MSC Adams software, for dynamics analysis of mechanical systems, and the NX Nastran/Femap software. At the same time, a method for reducing degrees of freedom is been developed based on the Craig–Bampton method. The interface is applied in order to calculate the strength of the frame in the selected truck, which runs on the test track. The selected model of truck can be treated as the virtual prototype that is useful in the design process.

  12. Nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions of 145,149,151Nd isotopes

    Ay, K. O.; Ozgur, M.; Algin, E.; Guttormsen, M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Crespo Campo, L.; Görgen, A.; Hagen, T. W.; Ingeberg, V. W.; Kheswa, B. V.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Midtbo, J. E.; Modamio, V.; Renstrom, T.; Rose, S. J.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G. M.; Zeiser, F.


    The nuclear level densities and gamma-ray strength functions are the key elements for Hauser-Feshbach statistical model calculations to predict reaction cross sections which have many applications including astrophysics. The nuclear level densities and y-ray strength functions have been determined for 145,149,151Nd isotopes below the neutron separation energies using the Oslo method with the 144,148,150Nd(d,p) reactions. The results from the first measurements as well as planned experiments at OCL will be presented.

  13. Effects of Reinforcement Geometry on Strength and Stiffness in Adhesively Bonded Steel-Timber Flexural Beams

    Dave Smedley


    Full Text Available A finite element model is developed to analyse, as a function of volume fraction, the effects of reinforcement geometry and arrangement within a timber beam. The model is directly validated against experimental equivalents and found to never be mismatched by more than 8% in respect to yield strength predictions. Yield strength increases linearly as a function of increasing reinforcement volume fraction, while the flexural modulus follows more closely a power law regression fit. Reinforcement geometry and location of reinforcement are found to impact both the flexural properties of timber-steel composite beams and the changes due to an increase in volume fraction.


    FanXun; MengHuirong


    In this paper, a novel design method, which is different from the traditional and empirical one (i. e. , taking p and pv as the basic checking parameters) is presented for the fatigue strength design of dynamically loaded journal bearings. The method makes it possible that dynamically loaded bearings can be designed as same as other machine elements hy stress-strength criterion. The practical design results show that the method has high accuracy and reliability, and may open a new vista in bearing fatigue designs.

  15. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  16. An efficient rectangular plate element


    A new 12-parameter rectangular plate element is presented by useof the double set parameter method. The error in the energy norm is of order O(h2), one order higher than the commonly used Adini nonconforming element.

  17. Cohesive strength of iron ore granules

    Contreras Rafael Jaimes


    Full Text Available We present an experimental and numerical investigation of the mechanical strength of crude iron ore (Hematite granules in which capillary bonds between primary particles are the source of internal cohesion. The strength is measured by subjecting the granules to vertical compression between two plates. We show that the behavior of the granules is ductile with a well-defined plastic threshold which increases with the amount of water. It is found that the compressive strength scales with capillary cohesion with a pre-factor that is nearly independent of size polydispersity for the investigated range of parameters but increases with friction coefficient between primary particles. This weak dependence may be attributed to the class of fine particles which, due to their large number, behaves as a cohesive matrix that controls the strength of the granule.

  18. Cohesive strength of iron ore granules

    Contreras, Rafael Jaimes; Berger, Nicolas; Izard, Edouard; Douce, Jean-François; Koltsov, Alexey; Delenne, Jean-Yves; Azema, Emilien; Nezamabadi, Saeid; van Loo, Frédéric; Pellenq, Roland; Radjai, Farhang


    We present an experimental and numerical investigation of the mechanical strength of crude iron ore (Hematite) granules in which capillary bonds between primary particles are the source of internal cohesion. The strength is measured by subjecting the granules to vertical compression between two plates. We show that the behavior of the granules is ductile with a well-defined plastic threshold which increases with the amount of water. It is found that the compressive strength scales with capillary cohesion with a pre-factor that is nearly independent of size polydispersity for the investigated range of parameters but increases with friction coefficient between primary particles. This weak dependence may be attributed to the class of fine particles which, due to their large number, behaves as a cohesive matrix that controls the strength of the granule.

  19. Strength and stiffness of engineering systems

    Leckie, Frederick A


    This book on the stiffness and strength of engineering systems integrates a wide array of topics into a unified text, including plasticity, fracture, composite materials, energy approaches, and mechanics of microdevices (MEMs)..

  20. Pilates: Build Strength in Your Core Muscles

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Pilates may sound intimidating, but it's an accessible way to build strength in your core muscles for better posture, balance and flexibility. By Mayo Clinic Staff Pilates isn't just for fitness fanatics. It's actually ...

  1. Strengths-based Practice and Motivational Interviewing

    Trevor Jay Manthey


    Full Text Available There has been recent concern that many practices and programs erroneously claim to be strengths-based. In reaction some have called for researchers to make systematic comparisons to the tenets of strengths-based practice (SBP before making the contention that an intervention is strengths-based. Motivational interviewing (MI is an intervention which has been described as being strengths-based; however, no systematic efforts have yet been made to compare the two. This article takes a methodical approach to comparing SBP and MI to determine level of cohesion and how they might be used together. A case-example is used to illustrate how MI and SBP may be used in conjunction and implications for social work practice and education are discussed.

  2. Large quantum dots with small oscillator strength

    Stobbe, Søren; Schlereth, T.W.; Höfling, S.


    We have measured the oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of excitons confined in large InGaAs quantum dots by recording the spontaneous emission decay rate while systematically varying the distance between the quantum dots and a semiconductor-air interface. The size of the quantum dots...... is measured by in-plane transmission electron microscopy and we find average in-plane diameters of 40 nm. We have calculated the oscillator strength of excitons of that size assuming a quantum-dot confinement given by a parabolic in-plane potential and a hard-wall vertical potential and predict a very large...... oscillator strength due to Coulomb effects. This is in stark contrast to the measured oscillator strength, which turns out to be so small that it can be described by excitons in the strong confinement regime. We attribute these findings to exciton localization in local potential minima arising from alloy...

  3. Development of High Specific Strength Envelope Materials

    Komatsu, Keiji; Sano, Masa-Aki; Kakuta, Yoshiaki

    Progress in materials technology has produced a much more durable synthetic fabric envelope for the non-rigid airship. Flexible materials are required to form airship envelopes, ballonets, load curtains, gas bags and covering rigid structures. Polybenzoxazole fiber (Zylon) and polyalirate fiber (Vectran) show high specific tensile strength, so that we developed membrane using these high specific tensile strength fibers as a load carrier. The main material developed is a Zylon or Vectran load carrier sealed internally with a polyurethane bonded inner gas retention film (EVOH). The external surface provides weather protecting with, for instance, a titanium oxide integrated polyurethane or Tedlar film. The mechanical test results show that tensile strength 1,000 N/cm is attained with weight less than 230g/m2. In addition to the mechanical properties, temperature dependence of the joint strength and solar absorptivity and emissivity of the surface are measured. 

  4. FPSO Global Strength and Hull Optimization

    Junyuan Ma; Jianhua Xiao; Rui Ma; Kai Cao


    Global strength is a significant item for floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) design, and steel weight plays an important role in the building costs of FPSO. It is the main task to consider and combine these two aspects by optimizing hull dimensions. There are many optional methods for the global strength analysis. A common method is to use the ABS FPSO Eagle software to analyze the global strength including the rule check and direct strength analysis. And the same method can be adopted for the FPSO hull optimization by changing the depth. After calculation and optimization, the results are compared and analyzed. The results can be used as a reference for the future design or quotation purpose.

  5. Neural adaptations to electrical stimulation strength training

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.


    This review provides evidence for the hypothesis that electrostimulation strength training (EST) increases the force of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) through neural adaptations in healthy skeletal muscle. Although electrical stimulation and voluntary effort activate muscle differently, there

  6. optimizing compressive strength characteristics of hollow building ...


    This paper evaluates the compressive strength of sandcrete hollow building blocks when its sand fraction is partially replaced ... defines sandcrete blocks as composite materials made .... industry as well as the economy of Nigeria, if there is no.

  7. Personality Typology in Relation to Muscle Strength

    Terracciano, Antonio; Milaneschi, Yuri; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi


    Background Physical inactivity plays a central role in the age-related decline in muscle strength, an important component in the process leading to disability. Personality, a significant determinant of health behaviors including physical activity, could therefore impact muscle strength throughout adulthood and affect the rate of muscle strength decline with aging. Personality typologies combining “high neuroticism” (N≥55), “low extraversion” (Epersonality types. Facet analyses suggest an important role for the N components of depression and hostility. Physical activity level appears to partly explain some of these associations. Conclusion Findings provide support for the notion that the typological approach to personality may be useful in identifying specific personality types at risk of low muscle strength and offer the possibility for more targeted prevention and intervention programs. PMID:21614452


    Gao Lianxin; Jin Ye; Zhang Yi


    Using premium casing connections instead of API ones is one of the most effective technique to prevent casing failure.The factors contribute to the strength of premium casing connections are studied with FEA and full-scale test.The criterions are presented that ensure the connection's strength higher than the pipe.At the same time, the method is given to decrease the peak stress of the connection so as to improve its anticorruption property.At last, full-scale tests are done to test the strength of the connections designed with the method described, the results show that the connection's strength is higher than the pipe.This indicated that the method described is effective in designing premium casing connection.

  9. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  10. Characterization of Depleted-Uranium Strength and Damage Behavior

    Gray, III, George T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chen, Shuh-Rong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bronkhorst, Curt A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dennis-Koller, Darcie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cerreta, Ellen K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cady, Carl M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCabe, Rodney J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Addessio, Francis L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schraad, Mark W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thoma, Dan J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lopez, Mike F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mason, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Papin, Pallas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trujillo, Carl P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Korzekwa, Deniece R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Luscher, Darby J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hixson, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maudlin, Paul J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, A. M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    The intent of this report is to document the status of our knowledge of the mechanical and damage behavior of Depleted Uranium(DU hereafter). This report briefly summaries the motivation of the experimental and modeling research conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory(LANL) on DU since the early 1980’s and thereafter the current experimental data quantifying the strength and damage behavior of DU as a function of a number of experimental variables including processing, strain rate, temperature, stress state, and shock prestraining. The effect of shock prestraining on the structure-property response of DU is described and the effect on post-shock mechanical behavior of DU is discussed. The constitutive experimental data utilized to support the derivation of two constitutive strength (plasticity) models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) models, for both annealed and shock prestrained DU are detailed and the Taylor cylinder validation tests and finite-element modeling (FEM) utilized to validate these strength models is discussed. The similarities and differences in the PTW and MTS model descriptions for DU are discussed for both the annealed and shock prestrained conditions. Quasi-static tensile data as a function of triaxial constraint and spallation test data are described. An appendix additionally briefly describes low-pressure equation-of-state data for DU utilized to support the spallation experiments. The constitutive behavior of DU screw/bolt material is presented. The response of DU subjected to dynamic tensile extrusion testing as a function of temperature is also described. This integrated experimental technique is planned to provide an additional validation test in the future. The damage data as a function of triaxiality, tensile and spallation data, is thereafter utilized to support derivation of the Tensile Plasticity (TEPLA) damage model and simulations for comparison to the DU spallation data are presented

  11. E1 strength in N = 82 nuclei

    Hartmann, T.; Volz, S.; Babilon, M.; Mohr, P.; Vogt, K.; Zilges, A


    Recently the importance of small contributions of electric dipole strength near the particle threshold to the production rates of atomic nuclei has become evident. Prior estimates concentrated on the Giant Dipole Resonance (GDR) which dominates photoabsorption in all nuclei. Extrapolations to smaller excitation energies were assumed to be sufficiently reliable. However, new measurements reveal that collective E1 strength can be found in the threshold region.

  12. Cadmium Alternatives for High-Strength Steel


    191 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (include area code) 301 -342-8101 iii Table of Contents Note that original JTP section numbers are preceded by...specified. The focus of this JTP is on high-strength structural alloy steels used for various applications. Alloy AISI 4130 was used for adhesion and...NaCl) solution under constant amplitude loading to determine fatigue life using hourglass specimens prepared from high strength AISI 4340 steel. The

  13. How to Scale Down Postsynaptic Strength


    Synaptic scaling is a form of synaptic plasticity that contributes to the homeostatic regulation of neuronal activity both in vitro and in vivo, by bidirectionally and proportionally adjusting postsynaptic AMPA receptor (AMPAR) abundance to compensate for chronic perturbations in activity. This proportional regulation of synaptic strength allows synaptic scaling to normalize activity without disrupting the synapse-specific differences in strength thought to underlie memory storage, but how su...

  14. Agile Software Methodologies: Strength and Weakness

    Dr. Adel Hamdan Mohammad; Dr. Tariq Alwada’n; Dr. Jafar "M.Ali" Ababneh


    Agile methodologies are great software development methodologies. No doubt that these methodologies have widespread reputation. The core of agile methodologies is people. Customer and each team member in agiledevelopment teams are the key success or failure factor in agile process. In this paper authors demonstrate strength and weakness points in agile methodologies. Also authors demonstrate how strength and weakness factors can affect the overall results of agile development process.

  15. Assessment of Shear Strength in Silty Soils

    Stefaniak Katarzyna


    Full Text Available The article presents a comparison of shear strength values in silty soils from the area of Poznań, determined based on selected Nkt values recommended in literature, with values of shear strength established on the basis of Nkt values recommended by the author. Analysed silty soils are characterized by the carbonate cementation zone, which made it possible to compare selected empirical coefficients both in normally consolidated and overconsolidated soils

  16. High-Hot-Strength Ceramic Fibers

    Sayir, Ali; Matson, Lawrence E.


    Continuous fibers consisting of laminae of alumina and yttrium aluminum garnet offer exceptionally high strength, resistance to creep, and chemical stability at high temperatures. These fibers exceed tensile strength of sapphire fibers. Leading candidates for reinforcement of intermetallic-matrix composites in exhaust nozzles of developmental high-speed civil transport aircraft engines. Other applications are in aerospace, automotive, chemical-process, and power-generation industries.

  17. Hydrogen degradation of high strength weldable steels

    J. Ćwiek


    Purpose: Purpose of this paper is presentation of hydrogen degradation issue of high strength steels andespecially their welded joints. Establishing of applicable mechanisms of hydrogen-enhanced cracking was theaim of performed research.Design/methodology/approach: High strength quenched and tempered steels grade S690Q were used. Weldedjoints were prepared with typical technology used in shipyards. Susceptibility to hydrogen degradation in seawater under cathodic polarization was evaluated wi...

  18. Protein requirements and supplementation in strength sports.

    Phillips, Stuart M


    Daily requirements for protein are set by the amount of amino acids that is irreversibly lost in a given day. Different agencies have set requirement levels for daily protein intakes for the general population; however, the question of whether strength-trained athletes require more protein than the general population is one that is difficult to answer. At a cellular level, an increased requirement for protein in strength-trained athletes might arise due to the extra protein required to support muscle protein accretion through elevated protein synthesis. Alternatively, an increased requirement for protein may come about in this group of athletes due to increased catabolic loss of amino acids associated with strength-training activities. A review of studies that have examined the protein requirements of strength-trained athletes, using nitrogen balance methodology, has shown a modest increase in requirements in this group. At the same time, several studies have shown that strength training, consistent with the anabolic stimulus for protein synthesis it provides, actually increases the efficiency of use of protein, which reduces dietary protein requirements. Various studies have shown that strength-trained athletes habitually consume protein intakes higher than required. A positive energy balance is required for anabolism, so a requirement for "extra" protein over and above normal values also appears not to be a critical issue for competitive athletes because most would have to be in positive energy balance to compete effectively. At present there is no evidence to suggest that supplements are required for optimal muscle growth or strength gain. Strength-trained athletes should consume protein consistent with general population guidelines, or 12% to 15% of energy from protein.

  19. Friction welding; Magnesium; Finite element; Shear test.

    Leonardo Contri Campanelli


    Full Text Available Friction spot welding (FSpW is one of the most recently developed solid state joining technologies. In this work, based on former publications, a computer aided draft and engineering resource is used to model a FSpW joint on AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets and subsequently submit the assembly to a typical shear test loading, using a linear elastic model, in order to conceive mechanical tests results. Finite element analysis shows that the plastic flow is concentrated on the welded zone periphery where yield strength is reached. It is supposed that “through the weld” and “circumferential pull-out” variants should be the main failure behaviors, although mechanical testing may provide other types of fracture due to metallurgical features.

  20. Mapping strengths into virtues: The relation of the 24 VIA-strengths to six ubiquitous virtues

    Willibald eRuch


    Full Text Available The Values-in-Action (VIA-classification distinguishes six core virtues and 24 strengths. As the assignment of the strengths to the virtues was done on theoretical grounds it still needs empirical verification. As an alternative to factor analytic investigations the present study utilizes expert judgments. In a pilot study the conceptual overlap among five sources of knowledge (strength’s name including synonyms, short definitions, brief descriptions, longer theoretical elaborations, and item content about a particular strength was examined. The results show that the five sources converged quite well, with the short definitions and the items being slightly different from the other. All strengths exceeded a cut-off value but the convergence was much better for some strengths (e.g., zest than for others (e.g., perspective. In the main study 70 experts (from psychology, philosophy, theology, etc. and 41 laypersons rated how prototypical the strengths are for each of the six virtues. The results showed that 10 were very good markers for their virtues, 9 were good markers, four were acceptable markers, and only one strength failed to reach the cut-off score for its assigned virtue. However, strengths were often markers for two or even three virtues, and occasionally they marked the other virtue more strongly than the one they were assigned to. The virtue prototypicality ratings were slightly positively correlated with higher coefficients being found for justice and humanity. A factor analysis of the 24 strengths across the ratings yielded the six factors with an only slightly different composition of strengths and double loadings. It is proposed to adjust either the classification (by reassigning strengths and by allowing strengths to be subsumed under more than one virtue or to change the definition of certain strengths so that they only exemplify one virtue. The results are discussed in the context of factor analytic attempts to verify the