WorldWideScience

Sample records for strength element hfse

  1. The role of hydrothermal processes in concentrating high-field strength elements in the Strange Lake peralkaline complex, northeastern Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvi, Stefano; Williams-Jones, Anthony E.

    1996-06-01

    The middle-Proterozoic peralkaline pluton at Strange Lake, Quebec/Labrador, comprises hypersolvus to subsolvus phases which are unusually enriched in Zr, Y, REEs, Nb, Be, and F, as exotic alkali and alkaline-earth silicate minerals. The highest concentrations of these elements are in subsolvus granite, which underwent intense low temperature (≤200°C) hydrothermal alteration involving hematization and the replacement of alkali high-field strength element (HFSE) minerals by calcic equivalents. This alteration is interpreted to have been caused by meteoric or formational waters. High temperature (≥ 350°C) alteration, attributed to orthomagmatic fluids, is evident in other parts of the subsolvus granite by the replacement of arfvedsonite by aegirine. Comparisons of the chemical compositions of fresh and altered rocks indicate that rocks subjected to high temperature alteration were chemically unaffected, except for depletion in Zr, Y, and HREEs. These elements were appreciably enriched in rocks that underwent low temperature alteration. Other elements affected by low temperature alteration include Ca and Mg, which were added and Na, which was removed. Available data on HFSE speciation in aqueous fluids and the chemistry of the pluton, suggest that the HFSEs were transported as fluoride complexes. If this was the case, the low temperature fluid could not have been responsible for HFSE transport, because the high concentration of Ca and low solubility of fluorite would have buffered F - activity to levels too low to permit significant complexation. We propose that HFSE mineralization and accompanying alteration were the result of mixing, in the apical parts of the pluton, of a F-rich, essentially Ca-free orthomagmatic fluid containing significant concentrations of HFSEs, with an externally derived meteoric-dominated fluid, enriched in Ca as a result of interaction with calc-silicate gneisses and gabbros. According to this interpretation, the latter fluid was

  2. The role of pegmatites and acid fluids for REE/HFSE mobilization in the Strange Lake peralkaline granitic pluton, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gysi, A. P.; Williams-Jones, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Strange Lake pluton in Canada is a mid-Proterozoic peralkaline granitic intrusion that is host to a world-class rare earth element (REE), yttrium (Y) and high-field strength element (HFSE) deposit containing more than 50 Mt ore at >1.5 wt.% REE and >3 wt.% Zr. The highest REE/HFSE concentrations are found in pegmatite-rich zones characterized by intense alteration. Previous studies of Strange Lake and other peralkaline and alkaline intrusions, such as Khan Bogd (Mongolia) and Tamazeght (Morocco) plutons have shown that hydrothermal alteration may play an important role in the mobility of the REE/HFSE. However, the fluid chemistry and conditions of alteration (i.e., P, T, pH, fO2, ligand activity) in these systems still need to be constrained to evaluate the importance and scale of such hydrothermal mobilization. We present new data from the B-zone, a pegmatite-rich zone located in NW Strange Lake. The pegmatites are generally zoned and form two main types. The border-type pegmatites consist of quartz, K-feldspar and hematized aegirine, whereas volatile-rich pegmatites consist of hydrothermal quartz and fluorite. Transitions between both types were also observed, with the K-feldspar being partly altered and replaced by Al-Si-rich phyllosilicates. The heavy (H)REE and Zr were primarily concentrated in zirconosilicates such as elpidite, now pseudomorphed by zircon or gittinsite, whereas light (L)REE and Y were concentrated in REE-F-(CO2)-minerals such as fluocerite and bastnäsite. Textural and mineralogical observations indicate that these minerals are primary and were partly to completely leached upon fluid-rock interaction in the pegmatites. Secondary phases include Ca-F-Y-rich minerals, mainly hydrothermal fluorite, that fill vugs and replaced primary REEHFSE minerals. The presence of hydrothermal fluorite veins, micro-veins, vugs and micro-breccia in the most altered parts of the B-zone are interpreted to reflect interaction of the rocks with a F-rich fluid

  3. Oxidative mobilization of cerium and uranium and enhanced release of "immobile" high field strength elements from igneous rocks in the presence of the biogenic siderophore desferrioxamine B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, Dennis; Kopf, Sebastian; Bau, Michael

    2015-09-01

    Polyvalent trace elements such as the high field strength elements (HFSE) are commonly considered rather immobile during low-temperature water-rock interaction. Hence, they have become diagnostic tools that are widely applied in geochemical studies. We present results of batch leaching experiments focused on the mobilization of certain HFSE (Y, Zr, Hf, Th, U and rare earth elements) from mafic, intermediate and felsic igneous rocks in the presence and absence, respectively, of the siderophore desferrioxamine B (DFOB). Our data show that DFOB strongly enhances the mobility of these trace elements during low-temperature water-rock interaction. The presence of DFOB produces two distinct features in the Rare Earths and Yttrium (REY) patterns of leaching solutions, regardless of the mineralogical and chemical composition or the texture of the rock type studied. Bulk rock-normalized REY patterns of leaching solutions with DFOB show (i) a very distinct positive Ce anomaly and (ii) depletion of La and other light REY relative to the middle REY, with a concave downward pattern between La and Sm. These features are not observed in experiments with hydrochloric acid, acetic acid or deionized water. In DFOB-bearing leaching solutions Ce and U are decoupled from and selectively enriched relative to light REY and Th, respectively, due to oxidation to Ce(IV) and U(VI). Oxidation of Ce3+ and U4+ is promoted by the significantly higher stability of the Ce(IV) and U(VI) DFOB complexes as compared to the Ce(III) and U(IV) DFOB complexes. This is similar to the relationship between the Ce(IV)- and Ce(III)-pentacarbonate complexes that cause positive Ce anomalies in alkaline lakes. However, while formation of Ce(IV) carbonate complexes is confined to alkaline environments, Ce(IV) DFOB complexes may produce positive Ce anomalies even in mildly acidic and near-neutral natural waters. Siderophore-promoted dissolution processes also significantly enhance mobility of other 'immobile' HFSE

  4. Statistical study on the strength of structural materials and elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blume, J.A.; Dalal, J.S.; Honda, K.K.

    1975-07-01

    Strength data for structural materials and elements including concrete, reinforcing steel, structural steel, plywood elements, reinforced concrete beams, reinforced concrete columns, brick masonry elements, and concrete masonry walls were statistically analyzed. Sample statistics were computed for these data, and distribution parameters were derived for normal, lognormal, and Weibull distributions. Goodness-of-fit tests were performed on these distributions. Most data, except those for masonry elements, displayed fairly small dispersion. Dispersion in data for structural materials was generally found to be smaller than for structural elements. Lognormal and Weibull distributions displayed better overall fits to data than normal distribution, although either Weibull or lognormal distribution can be used to represent the data analyzed. (auth)

  5. Finite Element Simulation of Diametral Strength Test of Hydroxyapatite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, Fahrettin; Toros, Serkan; Evis, Zafer

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the diametral strength test of sintered hydroxyapatite was simulated by the finite element software, ABAQUS/Standard. Stress distributions on diametral test sample were determined. The effect of sintering temperature on stress distribution of hydroxyapatite was studied. It was concluded that high sintering temperatures did not reduce the stress on hydroxyapatite. It had a negative effect on stress distribution of hydroxyapatite after 1300 deg. C. In addition to the porosity, other factors (sintering temperature, presence of phases and the degree of crystallinity) affect the diametral strength of the hydroxyapatite.

  6. Strength Analysis on Ship Ladder Using Finite Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budianto; Wahyudi, M. T.; Dinata, U.; Ruddianto; Eko P., M. M.

    2018-01-01

    In designing the ship’s structure, it should refer to the rules in accordance with applicable classification standards. In this case, designing Ladder (Staircase) on a Ferry Ship which is set up, it must be reviewed based on the loads during ship operations, either during sailing or at port operations. The classification rules in ship design refer to the calculation of the structure components described in Classification calculation method and can be analysed using the Finite Element Method. Classification Regulations used in the design of Ferry Ships used BKI (Bureau of Classification Indonesia). So the rules for the provision of material composition in the mechanical properties of the material should refer to the classification of the used vessel. The analysis in this structure used program structure packages based on Finite Element Method. By using structural analysis on Ladder (Ladder), it obtained strength and simulation structure that can withstand load 140 kg both in static condition, dynamic, and impact. Therefore, the result of the analysis included values of safety factors in the ship is to keep the structure safe but the strength of the structure is not excessive.

  7. Dielectric strength test to protection elements for live lines works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Pinto-Salamanca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and assembly of a system of tests of sustained voltage to elements and equipment used in live line maneuvers through tests on gloves and dielectric rods, as these are the first points of contact to ensure safe operations. It means an advance for the creation of a laboratory certified in this type of tests at Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia (UPTC Faculty of Duitama, considering that currently there are not laboratories that provide this service in Boyacá and Casanare. Dielectric strength tests were performed on personal protection elements and equipment under the parameters of ASTM D120, ASTM F496, ISO 60903, ASTM-F711 and IEEE 978, developing an assembly for testing gloves and dielectric rods with voltage levels up to 15 kV. The results validate the proposed system to outlook of circuit design and implementation, where tests were performed to establish dielectric capacities, in operating under open circuit conditions, with resistive load or short circuit. The compliance with the regulations established under the test sequences of safety parameters for the system and the follow-up to the tests was verified through the use of a management system for the generation of concepts of approval or rejection of the tested elements.

  8. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the shear strength of prestressed hollow-core slabs determined by the theory of plasticity. Two failure mechanisms are considered in order to derive the solutions.In the case of sliding failure in a diagonal crack, the shear strength is determined by means of the crack sliding...

  9. Intermediate coupling collision strengths from LS coupled R-matrix elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, R.E.H.

    1978-01-01

    Fine structure collision strength for transitions between two groups of states in intermediate coupling and with inclusion of configuration mixing are obtained from LS coupled reactance matrix elements (R-matrix elements) and a set of mixing coefficients. The LS coupled R-matrix elements are transformed to pair coupling using Wigner 6-j coefficients. From these pair coupled R-matrix elements together with a set of mixing coefficients, R-matrix elements are obtained which include the intermediate coupling and configuration mixing effects. Finally, from the latter R-matrix elements, collision strengths for fine structure transitions are computed (with inclusion of both intermediate coupling and configuration mixing). (Auth.)

  10. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    The paper deals with the plastic shear strength of non shear reinforced T-beams.The influence of an un-reinforced flange on the shear capacity is investigated by considering a failure mechanism involving crack sliding in the web and a kind of membrane action over an effective width of the flange...

  11. Strength and ductility of Ni3Al alloyed with boron and substitutional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, K.; Aoki, K.; Masumoto, T.

    1995-01-01

    The effect of simultaneous alloying of boron (B) and the substitutional elements M on mechanical properties of Ni 3 Al was investigated by the tensile test at room temperature. The yield strength of Ni 3 Al+B increases by alloying with M except for Fe and Ga. In particular, it increases by alloying with Hf, Nb, W, Ta, Pd and Si. The fracture strength of Ni 3 Al+B increases by alloying with Pd, Ga, Si and Hf, but decreases with the other elements. Elongation of Ni 3 Al+B increases by alloying with Ga, Fe and Pd, but decreases with other elements. Hf and Pd is the effective element for the increase of the yield strength and the fracture strength of Ni 3 Al+B, respectively. Alloying with Hf leads to the increases of the yield strength and the fracture strength of Ni 3 Al+B, but to the lowering of elongation. On the other hand, alloying with Pd improves all mechanical properties, i.e. the yield strength, the fracture strength and elongation. On the contrary, alloying with Ti, V and Co leads to the lowering of mechanical properties of Ni 3 Al+B. The reason why ductility of Ni 3 Al+B is reduced by alloying with some elements M is discussed

  12. Competitive strength by rearrangement of fuel element activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pekarek, H.

    1993-01-01

    The fuel element activities of Siemens AG and Siemens Power Corporation (SPC) were merged, in particular by creation of a world-wide manufacturing network; establishment of priorities in research and development; intensified standardization of products and processes; continued quality improvement by TQM (Total Quality Management), and by fusion of European marketing systems. (orig./DG) [de

  13. Shear strength of non-shear reinforced concrete elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoang, Cao linh

    1997-01-01

    is based upon the hypothesis that cracks can be transformed into yield lines, which have lower sliding resistance than yield lines formed in uncracked concrete.Proposals have been made on how the derived standard solutions may be applied to more complicated cases, such as continuous beams, beams......The report deals with the shear strength of statically indeterminate reinforced concrete beams without shear reinforcement. Solutions for a number of beams with different load and support conditions have been derived by means of the crack sliding model developed by Jin- Ping Zhang.This model...

  14. Vertebral body bone strength: the contribution of individual trabecular element morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, I H; Badiei, A; Stauber, M; Codrington, J; Müller, R; Fazzalari, N L

    2012-07-01

    Although the amount of bone explains the largest amount of variability in bone strength, there is still a significant proportion unaccounted for. The morphology of individual bone trabeculae explains a further proportion of the variability in bone strength and bone elements that contribute to bone strength depending on the direction of loading. Micro-CT imaging enables measurement of bone microarchitecture and subsequently mechanical strength of the same sample. It is possible using micro-CT data to perform morphometric analysis on individual rod and plate bone trabeculae using a volumetric spatial decomposition algorithm and hence determine their contribution to bone strength. Twelve pairs of vertebral bodies (T12/L1 or L4/L5) were harvested from human cadavers, and bone cubes (10 × 10 × 10 mm) were obtained. After micro-CT imaging, a volumetric spatial decomposition algorithm was applied, and measures of individual trabecular elements were obtained. Bone strength was measured in compression, where one bone specimen from each vertebral segment was tested supero-inferiorly (SI) and the paired specimen was tested antero-posteriorly (AP). Bone volume fraction was the strongest individual determinant of SI strength (r(2) = 0.77, p body bone architecture into its constituent morphological elements shows that trabecular element morphology has specific functional roles to assist in maintaining skeletal integrity.

  15. Strength Calculation of Inclined Sections of Reinforced Concrete Elements under Transverse Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filatov, V. B.

    2017-11-01

    The authors propose a design model to determine the strength of inclined sections of bent reinforced concrete elements without shear reinforcement for the action of transverse force taking into account the aggregate interlock forces in the inclined crack. The calculated dependences to find out the components of forces acting in an inclined section are presented. The calculated dependences are obtained from the consideration of equilibrium conditions of the block over the inclined crack. A comparative analysis of the experimental values of the failure loads of the inclined section and the theoretical values obtained for the proposed dependencies and normative calculation methods is performed. It is shown that the proposed design model makes it possible to take into account the effect the longitudinal reinforcement percentage has on the inclined section strength, the element cross section height without the introduction of empirical coefficients which contributes to an increase in the structural safety of design solutions including the safety of high-strength concrete elements.

  16. Finite element method used in strength calculations of nuclear power plant pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanulak, E.

    1987-01-01

    A software system based on the use of the finite element method in linear and nonlinear elastomechanics was developed for assessing the strength and service life of steam generators and pressurizers for WWER type nuclear power plants. The individual programs are briefly described. They are written in FORTRAN IV, some modules are in ASSEMBLER. Programs EGUSAP, NEANKO, ROSYNA are designed for the calculation of stress and deformation, programs ROSYNA, NEANKO and NTEPLO are used for the calculation of temperature fields. Programs SPOJ and STATES are used for assessing the strength and service life of screw joints and other nodes of the WWER-440 type steam generators and pressurizers. (Z.M.)

  17. Construction strength analysis of landing craft tank conversion to passenger ship using finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurul Misbah, Mohammad; Setyawan, Dony; Murti Dananjaya, Wisnu

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to determine the longitudinal strength of passenger ship which was converted from Landing Craft Tank with 54 m of length as stated by BKI (Biro Klasifikasi Indonesia / Indonesian Classification Bureau). Verification of strength value is done to 4 (four) loading conditions which are (1) empty load condition during sagging wave, (2) empty load condition during hogging wave, (3) full load condition during sagging wave and (4) full load condition during hogging wave. Analysis is done using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) software by modeling the entire part of passenger ship and its loading condition. The back and upfront part of ship centerline were used as the boundary condition. From that analysis it can be concluded that the maximum stress for load condition (1) is 72,393 MPa, 74,792 MPa for load condition (2), 129,92 MPa for load condition (3), and 132,4 MPa for load condition (4). Longitudinal strength of passenger ship fulfilled the criteria of empty load condition having smaller stress value than allowable stress which is 90 MPa, and during full load condition with smaller stress value than allowable stress which is 150 MPa. Analysis on longitudinal strength comparison with entire ship plate thickness variation of ± 2 mm from initial plate was also done during this research. From this research it can be concluded that plate thickness reduction causes the value of longitudinal strength to decrease, while plate thickness addition causes the value of longitudinal strength to increase.

  18. Fatigue in Welded High-Strength Steel Plate Elements under Stochastic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agerskov, Henning; Petersen, R.I.; Martinez, L. Lopez

    1999-01-01

    The present project is a part of an investigation on fatigue in offshore structures in high-strength steel. The fatigue life of plate elements with welded attachments is studied. The material used has a yield stress of ~ 810-840 MPa, and high weldability and toughness properties. Fatigue test...... series with constant amplitude loading and with various types of stochastic loading have been carried through on test specimens in high-strength steel, and - for a comparison - on test specimens in conventional offshore structural steel with a yield stress of ~ 400-410 MPa.A comparison between constant...... amplitude and variable amplitude fatigue test results shows shorter fatigue lives in variable amplitude loading than should be expected from the linear fatigue damage accumulation formula. Furthermore, in general longer fatigue lives were obtained for the test specimens in high-strength steel than those...

  19. A molecular-mechanics based finite element model for strength prediction of single wall carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meo, M.; Rossi, M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to develop a finite element model based on molecular mechanics to predict the ultimate strength and strain of single wallet carbon nanotubes (SWCNT). The interactions between atoms was modelled by combining the use of non-linear elastic and torsional elastic spring. In particular, with this approach, it was tried to combine the molecular mechanics approach with finite element method without providing any not-physical data on the interactions between the carbon atoms, i.e. the CC-bond inertia moment or Young's modulus definition. Mechanical properties as Young's modulus, ultimate strength and strain for several CNTs were calculated. Further, a stress-strain curve for large deformation (up to 70%) is reported for a nanotube Zig-Zag (9,0). The results showed that good agreement with the experimental and numerical results of several authors was obtained. A comparison of the mechanical properties of nanotubes with same diameter and different chirality was carried out. Finally, the influence of the presence of defects on the strength and strain of a SWNT was also evaluated. In particular, the stress-strain curve a nanotube with one-vacancy defect was evaluated and compared with the curve of a pristine one, showing a reduction of the ultimate strength and strain for the defected nanotube. The FE model proposed demonstrate to be a reliable tool to simulate mechanical behaviour of carbon nanotubes both in the linear elastic field and the non-linear elastic field

  20. Strength and deformation characteristics of reinforced concrete shell elements subjected to in-plane forces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyagi, Yukio; Yamada, Kazuie.

    1983-01-01

    Reactor containment vessels have been made of steel so far, but since it was decided to adopt a prestressed concrete vessel in the Tsuruga No. 2 plant of Japan Atomic Power Co., the construction of the containment vessels made of prestressed concrete and reinforced concrete has been studied by various electric power companies. However in Japan, there is no standard for the design and construction of concrete structures of this kind. In the standard of foreign countries used for reference, the basis of the stipulation concerning the aseismatic design of concrete containment vessels is not distinct. In this study, the clarification of the strength and deformation when RC vessels are subjected to seismic force only or to internal pressure and seismic force was aimed at, and the result of the loading test by one or two-direction in-plane forces on RC shell elements was examined. Based on this, the method of estimating the strength and deformation of RC shell elements was proposed. The orthogonal reinforcement was adopted, and the strength of shell elements was determined by the yielding of reinforcing bars. (Kako, I.)

  1. CHILES, Singularity Strength of Linear Elastic Bodies by Finite Elements Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benzley, S.E.; Beisinger, Z.E.

    1981-01-01

    1 - Description of problem or function: CHILES is a finite element computer program that calculates the strength of singularities in linear elastic bodies. Plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetric conditions are treated. Crack tip singularity problems are solved by this version of the code, but any type of integrable singularity may be properly modeled by modifying selected subroutines in the program. 2 - Method of solution: A generalized, quadrilateral finite element that includes a singular point at a corner node is incorporated in the code. The displacement formulation is used and inter-element compatibility is maintained so that monotone convergence is preserved. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: CHILES allows three singular points to be modeled in the body being analyzed and each singular point may have coupled Mode I and II deformations. 1000 nodal points may be used

  2. Method for strength calculating of structural elements of mobile machines for flash butt welding of rails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andriy Valeriy Moltasov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The subject of this study is the strength of the loaded units of mobile machines for flash butt welding by refining high-strength rails. The theme of the work is related to the development of a technique for strength calculating of the insulation of the central axis of these machines. The aim of the paper is to establish the mathematical dependence of the pressure on the insulation on the magnitude of deflections of the central axis under the action of the upset force. Design/methodology/approach. Using the Mohr’s method, the displacements of the investigated sections of the central axis under the action of the upset force and the equivalent load distributed along the length of the insulation were calculated. The magnitude of the load distributed along the length of the insulation equivalent to the draft force was determined from the condition that the displacements of the same cross sections are equal under the action of this load and under the action of the upset force. Results. An analytical expression for establishing the relationship between the pressure acting on the insulation and the magnitude of the upset force and the geometric dimensions of the structural elements of the machine was obtained. Based on the condition of the strength of the insulation for crushing, an analytical expression for establishing the relationship between the length of insulation and the size of the upset force, the geometric dimensions of the structural elements of the machine, and the physical and mechanical properties of the insulation material was obtained. Originality/cost. The proposed methodology was tested in the calculation and design of the K1045 mobile rail welding machine, 4 of which is currently successfully used in the USA for welding rails in hard-to-reach places.

  3. Alloying element effect on the mechanical properties of high-strength stainless steels and welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovit, A.I.; Yushchenko, K.A.; Fortunatova, N.N.

    1977-01-01

    Experimental steels containing 11-17% Cr, 3-13% Ni, 0-2% Mo, 0-1% Ti, 1-2% Cu, 0-4% Co, 0-1% He, < 0.03% C and their welded joints have been studied. The ''MRA-1'' program was used to obtain mathematical description (in the form of regression equations) of the effect of alloying elements on strength and plasticity of the steels and the welded joints at 20...-196 deg C. The dependences obtained make it possible to predict the properties of the steels and the joints in a satisfactory agreement with their actual behaviour at 20...-196 deg C

  4. Lateral strength force of URM structures based on a constitutive model for interface element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.H. Akhaveissy

    Full Text Available This paper presents the numerical implementation of a new proposed interface model for modeling the behavior of mortar joints in masonry walls. Its theoretical framework is fully based on the plasticity theory. The Von Mises criterion is used to simulate the behavior of brick and stone units. The interface laws for contact elements are formulated to simulate the softening behavior of mortar joints under tensile stress; a normal linear cap model is also used to limit compressive stress. The numerical predictions based on the proposed model for the behavior of interface elements correlate very highly with test data. A new explicit formula based on results of proposed interface model is also presented to estimate the strength of unreinforced masonry structures. The closed form solution predicts the ultimate lateral load of unreinforced masonry walls less error percentage than ATC and FEMA-307. Consequently, the proposed closed form solution can be used satisfactorily to analyze unreinforced masonry structures.

  5. Residual Strength Analysisof Asymmetrically Damaged Ship Hull GirderUsing Beam Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zubair Muis Alie

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to analyze the residual strength of asymmetrically damaged ship hull girder under longitudinal bending. Beam Finite Element Method isused for the assessment of the residual strength of two single hull bulk carriers (Ship B1 and Ship B4 and a three-cargo-hold model of a single-side Panamax Bulk Carrierin hogging and sagging conditions. The Smith’s  method  is  adopted  and  implemented  into  Beam  Finite  Element Method. An efficient solution procedure is applied; i.e. by assuming the cross section remains plane, the vertical bending moment is applied to the  cross section  and  three-cargo-hold  model. As a fundamental  case,  the  damage is simply  created  by removing the elements from the cross section, neglecting any welding residual stress and initial imperfection. Also no crack  extension  is considered.  The  result  obtained  by  Beam  Finite  Element  Method  so-called Beam-HULLST is compared to the progressive collapse analysis obtained by HULLST for the validation of the present work. Then, for the three-hold-model, the Beam-HULLST is used to investigate the effect of the rotation of the netral axisboth intact and damage condition taking the one and five frame spaces into account. 

  6. Bond lengths and bond strengths in compounds of the 5f elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zachariasen, W.H.

    1975-01-01

    The variation of bond length (D) with bond strength (S) in normal valence compounds of 3d, 4d, 5d-4f, and 6d-5f elements can be represented approximately as D(S)=D(0.5) F(S), where D(0.5) is a characteristic constant for a given bond and F(S) an empirical function which is the same for all bonds. A bond strength Ssub(ij)=ssub(ji) is assigned to the bond between atoms i and j such that Σsub(j) Ssub(ij)=vsub(i) and Σsub(i) Ssub(ij)=vsub(j), where vsub(i) and vsub(j) are the normal valences of the two atoms. The function F(S) decreases monotonically with increasing S, and is normalized to unity at S=0.5, so that the constant D(0.5) has the physical meaning of being the bond length adjusted to S=0.5. The method described above was used to interpret and systematize the experimental results on bond lengths in oxides, halides, and oxyhalides of the 5f elements. (U.S.)

  7. Finite element modelling of chain-die forming for ultra-high strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majji, Raju; Xiang, Yang; Ding, Scott; Yang, Chunhui

    2017-10-01

    There has been a high demand for weight reduction in automotive vehicles while maintaining passenger safety. A potential steel material to achieve this is Ultra High Strength Steel (UHSS). As a high strength material, it is difficult to be formed with desired profiles using traditional sheet metal forming processes such as Cold Roll Forming. To overcome this problem, a potentially alternative solution is Chain-die Forming (CDF), recently developed. The basic principal of the CDF is to fully combine roll forming and bending processes. The main advantage of this process is the elongated deformation length that significantly increases effective roll radius. This study focuses on identifying issues with the CDF by using CAD modelling, Motion Analysis and Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to devise solutions and construct a more reliable process in an optimal design sense. Some attempts on finite element modelling and simulation of the CDF were conducted using relatively simple models in literature and the research was still not sufficient enough for optimal design of a typical CDF for UHSS. Therefore two numerical models of Chain-die Forming process are developed in this study, including a) one having a set of rolls similar to roll forming but with a large radius, i.e., 20 meters; and b) the other one with dies and punch segments similar to a typical CDF machine. As a case study, to form a 60° channel with single pass was conducted using these two devised models for a comparison. The obtained numerical results clearly show the CDF could generate less residual stress, low strain and small springback of a single pass for the 60° UHSS channel. The design analysis procedure proposed in this study could greatly help the mechanical designers to devise a cost-effective and reliable CDF process for forming UHSS.

  8. Accuracy of specimen-specific nonlinear finite element analysis for evaluation of distal radius strength in cadaver material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Takane; Ogawa, Yasufumi; Sukegawa, Koji; Rokkaku, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-11-01

    Distal radius fracture, which often occurs in the setting of osteoporosis, can lead to permanent deformity and disability. Great effort has been directed toward developing noninvasive methods for evaluating the distal radius strength, with the goal of assessing fracture risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate distal radius strength using a finite element model and to gauge the accuracy of finite element model measurement using cadaver material. Ten wrists were obtained from cadavers with a mean age of 89.5 years at death. CT images of each wrist in an extended position were obtained. CT-based finite element models were prepared with Mechanical Finder software. Fracture on the models was simulated by applying a mechanical load to the palm in a direction parallel to the forearm axis, after which the fracture load and the site at which the fracture began were identified. For comparison, the wrists were fractured using a universal testing machine and the fracture load and the site of fracture were identified. The fracture load was 970.9 N in the finite element model group and 990.0 N in the actual measurement group. The site of the initial fracture was extra-articular to the distal radius in both groups. The finite element model was predictive for distal radius fracture when compared to the actual measurement. In this study, a finite element model for evaluation of distal radius strength was validated and can be used to predict fracture risk. We conclude that a finite element model is useful for the evaluation of distal radius strength. Knowing distal radius strength might avoid distal radius fracture because appropriate antiosteoporotic treatment can be initiated.

  9. Influence of heterogeneity on rock strength and stiffness using discrete element method and parallel bond model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyridon Liakas

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The particulate discrete element method (DEM can be employed to capture the response of rock, provided that appropriate bonding models are used to cement the particles to each other. Simulations of laboratory tests are important to establish the extent to which those models can capture realistic rock behaviors. Hitherto the focus in such comparison studies has either been on homogeneous specimens or use of two-dimensional (2D models. In situ rock formations are often heterogeneous, thus exploring the ability of this type of models to capture heterogeneous material behavior is important to facilitate their use in design analysis. In situ stress states are basically three-dimensional (3D, and therefore it is important to develop 3D models for this purpose. This paper revisits an earlier experimental study on heterogeneous specimens, of which the relative proportions of weaker material (siltstone and stronger, harder material (sandstone were varied in a controlled manner. Using a 3D DEM model with the parallel bond model, virtual heterogeneous specimens were created. The overall responses in terms of variations in strength and stiffness with different percentages of weaker material (siltstone were shown to agree with the experimental observations. There was also a good qualitative agreement in the failure patterns observed in the experiments and the simulations, suggesting that the DEM data enabled analysis of the initiation of localizations and micro fractures in the specimens.

  10. RESIDUAL STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE OF ROD CONSTRUCTION ELEMENTS OF AIRCRAFT AFTER THE DAMAGE BY LIGHTNING-LIKE ELECTRICAL DISCHARGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Caused by lightning damage to the external elements of construction of the aircraft, in the form of deformities, burn-through and erosive craters and also hidden defects in the affected area can cause a reduction in the strength of damaged parts. Fatigue tests of samples of rod construction elements damaged by lightning-like electrical discharges showed that for a symmetric cycle of variable loading at an amplitude of 100 kPa and a frequency of 50 Hz supply of fatigue strength decreased in 1,5-1,7 times, and fatigue life decreased in 25 times at local burns and in 70 times at annular burns. The main reason is education on the details of micro cracks in the area of erosive craters formed by discharge.

  11. Evaluation of deformation-strength characteristics of Fiber-cement-stabilized soil by using Distinct Element Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomi, Tomoaki; Konda, Naoki; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    Fiber-cement-stabilized soil method is an effective way to recycle high-water content mud. The modified soil has several advantages such as high failure stress and high failure strain. However, the quality of the modified soil is not constant and depends on the water content of the mud and additives. Therefore, experimental verification to obtain the strength characteristics of the modified soil is necessary, but conducting experiments under various conditions is ineffective and uneconomic. In this study, a numerical model to estimate deformation-strength characteristics of the modified soil is investigated by using Distinct Element Method (DEM). It was shown that the developed model was effective way to estimate deformation-strength characteristics. Moreover, it was confirmed that the modified soil had high earthquake resistance.

  12. THE STRENGTH OF REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAM ELEMENTS UNDER CYCLIC ALTERNATING LOADING AND LOW CYCLE LOAD OF CONSTANT SIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semina Yuliya Anatol'evna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The behavior of reinforced concrete elements under some types of cyclic loads is described in the paper. The main aim of the investigations is research of the stress-strain state and strength of the inclined sections of reinforced concrete beam elements in conditions of systemic impact of constructive factors and the factor of external influence. To spotlight the problem of cyclic loadings three series of tests were conducted by the author. Firstly, the analysis of the tests showed that especially cyclic alternating loading reduces the bearing capacity of reinforced concrete beams and their crack resistance by 20 % due to the fatigue of concrete and reinforcement. Thus the change of load sign creates serious changes of stress-strain state of reinforced concrete beam elements. Low cycle loads of constant sign effect the behavior of the constructions not so adversely. Secondly, based on the experimental data mathematical models of elements’ strength were obtained. These models allow evaluating the impact of each factor on the output parameter not only separately, but also in interaction with each other. Furthermore, the material spotlighted by the author describes stress-strain state of the investigated elements, cracking mechanism, changes of deflection values, the influence of mode cyclic loading during the tests. Since the data on the subject are useful and important to building practice, the ultimate aim of the tests will be working out for improvement of nonlinear calculation models of span reinforced concrete constructions taking into account the impact of these loads, and also there will be the development of engineering calculation techniques of their strength, crack resistance and deformability.

  13. European column buckling curves and finite element modelling including high strength steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jönsson, Jeppe; Stan, Tudor-Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Eurocode allows for finite element modelling of plated steel structures, however the information in the code on how to perform the analysis or what assumptions to make is quite sparse. The present paper investigates the deterministic modelling of flexural column buckling using plane shell elements...... imperfections may be very conservative if considered by finite element analysis as described in the current Eurocode code. A suggestion is given for a slightly modified imperfection formula within the Ayrton-Perry formulation leading to adequate inclusion of modern high grade steels within the original four...... bucking curves. It is also suggested that finite element or frame analysis may be performed with equivalent column bow imperfections extracted directly from the Ayrton-Perry formulation....

  14. Relationship of magnetic field strength and brightness of fine-structure elements in the solar temperature minimum region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, J. W.; Ewing, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    A quantitative relationship was determined between magnetic field strength (or magnetic flux) from photospheric magnetograph observations and the brightness temperature of solar fine-structure elements observed at 1600 A, where the predominant flux source is continuum emission from the solar temperature minimum region. A Kitt Peak magnetogram and spectroheliograph observations at 1600 A taken during a sounding rocket flight of the High Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph from December 11, 1987 were used. The statistical distributions of brightness temperature in the quiet sun at 1600 A, and absolute value of magnetic field strength in the same area were determined from these observations. Using a technique which obtains the best-fit relationship of a given functional form between these two histogram distributions, a quantitative relationship was determined between absolute value of magnetic field strength B and brightness temperature which is essentially linear from 10 to 150 G. An interpretation is suggested, in which a basal heating occurs generally, while brighter elements are produced in magnetic regions with temperature enhancements proportional to B.

  15. Compressive Strength Evaluation in Brazed ZrO2/Ti6Al4V Joints Using Finite Element Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Ashutosh; Kee, Se Ho; Jung, Flora; Heo, Yongku; Jung, Jae Pil

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to synthesize and evaluate the compressive strength of the ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint brazed using an active metal filler Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti, and its application to dental implants assuring its reliability to resist the compressive failure in the actual oral environment. The brazing was performed at a temperature of 750 °C for 30 min in a vacuum furnace under 5 × 10-6 Torr atmosphere. The microstructure of the brazed joint showed the presence of an Ag-rich matrix and a Cu-rich phase, and Cu-Ti intermetallic compounds were observed along the Ti-6Al-4V bonded interface. The compressive strength of the brazed ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joint was measured by EN ISO 14801 standard test method. The measured compressive strength of the joint was ~1477 MPa—a value almost five times that of existing dental cements. Finite element analysis also confirmed the high von Mises stress values. The compressive strains in the samples were found concentrated near the Ti-6Al-4V position, matching with the position of the real fractured sample. These results suggest extremely significant compressive strength in ZrO2/Ti-6Al-4V joints using the Ag-Cu-Sn-Ti filler. It is believed that a highly reliable dental implant can be processed and designed using the results of this study.

  16. A new concept for design of fibered high strength reinforced concrete elements using ultimate limit state method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iskhakov, I.; Ribakov, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A new concept for design of two layer reinforced concrete beams is proposed. • Concrete class and section height of bending elements are calculated. • Good correlation between experimental and numerical results is obtained. - Abstract: Existing methods for design of reinforced concrete (RC) bending elements in the ultimate limit state are based on calculating the compressed zone depth of the section. At the same time, in isotropic materials the neutral axis of the bending section crosses its center of gravity (CG). It was proved that if a neutral axis of bending RC element crosses the section’s CG, the total reinforcement section (A s +A s ′ ) is minimal. Therefore the compressed zone depth should be selected so that under the design load the neutral axis should pass through the section’s CG. In this case the compressed zone depth that is unknown in existing design methods becomes a known value. This concept enables to select other parameters as unknowns (bending element concrete class, section height, etc.). It is especially important for design of modern high strength concrete (HSC) bending elements, for which the concrete class can be calculated, but not selected. It is demonstrated that applying the proposed concept enables to assume that the neutral axis location is constant for all stages of stress - strain state in bending. As HSC is rather brittle, stresses diagram in the compressed section zone has a form close to triangular. However, adding steel fibers allows improving the elastic–plastic properties of HSC. In this case a rectangular stresses diagram can be used, as for normal strength concrete. Consequently, the proposed concept yields more economical solutions and allows more effective using the HSC properties

  17. Mechanical strength calculation of the disk type windings with elastic couplings by the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivkova, G.N.; Spirchenko, Yu.V.; Chvartatskij, P.V.

    1981-01-01

    Stressed-deformed state of toroidal field coils of the disc type with elastic couplings of the tokamaks has been investigated with provision for the effect of the central core pliability by means of the two-dimensional version of the finite element method. Numerical solution of the finite element method is performed by means of the ES 1040 computer according to the computer code permitting taking account of boundary conditions of elastic support. The calculation has been performed using as the example the project of T-20 facility coil of the disc type. Consideration of pliability of the central core of the facility inductor is accomplished by the introduction of additional rigidities to the complete matrix of rigidity. Scheme of the structure distretization includes 141 units, 211 elements. The accuracy of solution depends on the reduction accuracy of the volume load to unit forces and on the number of finite elements. Analysis of the solution convergence is performed by the comparison of solutions obtained for three different schemes of the disk discretization without regard for the inductor pliability. The comparative analysis of the results shows that transfer epures for all the three discretization versions practically coincide and stresses differ not more than by 10%. On the whole the above investigation has demonstrated good convergence of the problem solution [ru

  18. Measurement of shear strength resistance in flexion test on PUR sandwich panels: analysis of difficulties and finite element method simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Chillón Moreno

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of the composite construction elements combining different materials with complementary characteristics, it has spread increasingly. The sandwich panels composed by external metallic sheets that they contributes resistance and core of rigid insulating thermal foam, that provides qualities that improve the thermal comfort inside all kinds of constructions. They are in use in closings and covers that shape the surrounding one of the buildings. Of the different quality controls to which they have to surrender. In this article one proposes an improvement to the indicated one in the procedure for the determination of the resistance to the shear strength, Managing to avoid many anomalous results obtained by the utilization of rigid plates in the supports. Finally, so much the problem observed as the proposed solution, they are modeled and simulate by means of the method of finite elements.

  19. Computerised weld strength testing machine for PHWR fuel elements with a versatile control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, U.C.; Sastry, V.S.; Rasheed, Jawad; Bibawe, S.R.

    1994-01-01

    Spacer pads and bearing pads are resistance spot welded on PHWR fuel elements to ensure inter-element gap for coolant flow. These welds are subjected to destructive tests as per SQC specifications while qualifying a machine and during production. The testing machine used earlier over the years was tedious involving manual operations of clamping, tool actuation, increasing and decreasing the pressure, referring to charts and statistical calculations. To carry out the destructive testing of the welds conveniently and reliably, an automatic machine is developed in-house in which are incorporated a quartz force transducer and a computerized data-acquisition and processing system together with a very versatile electronic control system based on a single-chip microcomputer. This paper describes the salient features of the machine and the control system. (author). 4 figs

  20. Estimations of impact strength on reinforced concrete structures by the discrete element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morikawa, H.; Kusano, N.; Koshika, N.; Aoyagi, T.; Hagiwara, Y.; Sawamoto, Y.

    1993-01-01

    There has been a rising interest in the response of reinforced concrete structures to impact loading, from the point of view in particular of disaster prevention at nuclear power facilities, and there is an urgent requirement for establishment of design methods against such type of loads. Structural damage on reinforced concrete structures under impact load includes local damage and global damage. The behavior of local damage, such as penetration into the structures, rear face scabbing, perforation, or spalling, has been difficult to estimate by numerical analysis, but over recent years research has advantaged and various analytical methods have been tried. The authors proposed a new approach for assessing local damage characteristics by applying the discrete element method (DEM), and verified that the behavior of a concrete slab suffering local damage may be qualitatively expressed. This was followed by the discussion of the quantitative evaluation of various constants used in the DEM analysis in reference. The authors apply the DEM to the simulation analysis of impact tests on reinforced concrete panels and analytical investigations are made on the local damage characteristics and response values that are difficult to assess through tests, in an attempt to evaluate the mechanism of local damage according to the hardness of the missiles

  1. Strength resistance of reinforced concrete elements of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berlinov Mikhail

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method for calculating reinforced concrete constructions of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads from wind, seismic, transport and equipment based on the initial assumptions of the modern phenomenological theory of a nonlinearly deformable elastic-creeping body is proposed. In the article examined the influence of reinforcement on the work of concrete in the conditions of triaxial stress-strain state, based on the compatibility of the deformation of concrete and reinforcement. Mathematical phenomenological equations have been obtained that make it possible to calculate the reinforced concrete elements working without and with cracks. A method for linearizing of these equations based on integral estimates is proposed, which provides the fixation of the vibro-creep processes in the considered period of time. Application of such a technique using the finite-difference method, step method and successive approximations will allow to find a numerical solution of the problem. Such an approach in the design of reinforced concrete constructions will allow not only more fully to take into account the real conditions of their work, revealing additional reserves of load capacity, but also to open additional opportunities for analysis and forecasting their functioning at various stages of operation.

  2. Strength resistance of reinforced concrete elements of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlinov, Mikhail

    2018-03-01

    A new method for calculating reinforced concrete constructions of high-rise buildings under dynamic loads from wind, seismic, transport and equipment based on the initial assumptions of the modern phenomenological theory of a nonlinearly deformable elastic-creeping body is proposed. In the article examined the influence of reinforcement on the work of concrete in the conditions of triaxial stress-strain state, based on the compatibility of the deformation of concrete and reinforcement. Mathematical phenomenological equations have been obtained that make it possible to calculate the reinforced concrete elements working without and with cracks. A method for linearizing of these equations based on integral estimates is proposed, which provides the fixation of the vibro-creep processes in the considered period of time. Application of such a technique using the finite-difference method, step method and successive approximations will allow to find a numerical solution of the problem. Such an approach in the design of reinforced concrete constructions will allow not only more fully to take into account the real conditions of their work, revealing additional reserves of load capacity, but also to open additional opportunities for analysis and forecasting their functioning at various stages of operation.

  3. Non-linear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete members and punching shear strength of HSC slabs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassim Kernou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A rational three-dimensional nonlinear finite element model (NLFEAS is used for evaluating the behavior of high strength concrete slabs under monotonic transverse load. The non-linear equations of equilibrium have been solved using the incremental-iterative technique based on the modified Newton-Raphson method. The convergence of the solution was controlled by a load convergence criterion. The validity of the theoretical formulations and the program used was verified, through comparison with results obtained using ANSYS program and with available experimental test results. A parametric study was conducted to investigate the effect of different parameters on the behavior of slabs which was evaluated in terms of loaddeflection characteristics, concrete and steel stresses and strains, and failure mechanisms. Also, punching shear resistance of slabs was numerically evaluated and compared with the prediction specified by some design codes.

  4. A finite element study on the effects of toughness and permanent out-of-plane deformation on post-impact compressive strength

    OpenAIRE

    Bull, Daniel; Spearing, Simon; Sinclair, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This study applies mechanisms observed from previous work (the undamaged cone, toughness and extent of permanent out-of-plane deformation) to parametrically study their effects on residual compression after impact (CAI) strength using finite element models. Based on previous experimental work, tougher material systems exhibited up to 30% greater CAI strength for a given damage area. Based on this, it is necessary to understand what other parameters, beyond damage area, contribute to a loss in...

  5. Investigating the Influence of Micro-Arc Oxide Coating on Rigidity and Strength of Long Force Elements of Spacecraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. K. Shatalov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Outboard elements (arms, towers are widely used in spacecraft structure for setting-out of a payload; their high stiffness-weight ratio provides an opportunity to decrease the mass. The deployment unit is considered as an example of outboard structure. Its strength beams work under special conditions in operation. At the transportation stage beams are under considerable vibration loads. Therefore for increasing the natural resonance frequency it is rational to increase their rigidity. Using the micro-arc oxide coating suggests itself because the modulus of elasticity of the micro-arc oxide coating is more than that of the aluminium alloy. The beams suffer considerable bending load at the step of deploying; therefore the aluminium alloy with the micro-arc oxide coating must have suitable loading capacity, in addition to increased rigidity.Influence of micro-arc oxide coating on the rigidity and strength of tubes f rom aluminium alloy is investigated. It is determined that forming the micro-arc oxide coating on thin-walled tubes with a ratio of the coating area to the cross-section area of more than 25% is the most rational. In this case the rigidity of composite material considerably exceeds the rigidity of the aluminium alloy of the same cross-section while the redistribution of stresses in the surface coating of heterogeneous elasticity cross-section doesn’t cause the sudden increase of stresses. Also forming an attainable thickness of the micro-arc oxide coating on the surface of tube from aluminium alloy will be rational solution because the increase of attainable thickness of the microarc oxide coating provides an opportunity to form it on thick-walled tubes saving an acceptable, in the context of the strength, ratio of the coating area to the overall cross-section area.Micro-arc oxidation is an advanced method to form the wear resistant, resistant to corrosion, heat-shielding and electrically insulating coatings, but depending on the

  6. INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT EDGE JOINT ELEMENTS ON DIAGONAL TENSILE STRENGTH IN FURNITURE EDGE JOINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif GÜRAY

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the diagonal tensile strength of furniture edge joints such as wooden dowel, minifix, and alyan screw was investigated in panel-constructed boards for Suntalam and MDF Lam. For this purpose, a diagonal tensile strength test was applied to the 72 samples. According to the results, the maximum diagonal tensile strength was found to be in MDF Lam boards that jointed with alyan screw.

  7. A comparison of finite element analysis with in vitro bond strength tests of the bracket-cement-enamel system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Algera, T.J.; Feilzer, A.J.; Prahl-Andersen, B.; Kleverlaan, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro shear bond strength (SBS) and tensile bond strength (TBS) of 45 metal brackets bonded with Transbond XT to bovine enamel. The SBS was determined by loading the short and the long sides of the bracket base. Testing took place after storage of the

  8. Strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with various types of non-metallic fiber and rods reinforcement under static loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nevskii, A. V.; Baldin, I. V.; Kudyakov, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    Adoption of modern building materials based on non-metallic fibers and their application in concrete structures represent one of the important issues in construction industry. This paper presents results of investigation of several types of raw materials selected: basalt fiber, carbon fiber and composite fiber rods based on glass and carbon. Preliminary testing has shown the possibility of raw materials to be effectively used in compressed concrete elements. Experimental program to define strength and deformability of compressed concrete elements with non-metallic fiber reinforcement and rod composite reinforcement included design, manufacture and testing of several types of concrete samples with different types of fiber and longitudinal rod reinforcement. The samples were tested under compressive static load. The results demonstrated that fiber reinforcement of concrete allows increasing carrying capacity of compressed concrete elements and reducing their deformability. Using composite longitudinal reinforcement instead of steel longitudinal reinforcement in compressed concrete elements insignificantly influences bearing capacity. Combined use of composite rod reinforcement and fiber reinforcement in compressed concrete elements enables to achieve maximum strength and minimum deformability.

  9. Improved creep strength of nickel-base superalloys by optimized γ/γ′ partitioning behavior of solid solution strengthening elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pröbstle, M.; Neumeier, S.; Feldner, P.; Rettig, R.; Helmer, H.E.; Singer, R.F.; Göken, M.

    2016-01-01

    Solid solution strengthening of the γ matrix is one key factor for improving the creep strength of single crystal nickel-base superalloys at high temperatures. Therefore a strong partitioning of solid solution hardening elements to the matrix is beneficial for high temperature creep strength. Different Rhenium-free alloys which are derived from CMSX-4 are investigated. The alloys have been characterized regarding microstructure, phase compositions as well as creep strength. It is found that increasing the Titanium (Ti) as well as the Tungsten (W) content causes a stronger partitioning of the solid solution strengtheners, in particular W, to the γ phase. As a result the creep resistance is significantly improved. Based on these ideas, a Rhenium-free alloy with an optimized chemistry regarding the partitioning behavior of W is developed and validated in the present study. It shows comparable creep strength to the Rhenium containing second generation alloy CMSX-4 in the high temperature / low stress creep regime and is less prone to the formation of deleterious topologically close packed (TCP) phases. This more effective usage of solid solution strengtheners can enhance the creep properties of nickel-base superalloys while reducing the content of strategic elements like Rhenium.

  10. Experimental and finite element study of the effect of temperature and moisture on the tangential tensile strength and fracture behavior in timber logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur

    2014-01-01

    Timber is normally dried by kiln drying, in the course of which moisture-induced stresses and fractures can occur. Cracks occur primarily in the radial direction due to tangential tensile strength (TSt) that exceeds the strength of the material. The present article reports on experiments and nume......Timber is normally dried by kiln drying, in the course of which moisture-induced stresses and fractures can occur. Cracks occur primarily in the radial direction due to tangential tensile strength (TSt) that exceeds the strength of the material. The present article reports on experiments...... and numerical simulations by finite element modeling (FEM) concerning the TSt and fracture behavior of Norway spruce under various climatic conditions. Thin log disc specimens were studied to simplify the description of the moisture flow in the samples. The specimens designed for TS were acclimatized...... to a moisture content (MC) of 18% before TSt tests at 20°C, 60°C, and 90°C were carried out. The maximum stress results of the disc simulations by FEM were compared with the experimental strength results at the same temperature levels. There is a rather good agreement between the results of modeling...

  11. Prediction of Strength for Inhomogeneous : Defective Glass Elements Based on the Sequential Partitioning of the Data and Weibull Statistical Distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shabetia, Alexander; Rodichev, Yurii; Veer, F.A.; Soroka, Elena; Louter, Christian; Bos, Freek; Belis, Jan; Veer, Fred; Nijsse, Rob

    An analytical approach based on the on the sequential partitioning of the data and Weibull Statistical Distribution for inhomogeneous - defective materials is proposed. It allows assessing the guaranteed strength of glass structures for the low probability of fracture with a higher degree of

  12. FINITE-ELEMENT MODELING OF HOT FORMING OF BUSHES MADE FROM HIGH-STRENGTH CAST IRON WITH A GRADIENT DISTRIBUTION OF GRAPHITE INCLUSIONS OVER CROSS-SECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Pokrovsky

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Imitation modeling of direct hot extrusion of bushes made from high-strength cast iron is performed using finite-element method. The evolution of stress and strain fields during processing and the probability of crack formation are evaluated. The specific feature of the work is that during hot forming a special technique was used which permitted obtaining a gradient distribution of graphite inclusions over the cross-section of bushes. The results of modeling are used in certain technologies which are implemented in industrial practice.

  13. Fabrication and properties of high-strength extruded brass using elemental mixture of Cu-40% Zn alloy powder and Mg particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atsumi, Haruhiko, E-mail: atsumi-h@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Imai, Hisashi; Li, Shufeng; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kousaka, Yoshiharu; Kojima, Akimichi [San-etsu Metals Co. Ltd., 1892 Ohta, Tonami, Toyama 939-1315 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper, high-strength brass (Cu-40% Zn) alloy with magnesium (Mg) element was fabricated via powder technology process, and the effect of the additive Mg element on microstructural and mechanical properties of extruded brass alloys with {alpha}-{beta} duplex phases was investigated. Pre-mixed Cu-40% Zn alloy powder with 0.5-1.5 mass% pure Mg powder (Cu-40% Zn + Mg) was consolidated using a spark plasma sintering (SPS) equipment. SPSed Cu-40% Zn + Mg specimens consisted of {alpha}-{beta} duplex phases containing Mg(Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}){sub 2} intermetallic compounds (IMCs) with a mean particle size of 10-30 {mu}m in diameter. The IMCs were completely dissolved in the {alpha}-{beta} duplex phases by a heat-treatment at 973 K for 15 min; thus, in order to disperse fine IMCs on {alpha}-{beta} duplex phase matrix, the SPSed Cu-40% Zn + Mg specimens were pre-heated at the solid solutionizing condition, and immediately extruded. The extruded specimen exhibited fine {alpha}-{beta} duplex phases, containing very fine precipitates of the above Mg(Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}){sub 2} IMCs with 0.5-3.0 {mu}m in diameter. In particular, a mean grain size of the extruded Cu-40% Zn + 1.0% Mg specimen was 3.32 {mu}m analyzed using an electron back-scattered diffraction. Tensile properties of the extruded Cu-40% Zn + 1.0% Mg specimen were an average value of yield strength (YS): 328 MPa, ultimate tensile strength (UTS): 553 MPa, and 25% elongation. This indicated that the extruded Cu-40% Zn + 1.0% Mg specimen revealed the significantly high-strength properties compared to a conventional binary brass alloy with 229 MPa YS and 464 MPa UTS. A high strengthening mechanism of this wrought brass alloy was mainly due to the grain refinement because of a pinning effect by the fine Mg(Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}){sub 2} precipitates at the boundaries of each phase. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New high-strength extruded brass alloy with Mg was fabricated via powder metallurgy. Black

  14. Study of the strength of the internal can for internally and externally cooled fuel elements intended for gas graphite reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudouresque, B.; Courcon, P.; Lestiboubois, G.

    1964-01-01

    The cartridge of an internally and externally cooled annular fuel element used in gas-graphite reactors is made up of an uranium fuel tube, an external can and an internal can made of magnesium alloy. For the thermal exchange between the internal can and the fuel to be satisfactory, it is necessary for the can to stay in contact with the uranium under all temperature conditions. This report, based on a theoretical study, shows how the internal can fuel gap varies during the processes of canning, charging into the reactor and thermal cycling. The following parameters are considered: tube diameter, pressure of the heat carrying gas, gas entry temperature, plasticity of the can alloy. It is shown that for all operating conditions the internal can of a 77 x 95 element, planned for a gas-graphite reactor with a 40 kg/cm 2 gas pressure, should remain in contact with the fuel. (authors) [fr

  15. Using finite element method in the processof strength calculation for the pipeline supports in above-groundarea of "Zapolyar'e — NPS "PUR-PE" oil pipeline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surikov Vitaliy Ivanovich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article studies a procedure of calculating the strength of pipeline support constructions of the above-ground oil trunk pipeline system «Zapolyar'e — oil pumping station «Pur-pe». The calculations of the supports stress-strain state are performed with the use of computer complex Ansys v13, which applies the finite element method. The article provides a short description of the construction of fixed, linear-sliding and free-sliding supports of the oil pipeline of above-ground routing, developed for the installation in complex climatic and geologic conditions of the far north. According to the operation specification for design — the support constructions have to maintain the resistance power and bearing capacity under the influence of the pipeline stress without sagging and considering the possible sagging of the neighboring support. The support constructions represent space structures with a complex geometry. Together with the complex geometry, contacting elements are present in the construction of the supports. There is also an interaction of the pile foundation and the nonhomogeneous foundation. The enumerated peculiarities of the construction and operating conditions of the supports considerably complicate the strength calculations by engineering methods. The method of numerical modeling (finite element method used in the article for the analysis of the supports’ operation under the stress is widely applied at the present time for calculations of space structures with a complex geometry. For the first time, while performing the supports’ strength calculations, the article considers the mutual deformation of the support, foundation grill and pile foundation in the ground, thus making it possible to consider real operation of the construction altogether. The main development stages of the calculation model “support — pile foundation — ground” in ANSYS, calculation and testing of the static strength of the support

  16. Strength Reduction Method for Stability Analysis of Local Discontinuous Rock Mass with Iterative Method of Partitioned Finite Element and Interface Boundary Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongchun Li

    2015-01-01

    element is proposed to solve the safety factor of local discontinuous rock mass. Slope system is divided into several continuous bodies and local discontinuous interface boundaries. Each block is treated as a partition of the system and contacted by discontinuous joints. The displacements of blocks are chosen as basic variables and the rigid displacements in the centroid of blocks are chosen as motion variables. The contact forces on interface boundaries and the rigid displacements to the centroid of each body are chosen as mixed variables and solved iteratively using the interface boundary equations. Flexibility matrix is formed through PFE according to the contact states of nodal pairs and spring flexibility is used to reflect the influence of weak structural plane so that nonlinear iteration is only limited to the possible contact region. With cohesion and friction coefficient reduced gradually, the states of all nodal pairs at the open or slip state for the first time are regarded as failure criterion, which can decrease the effect of subjectivity in determining safety factor. Examples are used to verify the validity of the proposed method.

  17. Nonlinear quasi-static finite element simulations predict in vitro strength of human proximal femora assessed in a dynamic sideways fall setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Peter; Schwiedrzik, Jakob; Zysset, Philippe K; Fliri-Hofmann, Ladina; Widmer, Daniel; Gueorguiev, Boyko; Blauth, Michael; Windolf, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Osteoporotic proximal femur fractures are caused by low energy trauma, typically when falling on the hip from standing height. Finite element simulations, widely used to predict the fracture load of femora in fall, usually include neither mass-related inertial effects, nor the viscous part of bone׳s material behavior. The aim of this study was to elucidate if quasi-static non-linear homogenized finite element analyses can predict in vitro mechanical properties of proximal femora assessed in dynamic drop tower experiments. The case-specific numerical models of 13 femora predicted the strength (R(2)=0.84, SEE=540N, 16.2%), stiffness (R(2)=0.82, SEE=233N/mm, 18.0%) and fracture energy (R(2)=0.72, SEE=3.85J, 39.6%); and provided fair qualitative matches with the fracture patterns. The influence of material anisotropy was negligible for all predictions. These results suggest that quasi-static homogenized finite element analysis may be used to predict mechanical properties of proximal femora in the dynamic sideways fall situation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Influence of Reconstruction Kernel on Bone Mineral and Strength Estimates Using Quantitative Computed Tomography and Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalski, Andrew S; Edwards, W Brent; Boyd, Steven K

    2017-10-17

    Quantitative computed tomography has been posed as an alternative imaging modality to investigate osteoporosis. We examined the influence of computed tomography convolution back-projection reconstruction kernels on the analysis of bone quantity and estimated mechanical properties in the proximal femur. Eighteen computed tomography scans of the proximal femur were reconstructed using both a standard smoothing reconstruction kernel and a bone-sharpening reconstruction kernel. Following phantom-based density calibration, we calculated typical bone quantity outcomes of integral volumetric bone mineral density, bone volume, and bone mineral content. Additionally, we performed finite element analysis in a standard sideways fall on the hip loading configuration. Significant differences for all outcome measures, except integral bone volume, were observed between the 2 reconstruction kernels. Volumetric bone mineral density measured using images reconstructed by the standard kernel was significantly lower (6.7%, p kernel. Furthermore, the whole-bone stiffness and the failure load measured in images reconstructed by the standard kernel were significantly lower (16.5%, p kernel. These data suggest that for future quantitative computed tomography studies, a standardized reconstruction kernel will maximize reproducibility, independent of the use of a quantitative calibration phantom. Copyright © 2017 The International Society for Clinical Densitometry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Finite element modeling of shell shape in the freshwater turtle Pseudemys concinna reveals a trade-off between mechanical strength and hydrodynamic efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Gabriel; Stayton, C Tristan

    2011-10-01

    Aquatic species can experience different selective pressures on morphology in different flow regimes. Species inhabiting lotic regimes often adapt to these conditions by evolving low-drag (i.e., streamlined) morphologies that reduce the likelihood of dislodgment or displacement. However, hydrodynamic factors are not the only selective pressures influencing organismal morphology and shapes well suited to flow conditions may compromise performance in other roles. We investigated the possibility of morphological trade-offs in the turtle Pseudemys concinna. Individuals living in lotic environments have flatter, more streamlined shells than those living in lentic environments; however, this flatter shape may also make the shells less capable of resisting predator-induced loads. We tested the idea that "lotic" shell shapes are weaker than "lentic" shell shapes, concomitantly examining effects of sex. Geometric morphometric data were used to transform an existing finite element shell model into a series of models corresponding to the shapes of individual turtles. Models were assigned identical material properties and loaded under identical conditions, and the stresses produced by a series of eight loads were extracted to describe the strength of the shells. "Lotic" shell shapes produced significantly higher stresses than "lentic" shell shapes, indicating that the former is weaker than the latter. Females had significantly stronger shell shapes than males, although these differences were less consistent than differences between flow regimes. We conclude that, despite the potential for many-to-one mapping of shell shape onto strength, P. concinna experiences a trade-off in shell shape between hydrodynamic and mechanical performance. This trade-off may be evident in many other turtle species or any other aquatic species that also depend on a shell for defense. However, evolution of body size may provide an avenue of escape from this trade-off in some cases, as changes in

  20. Prediction of bone strength by μCT and MDCT-based finite-element-models: How much spatial resolution is needed?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bauer, Jan S., E-mail: jsb@tum.de [Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany); Sidorenko, Irina [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany); Mueller, Dirk [Department of Radiology, Universität Köln (Germany); Baum, Thomas [Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany); Issever, Ahi Sema [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Radiology, Charite, Berlin (Germany); Eckstein, Felix [Institute of Anatomy and Musculoskeletal Research, Paracelsus Medical University, Salzburg (Austria); Rummeny, Ernst J. [Department of Radiology, Technische Universität München, Munich (Germany); Link, Thomas M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Francisco, CA (United States); Raeth, Christoph W. [Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics, Garching (Germany)

    2014-01-15

    Objectives: Finite-element-models (FEM) are a promising technology to predict bone strength and fracture risk. Usually, the highest spatial resolution technically available is used, but this requires excessive computation time and memory in numerical simulations of large volumes. Thus, FEM were compared at decreasing resolutions with respect to local strain distribution and prediction of failure load to (1) validate MDCT-based FEM and to (2) optimize spatial resolution to save computation time. Materials and methods: 20 cylindrical trabecular bone specimens (diameter 12 mm, length 15–20 mm) were harvested from elderly formalin-fixed human thoracic spines. All specimens were examined by micro-CT (isotropic resolution 30 μm) and whole-body multi-row-detector computed tomography (MDCT, 250 μm × 250 μm × 500 μm). The resolution of all datasets was lowered in eight steps to ∼2000 μm × 2000 μm × 500 μm and FEM were calculated at all resolutions. Failure load was determined by biomechanical testing. Probability density functions of local micro-strains were compared in all datasets and correlations between FEM-based and biomechanically measured failure loads were determined. Results: The distribution of local micro-strains was similar for micro-CT and MDCT at comparable resolutions and showed a shift toward higher average values with decreasing resolution, corresponding to the increasing apparent trabecular thickness. Small micro-strains (ε{sub eff} < 0.005) could be calculated down to 250 μm × 250 μm × 500 μm. Biomechanically determined failure load showed significant correlations with all FEM, up to r = 0.85 and did not significantly change with lower resolution but decreased with high thresholds, due to loss of trabecular connectivity. Conclusion: When choosing connectivity-preserving thresholds, both micro-CT- and MDCT-based finite-element-models well predicted failure load and still accurately revealed the distribution of local micro-strains in

  1. Prediction of bone strength by μCT and MDCT-based finite-element-models: How much spatial resolution is needed?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, Jan S.; Sidorenko, Irina; Mueller, Dirk; Baum, Thomas; Issever, Ahi Sema; Eckstein, Felix; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Link, Thomas M.; Raeth, Christoph W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Finite-element-models (FEM) are a promising technology to predict bone strength and fracture risk. Usually, the highest spatial resolution technically available is used, but this requires excessive computation time and memory in numerical simulations of large volumes. Thus, FEM were compared at decreasing resolutions with respect to local strain distribution and prediction of failure load to (1) validate MDCT-based FEM and to (2) optimize spatial resolution to save computation time. Materials and methods: 20 cylindrical trabecular bone specimens (diameter 12 mm, length 15–20 mm) were harvested from elderly formalin-fixed human thoracic spines. All specimens were examined by micro-CT (isotropic resolution 30 μm) and whole-body multi-row-detector computed tomography (MDCT, 250 μm × 250 μm × 500 μm). The resolution of all datasets was lowered in eight steps to ∼2000 μm × 2000 μm × 500 μm and FEM were calculated at all resolutions. Failure load was determined by biomechanical testing. Probability density functions of local micro-strains were compared in all datasets and correlations between FEM-based and biomechanically measured failure loads were determined. Results: The distribution of local micro-strains was similar for micro-CT and MDCT at comparable resolutions and showed a shift toward higher average values with decreasing resolution, corresponding to the increasing apparent trabecular thickness. Small micro-strains (ε eff < 0.005) could be calculated down to 250 μm × 250 μm × 500 μm. Biomechanically determined failure load showed significant correlations with all FEM, up to r = 0.85 and did not significantly change with lower resolution but decreased with high thresholds, due to loss of trabecular connectivity. Conclusion: When choosing connectivity-preserving thresholds, both micro-CT- and MDCT-based finite-element-models well predicted failure load and still accurately revealed the distribution of local micro-strains in spatial

  2. In-vivo assessment of femoral bone strength using Finite Element Analysis (FEA based on routine MDCT imaging: a preliminary study on patients with vertebral fractures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Liebl

    Full Text Available To experimentally validate a non-linear finite element analysis (FEA modeling approach assessing in-vitro fracture risk at the proximal femur and to transfer the method to standard in-vivo multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT data of the hip aiming to predict additional hip fracture risk in subjects with and without osteoporosis associated vertebral fractures using bone mineral density (BMD measurements as gold standard.One fresh-frozen human femur specimen was mechanically tested and fractured simulating stance and clinically relevant fall loading configurations to the hip. After experimental in-vitro validation, the FEA simulation protocol was transferred to standard contrast-enhanced in-vivo MDCT images to calculate individual hip fracture risk each for 4 subjects with and without a history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures matched by age and gender. In addition, FEA based risk factor calculations were compared to manual femoral BMD measurements of all subjects.In-vitro simulations showed good correlation with the experimentally measured strains both in stance (R2 = 0.963 and fall configuration (R2 = 0.976. The simulated maximum stress overestimated the experimental failure load (4743 N by 14.7% (5440 N while the simulated maximum strain overestimated by 4.7% (4968 N. The simulated failed elements coincided precisely with the experimentally determined fracture locations. BMD measurements in subjects with a history of osteoporotic vertebral fractures did not differ significantly from subjects without fragility fractures (femoral head: p = 0.989; femoral neck: p = 0.366, but showed higher FEA based risk factors for additional incident hip fractures (p = 0.028.FEA simulations were successfully validated by elastic and destructive in-vitro experiments. In the subsequent in-vivo analyses, MDCT based FEA based risk factor differences for additional hip fractures were not mirrored by according BMD measurements. Our data suggests, that MDCT

  3. Evaluation of polymerization shrinkage, polymerization shrinkage stress, wear resistance, and compressive strength of a silorane-based composite: A finite element analysis study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Mitthra

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the mechanical properties is important in predicting the clinical behavior of composites. Finite element analysis (FEA evaluates properties of materials replicating clinical scenario. Aim: This study evaluated polymerization shrinkage and stress, wear resistance (WR, and compressive strength (CS of silorane in comparison with two methacrylate resins. Settings and Design: This study design was a numerical study using FEA. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional (3D models of maxillary premolar with Class I cavities (2 mm depth, 4 mm length, and 2.5 mm width created and restored with silorane, nanohybrid, and microhybrid; Groups I, II, and III, respectively. Loads of 200–600 N were applied. Polymerization shrinkage was first determined by displacement produced in the X, Y, and Z planes. Maximum stress distribution due to shrinkage was calculated using AN SYS software. 3D cube models of composite resins were simulated with varying filler particle size. Similar loads were applied. WR and compressive stress were calculated: K W L/H and load/cross-sectional area, respectively. Statistical analysis done using one-way ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis, and Tukey's honestly significant difference test (P < 0.05. Results: Polymerization shrinkage (0.99% and shrinkage stress (233.21 Mpa of silorane were less compared to microhybrid (2.14% and 472.43 Mpa and nanohybrid (2.32% and 464.88 Mpa. Silorane (7.92×/1011 μm/mm3 and nanohybrid (7.79×/1011 showed superior WR than microhybrid (1.113×/1017. There was no significant difference in compressive stress among the groups. Conclusion: Silorane exhibited less polymerization shrinkage and shrinkage stress compared to methacrylates. Silorane and nanohybrid showed greater WR compared to microhybrid. CS of all groups was similar.

  4. High strength ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  5. Characterizing the influence of stress-induced microcracks on the laboratory strength and fracture development in brittle rocks using a finite-discrete element method-micro discrete fracture network FDEM-μDFN approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooya Hamdi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Heterogeneity is an inherent component of rock and may be present in different forms including mineral heterogeneity, geometrical heterogeneity, weak grain boundaries and micro-defects. Microcracks are usually observed in crystalline rocks in two forms: natural and stress-induced; the amount of stress-induced microcracking increases with depth and in-situ stress. Laboratory results indicate that the physical properties of rocks such as strength, deformability, P-wave velocity and permeability are influenced by increase in microcrack intensity. In this study, the finite-discrete element method (FDEM is used to model microcrack heterogeneity by introducing into a model sample sets of microcracks using the proposed micro discrete fracture network (μDFN approach. The characteristics of the microcracks required to create μDFN models are obtained through image analyses of thin sections of Lac du Bonnet granite adopted from published literature. A suite of two-dimensional laboratory tests including uniaxial, triaxial compression and Brazilian tests is simulated and the results are compared with laboratory data. The FDEM-μDFN models indicate that micro-heterogeneity has a profound influence on both the mechanical behavior and resultant fracture pattern. An increase in the microcrack intensity leads to a reduction in the strength of the sample and changes the character of the rock strength envelope. Spalling and axial splitting dominate the failure mode at low confinement while shear failure is the dominant failure mode at high confinement. Numerical results from simulated compression tests show that microcracking reduces the cohesive component of strength alone, and the frictional strength component remains unaffected. Results from simulated Brazilian tests show that the tensile strength is influenced by the presence of microcracks, with a reduction in tensile strength as microcrack intensity increases. The importance of microcrack heterogeneity in

  6. Influence of additives for concrete on the containment of radio-elements and strength under radiation of 'cement' matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pholvichith epouse Lezane, Ammala

    1994-01-01

    In order to improve the durability of cement-based materials used for the storage of radioactive wastes, fluidizers are generally introduced into these materials during their preparation. Thus, Naphtalene Sulfonate Formaldehyde (NSF) and Melamine Sulfonate Formaldehyde (MSF) are used as fluidizers in concrete which therefore presents good rheological properties when fresh, and a high compactness when hardened. This research study aims at investigating what happens to the fluidizer in a hardened cement paste, how this fluidizer affects the durability (mechanical strength, porosity, apparent diffusion coefficient) of a cement paste in absence of irradiation, what is the behaviour of these organic compounds under irradiation (reticulation or degradation, nature of radiolysis gases), how these organic compounds affects the durability (dimension, porosity, mechanical strength) of a cement paste under cobalt 60 gamma radiation, and how apparent solubilities of the different isotopes vary in cement water in presence of these organic compounds [fr

  7. Development of ideal solution and validation of stiffness and strength by finite element method for truss-wall corrugated cellular solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jeong Ho [Samjung E and W, Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jung Hwan [Korea Institute of Materials Science,Changwon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Je Hyun [Changwon National University, Changwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The objective of this study is to find the density, stiffness, and strength of truss-wall unit cell models. The diamond-corrugation, triangular-corrugation, and Navtruss-corrugation models are used for the unit cell. The ideal solutions derived for these are based on solid wall unit cell models and are developed using the Gibson-Ashby theory. To verify the ideal solutions of the models, the density, strength, and stiffness are simulated using ABAQUS software and compared with the ideal solutions on a log-log scale. The material properties of stainless steel 304 are applied. The diameter is 0.5 mm; the opening width is 0.5 mm; and the corrugation angle is 45 .deg. . Consequently, the relative Young's modulus and relative yield strength of the truss-wall unit models are good matches for the ideal expectations. It may be possible to apply a truss-wall model to diverse fields such as transportation or biomedical applications as one of the open-cell cellular solids.

  8. Development of ideal solution and validation of stiffness and strength by finite element method for truss-wall corrugated cellular solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jeong Ho; Lee, Jung Hwan; Lee, Je Hyun

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to find the density, stiffness, and strength of truss-wall unit cell models. The diamond-corrugation, triangular-corrugation, and Navtruss-corrugation models are used for the unit cell. The ideal solutions derived for these are based on solid wall unit cell models and are developed using the Gibson-Ashby theory. To verify the ideal solutions of the models, the density, strength, and stiffness are simulated using ABAQUS software and compared with the ideal solutions on a log-log scale. The material properties of stainless steel 304 are applied. The diameter is 0.5 mm; the opening width is 0.5 mm; and the corrugation angle is 45 .deg. . Consequently, the relative Young's modulus and relative yield strength of the truss-wall unit models are good matches for the ideal expectations. It may be possible to apply a truss-wall model to diverse fields such as transportation or biomedical applications as one of the open-cell cellular solids.

  9. Determination of in-situ strength on selected bridge element concrete girder and slab of Nagtahan bridge using rebound hammer test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uy, Bernadette Betsy B.; Banaga, Renato T.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the extent of the damage due to fire on the affected areas of the bridge structure. The need to assess the damage of the Nagtahan Bridge is very useful to provide appropriate measures in the repair or in the reinforcement of the bridge, hence will ensure its strength and integrity. The study included two (2) spans of the bridge deck/slab with specific locations of the bridge that were subjected for testing. The Rebound Hammer was used as a preliminary test in evaluating the bridge condition. Its capability is to assess the in-place uniformity of concrete, to delineate regions in a structure of poor quality or deteriorated concrete, and to estimate the in-place strength; and ultimately, for relative comparison between the different structures of the bridge. With the use of the NDT Rebound Hammer Test, the researchers were able to determine whether or not the in-situ strength of the bridge's concrete has been weakened due to fire. The DPW-Standard Specification is the government acceptable manual, containing the acceptance criteria, used as the basis for standard construction procedures in the department.(author)

  10. Strength analysis of fast gas cooled reactor fuel element in conditions of fuel-cladding interraction and non-uniform azimuthal heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulikov, I.S.; Tverkovkin, B.E.

    1984-01-01

    The technique and the PRORT mathematical program in FORTRAN language for determining mechanical properties of a fuel element with motionless fuel-cladding interaction taking into account circular temperature non-uniformity in gas-cooled fast reactor conditions are proposed. The calculation results of the fuel element of dissociating gas cooled fast reactor are presented for seven cross-sections over the height of the core. The obtained data testify to appreciable swelling of Cr16Ni15Mo3Nb steel fuel cladding in the conditions of dissociating gas cooled fast reactor through the allowance for the effect of stresses on this essential parameter shows, that its value is lower in comparison with swelling, wherein stresses are not taken into account

  11. Finite Element Method Analysis of Nanoscratch Test for the Evaluation of Interface Adhesion Strength in Cu Thin Films on Si Substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekiguchi, Atsuko; Koike, Junichi

    2008-01-01

    Mechanical processes of the nanoscratch test are investigated using a finite element analysis of Cu/Ta/SiO2/Si multilayer films. The calculated stress distribution at the moment of delamination suggests that delamination occurs in a small region of approximately 100 nm. The driving force for delamination is the stress concentration due to strain-incompatibility at the Cu/Ta interface resulting from the large plastic deformation in Cu. The degree of stress concentration is found to depend on internal variables, such as plastic deformation, residual stress, and the elastic modulus, and on the magnitude of lateral force.

  12. Appendicular and whole body lean mass outcomes are associated with finite element analysis-derived bone strength at the distal radius and tibia in adults aged 40years and older.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbs, Jenna C; Giangregorio, Lora M; Wong, Andy K O; Josse, Robert G; Cheung, Angela M

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to determine how appendicular lean mass index (ALMI), and whole body lean (LMI) and fat mass indices (FMI) associate with estimated bone strength outcomes at the distal radius and tibia in adults aged 40 years and older. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans were performed to determine body composition, including whole body lean and fat mass, and appendicular lean mass. ALMI (appendicular lean mass/height 2 ), LMI (lean tissue mass/height 2 ) and FMI (fat mass/height 2 ) were calculated. High-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HRpQCT) scans were performed to assess bone structural properties at the distal radius and tibia. Using finite element analysis, failure load (N), stiffness (N/mm), ultimate stress (MPa), and cortical-to-trabecular load ratio were estimated from HRpQCT scans. The associations between body composition (ALMI, LMI, FMI) and estimated bone strength were examined using bivariate and multivariable linear regression analyses adjusting for age, sex, and other confounding variables. In 197 participants (127 women; mean±SD, age: 69.5±10.3y, body mass index: 27.95±4.95kg/m 2 , ALMI: 7.31±1.31kg/m 2 ), ALMI and LMI were significantly associated with failure load at the distal radius and tibia (explained 39%-48% of the variance) and remained significant after adjusting for confounding variables and multiple testing (R 2 =0.586-0.645, p<0.001). ALMI, LMI, and FMI did not have significant associations with ultimate stress in our multivariable models. FMI was significantly associated with cortical-to-trabecular load ratio at the distal radius and tibia (explained 6%-12% of the variance) and remained significant after adjusting for confounders and multiple testing (R 2 =0.208-0.243, p<0.001). FMI was no longer significantly associated with failure load after adjusting for confounders. These findings suggest that ALMI and LMI are important determinants of estimated bone strength

  13. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  14. Theoretical investigations into the influence of the position of a breaking line on the tensile failure of flat, round, bevel-edged tablets using finite element methodology (FEM) and its practical relevance for industrial tablet strength testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podczeck, Fridrun; Newton, J Michael; Fromme, Paul

    2014-12-30

    Flat, round tablets may have a breaking ("score") line. Pharmacopoeial tablet breaking load tests are diametral in their design, and industrially used breaking load testers often have automatic tablet feeding systems, which position the tablets between the loading platens of the machine with the breaking lines in random orientation to the applied load. The aim of this work was to ascertain the influence of the position of the breaking line in a diametral compression test using finite element methodology (FEM) and to compare the theoretical results with practical findings using commercially produced bevel-edged, scored tablets. Breaking line test positions at an angle of 0°, 22.5°, 45°, 67.5° and 90° relative to the loading plane were studied. FEM results obtained for fully elastic and elasto-plastic tablets were fairly similar, but they highlighted large differences in stress distributions depending on the position of the breaking line. The stress values at failure were predicted to be similar for tablets tested at an angle of 45° or above, whereas at lower test angles the predicted breaking loads were up to three times larger. The stress distributions suggested that not all breaking line angles would result in clean tensile failure. Practical results, however, did not confirm the differences in the predicted breaking loads, but they confirmed differences in the way tablets broke. The results suggest that it is not advisable to convert breaking loads obtained on scored tablets into tablet tensile strength values, and comparisons between different tablets or batches should carefully consider the orientation of the breaking line with respect to the loading plane, as the failure mechanisms appear to vary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Bond strength of masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, van der R.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Bond strength is not a well defined property of masonry. Normally three types of bond strength can be distinguished: - tensile bond strength, - shear (and torsional) bond strength, - flexural bond strength. In this contribution the behaviour and strength of masonry in deformation controlled uniaxial

  16. Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.

    2013-01-01

    A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...... found a "universal" scaling relationship, where the f-electron bandwidth reduction due to correlation effects is shown to depend only upon the local density approximation (LDA) bandwidth and is otherwise independent of crystal structure and lattice constant....

  17. The Strength Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths......-based intervention program in order to explore the strengths. Finally different methods to apply the strength in everyday life at school were applied. The paper presentation will show the results for strengths display for children aged 6-16 in different categories: Different age groups: Are the same strengths...... present in both small children and youths? Gender: Do the results show differences between the two genders? Danish as a mother- tongue language: Do the results show any differences in the strengths display when considering different language and cultural backgrounds? Children with Special Needs: Do...

  18. Standard elements; Elements standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Following his own experience the author recalls the various advantages, especially in the laboratory, of having pre-fabricated vacuum-line components at his disposal. (author) [French] A la suite de sa propre experience, l'auteur veut rappeler les divers avantages que presente, tout particulierement en laboratoire, le fait d'avoir a sa disposition des elements pre-fabriques de canalisations a vide. (auteur)

  19. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirayama, Satoshi; Kawada, Toshiyuki; Matsuzaki, Masayoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a fuel element for reducing the mechanical interactions between a fuel-cladding tube and the fuel element and for alleviating the limits of the operating conditions of a reactor. Constitution: A fuel element having mainly uranium dioxide consists of a cylindrical outer pellet and cylindrical inner pellet inserted into the outer pellet. The outer pellet contains two or more additives selected from aluminium oxide, beryllium oxide, magnesium oxide, silicon oxide, sodium oxide, phosphorus oxide, calcium oxide and iron oxide, and the inner pellet contains nuclear fuel substance solely or one additive selected from calcium oxide, silicon oxide, aluminium oxide, magnesium oxide, zirconium oxide and iron oxide. The outer pellet of the fuel thus constituted is reduced in mechanical strength and also in the mechanical interactions with the cladding tube, and the plastic fluidity of the entire pellet is prevented by the inner pellet increased in the mechanical strength. (Kamimura, M.)

  20. Comparison and Analysis of Steel Frame Based on High Strength Column and Normal Strength Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Taiyu; An, Yuwei

    2018-01-01

    The anti-seismic performance of high strength steel has restricted its industrialization in civil buildings. In order to study the influence of high strength steel column on frame structure, three models are designed through MIDAS/GEN finite element software. By comparing the seismic performance and economic performance of the three models, the three different structures are comprehensively evaluated to provide some references for the development of high strength steel in steel structure.

  1. The strength compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    of agreement/disagreement. Also the child/teacher is asked whether the actual strength is important and if he or she has the possibilities to apply the strength in the school. In a PhDproject ‘Strengths-based Learning - Children’s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential’ 750 Danish children......Individual paper presentation: The ‘Strength Compass’. The results of a PhDresearch project among schoolchildren (age 6-16) identifying VIAstrengths concerning age, gender, mother-tongue-langue and possible child psychiatric diagnosis. Strengths-based interventions in schools have a theoretical...... Psychological Publishing Company. ‘The Strength Compass’ is a computer/Ipad based qualitative tool to identify the strengths of a child by a self-survey or a teacher’s survey. It is designed as a visual analogue scale with a statement of the strength in which the child/teacher may declare the degree...

  2. Galvanic element. Galvanisches Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprengel, D.; Haelbig, H.

    1980-01-03

    The invention concerns a gas-tight sealed accumulator with positive and negative electrode plates and an auxillary electrode electroconductively bound to the latter for suppressing oxygen pressure. The auxillary electrode is an intermediate film electrode. The film catalysing oxygen reduction is hydrophilic in character and the other film is hydrophobic. A double coated foil has proved to be advantageous, the hydrophilic film being formed from polymer-bound activated carbon and the hydrophrobic film from porous polytetrafluoroethylene. A metallic network of silver or nickel is rolled into the outer side of the activated carbon film. This auxillary electrode can be used to advantage in all galvanic elements. Even primary cells fall within the scope of application for auxillary electrodes because many of these contain a highly oxidized electrodic material which tends to give off oxygen.

  3. Strengths-based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    -being. The Ph.D.-project in Strength-based learning took place in a Danish school with 750 pupils age 6-16 and a similar school was functioning as a control group. The presentation will focus on both the aware-explore-apply processes and the practical implications for the schools involved, and on measurable......Strength-based learning - Children͛s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential͛ is a Ph.D.-project aiming to create a strength-based mindset in school settings and at the same time introducing strength-based interventions as specific tools to improve both learning and well...

  4. Institutional Strength in Depth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weightman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Much work has been undertaken in order to identify, learn and implement the lessons from the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident. These have mainly targeted on engineering or operational lessons. Less attention has been paid to the institutional lessons, although there have been some measures to improve individual peer reviews, particularly by the World Association of Nuclear Operators, and the authoritative IAEA report published in 2015 brought forward several important lessons for regulators and advocated a system approach. The report noted that one of the contributing factors the accident was the tendency of stakeholders not to challenge. Additionally, it reported deficiencies in the regulatory authority and system. Earlier, the root cause of the accident was identified by a Japanese independent parliamentary report as being cultural and institutional. The sum total of the institutions, the safety system, was ineffective. While it is important to address the many technical and operational lessons these may not necessary address this more fundamental lesson, and may not serve to provide robust defences against human or institutional failings over a wide variety of possible events and combinations. The overall lesson is that we can have rigorous and comprehensive safety standards and other tools in place to deliver high levels of safety, but ultimately what is important is the ability of the nuclear safety system to ensure that the relevant institutions diligently and effectively apply those standards and tools — to be robust and resilient. This has led to the consideration of applying the principles of the strength in depth philosophy to a nuclear safety system as a way of providing a framework for developing, assessing, reviewing and improving the system. At an IAEA conference in October 2013, a model was presented for a robust national nuclear safety system based on strength in depth philosophy. The model highlighted three main layers: industry, the

  5. Cobalt: for strength and color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Maeve A.; Kropschot, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Cobalt is a shiny, gray, brittle metal that is best known for creating an intense blue color in glass and paints. It is frequently used in the manufacture of rechargeable batteries and to create alloys that maintain their strength at high temperatures. It is also one of the essential trace elements (or "micronutrients") that humans and many other living creatures require for good health. Cobalt is an important component in many aerospace, defense, and medical applications and is a key element in many clean energy technologies. The name cobalt comes from the German word kobold, meaning goblin. It was given this name by medieval miners who believed that troublesome goblins replaced the valuable metals in their ore with a substance that emitted poisonous fumes when smelted. The Swedish chemist Georg Brandt isolated metallic cobalt-the first new metal to be discovered since ancient times-in about 1735 and identified some of its valuable properties.

  6. Along and Across Arc Variation of the Central Andes by Single Crystal Trace Element Analaysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelfelder, G.; Sundell, T.; Wilder, A.; Salings, E. E.

    2017-12-01

    Along arc and across arc geochemical variations at continental volcanic arcs are influenced by a number of factors including the composition and thickness of the continental crust, mantle heterogeneity, and fluids from the subducted slab. Whole rock geochemical trends along and across the arc front of the Central Volcanic Zone (CVZ) have been suggested to be primarily influenced by the composition and thickness of the crust. In the CVZ, Pb isotopic domains relate volcanic rock compositions to the crustal basement and systematically varies with crustal age. It has been shown repeatedly that incompatible trace element trends and trace element ratios can be used to infer systematic geochemical changes. However, there is no rule linking magmatic process or chemical heterogeneity/ homogeneity as a result of large crustal magma storage reservoirs such as MASH zones to the observed variation. Here we present a combination of whole rock major- and trace element data, isotopic data and in situ single crystal data from plagioclase, pyroxene and olivine for six stratovolcanoes along the arc front and in the back arc of the CVZ. We compare geochemical trends at the whole and single crystal scale. These volcanoes include lava flows and domes from Cerro Uturuncu in the back-arc, Aucanquilcha, Ollagüe, San Pedro-San Pablo, Lascar, and Lazufre from the arc front. On an arc-wide scale, whole rock samples of silicic lavas from these six composite volcanoes display systematically higher K2O, LILE, REE and HFSE contents and 87Sr/86Sr ratios with increasing distance from the arc-front. In contrast, the lavas have systematically lower Na2O, Sr, and Ba contents; LILE/HFSE ratios; 143Nd/144Nd ratios; and more negative Eu anomalies. Silicic magmas along the arc-front reflecting melting of young, mafic composition source rocks with the continental crust becoming increasingly older and more felsic toward the east. These trends are paralleled in the trace element compositions of plagioclase

  7. Give Me Strength.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    维拉

    1996-01-01

    Mort had an absolutely terrible day at the office.Everythingthat could go wrong did go wrong.As he walked home he could beheard muttering strange words to himself:“Oh,give me strength,give me strength.”Mort isn’t asking for the kind of strength thatbuilds strong muscles:he’s asking for the courage or ability to

  8. Effect of concrete strength gradation to the compressive strength of graded concrete, a numerical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratama, M. Mirza Abdillah; Aylie, Han; Gan, Buntara Sthenly; Umniati, B. Sri; Risdanareni, Puput; Fauziyah, Shifa

    2017-09-01

    Concrete casting, compacting method, and characteristic of the concrete material determine the performance of concrete as building element due to the material uniformity issue. Previous studies show that gradation in strength exists on building member by nature and negatively influence the load carrying capacity of the member. A pilot research had modeled the concrete gradation in strength with controllable variable and observed that the weakest material determines the strength of graded concrete through uniaxial compressive loading test. This research intends to confirm the recent finding by a numerical approach with extensive variables of strength disparity. The finite element analysis was conducted using the Strand7 nonlinear program. The results displayed that the increase of strength disparity in graded concrete models leads to the slight reduction of models strength. A substantial difference in displacement response is encountered on the models for the small disparity of concrete strength. However, the higher strength of concrete mix in the graded concrete models contributes to the rise of material stiffness that provides a beneficial purpose for serviceability of building members.

  9. Structure and Strength in Causal Induction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Thomas L.; Tenenbaum, Joshua B.

    2005-01-01

    We present a framework for the rational analysis of elemental causal induction--learning about the existence of a relationship between a single cause and effect--based upon causal graphical models. This framework makes precise the distinction between causal structure and causal strength: the difference between asking whether a causal relationship…

  10. The strength of primary care in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kringos, D.S.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/352077131

    2012-01-01

    This thesis aimed to get insight into the elements that form (the strength of) primary care (PC) in Europe, their determinants and their impact on health care system outcomes. The results strengthen the evidence-base for policymakers to prioritise PC strengthening on the health policy agenda and

  11. Transplutonium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishnan, C. K.; Jadhav, A. V.; Reghuraman, K.; Mathew, K. A.; Nair, P. S.; Ramaniah, M. V.

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on studies of the transplutonium elements including recovery and purification of americium, preparation of /sup 238/Pu, extraction studies using diethylhexyl phosphate. (DHM)

  12. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  13. Photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)

  14. Interviewing to Understand Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…

  15. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  16. Strength of precast concrete shear joints reinforced with high-strength wire ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joergensen, Henrik B.; Hoang, Linh Cao; Hagsten, Lars German

    2017-01-01

    This paper concerns the in-plane shear strength of connections between precast concrete wall elements reinforced with looped high-strength wire ropes. The looped wire ropes are pre-installed in so-called ‘wire boxes’ which function as shear keys. Although only a small amount of research...... on the shear strength of such connections can be found in the literature, this type of connection is increasingly being used because wire ropes are much more construction-friendly than traditional U-bars. A rigid plastic upper bound model for the shear strength of wall connections reinforced with looped wire...... ropes that are pre-installed in wire boxes is presented along with test results on the shear strength of connections with double-wire boxes. It is shown that the plastic solution agrees well with both the obtained test results and results from previously conducted tests....

  17. Finite element bending behaviour of discretely delaminated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    due to their light weight, high specific strength and stiffness properties. ... cylindrical shell roofs respectively using finite element method with centrally located .... where { }ε and { }γ are the direct and shear strains in midplane and { }κ denotes ...

  18. Strength development of concrete : balancing production requirements and ecological impact

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onghena, S.; Grunewald, S.; Schutter, G; Jaime C., Galvez; Aguado de Cea, Antonio; Fernandez-Ordonez, David; Sakai, Koji; Reye s, Encarnación; Casati, Maria J .; Enfedaque, Alejandro; Alberti, Marcos G.; de la Fuente, Albert

    2016-01-01

    The effective production of concrete structures requires adequate control of
    strength development in order to realise the scheduled production cycles. Demoulding of elements can take place only when sufficient strength is gained and the production cycle has to be maintained with seasonal changes

  19. Study of the strength of the internal can for internally and externally cooled fuel elements intended for gas graphite reactors; Etude de la tenue de la gaine interne pour-element combustible a refroidissement interne et externe d'un reacteur graphite-gaz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudouresque, B; Courcon, P; Lestiboubois, G [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The cartridge of an internally and externally cooled annular fuel element used in gas-graphite reactors is made up of an uranium fuel tube, an external can and an internal can made of magnesium alloy. For the thermal exchange between the internal can and the fuel to be satisfactory, it is necessary for the can to stay in contact with the uranium under all temperature conditions. This report, based on a theoretical study, shows how the internal can fuel gap varies during the processes of canning, charging into the reactor and thermal cycling. The following parameters are considered: tube diameter, pressure of the heat carrying gas, gas entry temperature, plasticity of the can alloy. It is shown that for all operating conditions the internal can of a 77 x 95 element, planned for a gas-graphite reactor with a 40 kg/cm{sup 2} gas pressure, should remain in contact with the fuel. (authors) [French] La cartouche d'un element combustible annulaire, a refroidissement interne et externe pour reacteur graphite-gaz, est composee d'un tube combustible en uranium, d'une gaine externe et d'une gaine interne en alliage de magnesium. Pour que l'echange thermique entre la gaine interne et le combustible soit bon, il faut que la gaine reste appliquee sur l'uranium quel que soit le regime de temperature. Cette note a pour but de montrer comment, d'apres une etude theorique, le jeu combustible-gaine interne varie au cours des operations de gainage, de chargement dans le reacteur, et des cyclages thermiques. Les parametres suivants sont etudies: diametres de tube, pression du gaz caloporteur, temperature d'entree du gaz, plasticite de l'alliage de gaine. Il est montre que, quel que soit le regime de fonctionnement, la gaine interne d'un element 77 x 95, en projet pour un reacteur graphite-gaz sous pression de 40 kg/cm{sup 2}, doit rester appliquee sur le combustible. (auteurs)

  20. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element for nuclear reactors is proposed which has a higher corrosion resisting quality in reactor operations. The zirconium alloy coating around the fuel element (uranium or plutonium compound) has on its inside a protection layer of metal which is metallurgically bound to the substance of the coating. As materials are namned: Alluminium, copper, niobium, stainless steel, and iron. This protective metallic layer has another inner layer, also metallurgically bound to its surface, which consists usually of a zirconium alloy. (UWI) [de

  1. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawada, Toshiyuki; Hirayama, Satoshi; Yoneya, Katsutoshi.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To enable load-depending operation as well as moderation for the restriction of operation conditions in the present nuclear reactors, by specifying the essential ingredients and the total weight of the additives to UO 2 fuel substances. Constitution: Two or more additives selected from Al 2 O 3 , B 2 O, CaO, MgO, SiO 2 , Na 2 O and P 2 O 5 are added by the total weight of 2 - 5% to fuel substances consisting of UO 2 or a mixture of UO 2 and PuO 2 . When the mixture is sintered, the strength of the fuel elements is decreased and the fuel-cladding interactions due to the difference in the heat expansion coefficients between the ceramic fuel elements and the metal claddings are decreased to a substantially harmless degree. (Horiuchi, T.)

  2. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakai, Keiichi

    1983-01-01

    Purpose: To decrease the tensile stresses resulted in a fuel can as well as prevent decladding of fuel pellets into the bore holes by decreasing the inner pressure within the nuclear fuel element. Constitution: A fuel can is filled with hollow fuel pellets, inserted with a spring for retaining the hollow fuel pellets with an appropriate force and, thereafter, closely sealed at the both ends with end plugs. A cylindrical body is disposed into the bore holes of the hollow fuel pellets. Since initial sealing gases and/or gaseous nuclear fission products can thus be excluded from the bore holes where the temperature is at the highest level, the inner pressure of the nuclear fuel element can be reduced to decrease the tensile strength resulted to the fuel can. Furthermore, decladding of fuel pellets into the bore holes can be prevented. (Moriyama, K.)

  3. Strength functions for fragmented doorway states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, W.M.

    1980-01-01

    Coupling a strongly excited ''doorway state'' to weak ''hallway states'' distributes its strength into micro-resonances seen in differential cross sections taken with very good energy resolution. The distribution of strength is shown to be revealed by reduced widths of the K-matrix rather than by the imaginary part of poles of the S-matrix. Different strength functions (SF) constructed by averaging the K-matrix widths are then investigated to determine their dependences on energy and on parameters related to averages of microscopic matrix elements. A new sum rule on the integrated strength of these SF is derived and used to show that different averaging procedures actually distribute the strength differently. Finally, it is shown that the discontinuous summed strength defines spreading parameters for the doorway state only in strong coupling, where it approximates the idefinite integral of the continuous SF of MacDonald-Mekjian-Kerman-De Toledo Piza. A new method of ''parametric continuation'' is used to relate a discontinuous sliding box-average, or a finite sum, of discrete terms to a continous function

  4. On high temperature strength of carbon steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Hiroyuki; Tamura, Manabu; Kanero, Takahiro; Ihara, Yoshihito

    1977-01-01

    In the steels for high temperature use, the oxidation resistance is regarded as important, but carbon steels show enough oxidation resistance to be used continuously at the temperature up to 500 deg. C if the strength is left out of consideration, and up to 450 deg. C even when the strength is taken into account. Moreover, the production is easy, the workability and weldability are good, and the price is cheap in carbon steels as compared with alloy steels. In the boilers for large thermal power stations, 0.15-0.30% C steels are used for reheater tubes, main feed water tubes, steam headers, wall water tubes, economizer tubes, bypass pipings and others, and they account for 70% of all steel materials used for the boilers of 350 MW class and 30% in 1000 MW class. The JIS standard for the carbon steels for high temperature use and the related standards in foreign countries are shown. The high temperature strength of carbon steels changes according to the trace elements, melting and heat treatment as well as the main compositions of C, Si and Mn. Al and N affect the high temperature strength largely. The characteristics of carbon steels after the heating for hours, the factors controlling the microstructure and high temperature strength, and the measures to improve the high temperature strength of carbon steels are explained. (Kako, I.)

  5. PELTIER ELEMENTS

    CERN Document Server

    Tani, Laurits

    2015-01-01

    To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.

  6. Strength of Fibrous Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zheng-Ming

    2012-01-01

    "Strength of Fibrous Composites" addresses evaluation of the strength of a fibrous composite by using its constituent material properties and its fiber architecture parameters. Having gone through the book, a reader is able to predict the progressive failure behavior and ultimate strength of a fibrous laminate subjected to an arbitrary load condition in terms of the constituent fiber and matrix properties, as well as fiber geometric parameters. The book is useful to researchers and engineers working on design and analysis for composite materials. Dr. Zheng-Ming Huang is a professor at the School of Aerospace Engineering & Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, China. Mr. Ye-Xin Zhou is a PhD candidate at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Hong Kong, China.

  7. Reflector dowel strength test, Fort St. Vrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doll, D.W.

    1975-01-01

    The strength of the 44.45 mm (1.75 in.) diameter Fort St. Vrain (FSV) reflector dowel for loads directed radially inward toward the center of the element was measured. For a statically applied load, the strength exceeded 5783 N (1300 lb) in direct shear. This strength remained after load cycling 100 times to 4448 N (1000 lb), 10 times to 4893 N (1100 lb), 10 times to 5338 N (1200 lb), and two times to 5783 N (1300 lb). Typically, the deflection to ultimate failure was approximately 1.0 mm (0.04 in.). At about 3316 N (750 lb) and 0.20 mm (0.008 in.) deflection, one of the webs between the dowel and a coolant hole cracked, apparently redistributing the load. No further failure occurred up to the ultimate load of 5783+ N (1300+ lb)

  8. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  9. Hand grip strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...

  10. MODERATOR ELEMENTS FOR UNIFORM POWER NUCLEAR REACTOR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balent, R.

    1963-03-12

    This patent describes a method of obtaining a flatter flux and more uniform power generation across the core of a nuclear reactor. The method comprises using moderator elements having differing moderating strength. The elements have an increasing amount of the better moderating material as a function of radial and/or axial distance from the reactor core center. (AEC)

  11. Soft radiative strength in warm nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, J A; Bernstein, L A; Garrett, P E; Nelson, R O; Schiller, A; Voinov, A; Agvaanluvsan, U; Algin, E; Belgya, T; Chankova, R; Guttormsen, M; Mitchell, G E; Rekstad, J; Siem, S

    2004-01-01

    Unresolved transitions in the nuclear γ-ray cascade produced in the decay of excited nuclei are best described by statistical concepts: a continuous radiative strength function (RSF) and level density yield mean values of transition matrix elements. Data on the soft (E γ < 3-4 MeV) RSF for transitions between warm states (i.e. states several MeV above the yrast line) have, however, remained elusive

  12. A statistical calculation of the β- strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvieu, R.; Haq, R.U.; Touchard, J.

    1976-01-01

    A microscopic calculation of the Gamow-Teller strength between the 0 + ground state of 208 Pb and the 1 + particle-hole states of 208 Bi assuming the particle-hole matrix elements as random numbers with some specified distribution, is described. Under certain conditions for the two-body matrix elements, a G.T. resonance occurs. The stability of this collective state along with the accompanying low energy β - -strength tail is studied for various samples of p-h matrix elements [fr

  13. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, S.T.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element wherein a stack of nuclear fuel is prevented from displacement within its sheath by a retainer comprising a tube member which is radially expanded into frictional contact with the sheath by means of a captive ball within a tapered bore. (author)

  14. Transactinide elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemingway, J.D.

    1975-01-01

    The review is covered in sections, entitled: predicted nuclear properties - including closed shells, decay characteristics; predicted chemical properties - including electronic structure and calculated properties, X-radiation, extrapolated chemical properties, separation chemistry; methods of synthesis; the natural occurrence of superheavy elements. (U.K.)

  15. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  16. New elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flerov, G.

    1976-01-01

    The history is briefly described of the investigation of superheavy elements at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at Dubna. The significance of the investigation is assessed from the point of view of the nuclear structure study and major problems encountered in experimental efforts are indicated. Current experimental methods aiming at the discovery or the production of superheavy nuclei with Z approximately 114 are listed. (I.W.)

  17. Probabilistic finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belytschko, Ted; Wing, Kam Liu

    1987-01-01

    In the Probabilistic Finite Element Method (PFEM), finite element methods have been efficiently combined with second-order perturbation techniques to provide an effective method for informing the designer of the range of response which is likely in a given problem. The designer must provide as input the statistical character of the input variables, such as yield strength, load magnitude, and Young's modulus, by specifying their mean values and their variances. The output then consists of the mean response and the variance in the response. Thus the designer is given a much broader picture of the predicted performance than with simply a single response curve. These methods are applicable to a wide class of problems, provided that the scale of randomness is not too large and the probabilistic density functions possess decaying tails. By incorporating the computational techniques we have developed in the past 3 years for efficiency, the probabilistic finite element methods are capable of handling large systems with many sources of uncertainties. Sample results for an elastic-plastic ten-bar structure and an elastic-plastic plane continuum with a circular hole subject to cyclic loadings with the yield stress on the random field are given.

  18. Redox Buffer Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Levie, Robert

    1999-04-01

    The proper functioning of enzymes in bodily fluids requires that the pH be maintained within rather narrow limits. The first line of defense against large pH fluctuations in such fluids is the passive control provided by the presence of pH buffers. The ability of pH buffers to stabilize the pH is indicated by the buffer value b introduced in 1922 by van Slyke. It is equally important for many enzymes that the redox potential is kept within a narrow range. In that case, stability of the potential is most readily achieved with a redox buffer. In this communication we define the redox buffer strength by analogy with acid-base buffer strength.

  19. Corium crust strength measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomperski, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: lomperski@anl.gov; Farmer, M.T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: farmer@anl.gov

    2009-11-15

    Corium strength is of interest in the context of a severe reactor accident in which molten core material melts through the reactor vessel and collects on the containment basemat. Some accident management strategies involve pouring water over the melt to solidify it and halt corium/concrete interactions. The effectiveness of this method could be influenced by the strength of the corium crust at the interface between the melt and coolant. A strong, coherent crust anchored to the containment walls could allow the yet-molten corium to fall away from the crust as it erodes the basemat, thereby thermally decoupling the melt from the coolant and sharply reducing the cooling rate. This paper presents a diverse collection of measurements of the mechanical strength of corium. The data is based on load tests of corium samples in three different contexts: (1) small blocks cut from the debris of the large-scale MACE experiments, (2) 30 cm-diameter, 75 kg ingots produced by SSWICS quench tests, and (3) high temperature crusts loaded during large-scale corium/concrete interaction (CCI) tests. In every case the corium consisted of varying proportions of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and the constituents of concrete to represent a LWR melt at different stages of a molten core/concrete interaction. The collection of data was used to assess the strength and stability of an anchored, plant-scale crust. The results indicate that such a crust is likely to be too weak to support itself above the melt. It is therefore improbable that an anchored crust configuration could persist and the melt become thermally decoupled from the water layer to restrict cooling and prolong an attack of the reactor cavity concrete.

  20. Strength capability while kneeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslegrave, C M; Tracy, M F; Corlett, E N

    1997-12-01

    Work sometimes has to be carried out kneeling, particularly where jobs are performed in confined spaces as is common for miners, aircraft baggage handlers and maintenance workers. In order to assess the risks in performing forceful tasks under such conditions, data is needed on strength capabilities of kneeling subjects. A study was undertaken to measure isometric strength in single-handed exertions for male subjects and to investigate the effects on this of task layout factors (direction of force exertion, reach distance, height of the workpiece and orientation relative to the subject's sagittal plane). The data has been tabulated to show the degree to which strength may be reduced in different situations and analysis of the task factors showed their influence to be complex with direction of exertion and reach distance having the greatest effect. The results also suggest that exertions are weaker when subjects are kneeling on two knees than when kneeling on one knee, although this needs to be confirmed by direct experimental comparison.

  1. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, T.I.; Jones, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiographic elements are disclosed comprised of first and second silver halide emulsion layers separated by an interposed support capable of transmitting radiation to which the second image portion is responsive. At least the first imaging portion contains a silver halide emulsion in which thin tubular silver halide grains of intermediate aspect ratios (from 5:1 to 8:1) are present. Spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to the surface of the tubular grains. Increased photographic speeds can be realized at comparable levels of crossover. (author)

  2. Estimated strength of shear keys in concrete dams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curtis, D.D. [Hatch Energy, Niagara Falls, ON (Canada); Lum, K.K.Y. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    BC Hydro requested that Hatch Energy review the seismic stability of Ruskin Dam which was constructed in 1930 at Hayward Lake in British Columbia. The concrete gravity dam is founded nearly entirely on rock in a narrow valley. The vertical joints between blocks are keyed and grouted. The strength of the shear keys was assessed when a non-linear finite element model found that significant forces were being transferred laterally to the abutments during an earthquake. The lateral transfer of loads to the abutment relies on the strength of the shear keys. The dynamic finite element analysis was used to determine the stability of the dam. A review of the shear strength measurements reported in literature showed that the measurements compared well to those obtained by BC Hydro from cores taken from Ruskin Dam. The cohesive strength obtained using the Griffith failure criteria was also in good agreement with both sets of measurements. A simple ultimate shear strength equation was developed using the Mohr-Coulomb failure criteria to determine combined cohesive and frictional strength of shear keys. Safety factors of 2.0 for static loads and 1.5 for seismic loads were proposed to reduce the ultimate strength to allowable values. It was concluded that given the relatively high shear strength established for the shear keys, the abutment rock or dam/abutment contact will control the amount of load which can arch to the abutments. 8 refs., 4 tabs., 5 figs.

  3. Grid for a fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    An illustrative embodiment of the invention has one or more corrugations formed in the surface of a fuel element grid for a nuclear reactor. Not only does the corrugation enhance the strength of the grid plate in which it is formed, but it also provides a simple and convenient means for regulating the reactor coolant pressure drop through an appropriate choice of the corrugation depth

  4. Strengths only or strengths and relative weaknesses? A preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Teri; Diessner, Rhett; Reade, Lindsay

    2009-10-01

    Does working on developing character strengths and relative character weaknesses cause lower life satisfaction than working on developing character strengths only? The present study provides a preliminary answer. After 76 college students completed the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (C. Peterson & M. E. P. Seligman, 2004), the authors randomly assigned them to work on 2 character strengths or on 1 character strength and 1 relative weakness. Combined, these groups showed significant gains on the Satisfaction With Life Scale (E. Diener, R. A. Emmons, R. J. Larsen, & S. Griffin, 1985), compared with a 32-student no-treatment group. However, there was no significant difference in gain scores between the 2-strengths group and the 1-character-strength-and-1-relative-character-weakness group. The authors discuss how focusing on relative character weaknesses (along with strengths) does not diminish-and may assist in increasing-life satisfaction.

  5. Superheavy elements

    CERN Document Server

    Hofmann, S

    1999-01-01

    The outstanding aim of experimental investigations of heavy nuclei is the exploration of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). On the basis of the nuclear shell model, the next double magic shell-closure beyond sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb is predicted at proton numbers between Z=114 and 126 and at neutron number N=184. All experimental efforts aiming at identifying SHEs (Z>=114) were negative so far. A highly sensitive search experiment was performed in November-December 1995 at SHIP. The isotope sup 2 sup 9 sup 0 116 produced by 'radiative capture' was searched for in the course of a 33 days irradiation of a sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb target with sup 8 sup 2 Se projectiles, however, only cross-section limits were measured. Positive results were obtained in experiments searching for elements from 110 to 112 using cold fusion and the 1n evaporation channel. The produced isotopes were unambiguously identified by means of alpha-alpha correlations. Not fission, but alpha emission is the dominant decay mode. The measurement ...

  6. Unified strength theory and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Mao-Hong

    2004-01-01

    This is a completely new theory dealing with the yield and failure of materials under multi-axial stresses. It provides a system of yield and failure criteria adopted for most materials, from metallic materials to rocks, concretes, soils, polymers etc. The Unified Strength Theory has been applied successfully to analyse the elastic limit, plastic limit capacities, the dynamic response behavior for some structures under static and moderate impulsive load, and may be implemented in some elasto-plastic finite element computer codes. The Unified Strength Theory is described in detail and by using this theory a series of results can be obtained. The Unified Strength Theory can improve the conservative Mohr-Coulomb Theory, and since intermediate principal stress is not taken into account in the Mohr-Coulomb theory and most experimental data is not pertainable to the Mohr-Coulomb Theory, a considerable economic benefit may be obtained. The book can also increase the effect of most commercial finite element computer ...

  7. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirose, Yasuo.

    1982-01-01

    Purpose: To increase the plenum space in a fuel element used for a liquid metal cooled reactor. Constitution: A fuel pellet is secured at one end with an end plug and at the other with a coil spring in a tubular container. A mechanism for fixing the coil spring composed of a tubular unit is mounted by friction with the inner surface of the tubular container. Accordingly, the recoiling force of the coil spring can be retained by fixing mechanism with a small volume, and since a large amount of plenum space can be obtained, the internal pressure rise in the cladding tube can be suppressed even if large quantities of fission products are discharged. (Kamimura, M.)

  8. Strength Training: For Overall Fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Strength training is an important part of an overall fitness program. Here's what strength training can do for ... is a key component of overall health and fitness for everyone. Lean muscle mass naturally diminishes with ...

  9. Analytical model for shear strength of end slabs of prestressed concrete nuclear reactor vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulrahman, H.O.; Sozen, M.A.; Schnobrich, W.C.

    1979-04-01

    The results are presented of an investigation of the behavior and strength of flat end slabs of cylindrical prestressed concrete nuclear reactor vessels. The investigation included tests of ten small-scale pressure vessels and development of a nonlinear finite-element model to simulate the deformation response and strength of the end slabs. Because earlier experimental studies had shown that the flexural strength of the end slab could be calculated using intelligible procedures, the emphasis of this investigation was on shear strength

  10. A three-dimensional computerized isometric strength measurement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Nancy L; Das, Biman

    2007-05-01

    The three-dimensional Computerized Isometric Strength Measurement System (CISMS) reliably and accurately measures isometric pull and push strengths in work spaces of paraplegic populations while anticipating comparative studies with other populations. The main elements of the system were: an extendable arm, a vertical supporting track, a rotating platform, a force transducer, stability sensors and a computerized data collection interface. The CISMS with minor modification was successfully used to measure isometric push-up and pull-down strengths of paraplegics and isometric push, pull, push-up and pull-down strength in work spaces for seated and standing able-bodied populations. The instrument has satisfied criteria of versatility, safety and comfort, ease of operation, and durability. Results are accurate within 2N for aligned forces. Costing approximately $1,500 (US) including computer, the system is affordable and accurate for aligned isometric strength measurements.

  11. Gaussian discriminating strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigovacca, L.; Farace, A.; De Pasquale, A.; Giovannetti, V.

    2015-10-01

    We present a quantifier of nonclassical correlations for bipartite, multimode Gaussian states. It is derived from the Discriminating Strength measure, introduced for finite dimensional systems in Farace et al., [New J. Phys. 16, 073010 (2014), 10.1088/1367-2630/16/7/073010]. As the latter the new measure exploits the quantum Chernoff bound to gauge the susceptibility of the composite system with respect to local perturbations induced by unitary gates extracted from a suitable set of allowed transformations (the latter being identified by posing some general requirements). Closed expressions are provided for the case of two-mode Gaussian states obtained by squeezing or by linearly mixing via a beam splitter a factorized two-mode thermal state. For these density matrices, we study how nonclassical correlations are related with the entanglement present in the system and with its total photon number.

  12. Statistical Analysis of Data for Timber Strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard

    2003-01-01

    Statistical analyses are performed for material strength parameters from a large number of specimens of structural timber. Non-parametric statistical analysis and fits have been investigated for the following distribution types: Normal, Lognormal, 2 parameter Weibull and 3-parameter Weibull...... fits to the data available, especially if tail fits are used whereas the Log Normal distribution generally gives a poor fit and larger coefficients of variation, especially if tail fits are used. The implications on the reliability level of typical structural elements and on partial safety factors...... for timber are investigated....

  13. Elements of social action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Because of the significant analytical advantages, the author prefers social action as initial sociological concept in the relation to social phenomenon. Its basic elements are: actors, subjects and tools, needs and interests, values and norms, positions and roles. Actors set in motion and unify the rest of elements, guide to the magic triangle of sociology (movement, change, order, reaffirm actor paradigm to systemic paradigm. Subjects and tools materialize an action and its overestimate results in technological determinism or (by means of property as institutional appropriation of nature in the (unclassed historical type of society. Needs and interests are the basis of person's motivation and starting point for depth analysis of sociability. The expansion of legitimate interests circle develops techniques of normative regulation. Values and norms guide to institutional-organizational, positions to vertical and roles to horizontal structure. Values give the meaning to the action as well as to human existence, they are orientations of motivate system of personality but also basic aspect of society. As abstractions, values are latent background of norms and they tell to us what to do, and norms how to do something. Norms are specified instructions for suitable behavior Without normative order, not to be possible the satisfying of needs and the conciliation of interests. Riches, power and prestige are components of social position, and legal status is the determination of rights and obligations of the position. Roles are normative expectation of behavior. Toward kinds of sanctions roles are classified. Roles but also other elements of social action are starting point for sociological analysis of legal norms and institutes. On the other side, the observation of legal component of social actions enriches, strengths and precises sociological analysis of them.

  14. Impact strength of sintered astaloy CrM powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazior, J.; Ploszczak, J.; Nykiel, M.; Pieczonka, T.

    2003-01-01

    In this paper results of a series of impact tests on sintered Astaloy CrM powders alloys modified by boron are presented and discussed. Boron in different forms, i.e. as elemental boron powder, boron carbide B 4 C powder or mixture of boron and carbon elemental powders, was used in different weight percentage to activate sintering of Astaloy CrM powder and to increase hardenability, with aim of increasing impact strength in view of structural applications. (author)

  15. Reliability analysis of steel-containment strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greimann, L.G.; Fanous, F.; Wold-Tinsae, A.; Ketalaar, D.; Lin, T.; Bluhm, D.

    1982-06-01

    A best estimate and uncertainty assessment of the resistance of the St. Lucie, Cherokee, Perry, WPPSS and Browns Ferry containment vessels was performed. The Monte Carlo simulation technique and second moment approach were compared as a means of calculating the probability distribution of the containment resistance. A uniform static internal pressure was used and strain ductility was taken as the failure criterion. Approximate methods were developed and calibrated with finite element analysis. Both approximate and finite element analyses were performed on the axisymmetric containment structure. An uncertainty assessment of the containment strength was then performed by the second moment reliability method. Based upon the approximate methods, the cumulative distribution for the resistance of each of the five containments (shell modes only) is presented

  16. Compressive and flexural strength of high strength phase change mortar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Qingyao; Fang, Changle

    2018-04-01

    High-strength cement produces a lot of hydration heat when hydrated, it will usually lead to thermal cracks. Phase change materials (PCM) are very potential thermal storage materials. Utilize PCM can help reduce the hydration heat. Research shows that apply suitable amount of PCM has a significant effect on improving the compressive strength of cement mortar, and can also improve the flexural strength to some extent.

  17. Development of LTCC Materials with High Mechanical Strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Shinya; Nishiura, Sousuke; Terashi, Yoshitake; Furuse, Tatsuji

    2011-01-01

    We have developed LTCC materials suitable for substrates of RF modules used in mobile phone. LTCC can provide excellent solutions to requirements of RF modules, such as down-sizing, embedded elements and high performance. It is also important that LTCC material has high mechanical strength to reduce risk of fracture by mechanical impact. We have established a method of material design for high mechanical strength. There are two successive steps in the concept to achieve high mechanical strength. The first step is to improve mechanical strength by increasing the Young's modulus, and the second step is either further improvement through the Young's modulus or enhancement of the fracture energy. The developed material, so called high-strength LTCC, thus possesses mechanical strength of 400MPa, which is twice as strong as conventional material whose mechanical strength is approximately 200MPa in typical. As a result, high-strength LTCC shows an excellent mechanical reliability, against the drop impact test for example. The paper presents material design and properties of LTCC materials.

  18. Influence of irradiation on high-strength graphites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgil'ev, Yu.S.; Grebennik, V.N.; Kalyagina, I.P.

    1989-01-01

    To ensure efficiency of the graphite elements of the construction of the masonry of reactors, the graphite must possess high radiation stability, strength, and heat resistance. In this connection, the physical properties of graphites based on uncalcined petroleum coke with a binder - high-temperature hard coal pitch - the amount of which reaches 40% are considered in this paper

  19. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  20. Oscillator strengths for neutral technetium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garstang, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Oscillator strengths have been calculated for most of the spectral lines of TcI which are of interest in the study of stars of spectral type S. Oscillator strengths have been computed for the corresponding transitions in MnI as a partial check of the technetium calculations

  1. Requirements for materials of dispersion fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samojlov, A.G.; Kashtanov, A.I.; Volkov, V.S.

    1982-01-01

    Requirements for materials of dispersion fuel elements are considered. The necessity of structural and fissile materials compatibility at maximum permissible operation temperatures and temperatures arising in a fuel element during manufacture is pointed out. The fuel element structural material must be ductile, possess high mechanical strength minimum neutron absorption cross section, sufficient heat conductivity, good corrosion resistance in a coolant and radiation resistance. The fissile material must have high fissile isotope concentration, radiation resistance, high thermal conductivity, certain porosity high melting temperature must not change the composition under irradiation

  2. Evaluation of concrete mechanical strength through porosity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivares, M.

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The increasing on voids or pores in any material - if the rest of characteristics remains equal -always causes a decrease in their mechanical strength since the ratio volume/resistant mass is lower Following all these fact a well known conclusion rises: there is a relationship between compacity/porosity and mechanical strengths. The purpose of this research is to establish a new possible correlation between both concrete properties with independence of the proportions, type of cement, size of grain, age, use. etc. So it can be concluded that the results of this research allow the engineer or architect in charge of a restoration or reparation to determine the compression strength of a concrete element. A first step is to determine the porosity through a rather short number of tests. Subsequently, compression strength will be obtained applying just a mathematical formula.

    El aumento de huecos o poros de cualquier material, lo mismo que en otras circunstancias, redunda siempre en una merma de sus resistencias mecánicas, al haber menor volumen-masa resistente. En consecuencia, puede deducirse, que hay una relación entre la compacidad/porosidad y las resistencias mecánicas. En el presente trabajo se estudia una posible correlación entre ambas propiedades del hormigón con independencia de su dosificación, tipo de cemento, granulometría, edad, uso, etc. Las conclusiones obtenidas en la presente investigación permiten al técnico, encargado de una restauración o rehabilitación, determinar la resistencia a compresión de un elemento de hormigón, una vez hallada, de una forma sencilla, la porosidad de una muestra no muy voluminosa, mediante la aplicación de una simple fórmula matemática.

  3. ZERODUR: deterministic approach for strength design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Peter

    2012-12-01

    There is an increasing request for zero expansion glass ceramic ZERODUR substrates being capable of enduring higher operational static loads or accelerations. The integrity of structures such as optical or mechanical elements for satellites surviving rocket launches, filigree lightweight mirrors, wobbling mirrors, and reticle and wafer stages in microlithography must be guaranteed with low failure probability. Their design requires statistically relevant strength data. The traditional approach using the statistical two-parameter Weibull distribution suffered from two problems. The data sets were too small to obtain distribution parameters with sufficient accuracy and also too small to decide on the validity of the model. This holds especially for the low failure probability levels that are required for reliable applications. Extrapolation to 0.1% failure probability and below led to design strengths so low that higher load applications seemed to be not feasible. New data have been collected with numbers per set large enough to enable tests on the applicability of the three-parameter Weibull distribution. This distribution revealed to provide much better fitting of the data. Moreover it delivers a lower threshold value, which means a minimum value for breakage stress, allowing of removing statistical uncertainty by introducing a deterministic method to calculate design strength. Considerations taken from the theory of fracture mechanics as have been proven to be reliable with proof test qualifications of delicate structures made from brittle materials enable including fatigue due to stress corrosion in a straight forward way. With the formulae derived, either lifetime can be calculated from given stress or allowable stress from minimum required lifetime. The data, distributions, and design strength calculations for several practically relevant surface conditions of ZERODUR are given. The values obtained are significantly higher than those resulting from the two

  4. STRENGTH OF NANOMODIFIED HIGH-STRENGTH LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NOZEMTСEV Alexandr Sergeevich

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of research aimed at development of nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete for construction. The developed concretes are of low average density and high ultimate compressive strength. It is shown that to produce this type of concrete one need to use hollow glass and aluminosilicate microspheres. To increase the durability of adhesion between cement stone and fine filler the authors offer to use complex nanodimensinal modifier based on iron hydroxide sol and silica sol as a surface nanomodifier for hollow microspheres. It is hypothesized that the proposed modifier has complex effect on the activity of the cement hydration and, at the same time increases bond strength between filler and cement-mineral matrix. The compositions for energy-efficient nanomodified high-strength lightweight concrete which density is 1300…1500 kg/m³ and compressive strength is 40…65 MPa have been developed. The approaches to the design of high-strength lightweight concrete with density of less than 2000 kg/m³ are formulated. It is noted that the proposed concretes possess dense homogeneous structure and moderate mobility. Thus, they allow processing by vibration during production. The economic and practical implications for realization of high-strength lightweight concrete in industrial production have been justified.

  5. Strength Characteristics of Groundnut Leaf/Stem Ash (GLSA Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oseni O. W.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The compressive strength properties of concrete are substantial factors in the design and construction of concrete structures. Compressive strength directly affects the degree to which the concrete can be able to carry a load over time. These changes are complemented by deflections, cracks etc., in the structural elements of concrete. This research investigated the effect of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA on the compressive strength of concrete at 0%, 5 %, 10 % and 15 % replacements of cement. The effect of the water-cement ratio on properties such as the compressive strength, slump, flow and workability properties of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA mixes with OPC were evaluated to determine whether they are acceptable for use in concrete structural elements. A normal concrete mix with cement at 100 % (i.e., GLSA at 0% with concrete grade C25 that can attain an average strength of 25 N/mm2 at 28 days was used as a control at design water-cement ratios of 0.65 and grading of (0.5-32 mm from fine to coarse aggregates was tested for: (1 compressive strength, and the (2 slump and flow Test. The results and observations showed that the concrete mixes from GLSA at 5 – 15 % ratios exhibit: pozzolanic properties and GLSA could be used as a partial replacement for cement at these percentage mix ratios compared with the control concrete; an increase in the water-cement ratio showed a significant decrease in the compressive strength and an increase in workability. Therefore, it is important that all concrete mixes exude an acceptably designed water-cement ratio for compressive strength characteristics for use in structures, water-cement ratio is a significant factor.

  6. Strength Characteristics of Groundnut Leaf/Stem Ash (GLSA) Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oseni, O. W.; Audu, M. T.

    2016-09-01

    The compressive strength properties of concrete are substantial factors in the design and construction of concrete structures. Compressive strength directly affects the degree to which the concrete can be able to carry a load over time. These changes are complemented by deflections, cracks etc., in the structural elements of concrete. This research investigated the effect of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) on the compressive strength of concrete at 0%, 5 %, 10 % and 15 % replacements of cement. The effect of the water-cement ratio on properties such as the compressive strength, slump, flow and workability properties of groundnut leaf/stem ash (GLSA) mixes with OPC were evaluated to determine whether they are acceptable for use in concrete structural elements. A normal concrete mix with cement at 100 % (i.e., GLSA at 0%) with concrete grade C25 that can attain an average strength of 25 N/mm2 at 28 days was used as a control at design water-cement ratios of 0.65 and grading of (0.5-32) mm from fine to coarse aggregates was tested for: (1) compressive strength, and the (2) slump and flow Test. The results and observations showed that the concrete mixes from GLSA at 5 - 15 % ratios exhibit: pozzolanic properties and GLSA could be used as a partial replacement for cement at these percentage mix ratios compared with the control concrete; an increase in the water-cement ratio showed a significant decrease in the compressive strength and an increase in workability. Therefore, it is important that all concrete mixes exude an acceptably designed water-cement ratio for compressive strength characteristics for use in structures, water-cement ratio is a significant factor.

  7. How the global layout of the mask influences masking strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghose, Tandra; Hermens, Frouke; Herzog, Michael H

    2012-12-10

    In visual backward masking, the perception of a target is influenced by a trailing mask. Masking is usually explained by local interactions between the target and the mask representations. However, recently it has been shown that the global spatial layout of the mask rather than its local structure determines masking strength (Hermens & Herzog, 2007). Here, we varied the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues. We presented a vernier target followed by a mask with 25 elements. Performance deteriorated when the length of the two mask elements neighboring the target vernier was doubled. However, when the length of every second mask element was doubled, performance improved. When the luminance of the neighboring elements was doubled, performance also deteriorated but no improvement in performance was observed when every second element had a double luminance. For temporal manipulations, a complex nonmonotonic masking function was observed. Hence, changes in the mask layout by spatial, luminance, and temporal cues lead to highly different results.

  8. Chemistry of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    The half-wave amalgamation potential of No (element 102) was determined. Studies on the preparation and properties of Cf are reported; previously reported results on Es were confirmed. The heat of solution of Bk was measured. Spectroscopic and x-ray diffraction studies of Es-253 bromides are reported. Salicylate complexes with Sm(III), Am(III), Th(IV), and U(IV)O 2 were prepared; crystal data are given. Results of studies on the effect of secondary bonds on the strength of O double bond Np double bond O bonds are reported. The M series x rays of Np were measured. Anomalous spin--orbit splitting of the 4f level in the actinide series is reported. Progress is reported in studies on the Cf oxide system for oxygen pressures up to 760 mm and temperatures between 25 and 1000 0 C, as well as structural parameters of transplutonium oxysulfates and oxysulfides and actinide and lanthanide hydroxides. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum of 253 Es 2+ was observed in the cubic monocrystal hosts BaF 2 and SrCl 2

  9. Penetrator strength effect in long-rod critical ricochet angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daneshjou, K.; Shahravi, M.

    2008-01-01

    3D numerical simulations were performed in order to further investigate the role of penetrator strength in the interaction of long-rods and oblique targets. Three distinctive regimes resulting from oblique impact depending on the obliquity, namely simple ricochet, critical ricochet and target perforation, were investigated in detail. Critical ricochet angles were calculated with a full 3D explicit finite element method for various impact velocities and strength of target plates and projectiles. Numerical predictions were compared with existing two-dimensional analytical models and test results. It was predicted that critical ricochet angle increases with decreasing impact velocity and that higher ricochet angles were expected if higher strength target materials are employed. But there are differences between analytical models and 3D numerical simulation results or test results. The causes for these discrepancies are established by numerical simulations which explore the validity of the penetrator strength parameter in the analytical model as a physical entity. As a matter of fact, in this paper we first investigate the role of penetrator dynamic strength using two-dimensional simulation which resulted in different penetrator strengths out of different impact velocities. Next, by applying these amounts for penetrator strength in Rosenberg analytical model the critical ricochet angle is calculated. Finally, a comparison between the present analytical method with the 3D simulation and test results shows that the new analytical approach leads to modified results with respect to Rosenberg ones

  10. Evaluation and field verification of strength and structural improvement of chemically stabilized subgrade soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Often subgrade soils exhibit properties, particularly strength and/or volume change properties that limit their performance as a support element for pavements. : Typical problems include shrink-swell, settlement, collapse, erosion or simply insuffici...

  11. Influence of sediment recycling on the trace element composition of primitive arc lavas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collinet, M.; Jagoutz, O. E.

    2017-12-01

    Primitive calc-alkaline lavas from continental arcs are, on average, enriched in incompatible elements compared to those from intra-oceanic arcs. This relative enrichment is observed in different groups of trace elements: LILE (e.g. K, Rb), LREE to MREE (La-Dy) and HFSE (e.g.Zr, Nb) and is thought to result from (1) a transfer of material from the subducting slab to the mantle wedge at higher temperature than in intra-oceanic margins and/or (2) lower average degrees of melting in the mantle wedge, as a consequence of thicker overlying crusts and higher average pressures of melting. In addition to thicker overlying crusts and generally higher slab temperatures, continental margins are characterized by larger volumes of rock exposed above sea level and enhanced erosion rates compared to intra-oceanic arcs. As several geochemical signatures of arc lavas attest to the importance of sediment recycling in subduction zones, we explore the possibility that the high concentrations of incompatible elements in primitive lavas from continental arcs directly reflect a larger input of sediment to the subduction system. Previous efforts to quantify the sediment flux to oceanic trenches focused on the thickness of pelagic and hemipelagic sediments on top of the plate entering the subduction zone (Plank and Langmuir, 1993, Nature). These estimates primarily relied on the sediment layer drilled outboard from the subduction system and likely underestimate the volume of sediment derived from the arc itself. Accordingly, we find that such estimates of sediment flux do not correlate with the concentration of incompatible elements in primitive arc lavas. To account for regional contributions of coarser detrital sediments, usually delivered to oceanic trenches by turbidity currents, we apply to arc segments a model that quantifies the sediment load of rivers based on the average relief, area, temperature and runoff of their respective drainage areas (Syvitski et al., 2003, Sediment. Geol

  12. Trace element characteristics of mafic and ultramafic meta-igneous rocks from the 3.5 Ga. Warrawoona group: evidence for plume-lithosphere interaction beneath Archaean continental crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolhar, R.; Hergt, J.; Woodhead, J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Magnesian- to Fe-rich tholeiitic basalts represent the dominant lithology in the Marble Bar Greenstone Belt, E-Pilbara Craton, and are locally associated with komatiitic basalts and rare komatiitic cumulates. Based on trace element characteristics, the extrusive and intrusive rocks from all three major stratigraphic units can be subdivided into LREE enriched and unfractionated to weakly LREE depleted groups. The former group is characterized by La/Sm pm = 1.7-4.6, Gd/Yb pm = 1.23.2 and Nb/Th pm 0.1-0.5, while the latter rocks possess ratios of La/Sm pm = 0.5-1.7, Gd/Yb pm = 0.8-1.9 and Nb/Th pm = 0.4-1.3. Nb/La -Nb/Th relationships in the LREE enriched samples indicate 7-28% contamination by crustal material similar in composition to Pilbara granitoids. LREE enrichment and strong negative HFSE anomalies, along with MgO = 2.2-22.0 wt% and SiO 2 = 39.2-63.5 wt%, have been observed in numerous Archaean greenstone belts, and can be successfully modeled in this study by AFC processes. In contrast, strong HFSE depletion combined with unfractionated to slightly depleted LREE in rocks of the latter group require different processes. Melting of mantle material previously depleted by melt extraction, enrichment of LILE and LREE relative to the HFSE in an arc-like environment and HFSE fractionation as a result of garnet retention in the melting source cannot account for negative Nb, Ta, Ti, P and strong positive Pb anomalies. Introduction of small amounts of crustal material into a depleted or primitive mantle, as possibly indicated by Nb/Ta ratios between 12 and 18, also fails to reproduce the trace element abundances of the second group of rocks. Recycling of oceanic crust previously processed through a subduction zone (low Th/Nb, La/Nb) and sub-arc lithospheric mantle (high Th/Nb, La/Nb), and subsequent mixing into the Archaean mantle has been recently invoked by several workers (e.g. Kerrich et al., EPSL, 168, 101-115; 1999) to explain the origin of

  13. Brand Discrimination: An Implicit Measure of the Strength of Mental Brand Representations

    OpenAIRE

    Friedman, Mike; Leclercq, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    While mental associations between a brand and its marketing elements are an important part of brand equity, previous research has yet to provide a sound methodology to measure the strength of these links. The following studies present the development and validation of an implicit measure to assess the strength of mental representations of brand elements in the mind of the consumer. The measure described in this paper, which we call the Brand Discrimination task, requires participants to ident...

  14. Reliability of nondestructive testing of metal strength properties for power equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bugaj, N.V.; Lebedev, A.A.; Sharko, A.V.

    1985-01-01

    Ultrasonic control which is a constituent part of a complex control system which includes specimen-free (by hardness) tests, random breaking tests and acoustic measurements is stUdied for its reliability with respect to strength properties of power-equipment metal. Quantitative and alternative criteria are developed to estimate quality of elements for power-equipment according to results of metal strength properties. Acoustic control results are presented for ultimate strength in 12Kh1MF-steel

  15. A Summary of the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Yen J.

    2015-01-01

    The space-time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CESE) method for solving conservation laws is examined for its development motivation and design requirements. The characteristics of the resulting scheme are discussed. The discretization of the Euler equations is presented to show readers how to construct a scheme based on the CESE method. The differences and similarities between the CESE method and other traditional methods are discussed. The strengths and weaknesses of the method are also addressed.

  16. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  17. Strength Training and Your Child

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in organized sports or activities such as baseball, soccer, or gymnastics usually can safely to start strength ... as biking and running, adequate hydration, and healthy nutrition. Reviewed by: Mary L. Gavin, MD Date reviewed: ...

  18. Chairside CAD/CAM materials. Part 2: Flexural strength testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendler, Michael; Belli, Renan; Petschelt, Anselm; Mevec, Daniel; Harrer, Walter; Lube, Tanja; Danzer, Robert; Lohbauer, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    Strength is one of the preferred parameters used in dentistry for determining clinical indication of dental restoratives. However, small dimensions of CAD/CAM blocks limit reliable measurements with standardized uniaxial bending tests. The objective of this study was to introduce the ball-on-three-ball (B3B) biaxial strength test for dental for small CAD/CAM block in the context of the size effect on strength predicted by the Weibull theory. Eight representative chairside CAD/CAM materials ranging from polycrystalline zirconia (e.max ZirCAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent), reinforced glasses (Vitablocs Mark II, VITA; Empress CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent) and glass-ceramics (e.max CAD, Ivoclar-Vivadent; Suprinity, VITA; Celtra Duo, Dentsply) to hybrid materials (Enamic, VITA; Lava Ultimate, 3M ESPE) have been selected. Specimens were prepared with highly polished surfaces in rectangular plate (12×12×1.2mm 3 ) or round disc (Ø=12mm, thickness=1.2mm) geometries. Specimens were tested using the B3B assembly and the biaxial strength was determined using calculations derived from finite element analyses of the respective stress fields. Size effects on strength were determined based on results from 4-point-bending specimens. A good agreement was found between the biaxial strength results for the different geometries (plates vs. discs) using the B3B test. Strength values ranged from 110.9MPa (Vitablocs Mark II) to 1303.21MPa (e.max ZirCAD). The strength dependency on specimen size was demonstrated through the calculated effective volume/surface. The B3B test has shown to be a reliable and simple method for determining the biaxial strength restorative materials supplied as small CAD/CAM blocks. A flexible solution was made available for the B3B test in the rectangular plate geometry. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Characteristics of structural loess strength and preliminary framework for joint strength formula

    OpenAIRE

    Rong-jian Li; Jun-ding Liu; Rui Yan; Wen Zheng; Sheng-jun Shao

    2014-01-01

    The strength of structural loess consists of the shear strength and tensile strength. In this study, the stress path, the failure envelope of principal stress (Kf line), and the strength failure envelope of structurally intact loess and remolded loess were analyzed through three kinds of tests: the tensile strength test, the uniaxial compressive strength test, and the conventional triaxial shear strength test. Then, in order to describe the tensile strength and shear strength of structural lo...

  20. Stress distributions in finite element analysis of concrete gravity dam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gravity dams are solid structures built of mass concrete material; they maintain their stability against the design loads from the geometric shape, the mass, and the strength of the concrete. The model was meshed with an 8-node biquadratic plane strain quadrilateral (CPE8R) elements, using ABAQUS, a finite element ...

  1. Design and main characteristics of HTGR fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernikov, A.S.; Kolesov, V.S.; Permyakov, L.N.; Koshelev, Yu.V.; Mikhajlichenko, L.I.

    1983-01-01

    Two types of spherical fuel elements and coated particles were investigated under the operating conditions of the high temperature reactors in the Soviet Union (VGR-50 and VG-400). This paper gives the main characteristics of spherical fuel elements (thermal conductivity, static and dynamic strength, wear resistance, release of gaseous fission products, etc.) as determined in test facilities. (author)

  2. Discrete Element Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, J; Johnson, S

    2007-12-03

    The Distinct Element Method (also frequently referred to as the Discrete Element Method) (DEM) is a Lagrangian numerical technique where the computational domain consists of discrete solid elements which interact via compliant contacts. This can be contrasted with Finite Element Methods where the computational domain is assumed to represent a continuum (although many modern implementations of the FEM can accommodate some Distinct Element capabilities). Often the terms Discrete Element Method and Distinct Element Method are used interchangeably in the literature, although Cundall and Hart (1992) suggested that Discrete Element Methods should be a more inclusive term covering Distinct Element Methods, Displacement Discontinuity Analysis and Modal Methods. In this work, DEM specifically refers to the Distinct Element Method, where the discrete elements interact via compliant contacts, in contrast with Displacement Discontinuity Analysis where the contacts are rigid and all compliance is taken up by the adjacent intact material.

  3. Finite element modeling of piezoelectric elements with complex electrode configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paradies, R; Schläpfer, B

    2009-01-01

    It is well known that the material properties of piezoelectric materials strongly depend on the state of polarization of the individual element. While an unpolarized material exhibits mechanically isotropic material properties in the absence of global piezoelectric capabilities, the piezoelectric material properties become transversally isotropic with respect to the polarization direction after polarization. Therefore, for evaluating piezoelectric elements the material properties, including the coupling between the mechanical and the electromechanical behavior, should be addressed correctly. This is of special importance for the micromechanical description of piezoelectric elements with interdigitated electrodes (IDEs). The best known representatives of this group are active fiber composites (AFCs), macro fiber composites (MFCs) and the radial field diaphragm (RFD), respectively. While the material properties are available for a piezoelectric wafer with a homogeneous polarization perpendicular to its plane as postulated in the so-called uniform field model (UFM), the same information is missing for piezoelectric elements with more complex electrode configurations like the above-mentioned ones with IDEs. This is due to the inhomogeneous field distribution which does not automatically allow for the correct assignment of the material, i.e. orientation and property. A variation of the material orientation as well as the material properties can be accomplished by including the polarization process of the piezoelectric transducer in the finite element (FE) simulation prior to the actual load case to be investigated. A corresponding procedure is presented which automatically assigns the piezoelectric material properties, e.g. elasticity matrix, permittivity, and charge vector, for finite element models (FEMs) describing piezoelectric transducers according to the electric field distribution (field orientation and strength) in the structure. A corresponding code has been

  4. Fatigue Strength of Titanium Risers - Defect Sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babalola, Olusegun Tunde

    2001-07-01

    This study is centred on assessment of the fatigue strength of titanium fusion welds for deep-water riser's applications. Deep-water risers are subjected to significant fatigue loading. Relevant fatigue data for titanium fusion welds are very scarce. Hence there is a need for fatigue data and life prediction models for such weldments. The study has covered three topics: Fatigue testing, Fractography and defect assessment, and Fracture Mechanics modelling of fatigue crack growth. Two series of welded grade of titanium consisting of 14 specimens in each series were fatigue tested under constant amplitude loading. Prior to fatigue testing, strain gauge measurements of some specimens was conducted to enable the definition of stress range in the fatigue assessment procedure. The results were compared with finite solid element analysis and related to fatigue stresses in a riser pipe wall. Distribution and geometry of internal and surface defects both in the as-welded and in the post-weld machined conditions were assessed using fractography. This served as a tool to determine the fatigue initiation point in the welds. Fracture mechanics was applied to model fatigue strength of titanium welds with initiation from weld defects. Two different stress intensity factor formulations for embedded eccentrically placed cracks were used for analysis of elliptical cracks with the major axis parallel and close to one of the free surfaces. The methods were combined to give a satisfactory model for crack growth analysis. The model analyses crack growth of elliptical and semi-elliptical cracks in two directions, with updating of the crack geometry. Fatigue strength assessment was conducted using two crack growth models, the Paris-Erdogan relation with no threshold and the Donahue et al. relation with an implied threshold. The model was validated against experimental data, with a discussion on the choice of crack growth model. (author)

  5. High-strength cellular ceramic composites with 3D microarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jens; Hengsbach, Stefan; Tesari, Iwiza; Schwaiger, Ruth; Kraft, Oliver

    2014-02-18

    To enhance the strength-to-weight ratio of a material, one may try to either improve the strength or lower the density, or both. The lightest solid materials have a density in the range of 1,000 kg/m(3); only cellular materials, such as technical foams, can reach considerably lower values. However, compared with corresponding bulk materials, their specific strength generally is significantly lower. Cellular topologies may be divided into bending- and stretching-dominated ones. Technical foams are structured randomly and behave in a bending-dominated way, which is less weight efficient, with respect to strength, than stretching-dominated behavior, such as in regular braced frameworks. Cancellous bone and other natural cellular solids have an optimized architecture. Their basic material is structured hierarchically and consists of nanometer-size elements, providing a benefit from size effects in the material strength. Designing cellular materials with a specific microarchitecture would allow one to exploit the structural advantages of stretching-dominated constructions as well as size-dependent strengthening effects. In this paper, we demonstrate that such materials may be fabricated. Applying 3D laser lithography, we produced and characterized micro-truss and -shell structures made from alumina-polymer composite. Size-dependent strengthening of alumina shells has been observed, particularly when applied with a characteristic thickness below 100 nm. The presented artificial cellular materials reach compressive strengths up to 280 MPa with densities well below 1,000 kg/m(3).

  6. Reactive Strength Index: A Poor Indicator of Reactive Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Robin; Kenny, Ian; Harrison, Drew

    2017-11-28

    The primary aim was to assess the relationships between reactive strength measures and associated kinematic and kinetic performance variables achieved during drop jumps. A secondary aim was to highlight issues with the use of reactive strength measures as performance indicators. Twenty eight national and international level sprinters, consisting of fourteen men and women, participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes performed drop jumps from a 0.3 m box onto a force platform with dependent variables contact time (CT), landing time (TLand), push-off time (TPush), flight time (FT), jump height (JH), reactive strength index (RSI, calculated as JH / CT), reactive strength ratio (RSR, calculated as FT / CT) and vertical leg spring stiffness (Kvert) recorded. Pearson's correlation test found very high to near perfect relationships between RSI and RSR (r = 0.91 to 0.97), with mixed relationships found between RSI, RSR and the key performance variables, (Men: r = -0.86 to -0.71 between RSI/RSR and CT, r = 0.80 to 0.92 between RSI/RSR and JH; Women: r = -0.85 to -0.56 between RSR and CT, r = 0.71 between RSI and JH). This study demonstrates that the method of assessing reactive strength (RSI versus RSR) may be influenced by the performance strategies adopted i.e. whether an athlete achieves their best reactive strength scores via low CTs, high JHs or a combination. Coaches are advised to limit the variability in performance strategies by implementing upper and / or lower CT thresholds to accurately compare performances between individuals.

  7. Preservation of eccentric strength in older adults: Evidence, mechanisms and implications for training and rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roig, Marc; Macintyre, Donna L; Eng, Janice J; Narici, Marco V; Maganaris, Constantinos N; Reid, W Darlene

    2010-06-01

    Overall reductions in muscle strength typically accompany the aging process. However, older adults show a relatively preserved capacity of producing eccentric strength. The preservation of eccentric strength in older adults is a well-established phenomenon, occurring indiscriminately across different muscle groups, independent of age-related architectural changes in muscle structure and velocity of movement. The mechanisms for the preservation of eccentric strength appear to be mechanical and cellular in origin and include both passive and active elements regulating muscle stiffness. The age-related accumulation of non-contractile material in the muscle-tendon unit increases passive stiffness, which might offer mechanical advantage during eccentric contractions. In addition, the preserved muscle tension and increased instantaneous stiffness of old muscle fibers during stretch increase active stiffness, which might enhance eccentric strength. The fact that the preservation of eccentric strength is present in people with chronic conditions when compared to age-matched healthy controls indicates that the aging process per se does not exclusively mediate the preservation of eccentric strength. Physical inactivity, which is common in elderly and people with chronic conditions, is a potential factor regulating the preservation of eccentric strength. When compared to concentric strength, the magnitude of preservation of eccentric strength in older adults ranges from 2% to 48% with a mean value of 21.6% from all studies. This functional reserve of eccentric strength might be clinically relevant, especially to initiate resistance training and rehabilitation programs in individuals with low levels of strength. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lifting strength in two-person teamwork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Tzu-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of lifting range, hand-to-toe distance, and lifting direction on single-person lifting strengths and two-person teamwork lifting strengths. Six healthy males and seven healthy females participated in this study. Two-person teamwork lifting strengths were examined in both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. Our results showed that lifting strength significantly decreased with increasing lifting range or hand-to-toe distance. However, lifting strengths were not affected by lifting direction. Teamwork lifting strength did not conform to the law of additivity for both strength-matched and strength-unmatched groups. In general, teamwork lifting strength was dictated by the weaker of the two members, implying that weaker members might be exposed to a higher potential danger in teamwork exertions. To avoid such overexertion in teamwork, members with significantly different strength ability should not be assigned to the same team.

  9. Chemistry of the elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenwood, N.N.; Earnshaw, A.

    1984-01-01

    This textbook presents an account of the chemistry of the elements for both undergraduate and postgraduate students. It covers not only the 'inorganic' chemistry of the elements, but also analytical, theoretical, industrial, organometallic;, bio-inorganic and other areas of chemistry which apply. The following elements of special nuclear interest are included: Rb, Cs, Fr, Sr, Ba, Ra, Po, At, Rn, Sc, Y, Zr, Hf, V, Nb, Ta, Mo, Tc, Ru, the Lanthanide Elements, the Actinide Elements. (U.K.)

  10. Strength analysis of filament-wound composite tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasović Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is focused on strength analysis of filament-wound composite tubes made of E glass/polyester under internal pressure. The primary attention of this investigation is to develop a reliable computation procedure for stress, displacement and initial failure analysis of layered composite tubes. For that purpose we have combined the finite element method (FEM with corresponding initial failure criterions. In addition, finite element analyses using commercial code, MSC/NASTRAN, were performed to predict the behavior of filament wound structures. Computation results are compared with experiments. Good agreement between computation and experimental results are obtained.

  11. Using of science technologies for mining machinery constructions' strength improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurchenko, E. V.; Mehtiev, A. D.; Yugai, V. V.; Bulatbayev, F. N.

    2015-04-01

    Recommendations for strengthening the brake construction in accident dangerous areas of fatigue destruction were developed. Computer modeling was made using the ANSYS program that helps to visualize stained condition of the construction for further practical testing of the strength and reliability improving technology of mining elevating machines' constructions, which are being in a long-term use, with a help of the strengthening elements. A way of construction strengthening, which eliminates the possibility of further fatigue destruction of the brake system elements, because of the load cycle in exploitation process.

  12. Strength and life under creeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospishil, B.

    1982-01-01

    Certain examples of the application of the Lepin modified creep model, which are of interest from technical viewpoint, are presented. Mathematical solution of the dependence of strength limit at elevated temperatures on creep characteristics is obtained. Tensile test at elevated temperatures is a particular case of creep or relaxation and both strength limit and conventional yield strength at elevated temperatures are completely determined by parameters of state equations during creep. The equation of fracture summing during creep is confirmed not only by the experiment data when stresses change sporadically, but also by good reflection of durability curve using the system of equations. The system presented on the basis of parameters of the equations obtained on any part of durability curve, permits to forecast the following parameters of creep: strain, strain rate, life time, strain in the process of fracture. Tensile test at elevated temperature is advisable as an addition when determining creep curves (time-strain curves) [ru

  13. The Strength Analysis of CFM56 Engine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhenzhen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aero engine is a kind of thermodynamic machinery, which require have strict aerodynamic load, mechanical load and strong durability, its longevity depends largely on the life of its main components. In this paper, a series of studies are carried out on the strength of fan blades of CFM56 engine, which provide a reference value for improving the reliability of the engine. The finite element model of the engine fan is established by using CATIA’s finite element software.The centrifugal stress distribution of the fan at different speeds and the influence of torque on fans under different speeds are calculated respectively, and the static strength of the fan is checked.

  14. Withdrawal Strength and Bending Yield Strength of Stainless Steel Nails

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Samuel L. Zelinka

    2015-01-01

    It has been well established that stainless steel nails have superior corrosion performance compared to carbon steel or galvanized nails in treated wood; however, their mechanical fastening behavior is unknown. In this paper, the performance of stainless steel nails is examined with respect to two important properties used in wood connection design: withdrawal strength...

  15. Microstructure and bonding strength of Ni-based alloy coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LIU Qing

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available A Ni-Cr-B-Si coating technique was developed and successfully applied on austenite grey iron substrate in a conventional resistance furnace under graphite powder protection. The microstructure, phase distribution, chemical composition profile and microhardness along the coating layer depth were investigated. Shear strength of the coating was also tested. Microanalysis shows that the coating is consist of γ-Ni solution and γ-Ni+Ni3B lamellar eutectic, as well as small amount of Cr5B3 particles. Diffusion induced metallurgical bonding occurs at the coating/substrate interfaces, and the higher the temperature, the more sufficient elements diffused, the broader interfusion region and the larger bonding strength, but it has an optimum value. And the bonding strength at the interface can be enable to reach 250-270 MPa, which is nearly the same as that of processed by flame spray. The microhardness along the coating layer depth shows a gradient distribution manner.

  16. Strength Properties of Aalborg Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Kirsten Malte; Nielsen, Benjaminn Nordahl; Augustesen, Anders Hust

    glacial time are characterised by the absence of this mussel. These deposits are named Aalborg Clay and Aalborg Sand. In the city of Aalborg, a fill layer superposes Aalborg Clay. This layer is at some places found to be 6m thick. This fill layer does not provide sufficient bearing capacity, which has...... resulted in many damaged buildings in Aalborg. To provide sufficient bearing capacity it is therefore necessary either to remove the fill or to construct the building on piles. Both methods imply that the strength of Aalborg Clay is important for the construction. This paper evaluates the strength...

  17. Topological strength of magnetic skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J.G.G.S.; Rodrigues, E.I.B.

    2017-02-01

    This work deals with magnetic structures that attain integer and half-integer skyrmion numbers. We model and solve the problem analytically, and show how the solutions appear in materials that engender distinct, very specific physical properties, and use them to describe their topological features. In particular, we found a way to model skyrmion with a large transition region correlated with the presence of a two-peak skyrmion number density. Moreover, we run into the issue concerning the topological strength of a vortex-like structure and suggest an experimental realization, important to decide how to modify and measure the topological strength of the magnetic structure.

  18. Measurements of proton strength functions and comparisons with theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, E.; Ozawa, Y.

    1986-01-01

    Using a high-resolution proton beam of the Tokyo Institute of Technology Van de Graaff, precise measurements of elastic and inelastic scattering cross sections have been performed in the past 15 years. By directly observing individual proton resonances, their spins, parities and proton decay widths were deduced. From these experiments we have evaluated (1) proton strength functions in terms of target mass number and of incident proton energy and (2) Coulomb matrix elements for split analogue resonances. (orig.)

  19. Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bull, J.W.; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.; Mascarenhas, A.; Sitas, N.; Baulcomb, C.; Lambini, C.K.; Rawlins, M.; Baral, H.; Zähringer, J.; Carter-Silk, E.; Balzan, M.V.; Kenter, J.O.; Häyhä, T.; Petz, K.; Koss, R.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an

  20. Polynomial expansions and transition strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draayer, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is statistical spectroscopy applied to determining strengths and strength sums of excitation processes in nuclei. The focus will be on a ds-shell isoscalar E2 study with detailed shell-model results providing the standard for comparison; similar results are available for isovector E2 and M1 and E4 transitions as well as for single-particle transfer and ν +- decay. The present study is intended to serve as a tutorial for applications where shell-model calculations are not feasible. The problem is posed and a schematic theory for strengths and sums is presented. The theory is extended to include the effect of correlations between H, the system Hamiltonian, and theta, the excitation operator. Associated with correlation measures is a geometry that can be used to anticipate the goodness of a symmetry. This is illustrated for pseudo SU(3) in the fp-shell. Some conclusions about fluctuations and collectivity that one can deduce from the statistical results for strengths are presented

  1. On strength of porous material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Lauge Fuglsang

    1999-01-01

    The question of non-destructive testing of porous materials has always been of interest for the engineering profession. A number of empirically based MOE-MOR relations between stiffness (Modulus Of Elasticity) and strength (Modulus OF Rupture) of materials have been established in order to control...

  2. Strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bull, Joseph William; Jobstvogt, N.; Böhnke-Henrichs, A.

    2016-01-01

    The ecosystem services concept (ES) is becoming a cornerstone of contemporary sustainability thought. Challenges with this concept and its applications are well documented, but have not yet been systematically assessed alongside strengths and external factors that influence uptake. Such an assess...

  3. Comparing strengths of beliefs explicitly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, S.; de Jongh, D.

    2013-01-01

    Inspired by a similar use in provability logic, formulas p > B q and p ≥ B q are introduced in the existing logical framework for discussing beliefs to express that the strength of belief in p is greater than (or equal to) that in q. Besides its usefulness in studying the properties of the concept

  4. Strength training for the warfighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraemer, William J; Szivak, Tunde K

    2012-07-01

    Optimizing strength training for the warfighter is challenged by past training philosophies that no longer serve the modern warfighter facing the "anaerobic battlefield." Training approaches for integration of strength with other needed physical capabilities have been shown to require a periodization model that has the flexibility for changes and is able to adapt to ever-changing circumstances affecting the quality of workouts. Additionally, sequencing of workouts to limit over-reaching and development of overtraining syndromes that end in loss of duty time and injury are paramount to long-term success. Allowing adequate time for rest and recovery and recognizing the negative influences of extreme exercise programs and excessive endurance training will be vital in moving physical training programs into a more modern perspective as used by elite strength-power anaerobic athletes in sports today. Because the warfighter is an elite athlete, it is time that training approaches that are scientifically based are updated within the military to match the functional demands of modern warfare and are given greater credence and value at the command levels. A needs analysis, development of periodized training modules, and individualization of programs are needed to optimize the strength of the modern warfighter. We now have the knowledge, professional coaches and nonprofit organization certifications with continuing education units, and modern training technology to allow this to happen. Ultimately, it only takes command decisions and implementation to make this possible.

  5. Modeling of Sylgard Adhesive Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevens, Ralph Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-03

    Sylgard is the name of a silicone elastomeric potting material manufactured by Dow Corning Corporation.1 Although the manufacturer cites its low adhesive strength as a feature of this product, thin layers of Sylgard do in fact have a non-negligible strength, which has been measured in recent tensile and shear debonding tests. The adhesive strength of thin layers of Sylgard potting material can be important in applications in which components having signi cantly di erent thermal expansion properties are potted together, and the potted assembly is subjected to temperature changes. The tensile and shear tractions developed on the potted surfaces of the components can cause signi cant internal stresses, particularly for components made of low-strength materials with a high area-to-volume ratio. This report is organized as follows: recent Sylgard debonding tests are rst brie y summarized, with particular attention to the adhesion between Sylgard and PBX 9501, and also between Sylgard and aluminum. Next, the type of numerical model that will be used to simulate the debonding behavior exhibited in these tests is described. Then the calibration of the debonding model will be illustrated. Finally, the method by which the model parameters are adjusted (scaled) to be applicable to other, non- tested bond thicknesses is summarized, and all parameters of the model (scaled and unscaled) are presented so that other investigators can reproduce all of the simulations described in this report as well as simulations of the application of interest.

  6. Data Element Registry Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...

  7. Experimental approach for adhesion strength of ATF cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Donghyun; Kim, Hyochan; Yang, Yongsik; In, Wangkee [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Haksung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The quality of a coating depends on the quality of its adhesion bond strength between the coating and the underlying substrate. Therefore, it is essential to evaluate the adhesion properties of the coating. There are many available test methods for the evaluation of coatings adhesion bond strength. Considering these restrictions of the coated cladding, the scratch test is useful for evaluation of adhesion properties compared to other methods. The purpose of the present study is to analyze the possibility of adhesion bond strength evaluation of ATF coated cladding by scratch testing on coatings cross sections. Experimental approach for adhesion strength of ATF coated cladding was investigated in the present study. The scratch testing was chosen as a testing method. Uncoated zircaloy-4 tube was employed as a reference and plasma spray and arc ion coating were selected as a ATF coated claddings for comparison. As a result, adhesion strengths of specimens affect the measured normal and tangential forces. For the future, the test will be conducted for CrAl coated cladding by laser coating, which is the most promising ATF cladding. Computational analysis with finite element method will also be conducted to analyze a stress distribution in the cladding tube.

  8. Basic Finite Element Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byeong Hae

    1992-02-01

    This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.

  9. Radiolabelled cellular blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinzinger, H.

    1990-01-01

    This book reports on radiolabelled cellular blood elements, covering new advances made during the past several years, in particular the use of Tc-99 as a tracer for blood elements. Coverage extends to several radiolabelled monoclonal antibodies that are specific for blood components and may label blood elements in vivo

  10. Rare (Earth Elements [score

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilo Méndez

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.

  11. Generalized finite elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wachspress, E.

    2009-01-01

    Triangles and rectangles are the ubiquitous elements in finite element studies. Only these elements admit polynomial basis functions. Rational functions provide a basis for elements having any number of straight and curved sides. Numerical complexities initially associated with rational bases precluded extensive use. Recent analysis has reduced these difficulties and programs have been written to illustrate effectiveness. Although incorporation in major finite element software requires considerable effort, there are advantages in some applications which warrant implementation. An outline of the basic theory and of recent innovations is presented here. (authors)

  12. Muscle Strength and Poststroke Hemiplegia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Otto H; Stenager, Egon; Dalgas, Ulrik

    2017-01-01

    undergone peer review; and (4) were available in English or Danish. DATA EXTRACTION: The psychometric properties of isokinetic dynamometry were reviewed with respect to reliability, validity, and responsiveness. Furthermore, comparisons of strength between paretic, nonparetic, and comparable healthy muscles...... isokinetic dynamometry. DATA SOURCES: A systematic literature search of 7 databases was performed. STUDY SELECTION: Included studies (1) enrolled participants with definite poststroke hemiplegia according to defined criteria; (2) assessed muscle strength or power by criterion isokinetic dynamometry; (3) had...... were reviewed. DATA SYNTHESIS: Twenty studies covering 316 PPSH were included. High intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) inter- and intrasession reliability was reported for isokinetic dynamometry, which was independent of the tested muscle group, contraction mode, and contraction velocity...

  13. Electric quadrupole strength in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirson, M.W.

    1979-01-01

    Isoscalar electric quadrupole strength distributions in nuclei are surveyed, and it is concluded that the strength is shared, in most cases, roughly equally between low-lying transitions and the giant quadrupole state. The same is not true of the isovector case. A simple extension of the schematic model gives a remarkably successul description of the data, and emphasizes the vital importance of the coupling between high-lying and low-lying quadrupole modes. The standadrd simple representation of the giant quadrupole resonance as produced by operating on the nuclear ground state with the quadrupole transition operator is not applicable to the isoscalar case. It is suggested that giant resonances fall into broad classes of similar states, with considerable qualitative differences between the distinct classes. (author)

  14. Line strengths in WN stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leep, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    The author has analyzed high-dispersion spectra of over 100 WN stars in the Galaxy and the Large Magellenic Cloud (LMC). Most of the spectra were obtained through 4-m telescopes (Conti, Leep, and Perry 1981). The measured strengths of the WN classification lines N III lambdalambda4634-41, N IV lambda4057, N V lambda4604 (Smith 1968) for stars on WN subtypes 2.5-8 are shown. The assignments of WN subtypes are based on visual estimates of ratios of line strengths according to the scheme of Smith (1968), except that stars appearing to be earlier than WN3 are classified as WN2 or WN2.5 as explained by van der Hucht et al. (1981) and by Conti, Leep and Perry (1981). (Auth.)

  15. Soil strength and forest operations

    OpenAIRE

    Beekman, F.

    1987-01-01

    The use of heavy machinery and transport vehicles is an integral part of modern forest operations. This use often causes damage to the standing trees and to the soil. In this study the effects of vehicle traffic on the soil are analysed and the possible consequences for forest management discussed. The study is largely restricted to sandy and loamy soils because of their importance for Dutch forestry.

    Soil strength, defined as the resistance of soil structure against the impa...

  16. Strength and Microstructure of Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    Forex - one particular alumina ceramic, I our own detailed crack ample, the relatively large values of r, and c* for the VI observations, and those of...particularly toughness indices, 1i71", indicating that there is sonic the c° , T parameters. However, the indentation mcth- kind of trade -o1Tbetwecn...macroscopic and microsnpic odology takes us closer to the strengths of specimens toughness levels, and that this trade -off is cont’olled by with natural

  17. Long range supergravity coupling strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenyon, I.R.

    1991-01-01

    A limit of 2x10 -13 has recently been deduced for the fractional difference between the gravitational masses of the K 0 and anti K 0 mesons. This limit is applied here to put stringent limits on the strengths of the long range vector-scalar gravitational couplings envisaged in supergravity theories. A weaker limit is inferred from the general relativistic fit to the precession of the orbit of the pulsar PSR1913+16. (orig.)

  18. Elements beyond uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaborg, G.T.; Loveland, W.D.

    1990-01-01

    This book is the 12th volume in a series on transuranium elements. Varied techniques for production of these elements, the methods used in the identification, and the exquisitely refined microchemical techniques required to deal wth samples sometimes involving only a few atoms are described in detail. The chapter on synthesis of the new elements is liberally laced with reminiscences of the proud progenitors as well as the criteria for the discovery of a new chemical element. The authors lament that the superheavy elements (elements in the region of atomic number 114) still elude detection even though their creation should be possible, and some, at least, should survive long enough to be detected. One chapter in the book is devoted to practical applictions of uranium, and the transuranic elements

  19. Random matrix theory for transition strengths: Applications and open questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, V. K. B.

    2017-12-01

    Embedded random matrix ensembles are generic models for describing statistical properties of finite isolated interacting quantum many-particle systems. A finite quantum system, induced by a transition operator, makes transitions from its states to the states of the same system or to those of another system. Examples are electromagnetic transitions (then the initial and final systems are same), nuclear beta and double beta decay (then the initial and final systems are different) and so on. Using embedded ensembles (EE), there are efforts to derive a good statistical theory for transition strengths. With m fermions (or bosons) in N mean-field single particle levels and interacting via two-body forces, we have with GOE embedding, the so called EGOE(1+2). Now, the transition strength density (transition strength multiplied by the density of states at the initial and final energies) is a convolution of the density generated by the mean-field one-body part with a bivariate spreading function due to the two-body interaction. Using the embedding U(N) algebra, it is established, for a variety of transition operators, that the spreading function, for sufficiently strong interactions, is close to a bivariate Gaussian. Also, as the interaction strength increases, the spreading function exhibits a transition from bivariate Breit-Wigner to bivariate Gaussian form. In appropriate limits, this EE theory reduces to the polynomial theory of Draayer, French and Wong on one hand and to the theory due to Flambaum and Izrailev for one-body transition operators on the other. Using spin-cutoff factors for projecting angular momentum, the theory is applied to nuclear matrix elements for neutrinoless double beta decay (NDBD). In this paper we will describe: (i) various developments in the EE theory for transition strengths; (ii) results for nuclear matrix elements for 130Te and 136Xe NDBD; (iii) important open questions in the current form of the EE theory.

  20. Recent trends in steel fibered high-strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Abid A.; Ribakov, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Recent studies on steel fibred high strength concrete (SFHSC) are reviewed. → Different design provisions for SFHSC are compared. → Applications of SFHSC in new and existing structures and elements are discussed. → Using non-destructive techniques for quality control of SFHSC are reviewed. -- Abstract: Steel fibered high-strength concrete (SFHSC) became in the recent decades a very popular material in structural engineering. High strength attracts designers and architects as it allows improving the durability as well as the esthetics of a construction. As a result of increased application of SFHSC, many experimental studies are conducted to investigate its properties and to develop new rules for proper design. One of the trends in SFHSC structures is to provide their ductile behavior that is desired for proper structural response to dynamic loadings. An additional goal is to limit development and propagation of macro-cracks in the body of SFHSC elements. SFHSC is tough and demonstrates high residual strengths after appearance of the first crack. Experimental studies were carried out to select effective fiber contents as well as suitable fiber types, to study most efficient combination of fiber and regular steel bar reinforcement. Proper selection of other materials like silica fume, fly ash and super plasticizer has also high importance because of the influence on the fresh and hardened concrete properties. Combination of normal-strength concrete with SFHSC composite two-layer beams leads to effective and low cost solutions that may be used in new structures as well as well as for retrofitting existing ones. Using modern nondestructive testing techniques like acoustic emission and nonlinear ultrasound allows verification of most design parameters and control of SFHSC properties during casting and after hardening. This paper presents recent experimental results, obtained in the field SFHSC and non-destructive testing. It reviews the

  1. A Study on the Effect of Cohesive Laws on Finite Element Analysis of Crack Propagation Using Cohesive Elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Hyeongseok; Baek, Hyungchan; Kim, Hyungyu [Seoul Nat' l Univ. of Sci. and Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    In this paper, the effect of cohesive laws on the finite element analysis of crack propagation using cohesive elements is investigated through three-point bending and double cantilever beam problems. The cohesive elements are implemented into ABAQUS/Standard user subroutines(UEL), and the shape of cohesive law is varied by changing parameters in polynomial functions of cohesive traction-separation relations. In particular, crack propagation behaviors are studied by comparing load-displacement curves of the analysis models which have different shapes of cohesive laws with the same values of fracture energy and cohesive strength. Furthermore, the influence of the element size on crack propagation is discussed in this study.

  2. Limitless Analytic Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strack, O. D. L.

    2018-02-01

    We present equations for new limitless analytic line elements. These elements possess a virtually unlimited number of degrees of freedom. We apply these new limitless analytic elements to head-specified boundaries and to problems with inhomogeneities in hydraulic conductivity. Applications of these new analytic elements to practical problems involving head-specified boundaries require the solution of a very large number of equations. To make the new elements useful in practice, an efficient iterative scheme is required. We present an improved version of the scheme presented by Bandilla et al. (2007), based on the application of Cauchy integrals. The limitless analytic elements are useful when modeling strings of elements, rivers for example, where local conditions are difficult to model, e.g., when a well is close to a river. The solution of such problems is facilitated by increasing the order of the elements to obtain a good solution. This makes it unnecessary to resort to dividing the element in question into many smaller elements to obtain a satisfactory solution.

  3. The relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L.; Han, X. X.; Ge, J.; Wang, C. H.

    2018-01-01

    To determine the relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength of pavement geopolymer grouting material, 20 groups of geopolymer grouting materials were prepared, the compressive strength and flexural strength were determined by mechanical properties test. On the basis of excluding the abnormal values through boxplot, the results show that, the compressive strength test results were normal, but there were two mild outliers in 7days flexural strength test. The compressive strength and flexural strength were linearly fitted by SPSS, six regression models were obtained by linear fitting of compressive strength and flexural strength. The linear relationship between compressive strength and flexural strength can be better expressed by the cubic curve model, and the correlation coefficient was 0.842.

  4. The solar element

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Helge

    2009-01-01

    of the nineteenth century. In the modest form of a yellow spectral line known as D3, 'helium' was sometimes supposed to exist in the Sun's atmosphere, an idea which is traditionally ascribed to J. Norman Lockyer. Did Lockyer discover helium as a solar element? How was the suggestion received by chemists, physicists...... and astronomers in the period until the spring of 1895, when William Ramsay serendipitously found the gas in uranium minerals? The hypothetical element helium was fairly well known, yet Ramsay's discovery owed little or nothing to Lockyer's solar element. Indeed, for a brief while it was thought that the two...... elements might be different. The complex story of how helium became established as both a solar and terrestrial element involves precise observations as well as airy speculations. It is a story that is unique among the discovery histories of the chemical elements....

  5. The synthetic elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.

  6. The synthetic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1990-05-01

    Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered

  7. Multifunctional Beta Ti Alloy with Improved Specific Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Hee; Hong, Jae-Keun; Lee, Sang Won; Yeom, Jong-Taek

    2017-12-01

    Gum metals feature properties such as ultrahigh strength, ultralow elastic modulus, superelasticity, and superplasticity. They are composed of elements from Groups 4 and 5 of the periodic table and exist when the valance electron concentration (\\overline{e/a}) is 4.24; the bond order (\\overline{Bo}) is 2.87; and the "d" electron-orbital energy level (\\overline{Md}) is 2.45 eV. Typical compositions include Ti-23Nb-2Zr-0.7Ta-O and Ti-12Ta-9Nb-6Zr-3 V-O, which contain large amounts of heavy Group-5 elements such as Nb and Ta. In the present study, to improve the specific strength of a multifunctional beta Ti alloy, three alloys (Ti-20Nb-5Zr-1Fe-O, Ti-12Zr-10Mo-4Nb-O, and Ti-24Zr-9Cr-3Mo-O) were designed by satisfying the above three requirements while adding Fe, Mo, and Cr, which are not only lightweight but also have strong hardening effects. Microstructural and mechanical property analyses revealed that Ti-20Nb-5Zr-1Fe-O has a 25% higher specific strength than gum metal while maintaining an ultralow elastic modulus.

  8. Fuel element loading system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arya, S.P; s.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element loading system is described which conveys a plurality of fuel rods to longitudinal passages in fuel elements. Conveyor means successively position the fuel rods above the longitudinal passages in axial alignment therewith and adapter means guide the fuel rods from the conveyor means into the longitudinal passages. The fuel elements are vibrated to cause the fuel rods to fall into the longitudinal passages through the adapter means

  9. Elements in biological AMS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, J.S.; McAninch, J.; Freeman, S.

    1996-08-01

    AMS (Accelerator Mass Spectrometry) provides high detection sensitivity for isotopes whose half-lives are between 10 years and 100 million years. 14 C is the most developed of such isotopes and is used in tracing natural and anthropogenic organic compounds in the Earth's biosphere. Thirty-three elements in the main periodic table and 17 lanthanides or actinides have long lived isotopes, providing potential tracers for research in elemental biochemistry. Overlap of biologically interesting heavy elements and possible AMS tracers is discussed

  10. Analogs for transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weimer, W.C.; Laul, J.C.; Kutt, J.C.

    1981-01-01

    A combined theoretical and experimental approach is being used to estimate the long-term environmental and biogeochemical behaviors of selected transuranic elements. The objective of this research is to estimate the effect that long-term (hundreds of years) environmental weathering has on the behavior of the transuranic elements americium and curium. This is achieved by investigating the actual behavior of naturally occurring rare earth elements, especially neodymium, that serve as transuranic analogs. Determination of the analog element behavior provides data that can be used to estimate the ultimate availability to man of transuranic materials released into the environment

  11. Chemistry of superheavy elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaedel, M.

    2012-01-01

    The chemistry of superheavy elements - or transactinides from their position in the Periodic Table - is summarized. After giving an overview over historical developments, nuclear aspects about synthesis of neutron-rich isotopes of these elements, produced in hot-fusion reactions, and their nuclear decay properties are briefly mentioned. Specific requirements to cope with the one-atom-at-a-time situation in automated chemical separations and recent developments in aqueous-phase and gas-phase chemistry are presented. Exciting, current developments, first applications, and future prospects of chemical separations behind physical recoil separators ('pre-separator') are discussed in detail. The status of our current knowledge about the chemistry of rutherfordium (Rf, element 104), dubnium (Db, element 105), seaborgium (Sg, element 106), bohrium (Bh, element 107), hassium (Hs, element 108), copernicium (Cn, element 112), and element 114 is discussed from an experimental point of view. Recent results are emphasized and compared with empirical extrapolations and with fully-relativistic theoretical calculations, especially also under the aspect of the architecture of the Periodic Table. (orig.)

  12. Face compression yield strength of the copper-Inconel composite specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horie, T.

    1987-05-01

    A new equation for the face compression yield strength of copper-Inconel composite material has been derived. Elastic-plastic finite element analyses were also made for composite specimens with various aspect ratios to examine the edge effect of the specimen. According to the results of both the new equation and the analyses, the face compression yield strength of the composite should be decreased by about 25% from the value obtained with Becker's equation

  13. The Influence of Wagon Structure Part Shape Optimization on Ultimate Fatigue Strength

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović, Vladimir; Živković, Miroslav; Jovičić, Gordana; Živković, Jelena; Kozak, Dražan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates how shape optimisation affects the ultimate fatigue strength of a mechanical part. The mechanical part chosen for this investigation is an axle guard of running gear elements of the Hccrrs 2x2 axle car-carrying wagon. The static and fatigue strength analysis procedure according to the UIC 517 standard and numerical methods have been applied. Material properties were determined experimentally and the necessary numerical calculations were performed by using the finite el...

  14. Consequences of fine structure of β-strength function in the nuclear physics and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor, H.V.; Wene, C.O.

    1980-01-01

    The consequences of structural effects in the β-strength function Ssub(β) in different fields of nuclear physics and astrophysics are considered. The given structure is shown to affect essentially the lifetimes relative to β-decay, emission of delayed particles, delayed fission and, consequently, all the calculations of synthesis of heavy and superheavy elements in astrophysical and thermonuclear processes. A table of experimental procedures applied for studying the β-strength function in different reactions is given

  15. Connections in Precast Buildings using Ultra High-Strength Fibre Reinforced Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Pilegaard

    1995-01-01

    Ultra high-strength concrete adds new dimensions to the design of concrete structures. It is a brittle material but introducing fibres into the matrix changes the material into a highly ductile material. Furthermore, the fibre reinforcement increases the anchorage of traditional reinforcement bar...... and the fire resistance. Such a fibre reinforced ultra high-strength material has been used to develop a simple joint solution between slab elements in a column - slab building system....

  16. Strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jusoh, M. A.; Abdullah, S. R.; Adnan, S. H.

    2018-04-01

    The main focus in this investigation is to determine the strength consist compressive and tensile strength of mortar containing rubber tire particle. In fact, from the previous study, the strength of mortar containing waste rubber tire in mortar has a slightly decreases compare to normal mortar. In this study, rubber tire particle was replacing on volume of fine aggregate with 6%. 9% and 12%. The sample were indicated M0 (0%), M6 (6%), M9 (9%) and M12 (12%). In this study, two different size of sample used with cube 100mm x 100mm x 100mm for compressive strength and 40mm x 40mm x 160mm for flexural strength. Morphology test was conducted by using Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) were done after testing compressive strength test. The concrete sample were cured for day 3, 7 and 28 before testing. Results compressive strength and flexural strength of rubber mortar shown improved compare to normal mortar.

  17. optimizing compressive strength characteristics of hollow building

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Keywords: hollow building Blocks, granite dust, sand, partial replacement, compressive strength. 1. INTRODUCTION ... exposed to extreme climate. The physical ... Sridharan et al [13] conducted shear strength studies on soil-quarry dust.

  18. Elastic buckling strength of corroded steel plates

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    structural safety assessment of corroded structures, residual strength should be ... Rahbar-Ranji (2001) has proposed a spectrum for random simulation of ... The main aim of the present work is to investigate the buckling strength of simply ...

  19. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Ionic Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduction to the ionic strength module, when to list ionic strength as a candidate cause, ways to measure ionic strength, simple and detailed conceptual diagrams for ionic strength, ionic strength module references and literature reviews.

  20. Volatile and light lithophile elements in high-anorthite plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neave, David A.; Hartley, Margaret E.; Maclennan, John; Edmonds, Marie; Thordarson, Thorvaldur

    2017-05-01

    Melt inclusions formed during the early stages of magmatic evolution trap primitive melt compositions and enable the volatile contents of primary melts and the mantle to be estimated. However, the syn- and post-entrapment behaviour of volatiles in primitive high-anorthite plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions from oceanic basalts remains poorly constrained. To address this deficit, we present volatile and light lithophile element analyses from a well-characterised suite of nine matrix glasses and 102 melt inclusions from the 10 ka Grímsvötn tephra series (i.e., Saksunarvatn ash) of Iceland's Eastern Volcanic Zone (EVZ). High matrix glass H2O and S contents indicate that eruption-related exsolution was arrested by quenching in a phreatomagmatic setting; Li, B, F and Cl did not exsolve during eruption. The almost uniformly low CO2 content of plagioclase-hosted melt inclusions cannot be explained by either shallow entrapment or the sequestration of CO2 into shrinkage bubbles, suggesting that inclusion CO2 contents were controlled by decrepitation instead. High H2O/Ce values in primitive plagioclase-hosted inclusions (182-823) generally exceed values expected for EVZ primary melts (∼ 180), and can be accounted for by diffusive H2O gain following the entrainment of primitive macrocrysts into evolved and H2O-rich melts a few days before eruption. A strong positive correlation between H2O and Li in plagioclase-hosted inclusions suggests that diffusive Li gain may also have occurred. Extreme F enrichments in primitive plagioclase-hosted inclusions (F/Nd = 51-216 versus ∼15 in matrix glasses) possibly reflect the entrapment of inclusions from high-Al/(Al + Si) melt pools formed by dissolution-crystallisation processes (as indicated by HFSE depletions in some inclusions), and into which F was concentrated by uphill diffusion since F is highly soluble in Al-rich melts. The high S/Dy of primitive inclusions (∼300) indicates that primary melts were S-rich in comparison

  1. Research of compression strength of fissured rock mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    А. Г. Протосеня

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article examines a method of forecasting strength properties and their scale effect in fissured rock mass using computational modelling with final elements method in ABAQUS software. It shows advantages of this approach for solving tasks of determining mechanical properties of fissured rock mass, main stages of creating computational geomechanic model of rock mass and conducting a numerical experiment. The article presents connections between deformation during loading of numerical model, inclination angle of main fracture system from uniaxial and biaxial compression strength value, size of the sample of fissured rock mass and biaxial compression strength value under conditions of apatite-nepheline rock deposit at Plateau Rasvumchorr OAO «Apatit» in Kirovsky region of Murmanskaya oblast. We have conducted computational modelling of rock mass blocks testing in discontinuities based on real experiment using non-linear shear strength criterion of Barton – Bandis and compared results of computational experiments with data from field studies and laboratory tests. The calculation results have a high-quality match to laboratory results when testing fissured rock mass samples.

  2. NEW HIGH STRENGTH AND FASTER DRILLING TSP DIAMOND CUTTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Radtke

    2006-01-31

    The manufacture of thermally stable diamond (TSP) cutters for drill bits used in petroleum drilling requires the brazing of two dissimilar materials--TSP diamond and tungsten carbide. The ENDURUS{trademark} thermally stable diamond cutter developed by Technology International, Inc. exhibits (1) high attachment (shear) strength, exceeding 345 MPa (50,000 psi), (2) TSP diamond impact strength increased by 36%, (3) prevents TSP fracture when drilling hard rock, and (4) maintains a sharp edge when drilling hard and abrasive rock. A novel microwave brazing (MWB) method for joining dissimilar materials has been developed. A conventional braze filler metal is combined with microwave heating which minimizes thermal residual stress between materials with dissimilar coefficients of thermal expansion. The process results in preferential heating of the lower thermal expansion diamond material, thus providing the ability to match the thermal expansion of the dissimilar material pair. Methods for brazing with both conventional and exothermic braze filler metals have been developed. Finite element modeling (FEM) assisted in the fabrication of TSP cutters controllable thermal residual stress and high shear attachment strength. Further, a unique cutter design for absorbing shock, the densification of otherwise porous TSP diamond for increased mechanical strength, and diamond ion implantation for increased diamond fracture resistance resulted in successful drill bit tests.

  3. Effect of plastic strain on fracture strength of cracked components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2009-01-01

    Nuclear power plant components are occasionally subjected to large load by earthquake and may suffer plastic strain. Although the plastic strain induced in materials increases the strength, it may reduce the fracture toughness due to a crack in the components. In this study, the effect of the plastic strain on strength of cracked components was investigated. Firstly, the change in the tensile properties and fracture toughness due to plastic strain were examined for Type 316 stainless steel and carbon steel (SM490). The degree of nominal plastic strain was 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% (only for stainless steel). Secondly, the J-integral values of surface crack on a pipe were evaluated by finite element analyses. Finally, the critical load for fracture of the cracked pipe was evaluated for various pipe and crack geometries using the J-integral values and the fracture toughness obtained. It was concluded that the plastic strain enhances the fracture strength of the cracked components when the induced plastic strain is less than 10%, although the extremely large plastic strain could reduce the strength. (author)

  4. Sensitivity study of buckling strength for cylindrical shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Hideo; Sasaki, Toru [Institute of Nuclear Safety System Inc., Mihama, Fukui (Japan)

    2001-09-01

    Aiming at making clear buckling behavior of cylindrical shells under earthquake loadings, we investigated procedure of recent elastic-plastic buckling analysis by finite element method (FEM). Thereby it is confirmed that the buckling strength becomes as well as that of a shell with a cross section of a perfect cylinder, if we apply the first buckling eigenvector to imperfection mode and assume the maximum imperfection amplitude to be 1% of the wall thickness. And then, by carrying out sensitivity study of buckling with geometrical parameters, such as length (L), radius (R), wall thickness (t), and load parameter, such as pressure, we obtained several characteristics about buckling strength and buckling mode for cylindrical shells. From the geometrical parameter analysis, it is seen that bending buckling occurs for small R/t (thick wall) and elastic buckling occurs for 2{<=}L/R{<=}4 and R/t{>=}400. And from the load parameter analysis, it is shown that hoop stress caused by the inner pressure increases shear buckling strength but decreases bending buckling strength, and hoop stress by hydrostatic pressure changes buckling mode and generates local deformation. (author)

  5. High strength tungsten heavy alloys with molybdenum additions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bose, A.; Sims, D.M.; German, R.M.

    1987-01-01

    Tungsten heavy alloys are candidates for numerous applications based on the unique combination of high density, high strength, and high ductility coupled with excellent machinability. Though there has been considerable research on heavy alloys, the primary focus has been on the ductility. These alloys are well suited for ballistic uses due to their high densities and it is expected that for superior ballistic performance, a high hardness, high strength and moderate ductility alloy would be ideal. The major goal of this investigation was to obtain heavy alloys with hardness greater than HRA 72. It is evident from the phase diagrams that molybdenum, which goes into solution in tungsten, nickel and iron, could act as a potential strengthening addition. With this in view, tungsten heavy alloys with molybdenum additions were fabricated from mixed elemental powders. A baseline composition of 90W-7Ni-3Fe was chosen to its good elongation and moderate strength. The molybdenum additions were made by replacing the tungsten. Compared to the baseline properties with no molybdenum addition, the strength and hardness showed a continuous increase with molybdenum addition. The ductility of the alloy continued to decrease with increasing molybdenum content, but even with 16% wt. % molybdenum of the elongation was still around 6%. An interesting facet of these alloying additions is the grain refinement that is brought about by adding to molybdenum to the system. The grain refinement is related to the lower solubility of tunbsten in the matrix due to partial displacement by molybdenum

  6. Effect of plastic strain on fracture strength of cracked components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaya, Masayuki

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear power plant components are occasionally subjected to excessive load by earthquake and may suffer plastic strain. Although the plastic strain introduced in materials increases the strength, it may reduce the fracture toughness. In this study, the effect of the plastic strain on strength of cracked components was investigated. Firstly, the change in the tensile properties and fracture toughness due to plastic strain were examined for Type 316 stainless steel and carbon steel (SM 490). The degree of nominal plastic strain was 5%, 10%, 20% and 40% (only for stainless steel). Secondly, the J-integral values of surface crack on a pipe were evaluated by finite element analyses. Finally, the critical load for fracture of the cracked pipe was evaluated for various pipe and crack geometries using the J-integral values and the fracture toughness obtained. It was concluded that the plastic strain enhances the fracture strength of the cracked components when the induced plastic strain is less than 10%, although the extremely large plastic strain could reduce the strength. (author)

  7. Determination of giant resonance strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serr, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Using theoretical strength functions to describe the different giant resonances expected at excitation energies of the order of (60-85)/Asup(1/3) MeV, we calculate the double differential cross sections d 2 sigma/dΩ dE associated with the reactions 208 Pb(α, α') and 90 Zr(α, α') (Esub(α) = 152 MeV). The angular distributions for the giant quadrupole and giant monopole resonances obtained from fits to these spectra, making simple, commonly used assumptions for the peak shapes and background, are compared to the original angular distributions. The differences between them are an indication of some of the uncertainties affecting the giant resonance strengths extracted from hadron inelastic scattering data. Fits to limited angular regions lead to errors of up to 50% in the value of the energy-weighted sum rule, depending on the angles examined. While it seems possible to extract the correct EWSR for the GMR by carrying out the analyses at 0 0 , no single privileged angle seems to exist in the case of the GQR. (orig.)

  8. High strength fused silica flexures manufactured by femtosecond laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellouard, Yves; Said, Ali A.; Dugan, Mark; Bado, Philippe

    2009-02-01

    Flexures are mechanical elements used in micro- and precision-engineering to precisely guide the motion of micro-parts. They consist of slender bodies that deform elastically upon the application of a force. Although counter-intuitive at first, fused silica is an attractive material for flexure. Pending that the machining process does not introduce surface flaws that would lead to catastrophic failure, the material has a theoretically high ultimate tensile strength of several GPa. We report on high-aspect ratio fused silica flexures manufactured by femtosecond laser combined with chemical etching. Notch-hinges with thickness as small as twenty microns and aspect ratios comparable to aspect ratios obtained by Deep- Reactive-Ion-Etching (DRIE) were fabricated and tested under different loading conditions. Multiple fracture tests were performed for various loading conditions and the cracks morphologies were analyzed using Scanning Electron Microscopy. The manufactured elements show outstanding mechanical properties with flexural strengths largely exceeding those obtained with other technologies and materials. Fused silica flexures offer a mean to combine integrated optics with micro-mechanics in a single monolithic substrate. Waveguides and mechanical elements can be combined in a monolithic devices opening new opportunities for integrated opto-mechatronics devices.

  9. Strengths and Satisfaction across the Adult Lifespan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacowitz, Derek M.; Vaillant, George E.; Seligman, Martin E. P.

    2003-01-01

    Positive psychology has recently developed a classification of human strengths (Peterson & Seligman, in press). We aimed to evaluate these strengths by investigating the strengths and life satisfaction in three adult samples recruited from the community (young adult, middle-aged, and older adult), as well as in the surviving men of the Grant study…

  10. Relationship between the edgewise compression strength of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results of this study were used to determine the linear regression constants in the Maltenfort model by correlating the measured board edgewise compression strength (ECT) with the predicted strength, using the paper components' compression strengths, measured with the short-span compression test (SCT) and the ...

  11. Strength of Ship Plates under Combined Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, W.; Wang, Y.; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2002-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role in the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified analytical methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjec...

  12. Strength of ship plates under combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cui, Weiching; Wang, Yongjun; Pedersen, Preben Terndrup

    2000-01-01

    Strength of ship plates plays a significant role for the ultimate strength analysis of ship structures. In recent years several authors have proposed simplified methods to calculate the ultimate strength of unstiffened plates. The majority of these investigations deal with plates subjected to lon...

  13. Seagrass leaf element content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vonk, J.A.; Smulders, Fee O.H.; Christianen, Marjolijn J.A.; Govers, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge on the role of seagrass leaf elements and in particular micronutrients and their ranges is limited. We present a global database, consisting of 1126 unique leaf values for ten elements, obtained from literature and unpublished data, spanning 25 different seagrass species from 28 countries.

  14. Berkeley new element program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghiorso, A.

    1975-09-01

    The work done with element 106 is reviewed, and a new experiment which bears on the properties of the isotope of mass 260 with atomic number 104 is discussed. It is noted that in the case of element 106 a link is demonstrated to the granddaughter as well as the daughter

  15. Elemental Food for Thought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cady, Susan

    2005-01-01

    One of the first tasks students learn in chemistry is to pronounce and spell the names of elements and learn their corresponding chemical symbols. Repetitive oral recitation is commonly used to learn this information, but games and puzzles can make this task creative, variable, and fun. Elemental Food for Thought is a puzzlelike activity that…

  16. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mogard, J.H.

    1977-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is disclosed for use in power producing nuclear reactors, comprising a plurality of axially aligned ceramic cylindrical fuel bodies of the sintered type, and a cladding tube of metal or metal alloys, wherein said cladding tube on its cylindrical inner surface is provided with a plurality of slightly protruding spacing elements distributed over said inner surface

  17. Proceedings of transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    The identification of the first synthetic elements was established by chemical evidence. Conclusive proof of the synthesis of the first artificial element, technetium, was published in 1937 by Perrier and Segre. An essential aspect of their achievement was the prediction of the chemical properties of element 43, which had been missing from the periodic table and which was expected to have properties similar to those of manganese and rhenium. The discovery of other artificial elements, astatine and francium, was facilitated in 1939-1940 by the prediction of their chemical properties. A little more than 50 years ago, in the spring of 1940, Edwin McMillan and Philip Abelson synthesized element 93, neptunium, and confirmed its uniqueness by chemical means. On August 30, 1940, Glenn Seaborg, Arthur Wahl, and the late Joseph Kennedy began their neutron irradiations of uranium nitrate hexahydrate. A few months later they synthesized element 94, later named plutonium, by observing the alpha particles emitted from uranium oxide targets that had been bombarded with deuterons. Shortly thereafter they proved that is was the second transuranium element by establishing its unique oxidation-reduction behavior. The symposium honored the scientists and engineers whose vision and dedication led to the discovery of the transuranium elements and to the understanding of the influence of 5f electrons on their electronic structure and bonding. This volume represents a record of papers presented at the symposium

  18. Beam Test for Evaluating Applicabillity of High - Strength Reinforcement in Structure of Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yim, Sangjun; Lee, Byungsoo; Bang, Changjoon

    2014-01-01

    The high-strength rebar which has high yield strength can reduce the amount of rebar in concrete and widen its spacing so that it has better workability and higher economic benefits for the structure. However, the maximum yield strength of rebar is limited to 420MPa in the design criteria for structure of nuclear facility in Korea and USA. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power is progressing research to revise the limitation in the yield strength of rebar, which is suggested in the criteria of KEPIC and ACI, in order to apply 550 MPa high-strength rebar for the construction of a nuclear facility. This study is to review the applicability of high strength rebar in structure of a nuclear facility through a model beam test. After reviewing the shear capacity and reinforcement yield to assess the applicability of high-strength reinforcement in the structure of a nuclear facility, we make the following conclusions. When using high shear reinforcement with wider spacing, it has a similar shear capacity to normal reinforcement with narrower spacing. This means better workability and economic benefits can be achieved by widening the rebar spacing without brittle fracture in the elements. For future plans, the results of this test and supplementary test will be submitted to ACI349 committee as backup data to revise the standard for yield strength of high-strength rebar

  19. Beam Test for Evaluating Applicabillity of High - Strength Reinforcement in Structure of Nuclear Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yim, Sangjun; Lee, Byungsoo; Bang, Changjoon [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    The high-strength rebar which has high yield strength can reduce the amount of rebar in concrete and widen its spacing so that it has better workability and higher economic benefits for the structure. However, the maximum yield strength of rebar is limited to 420MPa in the design criteria for structure of nuclear facility in Korea and USA. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power is progressing research to revise the limitation in the yield strength of rebar, which is suggested in the criteria of KEPIC and ACI, in order to apply 550 MPa high-strength rebar for the construction of a nuclear facility. This study is to review the applicability of high strength rebar in structure of a nuclear facility through a model beam test. After reviewing the shear capacity and reinforcement yield to assess the applicability of high-strength reinforcement in the structure of a nuclear facility, we make the following conclusions. When using high shear reinforcement with wider spacing, it has a similar shear capacity to normal reinforcement with narrower spacing. This means better workability and economic benefits can be achieved by widening the rebar spacing without brittle fracture in the elements. For future plans, the results of this test and supplementary test will be submitted to ACI349 committee as backup data to revise the standard for yield strength of high-strength rebar.

  20. Bone strength and material properties of the glenoid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frich, Lars Henrik; Jensen, N.C.; Odgaard, A.

    1997-01-01

    of bone specimens harvested from the central part of the glenoid subchondral area. The elastic modulus varied from approximately 100 MPa at the glenoid bare area to 400 MPa at the superior part of the glenoid. With the elastic constants used a predictor of the mechanical anisotropy, the average anisotropy...... ratio was 5.2, indicating strong anisotropy. The apparent density was an average 0.35 gr. cm-3, and the Poisson ratio averaged 0.263. According to our findings the anisotropy of the glenoid cancellous bone, details concerning the strength distribution, and the load-bearing function of the cortical shell......The quality of the glenoid bone is important to a successful total shoulder replacement. Finite element models have been used to model the response of the glenoid bone to an implanted prosthesis. Because very little is known about the bone strength and the material properties at the glenoid...

  1. Hydrolysis, formation and ionization constants at 250C, and at high temperature-high ionic strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, S.L.; Phillips, C.A.; Skeen, J.

    1985-02-01

    Thermochemical data for nuclear waste disposal are compiled. The resulting computerized database consists of critically evaluated data on Gibbs energy of formation, enthalpy of formation, entropy and heat capacity of selected substances for about 16 elements at 25 0 C and zero ionic strength. Elements covered are Am, As, Br, C, Cl, F, I, Mo, Np, N, O, P, Pu, Si, Sr, S, and U. Values of these thermodynamic properties were used to calculate equilibrium quotients for hydrolysis, complexation and ionization reactions up to 300 0 C and 3 ionic strength, for selected chemical reactions

  2. Failure analysis of high strength pipeline with single and multiple corrosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanfei; Zhang, Hong; Zhang, Juan; Li, Xin; Zhou, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study failure of high strength pipelines with single corrosion. • We give regression equations for failure pressure prediction. • We propose assessment procedure for pipelines with multiple corrosions. - Abstract: Corrosion will compromise safety operation of oil and gas pipelines, accurate determination of failure pressure finds importance in residual strength assessment and corrosion allowance design of onshore and offshore pipelines. This paper investigates failure pressure of high strength pipeline with single and multiple corrosions using nonlinear finite element analysis. On the basis of developed regression equations for failure pressure prediction of high strength pipeline with single corrosion, the paper proposes an assessment procedure for predicting failure pressure of high strength pipeline with multiple corrosions. Furthermore, failure pressures predicted by proposed solutions are compared with experimental results and various assessment methods available in literature, where accuracy and versatility are demonstrated

  3. In vitro/in silico investigation of failure criteria to predict flexural strength of composite resins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Mehdawi, Idris Mohamed; Sakai, Takahiko; Abe, Tomohiro; Inoue, Sayuri; Imazato, Satoshi

    2018-01-30

    The aim of this study was to investigate a failure criterion to predict flexural strengths of composite resins (CR) by three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA). Models of flexural strength for test specimens of CR and rods comprising a three-point loading were designed. Calculation of Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios of CR were conducted using a modified McGee-McCullough model. Using the experimental CR, flexural strengths were measured by three-point bending tests with crosshead speed 1.0 mm/min and compared with the values determined by in silico analysis. The flexural strengths of experimental CR calculated using the maximum principal strain significantly correlated with those obtained in silico amongst the four types of failure criteria applied. The in silico analytical model established in this study was found to be effective to predict the flexural strengths of CR incorporating various silica filler contents by maximum principal strain.

  4. Correlation among electronegativity, cation polarizability, optical basicity and single bond strength of simple oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimitrov, Vesselin, E-mail: vesselin@uctm.edu [Department of Silicate Technology, University of Chemical Technology and Metallurgy, 8, Kl. Ohridski Blvd., Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Komatsu, Takayuki, E-mail: komatsu@mst.nagaokaut.ac.jp [Department of Materials Science and Technology, Nagaoka University of Technology, 1603-1 Kamitomioka-cho, Nagaoka 940-2188 (Japan)

    2012-12-15

    A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements in different valence states and with the most common coordination numbers has been searched on the basis of the similarity in physical nature of both quantities. In general, the cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. A systematic periodic change in the polarizability against the electronegativity has been observed in the isoelectronic series. It has been found that generally the optical basicity increases and the single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. The observed trends have been discussed on the basis of electron donation ability of the oxide ions and type of chemical bonding in simple oxides. - Graphical abstract: This figure shows the single bond strength of simple oxides as a function of element electronegativity. A remarkable correlation exists between these independently obtained quantities. High values of electronegativity correspond to high values of single bond strength and vice versa. It is obvious that the observed trend in this figure is closely related to the type of chemical bonding in corresponding oxide. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A suitable relationship between free-cation polarizability and electronegativity of elements was searched. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The cation polarizability increases with decreasing element electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The single bond strength of simple oxides decreases with decreasing the electronegativity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The observed trends were discussed on the basis of type of chemical bonding in simple oxides.

  5. Degradation of the compressive strength of unstiffened/stiffened steel plates due to both-sides randomly distributed corrosion wastage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorareh Hadj Mohammad

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the problem of the influence of randomly distributed corrosion wastage on the collapse strength and behaviour of unstiffened/stiffened steel plates in longitudinal compression. A series of elastic-plastic large deflection finite element analyses is performed on both-sides randomly corroded steel plates and stiffened plates. The effects of general corrosion are introduced into the finite element models using a novel random thickness surface model. Buckling strength, post-buckling behaviour, ultimate strength and post-ultimate behaviour of the models are investigated as results of both-sides random corrosion.

  6. High-strength beryllium block

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, N.P.; Keith, G.H.

    1977-01-01

    Beryllium billets hot isopressed using fine powder of high purity have exceptionally attractive properties; average tensile ultimate, 0.2% offset yield strength and elongation are 590 MPa, 430 MPa and 4.0% respectively. Properties are attributed to the fine grain size (about 4.0 μm average diameter) and the relatively low levels of BeO present as fine, well-dispersed particles. Dynamic properties, e.g., fracture toughness, are similar to those of standard grade, high-purity beryllium. The modulus of beryllium is retained to very high stress levels, and the microyield stress or precision elastic limit is higher than for other grades, including instrument grades. Limited data for billets made from normal-purity fine powders show similar room temperature properties. (author)

  7. Swimbladder on Fish Target Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunardi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses of target strength (TS for the Selar boops (Oxeye scad and Megalaspis cordyla (Torpedo scad, the most commercially fish in Malaysia. TS can be determined from in situ measurements and acoustic calculation of fish model. TS value, depth, and position (x-y-z of targeted fish can be viewed from echogram using FQ-80 Analyzer by in situ measurement. X-ray imaged can be deployed to develop the acoustic fish model. The percentage of length and upper surface area for swimbladder to body fish of Selar boops more than Megalaspis cordyla can be measured after X-ray process. The percentage of width and volume of swimbladders to its each body are no significantly difference for both fish. These data of swimbladder physic support the result of in situ measurement which TS of Megalaspis cordyla stronger Selar boops.

  8. Finite element study of a HDR-RPV-section including a nozzle under thermal shock transient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany); Katzenmeier, G [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Wanner, R; Mercier, O [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1988-12-31

    This document presents a finite element study of a reactor pressure vessel section under thermal stresses. The strength properties of the vessel walls are studied as well as cracks due to the thermo-shock transient. (TEC). 6 refs.

  9. Preparation, mechanical strengths, and thermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, A.; Furukawa, S.; Hagiwara, M.; Masumoto, T.

    1987-05-01

    Ni-based amorphous wires with good bending ductility have been prepared for Ni75Si8B17 and Ni78P12B10 alloys containing 1 to 2 at. pct Al or Zr by melt spinning in rotating water. The enhancement of the wire-formation tendency by the addition of Al has been clarified to be due to the increase in the stability of the melt jet through the formation of a thin A12O3 film on the outer surface. The maximum wire diameter is about 190 to 200 μm for the Ni-Si (or P)-B-Al alloys and increases to about 250 μm for the Ni-Si-B-Al-Cr alloys containing 4 to 6 at. pct Cr. The tensile fracture strength and fracture elongation are 2730 MPa and 2.9 pct for (Ni0.75Si0.08B0.17 99Al1) wire and 2170 MPa and 2.4 pct for (Ni0.78P0.12B0.1)99Al1 wire. These wires exhibit a fatigue limit under dynamic bending strain in air with a relative humidity of 65 pct; this limit is 0.50 pct for a Ni-Si-B-Al wire, which is higher by 0.15 pct than that of a Fe75Si10B15 amorphous wire. Furthermore, the Ni-base wires do not fracture during a 180-deg bending even for a sample annealed at temperatures just below the crystallization temperature, in sharp contrast to high embrittlement tendency for Fe-base amorphous alloys. Thus, the Ni-based amorphous wires have been shown to be an attractive material similar to Fe- and Co-based amorphous wires because of its high static and dynamic strength, high ductility, high stability to thermal embrittlement, and good corrosion resistance.

  10. Association Between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength Among Breast Cancer Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin H; Brown, Justin C; Gater, David R; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2017-02-01

    To characterize the relationship between 1-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength among breast cancer survivors. Cross-sectional study. Laboratory. Community-dwelling breast cancer survivors (N=295). Not applicable. 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer, with 3 maximal contractions of the left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Among 295 breast cancer survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1kg (range, 2.2-43.0kg), and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8kg (range, 9.0-43.0kg). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7kg (95% limits of agreement, -8.2 to 17.6kg). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=.31; Pstrength (R 2 =.23). Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer survivors. 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Reference Values of Grip Strength, Prevalence of Low Grip Strength, and Factors Affecting Grip Strength Values in Chinese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ruby; Ong, Sherlin; Cheung, Osbert; Leung, Jason; Woo, Jean

    2017-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to update the reference values of grip strength, to estimate the prevalence of low grip strength, and to examine the impact of different aspects of measurement protocol on grip strength values in Chinese adults. A cross-sectional survey of Chinese men (n = 714) and women (n = 4014) aged 18-102 years was undertaken in different community settings in Hong Kong. Grip strength was measured with a digital dynamometer (TKK 5401 Grip-D; Takei, Niigata, Japan). Low grip strength was defined as grip strength 2 standard deviations or more below the mean for young adults. The effects of measurement protocol on grip strength values were examined in a subsample of 45 men and women with repeated measures of grip strength taken with a hydraulic dynamometer (Baseline; Fabrication Enterprises Inc, Irvington, NY), using pair t-tests, intraclass correlation coefficient, and Bland and Altman plots. Grip strength was greater among men than among women (P values than the Baseline hydraulic dynamometer (P values were also observed when the measurement was performed with the elbow extended in a standing position, compared with that with the elbow flexed at 90° in a sitting position, using the same dynamometer (P values of grip strength and estimated the prevalence of low grip strength among Chinese adults spanning a wide age range. These findings might be useful for risk estimation and evaluation of interventions. However, grip strength measurements should be interpreted with caution, as grip strength values can be affected by type of dynamometer used, assessment posture, and elbow position. Copyright © 2017 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Nuclear-burst strength detecting and measuring device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balut, J.A.L.G.; Lemaire, P.E.G.K.; Loisy, C.M.

    1976-01-01

    A continuous-operation automatic device is described for detection and accurate measurement of the strength of a burst generating an emission from luminous or infrared sources. This device characterizes and analyzes the maxima and minima of a ''thermal flux/time'' curve. The device comprises a master time element and an assembly of photoelectric detectors, an electronic processing system coupled to the detectors, and a mechanical system securing the rigidity and positioning of the photoelectric detector assembly with respect to an octahedral prism based on a horizontal plane

  13. The Importance of Muscular Strength: Training Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchomel, Timothy J; Nimphius, Sophia; Bellon, Christopher R; Stone, Michael H

    2018-04-01

    This review covers underlying physiological characteristics and training considerations that may affect muscular strength including improving maximal force expression and time-limited force expression. Strength is underpinned by a combination of morphological and neural factors including muscle cross-sectional area and architecture, musculotendinous stiffness, motor unit recruitment, rate coding, motor unit synchronization, and neuromuscular inhibition. Although single- and multi-targeted block periodization models may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, concepts within each model must be considered within the limitations of the sport, athletes, and schedules. Bilateral training, eccentric training and accentuated eccentric loading, and variable resistance training may produce the greatest comprehensive strength adaptations. Bodyweight exercise, isolation exercises, plyometric exercise, unilateral exercise, and kettlebell training may be limited in their potential to improve maximal strength but are still relevant to strength development by challenging time-limited force expression and differentially challenging motor demands. Training to failure may not be necessary to improve maximum muscular strength and is likely not necessary for maximum gains in strength. Indeed, programming that combines heavy and light loads may improve strength and underpin other strength-power characteristics. Multiple sets appear to produce superior training benefits compared to single sets; however, an athlete's training status and the dose-response relationship must be considered. While 2- to 5-min interset rest intervals may produce the greatest strength-power benefits, rest interval length may vary based an athlete's training age, fiber type, and genetics. Weaker athletes should focus on developing strength before emphasizing power-type training. Stronger athletes may begin to emphasize power-type training while maintaining/improving their strength. Future research should

  14. Discovery of element 112

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofmann, S. [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany)

    1996-12-31

    The new elements 110, 111, and 112 were synthesized and unambiguously identified in experiments at SHIP. Due to strong shell effects the dominant decay mode is not fission, but emission of alpha particles. Theoretical investigations predict that maximum shell effects should exist in nuclei near proton number 114 and neutron number 184. Measurements give hope that isotopes of element 114 close to the island of spherical Superheavy Elements could be produced by fusion reactions using {sup 118}Pb as target. systematic studies of the reaction cross-sections indicate that transfer of nucleons is the important process to initiate the fusion.

  15. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, L.N.; Levin, H.A.

    1975-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an alloy having the essential components of nickel, titanium and zirconium, and the alloy reacts with water, water vapor and reactive gases at reactor ambient temperatures. The alloy is disposed in the plenum of the fuel element in the form of particles in a hollow gas permeable container having a multiplicity of openings of size smallr than the size of the particles. The container is preferably held in the spring in the plenum of the fuel element. (E.C.B.)

  16. Elemental diffusion in stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michaud, Georges; Montmerle, Thierry

    1977-01-01

    This paper is dealing with the origin of the elements in the universe. The scheme of nucleosynthesis is kept to explain the stellar generation of helium, carbon, etc... from the initial hydrogen; but a nonlinear theory is then elaborated to account for the anomalous abundances which were observed. The chemical elements would diffuse throughout the outer layers of a star under the action of the opposite forces of gravitation and radiation. This theory, with completing the nucleosynthesis, would contribute to give a consistent scheme of the elemental origin and abundances [fr

  17. Evaluation of bonding strength of porcelain to some commercial nickel-base dental alloys and comparing their interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Asghari Salavat

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: To replace the replacing of deleterious elements from the chemical composition of dental alloys. The added new elements should control through the oxide layer and the formation of Cr2O3 in porcelain-alloy interfaces for adequate bond strength.

  18. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Pull-Out Test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saabye Ottesen, N

    1981-01-01

    A specific pull-out test used to determine in-situ concrete compressive strength is analyzed. This test consists of a steel disc that is extracted from the structure. The finite element analysis considers cracking as well as strain hardening and softening in the pre- and post-failure region...

  19. Development of synthetic graphite resistive elements for sintering furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, C.; Rezende, Mirabel C.; Polidoro, H.A.; Otani, S.

    1987-01-01

    The synthetic graphites have been produced using lignin coke, natural graphite and phenolic resin. The bulk density, porosity, flexural strength and eletrical resistivity measurements have been performed on specimens at about 2400 0 C. The performance of these materials, as heating elements, was evaluated in a sintering furnace prototype. This paper reports the fabrication process and the experimental results. (Author) [pt

  20. Traditional versus functional strength training: Effects on muscle strength and power in the elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Seiler, Hilde Lohne; Torstveit, Monica Klungland; Anderssen, Sigmund A.

    2013-01-01

    Published versiom of an article in the journal:Journal of Aging and Physical Activity. Also available from Human Kinetics: http://http://journals.humankinetics.com/japa-back-issues/japa-volume-21-issue-1-january/traditional-versus-functional-strength-training-effects-on-muscle-strength-and-power-in-the-elderly The aim was to determine whether strength training with machines vs. functional strength training at 80% of one-repetition maximum improves muscle strength and power among the elderl...

  1. Unified programs nationally? Strengths and weaknesses of the learning standards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Polo Martínez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of measurable learning standards as an element of the curriculum has definitely opened the door to the connection between the curriculum and external assessments. Since its origin, the potential impact of that element in improving our educational system has been defended and criticized. The truth is that in our country, though all regions are based on the same Royal Decree of core curriculum, and therefore the same reference for the evaluation, curriculum that ultimately applies to students ( teaching-learning- assessment from the different regions can have significant differences . This article proposes, from the analysis of various research , training programs, the plan of action for inspection and the author's own experience in processes of curriculum specifications , assess the potential strengths and weaknesses of the learning standards.

  2. Bridge element deterioration rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-10-01

    This report describes the development of bridge element deterioration rates using the NYSDOT : bridge inspection database using Markov chains and Weibull-based approaches. It is observed : that Weibull-based approach is more reliable for developing b...

  3. 2. Transuranic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    Methods of sample collection, sample storage, sample procedures and radioanalytical procedures for transuranic elements in marine environment are reviewed and recommended. Alpha spectrometry and scintillation techniques are used for measurement of isotopic content. Separation processes for samples are described

  4. Heavy element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1976-01-01

    Heavy element research activities in metallurgy and ceramics during 1976 at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory are reviewed. Topics include: microstructure, properties and alloy design; ceramic alloy program; high resolution and high voltage electron microscopy; and powder metallurgy

  5. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1981-01-01

    An array of rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurised water reactor is claimed. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  6. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E.D.

    1984-01-01

    The fuel elements for a pressurised water reactor comprise arrays of rods of zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets. The helium gas pressure within each rod differs substantially from that of its closest neighbours

  7. Transposable elements in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, Kathleen H

    2017-07-01

    Transposable elements give rise to interspersed repeats, sequences that comprise most of our genomes. These mobile DNAs have been historically underappreciated - both because they have been presumed to be unimportant, and because their high copy number and variability pose unique technical challenges. Neither impediment now seems steadfast. Interest in the human mobilome has never been greater, and methods enabling its study are maturing at a fast pace. This Review describes the activity of transposable elements in human cancers, particularly long interspersed element-1 (LINE-1). LINE-1 sequences are self-propagating, protein-coding retrotransposons, and their activity results in somatically acquired insertions in cancer genomes. Altered expression of transposable elements and animation of genomic LINE-1 sequences appear to be hallmarks of cancer, and can be responsible for driving mutations in tumorigenesis.

  8. Divergent picornavirus IRES elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belsham, Graham

    2009-01-01

    Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements were first identified about 20 years ago within the 5' untranslated region of picornavirus RNAs. They direct a cap-independent mechanism of translation initiation on the viral RNA. Within the picornavirus family it is now known that there are four...... classes of IRES element which vary in size (450-270nt), they also have different, complex, secondary structures and distinct requirements for cellular proteins to allow them to function. This review describes the features of each class of picornavirus IRES element but focuses on the characteristics...... of the most recently described group, initially identified within the porcine teschovirus-1 RNA, which has strong similarities to the IRES elements from within the genomes of hepatitis C virus and the pestiviruses which are members of the flavivirus family. The selection of the initiation codon...

  9. The calculation - experimental investigations of the HTGR fuel element construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eremeev, V.S.; Kolesov, V.S.; Chernikov, A.S.

    1985-01-01

    One of the most important problems in the HTGR development is the creation of the fuel element gas-tight for the fission products. This problem is being solved by using fuel elements of dispersion type representing an ensemble of coated fuel particles dispersed in the graphite matrix. Gas-tightness of such fuel elements is reached at the expense of deposing a protective coating on the fuel particles. It is composed of some layers serving as diffusion barriers for fission products. It is apparent that the rate of fission products diffusion from coated fuel particles is determined by the strength and temperature of the protective coating

  10. Industrial routes for lithium zirconate elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastide, B.; Roux, N.

    1991-01-01

    Lithium metazirconate Li 2 ZrO 3 is one of the leading ceramics contemplated in solid blanket concepts. Among its merits are fair physical properties, satisfactory compatibility with structural materials and beryllium, satisfactory mechanical strength, excellent irradiation behavior as shown by a comparative irradiation of ceramics in EBR 2 reactor, and very good tritium release performance as evidence in the MOZART, and EXOTIC neutron irradiation. Pechiney and the CEA are jointly involved in developing industrial fabrication of Li 2 ZrO 3 elements to the microstructural, geometrical (pellets, rings, spheres) specifications required for their use in solid blanket conceived in the European Program

  11. Novel porcine repetitive elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonneman Dan J

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repetitive elements comprise ~45% of mammalian genomes and are increasingly known to impact genomic function by contributing to the genomic architecture, by direct regulation of gene expression and by affecting genomic size, diversity and evolution. The ubiquity and increasingly understood importance of repetitive elements contribute to the need to identify and annotate them. We set out to identify previously uncharacterized repetitive DNA in the porcine genome. Once found, we characterized the prevalence of these repeats in other mammals. Results We discovered 27 repetitive elements in 220 BACs covering 1% of the porcine genome (Comparative Vertebrate Sequencing Initiative; CVSI. These repeats varied in length from 55 to 1059 nucleotides. To estimate copy numbers, we went to an independent source of data, the BAC-end sequences (Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, covering approximately 15% of the porcine genome. Copy numbers in BAC-ends were less than one hundred for 6 repeat elements, between 100 and 1000 for 16 and between 1,000 and 10,000 for 5. Several of the repeat elements were found in the bovine genome and we have identified two with orthologous sites, indicating that these elements were present in their common ancestor. None of the repeat elements were found in primate, rodent or dog genomes. We were unable to identify any of the replication machinery common to active transposable elements in these newly identified repeats. Conclusion The presence of both orthologous and non-orthologous sites indicates that some sites existed prior to speciation and some were generated later. The identification of low to moderate copy number repetitive DNA that is specific to artiodactyls will be critical in the assembly of livestock genomes and studies of comparative genomics.

  12. Fuel element store

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieser, R.

    1987-01-01

    The spherical fuel elements are stored dry in cans. The cans themselves are stacked in parallel storage shafts, which are combined into a rectangular storage space. The storage space is made earthquake-proof by surrounding it with concrete. It consists of a ceiling assembled from several steel parts, which is connected to the floor by support elements. A cooling air ventilation station supplies the individual storage shaft and therefore the cans with cooling air via incoming and outgoing pipes. (DG) [de

  13. Intrusion detection system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eaton, M.J.; Mangan, D.L.

    1980-09-01

    This report highlights elements required for an intrusion detection system and discusses problems which can be encountered in attempting to make the elements effective. Topics discussed include: sensors, both for exterior detection and interior detection; alarm assessment systems, with the discussion focused on video assessment; and alarm reporting systems, including alarm communication systems and dislay/console considerations. Guidance on careful planning and design of a new or to-be-improved system is presented

  14. Structural elements design manual

    CERN Document Server

    Draycott, Trevor

    2012-01-01

    Gives clear explanations of the logical design sequence for structural elements. The Structural Engineer says: `The book explains, in simple terms, and with many examples, Code of Practice methods for sizing structural sections in timber, concrete,masonry and steel. It is the combination into one book of section sizing methods in each of these materials that makes this text so useful....Students will find this an essential support text to the Codes of Practice in their study of element sizing'.

  15. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George

    2007-01-01

    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  16. Isometric shoulder strength in young swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaine, Sally J; Ginn, Karen A; Fell, James W; Bird, Marie-Louise

    2018-01-01

    The prevalence of shoulder pain in young swimmers is high. Shoulder rotation strength and the ratio of internal to external rotation strength have been reported as potential modifiable risk factors associated with shoulder pain. However, relative strength measures in elevated positions, which include flexion and extension, have not been established for the young swimmer. The aim of this study was to establish clinically useful, normative shoulder strength measures and ratios for swimmers (14-20 years) without shoulder pain. Cross-sectional, observational study. Swimmers (N=85) without a recent history of shoulder pain underwent strength testing of shoulder flexion and extension (in 140° abduction); and internal and external rotation (in 90° abduction). Strength tests were performed in supine using a hand-held dynamometer and values normalised to body weight. Descriptive statistics were calculated for strength and strength ratios (flexion:extension and internal:external rotation). Differences between groups (based on gender, history of pain, test and arm dominance) were explored using independent and paired t tests. Normative shoulder strength values and ratios were established for young swimmers. There was a significant difference (pdifferences in strength ratios. Relative strength of the dominant and non-dominant shoulders (except for extension); and for swimmers with and without a history of shoulder pain was not significantly different. A normal shoulder strength profile for the young swimmer has been established which provides a valuable reference for the clinician assessing shoulder strength in this population. Copyright © 2017 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penrose, R.T.; Thompson, J.R.

    1976-01-01

    A method of protecting the cladding of a nuclear fuel element from internal attack and a nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor are disclosed. The nuclear fuel element has disposed therein an additive of a barium-containing material and the barium-containing material collects reactive gases through chemical reaction or adsorption at temperatures ranging from room temperature up to fuel element plenum temperatures. The additive is located in the plenum of the fuel element and preferably in the form of particles in a hollow container having a multiplicity of gas permeable openings in one portion of the container with the openings being of a size smaller than the size of the particles. The openings permit gases and liquids entering the plenum to contact the particles. The additive is comprised of elemental barium or a barium alloy containing one or more metals in addition to barium such as aluminum, zirconium, nickel, titanium and combinations thereof. 6 claims, 3 drawing figures

  18. The Association between Maximal Bench Press Strength and Isometric Handgrip Strength among Breast Cancer Survivors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Benjamin H.; Brown, Justin C.; Gater, David R.; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective One-repetition maximum (1-RM) bench press strength is considered the gold standard to quantify upper-body muscular strength. Isometric handgrip strength is frequently used as a surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among breast cancer (BrCa) survivors. The relationship between 1-RM bench press strength and isometric handgrip strength, however, has not been characterized among BrCa survivors. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Laboratory. Participants Community-dwelling BrCa survivors. Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure 1-RM bench press strength was measured with a barbell and exercise bench. Isometric handgrip strength was measured using an isometric dynamometer with three maximal contractions of left and right hands. All measures were conducted by staff with training in clinical exercise testing. Results Among 295 BrCa survivors, 1-RM bench press strength was 18.2±6.1 kg (range: 2.2-43.0) and isometric handgrip strength was 23.5±5.8 kg (range: 9.0-43.0). The strongest correlate of 1-RM bench press strength was the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (r=0.399; Pisometric handgrip strength of both hands overestimated 1-RM bench press strength by 4.7 kg (95% limits of agreement: −8.2 to 17.6). In a multivariable linear regression model, the average isometric handgrip strength of both hands (β=0.31; Pstrength (R2=0.23). Conclusions Isometric handgrip strength is a poor surrogate for 1-RM bench press strength among BrCa survivors. 1-RM bench press and isometric handgrip strength quantify distinct components of muscular strength. PMID:27543047

  19. Experimental and simulated strength of spot welds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Bennedbæk, Rune A.K.; Larsen, Morten B.

    2014-01-01

    Weld strength testing of single spots in DP600 steel is presented for the three typical testing procedures, i.e. tensile-shear, cross-tension and peel testing. Spot welds are performed at two sets of welding parameters and strength testing under these conditions is presented by load......-elongation curves revealing the maximum load and the elongation at break. Welding and strength testing is simulated by SORPAS® 3D, which allows the two processes to be prepared in a combined simulation, such that the simulated welding properties are naturally applied to the simulation of strength testing. Besides...... the size and shape of the weld nugget, these properties include the new strength of the material in the weld and the heat affected zone based on the predicted hardness resulting from microstructural phase changes simulated during cooling of the weld before strength testing. Comparisons between overall...

  20. Elastic stability and the limit of strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris Jr., J.W.; Krenn, C.R.; Roundy, D.; Cohen, Marvin L.

    2002-01-01

    The upper limit of strength (the ''theoretical strength'') has been an active subject of research and speculation for the better part of a century. The subject has recently become important, for two reasons. First, given recent advances in ab initio techniques and computing machines, the limits of strength can be calculated with considerable accuracy, making this one of the very few problems in mechanical behavior that can actually be solved. Second, given recent advances in materials engineering, the limits of strength are being approached in some systems, such as hardened or defect-free films, and their relevance is becoming recognized in others. The present paper discusses some interesting results from recent research on the limits of strength, with an intermixture of speculations based on those results. Topics include the inherent nature of {100} cleavage and ''pencil slip'' in bcc metals, the inherent ductility of fcc metals, the anomalous properties of Al, and the possibility of measuring ideal strength with nanoindentation

  1. Prediction of concrete strength in massive structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, T.; Makino, H.; Nakane, S.; Kawaguchi, T.; Ohike, T.

    1989-01-01

    Reinforced concrete structures of a nuclear power plant are mostly of mass concrete with cross-sectional dimensions larger than 1.0 m. The temperature of concrete inside after placement rises due to heat of hydration of cement. It is well known that concrete strengths of mass concrete structure subjected to such temperature hysteresis are generally not equal to strengths of cylinders subjected to standard curing. In order to construct a mass concrete structure of high reliability in which the specified concrete strength is satisfied by the specified age, it is necessary to have a thorough understanding of the strength gain property of concrete in the structure and its relationships with the water-cement ratio of the mix, strength of standard-cured cylinders and the internal temperature hysteresis. This report describes the result of studies on methods of controlling concrete strength in actual construction projects

  2. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Mortensen, Sara Rosager; Aaboe, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Pain is the principal symptom in knee pathologies and reduced muscle strength is a common observation among knee patients. However, the relationship between knee joint pain and muscle strength remains to be clarified. This study aimed at investigating the changes in knee muscle strength following...... experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P knee extension and flexion at all angular velocities. The reduction in muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension...

  3. Influence of Curing Conditions on Long-Term Compressive Strength of Mortars with Accelerating Admixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizoń, Jan; Łaźniewska-Piekarczyk, Beata

    2017-10-01

    One of disadvantages of accelerating admixtures usage is possibility of significant decline of long-term compressive strength of concrete in comparison to non-modified one. Described tests were intended to define scale of lowered long-term compressive strength of mortars caused by accelerating admixtures in different curing conditions. Portland cement and blended cement with ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) addition and four types of non-chloride accelerating agents were used. Compressive strength was tested after 7 up to 360 days. Curing conditions were designed to simulate probable conditions close to reality. Such conditions are simulation of internal concrete elements, external elements cast on start of summer and external elements cast on start of winter. Results had shown that it is invalid to state that every accelerating admixture will cause drop of long-term compressive strength in every conditions and for every cement type. Change of curing conditions even after a long time (in this case half of the year) leads to significant differences in compression strength.

  4. The reliabilty of isokinetic strength measurement

    OpenAIRE

    Kadlec, Miroslav

    2011-01-01

    Title: Reliability of isometric and isokinetic strength testing in the knee flexion and extension Objectives: To compare the reliability of isometric and isokinetic testing of the knee strength in flexion and extension Methods: I used intraclass correlation coefficient and Pearson's correlation coefficient. Results: I have discovered that the reliability measured on isokinetic and isometric dynamometer is high. Furthermore the reliability of the maximum strength measurement was higher with-us...

  5. Strength and failure modes of ceramic multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack; Linderoth, Søren

    2012-01-01

    A model was developed for the prediction of the tensile strength of thin, symmetric 3-layer sandwich specimens. The model predictions rationalize the effect of heat-treatment temperature on the strength of sandwich specimens consisting of an YSZ (Yttria-Stabilized Zirconia) substrate coated with ...... and propagating into the substrate. These predictions are consistent with microstructural observations of the fracture surfaces. A good agreement was found between the measured strength values and model predictions. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  6. Platinum-group elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zientek, Michael L.; Loferski, Patricia J.; Parks, Heather L.; Schulte, Ruth F.; Seal, Robert R.; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    The platinum-group elements (PGEs)—platinum, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium, iridium, and osmium—are metals that have similar physical and chemical properties and tend to occur together in nature. PGEs are indispensable to many industrial applications but are mined in only a few places. The availability and accessibility of PGEs could be disrupted by economic, environmental, political, and social events. The United States net import reliance as a percentage of apparent consumption is about 90 percent.PGEs have many industrial applications. They are used in catalytic converters to reduce carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nitrous oxide emissions in automobile exhaust. The chemical industry requires platinum or platinum-rhodium alloys to manufacture nitric oxide, which is the raw material used to manufacture explosives, fertilizers, and nitric acid. In the petrochemical industry, platinum-supported catalysts are needed to refine crude oil and to produce aromatic compounds and high-octane gasoline. Alloys of PGEs are exceptionally hard and durable, making them the best known coating for industrial crucibles used in the manufacture of chemicals and synthetic materials. PGEs are used by the glass manufacturing industry in the production of fiberglass and flat-panel and liquid crystal displays. In the electronics industry, PGEs are used in computer hard disks, hybridized integrated circuits, and multilayer ceramic capacitors.Aside from their industrial applications, PGEs are used in such other fields as health, consumer goods, and finance. Platinum, for example, is used in medical implants, such as pacemakers, and PGEs are used in cancer-fighting drugs. Platinum alloys are an ideal choice for jewelry because of their white color, strength, and resistance to tarnish. Platinum, palladium, and rhodium in the form of coins and bars are also used as investment commodities, and various financial instruments based on the value of these PGEs are traded on major exchanges

  7. Accounting for the Strengths of MNC Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsgren, Mats; Pedersen, Torben; Foss, Nicolai Juul

    1999-01-01

    that organizational strength can to some extent be proxied by strength in the market place. Based on analysis of data on foreign-owned production firms in Denmark, we test three hypotheses: 1) that internal factors (capabilities, patents....) are positively related to the organizational strengths of MNC subsidiaries......This paper links up with recent work on the role of subsidiaries in multinational corporations as well as with recent work in the strategy and business network literature. We discuss the sources of organizational strengths of subsidiaries in the larger multinational corporation, and argue...

  8. Accelerated Strength Testing of Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, J. R.; Allen, D. H.; Bradley, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    Constant ramp strength tests on unidirectional thermoplastic composite specimens oriented in the 90 deg. direction were conducted at constant temperatures ranging from 149 C to 232 C. Ramp rates spanning 5 orders of magnitude were tested so that failures occurred in the range from 0.5 sec. to 24 hrs. (0.5 to 100,000 MPa/sec). Below 204 C, time-temperature superposition held allowing strength at longer times to be estimated from strength tests at shorter times but higher temperatures. The data indicated that a 50% drop in strength might be expected for this material when the test time is increased by 9 orders of magnitude. The shift factors derived from compliance data applied well to the strength results. To explain the link between compliance and strength, a viscoelastic fracture model was investigated. The model, which used compliance as input, was found to fit the strength data only if the critical fracture energy was allowed to vary with temperature reduced stress rate. This variation in the critical parameter severely limits its use in developing a robust time-dependent strength model. The significance of this research is therefore seen as providing both the indication that a more versatile acceleration method for strength can be developed and the evidence that such a method is needed.

  9. Direct strength method for web crippling—Lipped channels under EOF and IOF loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heurkens, R.A.J.; Hofmeyer, H.; Mahendran, M.; Snijder, H.H.

    2018-01-01

    To apply the Direct Strength Method (DSM) to web crippling of lipped channel sections, experiments were recently conducted under EOF and IOF loading conditions. In the research presented here, finite element models were first developed to predict the elastic buckling loads and the elasto-plastic

  10. Alterations of bone microstructure and strength in end-stage renal failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trombetti, A.; Stoermann, C.; Chevalley, T.; Rietbergen, van B.; Hermann, F.R.; Martin, P.Y.; Rizzoli, R.

    2013-01-01

    Summary End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have a high risk of fractures. We evaluated bone microstructure and finite-element analysis-estimated strength and stiffness in patients with ESRD by high-resolution peripheral computed tomography. We observed an alteration of cortical and trabecular

  11. Determination of the bonding strength in solid oxide fuel cells' interfaces by Schwickerath crack initiation test

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccaccini, D. N.; Sevecek, O.; Frandsen, Henrik Lund

    2017-01-01

    An adaptation of the Schwickerath crack initiation test (ISO 9693) was used to determine the bonding strength between an anode support and three different cathodes with a solid oxide fuel cell interconnect. Interfacial elemental characterization of the interfaces was carried out by SEM/EDS analys...

  12. Numerical Analysis on the High-Strength Concrete Beams Ultimate Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smarzewski, Piotr; Stolarski, Adam

    2017-10-01

    Development of technologies of high-strength concrete (HSC) beams production, with the aim of creating a secure and durable material, is closely linked with the numerical models of real objects. The three-dimensional nonlinear finite element models of reinforced high-strength concrete beams with a complex geometry has been investigated in this study. The numerical analysis is performed using the ANSYS finite element package. The arc-length (A-L) parameters and the adaptive descent (AD) parameters are used with Newton-Raphson method to trace the complete load-deflection curves. Experimental and finite element modelling results are compared graphically and numerically. Comparison of these results indicates the correctness of failure criteria assumed for the high-strength concrete and the steel reinforcement. The results of numerical simulation are sensitive to the modulus of elasticity and the shear transfer coefficient for an open crack assigned to high-strength concrete. The full nonlinear load-deflection curves at mid-span of the beams, the development of strain in compressive concrete and the development of strain in tensile bar are in good agreement with the experimental results. Numerical results for smeared crack patterns are qualitatively agreeable as to the location, direction, and distribution with the test data. The model was capable of predicting the introduction and propagation of flexural and diagonal cracks. It was concluded that the finite element model captured successfully the inelastic flexural behaviour of the beams to failure.

  13. 14 CFR 29.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator: (1) MIL—HDBK-5, “Metallic Materials and Elements for Flight Vehicle Structure”. (2) MIL—HDBK-17, “Plastics for Flight Vehicles”. (3) ANC-18, “Design of Wood Aircraft Structures”. (4) MIL—HDBK-23... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material strength properties and design...

  14. 14 CFR 27.613 - Material strength properties and design values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Administrator: (1) MIL-HDBK-5, “Metallic Materials and Elements for Flight Vehicle Structure”. (2) MIL-HDBK-17, “Plastics for Flight Vehicles”. (3) ANC-18, “Design of Wood Aircraft Structures”. (4) MIL-HDBK-23... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Material strength properties and design...

  15. Pull-Out Strength and Bond Behavior of Prestressing Strands in Prestressed Self-Consolidating Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-Jian Long

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available With the extensive use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC worldwide, it is important to ensure that such concrete can secure uniform in-situ mechanical properties that are similar to those obtained with properly consolidated concrete of conventional fluidity. Ensuring proper stability of SCC is essential to enhance the uniformity of in-situ mechanical properties, including bond to embedded reinforcement, which is critical for structural engineers considering the specification of SCC for prestressed applications. In this investigation, Six wall elements measuring 1540 mm × 2150 mm × 200 mm were cast using five SCC mixtures and one reference high-performance concrete (HPC of normal consistency to evaluate the uniformity of bond strength between prestressing strands and concrete as well as the distribution of compressive strength obtained from cores along wall elements. The evaluated SCC mixtures used for casting wall elements were proportioned to achieve a slump flow consistency of 680 ± 15 mm and minimum caisson filling capacity of 80%, and visual stability index of 0.5 to 1. Given the spreads in viscosity and static stability of the SCC mixtures, the five wall elements exhibited different levels of homogeneity in in-situ compressive strength and pull-out bond strength. Test results also indicate that despite the high fluidity of SCC, stable concrete can lead to more homogenous in-situ properties than HPC of normal consistency subjected to mechanical vibration.

  16. Effect of transition metal impurities on the strength of grain boundaries in vanadium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Xuebang; Kong, Xiang-Shan; You, Yu-Wei; Liu, Wei; Liu, C. S., E-mail: csliu@issp.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Materials Physics, Institute of Solid State Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 1129, Hefei 230031 (China); Chen, Jun-Ling; Luo, G.-N. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-09-07

    Effects of 3d (Ti-Ni), 4d (Zr-Pd), and 5d (Hf-Pt) transition metal impurities on strength of two representative vanadium grain boundaries (GBs), symmetric Σ3(111) and asymmetric Σ5(210), were studied by first-principles calculations within the framework of the Rice-Wang thermodynamic model and within the computational tensile test. The desirable elements to increase the GB cohesion were predicted based on their segregation and strengthening behaviors across the different GB sites. It reveals that the elements Ti, Zr, Hf, Nb, and Ta are good choices for the GB cohesion enhancers. In addition, the GB strengthening by solutes is sensitive to the GB structures. The elements Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, and Ni decrease the GB strength of the Σ3(111) GB but they can increase the cohesion of the Σ5(210) GB. Furthermore, the origin of Ti-induced change of the GB strength was uncovered by analyzing the atomic bonds and electronic structures as well as the tensile strength. This work provides a theoretical guidance to screen promising alloying elements in V-based materials with improved resistance to GB decohesion and also helps us to understand the formation mechanism of Ti-rich precipitates in the V-Cr-Ti alloys under neutron or ion irradiation environments.

  17. Pull-Out Strength and Bond Behavior of Prestressing Strands in Prestressed Self-Consolidating Concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Wu-Jian; Khayat, Kamal Henri; Lemieux, Guillaume; Hwang, Soo-Duck; Xing, Feng

    2014-10-10

    With the extensive use of self-consolidating concrete (SCC) worldwide, it is important to ensure that such concrete can secure uniform in-situ mechanical properties that are similar to those obtained with properly consolidated concrete of conventional fluidity. Ensuring proper stability of SCC is essential to enhance the uniformity of in-situ mechanical properties, including bond to embedded reinforcement, which is critical for structural engineers considering the specification of SCC for prestressed applications. In this investigation, Six wall elements measuring 1540 mm × 2150 mm × 200 mm were cast using five SCC mixtures and one reference high-performance concrete (HPC) of normal consistency to evaluate the uniformity of bond strength between prestressing strands and concrete as well as the distribution of compressive strength obtained from cores along wall elements. The evaluated SCC mixtures used for casting wall elements were proportioned to achieve a slump flow consistency of 680 ± 15 mm and minimum caisson filling capacity of 80%, and visual stability index of 0.5 to 1. Given the spreads in viscosity and static stability of the SCC mixtures, the five wall elements exhibited different levels of homogeneity in in-situ compressive strength and pull-out bond strength. Test results also indicate that despite the high fluidity of SCC, stable concrete can lead to more homogenous in-situ properties than HPC of normal consistency subjected to mechanical vibration.

  18. Numerical analysis of the spacer grids' compression strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schettino, C.F.M.; Gouvea, J.P.; Medeiros, N., E-mail: carlosschettino@inb.gov.br, E-mail: jpg@metal.eeimvr.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Metalurgica

    2013-07-01

    Among the components of the fuel assembly, the spacer grids play an important structural role during the energy generation process, mainly for their requirement to have enough structural strength to withstand lateral impact loads, due to fuel assembly shipping/handling and due to forces outcome from postulated accidents (earthquake and LOCA). This requirement ensures a proper geometry for cooling and for guide thimble straightness in the fuel assembly. In this way, the understanding of the macroscopic mechanical behavior of this component becomes essential even to any subsequent geometrical modifications to optimize the flue assemblies' structural behavior. In the present work, three-dimensional finite element models destined to provide consistent predictions of 16X16-type spacer grids lateral strength were proposed. Firstly, buckling tests based on results available in the literature were performed to establish a methodology for spacer grid finite element-based modeling. The, by considering a spacer grid interesting geometry and some possible variations associated to its fabrication, tolerance, the proposed numerical models were submitted to compression conditions to calculate the buckling force. Also, these models were validated for comparison with experimental buckling load results. Comparison of buckling predictions combined to observations of actual and simulated deformed spacer grids geometries permitted to verify the consistency and applicability of the proposed models. Thus, these numerical results show a good agreement between the and the experimental results. (author)

  19. Numerical analysis of the spacer grids' compression strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schettino, C.F.M.; Gouvea, J.P.; Medeiros, N.

    2013-01-01

    Among the components of the fuel assembly, the spacer grids play an important structural role during the energy generation process, mainly for their requirement to have enough structural strength to withstand lateral impact loads, due to fuel assembly shipping/handling and due to forces outcome from postulated accidents (earthquake and LOCA). This requirement ensures a proper geometry for cooling and for guide thimble straightness in the fuel assembly. In this way, the understanding of the macroscopic mechanical behavior of this component becomes essential even to any subsequent geometrical modifications to optimize the flue assemblies' structural behavior. In the present work, three-dimensional finite element models destined to provide consistent predictions of 16X16-type spacer grids lateral strength were proposed. Firstly, buckling tests based on results available in the literature were performed to establish a methodology for spacer grid finite element-based modeling. The, by considering a spacer grid interesting geometry and some possible variations associated to its fabrication, tolerance, the proposed numerical models were submitted to compression conditions to calculate the buckling force. Also, these models were validated for comparison with experimental buckling load results. Comparison of buckling predictions combined to observations of actual and simulated deformed spacer grids geometries permitted to verify the consistency and applicability of the proposed models. Thus, these numerical results show a good agreement between the and the experimental results. (author)

  20. Strength and stiffness reduction factors for infilled frames with openings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decanini, Luis D.; Liberatore, Laura; Mollaioli, Fabrizio

    2014-09-01

    Framed structures are usually infilled with masonry walls. They may cause a significant increase in both stiffness and strength, reducing the deformation demand and increasing the energy dissipation capacity of the system. On the other hand, irregular arrangements of the masonry panels may lead to the concentration of damage in some regions, with negative effects; for example soft story mechanisms and shear failures in short columns. Therefore, the presence of infill walls should not be neglected, especially in regions of moderate and high seismicity. To this aim, simple models are available for solid infills walls, such as the diagonal no-tension strut model, while infilled frames with openings have not been adequately investigated. In this study, the effect of openings on the strength and stiffness of infilled frames is investigated by means of about 150 experimental and numerical tests. The main parameters involved are identified and a simple model to take into account the openings in the infills is developed and compared with other models proposed by different researchers. The model, which is based on the use of strength and stiffness reduction factors, takes into account the opening dimensions and presence of reinforcing elements around the opening. An example of an application of the proposed reduction factors is also presented.

  1. Investigation of properties of low-strength lightweight concrete for thermal insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    UEnal, Osman; Uygunoglu, Tayfun [Construction Department, Technical Education Faculty, Afyon Kocatepe University, 03200 Afyon (Turkey); Yildiz, Ahmet [Afyon Kocatepe University, Engineering Faculty, 03200 Afyon (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    In this study, block elements with diatomite, which have different aggregate granulometries and cement contents, were produced and the effect of these parameters on physical and mechanical properties of block elements were investigated. Diatomite samples were taken from the region of Afyon. In the mixes, water/cement ratio was kept at 0.15. Analyses include compressive strength, thermal conductivity, ultrasonic velocity tests, bulk density and specific porosity. According to experimental results, while dry unit weight is varied between 900 and 1190kg/m{sup 3}, compressive strength of 7-56 days specimens ranged from 2.5 to 8MPa. Materials with a ratio of 30% fine, 40% medium and 30% coarse size have the best compressive strength and thermal insulation in all series. Due to low thermal conductivity, lightweight aggregate concrete with diatomite can be used to prove high isolation in the structure. (author)

  2. An Integrated Structural Strength Analysis Method for Spar Type Floating Wind Turbine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志强; 刘毅; 王晋

    2016-01-01

    An integrated structural strength analysis method for a Spar type floating wind turbine is proposed in this paper, and technical issues related to turbine structure modeling and stress combination are also addressed. The NREL-5MW “Hywind” Spar type wind turbine is adopted as study object. Time-domain dynamic coupled simulations are performed by a fully-coupled aero-hydro-servo-elastic tool, FAST, on the purpose of obtaining the dynamic characteristics of the floating wind turbine, and determining parameters for design load cases of finite element calculation. Then design load cases are identified, and finite element analyses are performed for these design load cases. The structural stresses due to wave-induced loads and wind-induced loads are calculated, and then combined to assess the structural strength of the floating wind turbine. The feasibility of the proposed structural strength analysis method for floating wind turbines is then validated.

  3. Buckling strength of spherical shells under combined loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagashima, H.; Kokubo, K.; Takayanagi, M.; Hayasaka, Y.; Kume, T.; Nagata, T.

    1995-01-01

    Many studies on buckling of cylindrical shells have been conducted, and many buckling evaluation equations have been proposed for actual plant designs; however, buckling of spherical shells under combined horizontal and vertical loads cannot be evaluated due to insufficient data. There is a particular lack of buckling data for spherical shells under lateral loads. To establish a method for estimating the buckling strength of spherical shells, we investigate the interactions between horizontal and vertical (compressive tensile) loads by conducting buckling tests. Applying several combinations of these loads in tests and using computer linear analysis, we obtain interaction curves. This study reports on the buckling tests conducted using spherical shell 1120 mm in dia., 0.7 mm thick and 696 mm high, which are shaped individually by press-forming and finally joined together by four meridional welds, using a specially made jig. Initial imperfections before testing and local deformations after each loading increment during testing are measured with special measuring equipment, and the interaction curve of horizontal and vertical loads and effect of imperfection on the buckling strength of spherical shells are obtained. Nonlinear FEM programs are developed using an 8-node isoparametric shell element and a four-node quadrilateral element of C 0 type with reduced integration based upon a Mindlin-Reissner theory which includes transverse shear. Actual initial imperfections are generally in irregular patterns. Thus, there may be several definitions of the equivalent magnitudes of initial imperfections related to buckling loads. Equivalent magnitudes have no practical meaning unless they can be obtained easily not only for small structures such as test shells but also for large actual structures. In the present study, we define the equivalent magnitude of initial imperfections as the maximum local ruggedness measured radially from a circular temperature having a radius equal

  4. Fuel element transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benna, P.; Neuenfeldt, W.

    1979-01-01

    The reprocessing system includes a large number of waterfilled ponds next to each other for the intermediate storage of fuel elements from LWR's. The fuel element transport device is allocated to a middle pond. The individual ponds are separated from each other by walls, and are only accessible from the middle pond via narrow passages. The transport device includes a telescopic running rail for a trolley with a grab device for the fuel element. The running rail is supported in turn by a second trolley, which can be moved by wheels on rails. Part of the drive of the first trolley is arranged on the second one. Using this transport device, adjacent ponds can be served through the passage openings. (DG) [de

  5. Creativity Management Key Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa María Fuchs Ángeles

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Organizations are constantly looking towards innovation. In order to reach it they must foment creativity. This paper analyzes a series of elements considered in the organizational creativity management and proposes a model with the indispensable factors that organizations should consider to reach it. These elements are: culture and organizational environment, strategy, structure, communication, relation with customers, human resources (recruiting, training, job design, compensation, promotion, and performance evaluation, long term orientation and the organizational life cycle. Having the analysis of those elements as a basis, the indispensable pillars on management creativity are identified. The proposed model is based on 5 pillars: the alignment between strategic, culture and organizational structure, called by the authors 'Holy Trinity'; intern publicity; customer’s voice; recognition and a look towards future. Finally, the case of an innovative Peruvian enterprise is presented from the model’s perspective and the study conclusions.

  6. Fuel Element Technical Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burley, H.H. [ed.

    1956-08-01

    It is the purpose of the Fuel Element Technical Manual to Provide a single document describing the fabrication processes used in the manufacture of the fuel element as well as the technical bases for these processes. The manual will be instrumental in the indoctrination of personnel new to the field and will provide a single data reference for all personnel involved in the design or manufacture of the fuel element. The material contained in this manual was assembled by members of the Engineering Department and the Manufacturing Department at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation between the dates October, 1955 and June, 1956. Arrangement of the manual. The manual is divided into six parts: Part I--introduction; Part II--technical bases; Part III--process; Part IV--plant and equipment; Part V--process control and improvement; and VI--safety.

  7. Strength function for the giant isovector monopole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, W.M.; Birse, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of the strength function for giant resonances is extended to exhibit the explicit energy dependence of the width and shift functions for the giant isovector monopole. An integral sum rule on the width GAMMA/sub M/(E) relates its normalization to the second moment M 2 of the strength function and leads to a relation GAMMA/sub M/(E/sub M/)GAMMA/sub s//4 = M 2 between M 2 and the width at the maximum, which involves the width GAMMA/sub s/ of the distribution in energy of the spreading matrix elements. An estimate of GAMMA/sub M/(E/sub M/)approx. =8 MeV based on the absorptive part of the optical potential together with random-phase approximation calculations of M 2 leads to the result GAMMA/sub s//2approx. =2hω, supporting the intermediate coupling model of Lane, Thomas, and Wigner. Using the sum rule expressions of Lane and Mekjian to evaluate the Coulomb matrix element M/sub A/M between an isobaric analog state and its corresponding isovector monopole, we test this strength function for the isovector monopole by calculating the spreading widths for the ground state analogs of nuclei from 38 Cl to 208 Pb. The good agreement with the systematic dependence upon mass number and isospin resolves the long-standing discrepancy between the estimate GAMMA/sub M/(E/sub M/)approx.8--10 MeV and the value GAMMA/sub M/(E/sub A/)< or =2 MeV needed to account for the spreading widths of the isobaric analog state

  8. Elements of social security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security is a comparative study of important elements of the social security systems in Denmark (DK), Sweden (S), Finland (FIN), Austria (A), Germany (D), the Netherlands (NL), Great Britain (GB) and Canada (CAN). It should be emphasized that Germany is the former West Germany...... (Alte Länder). This is the 9th and last edition of the publication,covering income levels and rules for social security and personal taxation for 1999. Basis for the projections to 1999 income levels is the 1998 data (in some cases 1999 data)for OECD's Taxing Wages as reported by national experts....

  9. Elements of linear space

    CERN Document Server

    Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N

    1962-01-01

    Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a

  10. Bibliography on transuranium elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sood, D.D.

    1991-01-01

    A selective bibliography of prominent publications on transuranium elements is compiled. Heading papers, symposia proceedings and the textbooks are included in the bibliography. The bibliography is arranged under the headings: (1)Books, Symposia Proceedings, Reviews etc., (2)Discovery, (3)Weighable Isolation, (4)Metal Preparation, (5)Nuclear Properties, (6)Plutonium as Reactor Fuel, (7)Fuel Reprocessing, (8)Solid State Chemistry, Thermochemistry and Spectroscopy, (9)Radiation Safety, (10)Applications, and (11)Some Typical Indian Papers. Total number of references cited are 298. The bibliography, though selective, will serve as a starting point for comprehensive literature search on transuranium elements. (author)

  11. Finite elements and approximation

    CERN Document Server

    Zienkiewicz, O C

    2006-01-01

    A powerful tool for the approximate solution of differential equations, the finite element is extensively used in industry and research. This book offers students of engineering and physics a comprehensive view of the principles involved, with numerous illustrative examples and exercises.Starting with continuum boundary value problems and the need for numerical discretization, the text examines finite difference methods, weighted residual methods in the context of continuous trial functions, and piecewise defined trial functions and the finite element method. Additional topics include higher o

  12. Simulated weightlessness and synbiotic diet effects on rat bone mechanical strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarper, Hüseyin; Blanton, Cynthia; DePalma, Jude; Melnykov, Igor V.; Gabaldón, Annette M.

    2014-10-01

    This paper reports results on exposure to simulated weightlessness that leads to a rapid decrease in bone mineral density known as spaceflight osteopenia by evaluating the effectiveness of dietary supplementation with synbiotics to counteract the effects of skeletal unloading. Forty adult male rats were studied under four different conditions in a 2 × 2 factorial design with main effects of diet (synbiotic and control) and weight condition (unloaded and control). Hindlimb unloading was performed at all times for 14 days followed by 14 days of recovery (reambulation). The synbiotic diet contained probiotic strains Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactococcus lactis lactis and prebiotic fructooligosaccharide. This paper also reports on the development of a desktop three-point bending device to measure the mechanical strength of bones from rats subjected to simulated weightlessness. The importance of quantifying bone resistance to breakage is critical when examining the effectiveness of interventions against osteopenia resulting from skeletal unloading, such as astronauts experience, disuse or disease. Mechanical strength indices provide information beyond measures of bone density and microarchitecture that enhance the overall assessment of a treatment's potency. In this study we used a newly constructed three-point bending device to measure the mechanical strength of femur and tibia bones from hindlimb-unloaded rats fed an experimental synbiotic diet enriched with probiotics and fermentable fiber. Two calculated outputs for each sample were Young's modulus of elasticity and fracture stress. Bone major elements (calcium, magnesium, and phosphorous) were quantified using ICP-MS analysis. Hindlimb unloading was associated with a significant loss of strength in the femur, and with significant reductions in major bone elements. The synbiotic diet did not protect against these unloading effects. Tibia strength and major elements were not reduced by hindlimb unloading, as was

  13. Anticorrosion protection of strength bolts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Votava

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion damage may, from the technical point of view, cause changes in mechanical and physical characteristics in particular, at the same time it may also cause changes in surface geometry. These aspects are likely to manifest themselves in all steel parts. The presented study looks at corrosion protection in bolts and bolt connections protected by metal coating based on zinc.Four different types of passivation, easily accessible on the Czech market, have been selected for this experiment. They are as follows: first, galvanic plating using white zinc; second, galvanic plating using yellow zinc; third, hot dip galvanizing; fourth, specific type of plating using the technology Dacromet 500 LC. In order to compare the given parameters there have been selected a unified M bolt size of 8 × 30 mm. The experimental part of this study can be further divided into two phases. The initial phase puts stress on the exact specification of the protection layer, namely, the analysis and establishment of the elemental compositon contained in the given coating, its microhardness, weight and thickness. The second phase of the experiment analyses the results of tests according to the norm ČSN ISO 9227 (Salt Fog Test and ČSN ISO 6988 (Sulphur Dioxide Test. With the tests we have concentrated on the initial stages of corrosion degradation and its overall process.

  14. Change of Direction Speed: Toward a Strength Training Approach with Accentuated Eccentric Muscle Actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaabene, Helmi; Prieske, Olaf; Negra, Yassine; Granacher, Urs

    2018-03-28

    There is growing evidence that eccentric strength training appears to have benefits over traditional strength training (i.e., strength training with combined concentric and eccentric muscle actions) from muscular, neuromuscular, tendinous, and metabolic perspectives. Eccentric muscle strength is particularly needed to decelerate and stabilize the body during the braking phase of a jump exercise or during rapid changes of direction (CoD) tasks. However, surprisingly little research has been conducted to elucidate the effects of eccentric strength training or strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions on CoD speed performance. In this current opinion article, we present findings from cross-sectional studies on the relationship between measures of eccentric muscle strength and CoD speed performance. In addition, we summarize the few available studies on the effects of strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions on CoD speed performance in athletic populations. Finally, we propose strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions as a promising element in strength and conditioning programs of sports with high CoD speed demands. Our findings from five cross-sectional studies revealed statistically significant moderate- to large-sized correlations (r = 0.45-0.89) between measures of eccentric muscle strength and CoD speed performance in athletic populations. The identified three intervention studies were of limited methodological quality and reported small- to large-sized effects (d = 0.46-1.31) of strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions on CoD speed performance in athletes. With reference to the available but preliminary literature and from a performance-related point of view, we recommend strength and conditioning coaches to include strength training with accentuated eccentric muscle actions in training routines of sports with high CoD speed demands (e.g., soccer, handball, basketball, hockey) to

  15. Revealing the Maximum Strength in Nanotwinned Copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, L.; Chen, X.; Huang, Xiaoxu

    2009-01-01

    boundary–related processes. We investigated the maximum strength of nanotwinned copper samples with different twin thicknesses. We found that the strength increases with decreasing twin thickness, reaching a maximum at 15 nanometers, followed by a softening at smaller values that is accompanied by enhanced...

  16. Maximal Strength Testing in Healthy Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Milliken, Laurie A.; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2003-01-01

    Evaluated the safety and efficacy of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) strength testing in healthy children age 6-12 years. Data were collected on 96 children who performed a 1RM test on one upper body and one lower body exercise using child-sized weight machines. Findings indicated that children could safely perform 1RM strength tests provided…

  17. Impact of Hydrodynamics on Oral Biofilm Strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paramonova, E.; Kalmykowa, O. J.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Sharma, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical removal of oral biofilms is ubiquitously accepted as the best way to prevent caries and periodontal diseases. Removal effectiveness strongly depends on biofilm strength. To investigate the influence of hydrodynamics on oral biofilm strength, we grew single- and multi-species biofilms of

  18. Crushing strength of HTGR fuel particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lackey, W.J.; Stinton, D.P.; Davis, L.E.; Beatty, R.L.

    1976-01-01

    The whole-particle crushing strengths of High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor fertile and fissile coated particles were measured and correlated with fabrication procedures. The crushing strength of Biso-coated fertile particles was increased by the following factors: (1) increasing the outer coating thickness by 10 μm increased strengths by 0.3 lb (1.3 N) for annealed particles and by 0.5 lb (2.2 N) for unannealed particles. (2) An 1800 0 C postcoating anneal increased strengths by 1 lb (4.4 N) for particles with thick outer coatings and by 2 lb (8.9 N) for particles having thin coatings. (3) Increasing the inner coating density by 0.1 g/cm 3 increased strength by 0.6 lb (2.7 N). The crushing strength of Triso-coated fissile particles was proportional to the thickness of the SiC coatings, and strength decreased on annealing by about 0.2 lb (0.9 N) when a porous plate was used to distribute the coating gas and by about 1.5 lb (6.7 N) when a conical gas distributor was used. The strengths of fertile and fissile coated particles as well as uncoated kernels appear adequate to allow fuel fabrication without excessive particle damage

  19. Tools for Building on Youth Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    While rhetoric about strength-based approaches abounds, this perspective has not penetrated the front lines of practice. Many programs serving troubled youngsters are still mired in a deficit and deviance orientation. This article provides practical strategies for assessing the strengths of children and developing interventions to tap their assets…

  20. Restorative Justice as Strength-Based Accountability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Robert

    2003-01-01

    This article compares strength-based and restorative justice philosophies for young people and their families. Restorative justice provides ways to respond to crime and harm that establish accountability while seeking to reconcile members of a community. Restorative approaches are an important subset of strength-based interventions.

  1. Asymmetry of Muscle Strength in Elite Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drid, Patrik; Drapsin, Miodrag; Trivic, Tatjana; Lukac, Damir; Obadov, Slavko; Milosevic, Zoran

    2009-01-01

    "Study aim": To determine muscle strength variables in elite judoists and wrestlers since thigh muscle strength and bilaterally balanced flexor-to-extensor ratio minimise injury risk and are desirable for achieving sport successes. "Material and methods": Judoists, wrestlers and untrained subjects, 10 each, were subjected to isokinetic strength…

  2. Gluebond strength of laser cut wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1985-01-01

    The degree of strength loss when gluing laser cut wood as compared to conventionally sawn wood and the amount of additional surface treatment needed to improve bond quality were assessed under normal furniture plant operating conditions. The strength of laser cut oak glued with polyvinyl acetate adhesive was reduced to 75 percent of sawn joints and gum was reduced 43...

  3. Enhancing paper strength by optimizing defect configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Considine; W. Skye; W. Chen; D. Matthys; David W. Vahey; K. Turner; R. Rowlands

    2009-01-01

    Poor formation in paper, as denoted by large local variation of mass, tends to reduce maximum tensile strength but has not been well characterized. The effect of grammage variation on tensile strength was studied by introducing carefully placed holes in tensile specimens made of three different paper materials. Previous researchers demonstrated that the point-stress...

  4. Strength optimized designs of thermoelastic structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2010-01-01

    For thermoelastic structures the same optimal design does not simultaneously lead to minimum compliance and maximum strength. Compliance may be a questionable objective and focus for the present paper is on the important aspect of strength, quantified as minimization of the maximum von Mises stre...... loads are appended....

  5. Material model for non-linear finite element analyses of large concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engen, Morten; Hendriks, M.A.N.; Øverli, Jan Arve; Åldstedt, Erik; Beushausen, H.

    2016-01-01

    A fully triaxial material model for concrete was implemented in a commercial finite element code. The only required input parameter was the cylinder compressive strength. The material model was suitable for non-linear finite element analyses of large concrete structures. The importance of including

  6. 3D PRINTING SUSTAINABLE BUILDING COMPONENTS FOR FACADES AND AS WINDOW ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The façade elements we design will be targeted at the construction industry and will be evaluated in the context of rapid manufacturing, energy conservation, thermal performance, structural strength, durability and construction assembly. The façade element des...

  7. Influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on residual ultimate strength of stiffened plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jing

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available [Objectives] Ships and offshore platforms serve in the harsh sea environment for a long time. Cracks and pitting corrosion will occur in such a structure and the damage will affect its ultimate strength.[Methods] To investigate the influence of cracks and pitting corrosion on ultimate bearing capacity, the ultimate strength of a structure under axial compression is studied by using a nonlinear finite element. The mesh size of a stiffened plate with cracks and pitting corrosion is first discussed. Then the influence of the relative positions of cracks and pitting corrosion, number of corrosion points and crack length impact on the residual ultimate strength of damaged stiffened plates is discussed via a series of calculations.[Results] The results indicate that the increase in crack length and pitting corrosion significantly decreases the ultimate strength of a stiffened plate. [Conclusions] This provides a useful reference for designing and maintaining ships and offshore structures in their life cycles.

  8. Coupling Strength and System Size Induce Firing Activity of Globally Coupled Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Duqu; Luo Xiaoshu; Zou Yanli

    2008-01-01

    We investigate how firing activity of globally coupled neural network depends on the coupling strength C and system size N. Network elements are described by space-clamped FitzHugh-Nagumo (SCFHN) neurons with the values of parameters at which no firing activity occurs. It is found that for a given appropriate coupling strength, there is an intermediate range of system size where the firing activity of globally coupled SCFHN neural network is induced and enhanced. On the other hand, for a given intermediate system size level, there exists an optimal value of coupling strength such that the intensity of firing activity reaches its maximum. These phenomena imply that the coupling strength and system size play a vital role in firing activity of neural network

  9. Bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akgun, H.; Daemen, J.J.K.

    1991-02-01

    Axial loads on plugs or seals in an underground repository due to gas, water pressures and temperature changes induced subsequent to waste and plug emplacement lead to shear stresses at the plug/rock contact. Therefore, the bond between the plug and rock is a critical element for the design and effectiveness of plugs in boreholes, shafts or tunnels. This study includes a systematic investigation of the bond strength of cementitious borehole plugs in welded tuff. Analytical and numerical analysis of borehole plug-rock stress transfer mechanics is performed. The interface strength and deformation are studied as a function of Young's modulus ratio of plug and rock, plug length and rock cylinder outside-to-inside radius ratio. The tensile stresses in and near an axially loaded plug are analyzed. The frictional interface strength of an axially loaded borehole plug, the effect of axial stress and lateral external stress, and thermal effects are also analyzed. Implications for plug design are discussed. The main conclusion is a strong recommendation to design friction plugs in shafts, drifts, tunnels or boreholes with a minimum length to diameter ratio of four. Such a geometrical design will reduce tensile stresses in the plug and in the host rock to a level which should minimize the risk of long-term deterioration caused by excessive tensile stresses. Push-out tests have been used to determine the bond strength by applying an axial load to cement plugs emplaced in boreholes in welded tuff cylinders. A total of 130 push-out tests have been performed as a function of borehole size, plug length, temperature, and degree of saturation of the host tuff. The use of four different borehole radii enables evaluation of size effects. 119 refs., 42 figs., 20 tabs

  10. Anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Noorian Bidgoli

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Anisotropy of the strength and deformation behaviors of fractured rock masses is a crucial issue for design and stability assessments of rock engineering structures, due mainly to the non-uniform and non-regular geometries of the fracture systems. However, no adequate efforts have been made to study this issue due to the current practical impossibility of laboratory tests with samples of large volumes containing many fractures, and the difficulty for controlling reliable initial and boundary conditions for large-scale in situ tests. Therefore, a reliable numerical predicting approach for evaluating anisotropy of fractured rock masses is needed. The objective of this study is to systematically investigate anisotropy of strength and deformability of fractured rocks, which has not been conducted in the past, using a numerical modeling method. A series of realistic two-dimensional (2D discrete fracture network (DFN models were established based on site investigation data, which were then loaded in different directions, using the code UDEC of discrete element method (DEM, with changing confining pressures. Numerical results show that strength envelopes and elastic deformability parameters of tested numerical models are significantly anisotropic, and vary with changing axial loading and confining pressures. The results indicate that for design and safety assessments of rock engineering projects, the directional variations of strength and deformability of the fractured rock mass concerned must be treated properly with respect to the directions of in situ stresses. Traditional practice for simply positioning axial orientation of tunnels in association with principal stress directions only may not be adequate for safety requirements. Outstanding issues of the present study and suggestions for future study are also presented.

  11. Nuclear threshold effects and neutron strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia

    2003-01-01

    One proves that a Nuclear Threshold Effect is dependent, via Neutron Strength Function, on Spectroscopy of Ancestral Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the Nuclear Threshold Effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function. Evidence for relation of Nuclear Threshold Effects to Neutron Strength Functions is obtained from Isotopic Threshold Effect and Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly. The empirical and computational analysis of the Isotopic Threshold Effect and of the Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly demonstrate their close relationship to Neutron Strength Functions. It was established that the Nuclear Threshold Effects depend, in addition to genuine Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms, on Spectroscopy of (Ancestral) Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function, in their dependence on mass number. This result constitutes also a proof that the origins of these threshold effects are Neutron Single Particle States at zero energy. (author)

  12. Imaging Shear Strength Along Subduction Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-11-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  13. Testosterone Replacement, Muscle Strength, and Physical Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    You-Seon Nam

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Muscle strength and physical function decrease in older men, as do testosterone levels. Nonetheless, the effects of testosterone replacement therapy on muscle strength and physical function remain inconclusive and equivocal. We conducted a rapid systematic review, the results of which showed that testosterone replacement does not affect muscle strength (measured by hand grip strength and leg muscle strength, although it may increase physical function (measured by the 6-minute walk test, Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly score, and other physical performance tests. However, most of the studies were conducted in the United States or Europe and did not include participants from Asian or other ethnic backgrounds; therefore, further studies are needed to evaluate the effects of testosterone replacement in a broader population.

  14. REPETITIVE STRENGTH AMONG STUDENTS OF AGE 14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Besim Halilaj

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study involved 82 male students of the primary school “Qamil Ilazi” in Kaçanik-Kosovo.Four movement tests, which test the repetitive strength, were conducted: 1. Pull-up, 2. Sit-Up, 3. Back extension, 4. Push-up.The main goal of this study was to verify the actual motor status, respectively the component of the repetitive strength among students of age 14 of masculine gender. In addition to verifying the actual motor status, another objective was to verify the relationship between the variables employed.Basic statistical parameters show a distribution which is not significantly different from the normal distribution, yielded highly correlative values among the repetitive strength tests. Space factorization resulted in extracting two latent squares defined as repetitive strength of arms factor, and repetitive strength of body factor.

  15. Imaging shear strength along subduction faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-01-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  16. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, Henning; Hodges, P W

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function...... and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals....

  17. Percentage Level of Tannin fur Rabbit for Leather Concerning Stitch Tearing Strength, Tearing Strength and Flexibility

    OpenAIRE

    Mustakim Mustakim; Aris Sri Widati; Lisa Purnaningtyas

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out the appropriate of tannin level for rabbit fur leather concerning stitch tearing strength, tearing strength, and flexibility. The result were expected to contribute good information for the society, leather craftsman, and further researchers about fur leather tanning especially rabbit fur leather with tannin concerning stitch tearing strength, tearing strength and flexibility. The material that used were 12 pieces of four months of rabbit skin. The re...

  18. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Austria, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable...

  19. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, the Netherlands, Great Britain and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  20. Elements of Social Security

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hans

    Elements of Social Security contains an overview of important benefit schemes in Denmark, Sweden, Finland, Germany, Great Britain, the Netherlands and Canada. The schemes are categorized according to common sets of criteria and compared. Stylized cases illustrate the impact on disposable income...

  1. Water, the intangible element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotting, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    Water is the key to life. No living creature can survive without water. Too much water or polluted water are serious threats to mankind. Managing this intangible element is complex, not only in wet deltaic regions but also in the (semi-)arid regions of the world. Combined efforts of the

  2. Movies and Literary Elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Rodney D.

    1987-01-01

    Recommends using movie clips to stimulate students' interest in reading a novel as well as to teach elements of fiction such as plot, character, setting, symbol, irony, and theme. Describes each clip and provides study questions. Includes a listing of movies made from books. (NH)

  3. Elements of Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elements of Architecture explores new ways of engaging architecture in archaeology. It conceives of architecture both as the physical evidence of past societies and as existing beyond the physical environment, considering how people in the past have not just dwelled in buildings but have existed...

  4. Inside finite elements

    CERN Document Server

    Weiser, Martin

    2016-01-01

    All relevant implementation aspects of finite element methods are discussed in this book. The focus is on algorithms and data structures as well as on their concrete implementation. Theory is covered as far as it gives insight into the construction of algorithms. Throughout the exercises a complete FE-solver for scalar 2D problems will be implemented in Matlab/Octave.

  5. Plants' essential chemical elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2007-01-01

    Every garden center and hardware store sells fertilizer guaranteed to "feed" plants. In a strict sense, we can't feed plants. Food contains an energy source. Green plants capture solar energy and make their own food through photosynthesis! Photosynthesis and other metabolic processes require chemical elements in appropriate doses for plants to survive...

  6. Elements of relativity theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawden, D.F.

    1985-01-01

    The book on elements of relativity theory is intended for final year school students or as an early university course in mathematical physics. Special principle of relativity, lorentz transformation, velocity transformations, relativistic mechanics, and general theory of relativity, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  7. Photovoltaic radiation detector element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agouridis, D.C.

    1980-01-01

    A radiation detector element is formed of a body of semiconductor material, a coating on the body which forms a photovoltaic junction therewith, and a current collector consisting of narrow metallic strips, the aforesaid coating having an opening therein in the edge of which closely approaches but is spaced from the current collector strips

  8. Load carrying capacity of shear wall t-connections reinforced with high strength wire ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik B.; Bryndom, Thor; Larsen, Michael

    2016-01-01

    -friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope......Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  9. Development of K-Basin High-Strength Homogeneous Sludge Simulants and Correlations Between Unconfined Compressive Strength and Shear Strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, Yasuo; Baer, Ellen BK; Chun, Jaehun; Yokuda, Satoru T.; Schmidt, Andrew J.; Sande, Susan; Buchmiller, William C.

    2011-02-20

    K-Basin sludge will be stored in the Sludge Transport and Storage Containers (STSCs) at an interim storage location on Central Plateau before being treated and packaged for disposal. During the storage period, sludge in the STSCs may consolidate/agglomerate, potentially resulting in high-shear-strength material. The Sludge Treatment Project (STP) plans to use water jets to retrieve K-Basin sludge after the interim storage. STP has identified shear strength to be a key parameter that should be bounded to verify the operability and performance of sludge retrieval systems. Determining the range of sludge shear strength is important to gain high confidence that a water-jet retrieval system can mobilize stored K-Basin sludge from the STSCs. The shear strength measurements will provide a basis for bounding sludge properties for mobilization and erosion. Thus, it is also important to develop potential simulants to investigate these phenomena. Long-term sludge storage tests conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) show that high-uranium-content K-Basin sludge can self-cement and form a strong sludge with a bulk shear strength of up to 65 kPa. Some of this sludge has 'paste' and 'chunks' with shear strengths of approximately 3-5 kPa and 380-770 kPa, respectively. High-uranium-content sludge samples subjected to hydrothermal testing (e.g., 185 C, 10 hours) have been observed to form agglomerates with a shear strength up to 170 kPa. These high values were estimated by measured unconfined compressive strength (UCS) obtained with a pocket penetrometer. Due to its ease of use, it is anticipated that a pocket penetrometer will be used to acquire additional shear strength data from archived K-Basin sludge samples stored at the PNNL Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) hot cells. It is uncertain whether the pocket penetrometer provides accurate shear strength measurements of the material. To assess the bounding material strength and

  10. Detection of rock strength at Branisko massif

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazarová Edita

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available When monitoring and optimizing the driving proces of the exploratory gallery by a computer system, conditions for verification of the interaction between desintegrating head of driving machine and rock massif were created. One of the output values of this mathematical model is the model strength at a simple pressure ótlH, which is defined as a pressure at the discus and the massif contact during the desintigration (a near limit of massif strength. By geological and geological engineering exploration, the section of length 2340 m was divided into fourty-two geological sections and five quasi-homogeneous massif enviroments. In the article, results of scleroscopic strength óCI , the strength in a simple pressure determined from the point load test and the strength at simple pressure ótlH are confronted . The main advance of the electronic geomechanical monitoring is the density of gained information. The two-seconds sample period of input and output data during the driving process makes it possible to describe driving circumstances in an almost continual way for each millimeter of the built tunnel. Then the information about changes of disintegrated rock properties, have the same density (frequency. By comparing a quantity of data gained by examining the index of point strength, scleroscopic strength and the model strength in a simple pressure from the monitoring process of driving process it is obvious that during the driving of exploratory gallery of motorway tunnel Branisko, a proportion of data number from the three “type examinations” of strength was reached and it was approximately 1:7:5000. Approximately in the same proportion, there were determined values for the 42 geologic sections (I. – XLII., which were defined in detail by the geologic, engineering geologic, hydrogeologic and geotechnic research.. The presented quantity values of presented rock mass strength for each geologic section are presented by their arithmetic average

  11. The Character Strengths of Class Clowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald F. Ruch

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of identified as a class clown, comic talent, disruptive rule-breaker, and subversive joker. Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park & Peterson, 2006 showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, generally class clown behaviors were shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors identified as the class clown and comic talent were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors (disruptive rule-breaker, subversive joker were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  12. The character strengths of class clowns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruch, Willibald; Platt, Tracey; Hofmann, Jennifer

    2014-01-01

    Class clowns traditionally were studied as a type concept and identified via sociometric procedures. In the present study a variable-centered approach was favored and class clown behaviors were studied in the context of character strengths, orientations to happiness and satisfaction with life. A sample of 672 Swiss children and adolescents filled in an 18 item self-report instrument depicting class clown behaviors. A hierarchical model of class clown behaviors was developed distinguishing a general factor and the four positively correlated dimensions of "identified as a class clown," "comic talent," "disruptive rule-breaker," and "subversive joker." Analysis of the general factor showed that class clowns were primarily male, and tended to be seen as class clowns by the teacher. Analyses of the 24 character strengths of the VIA-Youth (Park and Peterson, 2006) showed that class clowns were high in humor and leadership, and low in strengths like prudence, self-regulation, modesty, honesty, fairness, perseverance, and love of learning. An inspection of signature strengths revealed that 75% of class clowns had humor as a signature strength. Furthermore, class clown behaviors were generally shown by students indulging in a life of pleasure, but low life of engagement. The four dimensions yielded different character strengths profiles. While all dimensions of class clowns behaviors were low in temperance strengths, the factors "identified as the class clown" and "comic talent" were correlated with leadership strengths and the two negative factors ("disruptive rule-breaker," "subversive joker") were low in other directed strengths. The disruptive rule breaking class clown was additionally low in intellectual strengths. While humor predicted life satisfaction, class clowning tended to go along with diminished satisfaction with life. It is concluded that different types of class clowns need to be kept apart and need different attention by teachers.

  13. The Strengths Assessment Inventory: Reliability of a New Measure of Psychosocial Strengths for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazeau, James N.; Teatero, Missy L.; Rawana, Edward P.; Brownlee, Keith; Blanchette, Loretta R.

    2012-01-01

    A new measure, the Strengths Assessment Inventory-Youth self-report (SAI-Y), was recently developed to assess the strengths of children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 18 years. The SAI-Y differs from similar measures in that it provides a comprehensive assessment of strengths that are intrinsic to the individual as well as strengths…

  14. Is grip strength a predictor for total muscle strength in healthy children, adolescents, and young adults?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, Anne E.; Takken, Tim; Helders, Paul J. M.; Engelbert, Raoul H. H.

    2010-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine whether grip strength is related to total muscle strength in children, adolescents, and young adults. The second purpose was to provide reference charts for grip strength, which could be used in the clinical and research setting. This cross-sectional

  15. Effect of wear on the burst strength of l-80 steel casing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irawan, S; Bharadwaj, A M; Temesgen, B; Karuppanan, S; Abdullah, M Z B

    2015-01-01

    Casing wear has recently become one of the areas of research interest in the oil and gas industry especially in extended reach well drilling. The burst strength of a worn out casing is one of the significantly affected mechanical properties and is yet an area where less research is done The most commonly used equations to calculate the resulting burst strength after wear are Barlow, the initial yield burst, the full yield burst and the rupture burst equations. The objective of this study was to estimate casing burst strength after wear through Finite Element Analysis (FEA). It included calculation and comparison of the different theoretical bursts pressures with the simulation results along with effect of different wear shapes on L-80 casing material. The von Misses stress was used in the estimation of the burst pressure. The result obtained shows that the casing burst strength decreases as the wear percentage increases. Moreover, the burst strength value of the casing obtained from the FEA has a higher value compared to the theoretical burst strength values. Casing with crescent shaped wear give the highest burst strength value when simulated under nonlinear analysis. (paper)

  16. Element-topology-independent preconditioners for parallel finite element computations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, K. C.; Alexander, Scott

    1992-01-01

    A family of preconditioners for the solution of finite element equations are presented, which are element-topology independent and thus can be applicable to element order-free parallel computations. A key feature of the present preconditioners is the repeated use of element connectivity matrices and their left and right inverses. The properties and performance of the present preconditioners are demonstrated via beam and two-dimensional finite element matrices for implicit time integration computations.

  17. Elemental segregation during resistance spot welding of boron containing advanced high strength steels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amirthalingam, M.; Van der Aa, E.M.; Kwakernaak, C.; Hermans, M.J.M.; Richardson, I.M.

    2015-01-01

    The partitioning behaviour of carbon, phosphorous and boron during the solidification of a resistance spot weld pool was studied using experimental simulations and a phase field model. Steels with varying carbon, phosphorous and boron contents were designed and subjected to a range of resistant spot

  18. Laser welded steel sandwich panel bridge deck development : finite element analysis and stake weld strength tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    This report summarizes the analysis of laser welded steel sandwich panels for use in bridge structures and : static testing of laser stake welded lap shear coupons. Steel sandwich panels consist of two face sheets : connected by a relatively low-dens...

  19. Fixation strength analysis of cup to bone material using finite element simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anwar, Iwan Budiwan; Saputra, Eko; Ismail, Rifky; Jamari, J.; Van Der Heide, Emile

    2016-01-01

    Fixation of acetabular cup to bone material is an important initial stability for artificial hip joint. In general, the fixation in cement less-type acetabular cup uses press-fit and screw methods. These methods can be applied alone or together. Based on literature survey, the additional screw

  20. Measuring Relative Coupling Strength in Circadian Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmal, Christoph; Herzog, Erik D; Herzel, Hanspeter

    2018-02-01

    Modern imaging techniques allow the monitoring of circadian rhythms of single cells. Coupling between these single cellular circadian oscillators can generate coherent periodic signals on the tissue level that subsequently orchestrate physiological outputs. The strength of coupling in such systems of oscillators is often unclear. In particular, effects on coupling strength by varying cell densities, by knockouts, and by inhibitor applications are debated. In this study, we suggest to quantify the relative coupling strength via analyzing period, phase, and amplitude distributions in ensembles of individual circadian oscillators. Simulations of different oscillator networks show that period and phase distributions become narrower with increasing coupling strength. Moreover, amplitudes can increase due to resonance effects. Variances of periods and phases decay monotonically with coupling strength, and can serve therefore as measures of relative coupling strength. Our theoretical predictions are confirmed by studying recently published experimental data from PERIOD2 expression in slices of the suprachiasmatic nucleus during and after the application of tetrodotoxin (TTX). On analyzing the corresponding period, phase, and amplitude distributions, we can show that treatment with TTX can be associated with a reduced coupling strength in the system of coupled oscillators. Analysis of an oscillator network derived directly from the data confirms our conclusions. We suggest that our approach is also applicable to quantify coupling in fibroblast cultures and hepatocyte networks, and for social synchronization of circadian rhythmicity in rodents, flies, and bees.

  1. Strength evaluation code STEP for brittle materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishihara, Masahiro; Futakawa, Masatoshi.

    1997-12-01

    In a structural design using brittle materials such as graphite and/or ceramics it is necessary to evaluate the strength of component under complex stress condition. The strength of ceramic materials is said to be influenced by the stress distribution. However, in the structural design criteria simplified stress limits had been adopted without taking account of the strength change with the stress distribution. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the strength of component on the basis of the fracture model for brittle material. Consequently, the strength evaluation program, STEP, on a brittle fracture of ceramic materials based on the competing risk theory had been developed. Two different brittle fracture modes, a surface layer fracture mode dominated by surface flaws and an internal fracture mode by internal flaws, are treated in the STEP code in order to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture. The STEP code uses stress calculation results including complex shape of structures analyzed by the generalized FEM stress analysis code, ABAQUS, so as to be possible to evaluate the strength of brittle fracture for the structures having complicate shapes. This code is, therefore, useful to evaluate the structural integrity of arbitrary shapes of components such as core graphite components in the HTTR, heat exchanger components made of ceramics materials etc. This paper describes the basic equations applying to the STEP code, code system with a combination of the STEP and the ABAQUS codes and the result of the verification analysis. (author)

  2. Geometry and gravity influences on strength capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliner, Jeffrey; Wilmington, Robert P.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1994-01-01

    Strength, defined as the capability of an individual to produce an external force, is one of the most important determining characteristics of human performance. Knowledge of strength capabilities of a group of individuals can be applied to designing equipment and workplaces, planning procedures and tasks, and training individuals. In the manned space program, with the high risk and cost associated with spaceflight, information pertaining to human performance is important to ensuring mission success and safety. Knowledge of individual's strength capabilities in weightlessness is of interest within many areas of NASA, including workplace design, tool development, and mission planning. The weightless environment of space places the human body in a completely different context. Astronauts perform a variety of manual tasks while in orbit. Their ability to perform these tasks is partly determined by their strength capability as demanded by that particular task. Thus, an important step in task planning, development, and evaluation is to determine the ability of the humans performing it. This can be accomplished by utilizing quantitative techniques to develop a database of human strength capabilities in weightlessness. Furthermore, if strength characteristics are known, equipment and tools can be built to optimize the operators' performance. This study examined strength in performing a simple task, specifically, using a tool to apply a torque to a fixture.

  3. Strength training for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faigenbaum, A D

    2000-10-01

    The potential benefits of youth strength training extend beyond an increase in muscular strength and may include favorable changes in selected health- and fitness-related measures. If appropriate training guidelines are followed, regular participation in a youth strength-training program has the potential to increase bone mineral density, improve motor performance skills, enhance sports performance, and better prepare our young athletes for the demands of practice and competition. Despite earlier concerns regarding the safety and efficacy of youth strength training, current public health objectives now aim to increase the number of boys and girls age 6 and older who regularly participate in physical activities that enhance and maintain muscular fitness. Parents, teachers, coaches, and healthcare providers should realize that youth strength training is a specialized method of conditioning that can offer enormous benefit but at the same time can result in serious injury if established guidelines are not followed. With qualified instruction, competent supervision, and an appropriate progression of the volume and intensity of training, children and adolescents cannot only learn advanced strength training exercises but can feel good about their performances, and have fun. Additional clinical trails involving children and adolescents are needed to further explore the acute and chronic effects of strength training on a variety of anatomical, physiological, and psychological parameters.

  4. Behaviour and strength assessment of masonry prisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nassif Nazeer Thaickavil

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available This is a case study presenting the cracking behavior and assessment of the compressive strength of masonry prisms. The compressive strength of masonry was determined by performing laboratory tests on 192 masonry prism specimens corresponding to 3 specimens each in 64 groups. The variables considered in the experimental program are type of brick, strength of masonry and height-to-thickness (h/t ratio of the prism specimen. Pressed earth bricks and burnt clay bricks were used for the preparation of masonry prisms. A mathematical model is also proposed for the estimation of compressive strength of masonry prisms by performing a statistical multiple regression analysis on 232 data sets, which includes 64 test data from the present study and 168 test data published in the literature. The model was developed based on the regression analysis of test data of prisms made of a variety of masonry units namely clay bricks, pressed earth bricks, concrete blocks, calcium silicate bricks, stone blocks, perforated bricks and soft mud bricks. The proposed model not only accounts for the wide ranges of compressive strengths of masonry unit and mortar, but also accounts for the influence of volume fractions of masonry unit and mortar in addition to the height-to-thickness ratio. The predicted compressive strength of prisms using the proposed model is compared with 14 models available in published literature. The predicted strength was found to be in good agreement with the corresponding experimental data. Keywords: Prism strength, Stack bonded masonry, Running bonded masonry, Masonry unit strength, Cracking

  5. Predicting hand function in older adults: evaluations of grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Marie, Deana; Fredrick, Aaron; Bertram, Jessica; Utley, Kristen; Fess, Elaine Ewing

    2017-08-01

    Hand function is critical for independence in activities of daily living for older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine how grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterous coordination contributed to time-based versus self-report assessment of hand function in community-dwelling older adults. Adults aged ≥60 years without low vision or neurological disorders were recruited. Purdue Pegboard Test, Jamar hand dynamometer, 30-second arm curl test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, and the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument were administered to assess manual dexterous coordination, grip strength, arm curl strength, time-based hand function, and self-report of hand function, respectively. Eighty-four adults (mean age = 72 years) completed the study. Hierarchical multiple regressions show that older adults with better arm curl strength (β = -.25, p function test. In comparison, older adults with better grip strength (β = .40, p function. The relationship between grip strength and hand function may be test-specific. Grip strength becomes a significant factor when the test requires grip strength to successfully complete the test tasks. Arm curl strength independently contributed to hand function in both time-based and self-report assessments, indicating that strength of extrinsic muscles of the hand are essential for hand function.

  6. Are only Emotional Strengths Emotional? Character Strengths and Disposition to Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güsewell, Angelika; Ruch, Willibald

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the relations between character strengths and dispositional positive emotions (i.e. joy, contentment, pride, love, compassion, amusement, and awe). A sample of 574 German-speaking adults filled in the Dispositional Positive Emotion Scales (DPES; Shiota, Keltner, & John, 2006), and the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS; Peterson, Park, & Seligman, 2005). The factorial structure of the DPES was examined on item level. Joy and contentment could not be clearly separated; the items of the other five emotions loaded on separate factors. A confirmatory factor analysis assuming two latent factors (self-oriented and object/situation specific) was computed on scale level. Results confirmed the existence of these factors, but also indicated that the seven emotions did not split up into two clearly separable families. Correlations between dispositional positive emotions and character strengths were positive and generally low to moderate; a few theoretically meaningful strengths-emotions pairs yielded coefficients>.40. Finally, the link between five character strengths factors (i.e. emotional strengths, interpersonal strengths, strengths of restraint, intellectual strengths, and theological strengths) and the emotional dispositions was examined. Each of the factors displayed a distinctive "emotional pattern"; emotional strengths evidenced the most numerous and strongest links to emotional dispositions. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  7. Archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Haina; Peng, Nan; Shah, Shiraz Ali

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes, such as spind......SUMMARY: Research on archaeal extrachromosomal genetic elements (ECEs) has progressed rapidly in the past decade. To date, over 60 archaeal viruses and 60 plasmids have been isolated. These archaeal viruses exhibit an exceptional diversity in morphology, with a wide array of shapes...... on archaeal ECEs has just started to unravel the molecular biology of these genetic entities and their interactions with archaeal hosts, it is expected to accelerate in the next decade....

  8. Nuclear fuel element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armijo, J S; Coffing, L F

    1979-04-05

    The fuel element with circular cross-section for BWR and PWR consists of a core surrounded by a compound jacket container where there is a gap between the core and jacket during operation in the reactor. The core consists of U, Pu, Th compounds and mixtures of these. The compound jacket consists of zircaloy 2 or 4. In order to for example prevent the corrosion of the compound jacket, its inner surface has a metal barrier with smaller neutron absorbers than the jacket material in the form of a zirconium sponge. The zirconium of this metal barrier has impurities of various elements in the order of magnitude of 1000 to 5000 ppm. The oxygen content is in the range of 200 to 1200 ppm and the thickness of the metal barrier is 1-30% of the thickness of the jacket.

  9. Nuclear reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Eye, R.W.M.; Shennan, J.V.; Ford, L.H.

    1977-01-01

    Fuel element with particles from ceramic fissionable material (e.g. uranium carbide), each one being coated with pyrolitically deposited carbon and all of them being connected at their points of contact by means of an individual crossbar. The crossbar consists of silicon carbide produced by reaction of silicon metal powder with the carbon under the influence of heat. Previously the silicon metal powder together with the particles was kneaded in a solvent and a binder (e.g. epoxy resin in methyl ethyl ketone plus setting agent) to from a pulp. The reaction temperature lies at 1750 0 C. The reaction itself may take place in a nitrogen atmosphere. There will be produced a fuel element with a high overall thermal conductivity. (DG) [de

  10. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding, and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  11. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Rowland, T.C.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. A heat conducting, fission product retaining metal liner of a refractory metal is incorporated in the fuel element between the cladding and the nuclear fuel to inhibit mechanical interaction between the nuclear fuel and the cladding, to isolate fission products and nuclear fuel impurities from contacting the cladding and to improve the axial thermal peaking gradient along the length of the fuel rod. The metal liner can be in the form of a tube or hollow cylindrical column, a foil of single or multiple layers in the shape of a hollow cylindrical column, or a coating on the internal surface of the cladding. Preferred refractory metal materials are molybdenum, tungsten, rhenium, niobium and alloys of the foregoing metals

  12. Elements of quantum optics

    CERN Document Server

    Meystre, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Elements of Quantum Optics gives a self-contained and broad coverage of the basic elements necessary to understand and carry out research in laser physics and quantum optics, including a review of basic quantum mechanics and pedagogical introductions to system-reservoir interactions and to second quantization. The text reveals the close connection between many seemingly unrelated topics, such as probe absorption, four-wave mixing, optical instabilities, resonance fluorescence and squeezing. It also comprises discussions of cavity quantum electrodynamics and atom optics. The 4th edition includes a new chapter on quantum entanglement and quantum information, as well as added discussions of the quantum beam splitter, electromagnetically induced transparency, slow light, and the input-output formalism needed to understand many problems in quantum optics. It also provides an expanded treatment of the minimum-coupling Hamiltonian and a simple derivation of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, an important gateway to rese...

  13. Periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  14. Strength properties of concrete at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freskakis, G.N.; Burrow, R.C.; Debbas, E.B.

    1979-01-01

    A study is presented concerning the compressive strength, modulus of elasticity, and stress-strain relationships of concrete at elevated temperatures. A review of published results provides information for the development of upper and lower bound relationships for compressive strength and the modulus of elasticity and establishes exposure conditions for a lower bound thermal response. The relationships developed from the literature review are confirmed by the results of a verification test program. The strength and elasticity relationships provide a basis for the development of design stress-strain curves for concrete exposed to elevated temperatures

  15. Neutron source strength associated with FTR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boroughs, G.L.; Bunch, W.L.; Johnson, D.L.

    1975-01-01

    The study presented shows the important effect of shelf life on the neutron source strength anticipated from fuel irradiated in the FTR. The neutron source strength will be enhanced appreciably by extended shelf lives. High neutron source strengths will also be associated with reprocessed LWR plutonium, which is expected to contain a greater abundance of the higher isotopes. The branching ratio and cross section of 241 Am is an important parameter that needs to be defined more precisely to establish calculated values with greater precision

  16. Strength of low-carbon rotor steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voropaev, V.I.; Filimonov, O.V.; Borisov, I.A.

    1988-01-01

    The results of studying the effect of chemical composition and thermal treatment regimes on the structural strength of steels of the 25KhN3MFA type are presented. It is shown that alloying with niobium from 0.01 to 0.08% steels with the increased nickel content (4.2-4.5%) contributes to the increase of structural strength and reduction of semibrittleness temperature. To obtain high values of strength and plastic properties cooling with the rate of 10 3 -10 5 K/hr is recommended

  17. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    . Therefore, timely removal of ash deposits is essential for optimal boiler operation. In order to improve the qualitative and quantitative understanding of deposit shedding in boilers, this study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash...... deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000 °C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off by an electrically controlled arm, and the corresponding adhesion strength was measured. The results reveal the effect of temperature, ash/deposit composition......, sintering duration, and steel type on the adhesion strength....

  18. Adhesion Strength of Biomass Ash Deposits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laxminarayan, Yashasvi; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Wu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the shear adhesion strength of biomass ash deposits on superheater tubes. Artificial biomass ash deposits were prepared on superheater tubes and sintered in an oven at temperatures up to 1000°C. Subsequently, the deposits were sheared off with the help of an electrically...... controlled arm. Higher sintering temperatures resulted in greater adhesion strengths, with a sharp increase observed near the melting point of the ash. Repetition of experiments with fixed operation conditions revealed considerable variation in the obtained adhesion strengths, portraying the stochastic...

  19. Finite element analysis of an inflatable torus considering air mass structural element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajbhiye, S. C.; Upadhyay, S. H.; Harsha, S. P.

    2014-01-01

    Inflatable structures, also known as gossamer structures, are at high boom in the current space technology due to their low mass and compact size comparing to the traditional spacecraft designing. Internal pressure becomes the major source of strength and rigidity, essentially stiffen the structure. However, inflatable space based membrane structure are at high risk to the vibration disturbance due to their low structural stiffness and material damping. Hence, the vibration modes of the structure should be known to a high degree of accuracy in order to provide better control authority. In the past, most of the studies conducted on the vibration analysis of gossamer structures used inaccurate or approximate theories in modeling the internal pressure. The toroidal shaped structure is one of the important key element in space application, helps to support the reflector in space application. This paper discusses the finite-element analysis of an inflated torus. The eigen-frequencies are obtained via three-dimensional small-strain elasticity theory, based on extremum energy principle. The two finite-element model (model-1 and model-2) have cases have been generated using a commercial finite-element package. The structure model-1 with shell element and model-2 with the combination of the mass of enclosed fluid (air) added to the shell elements have been taken for the study. The model-1 is computed with present analytical approach to understand the convergence rate and the accuracy. The convergence study is made available for the symmetric modes and anti-symmetric modes about the centroidal-axis plane, meeting the eigen-frequencies of an inflatable torus with the circular cross section. The structural model-2 is introduced with air mass element and analyzed its eigen-frequency with different aspect ratio and mode shape response using in-plane and out-plane loading condition are studied.

  20. INFLUENCE OF STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAM ON ISOMETRIC MUSCLE STRENGTH IN YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Radovanovic

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Strength training, or resistance training, is a form of physical conditioning used to increase the ability to resist force. Since muscular strength is required for success in many sports, it is logical to assume that stronger and more powerful young athletes will achieve better results. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of strength training on young athletes. An eight-week strength training program for developing muscle strength was performed in this study. Training protocol was designed specifically for young adolescent’s athletes. The program consisted of exercises for lower and upper body, abdominal and lower back muscles. The programs did not involve the maximal (1-3 repetitions maximum and other very hard intensity exercises that may had negative effect on young athletes. The results showed that strength training program had positive effects on maximal isometric muscle force (Fmax and motor skill. The increase presents the combined influence of strength training and growth.

  1. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ainsworth, K.F.

    1979-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described having a cluster of nuclear fuel pins supported in parallel, spaced apart relationship by transverse cellular braces within coaxial, inner and outer sleeves, the inner sleeve being in at least two separate axial lengths, each of the transverse braces having a peripheral portion which is clamped peripherally between the ends of the axial lengths of the inner sleeve. (author)

  2. Sensor for ionizable elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkey, E.; Reed, W.A. III; Hickam, W.M.

    1977-01-01

    Sensor to detect thermally ionizable elements or molucules in air, water vapour or oxygen or to be used as alkali leak detector in vacuum systems, e.g. in the pipe system of a liquid-metal cooled FBR. The sensor consists of an filament made of thorium-containing iridium as cathode with a temperature upto 1000 0 C and an anode sheet of molybdenum, nickel or stainless steal. (ORU) [de

  3. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butterfield, C.E.; Waite, E.

    1982-01-01

    A nuclear reactor fuel element comprising a column of vibration compacted fuel which is retained in consolidated condition by a thimble shaped plug. The plug is wedged into gripping engagement with the wall of the sheath by a wedge. The wedge material has a lower coefficient of expansion than the sheath material so that at reactor operating temperature the retainer can relax sufficient to accommodate thermal expansion of the column of fuel. (author)

  4. OXIDATION OF TRANSURANIC ELEMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.L.

    1959-02-17

    A method is reported for oxidizing neptunium or plutonium in the presence of cerous values without also oxidizing the cerous values. The method consists in treating an aqueous 1N nitric acid solution, containing such cerous values together with the trivalent transuranic elements, with a quantity of hydrogen peroxide stoichiometrically sufficient to oxidize the transuranic values to the hexavalent state, and digesting the solution at room temperature.

  5. Transportation of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thubert, Francis; Rentien, Guy; Jacquet, Michel

    1981-01-01

    The production and marketing of artificial radioactive elements engaged in by the 'Office des Rayonnements Ionisants' requires the use of specially designed packagings and assorted means of transport. The authors begin by describing the different kinds of products involved and the forms of packagings needed, and go on to discuss the various means of transport used, underlining the fact that, in terms of number and gravity, the incidents that have occurred to date have indeed been few and far between [fr

  6. Vented nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, M.; Hirose, Y.

    1976-01-01

    A description is given of a vented nuclear fuel element having a plenum for accumulation of fission product gases and plug means for delaying the release of the fission product gases from the plenum, the plug means comprising a first porous body wettable with a liquid metal and a second porous body non-wettable with the liquid metal, the first porous body being impregnated with the liquid metal and in contact with the liquid metal

  7. COHESIVE STRENGTH OF DENTIN RESISTÊNCIA COESIVA DA DENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Fernando DEMARCO

    1997-07-01

    Full Text Available The bond strength of dentin adhesives to dentin has increased after each generation. Although dentin substratum is part of the bonding process, little importance has been given to measure dentin cohesive strength. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cohesive strength of dentin in human canines. Seventeen non carious canines were selected. All of them had been extracted for more than one year. The teeth were ground until dentin square samples with approximately 2 X 2 mm were obtained. They were embedded in acrylic resin and subjected to shear stress, in a Wolpert Machine, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean cohesive strength of dentin in shear mode was 33.95 (+-9.72 MPa. The fracture surfaces were observed under a X40 magnification. A finite element analysis was performed to observe the stress distribution as related to the shear test. The failure pattern was compatible with the shear test and also with the stress distribution in the finite element analysisA resistência de união dos adesivos dentinários tem sido aumentada com o desenvolvimento de cada nova geração. Pouca importância tem sido dada à resistência coesiva da dentina. A proposta deste estudo foi avaliar a resistência coesiva da dentina. Dezessete caninos humanos hígidos, os quais tinham sido extraídos há mais de um ano, foram usados. Os dentes foram desgastados até a obtenção de corpos-de-prova em dentina, de formato quadrangular, com tamanho aproximado de 2 X 2 mm. Os dentes foram incluídos em resina acrílica e, então, submetidos ao teste de cisalhamento em uma máquina de ensaios universais Wolpert, com uma velocidade de 0,5 mm/min. A resistência coesiva média da dentina no teste de cisalhamento foi de 33,95 (+- 9,72 MPa. O tipo de fratura foi analisado com um aumento de 40X. Foi realizada uma análise com elemento finito, para observar a distribuição do estresse relacionada com o teste de cisalhamento. O padrão de fratura encontrado foi compat

  8. Helium the disappearing element

    CERN Document Server

    Sears, Wheeler M

    2015-01-01

    The subject of the book is helium, the element, and its use in myriad applications including MRI machines, particle accelerators, space telescopes, and of course balloons and blimps. It was at the birth of our Universe, or the Big Bang, where the majority of cosmic helium was created; and stellar helium production continues. Although helium is the second most abundant element in the Universe, it is actually quite rare here on Earth and only exists because of radioactive elements deep within the Earth. This book includes a detailed history of the discovery of helium, of the commercial industry built around it, how the helium we actually encounter is produced within the Earth, and the state of the helium industry today. The gas that most people associate with birthday party balloons is running out. “Who cares?” you might ask. Well, without helium, MRI machines could not function, rockets could not go into space, particle accelerators such as those used by CERN could not operate, fiber optic cables would not...

  9. Elements of quantum information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, W.P.

    2007-01-01

    Elements of Quantum Information introduces the reader to the fascinating field of quantum information processing, which lives on the interface between computer science, physics, mathematics, and engineering. This interdisciplinary branch of science thrives on the use of quantum mechanics as a resource for high potential modern applications. With its wide coverage of experiments, applications, and specialized topics - all written by renowned experts - Elements of Quantum Information provides and indispensable, up-to-date account of the state of the art of this rapidly advancing field and takes the reader straight up to the frontiers of current research. The articles have first appeared as a special issue of the journal 'Fortschritte der Physik / Progress of Physics'. Since then, they have been carefully updated. The book will be an inspiring source of information and insight for anyone researching and specializing in experiments and theory of quantum information. Topics addressed in Elements of Quantum Information include - Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics - Segmented Paul Traps - Cold Atoms and Bose-Einstein Condensates in Microtraps, Optical Lattices, and on Atom Chips - Rydberg Gases - Factorization of Numbers with Physical Systems - Entanglement of Continuous Variables - NMR and Solid State Quantum Computation - Quantum Algorithms and Quantum Machines - Complexity Theory - Quantum Crytography. (orig.)

  10. Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H.R. Ghoreishy

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This research work is devoted to the footprint analysis of a steel-belted radial tyre (185/65R14 under vertical static load using finite element method. Two models have been developed in which in the first model the tread patterns were replaced by simple ribs while the second model was consisted of details of the tread blocks. Linear elastic and hyper elastic (Arruda-Boyce material models were selected to describe the mechanical behavior of the reinforcing and rubbery parts, respectively. The above two finite element models of the tyre were analyzed under inflation pressure and vertical static loads. The second model (with detailed tread patterns was analyzed with and without friction effect between tread and contact surfaces. In every stage of the analysis, the results were compared with the experimental data to confirm the accuracy and applicability of the model. Results showed that neglecting the tread pattern design not only reduces the computational cost and effort but also the differences between computed deformations do not show significant changes. However, more complicated variables such as shape and area of the footprint zone and contact pressure are affected considerably by the finite element model selected for the tread blocks. In addition, inclusion of friction even in static state changes these variables significantly.

  11. Study of Superheavy Elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Sigurd

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear shell model predicts that the next doubly magic shell-closure beyond 208 Pb is at a proton number Z = 114, 120, or 126 and at a neutron number N = 172 or 184. The outstanding aim of experimental investigations is the exploration of this region of spherical 'SuperHeavy Elements' (SHEs). Experimental methods are described, which allowed for the identification of elements produced on a cross-section level of about 1 pb. The decay data reveal that for the heaviest elements, the dominant decay mode is alpha emission, not fission. Decay properties as well as reaction cross-sections are compared with results of theoretical investigations. Finally, plans are presented for the further development of the experimental set-up and the application of new techniques, as for instance the precise mass measurement of the produced nuclei using ion traps. At increased sensitivity, the detailed exploration of the region of spherical SHEs will start, after first steps on the island were made in recent years. (Author)

  12. New functionalities in abundant element oxides: ubiquitous element strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Hideo; Hayashi, Katsuro; Kamiya, Toshio; Atou, Toshiyuki; Susaki, Tomofumi

    2011-01-01

    While most ceramics are composed of ubiquitous elements (the ten most abundant elements within the Earth's crust), many advanced materials are based on rare elements. A 'rare-element crisis' is approaching owing to the imbalance between the limited supply of rare elements and the increasing demand. Therefore, we propose a 'ubiquitous element strategy' for materials research, which aims to apply abundant elements in a variety of innovative applications. Creation of innovative oxide materials and devices based on conventional ceramics is one specific challenge. This review describes the concept of ubiquitous element strategy and gives some highlights of our recent research on the synthesis of electronic, thermionic and structural materials using ubiquitous elements. (topical review)

  13. Strength evaluation of top nozzle holddown spring screw for nuclear fuel assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koh, S. K.; Won, S. Y.; Ryu, C. H.; Kim, Y. J.; Lee, K. S.; Jeon, K. L.

    2002-01-01

    Holddown springs are required to maintain the nuclear fuel assembly in contact with lower core plate and permit thermal and irradiation-induced length changes. Therefore, the holddown spring screw must be designed such that it is capable of sustaining the loads imposed by the initial tensile preload and operational loads. Prior to assessing the structural integrity of the spring screw in the corrosive and irradiating environment throughout the design lifetime of the fuel assembly, the strength evaluation of screw was made in this paper using the mechanics of materials and finite element methods. Calculations based on the mechanics of materials, showed that the preloaded screw with an operating holddown force had a quite large margin of safety in strength. However, the elastic-plastic finite element analysis showed that the local stresses at the critical regions of head-shank fillet and thread root significantly exceeded than the yield strength of the screw material, resulting in local plastic deformation. Preloading on the screw applied for tightening had beneficial effects on the screw strength by reducing the stress level at the critical regions, compared to the screw without preload. Calculated spring deflection using the finite element analysis was in close agreement with the experimentally measured deflection

  14. Coupling of smooth particle hydrodynamics with the finite element method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attaway, S.W.; Heinstein, M.W.; Swegle, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    A gridless technique called smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) has been coupled with the transient dynamics finite element code ppercase[pronto]. In this paper, a new weighted residual derivation for the SPH method will be presented, and the methods used to embed SPH within ppercase[pronto] will be outlined. Example SPH ppercase[pronto] calculations will also be presented. One major difficulty associated with the Lagrangian finite element method is modeling materials with no shear strength; for example, gases, fluids and explosive biproducts. Typically, these materials can be modeled for only a short time with a Lagrangian finite element code. Large distortions cause tangling of the mesh, which will eventually lead to numerical difficulties, such as negative element area or ''bow tie'' elements. Remeshing will allow the problem to continue for a short while, but the large distortions can prevent a complete analysis. SPH is a gridless Lagrangian technique. Requiring no mesh, SPH has the potential to model material fracture, large shear flows and penetration. SPH computes the strain rate and the stress divergence based on the nearest neighbors of a particle, which are determined using an efficient particle-sorting technique. Embedding the SPH method within ppercase[pronto] allows part of the problem to be modeled with quadrilateral finite elements, while other parts are modeled with the gridless SPH method. SPH elements are coupled to the quadrilateral elements through a contact-like algorithm. ((orig.))

  15. Discrete element modeling of microstructure of nacre

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, Mei Qiang; Cheng, Jing-Ru C.

    2018-04-01

    The microstructure of nacre consists of polygon-shaped aragonite mineral tablets bonded by very thin layers of organic materials and is organized in a brick-mortar morphology. In this research, the discrete element method was utilized to model this structure. The aragonite mineral tablets were modeled with three-dimensional polygon particles generated by the Voronoi tessellation method to represent the Voronoi-like patterns of mineral tablets assembly observed in experiments. The organic matrix was modeled with a group of spring elements. The constitutive relations of the spring elements were inspired from the experimental results of organic molecules from the literature. The mineral bridges were modeled with simple elastic bonds with the parameters based on experimental data from the literature. The bulk stress-strain responses from the models agreed well with experimental results. The model results show that the mineral bridges play important roles in providing the stiffness and yield strength for the nacre, while the organic matrix in providing the ductility for the nacre. This work demonstrated the suitability of particle methods for modeling microstructures of nacre.

  16. Evaluation of Concrete Cylinder Tests Using Finite Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saabye Ottosen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Nonlinear axisymmetric finite element analyses are performed on the uniaxial compressive test of concrete cylinders. The models include thick steel loading plates, and cylinders with height‐to‐diameter ratios (h/d) ranging from 1‐3 are treated. A simple constitutive model of the concrete is emplo......Nonlinear axisymmetric finite element analyses are performed on the uniaxial compressive test of concrete cylinders. The models include thick steel loading plates, and cylinders with height‐to‐diameter ratios (h/d) ranging from 1‐3 are treated. A simple constitutive model of the concrete...... uniaxial strength the use of geometrically matched loading plates seems to be advantageous. Finally, it is observed that for variations of the element size within limits otherwise required to obtain a realistic analysis, the results are insensitive to the element size....

  17. Effect of heating palladium-silver alloys on ceramic bond strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie-yin; Li, Rui-nan; Chang, Shao-hai; Zhuang, Pei-lin; Liao, Juan-kun; Ye, Xiu-hua; Ye, Jian-tao

    2015-11-01

    The effects of different heat treatments on the internal oxidation and metal-ceramic bond in Pd-Ag alloys with different trace elements require further documentation. The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine whether heat treatment affects the metal-ceramic bond strength of 2 Pd-Ag alloys containing different trace elements. Thirteen cast specimens (25×3×0.5 mm) from each of 2 Pd-Ag alloy groups (W-1 and Argelite 61+3) were allocated to heat treatments before porcelain application: heating under reduced atmospheric pressure of 0.0014 MPa and 0.0026 MPa and heating under normal atmospheric pressure. Bond strengths were evaluated using a 3-point bending test according to ISO9693. Results were analyzed using 2-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (α=.05). Visual observation was used to determine the failure types of the fractured specimens. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy were used to study morphologies, elemental compositions, and distributions in the specimens. The W-1 group had a mean bond strength significantly higher than that of Argelite 61+3 (PHeating under reduced atmospheric pressures of 0.0014 MPa and 0.0026 MPa resulted in similar bond strengths (P=.331), and both pressures had significantly higher bond strengths than that of heating under normal atmospheric pressure (P=.002, PHeating under different air pressures resulted in Pd-Ag alloys that contained either Sn or In and Ga, with various degrees of internal oxidation and different quantities of metallic nodules. Heating under reduced atmospheric pressure effectively improved the bond strength of the ceramic-to-Pd-Ag alloys. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The transuranium elements: From neptunium and plutonium to element 112

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    Beginning in the 1930's, both chemists and physicists became interested in synthesizing new artificial elements. The first transuranium element, Np, was synthesized in 1940. Over the past six decades, 20 transuranium elements have been produced. A review of the synthesis is given. The procedure of naming the heavy elements is also discussed. It appears feasible to produce elements 113 and 114. With the Berkeley Gas-filled Separator, it should be possible to reach the superheavy elements in the region of the spherical Z=114 shell, but with fewer neutrons than the N=184 spherical shell. 57 refs, 6 figs

  19. Strength Tests on Hulls and Floats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaes, K

    1942-01-01

    The present report deals with strength tests on hulls and floats intended in part for the collection of construction data for the design of these components and in part for the stress analysis of the finished hulls and floats.

  20. Magnetic Field Strength Evaluation Yu. S. Yefimov

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physical task is to evaluate the strength and topology of magnetic field in blazars and related ... polarization, spectral index of radiation, ratio of apparent velocity of the motion of matter along .... A detailed analysis of the evaluation of physical.

  1. Shear strength of clay and silt embankments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Highway embankment is one of the most common large-scale geotechnical facilities constructed in Ohio. In the past, the design of these embankments was largely based on soil shear strength properties that had been estimated from previously published e...

  2. Pilates: Build Strength in Your Core Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Fitness Pilates may sound intimidating, but it's an accessible way to build strength in your core muscles for better posture, balance and flexibility. By Mayo Clinic Staff Pilates isn't just for fitness fanatics. It's actually ...

  3. Personality Typology in Relation to Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Milaneschi, Yuri; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity plays a central role in the age-related decline in muscle strength, an important component in the process leading to disability. Personality, a significant determinant of health behaviors including physical activity, could therefore impact muscle strength throughout adulthood and affect the rate of muscle strength decline with aging. Personality typologies combining “high neuroticism” (N≥55), “low extraversion” (Epersonality types. Facet analyses suggest an important role for the N components of depression and hostility. Physical activity level appears to partly explain some of these associations. Conclusion Findings provide support for the notion that the typological approach to personality may be useful in identifying specific personality types at risk of low muscle strength and offer the possibility for more targeted prevention and intervention programs. PMID:21614452

  4. Neural adaptations to electrical stimulation strength training

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hortobagyi, Tibor; Maffiuletti, Nicola A.

    2011-01-01

    This review provides evidence for the hypothesis that electrostimulation strength training (EST) increases the force of a maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) through neural adaptations in healthy skeletal muscle. Although electrical stimulation and voluntary effort activate muscle differently, there

  5. Statistical Analysis of Data for Timber Strengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Hoffmeyer, P.

    Statistical analyses are performed for material strength parameters from approximately 6700 specimens of structural timber. Non-parametric statistical analyses and fits to the following distributions types have been investigated: Normal, Lognormal, 2 parameter Weibull and 3-parameter Weibull...

  6. Collision strengths for transitions in Ni XIX

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    4l configurations of Ni XIX, for which flexible atomic code. (FAC) has been ... atomic data (namely energy levels, radiative rates, collision strengths, excitation rates, etc.) ... Zhang and Sampson, who adopted the Coulomb–Born-exchange.

  7. Influence of processing factors over concrete strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kara, K. A.; Dolzhenko, A. V.; Zharikov, I. S.

    2018-03-01

    Construction of facilities of cast in-situ reinforced concrete poses additional requirements to quality of material, peculiarities of the construction process may sometimes lead to appearance of lamination planes and inhomogeneity of concrete, which reduce strength of the material and structure as a whole. Technology compliance while working with cast in-situ concrete has a significant impact onto the concrete strength. Such process factors as concrete curing, vibration and compaction of the concrete mixture, temperature treatment, etc., when they are countered or inadequately followed lead to a significant reduction in concrete strength. Here, the authors experimentally quantitatively determine the loss of strength in in-situ cast concrete structures due to inadequate following of process requirements, in comparison with full compliance.

  8. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  9. Analysis of possibilities for functional capacity for work rise of reactor fuel elements at nuclear engine regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deryavko, I.I.; Perepelkin, I.G.; Pivovarov, O.S.; Storozhenko, A.N.; Tarasov, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    The principle results of carbide fuel rods testing during series of IVG.1 reactor starts up at regime simulating nuclear engine regime of nuclear moving power unit are given. Considerable degradation of initial fuel elements status increasing from start up to start up and which could resulted fail of separate technological channels is shown. Origin case of extreme degradation of fuel elements status are insufficient thermal strength of fuel elements operation in the field brittle state of sintered carbide material, Possible ways of artificial reinforce of fuel elements of low temperature sections, increasing its thermal strength up to required level

  10. Strength and power of knee extensor muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Olivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the studies of human neuromuscular function, the function of leg muscles has been most often measured, particularly the function of the knee extensors. Therefore, this review will be focused on knee extensors, methods for assessment of its function, the interdependence of strength and power, relations that describe these two abilities and the influence of various factors on their production (resistance training, stretching, movement tasks, age, etc.. Given that it consists of four separate muscles, the variability of their anatomical characteristics affects their participation in strength and power production, depending on the type of movement and motion that is performed. Since KE is active in a variety of activities it must be able to generate great strength in a large and diverse range of muscle lengths and high shortening velocities, in respect to different patterns of strength production, and thus different generation capacities within the muscle (Blazevich et al., 2006. It has been speculated that KE exerts its Pmax at workloads close to subject's own body weight or lower (Rahmani et al., 2001, which is very close to the maximum dynamic output hypothesis (MDI of Jaric and Markovic (2009. Changes under the influence of resistance training or biological age are variously manifested in muscle's morphological, physiological and neural characteristics, and thus in strength and power. Understanding the issues related to strength and power as abilities of great importance for daily activities, is also important for sports and rehabilitation. Performances improvement in sports in which leg muscles strength and power are crucial, as well as recovery after the injuries, are largely dependent on the research results regarding KE function. Also, the appropriate strength balance between knee flexors and extensors is important for the knee joint stability, so that the presence of imbalance between these two muscle groups might be a risk factor for

  11. Strength and structure of nanocrystalline titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskova, N.I.; Pereturina, I.A.; Elkina, O.A.; Stolyarov, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation results on strength and plasticity of nanocrystalline titanium VT-1 are presented. Specific features of plastic deformation on tension of this material specimens in an electron microscope column are studied in situ. It is shown that nanocrystalline titanium strength and plasticity at room temperature are dependent on the structure and nanograin size. It is revealed that deformation processes in nanocrystalline titanium are characterized by activation of deformation rotational modes and microtwinning [ru

  12. Characterization of Depleted-Uranium Strength and Damage Behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, III, George T. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Chen, Shuh-Rong [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bronkhorst, Curt A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dennis-Koller, Darcie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cerreta, Ellen K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cady, Carl M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McCabe, Rodney J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Addessio, Francis L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schraad, Mark W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Thoma, Dan J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lopez, Mike F. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mason, Thomas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Papin, Pallas A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trujillo, Carl P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Korzekwa, Deniece R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Luscher, Darby J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hixson, Robert S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Maudlin, Paul J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kelly, A. M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2012-12-17

    The intent of this report is to document the status of our knowledge of the mechanical and damage behavior of Depleted Uranium(DU hereafter). This report briefly summaries the motivation of the experimental and modeling research conducted at Los Alamos National Laboratory(LANL) on DU since the early 1980’s and thereafter the current experimental data quantifying the strength and damage behavior of DU as a function of a number of experimental variables including processing, strain rate, temperature, stress state, and shock prestraining. The effect of shock prestraining on the structure-property response of DU is described and the effect on post-shock mechanical behavior of DU is discussed. The constitutive experimental data utilized to support the derivation of two constitutive strength (plasticity) models, the Preston-Tonks-Wallace (PTW) and Mechanical Threshold Stress (MTS) models, for both annealed and shock prestrained DU are detailed and the Taylor cylinder validation tests and finite-element modeling (FEM) utilized to validate these strength models is discussed. The similarities and differences in the PTW and MTS model descriptions for DU are discussed for both the annealed and shock prestrained conditions. Quasi-static tensile data as a function of triaxial constraint and spallation test data are described. An appendix additionally briefly describes low-pressure equation-of-state data for DU utilized to support the spallation experiments. The constitutive behavior of DU screw/bolt material is presented. The response of DU subjected to dynamic tensile extrusion testing as a function of temperature is also described. This integrated experimental technique is planned to provide an additional validation test in the future. The damage data as a function of triaxiality, tensile and spallation data, is thereafter utilized to support derivation of the Tensile Plasticity (TEPLA) damage model and simulations for comparison to the DU spallation data are presented

  13. Percentage Level of Tannin fur Rabbit for Leather Concerning Stitch Tearing Strength, Tearing Strength and Flexibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustakim Mustakim

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to find out the appropriate of tannin level for rabbit fur leather concerning stitch tearing strength, tearing strength, and flexibility. The result were expected to contribute good information for the society, leather craftsman, and further researchers about fur leather tanning especially rabbit fur leather with tannin concerning stitch tearing strength, tearing strength and flexibility. The material that used were 12 pieces of four months of rabbit skin. The research method was Completely Randomized Design, consist of three treatments of tannin, they were: M1 (mimosa 15%, M2 (mimosa 20%, and M3 (mimosa 25%. Each of treatment hold on four repetition, the variables which measured were stitch tearing strength, tearing strength, and flexibility of fur leather. Data were  analysed by analysis variance followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test. The result of this research indicate that the use level of tannin give significant influence (P<0.05 among stitch tearing strength, tearing strength. It gave a very significant influence (P<0.01 for flexibility of rabbit fur leather. Based on the result, can be concluded that 25 % of tannin (mimosa, produce the best  result on stitch tearing strength and tearing strength. The increase of tannin offer will decrease the flexibility of fur leather but the lowest tannin produced the best flexibility of fur leather (15 percent. The best quality of rabbit fur leather produced by 25 % of tannin.   Keywords : leather, tannin, quality

  14. Load Carrying Capacity of Shear Wall T-Connections Reinforced with High Strength Wire Ropes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Bryndum, Thor; Larsen, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction-friendly so......Traditionally, U-bar loop connections with keyed joints have been used in vertical shear connections between precast concrete wall elements. However, in the recent years, connections with looped high strength wire ropes instead of U-bar loops have proven to be a much more construction......-friendly solution. The wire ropes have no bending stiffness and therefore allow for an easier vertical installation of the wall elements. During the last 10 – 15 years, a number of shear tests on plane wire rope connections have been carried out. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, tests on wire rope...... connections for assembly of precast elements in different planes, such as T- and L-connections, have not yet been published. This paper presents the results of a large test series recently conducted at the University of Southern Denmark to study the shear behaviour of high strength wire rope T...

  15. Upper extremity injuries associated with strength training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haupt, H A

    2001-07-01

    Most injuries sustained during strength training are mild strains that resolve with appropriate rest. More severe injuries include traumatic shoulder dislocations, tendon ruptures of the pectoralis major, biceps, and triceps; stress fractures of the distal clavicle, humerus, radius, and ulna; traumatic fractures of the distal radius and ulna in adolescent weightlifters; and compressive and stretch neuropathies. These more severe injuries are usually the result of improperly performing a strength training exercise. Educating athletes regarding proper strength-training techniques serves to reverse established injury patterns and to prevent these injuries in the first place. Recognizing the association of anabolic steroid use to several of the injury patterns further reinforces the need for medical specialists to counsel athletes against their use. With the increasing use of supplements such as creatine, the incidence and nature of strength-training injuries may change further. Greater emphasis on the competitive performance of younger athletes undoubtedly will generate enthusiasm for strength training at earlier ages in both sexes. The importance of proper supervision of these young athletes by knowledgeable persons will increase. As the popularity of strength training grows, there will be ample opportunity to continue to catalog the injury patterns associated with this activity.

  16. Strength Testing in Motor Neuron Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefner, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Loss of muscle strength is a cardinal feature of all motor neuron diseases. Functional loss over time, including respiratory dysfunction, inability to ambulate, loss of ability to perform activities of daily living, and others are due, in large part, to decline in strength. Thus, the accurate measurement of limb muscle strength is essential in therapeutic trials to best understand the impact of therapy on vital function. While qualitative strength measurements show declines over time, the lack of reproducibility and linearity of measurement make qualitative techniques inadequate. A variety of quantitative measures have been developed; all have both positive attributes and limitations. However, with careful training and reliability testing, quantitative measures have proven to be reliable and sensitive indicators of both disease progression and the impact of experimental therapy. Quantitative strength measurements have demonstrated potentially important therapeutic effects in both amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and spinobulbar muscular atrophy, and have been shown feasible in children with spinal muscular atrophy. The spectrum of both qualitative and quantitative strength measurements are reviewed and their utility examined in this review.

  17. Strength gradient enhances fatigue resistance of steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwei; Liu, Jiabin; Wang, Gang; Wang, Hongtao; Wei, Yujie; Gao, Huajian

    2016-02-01

    Steels are heavily used in infrastructure and the transportation industry, and enhancing their fatigue resistance is a major challenge in materials engineering. In this study, by introducing a gradient microstructure into 304 austenitic steel, which is one of the most widely used types of stainless steel, we show that a strength gradient substantially enhances the fatigue life of the material. Pre-notched samples with negative strength gradients in front of the notch’s tip endure many more fatigue cycles than do samples with positive strength gradients during the crack initiation stage, and samples with either type of gradient perform better than do gradient-free samples with the same average yield strength. However, as a crack grows, samples with positive strength gradients exhibit better resistance to fatigue crack propagation than do samples with negative gradients or no gradient. This study demonstrates a simple and promising strategy for using gradient structures to enhance the fatigue resistance of materials and complements related studies of strength and ductility.

  18. Hydrodynamic Characteristics and Strength Analysis of a Novel Dot-matrix Oscillating Wave Energy Converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Meng; Xiao, Chengsi; Sun, Jinwei; Shao, Zhuxiao; Zheng, Qiuhong

    2017-12-01

    The paper analyzes hydrodynamic characteristics and the strength of a novel dot-matrix oscillating wave energy converter, which is in accordance with nowadays’ research tendency: high power, high efficiency, high reliability and low cost. Based on three-dimensional potential flow theory, the paper establishes motion control equations of the wave energy converter unit and calculates wave loads and motions. On this basis, a three-dimensional finite element model of the device is built to check its strength. Through the analysis, it can be confirmed that the WEC is feasible and the research results could be a reference for wave energy’s exploration and utilization.

  19. Calculation of the quadrupole magnet strengths in the PEP lattice for SCORE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, A.S.; Lee, M.J.

    1978-03-01

    The code, QUADS, which determines the step size in making configuration changes and calculates the field strengths of the 11 main ring quadrupole magnet families at each configuration has been completed. This code has been designed to have minimum computation time while keeping the necessary features for making future modifications of the beam lattice. It is being incorporated into SCORE, the program for the strength computation of the ring elements. The purpose of this note is to describe the method used in this calculation. 4 figs

  20. Mapping strengths into virtues: The relation of the 24 VIA-strengths to six ubiquitous virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald eRuch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Values-in-Action (VIA-classification distinguishes six core virtues and 24 strengths. As the assignment of the strengths to the virtues was done on theoretical grounds it still needs empirical verification. As an alternative to factor analytic investigations the present study utilizes expert judgments. In a pilot study the conceptual overlap among five sources of knowledge (strength’s name including synonyms, short definitions, brief descriptions, longer theoretical elaborations, and item content about a particular strength was examined. The results show that the five sources converged quite well, with the short definitions and the items being slightly different from the other. All strengths exceeded a cut-off value but the convergence was much better for some strengths (e.g., zest than for others (e.g., perspective. In the main study 70 experts (from psychology, philosophy, theology, etc. and 41 laypersons rated how prototypical the strengths are for each of the six virtues. The results showed that 10 were very good markers for their virtues, 9 were good markers, four were acceptable markers, and only one strength failed to reach the cut-off score for its assigned virtue. However, strengths were often markers for two or even three virtues, and occasionally they marked the other virtue more strongly than the one they were assigned to. The virtue prototypicality ratings were slightly positively correlated with higher coefficients being found for justice and humanity. A factor analysis of the 24 strengths across the ratings yielded the six factors with an only slightly different composition of strengths and double loadings. It is proposed to adjust either the classification (by reassigning strengths and by allowing strengths to be subsumed under more than one virtue or to change the definition of certain strengths so that they only exemplify one virtue. The results are discussed in the context of factor analytic attempts to verify the

  1. Increasing Lean Mass and Strength: A Comparison of High Frequency Strength Training to Lower Frequency Strength Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Michael H; Burns, Steve P

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect strength training frequency has on improvements in lean mass and strength. Participants were 7 women and 12 men, age ( χ̄ = 34.64 years ± 6.91 years), with strength training experience, training age ( χ̄ = 51.16 months ± 39.02 months). Participants were assigned to one of two groups to equal baseline group demographics. High frequency training group (HFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist, 3 times per week, exercising with 3 sets per muscle group per session (3 total body workouts). Low frequency training group (LFT) trained each muscle group as the agonist one time per week, completing all 9 sets during that one workout. LFT consisted of a routine split over three days: 1) pectoralis, deltoids, and triceps; 2) upper back and biceps; 3) quadriceps, hamstrings, calves, and abdominals. Following eight weeks of training, HFT increased lean mass by 1.06 kg ± 1.78 kg, (1.9%), and LFT increased lean mass by .99 kg ± 1.31 kg, (2.0%). HFT strength improvements on the chest press was 9.07 kg ± 6.33 kg, (11%), and hack squat 20.16 kg ± 11.59 kg, (21%). LFT strength improvements on chest press was 5.80kg ± 4.26 kg, (7.0%), and hack squat 21.83 kg ± 11.17 kg, (24 %). No mean differences between groups were significant. These results suggest that HFT and LFT of equal set totals result in similar improvements in lean mass and strength, following 8 weeks of strength training.

  2. Analysis and Design of Rolling Stock Elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Chugunov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The work solves the problem of equal-strength design of the rolling stock elements in option of discrete equal-strength. For this purpose, has been developed the software built in SolidWorks and SolidWorks Simulation as an AddIn-application using necessary basic functionality and extending it in the specified part on the basis of API SolidWorks and COM technology.The SolidWorks software is used to develop a 3D-model for general force frame of the wagon as an assembly. As this assembly is quite complicated and includes many elements both standard, and non-standard type, 3D - specification is developed by 3Dvia Composer software, which is included in the article in the form of the gif-animation and via-roller. This means is very useful for the evident analysis of topology and geometrical properties of a design as a whole, facilitates a procedure of adequate formation of the FE model providing accuracy and profitability of computing. From the point of view of profitability and opportunities of definition of concentrators of stresses with a sufficient accuracy for practice the combined model including volume and shell FEM is optimum.In the work the analysis results of stress-strain state of a design are given in two options of static loading in the form of stress diagrams, the main areas of stress concentration are revealed.Results of equal-strength design in the form of thickness distribution on thin-walled elements of a design, considered within FEM as shells, are received. It is shown that the developed software doesn't allow optimum design results, however it is economically viable, simple in use and can be applied to the solution of problems of rational design in design practice.SolidWorks, as well as the majority of similar CADs, possess an open architecture and allow users to apply its functionality. This work continues a series of publications of the author of this paper and other authors concerning the API-based CAD/CAE adaptation and

  3. The effect of notches and pits on corrosion fatigue strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatner, Ian

    An investigation has been undertaken to examine the fatigue behaviour of two martensitic steels in air and aggressive environments. The steels studied are, 18% Ni marageing steel and FV520B, the later being a stainless steel turbine blade material and the former being a marageing steel that suffers general corrosion in mild environments. Both steels were heat treated to give similar tensile strength.The design and manufacture of an autoclave allowed push-pull fatigue tests to be conducted in aggressive environments at elevated temperatures.Corrosion potential was monitored using a three electrode cell and was controlled during testing. Base-line fatigue tests were conducted with a range of constant corrosion potentials, using both notched and plain FV520B specimens. In addition fatigue tests with pulsed corrosion potential were performed to asses the effect of transient corrosion conditions on the corrosion fatigue strength. The pulsed tests were designed to simulate service transients in the oxygen content and general chemical hostility in the condensing steam environment during start-up and shut down of the steam turbine.Post test examination of fractured samples was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and optical microscope techniques. The fractography results were used to quantify microstructural and fracture features of the steels.A model based on the size and geometry of the initial corrosion pitting has been proposed to asses the fatigue life of FV520B in an aggressive environment.The effect of pitting on the corrosion fatigue strength of FV520B has been modelled using linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM) type approach. The model has shown a good correlation between predicted fatigue lives with experimental results.The results suggest that the fatigue life is governed by the mechanical stress concentrating effect of the pits rather than the electrochemical damage caused by the environment.Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the notch allowed

  4. Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Shells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa K. Ahmed

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This investigation is to develop a numerical model suitable for nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete shells. A nine-node Lagrangian element Figure (1 with enhanced shear interpolation will be used in this study. Table (1 describes shape functions and their derivatives of this element.An assumed transverse shear strain is used in the formulation of this element to overcome shear locking. Degenerated quadratic thick plate elements employing a layered discrelization through the thickness will be adopted. Different numbers of layers for different thickness can be used per element. A number of layers between (6 and 10 have proved to be appropriate to represent the nonlinear material behavior in structures. In this research 8 layers will be adequate. Material nonlinearities due to cracking of concrete, plastic flow or crushing of concrete in compression and yield condition of reinforcing steel are considered. The maximum tensile strength is used as a criterion for crack initiation. Attention is given to the tension stiffening phenomenon and the degrading effect of cracking on the compressive and shear strength of concrete. Perfect bond between concrete and steel is assumed. Attention is given also to geometric nonlinearities. An example have been chosen in order to demonstrate the suitability of the models by comparing the predicted behaviour with the experimental results for shell exhibiting various modes of failure.

  5. Hip adduction and abduction strength profiles in elite soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorborg, Kristian; Serner, Andreas; Petersen, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side-......-to-side symmetry in isometric hip adduction and abduction strength can be assumed in soccer players remains uncertain.......An ipsilateral hip adduction/abduction strength ratio of more than 90%, and hip adduction strength equal to that of the contralateral side have been suggested to clinically represent adequate strength recovery of hip adduction strength in athletes after groin injury. However, to what extent side...

  6. Evaluation of size dependent design shear strength of reinforced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to the development of the size dependent models on the shear strength in ... predict the diagonal cracking strength and the ultimate shear strength of RC ... ing strength of normal beams was by Zsutty (1968) based on the data base available without .... The comparison of the calculated shear strength of the beams is shown.

  7. Analytical elements of mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Thomas R

    2013-01-01

    Analytical Elements of Mechanics, Volume 1, is the first of two volumes intended for use in courses in classical mechanics. The books aim to provide students and teachers with a text consistent in content and format with the author's ideas regarding the subject matter and teaching of mechanics, and to disseminate these ideas. The book opens with a detailed exposition of vector algebra, and no prior knowledge of this subject is required. This is followed by a chapter on the topic of mass centers, which is presented as a logical extension of concepts introduced in connection with centroids. A

  8. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepfer, H.H.

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element is described which comprises: 1) an elongated clad container, 2) a layer of high lubricity material being disposed in and adjacent to the clad container, 3) a low neutron capture cross section metal liner being disposed in the clad container and adjacent to the layer, 4) a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material disposed in and partially filling the container and forming an internal cavity in the container, 5) an enclosure integrally secured and sealed at each end of the container, and a nuclear fuel material retaining means positioned in the cavity. (author)

  9. Elements of real analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Sprecher, David A

    2010-01-01

    This classic text in introductory analysis delineates and explores the intermediate steps between the basics of calculus and the ultimate stage of mathematics: abstraction and generalization.Since many abstractions and generalizations originate with the real line, the author has made it the unifying theme of the text, constructing the real number system from the point of view of a Cauchy sequence (a step which Dr. Sprecher feels is essential to learn what the real number system is).The material covered in Elements of Real Analysis should be accessible to those who have completed a course in

  10. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-01-01

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value

  11. Nuclear reactor fuel elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, E. D.

    1984-10-16

    An array of rods is assembled to form a fuel element for a pressurized water reactor, the rods comprising zirconium alloy sheathed nuclear fuel pellets and containing helium. The helium gas pressure is selected for each rod so that it differs substantially from the helium gas pressure in its closest neighbors. In a preferred arrangement the rods are arranged in a square lattice and the helium gas pressure alternates between a relatively high value and a relatively low value so that each rod has as its closest neighbors up to four rods containing helium gas at the other pressure value.

  12. Osteoporosis and trace elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, J.; Boivin, G.; Andersen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    More than 200 million people are affected by osteoporosis worldwide, as estimated by 2 million annual hip fractures and other debilitating bone fractures (vertebrae compression and Colles' fractures). Osteoporosis is a multi-factorial disease with potential contributions from genetic, endocrine...... in new bone and results in a net gain in bone mass, but may be associated with a tissue of poor quality. Aluminum induces impairment of bone formation. Gallium and cadmium suppresses bone turnover. However, exact involvements of the trace elements in osteoporosis have not yet been fully clarified...

  13. [Healthcare marketing elements].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameri, Cinzia; Fiorini, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    Marketing puts its foundation on a few key concepts: need-demand, product-service, satisfaction, exchange, market, or business structure manufacturing / supply. The combination of these elements allows you to build an effective marketing strategy. Crucial in this respect is to remember the Porter matrix, which shows that for a correct analysis of the relevant market is necessary to refer to the "five forces at play", ie: customers, competitors, new entrants and substitutes threat. Another key lever for proper marketing oriented approach is the continuous and constant monitoring of the application, anticipating their dissatisfactions.

  14. Technical Elements (CCT1)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kirsten Engelund; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2017-01-01

    Many of the aspects dealt with in the CA EPBD are closely interlinked with each other and may refer to both new and existing buildings, as well as to inspection and certification. This is also true for technical aspects, such as the calculation methodologies, and how to include technical systems......’ efficiency or how to integrate renewable energy within them. The central team for Technical Elements deals with issues of a technical nature, which are common to new and existing buildings, and/or with minimum demands, certification and inspection. This report focuses on the implementation of Articles 3, 4...

  15. Optical Finite Element Processor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casasent, David; Taylor, Bradley K.

    1986-01-01

    A new high-accuracy optical linear algebra processor (OLAP) with many advantageous features is described. It achieves floating point accuracy, handles bipolar data by sign-magnitude representation, performs LU decomposition using only one channel, easily partitions and considers data flow. A new application (finite element (FE) structural analysis) for OLAPs is introduced and the results of a case study presented. Error sources in encoded OLAPs are addressed for the first time. Their modeling and simulation are discussed and quantitative data are presented. Dominant error sources and the effects of composite error sources are analyzed.

  16. Elements of energy conversion

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    Elements of Energy Conversion brings together scattered information on the subject of energy conversion and presents it in terms of the fundamental thermodynamics that apply to energy conversion by any process. Emphasis is given to the development of the theory of heat engines because these are and will remain most important power sources. Descriptive material is then presented to provide elementary information on all important energy conversion devices. The book contains 10 chapters and opens with a discussion of forms of energy, energy sources and storage, and energy conversion. This is foll

  17. Ultimate strength, low stress creep characteristics, and thermal intercept methods for an epoxy fiberglass tension member support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niemann, R.C.; Gonczy, J.D.; Hoffman, J.A.; Mataya, K.F.; Smelser, P.; Young, W.C.

    1979-01-01

    A support system utilizing epoxy fiberglass tension members will be used for the UTSI Superconducting Dipole Magnet. Elements of a support system have a basic member which is a link in which a composite is wound around a mandrel. This element uses the strength of the material fibers in a most advantageous way. The flexural and torsional load imputs to the link at its end must be minimized. A spherical bearing with a cylindrical outer surface functions as the central pin. Experience gained in the application with emphasis on tension member material, ultimate strength, creep, and heat intercepts is presented

  18. Strength of the Three Layer Beam with Two Binding Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smyczyński M. J.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is devoted to the strength analysis of a simply supported three layer beam. The sandwich beam consists of: two metal facings, the metal foam core and two binding layers between the faces and the core. In consequence, the beam is a five layer beam. The main goal of the study is to elaborate a mathematical model of this beam, analytical description and a solution of the three-point bending problem. The beam is subjected to a transverse load. The nonlinear hypothesis of the deformation of the cross section of the beam is formulated. Based on the principle of the stationary potential energy the system of four equations of equilibrium is derived. Then deflections and stresses are determined. The influence of the binding layers is considered. The results of the solutions of the bending problem analysis are shown in the tables and figures. The analytical model is verified numerically using the finite element analysis, as well as experimentally.

  19. Study of the photon strength function in Te-128

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isaak, Johann; Silva, Joel [EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); FIAS, Frankfurt (Germany); Beck, Tobias; Gayer, Udo; Pietralla, Norbert; Romig, Christopher; Zweidinger, Markus [IKP, TU Darmstadt (Germany); Derya, Vera; Zilges, Andreas [IKP, University of Cologne (Germany); Loeher, Bastian; Savran, Deniz [GSI, Darmstadt (Germany); Tamkas, Makbule [EMMI, Darmstadt (Germany); Graduate School of Natural and Applied Sciences, Yildiz Technical University, Istanbul (Turkey); Tornow, Werner; Weller, Henry R. [TUNL, Duke University, Durham (United States)

    2016-07-01

    The Photon Strength Function (PSF) is a crucial input parameter for statistical model calculations such as Hauser-Feshbach calculations to study the nucleosynthesis of the elements in the universe. In practice, it is a challenging task to determine the PSF experimentally. Therefore, photon-scattering experiments were performed at the High Intensity γ-ray Source (HIγS) at Duke University, Durham, USA. Due to the monochromatic photon beam that is provided at HIγS, the excitation energy is well known as well as the ensemble of states that are populated, i.e. mainly J=1 states. The emitted photons from the subsequent deexcitation are measured with the γ-γ coincidence setup γ{sup 3}. With this experimental approach it is possible to determine the PSF for dipole transitions on top of the ground state and the PSF build on low-lying excited states. Recent results on Te-128 are presented and discussed.

  20. Shear strength of reinforced concrete circular cross-section beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. W. G. N. Teixeira

    Full Text Available A proposed adequation of NBR 6118, Item 7.4, related to shear strength of reinforced concrete beams is presented with aims to application on circular cross-section. The actual expressions are most suitable to rectangular cross-section and some misleading occurs when applied to circular sections at determination of VRd2, Vc and Vsw, as consequence of bw (beam width and d (effective depth definitions as well as the real effectiveness of circular stirrups. The proposed adequation is based on extensive bibliographic review and practical experience with a great number of infrastructure elements, such as anchored retaining pile walls, where the use of circular reinforced concrete members is frequent.

  1. Evaluation of bonding strength between yttria coating and vanadium alloys for development of self-cooled blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akamatsu, Hitoshi, E-mail: akamatsu@jupiter.qse.tohoku.ac.jp [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Satou, Manabu; Sato, Takashi [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan); Jain, Amit; Gupta, Vijay [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, 38-137E, Eng IV Building, University of California, Los Angels, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Hasegawa, Akira [Department of Quantum Science and Energy Engineering, Tohoku University, 6-6-01-2, Aramaki-aza-Aoba, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-10-01

    A laser spallation technique was utilized for measurement of the bonding strength between yttria coating and vanadium alloys. The bonding strength between the alloys containing small amounts of yttrium made by levitation melting method and the yttria coating prepared by vacuum plasma-spray was evaluated to be about 950 MPa. It was not clearly observed the effects of alloying elements on the bonding strength. The strength varied about 100 MPa by specimens and by alloy compositions. Detailed observation of the failure type at the interface indicated that crack formation in the coating reduced the stress at the interface, so that the evaluation might be overestimated. It was demonstrated that application of the laser spallation technique to measure the bonding strength between ceramics coating and base material was useful for the evaluation of mechanical integrity of the coating.

  2. Study of photon strength functions via (γ→, γ', γ″) reactions at the γ3-setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, Johann; Savran, Deniz; Beck, Tobias; Gayer, Udo; Krishichayan; Löher, Bastian; Pietralla, Norbert; Scheck, Marcus; Tornow, Werner; Werner, Volker; Zilges, Andreas

    2018-05-01

    One of the basic ingredients for the modelling of the nucleosynthesis of heavy elements are so-called photon strength functions and the assumption of the Brink-Axel hypothesis. This hypothesis has been studied for many years by numerous experiments using different and complementary reactions. The present manuscript aims to introduce a model-independent approach to study photon strength functions via γ-γ coincidence spectroscopy of photoexcited states in 128Te. The experimental results provide evidence that the photon strength function extracted from photoabsorption cross sections is not in an overall agreement with the one determined from direct transitions to low-lying excited states.

  3. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwano, Yoshihiko.

    1993-01-01

    Microfine cracks having a depth of less than 10% of a pipe thickness are disposed radially from a central axis each at an interval of less than 100 micron over the entire inner circumferential surface of a zirconium alloy fuel cladding tube. For manufacturing such a nuclear fuel element, the inside of the cladding tube is at first filled with an electrolyte solution of potassium chloride. Then, electrolysis is conducted using the cladding tube as an anode and the electrolyte solution as a cathode, and the inner surface of the cladding tube with a zirconium dioxide layer having a predetermined thickness. Subsequently, the cladding tube is laid on a smooth steel plate and lightly compressed by other smooth steel plate to form microfine cracks in the zirconium dioxide layer on the inner surface of the cladding tube. Such a compressing operation is continuously applied to the cladding tube while rotating the cladding tube. This can inhibit progress of cracks on the inner surface of the cladding tube, thereby enabling to prevent failure of the cladding tube even if a pellet/cladding tube mechanical interaction is applied. Accordingly, reliability of the nuclear fuel elements is improved. (I.N.)

  4. Heavy-element nucleosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathews, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    New measurements and theoretical studies of nuclear properties, together with new astronomical data on the growth of heavy-element abundances during the early history of the Galaxy, now provide a clearer picture of where in nature the elements heavier than iron are produced by rapid (r-process) and show (s-process) neutron capture reactions. The nuclear data suggest that the r-process involves a high-neutron-density beta-flow equilibrium environment and that the s-process may have occurred at a temperature and neutron density consistent with a 13 C(α,n) 16 0 neutron source. The astronomical data, when compared with simple galactic chemical evolution modes, suggests that the r-process is associated with type II supernovae and that the neutron source must be manufactured by the star. Low-mass type II supernovae are proposed as the most important contributors to the r-process. A 13 C neutron source in intermediate-mass stars is proposed for the s-process. 64 refs., 7 figs

  5. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The invention is of a nuclear fuel element which comprises a central core of a body of nuclear fuel material selected from the group consisting of compounds of uranium, plutonium, thorium and mixtures thereof, and an elongated composite cladding container comprising a zirconium alloy tube containing constituents other than zirconium in an amount greater than about 5000 parts per million by weight and an undeformed metal barrier of moderate purity zirconium bonded to the inside surface of the alloy tube. The container encloses the core so as to leave a gap between the container and the core during use in a nuclear reactor. The metal barrier is of moderate purity zirconium with an impurity level on a weight basis of at least 1000ppm and less than 5000ppm. Impurity levels of specific elements are given. Variations of the invention are also specified. The composite cladding reduces chemical interaction, minimizes localized stress and strain corrosion and reduces the likelihood of a splitting failure in the zirconium alloy tube. Other benefits are claimed. (U.K.)

  6. Evaluation of Early-Age Concrete Compressive Strength with Ultrasonic Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyejin; Kim, Young Jin; Kim, Hee Seok; Kang, Jun Won; Koh, Hyun-Moo

    2017-08-07

    Surface wave velocity measurement of concrete using ultrasonic sensors requires testing on only one side of a member. Thus, it is applicable to concrete cast inside a form and is often used to detect flaws and evaluate the compressive strength of hardened concrete. Predicting the in situ concrete strength at a very early stage inside the form helps with determining the appropriate form removal time and reducing construction time and costs. In this paper, the feasibility of using surface wave velocities to predict the strength of in situ concrete inside the form at a very early stage was evaluated. Ultrasonic sensors were used to measure a series of surface waves for concrete inside a form in the first 24 h after placement. A continuous wavelet transform was used to compute the travel time of the propagating surface waves. The cylindrical compressive strength and penetration resistance tests were also performed during the test period. Four mixtures and five curing temperatures were used for the specimens. The surface wave velocity was confirmed to be applicable to estimating the concrete strength at a very early age in wall-like elements. An empirical formula is proposed for evaluating the early-age compressive strength of concrete considering the 95% prediction intervals.

  7. Soil-roots Strength Performance of Extensive Green Roof by Using Axonopus Compressus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusoff, N. A.; Ramli, M. N.; Chik, T. N. T.; Ahmad, H.; Abdullah, M. F.; Kasmin, H.; Embong, Z.

    2016-07-01

    Green roof technology has been proven to provide potential environmental benefits including improved building thermal performance, removal of air pollution and reduced storm water runoff. Installation of green roof also involved soil element usage as a plant growth medium which creates several interactions between both strands. This study was carried out to investigate the soil-roots strength performance of green roof at different construction period up to 4 months. Axonopus compressus (pearl grass) was planted in a ExE test plot with a designated suitable soil medium. Direct shear test was conducted for each plot to determine the soil shear strength according to different construction period. In addition, some basic geotechnical testing also been carried out. The results showed that the shear strength of soil sample increased over different construction period of 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th month with average result 3.81 kPa, 5.55 kPa, 6.05 kPa and 6.48 kPa respectively. Shear strength of rooted soil samples was higher than the soil samples without roots (control sample). In conclusion, increment of soil-roots shear strength was due to root growth over the time. The soil-roots shear strength development of Axonopus compressus can be expressed in a linear equation as: y = 0.851x + 3.345, where y = shear stress and x = time.

  8. Unit-Sphere Multiaxial Stochastic-Strength Model Applied to Anisotropic and Composite Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel, N.

    2013-01-01

    Models that predict the failure probability of brittle materials under multiaxial loading have been developed by authors such as Batdorf, Evans, and Matsuo. These "unit-sphere" models assume that the strength-controlling flaws are randomly oriented, noninteracting planar microcracks of specified geometry but of variable size. This methodology has been extended to predict the multiaxial strength response of transversely isotropic brittle materials, including polymer matrix composites (PMCs), by considering (1) flaw-orientation anisotropy, whereby a preexisting microcrack has a higher likelihood of being oriented in one direction over another direction, and (2) critical strength, or K (sub Ic) orientation anisotropy, whereby the level of critical strength or fracture toughness for mode I crack propagation, K (sub Ic), changes with regard to the orientation of the microstructure. In this report, results from finite element analysis of a fiber-reinforced-matrix unit cell were used with the unit-sphere model to predict the biaxial strength response of a unidirectional PMC previously reported from the World-Wide Failure Exercise. Results for nuclear-grade graphite materials under biaxial loading are also shown for comparison. This effort was successful in predicting the multiaxial strength response for the chosen problems. Findings regarding stress-state interactions and failure modes also are provided.

  9. Molecular dynamics simulation of thin film interfacial strength dependency on lattice mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhou; Lian, Jie; Wang, Junlan

    2013-01-01

    Laser-induced thin film spallation experiments have been previously developed to characterize the intrinsic interfacial strength of thin films. In order to gain insights of atomic level thin film debonding processes and the interfacial strength dependence on film/substrate lattice structures, in this study, molecular dynamics simulations of thin film interfacial failure under laser-induced stress waves were performed. Various loading amplitudes and pulse durations were employed to identify the optimum simulation condition. Stress propagation as a function of time was revealed in conjunction with the interface structures. Parametric studies confirmed that while the interfacial strength between a thin film and a substrate does not depend on the film thickness and the duration of the laser pulse, a thicker film and a shorter duration do provide advantage to effectively load the interface to failure. With the optimized simulation condition, further studies were focused on bulk Au/Au bi-crystals with mismatched orientations, and Ni/Al, Cu/Al, Cu/Ag and Cu/Au bi-crystals with mismatched lattices. The interfacial strength was found to decrease with increasing orientation mismatch and lattice mismatch but more significantly dominated by the bonding elements' atomic structure and valence electron occupancy. - Highlights: • Molecular dynamics simulation was done on stress wave induced thin film spallation. • Atomic structure was found to be a primary strength determining factor. • Lattice mismatch was found to be a secondary strength determining factor

  10. Anisotropic Failure Strength of Shale with Increasing Confinement: Behaviors, Factors and Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Cheng; Li, Xiao; Qian, Haitao

    2017-11-15

    Some studies reported that the anisotropic failure strength of shale will be weakened by increasing confinement. In this paper, it is found that there are various types of anisotropic strength behaviors. Four types of anisotropic strength ratio ( S A 1 ) behaviors and three types of anisotropic strength difference ( S A 2 ) behaviors have been classified based on laboratory experiments on nine groups of different shale samples. The cohesion c w and friction angle ϕ w of the weak planes are proven to be two dominant factors according to a series of bonded-particle discrete element modelling analyses. It is observed that shale is more prone to a slight increase of S A 1 and significant increase of S A 2 with increasing confinement for higher cohesion c w and lower to medium friction angle ϕ w . This study also investigated the mechanism of the anisotropic strength behaviors with increasing confinement. Owing to different contributions of c w and ϕ w under different confinements, different combinations of c w and ϕ w may have various types of influences on the minimum failure strength with the increasing confinement; therefore, different types of anisotropic behaviors occur for different shale specimens as the confinement increases. These findings are very important to understand the stability of wellbore and underground tunneling in the shale rock mass, and should be helpful for further studies on hydraulic fracture propagations in the shale reservoir.

  11. A structural bond strength model for glass durability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, Xiangdong; Metzger, T.B.

    1996-01-01

    A glass durability model, structural bond strength (SBS) model was developed to correlate glass durability with its composition. This model assumes that the strengths of the bonds between cations and oxygens and the structural roles of the individual elements in the glass arc the predominant factors controlling the composition dependence of the chemical durability of glasses. The structural roles of oxides in glass are classified as network formers, network breakers, and intermediates. The structural roles of the oxides depend upon glass composition and the redox state of oxides. Al 2 O 3 , ZrO 2 , Fe 2 O 3 , and B 2 O 3 are assigned as network formers only when there are sufficient alkalis to bind with these oxides. CaO can also improve durability by sharing non-bridging oxygen with alkalis, relieving SiO 2 from alkalis. The percolation phenomenon in glass is also taken into account. The SBS model is applied to correlate the 7-day product consistency test durability of 42 low-level waste glasses with their composition with an R 2 of 0.87, which is better than 0.81 obtained with an eight-coefficient empirical first-order mixture model on the same data set

  12. Autist mobile seat's frame strength simulation used in a car

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryo, S. H.; Jamari, J.; Naufal, G. K.; Ismail, R.; Bayuseno, A. P.; Desiningrum, D. R.

    2016-04-01

    Going on a car with autistic children needs a special handling. Autistic children that tend to be hyperactive in the car may disturb driving. A tool is needed to keep them in a calm state when they are in the car. Autist Mobile Seat is an aid for the autistic children when going on a car. The aid is an additional seat paired with the main seat of the car. This aid consists of three main things: Main frame, body skin, and pneumatic system. Frame as the main component supporting the Autist Mobile Seat functions as a holder as well as a body skin retainer in order to be able to retain the body of the autistic children. The strength of the frame from this Autist Mobile Seat should be counted as an anticipation from the failure of the frame function when receiving load when used by the autistic children in the car. Consequently, a test on the frame of the Autist Mobile Seat towards the load received should be conducted by using a method of FEM (Finite Element Method) with the help of commercial software. The simulation produces the maximum strength, the frame towards the load received as well as the critical point on the frame when loading occurs.

  13. Local buckling failure analysis of high-strength pipelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Li; Jian Shuai; Zhong-Li Jin; Ya-Tong Zhao; Kui Xu

    2017-01-01

    Pipelines in geological disaster regions typically suffer the risk of local buckling failure because of slender structure and complex load.This paper is meant to reveal the local buckling behavior of buried pipelines with a large diameter and high strength,which are under different conditions,including pure bending and bending combined with internal pressure.Finite element analysis was built according to previous data to study local buckling behavior of pressurized and unpressurized pipes under bending conditions and their differences in local buckling failure modes.In parametric analysis,a series of parameters,including pipe geometrical dimension,pipe material properties and internal pressure,were selected to study their influences on the critical bending moment,critical compressive stress and critical compressive strain of pipes.Especially the hardening exponent of pipe material was introduced to the parameter analysis by using the Ramberg-Osgood constitutive model.Results showed that geometrical dimensions,material and internal pressure can exert similar effects on the critical bending moment and critical compressive stress,which have different,even reverse effects on the critical compressive strain.Based on these analyses,more accurate design models of critical bending moment and critical compressive stress have been proposed for high-strength pipelines under bending conditions,which provide theoretical methods for highstrength pipeline engineering.

  14. The Effects of Isokinetic Strength Training on Strength at Different Angular Velocities: a Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba Kocahan

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: It was shown that angular velocity is important in isokinetic training, and that training at high angular velocities provides strength increases at lower angular velocities, but would not increase strength at angular velocities above the training level. For this reason, it is thought that in the preparation of an isokinetic strength training protocol, angular velocities need to be taken into account. For any athlete, the force at the angular velocity required in her/his sports branch needs to be considered.

  15. The magmatic evolution and genesis of the Quaternary basanite-trachyphonolite suite of Itasy (Madagascar) as inferred by geochemistry, Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes and trace element distribution in coexisting phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melluso, L.; Tucker, R. D.; Cucciniello, C.; le Roex, A. P.; Morra, V.; Zanetti, A.; Rakotoson, R. L.

    2018-06-01

    The Itasy is a Pleistocene-Holocene volcanic field in central Madagascar, located to the west of the Ankaratra volcanic complex. It comprises scoria cones and lava domes (>120), with associated pyroclastic fall and mafic lava flows, covering an area of ab. 400 km2. The last volcanic episodes probably dated ca. 6000-7100 y BP; warm springs and geysers are active. The juvenile samples comprise a peculiar, almost bimodal, rock suite ranging from potassic leucite-kaersutite-bearing basanites, tephrites and phonotephrites, to benmoreites and titanite-haüyne-bearing trachyphonolites (MgO from 9-10 wt% to 0.1 wt%). These rocks show continuous and overlapping variations in the bulk-rock and phase composition (olivine, clinopyroxene, amphibole, feldspar, leucite, haüyne, nepheline, oxides, apatite, titanite, glass and other accessories). The basanites have homogeneous isotopic composition (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70366-0.70378, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51274-0.51277, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.7-18.9, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.53-15.56; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.89-39.01), and a marked enrichment in the most incompatible elements (LILE and HFSE reach 100-215 times primitive mantle). These features are consistent with low degrees of partial melting of a volatile-, LILE- and HFSE-rich, amphibole-bearing peridotitic mantle induced by uplift during an E-W-directed extensional regime, as is found in central Madagascar. The marked changes in the geochemical composition, and small variations of the Sr-Nd-Pb isotopes in the trachyphonolites (87Sr/86Sr = 0.70425-0.70446, 143Nd/144Nd = 0.51266-0.51269, 206Pb/204Pb = 18.18-18.39, 207Pb/204Pb = 15.49-15.51; 208Pb/204Pb = 38.38-39.57) with respect to basanites and tephrites point to a limited amount of crustal contamination by the relatively low-206Pb/204Pb, low-143Nd/144Nd, high-87Sr/86Sr Precambrian basement rocks (of Middle Archean to Late Proterozoic age), and highlight the geochemical effects of titanite and anorthoclase removal on the trace element fractionation trends, a

  16. Strength Training Following Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Eileen Danaher; Larson, Janet; Kujath, Amber; Peace, David; Rondelli, Damiano; Gaston, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Background Patients receiving high-dose chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) experience considerable reductions in physical activity and deterioration of their health status. Objective The purpose of this pilot study was to test the effects of strength training compared to usual activity on physical activity, muscle strength, fatigue, health status perceptions, and quality of life following HSCT. Interventions/Methods Nineteen subjects were randomized to the exercise or control group. Moderate intensity strength training began following discharge from the hospital. Dependent variables included physical activity, muscle strength, fatigue, health status perceptions and quality of life. Variables were measured prior to admission to the hospital for HSCT, day 8 following HSCT, and six weeks following discharge from the hospital. Results Significant time effects were noted for many variables with anticipated declines in physical activity, muscle strength, fatigue, and health status perceptions immediately after HSCT with subsequent improvements six weeks following hospital discharge. One group effect was noted with subjects in the exercise group reporting less fatigue than subjects in the control group. Although no significant interactions were detected, the trends suggest that the exercise group may be more physically active following the intervention compared to the usual activity group. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential positive effects of strength training on physical activity, fatigue, and quality of life in people receiving high-dose chemotherapy and HSCT. Implications for Practice Preliminary evidence is provided for using strength training to enhance early recovery following HSCT. Elastic resistance bands are easy to use and relatively inexpensive. PMID:21116175

  17. Assessment of Structural Behavior of Non-corroded and Corroded RCC Beams Using Finite Element Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Parande

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A three dimensional finite element model is developed to examine the structural behaviour of corroded reinforced concrete beam and non corroded reinforced concrete beam. Non linear finite element analysis is performed using the ANSYS program. SOLID 65, LINK 8 element represent concrete and discrete reinforcing steel bars, based on each component actual characteristics, non linear material properties are defined for both elements. The effect of corrosion in reinforced concrete is studied by finite element analysis; an approach is developed to model the corrosion product expansion causing concrete cover cracking for this, beam has been modeled using ANSYS and using this data the beam has been casted with M20 concrete after 28 days the beam will be tested for flexural strength. The comparison between ANSYS prediction and field data are made in terms of deflection, stress, strain, bond strength and crack pattern of concrete beam.

  18. Influence of silica fume on the strength of high strength concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akram, T.; Memon, S.A.; Khan, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    HSC (High Strength Concrete) does not become evident by a sudden change in the behavior of 'ordinary strength' concrete. There is a gradual effect that becomes more noticeable when the strength level exceeds about 40-45 MPa. There cannot be a precise level of strength which defines this change in effect. The effects are on strength and workability, requiring us to take into account in our mix proportioning, the ramifications of fineness of cement on workability and of type of aggregate and aggregate/cement ratio on strength. In fact, the selection of materials becomes more critical as the concrete strength increases and that if very high strength is required (100 MPa and higher), relatively few materials may be suitable. An experimental investigation is carried out to evaluate the feasibility of producing HSC using locally available materials and to study the influence of silica fume on the strength of HSC. The main variables in this research is amount of silica fume. The parameters that are kept constant are the amount of cement equal to 580 kg/m3, dosage of HRWRA (High Range Water Reducing Admictures) equal to 4 % by weight of cementitious materials and the ratio of fine aggregate to coarse aggregate (1:2.3). Test results revealed that it is feasible to produce HSC using locally available materials. The optimum percentage of silica fume was found to be 15 % by weight of cement. (author)

  19. NIH Common Data Elements Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The NIH Common Data Elements (CDE) Repository has been designed to provide access to structured human and machine-readable definitions of data elements that have...

  20. Friction welding; Magnesium; Finite element; Shear test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Contri Campanelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Friction spot welding (FSpW is one of the most recently developed solid state joining technologies. In this work, based on former publications, a computer aided draft and engineering resource is used to model a FSpW joint on AZ31 magnesium alloy sheets and subsequently submit the assembly to a typical shear test loading, using a linear elastic model, in order to conceive mechanical tests results. Finite element analysis shows that the plastic flow is concentrated on the welded zone periphery where yield strength is reached. It is supposed that “through the weld” and “circumferential pull-out” variants should be the main failure behaviors, although mechanical testing may provide other types of fracture due to metallurgical features.

  1. Heavy element abundances of Nova Cygni 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferland, G.J.; Shields, G.A.

    1978-01-01

    McDonald observations of the nebular phase of the outburst of Nova Cygni 1975 are analyzed to measure the abundances of several heavy elements. A new analytical procedure is used to derive the electron density and temperature from the emission line intensities of [O III], [Ne III], and He I observed between days 40 and 120. These physical conditions are used to derive the abundances. We find that Fe has approximately a solar abundance, whereas C, N, O, and Ne are enhanced by factors approx.20 to 100. The enhanced abundance of neon was theoretically unexpected.The derived physical conditions and line intensities are compared with predictions of an equilibrium photoionization model. The model successfully predicts the intensities of He I, [O III], and [Ne III]; but it underestimates the strength of [Ne V] and [Fe VII], which may originate in a mechanically heated ''subcoronal'' line region

  2. Analysis of Ninety Degree Flexure Tests for Characterization of Composite Transverse Tensile Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBrien, T. Kevin; Krueger, Ronald

    2001-01-01

    Finite element (FE) analysis was performed on 3-point and 4-point bending test configurations of ninety degree oriented glass-epoxy and graphite-epoxy composite beams to identify deviations from beam theory predictions. Both linear and geometric non-linear analyses were performed using the ABAQUS finite element code. The 3-point and 4-point bending specimens were first modeled with two-dimensional elements. Three-dimensional finite element models were then performed for selected 4-point bending configurations to study the stress distribution across the width of the specimens and compare the results to the stresses computed from two-dimensional plane strain and plane stress analyses and the stresses from beam theory. Stresses for all configurations were analyzed at load levels corresponding to the measured transverse tensile strength of the material.

  3. Evaluation of in-place concrete strength by core testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The overall objective of the work contained in this report is to develop an ALDOT procedure to evaluate core strength results obtained under various conditions. Since there are many factors that influence the apparent strength of cores, strength corr...

  4. Short Communications Strength Properties and Groups of Major ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Short Communications Strength Properties and Groups of Major Commercial Timbers Grown in Kenya. ... The strength groups developed revealed that most species in Kenya are suitable for heavy engineering works and building construction. ... strength properties, commercial timber, physical and mechanical properties

  5. Joining elements of silicon carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    A method of joining together at least two silicon carbide elements (e.g.in forming a heat exchanger) is described, comprising subjecting to sufficiently non-oxidizing atmosphere and sufficiently high temperature, material placed in space between the elements. The material consists of silicon carbide particles, carbon and/or a precursor of carbon, and silicon, such that it forms a joint joining together at least two silicon carbide elements. At least one of the elements may contain silicon. (author)

  6. Fatigue strength of socket welded pipe joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, K.; Matsuda, F.; Sato, M.; Higuchi, M.; Nakagawa, A.

    1994-01-01

    Fully reversed four point bending fatigue tests were carried out of small diameter socket welded joints made of carbon steels. Experimental parameters are pipe diameter, thickness of pipe and socket wall, throat depth and shape of fillet welds, slip-on and diametral gaps in the socket welding, lack of penetration at the root of fillet welds, and peening of fillet welds. In most cases a fatigue crack started from the root of the fillet, but in the case of higher stress amplitude, it tended to start from the toe of fillet. The standard socket welded joint of 50 mm diameter showed relatively low fatigue strength, 46 MPa in stress amplitude at the 10 7 cycles failure life. This value corresponds to about 1/5 of that of the smoothed base metal specimens in axial fatigue. The fatigue strength showed decrease with increasing pipe diameter, and increase with increasing the thickness of pipe and socket wall. The effects of throat depth and shape of fillet welds on fatigue strength were not significant. Contrary to the expectation, the fatigue strength of the socket welded joint without slip-on gap is higher than that of the joint with the normal gap. A lack of penetration at the root deleteriously reduced fatigue strength, showing 14 MPa in stress amplitude at the 10 7 cycles failure life for the 50 mm diameter socket joint. (orig.)

  7. Microtensile bond strength of enamel after bleaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lago, Andrea Dias Neves; Garone-Netto, Narciso

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the bond strength of a composite resin to the bovine enamel bleached with 35% hydrogen peroxide. It was used an etching-and-rinse adhesive system employed immediately, 7 and 14 days after the bleaching. Twenty bovine teeth were randomly distributed into 4 groups (n = 5), 3 experimental and 1 control. G1: Unbleached + restoration 14 days after storage in artificial saliva (control); G2: Bleached + restoration immediately after bleaching; G3: Bleached + restoration 7 days after bleaching; G4: Bleached + restoration 14 days after bleaching. Their buccal enamel surfaces were flattened, and a 25 mm² (5 × 5 mm) area from each one of these regions was outlined so as to standardize the experimental region. Universal hybrid composite resin Filtek™Z350 was inserted into four layers of 1 mm each and photo-activated. The bond strength was quantitatively evaluated by a microtensile test (1.0 mm/min) 24 h after the restorative procedures. The failure mode was assessed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). There was a significant reduction in the bond strength of the restored teeth immediately after the bleaching (G2). There were no significant differences in enamel bond strength between groups G1, G3, and G4. There was a predominance of adhesive and mixed (cohesive + adhesive) failure in all groups. The 7-day-period after the end of the bleaching with 35% hydrogen peroxide was enough to achieve the appropriate values of bond strength to the enamel.

  8. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  9. Trace element emissions from coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-09-15

    Trace elements are emitted during coal combustion. The quantity, in general, depends on the physical and chemical properties of the element itself, the concentration of the element in the coal, the combustion conditions and the type of particulate control device used, and its collection efficiency as a function of particle size. Some trace elements become concentrated in certain particle streams following combustion such as bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas particulate matter, while others do not. Various classification schemes have been developed to describe this partitioning behaviour. These classification schemes generally distinguish between: Class 1: elements that are approximately equally concentrated in the fly ash and bottom ash, or show little or no fine particle enrichment, examples include Mn, Be, Co and Cr; Class 2: elements that are enriched in the fly ash relative to bottom ash, or show increasing enrichment with decreasing particle size, examples include As, Cd, Pb and Sb; Class 3: elements which are emitted in the gas phase (primarily Hg (not discussed in this review), and in some cases, Se). Control of class 1 trace elements is directly related to control of total particulate matter emissions, while control of the class 2 elements depends on collection of fine particulates. Due to the variability in particulate control device efficiencies, emission rates of these elements can vary substantially. The volatility of class 3 elements means that particulate controls have only a limited impact on the emissions of these elements.

  10. REACTOR FUEL ELEMENTS TESTING CONTAINER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitham, G.K.; Smith, R.R.

    1963-01-15

    This patent shows a method for detecting leaks in jacketed fuel elements. The element is placed in a sealed tank within a nuclear reactor, and, while the reactor operates, the element is sparged with gas. The gas is then led outside the reactor and monitored for radioactive Xe or Kr. (AEC)

  11. High Strength Concrete Columns under Axial Compression Load: Hybrid Confinement Efficiency of High Strength Transverse Reinforcement and Steel Fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perceka, Wisena; Liao, Wen-Cheng; Wang, Yo-de

    2016-01-01

    Addition of steel fibers to high strength concrete (HSC) improves its post-peak behavior and energy absorbing capability, which can be described well in term of toughness. This paper attempts to obtain both analytically and experimentally the efficiency of steel fibers in HSC columns with hybrid confinement of transverse reinforcement and steel fibers. Toughness ratio (TR) to quantify the confinement efficiency of HSC columns with hybrid confinement is proposed through a regression analysis by involving sixty-nine TRs of HSC without steel fibers and twenty-seven TRs of HSC with hybrid of transverse reinforcement and steel fibers. The proposed TR equation was further verified by compression tests of seventeen HSC columns conducted in this study, where twelve specimens were reinforced by high strength rebars in longitudinal and transverse directions. The results show that the efficiency of steel fibers in concrete depends on transverse reinforcement spacing, where the steel fibers are more effective if the spacing transverse reinforcement becomes larger in the range of 0.25–1 effective depth of the section column. Furthermore, the axial load–strain curves were developed by employing finite element software (OpenSees) for simulating the response of the structural system. Comparisons between numerical and experimental axial load–strain curves were carried out. PMID:28773391

  12. Compressive Strength of Longitudinally Stiffened GRP Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhme, J.; Noury, P.; Riber, Hans Jørgen

    1996-01-01

    A structural analysis of a cross stiffened orthotropic GRP panel subjected to uniaxial compressive loads is carried out. Analytical solutions to the buckling of such structures are proposed and validated by a finite element analysis. Both analytical and finite element approaches confirm an identi...

  13. Accelerator vacuum system elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivokon', V.V.; Kobets, A.F.; Shvetsov, V.A.; Sivokon', L.V.

    1980-01-01

    Some elements of vacuum systems are investigated. Considerable attention has been given to the investigation into peculiarities in pumping out of a ionoguide for transportation of an accelerated charged particles beam the spread of which often attains a considerable length. The number of pumps over the ionoguide length is experimentally determined. It is shown that as a result of ionoguide warm-up the pumping out time is considerably reduced maximum permissible pressure is decreased by two orders and lesser rate of pump pumping out is required. The investigations have shown that when operating the ionoguide there is no necessity in setting up seals between the ionoguide and magnetodischarged pump. The causes of the phenomenon in which the pressure near the pump is greater than in the end of the ionoguide, are impurities carried in by the pump into the ionoguide volume and the pumping out capacity of the pressure converter

  14. Ucla, escuela elemental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neutra, Richard J.

    1962-03-01

    Full Text Available La Escuela Elemental de Preparación de la Universidad de California, en Los Angeles, está dedicada a la educación e investigación y preparación del profesorado de la infancia. Se ha construido en un paraje maravilloso, de frondosa vegetación, frente a un terreno bastante quebrado, circunstancia que presta mayor encanto al conjunto, construido con gran pericia y adaptación al paisaje a base de una dominante horizontalidad, con materiales sencillos (ladrillos, hierro y madera y gran comunicación con la naturaleza mediante grandes cristaleras correderas que ensanchan las clases y las suplementan hacia el jardín de acuerdo con las nuevas normas y prácticas docentes.

  15. Improved nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element for use in the core of a nuclear reactor is disclosed and has a metal liner disposed between the cladding and the nuclear fuel material and a high lubricity material in the form of a coating disposed between the liner and the cladding. The liner preferably has a thickness greater than the longest fission product recoil distance and is composed of a low neutron capture cross-section material. The liner is preferably composed of zirconium, an alloy of zirconium, niobium or an alloy of niobium. The liner serves as a preferential reaction site for volatile impurities and fission products and protects the cladding from contact and reaction with such impurities and fission products. The high lubricity material acts as an interface between the liner and the cladding and reduces localized stresses on the cladding due to fuel expansion and cracking of the fuel

  16. Probabilistic fracture finite elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, W. K.; Belytschko, T.; Lua, Y. J.

    1991-05-01

    The Probabilistic Fracture Mechanics (PFM) is a promising method for estimating the fatigue life and inspection cycles for mechanical and structural components. The Probability Finite Element Method (PFEM), which is based on second moment analysis, has proved to be a promising, practical approach to handle problems with uncertainties. As the PFEM provides a powerful computational tool to determine first and second moment of random parameters, the second moment reliability method can be easily combined with PFEM to obtain measures of the reliability of the structural system. The method is also being applied to fatigue crack growth. Uncertainties in the material properties of advanced materials such as polycrystalline alloys, ceramics, and composites are commonly observed from experimental tests. This is mainly attributed to intrinsic microcracks, which are randomly distributed as a result of the applied load and the residual stress.

  17. Nuclear fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Hiroshi.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress iodine release thereby prevent stress corrosion cracks in fuel cans by dispersing ferrous oxide at the outer periphery of sintered uranium dioxide pellets filled and sealed within zirconium alloy fuel cans of fuel elements. Constitution: Sintered uranium dioxide pellets to be filled and sealed within a zirconium alloy fuel can are prepared either by mixing ferric oxide powder in uranium dioxide powder, sintering and then reducing at low temperature or by mixing iron powder in uranium dioxide powder, sintering and then oxidizing at low temperature. In this way, ferrous oxide is dispersed on the outer periphery of the sintered uranium dioxide pellets to convert corrosive fission products iodine into iron iodide, whereby the iodine release is suppressed and the stress corrosion cracks can be prevented in the fuel can. (Moriyama, K.)

  18. Nuclear fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirama, H.

    1978-01-01

    A nuclear fuel element comprises an elongated tube having upper and lower end plugs fixed to both ends thereof and nuclear fuel pellets contained within the tube. The fuel pellets are held against the lower end plug by a spring which is supported by a setting structure. The setting structure is maintained at a proper position at the middle of the tube by a wedge effect caused by spring force exerted by the spring against a set of balls coacting with a tapered member of the setting structure thereby wedging the balls against the inner wall of the tube, and the setting structure is moved free by pushing with a push bar against the spring force so as to release the wedge effect

  19. Finite element modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonks, M.R.; Williamson, R.; Masson, R.

    2015-01-01

    The Finite Element Method (FEM) is a numerical technique for finding approximate solutions to boundary value problems. While FEM is commonly used to solve solid mechanics equations, it can be applied to a large range of BVPs from many different fields. FEM has been used for reactor fuels modelling for many years. It is most often used for fuel performance modelling at the pellet and pin scale, however, it has also been used to investigate properties of the fuel material, such as thermal conductivity and fission gas release. Recently, the United Stated Department Nuclear Energy Advanced Modelling and Simulation Program has begun using FEM as the basis of the MOOSE-BISON-MARMOT Project that is developing a multi-dimensional, multi-physics fuel performance capability that is massively parallel and will use multi-scale material models to provide a truly predictive modelling capability. (authors)

  20. Heavy-element research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The status is reported of studies on the solid-state chemistry of the actinides and lanthanides, spectroscopy of actinide compounds, and dynamic chemical description of actinide elements in solution. Phase studies were done on Rb 2 UO 4 , K 2 UO 4 , Li 2 UO 4 , and Es 2 U 2 O 7 . The lithium neptunate (VI) system was investigated and the existence of Li 2 NpO 4 was established. In oxidation-reduction studies it was shown that Am(III) can be electrolytically oxidized to Am(IV) in strong H 3 PO 4 , but Cf(III) and Pr(III) do not oxidize. The low-temperature absorption spectrum of thin films of NpBr 3 was investigated. (U.S.)

  1. ELEMENTAL FORMS OF HOSPITALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximiliano Emanuel Korstanje

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern studies emphasized on the needs of researching the hospitality as relevant aspects of tourism and hospitality fields. Anyway, these approaches are inextricably intertwined to the industry of tourism and do not take seriously the anthropological and sociological roots of hospitality. In fact, the hotel seems to be a partial sphere of hospitality at all. Under this context, the present paper explores the issue of hospitality enrooted in the political and economic indo-European principle of free-transit which is associated to a much broader origin.  Starting from the premise etymologically hostel and hospital share similar origins, we follow the contributions of J Derrida to determine the elements that formed the hospitality up to date.

  2. Photo-switching element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masaki, Yuichi

    1987-10-31

    Photo-input MOS transistor (Photo-switching element) cannot give enough ON/OFF ratio but requires an auxiliary condenser for a certain type of application. In addition, PN junction of amorphous silicon is not practical because it gives high leak current resulting in low electromotive force. In this invention, a solar cell was constructed with a lower electrode consisting of a transparent electro-conducting film, a photosensitive part consisting of an amorphous Si layer of p-i-n layer construction, and an upper metal electrode consisting of Cr or Nichrome, and a thin film transistor was placed on the solar cell, and further the upper metal electrode was co-used as a gate electrode of the thin film transistor; this set-up of this invention enabled to attain an efficient photo-electric conversion of the incident light, high electromotive force of the solar cell, and the transistor with high ON/OFF ratio. (3 figs)

  3. Analysis of the ATR fuel element swaging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richins, W.D.; Miller, G.K.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a detailed evaluation of the swaging process used to connect fuel plates to side plates in Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) fuel elements. The swaging is a mechanical process that begins with fitting a fuel plate into grooves in the side plates. Once a fuel plate is positioned, a lip on each of two side plate grooves is pressed into the fuel plate using swaging wheels to form the joints. Each connection must have a specified strength (measured in terms, of a pullout force capacity) to assure that these joints do not fail during reactor operation. The purpose of this study is to analyze the swaging process and associated procedural controls, and to provide recommendations to assure that the manufacturing process produces swaged connections that meet the minimum strength requirement. The current fuel element manufacturer, Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) of Lynchburg, Virginia, follows established procedures that include quality inspections and process controls in swaging these connections. The procedures have been approved by Lockheed Martin Idaho Technologies and are designed to assure repeatability of the process and structural integrity of each joint. Prior to July 1994, ATR fuel elements were placed in the Hydraulic Test Facility (HTF) at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (AGNAIL), Test Reactor Area (TRA) for application of Boehmite (an aluminum oxide) film and for checking structural integrity before placement of the elements into the ATR. The results presented in this report demonstrate that the pullout strength of the swaged connections is assured by the current manufacturing process (with several recommended enhancements) without the need for- testing each element in the HTF

  4. Investigations on the ultimate compressive strength of composite plates with geometrical imperfections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misirlis, K.; Downes, J.; Dow, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    with initial geometric imperfections. This paper presents the validation of finite element models against a series of plate tests that were performed within this framework and parametric studies that were carried out to identify the effects of geometric imperfections on the ultimate compressive strength......A series of studies has been performed within the MARSTRUCT Network of Excellence on Marine Structures in order to investigate the buckling response of glass fibre reinforced polymer plates. These studies include the fabrication, testing and finite element analysis of a large number of plates...

  5. Stochastic-Strength-Based Damage Simulation Tool for Ceramic Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel; Bednarcyk, Brett; Pineda, Evan; Arnold, Steven; Mital, Subodh; Murthy, Pappu

    2015-01-01

    Reported here is a coupling of two NASA developed codes: CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) with the MAC/GMC (Micromechanics Analysis Code/ Generalized Method of Cells) composite material analysis code. The resulting code is called FEAMAC/CARES and is constructed as an Abaqus finite element analysis UMAT (user defined material). Here we describe the FEAMAC/CARES code and an example problem (taken from the open literature) of a laminated CMC in off-axis loading is shown. FEAMAC/CARES performs stochastic-strength-based damage simulation response of a CMC under multiaxial loading using elastic stiffness reduction of the failed elements.

  6. FEAMAC/CARES Stochastic-Strength-Based Damage Simulation Tool for Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel; Bednarcyk, Brett; Pineda, Evan; Arnold, Steven; Mital, Subodh; Murthy, Pappu; Bhatt, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Reported here is a coupling of two NASA developed codes: CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) with the MAC/GMC (Micromechanics Analysis Code/ Generalized Method of Cells) composite material analysis code. The resulting code is called FEAMAC/CARES and is constructed as an Abaqus finite element analysis UMAT (user defined material). Here we describe the FEAMAC/CARES code and an example problem (taken from the open literature) of a laminated CMC in off-axis loading is shown. FEAMAC/CARES performs stochastic-strength-based damage simulation response of a CMC under multiaxial loading using elastic stiffness reduction of the failed elements.

  7. Residual-strength determination in polymetric materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1981-10-01

    Kinetic theory of crack growth is used to predict the residual strength of polymetric materials acted upon by a previous history. Specifically, the kinetic theory is used to characterize the state of growing damage that occurs under a constant-stress (load) state. The load is removed before failure under creep-rupture conditions, and the residual instantaneous strength is determined from the theory by taking account of the damage accumulation under the preceding constant-load history. The rate of change of residual strength is found to be strongest when the duration of the preceding load history is near the ultimate lifetime under that condition. Physical explanations for this effect are given, as are numerical examples. Also, the theoretical prediction is compared with experimental data.

  8. Mechanical properties of high-strength concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtarzadeh, Alireza

    This report summarizes an experimental program conducted to investigate production techniques and mechanical properties of high strength concrete in general and to provide recommendations for using these concretes in manufacturing precast/prestressed bridge girders. Test variables included total amount and composition of cementitious material (portland cement, fly ash, and silica fume), type and brand of cement, type of silica fume (dry densified and slurry), type and brand of high-range water-reducing admixture, type of aggregate, aggregate gradation, maximum aggregate size, and curing. Tests were conducted to determine the effects of these variables on changes in compressive strength and modulus of elasticity over time, splitting tensile strength, modulus of rupture, creep, shrinkage, and absorption potential (as an indirect indicator of permeability). Also investigated were the effects of test parameters such as mold size, mold material, and end condition. Over 6,300 specimens were cast from approximately 140 mixes over a period of 3 years.

  9. Hip strength and range of motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosler, Andrea B.; Crossley, Kay M.; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the normal profiles for hip strength and range of motion (ROM) in a professional football league in Qatar, and examine the effect of leg dominance, age, past history of injury, and ethnicity on these profiles. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods Participants...... values are documented for hip strength and range of motion that can be used as reference profiles in the clinical assessment, screening, and management of professional football players. Leg dominance, recent past injury history and ethnicity do not need to be accounted for when using these profiles...... included 394 asymptomatic, male professional football players, aged 18–40 years. Strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer with an eccentric test in side-lying for hip adduction and abduction, and the squeeze test in supine with 45° hip flexion. Range of motion measures included: hip internal...

  10. Creep Strength of Discontinuous Fibre Composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole Bøcker

    1974-01-01

    relation between stress and strain rate. Expressions for the interface stress, the creep velocity profile adjacent to the fibres and the creep strength of the composite are derived. Previous results for the creep strength, sc = aVfs0 ( \\frac[( Î )\\dot] [( Î )\\dot] 0 )1/nr1 + 1/n c=Vf001n1+1n in which[( Î...... )\\dot] is the composite creep rate,V f is the fibre volume fraction,sgr 0,epsi 0 andn are the constants in the matrix creep law. The creep strength coefficient agr is found to be very weakly dependent onV f and practically independent ofn whenn is greater than about 6....

  11. Tooth structure and fracture strength of cavities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondelli, José; Sene, Fábio; Ramos, Renata Pereira

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluated, in vitro, the loss of tooth substance after cavity preparation for direct and indirect restorations and its relationship with fracture strength of the prepared teeth. Sixty sound human maxillary first premolars were assigned to 6 groups (n=10). MOD direct composite cavities......) or 1/2 (Groups III and VI) of the intercuspal distance. Teeth were weighed (digital balance accurate to 0.001 g) before and after preparation to record tooth substance mass lost during cavity preparation. The prepared teeth were submitted to occlusal loading to determine their fracture strength using...... mass loss (13.91%) than composite resin preparations with the same width (10.02%). 1/2-inlay cavities had 21.34% of mass loss versus 16.19% for the 1/2-composite resin cavities. Fracture strength means (in kgf) were: GI = 187.65; GII = 143.62; GIII = 74.10; GIV = 164.22; GV = 101.92; GVI = 50...

  12. Residual-strength determination in polymetric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, R.M.

    1981-01-01

    Kinetic theory of crack growth is used to predict the residual strength of polymetric materials acted upon by a previous history. Specifically, the kinetic theory is used to characterize the state of growing damage that occurs under a constant-stress (load) state. The load is removed before failure under creep-rupture conditions, and the residual instantaneous strength is determined from the theory by taking account of the damage accumulation under the preceding constant-load history. The rate of change of residual strength is found to be strongest when the duration of the preceding load history is near the ultimate lifetime under that condition. Physical explanations for this effect are given, as are numerical examples. Also, the theoretical prediction is compared with experimental data

  13. Argument Strength and the Persuasiveness of Stories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiner, Constanze; Appel, Markus; Isberner, Maj-Britt; Richter, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Stories are a powerful means to change people’s attitudes and beliefs. The aim of the current work was to shed light on the role of argument strength (argument quality) in narrative persuasion. The present study examined the influence of strong versus weak arguments on attitudes in a low or high narrative context. Moreover, baseline attitudes, interindividual differences in working memory capacity, and recipients’ transportation were examined. Stories with strong arguments were more persuasive than stories with weak arguments. This main effect was qualified by a two-way interaction with baseline attitude, revealing that argument strength had a greater impact on individuals who initially were particularly doubtful toward the story claim. Furthermore, we identified a three-way interaction showing that argument strength mattered most for recipients who were deeply transported into the story world in stories that followed a typical narrative structure. These findings provide an important specification of narrative persuasion theory. PMID:29805322

  14. Short-term Periodization Models: Effects on Strength and Speed-strength Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Hagen; Wirth, Klaus; Keiner, Michael; Mickel, Christoph; Sander, Andre; Szilvas, Elena

    2015-10-01

    Dividing training objectives into consecutive phases to gain morphological adaptations (hypertrophy phase) and neural adaptations (strength and power phases) is called strength-power periodization (SPP). These phases differ in program variables (volume, intensity, and exercise choice or type) and use stepwise intensity progression and concomitant decreasing volume, converging to peak intensity (peaking phase). Undulating periodization strategies rotate these program variables in a bi-weekly, weekly, or daily fashion. The following review addresses the effects of different short-term periodization models on strength and speed-strength both with subjects of different performance levels and with competitive athletes from different sports who use a particular periodization model during off-season, pre-season, and in-season conditioning. In most periodization studies, it is obvious that the strength endurance sessions are characterized by repetition zones (12-15 repetitions) that induce muscle hypertrophy in persons with a low performance level. Strictly speaking, when examining subjects with a low training level, many periodization studies include mainly hypertrophy sessions interspersed with heavy strength/power sessions. Studies have demonstrated equal or statistically significant higher gains in maximal strength for daily undulating periodization compared with SPP in subjects with a low to moderate performance level. The relatively short intervention period and the lack of concomitant sports conditioning call into question the practical value of these findings for competitive athletes. Possibly owing to differences in mesocycle length, conditioning programs, and program variables, competitive athletes either maintained or improved strength and/or speed-strength performance by integrating daily undulating periodization and SPP during off-season, pre-season and in-season conditioning. In high-performance sports, high-repetition strength training (>15) should be

  15. Technical Developments and Trends of Earthquake Resisting High-Strength Reinforcing Steel Bars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Byoungchul; Shim, Jae-Hyeok; Lee, Myoung-Gyu; Lee, Joonho; Jung, Jun-Ho; Kim, Bo-Sung; Won, Sung-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Since reconstruction of old town in Korea requires high-rise and seismic design construction, many attentions have been paid to high strength seismic reinforced steel bar. In the present paper, technical developments and trends are summarized for developing next-generation seismic reinforced steel bar of grade 700 MPa. Steelmaking process requires high energy efficiency and refining ability. Effects of alloying elements are explained, and alloy design based on computational thermodynamics is introduced. On the other hand, it is considered that grain size refinement by the controlled rolling and low temperature transformation structures formed by the accelerated cooling are effective to obtain acceptable mechanical properties with high strength. Finite element simulation analysis is also useful to understand plastic deformation by rolling, internal and external heat transfer, and corresponding phase transformation of austenite phase to various low-temperature transformation structures.

  16. Ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Li Yu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper concentrated on the ultimate uniaxial compressive strength of stiffened panel with opening under lateral load and also studied the design-oriented formulae. For this purpose, three series of well executed experiments on longitudinal stiffened panel with rectangular opening subjected to the combined load have been selected as test models. The finite element analysis package, ABAQUS, is used for simulation with considering the large elasticplastic deflection behavior of stiffened panels. The feasibility of the numerical procedure is verified by a good agreement of experimental results and numerical results. More cases studies are executed employing nonlinear finite element method to analyze the influence of design variables on the ultimate strength of stiffened panel with opening under combined pressure. Based on data, two design formulae corresponding to different opening types are fitted, and accuracy of them is illustrated to demonstrate that they could be applied to basic design of practical engineering structure.

  17. Technical Developments and Trends of Earthquake Resisting High-Strength Reinforcing Steel Bars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Byoungchul [Seoul National University of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shim, Jae-Hyeok [Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Myoung-Gyu; Lee, Joonho [Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jun-Ho [Hyundai Steel, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Bo-Sung [Daehan Steel, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Won, Sung-Bin [Dongkuk Steel, Kyungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    Since reconstruction of old town in Korea requires high-rise and seismic design construction, many attentions have been paid to high strength seismic reinforced steel bar. In the present paper, technical developments and trends are summarized for developing next-generation seismic reinforced steel bar of grade 700 MPa. Steelmaking process requires high energy efficiency and refining ability. Effects of alloying elements are explained, and alloy design based on computational thermodynamics is introduced. On the other hand, it is considered that grain size refinement by the controlled rolling and low temperature transformation structures formed by the accelerated cooling are effective to obtain acceptable mechanical properties with high strength. Finite element simulation analysis is also useful to understand plastic deformation by rolling, internal and external heat transfer, and corresponding phase transformation of austenite phase to various low-temperature transformation structures.

  18. High-strength and high-RRR Al-Ni alloy for aluminum-stabilized superconductor

    CERN Document Server

    Wada, K; Sakamoto, H; Yamamoto, A; Makida, Y

    2000-01-01

    The precipitation type aluminum alloys have excellent performance as the increasing rate in electric resistivity with additives in the precipitation state is considerably low, compared to that of the aluminum alloy with additives in the solid-solution state. It is possible to enhance the mechanical strength without remarkable degradation in residual resistivity ratio (RRR) by increasing content of selected additive elements. Nickel is the suitable additive element because it has very low solubility in aluminum and low increasing rate in electric resistivity, and furthermore, nickel and aluminum form intermetallic compounds which effectively resist the motion of dislocations. First, Al-0.1wt%Ni alloy was developed for the ATLAS thin superconducting solenoid. This alloy achieved high yield strength of 79 MPa (R.T.) and 117 MPa (4.2 K) with high RRR of 490 after cold working of 21% in area reduction. These highly balanced properties could not be achieved with previously developed solid-solution aluminum alloys. ...

  19. On strength design using free material subjected to multiple load cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pauli; Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2013-01-01

    Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together with a prac......Multiple load cases and the consideration of strength is a reality that most structural designs are exposed to. Improved possibility to produce specific materials, say by fiber lay-up, put focus on research on free material optimization. A formulation for such design problems together...... with a practical recursive design procedure is presented and illustrated with examples. The presented finite element analysis involve many elements as well as many load cases. Separating the local amount of material from a description with unit trace for the local anisotropy, gives the free materials formulation...

  20. Design proposal for ultimate shear strength of tapered steel plate girders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bedynek

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerous experimental and numerical studies on prismatic plate girders subjected to shear can be found in the literature. However, the real structures are frequently designed as non-uniform structural elements. The main objective of the research is the development of a new proposal for the calculation of the ultimate shear resistance of tapered steel plate girders taking into account the specific behaviour of such members. A new mechanical model is presented in the paper and it is used to show the differences between the behaviour of uniform and tapered web panels subjected to shear. EN 1993-1-5 design specifications for the determination of the shear strength for rectangular plates are improved in order to assess the shear strength of tapered elements. Numerical studies carried out on tapered steel plate girders subjected to shear lead to confirm the suitability of the mechanical model and the proposed design expression.