WorldWideScience

Sample records for strength dependence specifically

  1. Strength of Gamma Rhythm Depends on Normalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Supratim; Ni, Amy M.; Maunsell, John H. R.

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal assemblies often exhibit stimulus-induced rhythmic activity in the gamma range (30–80 Hz), whose magnitude depends on the attentional load. This has led to the suggestion that gamma rhythms form dynamic communication channels across cortical areas processing the features of behaviorally relevant stimuli. Recently, attention has been linked to a normalization mechanism, in which the response of a neuron is suppressed (normalized) by the overall activity of a large pool of neighboring neurons. In this model, attention increases the excitatory drive received by the neuron, which in turn also increases the strength of normalization, thereby changing the balance of excitation and inhibition. Recent studies have shown that gamma power also depends on such excitatory–inhibitory interactions. Could modulation in gamma power during an attention task be a reflection of the changes in the underlying excitation–inhibition interactions? By manipulating the normalization strength independent of attentional load in macaque monkeys, we show that gamma power increases with increasing normalization, even when the attentional load is fixed. Further, manipulations of attention that increase normalization increase gamma power, even when they decrease the firing rate. Thus, gamma rhythms could be a reflection of changes in the relative strengths of excitation and normalization rather than playing a functional role in communication or control. PMID:23393427

  2. Evaluation of size dependent design shear strength of reinforced ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    to the development of the size dependent models on the shear strength in ... predict the diagonal cracking strength and the ultimate shear strength of RC ... ing strength of normal beams was by Zsutty (1968) based on the data base available without .... The comparison of the calculated shear strength of the beams is shown.

  3. Arguments Whose Strength Depends on Continuous Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Franklin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Both the traditional Aristotelian and modern symbolic approaches to logic have seen logic in terms of discrete symbol processing. Yet there are several kinds of argument whose validity depends on some topological notion of continuous variation, which is not well captured by discrete symbols. Examples include extrapolation and slippery slope arguments, sorites, fuzzy logic, and those involving closeness of possible worlds. It is argued that the natural first attempts to analyze these notions and explain their relation to reasoning fail, so that ignorance of their nature is profound.

  4. Military Dependence on Commercial Satellite Communications Systems - Strength or Vulnerability

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hook, Jack

    1999-01-01

    The military's growing dependence on commercial satellite communications systems will become a strength or vulnerability based on how well the right balance is achieved between commercial and military systems...

  5. Duration dependence test for rational speculative bubble: the strength and weakness

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Mahyudin

    2012-01-01

    This review highlights the strength and weakness of duration dependence test used by Mokhtar, Nassir and Hassan (2006) to detect the rational speculative bubble in the Malaysian stock market. It is found that despite the test’s strength over the other tests, it is however sensitive to different specifications and therefore may produce contrasting results.

  6. Muscle strength as a predictor of onset of ADL dependence in people aged 75 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rantanen, Taina; Avlund, Kirsten; Suominen, Harri

    2002-01-01

    . For each muscle group tested, three equal groups were formed for men and women separately based on distributions of results. Those who reported being unable or needing help for eating, dressing, bathing, toileting, walking indoors or transferring from a bed or a chair were rated as ADL dependent....... Of the 227 initially ADL independent men, 21 (9.3%) became dependent in ADL. In women, the figures were 30 (8.8%) of 340. Multiple logistic regression models were used to predict the risk of ADL dependence in groups based on strength tertiles. After confirming that the association of muscle strength...... and incident ADL-dependence was similar in men and women, both genders were included in the same analyses adjusted for body weight and height, gender and research locality. Gender specific cut-offs were used for strength tertiles. All the strength tests predicted ADL dependence, with those being in the lowest...

  7. Dependence of the giant dipole strength function on excitation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Draper, J.E.; Newton, J.O.; Sobotka, L.G.; Lindenberger, H.; Wozniak, G.J.; Moretto, L.G.; Stephens, F.S.; Diamond, R.M.; McDonald, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Spectra of γ rays associated with deep-inelastic products from the 1150-MeV 136 Xe+ 181 Ta reaction have been measured. The yield of 10--20-MeV γ rays initially increases rapidly with the excitation energy of the products and then more slowly for excitation energies in excess of 120 MeV. Statistical-model calculations with ground-state values of the giant dipole strength function fail to reproduce the shape of the measured γ-ray spectra. This suggests a dependence of the giant dipole strength function on excitation energy

  8. Fatigue strength depending on position of cracks for weldments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hae Woo; Park, Won Jo

    2006-01-01

    This is a study of fatigue strength of weld deposits with transverse cracks in plate up to 50 mm thick. It is concerned with the fatigue properties of welds already with transverse cracks. A previous study of transverse crack occurrence, location and microstructure in accordance with welding conditions was published in the Welding Journal (Lee et al., 1998). A fatigue crack develops as a result of stress concentration and extends with each load cycle until fatigue occurs, or until the cyclic loads are transferred to redundant members. The fatigue performance of a member is more dependent on the localized state of stress than the static strength of the base metal or the weld metal. Fatigue specimens were machined to have transverse cracks located on the surface and inside the specimen. Evaluation of fatigue strength depending on location of transverse cracks was then performed. When transverse cracks were propagated in a quarter-or half-circle shape, the specimen broke at low cycle in the presence of a surface crack. However, when the crack was inside the specimen, it propagated in a circular or elliptical shape and the specimen showed high fatigue strength, enough to reach the fatigue limit within tolerance of design stresses

  9. Multifunctional Beta Ti Alloy with Improved Specific Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Hee; Hong, Jae-Keun; Lee, Sang Won; Yeom, Jong-Taek

    2017-12-01

    Gum metals feature properties such as ultrahigh strength, ultralow elastic modulus, superelasticity, and superplasticity. They are composed of elements from Groups 4 and 5 of the periodic table and exist when the valance electron concentration (\\overline{e/a}) is 4.24; the bond order (\\overline{Bo}) is 2.87; and the "d" electron-orbital energy level (\\overline{Md}) is 2.45 eV. Typical compositions include Ti-23Nb-2Zr-0.7Ta-O and Ti-12Ta-9Nb-6Zr-3 V-O, which contain large amounts of heavy Group-5 elements such as Nb and Ta. In the present study, to improve the specific strength of a multifunctional beta Ti alloy, three alloys (Ti-20Nb-5Zr-1Fe-O, Ti-12Zr-10Mo-4Nb-O, and Ti-24Zr-9Cr-3Mo-O) were designed by satisfying the above three requirements while adding Fe, Mo, and Cr, which are not only lightweight but also have strong hardening effects. Microstructural and mechanical property analyses revealed that Ti-20Nb-5Zr-1Fe-O has a 25% higher specific strength than gum metal while maintaining an ultralow elastic modulus.

  10. Strength and deformation of shocked diamond single crystals: Orientation dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, J. M.; Winey, J. M.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2018-03-01

    Understanding and quantifying the strength or elastic limit of diamond single crystals is of considerable scientific and technological importance, and has been a subject of long standing theoretical and experimental interest. To examine the effect of crystalline anisotropy on strength and deformation of shocked diamond single crystals, plate impact experiments were conducted to measure wave profiles at various elastic impact stresses up to ˜120 GPa along [110] and [111] crystal orientations. Using laser interferometry, particle velocity histories and shock velocities in the diamond samples were measured and were compared with similar measurements published previously for shock compression along the [100] direction. Wave profiles for all three orientations showed large elastic wave amplitudes followed by time-dependent inelastic deformation. From the measured wave profiles, the elastic limits were determined under well characterized uniaxial strain loading conditions. The measured elastic wave amplitudes for the [110] and [111] orientations were lower for higher elastic impact stress (stress attained for an elastic diamond response), consistent with the result reported previously for [100] diamond. The maximum resolved shear stress (MRSS) on the {111}⟨110⟩ slip systems was determined for each orientation, revealing significant orientation dependence. The MRSS values for the [100] and [110] orientations (˜33 GPa) are 25%-30% of theoretical estimates; the MRSS value for the [111] orientation is significantly lower (˜23 GPa). Our results demonstrate that the MRSS depends strongly on the stress component normal to the {111} planes or the resolved normal stress (RNS), suggesting that the RNS plays a key role in inhibiting the onset of inelastic deformation. Lower elastic wave amplitudes at higher peak stress and the effect of the RNS are inconsistent with typical dislocation slip mechanisms of inelastic deformation, suggesting instead an inelastic response

  11. Trait-specific dependence in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Bruce J; Simpson, Jeffry A; Campbell, Lorne

    2002-10-01

    Informed by three theoretical frameworks--trait psychology, evolutionary psychology, and interdependence theory--we report four investigations designed to develop and test the reliability and validity of a new construct and accompanying multiscale inventory, the Trait-Specific Dependence Inventory (TSDI). The TSDI assesses comparisons between present and alternative romantic partners on major dimensions of mate value. In Study 1, principal components analyses revealed that the provisional pool of theory-generated TSDI items were represented by six factors: Agreeable/Committed, Resource Accruing Potential, Physical Prowess, Emotional Stability, Surgency, and Physical Attractiveness. In Study 2, confirmatory factor analysis replicated these results on a different sample and tested how well different structural models fit the data. Study 3 provided evidence for the convergent and discriminant validity of the six TSDI scales by correlating each one with a matched personality trait scale that did not explicitly incorporate comparisons between partners. Study 4 provided further validation evidence, revealing that the six TSDI scales successfully predicted three relationship outcome measures--love, time investment, and anger/upset--above and beyond matched sets of traditional personality trait measures. These results suggest that the TSDI is a reliable, valid, and unique construct that represents a new trait-specific method of assessing dependence in romantic relationships. The construct of trait-specific dependence is introduced and linked with other theories of mate value.

  12. A dependent stress-strength interference model based on mixed copula function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Jian Xiong; An, Zong Wen; Liu, Bo [School of Mechatronics Engineering, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou (China)

    2016-10-15

    In the traditional Stress-strength interference (SSI) model, stress and strength must satisfy the basic assumption of mutual independence. However, a complex dependence between stress and strength exists in practical engineering. To evaluate structural reliability under the case that stress and strength are dependent, a mixed copula function is introduced to a new dependent SSI model. This model can fully characterize the dependence between stress and strength. The residual square sum method and genetic algorithm are also used to estimate the unknown parameters of the model. Finally, the validity of the proposed model is demonstrated via a practical case. Results show that traditional SSI model ignoring the dependence between stress and strength more easily overestimates product reliability than the new dependent SSI model.

  13. Implementation of specific strength training among industrial laboratory technicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mogens Theisen; Andersen, Christoffer Højnicke; Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have shown positive effects of physical exercise at the workplace on musculoskeletal disorders. However, long-term adherence remains a challenge. The present study evaluates long-term adherence and effects of a workplace strength training intervention on back, neck and upper extr...

  14. Tensile properties and temperature-dependent yield strength prediction of GH4033 wrought superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jianzuo [State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control and College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Li, Weiguo, E-mail: wgli@cqu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control and College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Zhang, Xianhe; Kou, Haibo; Shao, Jiaxing; Geng, Peiji; Deng, Yong [State Key Laboratory of Coal Mine Disaster Dynamics and Control and College of Aerospace Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400030 (China); Fang, Daining [LTCS and College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-10-31

    The tensile properties of superalloy GH4033 have been evaluated at temperatures ranging from room temperature to 1000 °C. Fracture surfaces and precipitation were observed using a field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM). The alloy mainly consisted of γ’ precipitate particles homogeneously dispersed in the γ matrix interior. The effects of dynamic strain aging and precipitation on the strength were verified. A temperature-dependent yield strength model was developed to describe the temperature and precipitation effects on the alloy's yield behaviour. The model is able to consider the effect of precipitation strengthening on the yield strength. The yield behaviour of the precipitation-strengthened superalloy was demonstrated to be adequately predictable over a wide range of temperatures. Note that this model reflects the quantitative relationship between the yield strength of the precipitation-strengthened superalloy and the temperature, the elastic modulus, the specific heat capacity at constant pressure, Poisson's ratio, the precipitate particle size and the volume fraction of the particles.

  15. Dependence of strength on particle size in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, E.P.; Kennedy, C.R.

    The strength to particle size relationship for specially fabricated graphites has been demonstrated and rationalized using fracture mechanics. In the past, similar studies have yielded empirical data using only commercially available material. Thus, experimental verification of these relationships has been difficult. However, the graphites of this study were fabricated by controlling the particle size ranges for a series of isotropic graphites. All graphites that were evaluated had a constant 1.85 g/cm 3 density. Thus, particle size was the only variable. This study also considered the particle size effect on other physical properties; coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), electrical resistivity, fracture strain, and Young's modulus

  16. Power dependence on the rotational strength in a quartz crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, N.V.; Salcedo, D.; Gil, H.

    2007-01-01

    The rotational strength of optical activity has been examined as a function of power of the incident radiation in a quartz crystal for the first time. It has been observed that the angle of rotation is proportional to the square root of the intensity of the radiation. The present experimental data directly support the recently proposed model which takes into account the electronic polarizability rather than the atomic polarizability. This model explicitly explains the role of the incident power in estimating the angle of rotation

  17. Prevalence and strength of density-dependent tree recruitment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kai Zhu; Christopher W. Woodall; Joao V.D. Monteiro; James S. Clark

    2015-01-01

    Density dependence could maintain diversity in forests, but studies continue to disagree on its role. Part of the disagreement results from the fact that different studies have evaluated different responses (survival, recruitment, or growth) of different stages (seeds, seedlings, or adults) to different inputs (density of seedlings, density or distance to adults). Most...

  18. Occupational-Specific Strength Predicts Astronaut-Related Task Performance in a Weighted Suit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Andrew; Kotarsky, Christopher J; Bond, Colin W; Hackney, Kyle J

    2018-01-01

    Future space missions beyond low Earth orbit will require deconditioned astronauts to perform occupationally relevant tasks within a planetary spacesuit. The prediction of time-to-completion (TTC) of astronaut tasks will be critical for crew safety, autonomous operations, and mission success. This exploratory study determined if the addition of task-specific strength testing to current standard lower body testing would enhance the prediction of TTC in a 1-G test battery. Eight healthy participants completed NASA lower body strength tests, occupationally specific strength tests, and performed six task simulations (hand drilling, construction wrenching, incline walking, collecting weighted samples, and dragging an unresponsive crewmember to safety) in a 48-kg weighted suit. The TTC for each task was recorded and summed to obtain a total TTC for the test battery. Linear regression was used to predict total TTC with two models: 1) NASA lower body strength tests; and 2) NASA lower body strength tests + occupationally specific strength tests. Total TTC of the test battery ranged from 20.2-44.5 min. The lower body strength test alone accounted for 61% of the variability in total TTC. The addition of hand drilling and wrenching strength tests accounted for 99% of the variability in total TTC. Adding occupationally specific strength tests (hand drilling and wrenching) to standard lower body strength tests successfully predicted total TTC in a performance test battery within a weighted suit. Future research should couple these strength tests with higher fidelity task simulations to determine the utility and efficacy of task performance prediction.Taylor A, Kotarsky CJ, Bond CW, Hackney KJ. Occupational-specific strength predicts astronaut-related task performance in a weighted suit. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):58-62.

  19. Dependence of electric strength on the ambient temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Čaja, Alexander; Nemec, Patrik; Malcho, Milan

    2014-01-01

    At present, the volume concentration of electronic components in their miniaturization to different types of microchips and increasing their performance raises the problem of cooling such elements due to the increasing density of heat flow of heat loss. Compliance with safe operating temperature of active semiconductor element is very closely related to the reliability and durability not only components, but also the entire device. Often it is also necessary to electrically isolate the unit from the side of the cooler air. Cooling demand by natural convection is typical for applications with high operating reliability. To the reliability of the system for removing heat loss increased, it is necessary to minimize need to use the mechanically or electrically powered elements, such as circulation pumps or fans. Experience to date with applications of heat pipe in specific systems appears to be the most appropriate method of cooling

  20. Delayed Ego Strength Development in Opioid Dependent Adolescents and Young Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramoff, Benjamin A.; Lange, Hannah L. H.; Matson, Steven C.; Cottrill, Casey B.; Bridge, Jeffrey A.; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Bonny, Andrea E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate ego strengths, in the context of Erikson's framework, among adolescents and young adults diagnosed with opioid dependence as compared to non-drug using youth. Methods. Opioid dependent (n = 51) and non-drug using control (n = 31) youth completed the self-administered Psychosocial Inventory of Ego Strengths (PIES). The PIES assesses development in the framework of Erikson's ego strength stages. Multivariate linear regression modeling assessed the independent association of the primary covariate (opioid dependent versus control) as well as potential confounding variables (e.g., psychiatric comorbidities, intelligence) with total PIES score. Results. Mean total PIES score was significantly lower in opioid dependent youth (231.65 ± 30.39 opioid dependent versus 270.67 ± 30.06 control; p development. A treatment approach acknowledging this delay may be needed in the counseling and treatment of adolescents with opioid dependence. PMID:26664819

  1. Analysis of seafloor backscatter strength dependence on the survey azimuth using multibeam echosounder data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurton, Xavier; Eleftherakis, Dimitrios; Augustin, Jean-Marie

    2018-06-01

    The sediment backscatter strength measured by multibeam echosounders is a key feature for seafloor mapping either qualitative (image mosaics) or quantitative (extraction of classifying features). An important phenomenon, often underestimated, is the dependence of the backscatter level on the azimuth angle imposed by the survey line directions: strong level differences at varying azimuth can be observed in case of organized roughness of the seabed, usually caused by tide currents over sandy sediments. This paper presents a number of experimental results obtained from shallow-water cruises using a 300-kHz multibeam echosounder and specially dedicated to the study of this azimuthal effect, with a specific configuration of the survey strategy involving a systematic coverage of reference areas following "compass rose" patterns. The results show for some areas a very strong dependence of the backscatter level, up to about 10-dB differences at intermediate oblique angles, although the presence of these ripples cannot be observed directly—neither from the bathymetry data nor from the sonar image, due to the insufficient resolution capability of the sonar. An elementary modeling of backscattering from rippled interfaces explains and comforts these observations. The consequences of this backscatter dependence upon survey azimuth on the current strategies of backscatter data acquisition and exploitation are discussed.

  2. Study on the effect of testing machine rigidity on strength and ductility temperature dependences obtained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krashchenko, V.P.; Statsenko, V.E.; Rudnitskij, N.P.

    1984-01-01

    Investigation procedures are described for rigidity of testing machines and mechanical properties of tantalum and nickel in the temperature range 293-1873K. Temperature dependences are presented for strength characteristics of the investigated materials obtained with the use of installations of different rigidity. Dependence analysis is carried out and recommendations are given as to the characteristics application

  3. Field strength and dose dependence of contrast enhancement by gadolinium-based MR contrast agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinck, P.A.; Muller, R.N.

    1999-01-01

    The relaxivities r 1 and r 2 of magnetic resonance contrast agents and the T 1 relaxation time values of tissues are strongly field dependent. We present quantitative data and simulations of different gadolinium-based extracellular fluid contrast agents and the modulation of their contrast enhancement by the magnetic field to be able to answer the following questions: How are the dose and field dependences of their contrast enhancement? Is there an interrelationship between dose and field dependence? Should one increase or decrease doses at specific fields? Nuclear magnetic relaxation dispersion data were acquired for the following contrast agents: gadopentetate dimeglumine, gadoterate meglumine, gadodiamide injection, and gadoteridol injection, as well as for several normal and pathological human tissue samples. The magnetic field range stretched from 0.0002 to 4.7 T, including the entire clinical imaging range. The data acquired were then fitted with the appropriate theoretical models. The combination of the diamagnetic relaxation rates (R 1 = 1/T 1 and R 2 = 1/T 2 ) of tissues with the respective paramagnetic contributions of the contrast agents allowed the prediction of image contrast at any magnetic field. The results revealed a nearly identical field and dose-dependent increase of contrast enhancement induced by these contrast agents within a certain dose range. The target tissue concentration (TTC) was an important though nonlinear factor for enhancement. The currently recommended dose of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight seems to be a compromise close to the lower limits of diagnostically sufficient contrast enhancement for clinical imaging at all field strengths. At low field contrast enhancement might be insufficient. Adjustment of dose or concentration, or a new class of contrast agents with optimized relaxivity, would be a valuable contribution to a better diagnostic yield of contrast enhancement at all fields. (orig.)

  4. Comparing Three Patterns of Strengths and Weaknesses Models for the Identification of Specific Learning Disabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Daniel C.; Maricle, Denise E.; Jones, Alicia M.

    2016-01-01

    Processing Strengths and Weaknesses (PSW) models have been proposed as a method for identifying specific learning disabilities. Three PSW models were examined for their ability to predict expert identified specific learning disabilities cases. The Dual Discrepancy/Consistency Model (DD/C; Flanagan, Ortiz, & Alfonso, 2013) as operationalized by…

  5. Comparing the Impact of Specific Strength Training vs General Fitness Training on Professional Symphony Orchestra Musicians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nygaard Andersen, Lotte; Mann, Stephanie; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Musculoskeletal symptoms, especially in the upper body, are frequent among professional symphony orchestra musicians. Physical exercise may relieve pain but might also interfere with playing performance. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility and effect of "specific strength training" (SST) versus...... "general fitness training" (GFT). METHODS: A feasibility study using randomized controlled methods. Primarily, evaluations involved self-reported impact on instrument playing and satisfaction with the interventions. Secondary evaluations included pain intensity, hand-grip strength, aerobic capacity, body...

  6. Molecular dynamics simulation of thin film interfacial strength dependency on lattice mismatch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Zhou; Lian, Jie; Wang, Junlan

    2013-01-01

    Laser-induced thin film spallation experiments have been previously developed to characterize the intrinsic interfacial strength of thin films. In order to gain insights of atomic level thin film debonding processes and the interfacial strength dependence on film/substrate lattice structures, in this study, molecular dynamics simulations of thin film interfacial failure under laser-induced stress waves were performed. Various loading amplitudes and pulse durations were employed to identify the optimum simulation condition. Stress propagation as a function of time was revealed in conjunction with the interface structures. Parametric studies confirmed that while the interfacial strength between a thin film and a substrate does not depend on the film thickness and the duration of the laser pulse, a thicker film and a shorter duration do provide advantage to effectively load the interface to failure. With the optimized simulation condition, further studies were focused on bulk Au/Au bi-crystals with mismatched orientations, and Ni/Al, Cu/Al, Cu/Ag and Cu/Au bi-crystals with mismatched lattices. The interfacial strength was found to decrease with increasing orientation mismatch and lattice mismatch but more significantly dominated by the bonding elements' atomic structure and valence electron occupancy. - Highlights: • Molecular dynamics simulation was done on stress wave induced thin film spallation. • Atomic structure was found to be a primary strength determining factor. • Lattice mismatch was found to be a secondary strength determining factor

  7. Dependent leaders : Role-specific challenges for middle managers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorn, Bart

    2018-01-01

    Mocked and ridiculed by many, praised by few, middle managers have challenging roles in organizations. It is typified by unique dependencies on different aspects of their work circumstances, including their superiors’ leadership, assigned goals, and tenure. Empirical research exploring specific

  8. Dependence of dipole transition gamma ray strength on the type of nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cojocaru, V.; Stefanescu, Irina; Popescu, I.V.; Badica, T.; Olariu, A.

    2000-01-01

    The strength of gamma-ray transition is defined as the ratio between the experimental radiative width Γ γ and the theoretical radiative width calculated according to a model (for example Weisskopf single particle model, Γ W ). It is important to know on which parameters this strengths depend. In our previous work we put in evidence the dependence of the dipole transition gamma-ray strengths on the type of the nucleus. In this paper we look for a possible dependence of the quadrupole gamma-ray strengths on the type of nucleus (doubly-even, doubly-odd, with odd proton number and odd neutron number). All the input data are taken from the National Nuclear Data Center, Brookhaven. In order to demonstrate this possible dependence one can use the average of the strongest 10% transitions of given character. As the A dependence is concerned we use the following A-regions: 6-20, 21-44, 45-90, 91-150, 151-200. An average value for these transitions is also plotted both for the E2 and M2 transitions. Generally, all the functions log 10 vs A (S=Γ γ /Γ W ) have the same pattern as 'total' put in evidence by Endt. Moreover, there is a clear difference in the most A regions of the average S 10 values for different types of nuclei. As the RUL (Recommended Upper Limits W.u.) are concerned they have to be established as the highest experimental values of the transition strengths. In this work we suggest new RUL but this time in connection with the type of the nucleus. A table with the RUL depending on the nuclear type, for E2 and M2 transitions, respectively, is given. The number of M2 transitions is quite small. In this case, one might set the recommended upper limits with some precaution. (authors)

  9. Time-Dependent Behavior of High-Strength Kevlar and Vectran Webbing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Thomas C.; Doggett, William R.

    2014-01-01

    High-strength Kevlar and Vectran webbings are currently being used by both NASA and industry as the primary load-bearing structure in inflatable space habitation modules. The time-dependent behavior of high-strength webbing architectures is a vital area of research that is providing critical material data to guide a more robust design process for this class of structures. This paper details the results of a series of time-dependent tests on 1-inch wide webbing including an initial set of comparative tests between specimens that underwent realtime and accelerated creep at 65 and 70% of their ultimate tensile strength. Variability in the ultimate tensile strength of the webbings is investigated and compared with variability in the creep life response. Additional testing studied the effects of load and displacement rate, specimen length and the time-dependent effects of preconditioning the webbings. The creep test facilities, instrumentation and test procedures are also detailed. The accelerated creep tests display consistently longer times to failure than their real-time counterparts; however, several factors were identified that may contribute to the observed disparity. Test setup and instrumentation, grip type, loading scheme, thermal environment and accelerated test postprocessing along with material variability are among these factors. Their effects are discussed and future work is detailed for the exploration and elimination of some of these factors in order to achieve a higher fidelity comparison.

  10. Gate dielectric strength dependent performance of CNT MOSFET and CNT TFET: A tight binding study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Shamim Sarker

    Full Text Available This paper presents a comparative study between CNT MOSFET and CNT TFET taking into account of different dielectric strength of gate oxide materials. Here we have studied the transfer characteristics, on/off current (ION/IOFF ratio and subthreshold slope of the device using Non Equilibrium Greens Function (NEGF formalism in tight binding frameworks. The results are obtained by solving the NEGF and Poisson’s equation self-consistently in NanoTCADViDES environment and found that the ON state performance of CNT MOSFET and CNT TFET have significant dependency on the dielectric strength of the gate oxide materials. The figure of merits of the devices also demonstrates that the CNT TFET is promising for high-speed and low-power logic applications. Keywords: CNT TFET, Subthreshold slop, Barrier width, Conduction band (C.B and Valance band (V.B, Oxide dielectric strength, Tight binding approach

  11. Fluctuation-dissipation theorem for frequency-dependent specific heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dyre, Jeppe; Nielsen, Johannes K.

    1996-01-01

    A derivation of the fluctuation-dissipation (FD) theorem for the frequency-dependent specific heat of a system described by a master equation is presented. The FD theorem is illustrated by a number of simple examples, including a system described by a linear Langevin equation, a two-level system......, and a system described by the energy master equation. It is shown that for two quite different models with low-energy cutoffs—a collection of two-level systems and a system described by the energy master equation—the frequency-dependent specific heat in dimensionless units becomes universal at low temperatures......, i.e., independent of both energy distribution and temperature. These two models give almost the same universal frequency-dependent specific heat, which compares favorably to experiments on supercooled alcohols....

  12. Ionic strength dependence of stability constants, complexation of Molybdenum(V I) with EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zare, K.; Majlesi, K.; Teimoori, F.

    2002-01-01

    The stability constant of Mo (Vi) complexes with EDTA in aqueous solution has been determined by various authors using different techniques, but according to literature, no work has been reported on ionic strength dependence of these complexes. The present work describes the complexation of Mo (Vi) with EDTA in an ionic strength range of 0.1 to 1.0 moldm - 3 s odium perchlorate at 25 d ig C . The complexation of molybdenum (Vi) with EDTA was investigated in aqueous solution ranging in ph from 5 to 7 using UV spectrophotometric techniques. The composition of the complex was determined by the continuous variations method. It was shown that molybdenum (Vi) forms a 2:1 complex with EDTA of the type (MoO 3 ) 2 L - 4 a t ph =5.5 The parameters that define the dependence on ionic strength were analyzed with the aim of obtaining further information regarding to their variation as a function of the charges involved in the complex reaction. Moreover, a Debye-Huckel type equation makes it possible to estimate a stability constant at a fixed ionic strength when its value is known at another ionic media in the range of 0.1 3 . Therefore the evaluation may make a significant contribution solving many analytical and speciation problems

  13. The importance of spatial models for estimating the strength of density dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorson, James T.; Skaug, Hans J.; Kristensen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    the California Coast. In this case, the nonspatial model estimates implausible oscillatory dynamics on an annual time scale, while the spatial model estimates strong autocorrelation and is supported by model selection tools. We conclude by discussing the importance of improved data archiving techniques, so...... that spatial models can be used to re-examine classic questions regarding the presence and strength of density dependence in wild populations Read More: http://www.esajournals.org/doi/abs/10.1890/14-0739.1...

  14. Change of notch impact strength depending on radiation dose and test temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Bednarik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this paper has been determine the effect of radiation crosslinking on the notch impact strength of polyamides filled with fiberglass. These properties were examined in dependence on the dosage of the ionizing beta radiation (non-irradiated samples and those irradiated by dosage 66 and 132 kGy were compared and on the test temperature (23–150 °C.

  15. Dependence of Brownian and Néel relaxation times on magnetic field strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deissler, Robert J.; Wu, Yong; Martens, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: In magnetic particle imaging (MPI) and magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) the relaxation time of the magnetization in response to externally applied magnetic fields is determined by the Brownian and Néel relaxation mechanisms. Here the authors investigate the dependence of the relaxation times on the magnetic field strength and the implications for MPI and MPS. Methods: The Fokker–Planck equation with Brownian relaxation and the Fokker–Planck equation with Néel relaxation are solved numerically for a time-varying externally applied magnetic field, including a step-function, a sinusoidally varying, and a linearly ramped magnetic field. For magnetic fields that are applied as a step function, an eigenvalue approach is used to directly calculate both the Brownian and Néel relaxation times for a range of magnetic field strengths. For Néel relaxation, the eigenvalue calculations are compared to Brown's high-barrier approximation formula. Results: The relaxation times due to the Brownian or Néel mechanisms depend on the magnitude of the applied magnetic field. In particular, the Néel relaxation time is sensitive to the magnetic field strength, and varies by many orders of magnitude for nanoparticle properties and magnetic field strengths relevant for MPI and MPS. Therefore, the well-known zero-field relaxation times underestimate the actual relaxation times and, in particular, can underestimate the Néel relaxation time by many orders of magnitude. When only Néel relaxation is present—if the particles are embedded in a solid for instance—the authors found that there can be a strong magnetization response to a sinusoidal driving field, even if the period is much less than the zero-field relaxation time. For a ferrofluid in which both Brownian and Néel relaxation are present, only one relaxation mechanism may dominate depending on the magnetic field strength, the driving frequency (or ramp time), and the phase of the magnetization relative to the

  16. Specific energy of cold crack initiation in welding low alloy high-strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brednev, V.I.; Kasatkin, B.S.

    1988-01-01

    Methods for determination of energy spent on cold crack initiation, when testing welded joint samples by the Implant method, are described. Data on the effect of the steel alloying system, cooling rate of welded joints, content of diffusion hydrogen on the critical specific energy spent on the development of local plastic deformation upto cold crack initiation are presented. The value of specific energy spent on cold crack initiation is shown to be by two-three orders lower than the value of impact strength minimum accessible. The possibility to estimate welded joint resistance to cold crack initiation according to the critical specific energy is established

  17. Magnetic field strength dependence of the magnetostriction of rare-earth iron garnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zvezdin, A.K.; Levitin, R.Z.; Popov, A.I.; Silant'ev, V.I.

    1981-01-01

    The magnetostriction of holmium-yttrium iron garnets Hosub(x)Ysub(3-x)Fesub(5)Osub(12) (x=3 or 1.05) is measured in pulsed magnetic fields up to 200 kOe at 78 K. It is shown that the magnetostriction constants lambda 111 and lambda 100 of these ferrimagnets depends on the magnetic field strength. The magnetostriction constant of the iron garnet Ho 3 Fe 5 O 12 increases and of the iron garnet Hosub(1.05)Ysub(1.95)Fesub(5)Osub(12) decreases with increase of the field strength. The field dependences of the anisotropic magnetostriction constants lambda 111 and lambda 100 for Hosub(1.05)Ysub(1.95)Fesub(5)Osub(12) are fundamentally different. Thus lambda 111 depends quadratically on the total effective field Hsub(eff) whereas lambda 100 depends almost linearly on Hsub(eff). A theoretical analysis of the magneto-elastic interaction in rare-earth iron garnets is carried out [ru

  18. Microtensile bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system using different bonding strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura AlveBastos

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-etching on the bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system to dentin. Materials and Methods Thirty human molars were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the different bonding strategies. For teeth restored with silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE, the specific self-etching adhesive system (Adhesive System P90, 3M ESPE was used with and without pre-etching (Pre-etching/Silorane and Silorane groups. Teeth restored with methacrylate based-composite (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE were hybridized with the two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray, with and without pre-etching (Pre-etching/Methacrylate and Methacrylate groups, or three-step adhesive system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE (Three-step/Methacrylate group (n = 6. The restored teeth were sectioned into stick-shaped test specimens (1.0 × 1.0 mm, and coupled to a universal test machine (0.5 mm/min to perform microtensile testing. Results Pre-etching/Methacrylate group presented the highest bond strength values, with significant difference from Silorane and Three-step/Methacrylate groups (p < 0.05. However, it was not significantly different from Preetching/Silorane and Methacrylate groups. Conclusions Pre-etching increased bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system to dentin.

  19. Temperature dependence of deformation vs. strength properties of radiation-crosslinked polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matusevich, Yu.I.; Krul', L.P.

    1992-01-01

    The authors have studied the deformation vs. strength properties of radiation-crosslinked low-density polyethylene irradiated by γ irradiation up to doses from 5.0 sm-bullet 10 4 to 1.0 sm-bullet 10 6 Gy. The authors present the elongation diagrams taken at temperatures below and above the melting point of the polymer. The authors have obtained the dependences of the breaking stress and the pre-break elongation of the polymer on the irradiation doses and the testing temperature. Based on the kinetic lifetime equation, The authors calculated the values of the activation energy for mechanical fracture and the structure-sensitive coefficient γ. The authors show that in the crystalline state the strength of radiation-crosslinked polyethylene is determined by the chemical interactions along the chain of polymer macromolecules; and in molten polyethylene, by the crosslinks between the macromolecules. 8 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Specification and Verification of Context-dependent Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Ibrahim

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Current approaches for the discovery, specification, and provision of services ignore the relationship between the service contract and the conditions in which the service can guarantee its contract. Moreover, they do not use formal methods for specifying services, contracts, and compositions. Without a formal basis it is not possible to justify through formal verification the correctness conditions for service compositions and the satisfaction of contractual obligations in service provisions. We remedy this situation in this paper. We present a formal definition of services with context-dependent contracts. We define a composition theory of services with context-dependent contracts taking into consideration functional, nonfunctional, legal and contextual information. Finally, we present a formal verification approach that transforms the formal specification of service composition into extended timed automata that can be verified using the model checking tool UPPAAL.

  1. Polarized Line Formation in Arbitrary Strength Magnetic Fields Angle-averaged and Angle-dependent Partial Frequency Redistribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bengaluru 560 034 (India); Stenflo, J. O., E-mail: sampoorna@iiap.res.in, E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in, E-mail: stenflo@astro.phys.ethz.ch [Institute of Astronomy, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)

    2017-08-01

    Magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere leave their fingerprints in the polarized spectrum of the Sun via the Hanle and Zeeman effects. While the Hanle and Zeeman effects dominate, respectively, in the weak and strong field regimes, both these effects jointly operate in the intermediate field strength regime. Therefore, it is necessary to solve the polarized line transfer equation, including the combined influence of Hanle and Zeeman effects. Furthermore, it is required to take into account the effects of partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in scattering when dealing with strong chromospheric lines with broad damping wings. In this paper, we present a numerical method to solve the problem of polarized PRD line formation in magnetic fields of arbitrary strength and orientation. This numerical method is based on the concept of operator perturbation. For our studies, we consider a two-level atom model without hyperfine structure and lower-level polarization. We compare the PRD idealization of angle-averaged Hanle–Zeeman redistribution matrices with the full treatment of angle-dependent PRD, to indicate when the idealized treatment is inadequate and what kind of polarization effects are specific to angle-dependent PRD. Because the angle-dependent treatment is presently computationally prohibitive when applied to realistic model atmospheres, we present the computed emergent Stokes profiles for a range of magnetic fields, with the assumption of an isothermal one-dimensional medium.

  2. Microtensile bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system using different bonding strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Bastos, Laura Alves; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; Drubi-Filho, Brahim; Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-etching on the bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system to dentin. Materials and Methods Thirty human molars were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the different bonding strategies. For teeth restored with silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE), the specific self-etching adhesive system (Adhesive System P90, 3M ESPE) was used with and without pre-etching (Pre-etching/S...

  3. Correlation between maximum isometric strength variables and specific performance of Brazilian military judokas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Moraes Gonçalves

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It was our objective to correlate specific performance in the Special Judo Fitness Test (SJFT and the maximum isometric handgrip (HGSMax, scapular traction (STSMax and lumbar traction (LTSMax strength tests in military judo athletes. Twenty-two military athletes from the judo team of the Brazilian Navy Almirante Alexandrino Instruction Centre, with average age of 26.14 ± 3.31 years old, and average body mass of 83.23 ± 14.14 kg participated in the study. Electronic dynamometry tests for HGSMax, STSMax and LTSMax were conducted. Then, after approximately 1 hour-interval, the SJFT protocol was applied. All variables were adjusted to the body mass of the athletes. Pearson correlation coefficient for statistical analysis was used. The results showed moderate negative correlation between the SJFT index and STSMax (r= -0.550, p= 0.008, strong negative correlations between the SJFT index and HGSMax (r= -0.706, p< 0.001, SJFT index and LTSMax (r= -0.721; p= 0.001, besides the correlation between the sum of the three maximum isometric strength tests and the SJFT index (r= -0.786, p< 0.001. This study concludes that negative correlations occur between the SJFT index and maximum isometric handgrip, shoulder and lumbar traction strength and the sum of the three maximum isometric strength tests in military judokas.

  4. Brief Report: Loss of Muscle Strength Prior to Knee Replacement: A Question of Anatomic Cross-Sectional Area or Specific Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culvenor, Adam G; Hamler, Felix C; Kemnitz, Jana; Wirth, Wolfgang; Eckstein, Felix

    2018-02-01

    To determine whether loss in thigh muscle strength prior to knee replacement is caused by reductions of muscle strength in the anatomic cross-sectional area or by reductions of specific strength. All 100 of the participants in the Osteoarthritis Initiative who underwent knee replacement and whose medical records included data on thigh isometric muscle strength and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (58 women, and 42 men, mean ± SD age 65 ± 8 years, mean ± SD body mass index [BMI] 29 ± 5 kg/m 2 ) were matched with a control (no knee replacement) for age, sex, height, BMI, and radiographic severity. Thigh muscle anatomic cross-sectional area was determined by MRI at the research visit before knee replacement (time 0) and 2 years before time 0 (time -2). Specific strength (strength/anatomic cross-sectional area) was calculated, and the measures were compared by conditional logistic regression (i.e., odds ratio [OR] per standard deviation). ORs adjusted for pain (OR adj ) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were also calculated. Knee replacement cases had significantly smaller extensor (but not flexor) anatomic cross-sectional areas than controls at time 0 (women, OR adj 1.89 [95% CI 1.05-3.90]; men, OR adj 2.22 [95% CI 1.04-4.76]), whereas no significant differences were found at time -2. Women who had knee replacement showed lower levels of extensor specific strength than controls at time 0 (OR 1.59 [95% CI 1.02-2.50]), although this difference was not observed in men and did not maintain significance after adjustment for pain (OR adj 1.22 [95% CI 0.71-2.08]). Female cases lost significantly more extensor specific strength between time -2 and time 0 than controls (OR adj 3.76 [95% CI 1.04-13.60]), whereas no significant differences were noted at time -2, or in men. Prior to knee replacement, a significant reduction in knee extensor strength appears to occur in women through 2 mechanisms: one driven by pain (loss of specific strength) and one independent of pain

  5. Temperature dependence of the fracture toughness and the cleavage fracture strength of a pressure vessel steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotilainen, H.

    1980-01-01

    A new model for the temperature dependence of the fracture toughness has been sought. It is based on the yielding processes at the crack tip, which are thought to be competitive with fracture. Using this method a good correlation between measured and calculated values of fracture toughness has been found for a Cr-Mo-V pressure vessel steel as well as for A533B. It has been thought that the application of this method can reduce the number of surveillance specimens in nuclear reactors. A method for the determination of the cleavage fracture strength has been proposed. 28 refs

  6. Strength deficit of knee flexors is dependent on hip position in adults with chronic hemiparesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelsen, Stella M; Ovando, Angélica C; Bortolotti, Adriano; Bandini, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which muscle length affects force production in paretic lower limb muscles after stroke in comparison to controls has not been established. To investigate knee flexor strength deficits dependent on hip joint position in adults with hemiparesis and compare with healthy controls. a cross-sectional study with ten subjects with chronic (63±40 months) hemiparesis with mild to moderate lower limb paresis (Fugl-Meyer score 26±3) and 10 neurologically healthy controls. Isometric knee flexion strength with the hip positioned at 90° and 0° of flexion was assessed randomly on the paretic and non-paretic side of hemiparetic subjects and healthy controls. Subjects were asked to perform a maximal isometric contraction sustained for four seconds and measured by a dynamometer. The ratio of knee flexor strength between these two hip positions was calculated: Hip 0°/Hip 90°. Also, locomotor capacity was evaluated by the timed up and go test and by walking velocity over 10 meters. In subjects with hemiparesis, absolute knee flexion torque decreased (phemiparesis when compared to controls. More attention should be given to lower limb muscle strengthening exercises in individuals with stroke, with emphasis on the strengthening exercises in positions in which the muscle is shortened.

  7. Effects of Menstrual Phase-Dependent Resistance Training Frequency on Muscular Hypertrophy and Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamaki-Sunaga, Mikako; Min, Seokki; Kamemoto, Kayoko; Okamoto, Takanobu

    2016-06-01

    The present study investigated how different training frequencies during menstrual phases affect muscle hypertrophy and strength. Fourteen eumenorrheic women performed 3 sets of arm curls (8-15 repetitions) until failure for 12 weeks. Depending on the menstrual cycle phase, each subject trained each arm separately after either a 3- or a 1-d·wk training protocol during the follicular phase (FP-T) and a 3- or 1-d·wk training protocol during the luteal phase (LP-T). Cross-sectional area (CSA), 1 repetition maximum, and maximum voluntary contraction significantly increased 6.2 ± 4.4, 36.4 ± 11.9, and 16.7 ± 5.6%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05 vs. before training), in the FP-T group and 7.8 ± 4.2, 31.8 ± 14.1, and 14.9 ± 12.7%, respectively (p ≤ 0.05 vs. before training), in the LP-T group. Changes in CSA between the FP-T and the LP-T groups significantly and positively correlated (r = 0.54, p ≤ 0.05). There were no major differences among the different training protocols with regard to muscle hypertrophy and strength. Therefore, we suggest that variations in female hormones induced by the menstrual cycle phases do not significantly contribute to muscle hypertrophy and strength gains during 12 weeks of resistance training.

  8. Strain rate dependent tensile behavior of advanced high strength steels: Experiment and constitutive modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ji-Hoon; Kim, Daeyong; Han, Heung Nam; Barlat, F.; Lee, Myoung-Gyu

    2013-01-01

    High strain rate tensile tests were conducted for three advanced high strength steels: DP780, DP980 and TRIP780. A high strain rate tensile test machine was used for applying the strain rate ranging from 0.1/s to 500/s. Details of the measured stress–strain responses were comparatively analyzed for the DP780 and TRIP780 steels which show similar microstructural feature and ultimate tensile strength, but different strengthening mechanisms. The experimental observations included: usual strain rate dependent plastic flow stress behavior in terms of the yield stress (YS), the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), the uniform elongation (UE) and the total elongation (TE) which were observed for the three materials. But, higher strain hardening rate at early plastic strain under quasi-static condition than that of some increased strain rates was featured for TRIP780 steel, which might result from more active transformation during deformation with lower velocity. The uniform elongation that explains the onset of instability and the total elongation were larger in case of TRIP steel than the DP steel for the whole strain rate range, but interestingly the fracture strain measured by the reduction of area (RA) method showed that the TRIP steel has lower values than DP steel. The fractographs using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) at the fractured surfaces were analyzed to relate measured fracture strain and the microstructural difference of the two materials during the process of fracture under various strain rates. Finally, constitutive modeling for the plastic flow stresses under various strain rates was provided in this study. The proposed constitutive law could represent both Hollomon-like and Voce-like hardening laws and the ratio between the two hardening types was efficiently controlled as a function of strain rate. The new strength model was validated successfully under various strain rates for several grades of steels such as mild steels, DP780, TRIP780, DP980 steels.

  9. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) receptor deletion leads to reduced bone strength and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mieczkowska, Aleksandra; Irwin, Nigel; Flatt, Peter R; Chappard, Daniel; Mabilleau, Guillaume

    2013-10-01

    Bone is permanently remodeled by a complex network of local, hormonal and neuronal factors that affect osteoclast and osteoblast biology. In this context, a role for gastro-intestinal hormones has been proposed based on evidence that bone resorption dramatically falls after a meal. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) is one of the candidate hormones as its receptor, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR), is expressed in bone. In the present study we investigated bone strength and quality by three-point bending, quantitative x-ray microradiography, microCT, qBEI and FTIR in a GIPR knockout (GIPR KO) mouse model and compared with control wild-type (WT) animals. Animals with a deletion of the GIPR presented with a significant reduction in ultimate load (--11%), stiffness (-16%), total absorbed (-28%) and post-yield energies (-27%) as compared with WT animals. Furthermore, despite no change in bone outer diameter, the bone marrow diameter was significantly increased and as a result cortical thickness was significantly decreased by 20% in GIPR deficient animals. Bone resorption at the endosteal surface was significantly increased whilst bone formation was unchanged in GIPR deficient animals. Deficient animals also presented with a pronounced reduction in the degree of mineralization of bone matrix. Furthermore, the amount of mature cross-links of collagen matrix was significantly reduced in GIPR deficient animals and was associated with lowered intrinsic material properties. Taken together, these data support a positive effect of the GIPR on bone strength and quality. © 2013.

  10. Towards Subject-Specific Strength Training Design through Predictive Use of Musculoskeletal Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Plüss

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lower extremity dysfunction is often associated with hip muscle strength deficiencies. Detailed knowledge of the muscle forces generated in the hip under specific external loading conditions enables specific structures to be trained. The aim of this study was to find the most effective movement type and loading direction to enable the training of specific parts of the hip muscles using a standing posture and a pulley system. In a novel approach to release the predictive power of musculoskeletal modelling techniques based on inverse dynamics, flexion/extension and ab-/adduction movements were virtually created. To demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach, three hip orientations and an external loading force that was systematically rotated around the body were simulated using a state-of-the art OpenSim model in order to establish ideal designs for training of the anterior and posterior parts of the M. gluteus medius (GM. The external force direction as well as the hip orientation greatly influenced the muscle forces in the different parts of the GM. No setting was found for simultaneous training of the anterior and posterior parts with a muscle force higher than 50% of the maximum. Importantly, this study has demonstrated the use of musculoskeletal models as an approach to predict muscle force variations for different strength and rehabilitation exercise variations.

  11. Degradation in PV Encapsulation Strength of Attachment: An Interlaboratory Study Towards a Climate-Specific Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, David; Annigoni, Eleonora; Ballion, Amal; Bokria, Jayesh G.; Bruckman, Laura S.; Burns, David M.; Chen, Xinxin; Feng, Jiangtao; French, Roger H.; Fowler, Sean; Honeker, Christian C.; Kempe, Michael; Khonkar, Hussam; Kohl, Michael; Perret-Aebi, Laure-Emmanuelle; Phillips, Nancy H.; Scott, Kurt P.; Sculati-Meillaud, Fanny; Wohlgemuth, John

    2016-06-06

    Reduced strength of attachment of the encapsulant resulting from the outdoor environment, including ultraviolet (UV) radiation, may decrease photovoltaic (PV) module lifetime by enabling widespread corrosion of internal components. To date, few studies exist showing how the adhesion of PV components varies with environmental stress. We have conducted an interlaboratory experiment to provide an understanding that will be used to develop climatic specific module tests. Factors examined in the study included the UV light source (lamp type), temperature, and humidity to be proposed for use in accelerated aging tests. A poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) formulation often used in veteran PV installations was studied using a compressive shear test - to quantify the strength of attachment at the EVA/glass interface. Replicate laminated glass/polymer/glass coupon specimens were weathered at 12 institutions using a variety of indoor chambers or field aging. Shear strength, shear strain, and toughness were measured using a mechanical load-frame for the compressive shear test, with subsequent optical imaging and electron microscopy of the separated surfaces.

  12. Healing of shear strength and its time dependency in a single rock fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Yuta; Nakashima, Shinichiro; Yasuhara, Hideaki; Kishida, Kiyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Evolution of the long-term mechanical, hydraulic, and transport characteristics of rock fractures should be, in advance, predicted in considering an issue on entombment of energy byproducts of high level radioactive wastes. Under stressed and temperature conditions, those behaviors of the rock fractures of interest may be evolved in time and space likely due to the change in topographical aperture distributions. This irreversible process may be induced by pure mechanical and/or chemo-mechanical creeps such as water-rock reactions like stress corrosion and pressure solution, and chemical effects including mineral dissolution and reprecipitation in the free-walls of fractures. Specifically, the chemo-mechanical processes active at the contacting asperities within rock fractures may exert a significant influence on the mechanical, hydraulic, and transport behaviors throughout a long period, and thus, should be vigorously examined theoretically and experimentally. This paper presents the slide-hold-slide shear test results for fully saturated, single-jointed mortar specimens so as to investigate the effects of load holding on mechanical properties of rock joints. From the test results, it was confirmed that shear strength increased for mortar specimens in both short and long time holding cases. However, the evolution of shear strength recovery in two cases is different. This is because a dominant factor of shear strength recovery during the short time holding may be attributed to a pure mechanical process like creep deformation at contacting asperities, while the one during long time holding is affected by both mechanical and chemical processes like pressure solution. Moreover, to reproduce the shear strength recovery during short time holding we develop a direct shear model by including temporal variation of dilation during holding. The model predictions are in relatively good agreement with the test measurements. (author)

  13. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carvalho Alberto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73 competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ, counter movement jump (CMJ and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively. After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90°s-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  14. Effects of Strength Training Combined with Specific Plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump height and lower limb strength development in elite male handball players: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Alberto; Mourão, Paulo; Abade, Eduardo

    2014-06-28

    The purpose of the present study was to identify the effects of a strength training program combined with specific plyometric exercises on body composition, vertical jump (VJ) height and strength development of lower limbs in elite male handball players. A 12-week program with combined strength and specific plyometric exercises was carried out for 7 weeks. Twelve elite male handball players (age: 21.6 ± 1.73) competing in the Portuguese Major League participated in the study. Besides the anthropometric measurements, several standardized jump tests were applied to assess VJ performance together with the strength development of the lower limbs in an isokinetic setting. No significant changes were found in body circumferences and diameters. Body fat content and fat mass decreased by 16.4 and 15.7% respectively, while lean body mass increased by 2.1%. Despite small significance, there was in fact an increase in squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ) and 40 consecutive jumps after the training period (6.1, 3.8 and 6.8%, respectively). After the applied protocol, peak torque increased in lower limb extension and flexion in the majority of the movements assessed at 90ºs-1. Consequently, it is possible to conclude that combining general strength-training with plyometric exercises can not only increase lower limb strength and improve VJ performance but also reduce body fat content.

  15. Microtensile bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system using different bonding strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastos, Laura Alves; Sousa, Ana Beatriz Silva; Drubi-Filho, Brahim; Panzeri Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pre-etching on the bond strength of silorane-based composite specific adhesive system to dentin. Thirty human molars were randomly divided into 5 groups according to the different bonding strategies. For teeth restored with silorane-based composite (Filtek Silorane, 3M ESPE), the specific self-etching adhesive system (Adhesive System P90, 3M ESPE) was used with and without pre-etching (Pre-etching/Silorane and Silorane groups). Teeth restored with methacrylate based-composite (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) were hybridized with the two-step self-etching system (Clearfil SE Bond, Kuraray), with and without pre-etching (Pre-etching/Methacrylate and Methacrylate groups), or three-step adhesive system (Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, 3M ESPE) (Three-step/Methacrylate group) (n = 6). The restored teeth were sectioned into stick-shaped test specimens (1.0 × 1.0 mm), and coupled to a universal test machine (0.5 mm/min) to perform microtensile testing. Pre-etching/Methacrylate group presented the highest bond strength values, with significant difference from Silorane and Three-step/Methacrylate groups (p adhesive system to dentin.

  16. Joint-Angle Specific Strength Adaptations Influence Improvements in Power in Highly Trained Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhea Matthew R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of training at different ranges of motion during the squat exercise on joint-angle specific strength adaptations. Methods. Twenty eight men were randomly assigned to one of three training groups, differing only in the depth of squats (quarter squat, half squat, and full squat performed in 16-week training intervention. Strength measures were conducted in the back squat pre-, mid-, and post-training at all three depths. Vertical jump and 40-yard sprint time were also measured. Results. Individuals in the quarter and full squat training groups improved significantly more at the specific depth at which they trained when compared to the other two groups (p < 0.05. Jump height and sprint speed improved in all groups (p < 0.05; however, the quarter squat had the greatest transfer to both outcomes. Conclusions. Consistently including quarter squats in workouts aimed at maximizing speed and jumping power can result in greater improvements.

  17. Implementation of a Stress-dependent Strength Material Model in PLAXIS 3D

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Bjørn S.; Østergaard, Martin Underlin; Clausen, Johan

    To perform tests on bucket foundations, full-scale testing is rarely used since it is rather expensive. Instead small-scale testing is done to examine the static and dynamic behaviour of such structures. In the laboratory at Aalborg University, small-scale testing of offshore support structures can...... be performed in a pressure tank, where a pressure can be applied in order to simulate deep water situations. Since the test set-up is downscaled 15 to 30 times compared to real-life structures, stresses and strains will be downscaled too. For soils, normally a Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion is used......, and in the region of small stresses, a non-linear behaviour is observed - unlike the linear behaviour normally assumed in Mohr-Coulomb. To better model this non-linearity, a stress-dependent model for the strength of the soil material is sought to be implemented in PLAXIS 3D through FORTRAN to improve...

  18. Dependence of transmittance and group index on the coupling strength between constituents of a metamaterial

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuy Vu, Tran Thanh; Lee, Young Pak; Nguyen, Thanh Tung; Rhee, Joo Yull; Vu, Dinh Lam

    2011-01-01

    Recent studies on the coupling effects between constituent elements of metamaterials have opened up a new gateway to many fascinating electromagnetic properties and functionalities that cannot be explained by the uncoupled point of view. In this work, we numerically investigated, in a THz regime, the coupling between a cut wire and a split-ring resonator, which gives rise to an interesting phenomenon—the so-called electromagnetically induced transparency-like effect. The trade-off between the maximum transmittance of the transmission window and the group index, which depends on the coupling strength between constituent elements, was systematically studied. Furthermore, by characterizing this trade-off by the transmittance-delay product (figure of merit), a criterion for slow-light applications was provided

  19. Strength and Anisotropy in Tournemire Shale: Temperature, Pressure and Time Dependences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnelye, A.; Schubnel, A.; Zhi, G.; David, C.; Dick, P.

    2017-12-01

    Time and temperature dependent rock deformation has both scientific and socio-economic implications for natural hazards, the oil and gas industry and nuclear waste disposal. During the past decades, most studies on brittle creep have focused on igneous rocks and porous sedimentary rocks. To our knowledge, only few studies have been carried out on the brittle creep behavior of shale. We conducted a series of creep experiments on shale specimens coming from the French Institute for Nuclear Safety (IRSN) underground research laboratory located in Tournemire, France, under two different temperatures (26°C, 75°C) and confining pressures (10 MPa, 80 MPa), for three orientations (σ1along, perpendicular and 45° to bedding). In these long-term experiments (approximately 10 days), stress and strains were recorded continuously, while ultrasonic acoustic velocities were recorded every 1 15 minutes. The brittle creep failure stress of our Tournemire shale samples was systematically observed 50% higher than its short-term peak strength, with larger final axial strain accumulated. During creep, ultrasonic wave velocities first decreased, and then increased gradually. The magnitude of elastic wave velocity variations showed an important orientation and temperature dependence: velocities measured perpendicular to bedding showed increased variation, variation that was enhanced at higher temperature and higher pressure. The case of complete elastic anisotropy reversal was observed for sample deformed perpendicular to bedding, with amount of axial strain needed to reach anisotropy reversal reduced at higher temperature. SEM observations highlight the competition between crack growth, sealing/healing, and possibly mineral rotation, pressure solution or anisotropic compaction during creep defromation. Our study highlights that the short-term peak strength has little meaning in shale material, which can over-consolidate importantly by `plastic' flow. In addition, we show that elastic

  20. ARG-walker: inference of individual specific strengths of meiotic recombination hotspots by population genomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hao; Yang, Peng; Guo, Jing; Kwoh, Chee Keong; Przytycka, Teresa M; Zheng, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Meiotic recombination hotspots play important roles in various aspects of genomics, but the underlying mechanisms for regulating the locations and strengths of recombination hotspots are not yet fully revealed. Most existing algorithms for estimating recombination rates from sequence polymorphism data can only output average recombination rates of a population, although there is evidence for the heterogeneity in recombination rates among individuals. For genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of recombination hotspots, an efficient algorithm that estimates the individualized strengths of recombination hotspots is highly desirable. In this work, we propose a novel graph mining algorithm named ARG-walker, based on random walks on ancestral recombination graphs (ARG), to estimate individual-specific recombination hotspot strengths. Extensive simulations demonstrate that ARG-walker is able to distinguish the hot allele of a recombination hotspot from the cold allele. Integrated with output of ARG-walker, we performed GWAS on the phased haplotype data of the 22 autosome chromosomes of the HapMap Asian population samples of Chinese and Japanese (JPT+CHB). Significant cis-regulatory signals have been detected, which is corroborated by the enrichment of the well-known 13-mer motif CCNCCNTNNCCNC of PRDM9 protein. Moreover, two new DNA motifs have been identified in the flanking regions of the significantly associated SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms), which are likely to be new cis-regulatory elements of meiotic recombination hotspots of the human genome. Our results on both simulated and real data suggest that ARG-walker is a promising new method for estimating the individual recombination variations. In the future, it could be used to uncover the mechanisms of recombination regulation and human diseases related with recombination hotspots.

  1. Mesencephalic basolateral domain specification is dependent on Sonic Hedgehog

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Lopez, Jesus E.; Moreno-Bravo, Juan A.; Madrigal, M. Pilar; Martinez, Salvador; Puelles, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    In the study of central nervous system morphogenesis, the identification of new molecular markers allows us to identify domains along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral (DV) axes. In the past years, the alar and basal plates of the midbrain have been divided into different domains. The precise location of the alar-basal boundary is still under discussion. We have identified Barhl1, Nhlh1 and Six3 as appropriate molecular markers to the adjacent domains of this transition. The description of their expression patterns and the contribution to the different mesencephalic populations corroborated their role in the specification of these domains. We studied the influence of Sonic Hedgehog on these markers and therefore on the specification of these territories. The lack of this morphogen produced severe alterations in the expression pattern of Barhl1 and Nhlh1 with consequent misspecification of the basolateral (BL) domain. Six3 expression was apparently unaffected, however its distribution changed leading to altered basal domains. In this study we confirmed the localization of the alar-basal boundary dorsal to the BL domain and demonstrated that the development of the BL domain highly depends on Shh. PMID:25741244

  2. Mesencephalic basolateral domain specification is dependent on Sonic Hedgehog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus E. Martinez-Lopez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In the study of central nervous system morphogenesis, the identification of new molecular markers allows us to identify domains along the antero-posterior and dorso-ventral axes. In the past years, the alar and basal plates of the midbrain have been divided into different domains. The precise location of the alar-basal boundary is still under discussion. We have identified Barhl1, Nhlh1 and Six3 as appropriate molecular markers to the adjacent domains of this transition. The description of their expression patterns and the contribution to the different mesencephalic populations corroborated their role in the specification of these domains. We studied the influence of Sonic Hedgehog on these markers and therefore on the specification of these territories. The lack of this morphogen produced severe alterations in the expression pattern of Barhl1 and Nhlh1 with consequent misspecification of the basolateral domain. Six3 expression was apparently unaffected, however its distribution changed leading to altered basal domains. In this study we confirmed the localization of the alar-basal boundary dorsal to the basolateral domain and demonstrated that the development of the basolateral domain highly depends on Shh.

  3. Ecological change points: The strength of density dependence and the loss of history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponciano, José M; Taper, Mark L; Dennis, Brian

    2018-05-01

    Change points in the dynamics of animal abundances have extensively been recorded in historical time series records. Little attention has been paid to the theoretical dynamic consequences of such change-points. Here we propose a change-point model of stochastic population dynamics. This investigation embodies a shift of attention from the problem of detecting when a change will occur, to another non-trivial puzzle: using ecological theory to understand and predict the post-breakpoint behavior of the population dynamics. The proposed model and the explicit expressions derived here predict and quantify how density dependence modulates the influence of the pre-breakpoint parameters into the post-breakpoint dynamics. Time series transitioning from one stationary distribution to another contain information about where the process was before the change-point, where is it heading and how long it will take to transition, and here this information is explicitly stated. Importantly, our results provide a direct connection of the strength of density dependence with theoretical properties of dynamic systems, such as the concept of resilience. Finally, we illustrate how to harness such information through maximum likelihood estimation for state-space models, and test the model robustness to widely different forms of compensatory dynamics. The model can be used to estimate important quantities in the theory and practice of population recovery. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of muscle composition and architecture on specific strength in obese older women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastelli, F; Capodaglio, P; Orgiu, S; Santovito, C; Caramenti, M; Cadioli, M; Falini, A; Rizzo, G; Lafortuna, C L

    2015-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? Do obesity-specific factors affect skeletal muscle performance in older individuals? What is the main finding and its importance? Older obese women have a larger quadriceps femoris size but develop lower tension per unit of skeletal muscle than their normal-weight counterparts. Muscle impairment and excess body mass are very common among older people. Given that the effect of obesity on strength production has scarcely been studied in older individuals, we analysed functional and structural characteristics of quadriceps femoris (QF) in obese (OB) and normal-weight (NW) older women with comparable habitual physical activity. In five OB (body mass index 36.8 ± 1.9 kg m(-2), age 72.4 ± 2.3 years) and six NW well-functioning older women (body mass index 24.3 ± 1.8 kg m(-2), age 72.7 ± 1.9 years), peak knee-extension torque (KET) was measured in isometric (90 deg knee flexion) and isokinetic conditions (240, 180, 120 and 60 deg s(-1)). Mid-thigh QF cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle tissue fat content (MF%) were determined with magnetic resonance imaging (Dixon sequence). Muscle fascicle length and pennation angle (PA) were assessed with ultrasonography for each muscle belly of the QF (vastus lateralis, vastus intermedius, rectus femoris and vastus intermedius). Despite similar values of KET, CSA was 17.0% larger in OB than in NW women (P Muscle composition and architecture seem to be important determinants of KET/CSA in elderly women. In fact, owing to the effect of obesity overload, OB women have a larger QF size than NW women, but unfavourable muscle composition and architecture. The higher MF% and steeper PA observed in OB women are associated with reduced levels of muscle specific strength. © 2015 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  5. Strengths and weaknesses of EST-based prediction of tissue-specific alternative splicing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vingron Martin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alternative splicing contributes significantly to the complexity of the human transcriptome and proteome. Computational prediction of alternative splice isoforms are usually based on EST sequences that also allow to approximate the expression pattern of the related transcripts. However, the limited number of tissues represented in the EST data as well as the different cDNA construction protocols may influence the predictive capacity of ESTs to unravel tissue-specifically expressed transcripts. Methods We predict tissue and tumor specific splice isoforms based on the genomic mapping (SpliceNest of the EST consensus sequences and library annotation provided in the GeneNest database. We further ascertain the potentially rare tissue specific transcripts as the ones represented only by ESTs derived from normalized libraries. A subset of the predicted tissue and tumor specific isoforms are then validated via RT-PCR experiments over a spectrum of 40 tissue types. Results Our strategy revealed 427 genes with at least one tissue specific transcript as well as 1120 genes showing tumor specific isoforms. While our experimental evaluation of computationally predicted tissue-specific isoforms revealed a high success rate in confirming the expression of these isoforms in the respective tissue, the strategy frequently failed to detect the expected restricted expression pattern. The analysis of putative lowly expressed transcripts using normalized cDNA libraries suggests that our ability to detect tissue-specific isoforms strongly depends on the expression level of the respective transcript as well as on the sensitivity of the experimental methods. Especially splice isoforms predicted to be disease-specific tend to represent transcripts that are expressed in a set of healthy tissues rather than novel isoforms. Conclusions We propose to combine the computational prediction of alternative splice isoforms with experimental validation for

  6. Evaluating Variability and Uncertainty of Geological Strength Index at a Specific Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Aladejare, Adeyemi Emman

    2016-09-01

    Geological Strength Index (GSI) is an important parameter for estimating rock mass properties. GSI can be estimated from quantitative GSI chart, as an alternative to the direct observational method which requires vast geological experience of rock. GSI chart was developed from past observations and engineering experience, with either empiricism or some theoretical simplifications. The GSI chart thereby contains model uncertainty which arises from its development. The presence of such model uncertainty affects the GSI estimated from GSI chart at a specific site; it is, therefore, imperative to quantify and incorporate the model uncertainty during GSI estimation from the GSI chart. A major challenge for quantifying the GSI chart model uncertainty is a lack of the original datasets that have been used to develop the GSI chart, since the GSI chart was developed from past experience without referring to specific datasets. This paper intends to tackle this problem by developing a Bayesian approach for quantifying the model uncertainty in GSI chart when using it to estimate GSI at a specific site. The model uncertainty in the GSI chart and the inherent spatial variability in GSI are modeled explicitly in the Bayesian approach. The Bayesian approach generates equivalent samples of GSI from the integrated knowledge of GSI chart, prior knowledge and observation data available from site investigation. Equations are derived for the Bayesian approach, and the proposed approach is illustrated using data from a drill and blast tunnel project. The proposed approach effectively tackles the problem of how to quantify the model uncertainty that arises from using GSI chart for characterization of site-specific GSI in a transparent manner.

  7. Dependency of Shear Strength on Test Rate in SiC/BSAS Ceramic Matrix Composite at Elevated Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sung R.; Bansal, Narottam P.; Gyekenyesi, John P.

    2003-01-01

    Both interlaminar and in-plane shear strengths of a unidirectional Hi-Nicalon(TM) fiber-reinforced barium strontium aluminosilicate (SiC/BSAS) composite were determined at 1100 C in air as a function of test rate using double notch shear test specimens. The composite exhibited a significant effect of test rate on shear strength, regardless of orientation which was either in interlaminar or in in-plane direction, resulting in an appreciable shear-strength degradation of about 50 percent as test rate decreased from 3.3 10(exp -1) mm/s to 3.3 10(exp -5) mm/s. The rate dependency of composite's shear strength was very similar to that of ultimate tensile strength at 1100 C observed in a similar composite (2-D SiC/BSAS) in which tensile strength decreased by about 60 percent when test rate varied from the highest (5 MPa/s) to the lowest (0.005 MPa/s). A phenomenological, power-law slow crack growth formulation was proposed and formulated to account for the rate dependency of shear strength of the composite.

  8. Magnetic-Field Dependence of Raman Coupling Strength in Ultracold "4"0K Atomic Fermi Gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Liang-Hui; Wang Peng-Jun; Meng Zeng-Ming; Peng Peng; Chen Liang-Chao; Li Dong-Hao; Zhang Jing

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the relation of Raman coupling strength with the external bias magnetic field in degenerate Fermi gas of "4"0K atoms. Two Raman lasers couple two Zeeman energy levels, whose energy splitting depends on the external bias magnetic field. The Raman coupling strength is determined by measuring the Rabi oscillation frequency. The characteristics of the Rabi oscillation is to be damped after several periods due to Fermi atoms in different momentum states oscillating with different Rabi frequencies. The experimental results show that the Raman coupling strength will decrease as the external bias magnetic field increases, which is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction. (paper)

  9. Temperature-dependent residual shear strength characteristics of smectite-rich landslide soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibasaki, Tatsuya; Matsuura, Sumio; Okamoto, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    behaviors were also recognized during cooling-event tests. Shear stress fluctuations, which were obtained by 1 Hz data sampling, showed that shear behavior characteristically changed in response to temperature conditions. Stick-slip behavior prevailed under room temperature conditions, whereas shear behavior gradually changed into stable sliding behavior as temperature decreased. SEM (Scanning Electric Microscope) observation on shear surfaces indicated that silt- and sand-size asperities in the vicinity of the shear surface influence the occurrence of stick-slip behavior. It is also characteristically noted that rod-shaped smectitic clays, here called "roll", developed on shear surfaces and are arrayed densely perpendicular to the shearing direction in a micrometer scale. We assume that these rolls are probably rotating slowly within shear zone and acting as a lubricant which affects the temperature-dependent frictional properties of the shearing plane. These experimental results show that residual strength characteristics of smectite-rich soils are sensitive to temperature conditions. Our findings imply that if slip surface soils contain a high fraction of smectite, a decrease in ground temperature can lead to lowered shear resistance of the slip surface and triggering of slow landslide movement.

  10. Brain noise is task dependent and region specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misić, Bratislav; Mills, Travis; Taylor, Margot J; McIntosh, Anthony R

    2010-11-01

    The emerging organization of anatomical and functional connections during human brain development is thought to facilitate global integration of information. Recent empirical and computational studies have shown that this enhanced capacity for information processing enables a diversified dynamic repertoire that manifests in neural activity as irregularity and noise. However, transient functional networks unfold over multiple time, scales and the embedding of a particular region depends not only on development, but also on the manner in which sensory and cognitive systems are engaged. Here we show that noise is a facet of neural activity that is also sensitive to the task context and is highly region specific. Children (6-16 yr) and adults (20-41 yr) performed a one-back face recognition task with inverted and upright faces. Neuromagnetic activity was estimated at several hundred sources in the brain by applying a beamforming technique to the magnetoencephalogram (MEG). During development, neural activity became more variable across the whole brain, with most robust increases in medial parietal regions, such as the precuneus and posterior cingulate cortex. For young children and adults, activity evoked by upright faces was more variable and noisy compared with inverted faces, and this effect was reliable only in the right fusiform gyrus. These results are consistent with the notion that upright faces engender a variety of integrative neural computations, such as the relations among facial features and their holistic constitution. This study shows that transient changes in functional integration modulated by task demand are evident in the variability of regional neural activity.

  11. Dependence of compressive strength of green compacts on pressure, density and contact area of powder particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salam, A.; Akram, M.; Shahid, K.A.; Javed, M.; Zaidi, S.M.

    1994-08-01

    The relationship between green compressive strength and compacting pressure as well as green density has been investigated for uniaxially pressed aluminium powder compacts in the range 0 - 520 MPa. Two linear relationships occurred between compacting pressure and green compressive strength which corresponded to powder compaction stages II and III respectively, increase in strength being large during stage II and quite small in stage III with increasing pressure. On the basis of both, the experimental results and a previous model on cold compaction of powder particles, relationships between green compressive strength and green density and interparticle contact area of the compacts has been established. (author) 9 figs

  12. Assessing the accuracy of subject-specific, muscle-model parameters determined by optimizing to match isometric strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeSmitt, Holly J; Domire, Zachary J

    2016-12-01

    Biomechanical models are sensitive to the choice of model parameters. Therefore, determination of accurate subject specific model parameters is important. One approach to generate these parameters is to optimize the values such that the model output will match experimentally measured strength curves. This approach is attractive as it is inexpensive and should provide an excellent match to experimentally measured strength. However, given the problem of muscle redundancy, it is not clear that this approach generates accurate individual muscle forces. The purpose of this investigation is to evaluate this approach using simulated data to enable a direct comparison. It is hypothesized that the optimization approach will be able to recreate accurate muscle model parameters when information from measurable parameters is given. A model of isometric knee extension was developed to simulate a strength curve across a range of knee angles. In order to realistically recreate experimentally measured strength, random noise was added to the modeled strength. Parameters were solved for using a genetic search algorithm. When noise was added to the measurements the strength curve was reasonably recreated. However, the individual muscle model parameters and force curves were far less accurate. Based upon this examination, it is clear that very different sets of model parameters can recreate similar strength curves. Therefore, experimental variation in strength measurements has a significant influence on the results. Given the difficulty in accurately recreating individual muscle parameters, it may be more appropriate to perform simulations with lumped actuators representing similar muscles.

  13. Is the relationship between increased knee muscle strength and improved physical function following exercise dependent on baseline physical function status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Michelle; Hinman, Rana S; van der Esch, Martin; van der Leeden, Marike; Kasza, Jessica; Wrigley, Tim V; Metcalf, Ben R; Dobson, Fiona; Bennell, Kim L

    2017-12-08

    Clinical guidelines recommend knee muscle strengthening exercises to improve physical function. However, the amount of knee muscle strength increase needed for clinically relevant improvements in physical function is unclear. Understanding how much increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved physical function could assist clinicians in providing appropriate strength gain targets for their patients in order to optimise outcomes from exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an increase in knee muscle strength is associated with improved self-reported physical function following exercise; and whether the relationship differs according to physical function status at baseline. Data from 100 participants with medial knee osteoarthritis enrolled in a 12-week randomised controlled trial comparing neuromuscular exercise to quadriceps strengthening exercise were pooled. Participants were categorised as having mild, moderate or severe physical dysfunction at baseline using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC). Associations between 12-week changes in physical function (dependent variable) and peak isometric knee extensor and flexor strength (independent variables) were evaluated with and without accounting for baseline physical function status and covariates using linear regression models. In covariate-adjusted models without accounting for baseline physical function, every 1-unit (Nm/kg) increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 17 WOMAC units (95% confidence interval (CI) -29 to -5). When accounting for baseline severity of physical function, every 1-unit increase in knee extensor strength was associated with physical function improvement of 24 WOMAC units (95% CI -42 to -7) in participants with severe physical dysfunction. There were no associations between change in strength and change in physical function in participants with mild or moderate physical

  14. Child Mortality, Women's Status, Economic Dependency, and State Strength: A Cross-National Study of Less Developed Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ce; Williamson, John B.

    1997-01-01

    Data from 86 developing countries suggest that foreign investment and debt dependency have adverse indirect effects on child mortality--effects mediated by variables linked to industrialism theory and gender stratification theory: women's education, health, and reproductive autonomy and rate of economic growth. State strength was related to lower…

  15. Microenvironment Dependent Photobiomodulation on Function-Specific Signal Transduction Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timon Cheng-Yi Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cellular photobiomodulation on a cellular function has been shown to be homeostatic. Its function-specific pathway mechanism would be further discussed in this paper. The signal transduction pathways maintaining a normal function in its function-specific homeostasis (FSH, resisting the activation of many other irrelative signal transduction pathways, are so sparse that it can be supposed that there may be normal function-specific signal transduction pathways (NSPs. A low level laser irradiation or monochromatic light may promote the activation of partially activated NSP and/or its redundant NSP so that it may induce the second-order phase transition of a function from its dysfunctional one far from its FSH to its normal one in a function-specific microenvironment and may also induce the first-order functional phase transition of the normal function from low level to high level.

  16. Byssus attachment strength of two mytilids in mono-specific and mixed-species mussel beds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babarro, Jose M F; Comeau, Luc A

    2014-09-01

    The mussel Xenostrobus securis is endemic to the brackish waters of New Zealand and Australia, but has successfully invaded the inner Galician Rías of NW Spain, where it coexists with the indigenous mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis. In this laboratory study, the plasticity of the byssus attachment strength of two mytilids was compared by manipulating substratum, salinity, and bed assembly. M. galloprovincialis showed stronger byssus detachment strength than X. securis, despite lower byssus coverage. Both species responded similarly to the substratum, with substantially lower byssus strength on methacrylate, which offered the lowest surface free energy. Byssus detachment values for M. galloprovincialis were lower at lower salinity. In mixed beds, a number of mussels moved upwards, eventually colonising the upper layers of the assemblage. This behaviour increased byssus strength but only for X. securis. X. securis is adapted to a wide spectrum of abiotic conditions, a trait that may promote its dissemination within estuarine environments.

  17. Ionic strength dependence of the oxidation of SO2 by H2O2 in sodium chloride particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. M.; Iedema, M.; Yu, X.-Y.; Cowin, J. P.

    2014-06-01

    The reaction of sulfur dioxide and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of deliquesced (>75% RH) sodium chloride (brine) particles was studied by utilizing a cross flow mini-reactor. The reaction kinetics were followed by observing chloride depletion in particles by computer-controlled scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive X-ray analysis, namely CCSEM/EDX. The reactions take place in concentrated mixed salt brine aerosols, for which no complete kinetic equilibrium data previously existed. We measured the Henry's law solubility of H2O2 in brine solutions to close that gap. We also calculated the reaction rate as the particle transforms continuously from concentrated NaCl brine to, eventually, a mixed NaHSO4 plus H2SO4 brine solution. The reaction rate of the SO2 oxidation by H2O2 was found to be influenced by the change in ionic strength as the particle undergoes compositional transformation, following closely the dependence of the third order rate constant on ionic strength as predicted using established rate equations. This is the first study that has measured the ionic strength dependence of sulfate formation (in non-aqueous media) from oxidation of mixed salt brine aerosols in the presence of H2O2. It also gives the first report of the dependence of the Henry's law constant of H2O2 on ionic strength.

  18. Motormouth: Mere Exposure Depends on Stimulus-Specific Motor Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topolinski, Sascha; Strack, Fritz

    2009-01-01

    The authors apply an embodied account to mere exposure, arguing that through the repeated exposure of a particular stimulus, motor responses specifically associated to that stimulus are repeatedly simulated, thus trained, and become increasingly fluent. This increased fluency drives preferences for repeated stimuli. This hypothesis was tested by…

  19. Alloy and composition dependence of hydrogen embrittlement susceptibility in high-strength steel fasteners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahimi, S. V.; Yue, S.; Sriraman, K. R.

    2017-06-01

    High-strength steel fasteners characterized by tensile strengths above 1100 MPa are often used in critical applications where a failure can have catastrophic consequences. Preventing hydrogen embrittlement (HE) failure is a fundamental concern implicating the entire fastener supply chain. Research is typically conducted under idealized conditions that cannot be translated into know-how prescribed in fastener industry standards and practices. Additionally, inconsistencies and even contradictions in fastener industry standards have led to much confusion and many preventable or misdiagnosed fastener failures. HE susceptibility is a function of the material condition, which is comprehensively described by the metallurgical and mechanical properties. Material strength has a first-order effect on HE susceptibility, which increases significantly above 1200 MPa and is characterized by a ductile-brittle transition. For a given concentration of hydrogen and at equal strength, the critical strength above which the ductile-brittle transition begins can vary due to second-order effects of chemistry, tempering temperature and sub-microstructure. Additionally, non-homogeneity of the metallurgical structure resulting from poorly controlled heat treatment, impurities and non-metallic inclusions can increase HE susceptibility of steel in ways that are measurable but unpredictable. Below 1200 MPa, non-conforming quality is often the root cause of real-life failures. This article is part of the themed issue 'The challenges of hydrogen and metals'.

  20. Network strength, transaction-specific investments, inter-personal trust, and relationship satisfaction in Chinese agrifood SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu Hualiang,; Feng, S.; Trienekens, J.H.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effects of network strength, transaction-specific investments and inter-personal trust on business relationship satisfaction for small-and-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) involved in agri-food processing and exporting in China.

  1. Solubility product of tetravalent neptunium hydrous oxide and its ionic strength dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, K.; Mori, T. [Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), 4-33, Muramatsu, Tokai-mura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1194 (Japan); Kohara, Y. [Inspection and Development Company, 4-33, Muramatsu, Tokaimura, Naka-gun, Ibaraki-ken, 319-1112 (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: Solubility products (K{sub sp}) are key parameters in the context of reliable assessment of actinides migration in the repository conditions of high level radioactive waste. Neptunium (Np(IV)) is one of the most important actinide elements in the assessment, because of its inventory and the long half-life. A few previous data for Np(IV) solubility are varied widely due to experimental difficulties related to the extremely low solubility. We carried out batch-type experiments under nitrogen atmosphere using a glovebox. Np(V) was reduced to Np(III) by bubbling 0.5 ppm H{sub 2} / N{sub 2} gas through the solution for 30 days in the presence of platinum black as catalyst. After reducing treatment, the Np(III) converted to Np(IV) by auto-oxidation within approximately three days. The solubilities of the Np(IV) were measured in the pHc ranging from 2 to 4, at room temperature (23 {+-} 2 deg. C), in ionic strength(I) = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 M NaClO{sub 4}. The equilibrium condition was confirmed by over-saturation and under-saturation method. After the equilibrium, the pH{sub c} and the E{sub h} value of the suspension were measured. The suspension was then filtered using a filter with a NMWL of 3000 (less than 2 nm{phi}). The Np radio activity in the filtrate was determined by alpha spectrometry and absorption spectra of Np(IV). The solubility decreased with increasing pHc and the hydrolysis species are predominantly formed. From the obtained results, the solubility products (K{sub sp}) of Np hydroxide, for the reaction, NpO{sub 2} . xH{sub 2}O {r_reversible} Np{sup 4+} + 4OH{sup -} + (x-2)H{sub 2}O, at I = 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 were determined by using formation constants ({beta}{sub n}(I)), which were determined for the reaction, Np{sup 4+} + nOH{sup -} {r_reversible} Np(OH){sub n}{sup (4-n)+}. By using the specific interaction theory (SIT), the solubility product of tetravalent Np hydrous oxide is calculated to be log K{sub sp}{sup 0

  2. Frictional Heating with Time-Dependent Specific Power of Friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topczewska Katarzyna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper analytical solutions of the thermal problems of friction were received. The appropriate boundary-value problems of heat conduction were formulated and solved for a homogeneous semi–space (a brake disc heated on its free surface by frictional heat fluxes with different and time-dependent intensities. Solutions were obtained in dimensionless form using Duhamel's theorem. Based on received solutions, evolution and spatial distribution of the dimensionless temperature were analyzed using numerical methods. The numerical results allowed to determine influence of the time distribution of friction power on the spatio-temporal temperature distribution in brake disc.

  3. Adhesive Strength of dry Adhesive Structures Depending on the Thickness of Metal Coating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Gyu Hye; Kwon, Da Som; Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Su Hee; Yoon, Ji Won; An, Tea Chang; Hwang, Hui Yun [Andong National Univ., Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-07-15

    Recently, engineering applications have started to adopt solutions inspired by nature. The peculiar adhesive properties of gecko skin are an example, as they allow the animal to move freely on vertical walls and even on ceilings. The high adhesive forces between gecko feet and walls are due to the hierarchical microscopical structure of the skin. In this study, the effect of metal coatings on the adhesive strength of synthetic, hierarchically structured, dry adhesives was investigated. Synthetic dry adhesives were fabricated using PDMS micro-molds prepared by photolithography. Metal coatings on synthetic dry adhesives were formed by plasma sputtering. Adhesive strength was measured by pure shear tests. The highest adhesion strengths were found with coatings composed of 4 nm thick layers of Indium, 8 nm thick layers of Zinc and 6 nm thick layers of Gold, respectively.

  4. Adhesive Strength of dry Adhesive Structures Depending on the Thickness of Metal Coating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyu Hye; Kwon, Da Som; Kim, Mi Jung; Kim, Su Hee; Yoon, Ji Won; An, Tea Chang; Hwang, Hui Yun

    2016-01-01

    Recently, engineering applications have started to adopt solutions inspired by nature. The peculiar adhesive properties of gecko skin are an example, as they allow the animal to move freely on vertical walls and even on ceilings. The high adhesive forces between gecko feet and walls are due to the hierarchical microscopical structure of the skin. In this study, the effect of metal coatings on the adhesive strength of synthetic, hierarchically structured, dry adhesives was investigated. Synthetic dry adhesives were fabricated using PDMS micro-molds prepared by photolithography. Metal coatings on synthetic dry adhesives were formed by plasma sputtering. Adhesive strength was measured by pure shear tests. The highest adhesion strengths were found with coatings composed of 4 nm thick layers of Indium, 8 nm thick layers of Zinc and 6 nm thick layers of Gold, respectively

  5. Stereotype Strength and Attentional Bias: Preference for Confirming versus Disconfirming Information Depends on Processing Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Thomas J.; Sherman, Jeffrey W.; Conrey, Frederica R.; Stroessner, Steven J.

    2009-01-01

    In two experiments, we investigated the relationships among stereotype strength, processing capacity, and the allocation of attention to stereotype-consistent versus stereotype-inconsistent information describing a target person. The results of both experiments showed that, with full capacity, greater stereotype strength was associated with increased attention toward stereotype-consistent versus stereotype-inconsistent information. However, when capacity was diminished, greater stereotype strength was associated with increased attention toward inconsistent versus consistent information. Thus, strong stereotypes may act as self-confirming filters when processing capacity is plentiful, but as efficient information gathering devices that maximize the acquisition of novel (disconfirming) information when capacity is depleted. Implications for models of stereotyping and stereotype change are discussed. PMID:20161043

  6. Time-Dependent Stress Rupture Strength Degradation of Hi-Nicalon Fiber-Reinforced Silicon Carbide Composites at Intermediate Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Roy M.

    2016-01-01

    The stress rupture strength of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composites with a boron nitride fiber coating decreases with time within the intermediate temperature range of 700 to 950 degree Celsius. Various theories have been proposed to explain the cause of the time-dependent stress rupture strength. The objective of this paper is to investigate the relative significance of the various theories for the time-dependent strength of silicon carbide fiber-reinforced silicon carbide composites. This is achieved through the development of a numerically based progressive failure analysis routine and through the application of the routine to simulate the composite stress rupture tests. The progressive failure routine is a time-marching routine with an iterative loop between a probability of fiber survival equation and a force equilibrium equation within each time step. Failure of the composite is assumed to initiate near a matrix crack and the progression of fiber failures occurs by global load sharing. The probability of survival equation is derived from consideration of the strength of ceramic fibers with randomly occurring and slow growing flaws as well as the mechanical interaction between the fibers and matrix near a matrix crack. The force equilibrium equation follows from the global load sharing presumption. The results of progressive failure analyses of the composite tests suggest that the relationship between time and stress-rupture strength is attributed almost entirely to the slow flaw growth within the fibers. Although other mechanisms may be present, they appear to have only a minor influence on the observed time-dependent behavior.

  7. Span-Dependent Distributions of the Bending Strength of Spruce Timber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ditlevsen, Ove; Källsner, Bo

    2005-01-01

    Tests data of bending strengths of a large number of timber beams of different spans obtained at the Swedish Institute for Wood Technology Research reveal a statistical structure that can be represented in a simple probabilistic model of series system type. A particular feature of the data from one...

  8. Target strength of some European fish species and its dependence on fish body parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frouzová, Jaroslava; Kubečka, Jan; Balk, H.; Frouz, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 75, 1-3 (2005), s. 86-96 ISSN 0165-7836 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IBS6017004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6017912 Keywords : target strength * freshwater fish * acoustics Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.160, year: 2005

  9. Heritability of specific language impairment depends on diagnostic criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D V M; Hayiou-Thomas, M E

    2008-04-01

    Heritability estimates for specific language impairment (SLI) have been inconsistent. Four twin studies reported heritability of 0.5 or more, but a recent report from the Twins Early Development Study found negligible genetic influence in 4-year-olds. We considered whether the method of ascertainment influenced results and found substantially higher heritability if SLI was defined in terms of referral to speech and language pathology services than if defined by language test scores. Further analysis showed that presence of speech difficulties played a major role in determining whether a child had contact with services. Childhood language disorders that are identified by population screening are likely to have a different phenotype and different etiology from clinically referred cases. Genetic studies are more likely to find high heritability if they focus on cases who have speech difficulties and who have been referred for intervention.

  10. Ion specificity and ionic strength dependence of the osmoregulatory ABC transporter OpuA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmood, N. A. B. Nik; Biemans-Oldehinkel, Esther; Patzlaff, Jason S.; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K.; Poolman, Bert

    2006-01-01

    The ATPase subunit of the osmoregulatory ATP- binding cassette transporterOpuAfrom Lactococcus lactis has a C- terminal extension, the tandem cystathionine beta- synthase ( CBS) domain, which constitutes the sensor that allows the transporter to sense and respond to osmotic stress ( Biemans-

  11. Specific strength training compared with interdisciplinary counseling for girls with tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2016-01-01

    an increase in [Formula: see text] >5%. For the counseling group, this was the case for 29%. A 24-month follow-up on HRQOL for the pooled sample revealed statistically significant improvements. Fifty-five percent of the girls reported little to none disability. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that both....... METHODS: Forty-nine girls aged 9-18 years with TTH were randomized to patient education programs with 10 weeks of strength training and compared with those who were counseled by a nurse and physical therapist. Primary outcomes were headache frequency, intensity, and duration; secondary outcomes were neck......-shoulder muscle strength, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness, measured at baseline, after 10 weeks intervention, and at 12 weeks follow-up. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) questionnaires were assessed at baseline and after 24 months. RESULTS: For both groups, headache frequency decreased...

  12. Magnetic nanoparticles with high specific absorption rate of electromagnetic energy at low field strength for hyperthermia therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shubitidze, Fridon; Kekalo, Katsiaryna; Stigliano, Robert; Baker, Ian

    2015-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), referred to as the Dartmouth MNPs, which exhibit high specific absorption rate at low applied field strength have been developed for hyperthermia therapy applications. The MNPs consist of small (2-5 nm) single crystals of gamma-Fe2O3 with saccharide chains implanted in their crystalline structure, forming 20-40 nm flower-like aggregates with a hydrodynamic diameter of 110-120 nm. The MNPs form stable (>12 months) colloidal solutions in water and exhibit no hysteresis under an applied quasistatic magnetic field, and produce a significant amount of heat at field strengths as low as 100 Oe at 99-164 kHz. The MNP heating mechanisms under an alternating magnetic field (AMF) are discussed and analyzed quantitatively based on (a) the calculated multi-scale MNP interactions obtained using a three dimensional numerical model called the method of auxiliary sources, (b) measured MNP frequency spectra, and (c) quantified MNP friction losses based on magneto-viscous theory. The frequency responses and hysteresis curves of the Dartmouth MNPs are measured and compared to the modeled data. The specific absorption rate of the particles is measured at various AMF strengths and frequencies, and compared to commercially available MNPs. The comparisons demonstrate the superior heating properties of the Dartmouth MNPs at low field strengths (therapy to deeper tumors that were previously non-viable targets, potentially enabling the treatment of some of the most difficult cancers, such as pancreatic and rectal cancers, without damaging normal tissue.

  13. Effect of dislocation pile-up on size-dependent yield strength in finite single-crystal micro-samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Bo; Shibutani, Yoji, E-mail: sibutani@mech.eng.osaka-u.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Osaka University, Suita 565-0871 (Japan); Zhang, Xu [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); School of Mechanics and Engineering Science, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450001 (China); Shang, Fulin [State Key Laboratory for Strength and Vibration of Mechanical Structures, School of Aerospace, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-07-07

    Recent research has explained that the steeply increasing yield strength in metals depends on decreasing sample size. In this work, we derive a statistical physical model of the yield strength of finite single-crystal micro-pillars that depends on single-ended dislocation pile-up inside the micro-pillars. We show that this size effect can be explained almost completely by considering the stochastic lengths of the dislocation source and the dislocation pile-up length in the single-crystal micro-pillars. The Hall–Petch-type relation holds even in a microscale single-crystal, which is characterized by its dislocation source lengths. Our quantitative conclusions suggest that the number of dislocation sources and pile-ups are significant factors for the size effect. They also indicate that starvation of dislocation sources is another reason for the size effect. Moreover, we investigated the explicit relationship between the stacking fault energy and the dislocation “pile-up” effect inside the sample: materials with low stacking fault energy exhibit an obvious dislocation pile-up effect. Our proposed physical model predicts a sample strength that agrees well with experimental data, and our model can give a more precise prediction than the current single arm source model, especially for materials with low stacking fault energy.

  14. EFFECTIVENESS OF INTEGRATED NEUROMUSCULAR INHIBITORY TECHNIQUE (INIT WITH SPECIFIC STRENGTH TRAINING EXERCISES IN SUBJECTS WITH UPPER TRAPEZIUS TRIGGER POINTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jyothirmai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Upper trapezius trigger points is a common cause for neck pain, decreased cervical range of motion and functional activities. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the effectiveness of integrated neuromuscular inhibitory technique (INIT along with specific strength training exercises in reducing pain, improving ROM and functional activities in subjects with upper trapezius trigger point. Methods: Thirty subjects were diagnosed with upper trapezius trigger points were included in the study. These patients were randomly allocated to intervention group (n=15, which underwent a 4- weeks training program of INIT along with specific strength training & control group (n=15 that received INIT alone. The outcome measures were taken before and after treatment. Outcomes were measured by visual analogue scale, cervical range of motion and neck disability index. Within the groups VAS, NDI, and cervical lateral flexion and rotation showed significant change in the mean value. The comparison of pre and post VAS in experimental group and control group showed a significant change in the experimental group .Paired sample t- test was used to analyze changes from before and after intervention programmed. Results: There is a statistically significant (p<0.00 improvement in both variables from baseline to 4th week in experimental group and control group but compared to control group, experimental group shows highly significant values in all parameters. Conclusion: INIT along with specific strength training is proved to be effective in reducing pain, decreasing disability and improving range of motion in individuals with upper trapezius trigger points.

  15. Strength Properties of Foamed Concrete Containing Crushed Steel Slag as Partial Replacement of Sand with Specific Gradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiong Hock Yong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Lightweight construction material, notably foamed concrete, had become more favourable to reduce building weight and cost, accelerate construction process, and ease handling of precast segment. Simultaneously, rapid development had result in price rising of conventional material and environmental issue due to abundant wastes, for instance steel slag. As a consequence, feasibility of steel slag to be incorporated in lightweight foamed concrete for both structural and nonstructural purpose is worth to be investigated. This paper is aimed to evaluate the effects of crushed steel slag, as partial replacement of sand with specific gradation, on performance of lightweight foamed concrete (LFC with density of 1600 kg/m3 to 1700 kg/m3 in terms of compressive and tensile strengths. Different steel slag based LFCs were developed by replacing 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of steel slag for sand. Different water to cement ratios (w/c and dosages of super-plasticizer (sp were adopted to confirm certain workability, strength properties was then studied for ages of 7 and 28 days. The laboratory results showed that lightweight foamed concrete with incorporation of crushed steel slag has decreased strength; however it still achieves structural strength of 17 MPa when replacement level is less than 25% at density of 1600 kg/m3 to 1700 kg/m3.

  16. Energy-Based Yield Criteria for Orthotropic Materials, Exhibiting Strength-Differential Effect. Specification for Sheets under Plane Stress State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeptyński P.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A general proposition of an energy-based limit condition for anisotropic materials exhibiting strength-differential effect (SDE based on spectral decomposition of elasticity tensors and the use of scaling pressure-dependent functions is specified for the case of orthotropic materials. A detailed algorithm (based on classical solutions of cubic equations for the determination of elastic eigenstates and eigenvalues of the orthotropic stiffness tensor is presented. A yield condition is formulated for both two-dimensional and three-dimensional cases. Explicit formulas based on simple strength tests are derived for parameters of criterion in the plane case. The application of both criteria for the description of yielding and plastic deformation of metal sheets is discussed in detail. The plane case criterion is verified with experimental results from the literature.

  17. Magnetic-field-induced dose effects in MR-guided radiotherapy systems: dependence on the magnetic field strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, A J E; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W

    2008-02-21

    Several institutes are currently working on the development of a radiotherapy treatment system with online MR imaging (MRI) modality. The main difference between their designs is the magnetic field strength of the MRI system. While we have chosen a 1.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field strength, the Cross Cancer Institute in Edmonton will be using a 0.2 T MRI scanner and the company Viewray aims to use 0.3 T. The magnetic field strength will affect the severity of magnetic field dose effects, such as the electron return effect (ERE): considerable dose increase at tissue air boundaries due to returning electrons. This paper has investigated how the ERE dose increase depends on the magnetic field strength. Therefore, four situations where the ERE occurs have been simulated: ERE at the distal side of the beam, the lateral ERE, ERE in cylindrical air cavities and ERE in the lungs. The magnetic field comparison values were 0.2, 0.75, 1.5 and 3 T. Results show that, in general, magnetic field dose effects are reduced at lower magnetic field strengths. At the distal side, the ERE dose increase is largest for B = 0.75 T and depends on the irradiation field size for B = 0.2 T. The lateral ERE is strongest for B = 3 T but shows no effect for B = 0.2 T. Around cylindrical air cavities, dose inhomogeneities disappear if the radius of the cavity becomes small relative to the in-air radius of the secondary electron trajectories. At larger cavities (r > 1 cm), dose inhomogeneities exist for all magnetic field strengths. In water-lung-water phantoms, the ERE dose increase takes place at the water-lung transition and the dose decreases at the lung-water transition, but these effects are minimal for B = 0.2 T. These results will contribute to evaluating the trade-off between magnetic field dose effects and image quality of MR-guided radiotherapy systems.

  18. Magnetic-field-induced dose effects in MR-guided radiotherapy systems: dependence on the magnetic field strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raaijmakers, A J E; Raaymakers, B W; Lagendijk, J J W

    2008-01-01

    Several institutes are currently working on the development of a radiotherapy treatment system with online MR imaging (MRI) modality. The main difference between their designs is the magnetic field strength of the MRI system. While we have chosen a 1.5 Tesla (T) magnetic field strength, the Cross Cancer Institute in Edmonton will be using a 0.2 T MRI scanner and the company Viewray aims to use 0.3 T. The magnetic field strength will affect the severity of magnetic field dose effects, such as the electron return effect (ERE): considerable dose increase at tissue air boundaries due to returning electrons. This paper has investigated how the ERE dose increase depends on the magnetic field strength. Therefore, four situations where the ERE occurs have been simulated: ERE at the distal side of the beam, the lateral ERE, ERE in cylindrical air cavities and ERE in the lungs. The magnetic field comparison values were 0.2, 0.75, 1.5 and 3 T. Results show that, in general, magnetic field dose effects are reduced at lower magnetic field strengths. At the distal side, the ERE dose increase is largest for B = 0.75 T and depends on the irradiation field size for B = 0.2 T. The lateral ERE is strongest for B = 3 T but shows no effect for B = 0.2 T. Around cylindrical air cavities, dose inhomogeneities disappear if the radius of the cavity becomes small relative to the in-air radius of the secondary electron trajectories. At larger cavities (r > 1 cm), dose inhomogeneities exist for all magnetic field strengths. In water-lung-water phantoms, the ERE dose increase takes place at the water-lung transition and the dose decreases at the lung-water transition, but these effects are minimal for B = 0.2 T. These results will contribute to evaluating the trade-off between magnetic field dose effects and image quality of MR-guided radiotherapy systems

  19. Dependence of frictional strength on compositional variations of Hayward fault rock gouges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Carolyn A.; Moore, Diane E.; Lockner, David A.

    2010-01-01

    The northern termination of the locked portion of the Hayward Fault near Berkeley, California, is found to coincide with the transition from strong Franciscan metagraywacke to melange on the western side of the fault. Both of these units are juxtaposed with various serpentinite, gabbro and graywacke units to the east, suggesting that the gouges formed within the Hayward Fault zone may vary widely due to the mixing of adjacent rock units and that the mechanical behavior of the fault would be best modeled by determining the frictional properties of mixtures of the principal rock types. To this end, room temperature, water-saturated, triaxial shearing tests were conducted on binary and ternary mixtures of fine-grained gouges prepared from serpentinite and gabbro from the Coast Range Ophiolite, a Great Valley Sequence graywacke, and three different Franciscan Complex metasedimentary rocks. Friction coefficients ranged from 0.36 for the serpentinite to 0.84 for the gabbro, with four of the rock types having coefficients of friction ranging from 0.67-0.84. The friction coefficients of the mixtures can be predicted reliably by a simple weighted average of the end-member dry-weight percentages and strengths for all samples except those containing serpentinite. For the serpentinite mixtures, a linear trend between end-member values slightly overestimates the coefficients of friction in the midcomposition ranges. The range in strength for these rock admixtures suggests that both theoretical and numerical modeling of the fault should attempt to account for variations in rock and gouge properties.

  20. Velocity-specific strength recovery after a second bout of eccentric exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barss, Trevor S; Magnus, Charlene R A; Clarke, Nick; Lanovaz, Joel L; Chilibeck, Philip D; Kontulainen, Saija A; Arnold, Bart E; Farthing, Jonathan P

    2014-02-01

    A bout of eccentric exercise (ECC) has the protective effect of reducing muscle damage during a subsequent bout of ECC known as the "repeated bout effect" (RBE). The purpose of this study was to determine if the RBE is greater when both bouts of ECC are performed using the same vs. different velocity of contraction. Thirty-one right-handed participants were randomly assigned to perform an initial bout of either fast (3.14 rad·s [180°·s]) or slow (0.52 rad·s [30°·s]) maximal isokinetic ECCs of the elbow flexors. Three weeks later, the participants completed another bout of ECC at the same velocity (n = 16), or at a different velocity (n = 15). Indirect muscle damage markers were measured before, immediately after, and at 24, 48, and 72 hours postexercise. Measures included maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) strength (dynamometer), muscle thickness (MT; ultrasound), delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS; visual analog scale), biceps and triceps muscle activation amplitude (electromyography), voluntary activation (interpolated twitch), and twitch torque. After the repeated bout, MVC strength recovered faster compared with the same time points after the initial bout for only the same velocity group (p = 0.017), with no differences for all the other variables. Irrespective of velocity, MT and DOMS were reduced after the repeated bout compared with that of the initial bout at 24, 48, and 72 hours with a corresponding increase in TT at 72 hours (p effects contribute to the RBE. The current findings support the idea of multiple mechanisms contributing to the RBE.

  1. Isotopic dependences of the dielectric strength of gases: new observations, classification, and possible origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christophorou, L.G.; Rodrigo, H.; Marode, E.; Bastien, F.

    1985-01-01

    In this paper we report: (1) the finding that the CH 4 /CD 4 nonuniform field behavior is polarity dependent (i.e., the V/sub s/ of CD 4 is lower than the V/sub s/ of CH 4 for negative polarity which is just the opposite of that observed for positive polarity); (2) discuss the origins of the observed isotope effects and predict new isotopic dependences of V/sub s/; and (3) report results on the V/sub s/ of H 2 S and D 2 S for negative polarity which confirm their predicted isotopic behavior

  2. Is inertial flywheel resistance training superior to gravity-dependent resistance training in improving muscle strength?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vicens-Bordas, J; Esteve, E; Fort-Vanmeerhaeghe, A

    2018-01-01

    -dependent resistance training in improving other muscular adaptations. DESIGN: A systematic review with meta-analyses of randomised and non-randomised controlled trials. METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, Web of Science and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials with no publication date...

  3. Dependence of streamer density on electric field strength on positive electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koki, Nakamura; Takahumi, Okuyama; Wang, Douyan; Takao, N.; Hidenori, Akiyama; Kumamoto University Collaboration

    2015-09-01

    Pulsed streamer discharge plasma, a type of non-thermal plasma, is known as generation method of reactive radicals and ozone and treatment of exhausted gas. From our previous research, the distance between electrodes has been considered a very important parameter for applications using pulsed streamer discharge. However, how the distance between electrodes affects the pulsed discharge hasn't been clarified. In this research, the propagation process of pulsed streamer discharge in a wire-plate electrode was observed using an ICCD camera for 4 electrodes having different distance between electrodes. The distance between electrodes was changeable at 45 mm, 40 mm, 35 mm, and 30 mm. The results show that, when the distance between electrodes was shortened, applied voltage with a pulse duration of 100 ns decreased from 80 to 60.3 kV. Conversely, discharge current increased from 149 to 190 A. Streamer head velocity became faster. On the other hand, Streamer head density at onset time of streamer head propagation didn't change. This is considered due to the electric field strength of streamer head at that time, in result, it was about 14 kV/mm under each distance between electrodes.

  4. Is there a differential strength of specific HLA mismatches in kidney transplants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, N; Idica, A; Terasaki, P

    2008-05-01

    In this article we attempted to identify whether there is a specific mismatched antigen that might be detrimental to kidney transplant outcome. The frequency of function versus failure of transplant cases was tallied within subpopulations among a subset of the 2006 United Network for Organ Sharing transplant dataset. We examined 7998 cadaveric and 11,420 living donor kidney transplants that were mismatched for a single class I antigen. When tested by five different criteria, the results were relatively similar for the HLA class I, A- and B-locus mismatches. HLA A1 was identified as the single most dominant immunogenic mismatch. However, when the P values were multiplied by 68, the number of comparisons, A1 was only marginally significant. We concluded that at least for class I specificities, the 68 specificities were about equal immunogenicity in kidney transplantation.

  5. Specific absorption rate dependence on temperature in magnetic field hyperthermia measured by dynamic hysteresis losses (ac magnetometry)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garaio, Eneko; Sandre, Olivier; Collantes, Juan-Mari; Garcia, Jose Angel; Mornet, Stéphane; Plazaola, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) are intensively studied for their potential use for magnetic hyperthermia, a treatment that has passed a phase II clinical trial against severe brain cancer (glioblastoma) at the end of 2011. Their heating power, characterized by the ‘specific absorption rate (SAR)’, is often considered temperature independent in the literature, mainly because of the difficulties that arise from the measurement methodology. Using a dynamic magnetometer presented in a recent paper, we measure here the thermal dependence of SAR for superparamagnetic iron oxide (maghemite) NPs of four different size-ranges corresponding to mean diameters around 12 nm, 14 nm, 15 nm and 16 nm. The article reports a parametrical study extending from 10 to 60 {}^\\circ C in temperature, from 75 to 1031 kHz in frequency, and from 2 to 24 kA m-1 in magnetic field strength. It was observed that SAR values of smaller NPs decrease with temperature whereas for the larger sample (16 nm) SAR values increase with temperature. The measured variation of SAR with temperature is frequency dependent. This behaviour is fully explained within the scope of linear response theory based on Néel and Brown relaxation processes, using independent magnetic measurements of the specific magnetization and the magnetic anisotropy constant. A good quantitative agreement between experimental values and theoretical values is confirmed in a tri-dimensional space that uses as coordinates the field strength, the frequency and the temperature.

  6. Pressure-dependent electron attachment and breakdown strengths of unitary gases, and synergism of binary gas mixtures: a relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, S.R.; Christophorou, L.G.

    1984-04-01

    The relationship between the pressure-dependent electron attachment rate constants (k/sub a/) which have been observed in 1-C 3 F 6 and in several perfluoroalkanes, and the uniform field breakdown strengths (E/N)/sub lim/ in these gases is discussed. Measurements of the pressure dependence of k/sub a/ of OCS in a buffer gas of Ar are presented and the possible pressure dependence of (E/N)/sub lim/ in OCS is discussed. Uniform field breakdown measurements have been performed in C 3 F 8 , n-C 4 F 10 , and SO 2 over a range of gas pressures (3 less than or equal to P/sub T/ less than or equal to 290 kPa) and are reported. All three molecules have been found to possess pressure-dependent (E/N)/sub lim/ values. The various types of synergistic behavior which have been observed in binary gas dielectric mixtures are summarized and discussed. A new mechanism is outlined which can explain the synergism observed in several gas mixtures where the (E/N)/sub lim/ values of the mixutres are greater than those of the individual gas constituents. Model calculations are presented which support this mechanism, and can be used to explain the pressure-dependent synergistic effects which have been reported in 1-C 3 F 6 /SF 6 gas mixture

  7. Microstructural effects on the yield strength and its temperature dependence in a bainitic precipitation hardened Cr-Mo-V steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toerroenen, K.; Kotilainen, H.; Nenonen, P.

    1980-03-01

    The plastic deformation behaviour of a precipitation hardened bainitic Cr-Mo-V steel is analyzed at ambient and low temperatures. The temperature dependent component of the yield strength is composed of the Peierls-Nabarro force and also partly of the strengthening contribution of the lath- and cell boundaries or the solid solution hardening. The temperature dependence below 230 K is in accordance with the models presented by Yanoshevich and Ryvkina as well as Dorn and Rajnak. The temperature independent component can be calculated merely from the dislocation density, which is stabilized by the vanadium-rich carbides. The linear additivity cannot be used for the superposition of the strengthening effects of various strengthening parameters, By using the phenomenological approach starting from the dislocation movement mechanisms upon yielding the laws for the superposition are discussed. (author)

  8. Computer-aided model analysis for ionic strength-dependent effective charge of protein in ion-exchange chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Young-il; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Kim, In-Ho

    2005-01-01

    differential algebraic equation (PDAE) system, a fast and accurate numerical method (i.e., conservation element/solution element (CE/SE) method), is proposed. Sensitivity and elasticity of the model parameters (e.g., steric/shape factors, adsorption heat coefficient, effective protein charge, equilibrium...... constant, mass transfer coefficient, axial dispersion coefficient and bed voidage) are analyzed for a BSA-salt system in a low protein concentration range. Within a low concentration range of bovine serum albumin (BSA) where linear adsorption isotherms are shown, the adsorption heat coefficient, shape...... salt concentrations, it is proposed that the effective protein charge could depend upon the salt concentration (or ionic strength). The reason for this dependence may be a steric hindrance of protein binding sites combined with a salt shielding effect neutralizing the surface charges of the protein. (c...

  9. Dependence on zenith angle of the strength of 3-meter equatorial electrojet irregularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ierkic, H.M.; Fejer, B.G.; Farley, D.T.

    1980-01-01

    Radar measurements in Peru were used to deduce the zenith angle dependence of the scattering cross section of plasma irregularities generated by instabilities in the equatorial electrojet. The irregularities probed by the 50 MHz Jicamarca radar had a wavelength of 3m. The cross section for the type 2 irregularities was isotopic in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field, while the cross section for the stronger type 1 irregularities varied with zenith angle at a rate of approximately 0.3 dB/degree; the horizontally traveling waves were more than 100 times stronger than those traveling vertically

  10. Kinetics of the oxidation of hydrogen sulfite by hydrogen peroxide in aqueous solution:. ionic strength effects and temperature dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maaß, Frank; Elias, Horst; Wannowius, Klaus J.

    Conductometry was used to study the kinetics of the oxidation of hydrogen sulfite, HSO -3, by hydrogen peroxide in aqueous non-buffered solution at the low concentration level of 10 -5-10 -6 M, typically found in cloud water. The kinetic data confirm that the rate law reported for the pH range 3-6 at higher concentration levels, rate= kH·[H +]·[HSO -3]·[H 2O 2], is valid at the low concentration level and at low ionic strength Ic. At 298 K and Ic=1.5×10 -4 M, third-order rate constant kH was found to be kH=(9.1±0.5)×10 7 M -2 s -1. The temperature dependence of kH led to an activation energy of Ea=29.7±0.9 kJ mol -1. The effect of the ionic strength (adjusted with NaCl) on rate constant kH was studied in the range Ic=2×10 -4-5.0 M at pH=4.5-5.2 by conductometry and stopped-flow spectrophotometry. The dependence of kH on Ic can be described with a semi-empirical relationship, which is useful for the purpose of comparison and extrapolation. The kinetic data obtained are critically compared with those reported earlier.

  11. Strain Rate Effect on Tensile Behavior for a High Specific Strength Steel: From Quasi-Static to Intermediate Strain Rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The strain rate effect on the tensile behaviors of a high specific strength steel (HSSS with dual-phase microstructure has been investigated. The yield strength, the ultimate strength and the tensile toughness were all observed to increase with increasing strain rates at the range of 0.0006 to 56/s, rendering this HSSS as an excellent candidate for an energy absorber in the automobile industry, since vehicle crushing often happens at intermediate strain rates. Back stress hardening has been found to play an important role for this HSSS due to load transfer and strain partitioning between two phases, and a higher strain rate could cause even higher strain partitioning in the softer austenite grains, delaying the deformation instability. Deformation twins are observed in the austenite grains at all strain rates to facilitate the uniform tensile deformation. The B2 phase (FeAl intermetallic compound is less deformable at higher strain rates, resulting in easier brittle fracture in B2 particles, smaller dimple size and a higher density of phase interfaces in final fracture surfaces. Thus, more energy need be consumed during the final fracture for the experiments conducted at higher strain rates, resulting in better tensile toughness.

  12. Plant diversity increases with the strength of negative density dependence at the global scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaManna, Joseph A.; Mangan, Scott A.; Alonso, Alfonso; Bourg, Norman; Brockelman, Warren Y.; Bunyavejchewin, Sarayudh; Chang, Li-Wan; Chiang, Jyh-Min; Chuyong, George B.; Clay, Keith; Condit, Richard; Cordell, Susan; Davies, Stuart J.; Furniss, Tucker J.; Giardina, Christian P.; Gunatilleke, I.A.U. Nimal; Gunatilleke, C.V. Savitri; He, Fangliang; Howe, Robert W.; Hubbell, Stephen P.; Hsieh, Chang-Fu; Inman-Narahari, Faith M.; Janik, David; Johnson, Daniel J.; Kenfack, David; Korte, Lisa; Kral, Kamil; Larson, Andrew J.; Lutz, James A.; McMahon, Sean M.; McShea, William J.; Memiaghe, Herve R.; Nathalang, Anuttara; Novotny, Vojtech; Ong, Perry S.; Orwig, David A.; Ostertag, Rebecca; Parker, Geoffrey G.; Phillips, Richard P.; Sack, Lawren; Sun, I-Fang; Tello, J. Sebastian; Thomas, Duncan W.; Turner, Benjamin L.; Vela Diaz, Dilys M.; Vrska, Tomas; Weiblen, George D.; Wolf, Amy; Yap, Sandra; Myers, Jonathan A.

    2017-01-01

    Theory predicts that higher biodiversity in the tropics is maintained by specialized interactions among plants and their natural enemies that result in conspecific negative density dependence (CNDD). By using more than 3000 species and nearly 2.4 million trees across 24 forest plots worldwide, we show that global patterns in tree species diversity reflect not only stronger CNDD at tropical versus temperate latitudes but also a latitudinal shift in the relationship between CNDD and species abundance. CNDD was stronger for rare species at tropical versus temperate latitudes, potentially causing the persistence of greater numbers of rare species in the tropics. Our study reveals fundamental differences in the nature of local-scale biotic interactions that contribute to the maintenance of species diversity across temperate and tropical communities.

  13. Splitting strength and abrasion resistance of concrete paving blocks as a function of dry bulk specific gravity and ultrasonic pulse velocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haktanir, T.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Artificial Portland cement concrete paving blocks are widely used in many countries. These paving blocks come in a variety of designs with names such as "Interlocking" and "Italian Flower", and are manufactured with special machinery using rather high quality concrete having a compressive strength of about 50 MPa. Concrete blocks are employed instead of natural cobble stones for essentially economic reasons. The laboratoiy equipment required to measure paving block splitting strength and abrasion resistance, two of the chief properties to be tested in quality checks, is costly and the tests are time-consuming and labour-intensive. The present paper reports on a detailed experimental study performed to relate the splitting strength and abrasion resistance of concrete paving blocks to "dry bulk specific gravity" (DBSG and "ultrasonic pulse velocity" (UPV, respectively. Statistically significant regression equations describing the dependence of splitting strength on DBSG and abrasion resistance on UPV were obtained with data from random samples of material provided by seven different manufacturers.

    RESUMEN Los bloques para pavimentos (adoquines elaborados con hormigón se utilizan habitualmente en numerosos países. Estos bloques de pavimentación se diseñan de diversas formas, como por ejemplo "Entrelazado " ("Interlocking " o "Flor Italiana " ("Italian Flower"; se fabrican con maquinaria especial y con frecuencia se utiliza hormigón de la más alta calidad, con resistencia a la compresión de alrededor de 50 MPa. La razón de utilizar bloques de hormigón en lugar de bloques de piedra natural es básicamente económica. Los equipos de laboratorio necesarios para medir la resistencia a la compresión y a la abrasión -dos de las propiedades más importantes para determinar la calidad de los bloques en estudio- son costosos y los ensayos requieren tiempo y mano de obra considerables. En el presente trabajo se exponen ensayos experimentales

  14. T Cell Subset and Stimulation Strength-Dependent Modulation of T Cell Activation by Kv1.3 Blockers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai-Ping Fung-Leung

    Full Text Available Kv1.3 is a voltage-gated potassium channel expressed on T cells that plays an important role in T cell activation. Previous studies have shown that blocking Kv1.3 channels in human T cells during activation results in reduced calcium entry, cytokine production, and proliferation. The aim of the present study was to further explore the effects of Kv1.3 blockers on the response of different human T cell subsets under various stimulation conditions. Our studies show that, unlike the immune suppressor cyclosporine A, the inhibitory effect of Kv1.3 blockers was partial and stimulation strength dependent, with reduced inhibitory efficacy on T cells under strengthened anti-CD3/CD28 stimulations. T cell responses to allergens including house dust mites and ragweed were partially reduced by Kv1.3 blockers. The effect of Kv1.3 inhibition was dependent on T cell subsets, with stronger effects on CCR7- effector memory compared to CCR7+ central memory CD4 T cells. Calcium entry studies also revealed a population of CD4 T cells resistant to Kv1.3 blockade. Activation of CD4 T cells was accompanied with an increase in Kv1.3 currents but Kv1.3 transcripts were found to be reduced, suggesting a posttranscriptional mechanism in the regulation of Kv1.3 activities. In summary, Kv1.3 blockers inhibit T cell activation in a manner that is highly dependent on the T cell identity and stimulation strength, These findings suggest that Kv1.3 blockers inhibit T cells in a unique, conditional manner, further refining our understanding of the therapeutic potential of Kv1.3 blockers.

  15. A generalizable platform for interrogating target- and signal-specific consequences of electrophilic modifications in redox-dependent cell signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hong-Yu; Haegele, Joseph A; Disare, Michael T; Lin, Qishan; Aye, Yimon

    2015-05-20

    Despite the known propensity of small-molecule electrophiles to react with numerous cysteine-active proteins, biological actions of individual signal inducers have emerged to be chemotype-specific. To pinpoint and quantify the impacts of modifying one target out of the whole proteome, we develop a target-protein-personalized "electrophile toolbox" with which specific intracellular targets can be selectively modified at a precise time by specific reactive signals. This general methodology, T-REX (targetable reactive electrophiles and oxidants), is established by (1) constructing a platform that can deliver a range of electronic and sterically different bioactive lipid-derived signaling electrophiles to specific proteins in cells; (2) probing the kinetics of targeted delivery concept, which revealed that targeting efficiency in cells is largely driven by initial on-rate of alkylation; and (3) evaluating the consequences of protein-target- and small-molecule-signal-specific modifications on the strength of downstream signaling. These data show that T-REX allows quantitative interrogations into the extent to which the Nrf2 transcription factor-dependent antioxidant response element (ARE) signaling is activated by selective electrophilic modifications on Keap1 protein, one of several redox-sensitive regulators of the Nrf2-ARE axis. The results document Keap1 as a promiscuous electrophile-responsive sensor able to respond with similar efficiencies to discrete electrophilic signals, promoting comparable strength of Nrf2-ARE induction. T-REX is also able to elicit cell activation in cases in which whole-cell electrophile flooding fails to stimulate ARE induction prior to causing cytotoxicity. The platform presents a previously unavailable opportunity to elucidate the functional consequences of small-molecule-signal- and protein-target-specific electrophilic modifications in an otherwise unaffected cellular background.

  16. Life history traits influence the strength of distance- and density-dependence at different life stages of two Amazonian palms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Juanita; Carasco, Cecilia; Alvarez-Loayza, Patricia; Simpson, Beryl B; Economo, Evan P

    2017-07-01

    Natural enemies are known to be important in regulating plant populations and contributing to species coexistence (Janzen-Connell effects). The strength of Janzen-Connell effects (both distance- and density-effects) varies across species, but the life history traits that may mediate such a variation are not well understood. This study examined Janzen-Connell effects across the life stages (seed through adult stages) of two sympatric palm species with distinct phenologies and shade tolerances, two traits that may mediate the strength and timing of Janzen-Connell effects. Populations of two common palm species, Attalea phalerata and Astrocaryum murumuru , were studied in Manu National Park, Peru. Seed predation experiments were conducted to assess Janzen-Connell effects at the seed stage. In the post-seed stages, spatial point pattern analyses of the distributions of individuals and biomass were used to infer the strength of distance- and density-effects. Seed predation was both negative distance- and density-dependent consistent with the Janzen-Connell effects. However, only seedling recruitment for asynchronously fruiting Attalea phalerata was depressed near adults while recruitment remained high for synchronously fruiting Astrocaryum murumuru , consistent with weak distance-effects. Negative density-effects were strong in the early stages for shade-intolerant Attalea phalerata but weak or absent in shade-tolerant Astrocaryum murumuru. Distance- and density-effects varied among the life stages of the two palm species in a manner that corresponded to their contrasting phenology and shade tolerance. Generalizing such connections across many species would provide a route to understanding how trait-mediated Janzen-Connell effects scale up to whole communities of species. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  17. Specific Changes in Young Soccer Player's Fitness After Traditional Bilateral vs. Unilateral Combined Strength and Plyometric Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Ramirez-Campillo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare changes in young soccer player's fitness after traditional bilateral vs. unilateral combined plyometric and strength training. Male athletes were randomly divided in two groups; both received the same training, including strength training for knee extensors and flexors, in addition to horizontal plyometric training drills. The only difference between groups was the mode of drills technique: unilateral (UG; n = 9; age, 17.3 ± 1.1 years vs. bilateral (TG; n = 9; age, 17.6 ± 0.5 years. One repetition maximum bilateral strength of knee muscle extensors (1RM_KE and flexors (1RM_KF, change of direction ability (COD, horizontal and vertical jump ability with one (unilateral and two (bilateral legs, and limb symmetry index were measured before and after an 8-week in-season intervention period. Some regular soccer drills were replaced by combination of plyometric and strength training drills. Magnitude-based inference statistics were used for between-group and within-group comparisons. Beneficial effects (p < 0.05 in 1RM_KE, COD, and several test of jumping performance were found in both groups in comparison to pre-test values. The limb symmetry index was not affected in either group. The beneficial changes in 1RM_KE (8.1%; p = 0.074 and 1RM_KF (6.7%; p = 0.004, COD (3.1%; p = 0.149, and bilateral jump performance (from 2.7% [p = 0.535] to 10.5% [p = 0.002] were possible to most likely beneficial in the TG than in the UG. However, unilateral jump performance measures achieved likely to most likely beneficial changes in the UG compared to the TG (from 4.5% [p = 0.090] to 8.6% [p = 0.018]. The improvements in jumping ability were specific to the type of jump performed, with greater improvements in unilateral jump performance in the UG and bilateral jump performance in the TG. Therefore, bilateral strength and plyometric training should be complemented with unilateral drills, in order to maximize adaptations.

  18. Environmental conditions during breeding modify the strength of mass-dependent carry-over effects in a migratory bird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier A Harrison

    Full Text Available In many animals, processes occurring in one season carry over to influence reproductive success and survival in future seasons. The strength of such carry-over effects is unlikely to be uniform across years, yet our understanding of the processes that are capable of modifying their strength remains limited. Here we show that female light-bellied Brent geese with higher body mass prior to spring migration successfully reared more offspring during breeding, but only in years where environmental conditions during breeding were favourable. In years of bad weather during breeding, all birds suffered reduced reproductive output irrespective of pre-migration mass. Our results suggest that the magnitude of reproductive benefits gained by maximising body stores to fuel breeding fluctuates markedly among years in concert with conditions during the breeding season, as does the degree to which carry-over effects are capable of driving variance in reproductive success among individuals. Therefore while carry-over effects have considerable power to drive fitness asymmetries among individuals, our ability to interpret these effects in terms of their implications for population dynamics is dependent on knowledge of fitness determinants occurring in subsequent seasons. 

  19. Shear-rate-dependent strength control on the dynamics of rainfall-triggered landslides, Tokushima Prefecture, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, G.; Suemine, A.; Schulz, W.H.

    2010-01-01

    A typhoon (Typhoon No. 10) attacked Shikoku Island and the Tyugoku area of Japan in 2004. This typhoon produced a new daily precipitation record of 1317 mm on Shikoku Island and triggered hundreds of landslides in Tokushima Prefecture. One catastrophic landslide was triggered in the Shiraishi area of Kisawa village, and destroyed more than 10 houses while also leaving an unstable block high on the slope. The unstable block kept moving after the event, showing accelerating and decelerating movement during and after rainfall and reaching a displacement of several meters before countermeasures were put into place. To examine the mechanism for this landsliding characteristic, samples (weathered serpentinite) were taken from the field, and their shear behaviours examined using ring shear tests. The test results revealed that the residual shear strength of the samples is positively dependent on the shear rate, which may provide an explanation for the continuous acceleratingdecelerating process of the landsliding. The roughness of the shear surface and the microstructure of the shear zone were measured and observed by laser microscope and SEM techniques in an attempt to clarify the mechanism of shear rate effect on the residual shear strength. Copyright ?? 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Role of microstructure in the mean stress dependence of fatigue strength in Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanova, S.G.; Cohen, F.S.; Biederman, R.R.; Sisson, R.D. Jr.

    1999-07-01

    The high cycle fatigue properties of Ti-6Al-4V alloy with six different microstructure/texture combinations were investigated. Only materials with lamellar and fine bimodal microstructures exhibited linear Goodman relationship on the constant fatigue life diagram. Materials with coarse bimodal and equiaxed microstructures had anomalous mean stress dependency, with HCF strength at intermediate mean stresses being significantly lower than predicted by Goodman relationship, regardless of whether material was forged or cross-rolled. The role of microstructure in mean stress sensitivity behavior of Ti-6Al-4V is studied. Cyclic strain tests were conducted for all microstructures, and the results of strain-controlled and stress-controlled cyclic tests are compared and discussed.

  1. The dependence of potential well formation on the magnetic field strength and electron injection current in a polywell device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornish, S.; Gummersall, D.; Carr, M.; Khachan, J.

    2014-01-01

    A capacitive probe has been used to measure the plasma potential in a polywell device in order to observe the dependence of potential well formation on magnetic field strength, electron injection current, and polywell voltage bias. The effectiveness of the capacitive probe in a high energy electron plasma was determined by measuring the plasma potential of a planar diode with an axial magnetic field. The capacitive probe was translated along the axis of one of the field coils of the polywell, and the spatial profile of the potential well was measured. The confinement time of electrons in the polywell was estimated with a simple analytical model which used the experimentally observed potential well depths, as well as a simulation of the electron trajectories using particle orbit theory

  2. Associations of prodynorphin sequence variation with alcohol dependence and related traits are phenotype-specific and sex-dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winham, Stacey J; Preuss, Ulrich W; Geske, Jennifer R; Zill, Peter; Heit, John A; Bakalkin, Georgy; Biernacka, Joanna M; Karpyak, Victor M

    2015-10-27

    We previously demonstrated that prodynorphin (PDYN) haplotypes and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2281285 are associated with alcohol dependence and the propensity to drink in negative emotional states, and recent studies suggest that PDYN gene effects on substance dependence risk may be sex-related. We examined sex-dependent associations of PDYN variation with alcohol dependence and related phenotypes, including negative craving, time until relapse after treatment and the length of sobriety episodes before seeking treatment, in discovery and validation cohorts of European ancestry. We found a significant haplotype-by-sex interaction (p  =  0.03), suggesting association with alcohol dependence in males (p = 1E-4) but not females. The rs2281285 G allele increased risk for alcohol dependence in males in the discovery cohort (OR = 1.49, p = 0.002), with a similar trend in the validation cohort (OR = 1.35, p = 0.086). However, rs2281285 showed a trend towards association with increased negative craving in females in both the discovery (beta = 10.16, p = 0.045) and validation samples (OR = 7.11, p = 0.066). In the discovery cohort, rs2281285 was associated with time until relapse after treatment in females (HR = 1.72, p = 0.037); in the validation cohort, it was associated with increased length of sobriety episodes before treatment in males (beta = 13.49, p = 0.001). Our findings suggest that sex-dependent effects of PDYN variants in alcohol dependence are phenotype-specific.

  3. TCR Signal Strength Regulates Akt Substrate Specificity To Induce Alternate Murine Th and T Regulatory Cell Differentiation Programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawse, William F; Boggess, William C; Morel, Penelope A

    2017-07-15

    The Akt/mTOR pathway is a key driver of murine CD4 + T cell differentiation, and induction of regulatory T (Treg) cells results from low TCR signal strength and low Akt/mTOR signaling. However, strong TCR signals induce high Akt activity that promotes Th cell induction. Yet, it is unclear how Akt controls alternate T cell fate decisions. We find that the strength of the TCR signal results in differential Akt enzymatic activity. Surprisingly, the Akt substrate networks associated with T cell fate decisions are qualitatively different. Proteomic profiling of Akt signaling networks during Treg versus Th induction demonstrates that Akt differentially regulates RNA processing and splicing factors to drive T cell differentiation. Interestingly, heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) L or hnRNP A1 are Akt substrates during Treg induction and have known roles in regulating the stability and splicing of key mRNAs that code for proteins in the canonical TCR signaling pathway, including CD3ζ and CD45. Functionally, inhibition of Akt enzymatic activity results in the dysregulation of splicing during T cell differentiation, and knockdown of hnRNP L or hnRNP A1 results in the lower induction of Treg cells. Together, this work suggests that a switch in substrate specificity coupled to the phosphorylation status of Akt may lead to alternative cell fates and demonstrates that proteins involved with alternative splicing are important factors in T cell fate decisions. Copyright © 2017 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  4. Adolescents with a history of specific language impairment (SLI): strengths and difficulties in social, emotional and behavioral functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti-Ramsden, Gina; Mok, Pearl L H; Pickles, Andrew; Durkin, Kevin

    2013-11-01

    Adolescents with specific language impairment (SLI) are at a greater risk of emotional and behavioral problems compared to their typically developing (TD) peers, but little is known about their self-perceived strengths and difficulties. In this study, the self-reported social, emotional and behavioral functioning of 139 adolescents with a history of SLI and 124 TD individuals at age 16 was examined. The self-report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) was used to assess their prosocial behavior and levels of peer, emotional and behavioral difficulties. Associations of these areas of functioning with gender, verbal and non-verbal skills were also investigated. Adolescents with a history of SLI were more likely than their TD peers to report higher levels of peer problems, emotional symptoms, hyperactivity and conduct problems. The majority of adolescents in both groups (87% SLI and 96% TD), however, reported prosocial behavior within the typical range. Difficulty with peer relations was the strongest differentiator between the groups, with the odds of reporting borderline or abnormally high levels of peer problems being 12 times higher for individuals with a history of SLI. Adolescents with poorer receptive language skills were also more likely to report higher levels of emotional and behavioral difficulties. The findings of this study identify likely traits that may lead to referral to services. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Specific immunotherapy modifies allergen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in an epitope-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambre, Erik; DeLong, Jonathan H.; James, Eddie A.; Torres-Chinn, Nadia; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Möbs, Christian; Durham, Stephen R.; Till, Stephen J.; Robinson, David; Kwok, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system induces and controls allergic inflammation at the T cell epitope level is critical for the design of new allergy vaccine strategies. Objective To characterize allergen-specific T cell responses linked with allergy or peripheral tolerance and to determine how CD4+ T cell responses to individual allergen-derived epitopes change over allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT). Methods Timothy grass pollen (TGP) allergy was used as a model for studying grass pollen allergies. The breadth, magnitude, epitope hierarchy and phenotype of the DR04:01-restricted TGP-specific T cell responses in ten grass pollen allergic, five non-atopic and six allergy vaccine-treated individuals was determined using an ex vivo pMHCII-tetramer approach. Results CD4+ T cells in allergic individuals are directed to a broad range of TGP epitopes characterized by defined immunodominance hierarchy patterns and with distinct functional profiles that depend on the epitope recognized. Epitopes that are restricted specifically to either TH2 or TH1/TR1 responses were identified. ASIT was associated with preferential deletion of allergen-specific TH2 cells and without significant change in frequency of TH1/TR1 cells. Conclusions Preferential allergen-specific TH2-cells deletion after repeated high doses antigen stimulation can be another independent mechanism to restore tolerance to allergen during immunotherapy. PMID:24373351

  6. Specific strength training compared with interdisciplinary counseling for girls with tension-type headache: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornøe B

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Birte Tornøe,1–4 Lars L Andersen,5,6 Jørgen H Skotte,5 Rigmor Jensen,7 Claus Jensen,8 Bjarne K Madsen,7 Gunvor Gard,1 Liselotte Skov,2 Inger Hallström,11Department of Health Sciences, Lund University, Lund, Sweden; 2Department of Pediatrics E, Children’s Headache Clinic, University of Copenhagen, Herlev and Gentofte Hospitals, Copenhagen, Denmark; 3Department of Physiotherapy and Occupational Therapy, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 4Department of Physiotherapy, University of Copenhagen, Herlev and Gentofte Hospitals, Copenhagen, Denmark; 5National Research Centre for the Working Environment, Copenhagen, Denmark; 6Physical Activity and Human Performance group, SMI, Department of Health Science and Technology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark; 7Department of Neurology, Danish Headache Centre, University of Copenhagen, Glostrup Hospital, Copenhagen, Denmark; 8Huge Consulting, ApS, Haslev, Denmark Background: Childhood tension-type headache (TTH is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child and family. Low-cost nonpharmacological treatments are usually the first choice of professionals and parents. This study examined the outcomes of specific strength training for girls with TTH. Methods: Forty-nine girls aged 9–18 years with TTH were randomized to patient education programs with 10 weeks of strength training and compared with those who were counseled by a nurse and physical therapist. Primary outcomes were headache frequency, intensity, and duration; secondary outcomes were neck–shoulder muscle strength, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness, measured at baseline, after 10 weeks intervention, and at 12 weeks follow-up. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL questionnaires were assessed at baseline and after 24 months. Results: For both groups, headache frequency decreased significantly, P=0.001, as did duration, P=0.022, with no significant between-group differences. The odds of having

  7. Core subjects at the end of primary school: identifying and explaining relative strengths of children with specific language impairment (SLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Background In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. Aims To compare the distributions of performance of children with SLI in three core school subjects (English, Mathematics and Science); to test the possibility that performance would vary across the core subjects; and to examine the extent to which language impairment predicts performance. Methods & Procedures This study was conducted in England and reports historical data on educational attainments. Teacher assessment and test scores of 176 eleven-year-old children with SLI were examined in the three core subjects and compared with known national norms. Possible predictors of performance were measured, including language ability at ages 7 and 11, educational placement type, and performance IQ. Outcomes & Results Children with SLI, compared with national norms, were found to be at a disadvantage in core school subjects. Nevertheless, some children attained the levels expected of TD peers. Performance was poorest in English; relative strengths were indicated in Science and, to a lesser extent, in Mathematics. Language skills were significant predictors of performance in all three core subjects. PIQ was the strongest predictor for Mathematics. For Science, both early language skills at 7 years and PIQ made significant contributions. Conclusions & Implications Language impacts on the school performance of children with SLI, but differentially across subjects. English for these children is the most challenging of the core subjects, reflecting the high levels of language demand it incurs. Science is an area of relative strength and mathematics appears to be intermediate, arguably because some tasks in these subjects can be performed with less reliance on verbal processing. Many children

  8. Cell-Type-Specific Circuit Connectivity of Hippocampal CA1 Revealed through Cre-Dependent Rabies Tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanjun Sun

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available We developed and applied a Cre-dependent, genetically modified rabies-based tracing system to map direct synaptic connections to specific CA1 neuron types in the mouse hippocampus. We found common inputs to excitatory and inhibitory CA1 neurons from CA3, CA2, the entorhinal cortex (EC, the medial septum (MS, and, unexpectedly, the subiculum. Excitatory CA1 neurons receive inputs from both cholinergic and GABAergic MS neurons, whereas inhibitory neurons receive a great majority of inputs from GABAergic MS neurons. Both cell types also receive weaker input from glutamatergic MS neurons. Comparisons of inputs to CA1 PV+ interneurons versus SOM+ interneurons showed similar strengths of input from the subiculum, but PV+ interneurons received much stronger input than SOM+ neurons from CA3, the EC, and the MS. Thus, rabies tracing identifies hippocampal circuit connections and maps how the different input sources to CA1 are distributed with different strengths on each of its constituent cell types.

  9. Parental overprotection engenders dysfunctional attitudes about achievement and dependency in a gender-specific manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Koichi; Suzuki, Akihito; Matsumoto, Yoshihiko; Shibuya, Naoshi; Sadahiro, Ryoichi; Enokido, Masanori

    2013-12-24

    It has been suggested that dysfunctional attitudes, cognitive vulnerability to depression, have developmental origins. The present study examined the effects of parental rearing on dysfunctional attitudes in three areas of life with special attention to gender specificity. The subjects were 665 Japanese healthy volunteers. Dysfunctional attitudes were assessed by the 24-item Dysfunctional Attitude Scale, which has the Achievement, Dependency and Self-control subscales. Perceived parental rearing was assessed by the Parental Bonding Instrument, which has the Care and Protection subscales. Higher scores of the Achievement (β = 0.293, p overprotection engenders dysfunctional attitudes about achievement and dependency in a gender-specific manner.

  10. Natural convection heat transfer of fluid with temperature-dependent specific heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Amane; Kubo, Shinji; Akino, Norio

    1998-01-01

    The present study investigates natural convection from a heated vertical plate of fluid with temperature-dependent specific heat, which is introduced as a model of microencapsulated phase change material slurries (MCPCM slurries). The temperature dependence of specific heat is represented by Gauss function with three physical parameters (peak temperature, width of phase change temperature and latent heat). Boundary layer equations are solved numerically, and the velocity and temperature fields of the flow are obtained. The relation between the heat transfer coefficients and the physical parameters of specific heat is discussed. The results show that the velocities and temperatures are smaller, and the heat transfer coefficients are larger comparing with those of the fluid with constant specific heat. (author)

  11. E-cigarette- specific symptoms of nicotine dependence among Texas adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, Kathleen R; Mantey, Dale S; Creamer, MeLisa R; Harrell, Melissa B; Kelder, Steven H; Perry, Cheryl L

    2018-09-01

    The potential of e-cigarettes to elicit symptoms of nicotine dependence has not been adequately studied, particularly in adolescent populations. The present study examined the prevalence of e-cigarette-specific symptoms of nicotine dependence ("symptoms of e-cigarette dependence") and the associations between these symptoms, e-cigarette usage group, and e-cigarette cessation-related items among Texas adolescents. This study involved a cross-sectional analysis of adolescents from Wave 4 of the Texas Adolescent Tobacco and Marketing Surveillance System (TATAMS) (n = 2891/N = 461,069). Chi-Square analyses examined differences in the prevalence of symptoms of dependence by e-cigarette usage group (exclusive versus dual users of e-cigarettes and combustible tobacco products) and demographic characteristics. Weighted multivariable logistic regression analyses examined the associations between symptoms of e-cigarette dependence, e-cigarette usage group, and e-cigarette cessation items. Exclusive e-cigarette users experienced symptoms of e-cigarette dependence, although the prevalence of most of the symptoms was higher for dual users. Adolescents who reported more symptoms of dependence were less likely to report both wanting to quit e-cigarettes and a past-year quit attempt for e-cigarettes (adjusted odds ratio "AOR" = 0.61 (95% CI = 0.41, 0.92) and AOR = 0.52 (95% CI = 0.30, 0.92), respectively). This study is the first to demonstrate that adolescent e-cigarette users are experiencing symptoms of dependence specific to e-cigarettes. In addition, symptoms of dependence may be barriers to e-cigarette cessation. Future research is needed to determine if characteristics of e-cigarette use (e.g. frequency and intensity) are associated with dependence. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Relativistic hadrodynamics with field-strength dependent coupling of the scalar fields in Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindner, J.

    1992-09-01

    In this thesis in the framework of our model of the field-strength dependent coupling the properties of infinitely extended, homogeneous, static, spin- and isospin-saturated nuclear matter are studied. Thereby we use the Hartree-Mean-Field and the Hartree-Fock approximation, whereby the influence of the antiparticle states in the Fermi sea is neglected. In chapter 2 the Lagrangian density basing to our model is fixed. Starting from the Walecka model we modify in the Lagrangian density the Linear coupling of the scalar field to the scalar density as follows g S φanti ψψ→g S f(φ) anti ψψ. In chapter 3 we fix three different functions f(φ). For these three cases and for the Walecka model with f(φ)=φ nuclear-matter calculations are performed. In chapter 4 for the Hartree-Fock calculations, but also very especially regarding the molecular-dynamics calculations, the properties of the Dirac spinors in the plane-wave representation are intensively studied. (orig.)

  13. Machine-learning identifies substance-specific behavioral markers for opiate and stimulant dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Woo-Young; Vassileva, Jasmin

    2016-04-01

    Recent animal and human studies reveal distinct cognitive and neurobiological differences between opiate and stimulant addictions; however, our understanding of the common and specific effects of these two classes of drugs remains limited due to the high rates of polysubstance-dependence among drug users. The goal of the current study was to identify multivariate substance-specific markers classifying heroin dependence (HD) and amphetamine dependence (AD), by using machine-learning approaches. Participants included 39 amphetamine mono-dependent, 44 heroin mono-dependent, 58 polysubstance dependent, and 81 non-substance dependent individuals. The majority of substance dependent participants were in protracted abstinence. We used demographic, personality (trait impulsivity, trait psychopathy, aggression, sensation seeking), psychiatric (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, conduct disorder, antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, anxiety, depression), and neurocognitive impulsivity measures (Delay Discounting, Go/No-Go, Stop Signal, Immediate Memory, Balloon Analogue Risk, Cambridge Gambling, and Iowa Gambling tasks) as predictors in a machine-learning algorithm. The machine-learning approach revealed substance-specific multivariate profiles that classified HD and AD in new samples with high degree of accuracy. Out of 54 predictors, psychopathy was the only classifier common to both types of addiction. Important dissociations emerged between factors classifying HD and AD, which often showed opposite patterns among individuals with HD and AD. These results suggest that different mechanisms may underlie HD and AD, challenging the unitary account of drug addiction. This line of work may shed light on the development of standardized and cost-efficient clinical diagnostic tests and facilitate the development of individualized prevention and intervention programs for HD and AD. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. DREAM Controls the On/Off Switch of Specific Activity-Dependent Transcription Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellström, Britt; Sahún, Ignasi; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana; Murtra, Patricia; Gomez-Villafuertes, Rosa; Savignac, Magali; Oliveros, Juan C.; Gonzalez, Paz; Kastanauskaite, Asta; Knafo, Shira; Zhuo, Min; Higuera-Matas, Alejandro; Errington, Michael L.; Maldonado, Rafael; DeFelipe, Javier; Jefferys, John G. R.; Bliss, Tim V. P.; Dierssen, Mara

    2014-01-01

    Changes in nuclear Ca2+ homeostasis activate specific gene expression programs and are central to the acquisition and storage of information in the brain. DREAM (downstream regulatory element antagonist modulator), also known as calsenilin/KChIP-3 (K+ channel interacting protein 3), is a Ca2+-binding protein that binds DNA and represses transcription in a Ca2+-dependent manner. To study the function of DREAM in the brain, we used transgenic mice expressing a Ca2+-insensitive/CREB-independent dominant active mutant DREAM (daDREAM). Using genome-wide analysis, we show that DREAM regulates the expression of specific activity-dependent transcription factors in the hippocampus, including Npas4, Nr4a1, Mef2c, JunB, and c-Fos. Furthermore, DREAM regulates its own expression, establishing an autoinhibitory feedback loop to terminate activity-dependent transcription. Ablation of DREAM does not modify activity-dependent transcription because of gene compensation by the other KChIP family members. The expression of daDREAM in the forebrain resulted in a complex phenotype characterized by loss of recurrent inhibition and enhanced long-term potentiation (LTP) in the dentate gyrus and impaired learning and memory. Our results indicate that DREAM is a major master switch transcription factor that regulates the on/off status of specific activity-dependent gene expression programs that control synaptic plasticity, learning, and memory. PMID:24366545

  15. Beneficial use of off-specification fly ashes to increase the shear strength and stiffness of expansive soil-rubber (ESR) mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The use of off-specification fly ashes to increase the shear strength and stiffness of an expansive soil-rubber (ESR) mixture is investigated systematically in this study. The off-specification fly ashes used include a high-sulfur content and a high-...

  16. An analysis of boundary-effects in obtaining the frequency dependent specific heat by effusivity measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Tage Emil; Behrens, Claus

    The frequency dependent specific heat is a significant response function characterizing the glass transition. Contrary to the dielectric response it is not easily measured over many decades. The introduction of the 3-omega method, where the temperature oscillations at a planar oscillatoric heat g...

  17. Cannabis-related hippocampal volumetric abnormalities specific to subregions in dependent users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chye, Yann; Suo, Chao; Yücel, Murat; den Ouden, Lauren; Solowij, Nadia; Lorenzetti, Valentina

    2017-07-01

    Cannabis use is associated with neuroanatomical alterations in the hippocampus. While the hippocampus is composed of multiple subregions, their differential vulnerability to cannabis dependence remains unknown. The objective of the study is to investigate gray matter alteration in each of the hippocampal subregions (presubiculum, subiculum, cornu ammonis (CA) subfields CA1-4, and dentate gyrus (DG)) as associated with cannabis use and dependence. A total of 35 healthy controls (HC), 22 non-dependent (CB-nondep), and 39 dependent (CB-dep) cannabis users were recruited. We investigated group differences in hippocampal subregion volumes between HC, CB-nondep, and CB-dep users. We further explored the association between CB use variables (age of onset of regular use, monthly use, lifetime use) and hippocampal subregions in CB-nondep and CB-dep users separately. The CA1, CA2/3, CA4/DG, as well as total hippocampal gray matter were reduced in volume in CB-dep but not in CB-nondep users, relative to HC. The right CA2/3 and CA4/DG volumes were also negatively associated with lifetime cannabis use in CB-dep users. Our results suggest a regionally and dependence-specific influence of cannabis use on the hippocampus. Hippocampal alteration in cannabis users was specific to the CA and DG regions and confined to dependent users.

  18. The ability of familiarity, disruption, and the relative strength of nonenvironmental context cues to explain unreliable environmental-context-dependent memory effects in free recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutherford, A

    2000-12-01

    The ability of environmental-context (EC) familiarity, movement disruption, and the relative strength of memory cues to explain unreliable EC-dependent free-recall memory effects was examined in two experiments. Experiment 1 replicated Smith's (1979, Experiment 1) results confirming that familiarity and disruption cannot account for free-recall EC-reinstatement effects. In Experiment 2, a level of processing manipulation varied stimulus item memory cue strengths, and memory was again assessed by free recall. Contrary to Murnane and Phelps's (1995) and Dougal and Rotello's (1999) recognition findings, an EC-reinstatement effect was observed with low, but not high, levels of processing. However, comparisons across the two experiments revealed inconsistencies with the relative cue strength hypothesis. Consequently, a variant of the relative cue strength hypothesis that highlights the role of retrieval processes was proposed to explain the interaction between the levels of processing and the EC-reinstatement effect.

  19. Core subjects at the end of primary school: identifying and explaining relative strengths of children with specific language impairment (SLI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Mok, Pearl L H; Conti-Ramsden, Gina

    2015-01-01

    In general, children with specific language impairment (SLI) tend to fall behind their typically developing (TD) peers in educational attainment. Less is known about how children with SLI fare in particular areas of the curriculum and what predicts their levels of performance. To compare the distributions of performance of children with SLI in three core school subjects (English, Mathematics and Science); to test the possibility that performance would vary across the core subjects; and to examine the extent to which language impairment predicts performance. This study was conducted in England and reports historical data on educational attainments. Teacher assessment and test scores of 176 eleven-year-old children with SLI were examined in the three core subjects and compared with known national norms. Possible predictors of performance were measured, including language ability at ages 7 and 11, educational placement type, and performance IQ. Children with SLI, compared with national norms, were found to be at a disadvantage in core school subjects. Nevertheless, some children attained the levels expected of TD peers. Performance was poorest in English; relative strengths were indicated in Science and, to a lesser extent, in Mathematics. Language skills were significant predictors of performance in all three core subjects. PIQ was the strongest predictor for Mathematics. For Science, both early language skills at 7 years and PIQ made significant contributions. Language impacts on the school performance of children with SLI, but differentially across subjects. English for these children is the most challenging of the core subjects, reflecting the high levels of language demand it incurs. Science is an area of relative strength and mathematics appears to be intermediate, arguably because some tasks in these subjects can be performed with less reliance on verbal processing. Many children with SLI do have the potential to reach or exceed educational targets that are set

  20. The anti-proliferative effect of cation channel blockers in T lymphocytes depends on the strength of mitogenic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petho, Zoltan; Balajthy, Andras; Bartok, Adam; Bene, Krisztian; Somodi, Sandor; Szilagyi, Orsolya; Rajnavolgyi, Eva; Panyi, Gyorgy; Varga, Zoltan

    2016-03-01

    Ion channels are crucially important for the activation and proliferation of T lymphocytes, and thus, for the function of the immune system. Previous studies on the effects of channel blockers on T cell proliferation reported variable effectiveness due to differing experimental systems. Therefore our aim was to investigate how the strength of the mitogenic stimulation influences the efficiency of cation channel blockers in inhibiting activation, cytokine secretion and proliferation of T cells under standardized conditions. Human peripheral blood lymphocytes were activated via monoclonal antibodies targeting the TCR-CD3 complex and the co-stimulator CD28. We applied the blockers of Kv1.3 (Anuroctoxin), KCa3.1 (TRAM-34) and CRAC (2-Apb) channels of T cells either alone or in combination with rapamycin, the inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Five days after the stimulation ELISA and flow cytometric measurements were performed to determine IL-10 and IFN-γ secretion, cellular viability and proliferation. Our results showed that ion channel blockers and rapamycin inhibit IL-10 and IFN-γ secretion and cell division in a dose-dependent manner. Simultaneous application of the blockers for each channel along with rapamycin was the most effective, indicating synergy among the various activation pathways. Upon increasing the extent of mitogenic stimulation the anti-proliferative effect of the ion channel blockers diminished. This phenomenon may be important in understanding the fine-tuning of T cell activation. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Immunological Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Instrument specific use-dependent plasticity shapes the anatomical properties of the corpus callosum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vollmann, Henning; Ragert, Patrick; Conde, Virginia

    2014-01-01

    Long-term musical expertise has been shown to be associated with a number of functional and structural brain changes, making it an attractive model for investigating use-dependent plasticity in humans. Physiological interhemispheric inhibition (IHI) as examined by transcranial magnetic stimulation......, the amount of IHI in pianists was comparable to that of non-musicians and there was no significant structure-function relationship. Our findings indicate instrument specific use-dependent plasticity in both functional (IHI) and structural (FA) connectivity of motor related brain regions in musicians....

  2. Influence of Response Prepotency Strength, General Working Memory Resources, and Specific Working Memory Load on the Ability to Inhibit Predominant Responses: A Comparison of Young and Elderly Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Julien; Collette, Fabienne

    2011-01-01

    One conception of inhibitory functioning suggests that the ability to successfully inhibit a predominant response depends mainly on the strength of that response, the general functioning of working memory processes, and the working memory demand of the task (Roberts, Hager, & Heron, 1994). The proposal that inhibition and functional working memory…

  3. Temperature and pinning strength dependence of the critical current of a superconductor with a square periodic array of pinning sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkraouda, M.; Obaidat, I.M.; Al Khawaja, U.

    2006-01-01

    We have conducted extensive series of molecular dynamic simulations on driven vortex lattices interacting with periodic square arrays of pinning sites. In solving the over damped equation of vortex motion we took into account the vortex-vortex repulsion interaction, the attractive vortex-pinning interaction, and the driving Lorentz force at several values of temperature. We have studied the effect of varying the driving Lorentz force and varying the pinning strength on the critical current for several pinning densities, and temperature values. We have found that the pinning strength play an important role in enhancing the critical current over the whole temperature range. At low temperatures, the critical current was found to increase linearly with increasing the pinning strengths for all pinning densities. As the temperature increases, the effect of small pinning strengths diminishes and becomes insignificant at high temperatures

  4. Acetylation-Dependent Chromatin Reorganization by BRDT, a Testis-Specific Bromodomain-Containing Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivot-Pajot, Christophe; Caron, Cécile; Govin, Jérôme; Vion, Alexandre; Rousseaux, Sophie; Khochbin, Saadi

    2003-01-01

    The association between histone acetylation and replacement observed during spermatogenesis prompted us to consider the testis as a source for potential factors capable of remodelling acetylated chromatin. A systematic search of data banks for open reading frames encoding testis-specific bromodomain-containing proteins focused our attention on BRDT, a testis-specific protein of unknown function containing two bromodomains. BRDT specifically binds hyperacetylated histone H4 tail depending on the integrity of both bromodomains. Moreover, in somatic cells, the ectopic expression of BRDT triggered a dramatic reorganization of the chromatin only after induction of histone hyperacetylation by trichostatin A (TSA). We then defined critical domains of BRDT involved in its activity. Both bromodomains of BRDT, as well as flanking regions, were found indispensable for its histone acetylation-dependent remodelling activity. Interestingly, we also observed that recombinant BRDT was capable of inducing reorganization of the chromatin of isolated nuclei in vitro only when the nuclei were from TSA-treated cells. This assay also allowed us to show that the action of BRDT was ATP independent, suggesting a structural role for the protein in the remodelling of acetylated chromatin. This is the first demonstration of a large-scale reorganization of acetylated chromatin induced by a specific factor. PMID:12861021

  5. Are the benefits of autonomy satisfaction and the costs of autonomy frustration dependent on individuals' autonomy strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Assche, Jasper; van der Kaap-Deeder, Jolene; Audenaert, Elien; De Schryver, Maarten; Vansteenkiste, Maarten

    2018-01-29

    From a self-determination theory perspective, individuals are assumed to benefit and suffer from, respectively, the satisfaction and frustration of the psychological need for autonomy, even if they score low on autonomy strength. Yet, previous studies on need strength are scarce, operationalized need strength differently, and produced inconsistent findings. In two studies among 224 South African adults (M age  = 24.13, SD = 4.25; 54.0% male) and 156 Belgian prisoners (M age  = 38.60, SD = 11.68; 88.5% male), we investigated the moderating role of autonomy valuation and desire in the relations of autonomy satisfaction and frustration with a variety of well-being and ill-being indicators. Study 1 provided some evidence for the moderating role of mostly explicit autonomy desire (rather than explicit autonomy valuation). In Study 2, neither explicit nor implicit autonomy desire played a consistent moderating role. Overall, these findings are congruent with a moderate (albeit not with a strong) interpretation of the universality claim made within self-determination theory, provide initial evidence for a differentiation between deficit-based and growth-oriented interpersonal differences in need strength, and indicate that the potential moderating role of need strength deserves continued attention before any firm conclusions can be drawn. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Yacht type and crew-specific differences in anthropometric, aerobic capacity, and muscle strength parameters among international Olympic class sailors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojsen-Møller, Jens; Larsson, Benny; Magnusson, S Peter; Aagaard, Per

    2007-08-01

    Physical fitness and muscular strength are important performance factors for Olympic class sailors, but the physical demands vary greatly between yacht classes, and limited information is available regarding the physical demands for the different crew positions. In the present paper, strength and aerobic capacity data from elite Olympic sailors are presented and compared with previous findings. Furthermore, a system for classification of Olympic class sailors is suggested. Peak aerobic capacity (peak oxygen uptake, VO(2peak)) and maximal isometric and isokinetic muscle strength of the knee extensors and flexors were assessed, together with the hamstring/quadriceps strength ratio (H/Q ratio). Peak aerobic capacity (ml O(2) . min(-1) . kg(-2/3)) was as follows: males - static hikers (n = 5) 215, s = 7; dynamic hikers (n = 8) 252, s = 17; trapezing helmsmen (n = 6) 234, s = 15; trapezing crew (n = 10) 239, s = 16; females - dynamic hikers (n = 6) 194, s = 16; trapezing crew (n = 2) 200, s = 13. Strength data for hikers, presented as peak moments (normalized to body weight) obtained during eccentric, isometric, and concentric contraction (Nm . kg(-1)) respectively were as follows: males - quadriceps: 3.66 (s = 0.68), 3.97 (s = 0.66), 1.82 (s = 0.34); hamstrings: 1.93 (s = 0.22), 1.38 (s = 0.41), 1.05 (s = 0.21); females - quadriceps: 3.84 (s = 0.71), 3.81 (s = 0.58), 1.60 (s = 0.28); hamstrings: 1.75 (s = 0.23), 1.10 (s = 0.16), 0.84 (s = 0.13). The peak moment based H/Q ratios for slow eccentric and concentric contractions were 0.42 (s = 0.11) and 0.39 (s = 0.04) for males and 0.43 (s = 0.06) and 0.39 (s = 0.04) for females respectively. Elite Olympic class sailors demonstrated high VO(2peak) values comparable to those observed in other non-endurance sports. The strength data revealed very high quadriceps strength for hikers, which is likely a result of the high muscle forces encountered during sailing, and a low H/Q ratio. To ensure optimal knee joint stabilization

  7. Temperature dependence of bending strength for plasma sprayed zirconia coating; Plasuma yosha zirconia himaku no magetsuyosa no ondo izonsei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, M.; Sakuma, T. [Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)] Mizutani, T. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)] Kishimoto, K. [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] Saito, M. [Toshiba Corp. (Japan). Heavy Apparatus Engineering Lab.

    1998-02-01

    Plasma sprayed zirconia applying to the thermal barrier coating in gas turbine has been developing for protecting the hot parts such as blades and nozzles from high-temperature enviroments. In this paper, four point bending tests under various temperature conditions are conducted on plasma sprayed zirconia and its mechanical properties are examined. Results show that the bending strength at room temperature for plasma sprayed zirconia is much lower than that of sintered zirconia and is decreased with the increase in temperature. However, Weibull modulus at each temperature is relatively large and the dispersion of bending strength is very small in comparison with that of sintered zirconia. It is also clarified by the SEM observations of fracture surface that many defects such as debonding and microcrack are responsible for the lower bending strength. 9 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Self-Reported Measures Of Strength And Sport-Specific Skills Distinguish Ranking In An International Online Fitness Competition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Paul R; Feito, Yuri; Mangine, Gerald T

    2017-02-08

    To determine if self-reported performance measures could distinguish ranking during the 2016 CrossFit Open, data from three thousand male (n=1500; 27.2±8.4 y; 85.2±7.9 kg; 177.0±6.5 cm) and female (n=1500, 28.7±4.9 y; 63.7±5.8 kg; 163.7±6.6 cm) competitors was used for this study. Competitors were split by gender and grouped into quintiles (Q1-Q5) based upon their final ranking. Quintiles were compared for one-repetition maximum (1RM) squat, deadlift, clean and jerk (CJ), snatch, 400-m sprint, 5,000-m run, and benchmark workouts (Fran, Helen, Grace, Filthy-50, and Fight-gone-bad). Separate one-way analyses of variance revealed all competitors in Q1 reported greater (p<0.05) 1RM loads for squat (Males: 201.6±19.1 kg; Females: 126.1±13.0 kg), deadlift (Males: 232.4±20.5 kg; Females: 148.3±14.5 kg), CJ (Males: 148.9±12.1 kg; Females: 95.7±8.4 kg), and snatch (Males: 119.4±10.9 kg; Females 76.5±7.6 kg) compared to other quintiles. In addition, Males in Q1 (59.3±5.9 sec) reported faster (p<0.05) 400-m times than Q3 only (62.6±7.3 sec), but were not different from any group in the 5,000-m run. Females in Q2 (67.5 ± 8.8 sec) reported faster (p<0.05) 400-m times than Q3-Q5 (73.5-74.8 sec) and faster (21.3 ± 1.8 min, p<0.02) 5,000-m times than Q4 (22.6±2.2 min) and Q5 (22.6±1.9 min). Faster (p<0.05) Fran times were reported by Q1 (males: 138.2±13.3 sec; females: 159.4±28.3 sec) compared to other groups, while the results of other workouts were variable. These data indicate that the most successful athletes excel in all areas of fitness/skill, while lower-ranking athletes should focus on developing strength and power after achieving sufficient proficiency in sport-specific skills.

  9. Energy dependence of the ratio of isovector effective interaction strengths |JστJτ| from 0° (p,n) cross sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taddeucci, T. N.; Rapaport, J.; Bainum, D. E.; Goodman, C. D.; Foster, C. C.; Gaarde, C.; Larsen, J.; Goulding, C. A.; Horen, D. J.; Masterson, T.; Sugarbaker, E.

    1982-02-01

    Information concerning the ratio of the isovector effective interaction strengths |JστJτ| may be obtained from the ratio of (p,n) Gamow-Teller and isobaric analog state 0° differential cross sections. We have examined 0° (p,n) data for the energy range 5-200 MeV and find that for energies larger than 50 MeV and for targets with A=7-42 the product of the interaction-strength and distortion-factor ratios |JστJτ|(NστNτ)12 appears to be mass independent and linear as a function of bombarding energy. NUCLEAR REACTIONS 7Li, 13, 14C, 26Mg, 37Cl, 41Ca(p,n), measured σ(θ=0°), GT, IAS transitions, Ep=60-200 MeV. Deduced energy dependence, interaction strength ratio |JστJτ|.

  10. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kuehn, Sven; Kuster, Niels; Christopoulou, Maria

    2010-01-01

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  11. Age-dependent tissue-specific exposure of cell phone users

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christ, Andreas; Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kuehn, Sven; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zeughausstr. 43, 8004 Zuerich (Switzerland); Christopoulou, Maria [National Technical University of Athens, School of Electrical and Computer Engineering, 9 Iroon Polytechniou Str., 15780 Athens (Greece)], E-mail: christ@itis.ethz.ch

    2010-04-07

    The peak spatial specific absorption rate (SAR) assessed with the standardized specific anthropometric mannequin head phantom has been shown to yield a conservative exposure estimate for both adults and children using mobile phones. There are, however, questions remaining concerning the impact of age-dependent dielectric tissue properties and age-dependent proportions of the skull, face and ear on the global and local absorption, in particular in the brain tissues. In this study, we compare the absorption in various parts of the cortex for different magnetic resonance imaging-based head phantoms of adults and children exposed to different models of mobile phones. The results show that the locally induced fields in children can be significantly higher (>3 dB) in subregions of the brain (cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus) and the eye due to the closer proximity of the phone to these tissues. The increase is even larger for bone marrow (>10 dB) as a result of its significantly high conductivity. Tissues such as the pineal gland show no increase since their distances to the phone are not a function of age. This study, however, confirms previous findings saying that there are no age-dependent changes of the peak spatial SAR when averaged over the entire head.

  12. Dependence of optical phase modulation on anchoring strength of dielectric shield wall surfaces in small liquid crystal pixels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isomae, Yoshitomo; Shibata, Yosei; Ishinabe, Takahiro; Fujikake, Hideo

    2018-03-01

    We demonstrated that the uniform phase modulation in a pixel can be realized by optimizing the anchoring strength on the walls and the wall width in the dielectric shield wall structure, which is the needed pixel structure for realizing a 1-µm-pitch optical phase modulator. The anchoring force degrades the uniformity of the phase modulation in ON-state pixels, but it also keeps liquid crystals from rotating against the leakage of an electric field. We clarified that the optimal wall width and anchoring strength are 250 nm and less than 10-4 J/m2, respectively.

  13. Nodal-dependent mesendoderm specification requires the combinatorial activities of FoxH1 and Eomesodermin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher E Slagle

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate mesendoderm specification requires the Nodal signaling pathway and its transcriptional effector FoxH1. However, loss of FoxH1 in several species does not reliably cause the full range of loss-of-Nodal phenotypes, indicating that Nodal signals through additional transcription factors during early development. We investigated the FoxH1-dependent and -independent roles of Nodal signaling during mesendoderm patterning using a novel recessive zebrafish FoxH1 mutation called midway, which produces a C-terminally truncated FoxH1 protein lacking the Smad-interaction domain but retaining DNA-binding capability. Using a combination of gel shift assays, Nodal overexpression experiments, and genetic epistasis analyses, we demonstrate that midway more accurately represents a complete loss of FoxH1-dependent Nodal signaling than the existing zebrafish FoxH1 mutant schmalspur. Maternal-zygotic midway mutants lack notochords, in agreement with FoxH1 loss in other organisms, but retain near wild-type expression of markers of endoderm and various nonaxial mesoderm fates, including paraxial and intermediate mesoderm and blood precursors. We found that the activity of the T-box transcription factor Eomesodermin accounts for specification of these tissues in midway embryos. Inhibition of Eomesodermin in midway mutants severely reduces the specification of these tissues and effectively phenocopies the defects seen upon complete loss of Nodal signaling. Our results indicate that the specific combinations of transcription factors available for signal transduction play critical and separable roles in determining Nodal pathway output during mesendoderm patterning. Our findings also offer novel insights into the co-evolution of the Nodal signaling pathway, the notochord specification program, and the chordate branch of the deuterostome family of animals.

  14. Antigen-specific tolerance of human alpha1-antitrypsin induced by helper-dependent adenovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerullo, V; McCormack, W; Seiler, M; Mane, V; Cela, R; Clarke, C; Rodgers, J R; Lee, B

    2007-12-01

    As efficient and less toxic virus-derived gene therapy vectors are developed, a pressing problem is to avoid immune response to the therapeutic gene product. Secreted therapeutic proteins potentially represent a special problem, as they are readily available to professional antigen-presenting cells throughout the body. Some studies suggest that immunity to serum proteins can be avoided in some mouse strains by using tissue-specific promoters. Here we show that expression of human alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) was nonimmunogenic in the immune-responsive strain C3H/HeJ, when expressed from helper-dependent (HD) vectors using ubiquitous as well as tissue-specific promoters. Coadministration of less immunogenic HD vectors with an immunogenic first-generation vector failed to immunize, suggesting immune suppression rather than immune stealth. Indeed, mice primed with HD vectors were tolerant to immune challenge with hAAT emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant. Such animals developed high-titer antibodies to coemulsified human serum albumin, showing that tolerance was antigen specific. AAT-specific T cell responses were depressed in tolerized animals, suggesting that tolerance affects both T and B cells. These results are consistent with models of high-dose tolerance of B cells and certain other suppressive mechanisms, and suggest that a high level of expression from HD vectors can be sufficient to induce specific immune tolerance to serum proteins.

  15. Incorporating residual temperature and specific humidity in predicting weather-dependent warm-season electricity consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Huade; Beecham, Simon; Xu, Hanqiu; Ingleton, Greg

    2017-02-01

    Climate warming and increasing variability challenges the electricity supply in warm seasons. A good quantitative representation of the relationship between warm-season electricity consumption and weather condition provides necessary information for long-term electricity planning and short-term electricity management. In this study, an extended version of cooling degree days (ECDD) is proposed for better characterisation of this relationship. The ECDD includes temperature, residual temperature and specific humidity effects. The residual temperature is introduced for the first time to reflect the building thermal inertia effect on electricity consumption. The study is based on the electricity consumption data of four multiple-street city blocks and three office buildings. It is found that the residual temperature effect is about 20% of the current-day temperature effect at the block scale, and increases with a large variation at the building scale. Investigation of this residual temperature effect provides insight to the influence of building designs and structures on electricity consumption. The specific humidity effect appears to be more important at the building scale than at the block scale. A building with high energy performance does not necessarily have low specific humidity dependence. The new ECDD better reflects the weather dependence of electricity consumption than the conventional CDD method.

  16. Dependence of the specific surface area of the nuclear fuel with the matrix oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez, F.; Quinones, J.; Iglesias, E.; Rodriguez, N.

    2008-01-01

    This paper is focused on the study of the changes in the specific surface area measured using BET techniques. The objective is to obtain a relation between this parameter and the change in the matrix stoichiometry (i.e., oxidation increase). None of the actual models used for extrapolating the behaviour of the spent fuel matrix under repository conditions have included this dependence yet. In this work the specific surface area of different uranium oxide were measured using N 2 (g) and Kr(g). The starting material was UO 2+x (s) with a size powder distribution lower than 20 μm. The results included in this paper shown a strong dependence on specific surface area with the matrix stoichiometry, i.e., and increase of more than one order of magnitude (SUO 2 = 6 m 2 *g -1 and SU 3 O 8 = 16.07 m 2 *g -1 ). Furthermore, the particle size distribution measured as a function of the thermal treatment done shows changes on the powder size related to the changes observed in the uranium oxide stoichiometry. (authors)

  17. Field-orientation dependence of the specific heat of PrOs4Sb12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Custers, Jeroen; Namai, Yukie; Tayama, Takashi; Sakakibara, Toshiro; Sugawara, Hitoshi; Aoki, Yuji; Sato, Hideyuki

    2006-01-01

    The superconducting (SC) gap of the Pr-based skutterudite PrOs 4 Sb 12 has been investigated by means of field-angle-dependent specific heat C(H,φ) experiments. At fixed temperatures, H was varied and rotated in the basal planes. A 4-fold oscillation of C(H,φ) is observed in the entire H-T SC phase diagram. The minima are located along the [100] directions suggesting the excistence of gap nodes or minima along these directions. The oscillation amplitude vertical bar A vertical bar becomes maximum at H/H c2 ∼0.3. Below, vertical bar A vertical bar->0. The temperature variation of vertical bar A vertical bar follows a quadratic dependence

  18. Processing Incomplete Query Specifications in a Context-Dependent Reasoning Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neli P. Zlatareva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Search is the most prominent web service, which is about to change dramatically with the transition to the Semantic Web. Semantic Web applications are expected to deal with complex conjunctive queries, and not always such queries can be completely and precisely defined. Current Semantic Web reasoners built upon Description Logics have limited processing power in such environments. We discuss some of their limitations, and show how an alternative logical framework utilizing context-dependent rules can be extended to handle incomplete or imprecise query specifications.

  19. Size-Dependent Specific Surface Area of Nanoporous Film Assembled by Core-Shell Iron Nanoclusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiji Antony

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoporous films of core-shell iron nanoclusters have improved possibilities for remediation, chemical reactivity rate, and environmentally favorable reaction pathways. Conventional methods often have difficulties to yield stable monodispersed core-shell nanoparticles. We produced core-shell nanoclusters by a cluster source that utilizes combination of Fe target sputtering along with gas aggregations in an inert atmosphere at 7∘C. Sizes of core-shell iron-iron oxide nanoclusters are observed with transmission electron microscopy (TEM. The specific surface areas of the porous films obtained from Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET process are size-dependent and compared with the calculated data.

  20. Comparison of Lower Body Specific Resistance Training on the Hamstring to Quadriceps Strength Ratios in Men and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgo, Sandor; Edupuganti, Pradeep; Smith, Darla R.; Ortiz, Melchor

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we compared hamstring (H) and quadriceps (Q) strength changes in men and women, as well as changes in conventional and functional H:Q ratios following an identical 12-week resistance training program. An isokinetic dynamometer was used to assess 14 male and 14 female participants before and after the intervention, and conventional…

  1. Specific Changes in Young Soccer Player's Fitness After Traditional Bilateral vs. Unilateral Combined Strength and Plyometric Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Sanchez-Sanchez, Javier; Gonzalo-Skok, Oliver; Rodríguez-Fernandez, Alejandro; Carretero, Manuel; Nakamura, Fabio Y

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare changes in young soccer player's fitness after traditional bilateral vs. unilateral combined plyometric and strength training. Male athletes were randomly divided in two groups; both received the same training, including strength training for knee extensors and flexors, in addition to horizontal plyometric training drills. The only difference between groups was the mode of drills technique: unilateral (UG; n = 9; age, 17.3 ± 1.1 years) vs. bilateral (TG; n = 9; age, 17.6 ± 0.5 years). One repetition maximum bilateral strength of knee muscle extensors (1RM_KE) and flexors (1RM_KF), change of direction ability (COD), horizontal and vertical jump ability with one (unilateral) and two (bilateral) legs, and limb symmetry index were measured before and after an 8-week in-season intervention period. Some regular soccer drills were replaced by combination of plyometric and strength training drills. Magnitude-based inference statistics were used for between-group and within-group comparisons. Beneficial effects ( p plyometric training should be complemented with unilateral drills, in order to maximize adaptations.

  2. Influence of nanoparticles on color stability, microhardness, and flexural strength of acrylic resins specific for ocular prosthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreotti, Agda Marobo; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Moreno, Amália; Nobrega, Adhara Smith; Pesqueira, Aldiéris Alves; dos Santos, Daniela Micheline

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adding nanoparticles to N1 acrylic resin intended for artificial sclera, in terms of the color stability, microhardness, and flexural strength of the resin. Three hundred samples of N1 acrylic resin were used: 100 samples for color stability and microhardness tests (each test was performed on the opposite side of each sample), and 200 samples for flexural strength testing (100 samples before and after 1,008 hours of accelerated aging). Samples for each test were separated into ten groups (n=10), ie, without nanoparticles (control group) or with nanoparticles of zinc oxide, titanium dioxide (TiO₂), and barium sulfate at weight concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 2.5% (nanoparticle groups). Data were subjected to statistical analysis with nested analysis of variance and Tukey's test (P<0.05 significance level). Among the nanoparticle groups, the TiO₂ groups showed better color stability at all concentrations. Microhardness values increased after artificial aging, except for the control and zinc oxide groups. After aging, the 1%-2% TiO₂ groups had significantly higher microhardness values compared with the other nanoparticle groups. Before aging, there was a significant difference in flexural strength between the control and nanoparticle groups. After aging, the control and TiO₂ groups, regardless of concentration, showed the lowest flexural strength values. Incorporation of nanoparticles directly influenced the acrylic resin properties, with TiO₂ being the most influential nanoparticle in terms of the evaluated properties.

  3. Accuracy of specimen-specific nonlinear finite element analysis for evaluation of distal radius strength in cadaver material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yusuke; Kuniyoshi, Kazuki; Suzuki, Takane; Ogawa, Yasufumi; Sukegawa, Koji; Rokkaku, Tomoyuki; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-11-01

    Distal radius fracture, which often occurs in the setting of osteoporosis, can lead to permanent deformity and disability. Great effort has been directed toward developing noninvasive methods for evaluating the distal radius strength, with the goal of assessing fracture risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate distal radius strength using a finite element model and to gauge the accuracy of finite element model measurement using cadaver material. Ten wrists were obtained from cadavers with a mean age of 89.5 years at death. CT images of each wrist in an extended position were obtained. CT-based finite element models were prepared with Mechanical Finder software. Fracture on the models was simulated by applying a mechanical load to the palm in a direction parallel to the forearm axis, after which the fracture load and the site at which the fracture began were identified. For comparison, the wrists were fractured using a universal testing machine and the fracture load and the site of fracture were identified. The fracture load was 970.9 N in the finite element model group and 990.0 N in the actual measurement group. The site of the initial fracture was extra-articular to the distal radius in both groups. The finite element model was predictive for distal radius fracture when compared to the actual measurement. In this study, a finite element model for evaluation of distal radius strength was validated and can be used to predict fracture risk. We conclude that a finite element model is useful for the evaluation of distal radius strength. Knowing distal radius strength might avoid distal radius fracture because appropriate antiosteoporotic treatment can be initiated.

  4. Influence of nanoparticles on color stability, microhardness, and flexural strength of acrylic resins specific for ocular prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreotti AM

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agda Marobo Andreotti, Marcelo Coelho Goiato, Amália Moreno, Adhara Smith Nobrega, Aldiéris Alves Pesqueira, Daniela Micheline dos Santos Araçatuba Dental School, São Paulo State University, Araçatuba, São Paulo, Brazil Abstract: The aim of this study was to assess the effect of adding nanoparticles to N1 acrylic resin intended for artificial sclera, in terms of the color stability, microhardness, and flexural strength of the resin. Three hundred samples of N1 acrylic resin were used: 100 samples for color stability and microhardness tests (each test was performed on the opposite side of each sample, and 200 samples for flexural strength testing (100 samples before and after 1,008 hours of accelerated aging. Samples for each test were separated into ten groups (n=10, ie, without nanoparticles (control group or with nanoparticles of zinc oxide, titanium dioxide (TiO2, and barium sulfate at weight concentrations of 1%, 2%, and 2.5% (nanoparticle groups. Data were subjected to statistical analysis with nested analysis of variance and Tukey’s test (P<0.05 significance level. Among the nanoparticle groups, the TiO2 groups showed better color stability at all concentrations. Microhardness values increased after artificial aging, except for the control and zinc oxide groups. After aging, the 1%–2% TiO2 groups had significantly higher microhardness values compared with the other nanoparticle groups. Before aging, there was a significant difference in flexural strength between the control and nanoparticle groups. After aging, the control and TiO2 groups, regardless of concentration, showed the lowest flexural strength values. Incorporation of nanoparticles directly influenced the acrylic resin properties, with TiO2 being the most influential nanoparticle in terms of the evaluated properties. Keywords: acrylic resins, eye, artificial, color, hardness, nanoparticles

  5. The one repetition maximum test and the sit-to-stand test in the assessment of a specific pulmonary rehabilitation program on peripheral muscle strength in COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanini, Andrea; Aiello, Marina; Cherubino, Francesca; Zampogna, Elisabetta; Azzola, Andrea; Chetta, Alfredo; Spanevello, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Individuals with COPD may present reduced peripheral muscle strength, leading to impaired mobility. Comprehensive pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) should include strength training, in particular to lower limbs. Furthermore, simple tools for the assessment of peripheral muscle performance are required. To assess the peripheral muscle performance of COPD patients by the sit-to-stand test (STST), as compared to the one-repetition maximum (1-RM), considered as the gold standard for assessing muscle strength in non-laboratory situations, and to evaluate the responsiveness of STST to a PR program. Sixty moderate-to-severe COPD inpatients were randomly included into either the specific strength training group or into the usual PR program group. Patients were assessed on a 30-second STST and 1-minute STST, 1-RM, and 6-minute walking test (6MWT), before and after PR. Bland-Altman plots were used to evaluate the agreement between 1-RM and STST. The two groups were not different at baseline. In all patients, 1-RM was significantly related to the 30-second STST (r=0.48, Ptest. In the specific strength training group significant improvements were observed in the 30-second STST (P<0.001), 1-minute STST (P=0.005), 1-RM (P<0.001), and in the 6MWT (P=0.001). In the usual PR program group, significant improvement was observed in the 30-second STST (P=0.042) and in the 6MWT (P=0.001). Our study shows that in stable moderate-to-severe inpatients with COPD, STST is a valid and reliable tool to assess peripheral muscle performance of lower limbs, and is sensitive to a specific PR program.

  6. Manipulating the Lewis antigen specificity of the cholesterol-dependent cytolysin lectinolysin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eLawrence

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The cholesterol-dependent cytolysins (CDCs attack cells by punching large holes in their membranes. Lectinolysin from Streptococcus mitis is unique among CDCs due to the presence of an N-terminal lectin domain that enhances the pore-forming activity of the toxin. We recently determined the crystal structures of the lectin domain in complex with various glycans. These structures revealed the molecular basis for the Lewis antigen specificity of the toxin. Based on this information we have used in silico molecular modelling to design a mutant toxin, which we predicted would increase its specificity for Lewis y, an antigen found on the surface of cancer cells. Surprisingly, we found by surface plasmon resonance binding experiments that the resultant mutant lectin domain exhibited higher specificity for Lewis b antigens instead. We then undertook comparative crystallographic and molecular dynamics simulation studies of the wild-type and mutant lectin domains to understand the molecular basis for the disparity between the theoretical and experimental results. The crystallographic results revealed that the net number of interactions between Lewis y and wild-type versus mutant was unchanged whereas there was a loss of a hydrogen bond between mutant and Lewis b compared to wild-type. In contrast, the molecular dynamics studies revealed that the Lewis b antigen spent more time in the binding pocket of the mutant compared to wild-type and the reverse was true for Lewis y. The results of these simulation studies are consistent with the conclusions drawn from the surface plasmon resonance studies. This work is part of a program to engineer lectinolysin so that it will target and kill specific cells in human diseases.

  7. Nitric oxide regulates input specificity of long-term depression and context dependence of cerebellar learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideaki Ogasawara

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that multiple internal models are acquired in the cerebellum and that these can be switched under a given context of behavior. It has been proposed that long-term depression (LTD of parallel fiber (PF-Purkinje cell (PC synapses forms the cellular basis of cerebellar learning, and that the presynaptically synthesized messenger nitric oxide (NO is a crucial "gatekeeper" for LTD. Because NO diffuses freely to neighboring synapses, this volume learning is not input-specific and brings into question the biological significance of LTD as the basic mechanism for efficient supervised learning. To better characterize the role of NO in cerebellar learning, we simulated the sequence of electrophysiological and biochemical events in PF-PC LTD by combining established simulation models of the electrophysiology, calcium dynamics, and signaling pathways of the PC. The results demonstrate that the local NO concentration is critical for induction of LTD and for its input specificity. Pre- and postsynaptic coincident firing is not sufficient for a PF-PC synapse to undergo LTD, and LTD is induced only when a sufficient amount of NO is provided by activation of the surrounding PFs. On the other hand, above-adequate levels of activity in nearby PFs cause accumulation of NO, which also allows LTD in neighboring synapses that were not directly stimulated, ruining input specificity. These findings lead us to propose the hypothesis that NO represents the relevance of a given context and enables context-dependent selection of internal models to be updated. We also predict sparse PF activity in vivo because, otherwise, input specificity would be lost.

  8. Identification of Cyclin-dependent Kinase 1 Specific Phosphorylation Sites by an In Vitro Kinase Assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Heying; Loftus, Kyle M; Noell, Crystal R; Solmaz, Sozanne R

    2018-05-03

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (Cdk1) is a master controller for the cell cycle in all eukaryotes and phosphorylates an estimated 8 - 13% of the proteome; however, the number of identified targets for Cdk1, particularly in human cells is still low. The identification of Cdk1-specific phosphorylation sites is important, as they provide mechanistic insights into how Cdk1 controls the cell cycle. Cell cycle regulation is critical for faithful chromosome segregation, and defects in this complicated process lead to chromosomal aberrations and cancer. Here, we describe an in vitro kinase assay that is used to identify Cdk1-specific phosphorylation sites. In this assay, a purified protein is phosphorylated in vitro by commercially available human Cdk1/cyclin B. Successful phosphorylation is confirmed by SDS-PAGE, and phosphorylation sites are subsequently identified by mass spectrometry. We also describe purification protocols that yield highly pure and homogeneous protein preparations suitable for the kinase assay, and a binding assay for the functional verification of the identified phosphorylation sites, which probes the interaction between a classical nuclear localization signal (cNLS) and its nuclear transport receptor karyopherin α. To aid with experimental design, we review approaches for the prediction of Cdk1-specific phosphorylation sites from protein sequences. Together these protocols present a very powerful approach that yields Cdk1-specific phosphorylation sites and enables mechanistic studies into how Cdk1 controls the cell cycle. Since this method relies on purified proteins, it can be applied to any model organism and yields reliable results, especially when combined with cell functional studies.

  9. Impurity strength and impurity domain modulated frequency-dependent linear and second non-linear response properties of doped quantum dots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Nirmal Kumar [Department of Physics, Suri Vidyasagar College, Suri, Birbhum 731 101, West Bengal (India); Ghosh, Manas [Department of Chemistry, Physical Chemistry Section, Visva Bharati University, Santiniketan, Birbhum 731 235, West Bengal (India)

    2011-08-15

    We explore the pattern of frequency-dependent linear and second non-linear optical responses of repulsive impurity doped quantum dots harmonically confined in two dimensions. The dopant impurity potential chosen assumes a Gaussian form and it is doped into an on-center location. The quantum dot is subject to a periodically oscillating external electric field. For some fixed values of transverse magnetic field strength ({omega}{sub c}) and harmonic confinement potential ({omega}{sub 0}), the influence of impurity strength (V{sub 0}) and impurity domain ({xi}) on the diagonal components of the frequency-dependent linear ({alpha}{sub xx} and {alpha}{sub yy}) and second non-linear ({gamma}{sub xxxx} and {gamma}{sub yyyy}) responses of the dot are computed through a linear variational route. The investigations reveal that the optical responses undergo enhancement with increase in both V{sub 0} and {xi} values. However, in the limitingly small dopant strength regime one observes a drop in the optical responses with increase in V{sub 0}. A time-average rate of energy transfer to the system is often invoked to support the findings. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  10. Cerebellum-specific and age-dependent expression of an endogenous retrovirus with intact coding potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itoh Takayuki

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs, including murine leukemia virus (MuLV type-ERVs (MuLV-ERVs, are presumed to occupy ~10% of the mouse genome. In this study, following the identification of a full-length MuLV-ERV by in silico survey of the C57BL/6J mouse genome, its distribution in different mouse strains and expression characteristics were investigated. Results Application of a set of ERV mining protocols identified a MuLV-ERV locus with full coding potential on chromosome 8 (named ERVmch8. It appears that ERVmch8 shares the same genomic locus with a replication-incompetent MuLV-ERV, called Emv2; however, it was not confirmed due to a lack of relevant annotation and Emv2 sequence information. The ERVmch8 sequence was more prevalent in laboratory strains compared to wild-derived strains. Among 16 different tissues of ~12 week-old female C57BL/6J mice, brain homogenate was the only tissue with evident expression of ERVmch8. Further ERVmch8 expression analysis in six different brain compartments and four peripheral neuronal tissues of C57BL/6J mice revealed no significant expression except for the cerebellum in which the ERVmch8 locus' low methylation status was unique compared to the other brain compartments. The ERVmch8 locus was found to be surrounded by genes associated with neuronal development and/or inflammation. Interestingly, cerebellum-specific ERVmch8 expression was age-dependent with almost no expression at 2 weeks and a plateau at 6 weeks. Conclusions The ecotropic ERVmch8 locus on the C57BL/6J mouse genome was relatively undermethylated in the cerebellum, and its expression was cerebellum-specific and age-dependent.

  11. Comparison of hand grip strength and upper limb pressure pain threshold between older adults with or without non-specific shoulder pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesar Calvo Lobo

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background There is a high prevalence of non-specific shoulder pain associated with upper limb functional limitations in older adults. The purpose of this study was to determine the minimal clinically important differences (MCID of grip strength and pressure pain threshold (PPT in the upper limb between older adults with or without non-specific shoulder pain. Methods A case-control study was carried out following the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE criteria. A sample of 132 shoulders (mean ± SD years with (n = 66; 76.04 ± 7.58 and without (n = 66; 75.05 ± 6.26 non-specific pain were recruited. The grip strength and PPT of the anterior deltoid and extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB muscles were assessed. Results There were statistically significant differences (mean ± SD; P-value for anterior deltoid PPT (2.51 ± 0.69 vs 3.68 ± 0.65, kg/cm2; P < .001, ECRB PPT (2.20 ± 0.60 vs 3.35 ± 0.38 kg/cm2; P < .001 and grip strength (20.78 ± 10.94 vs 24.63 ± 9.38 kg; P = .032 between shoulders with and without non-specific pain, respectively. Discussion The MCID of 1.17 kg/cm2, 1.15 kg/cm2 and 3.84 kg were proposed for anterior deltoid PPT, ECRB PPT and grip strength, respectively, to assess the upper limb of older adults with non-specific shoulder pain after treatment. In addition, univariate and multivariate (linear regression and regression trees analyses may be used to consider age distribution, sex, pain intensity, grip strength and PPT in older adults including clinical and epidemiological studies with non-specific shoulder pain.

  12. Dependence of adhesion strength between GaN LEDs and sapphire substrate on power density of UV laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Junsu [Department of Nano-Manufacturing Technology, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34103 (Korea, Republic of); Sin, Young-Gwan [Department of Nano-Mechatronics, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), 217 Gajeong-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34113 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae-Hyun [Department of Nano-Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34103 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jaegu, E-mail: gugu99@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano-Manufacturing Technology, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 156 Gajeongbuk-Ro, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 34103 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-30

    Highlights: • Fundamental relationship between laser irradiation and adhesion strength, between gallium-nitride light emitted diode and sapphire substrate, is proposed during selective laser lift-off. • Two competing mechanisms affect adhesion at the irradiated interface between the GaN LED and sapphire substrate. • Ga precipitation caused by thermal decomposition and roughened interface caused by thermal damage lead to the considerable difference of adhesion strength at the interface. - Abstract: Selective laser lift-off (SLLO) is an innovative technology used to manufacture and repair micro-light-emitting diode (LED) displays. In SLLO, laser is irradiated to selectively separate micro-LED devices from a transparent sapphire substrate. The light source used is an ultraviolet (UV) laser with a wavelength of 266 nm, pulse duration of 20 ns, and repetition rate of 30 kHz. Controlled adhesion between a LED and the substrate is key for a SLLO process with high yield and reliability. This study examined the fundamental relationship between adhesion and laser irradiation. Two competing mechanisms affect adhesion at the irradiated interface between the GaN LED and sapphire substrate: Ga precipitation caused by the thermal decomposition of GaN and roughened interface caused by thermal damage on the sapphire. The competition between these two mechanisms leads to a non-trivial SLLO condition that needs optimization. This study helps understand the SLLO process, and accelerate the development of a process for manufacturing micro-LED displays via SLLO for future applications.

  13. Short-term memory for event duration: modality specificity and goal dependency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2012-11-01

    Time perception is involved in various cognitive functions. This study investigated the characteristics of short-term memory for event duration by examining how the length of the retention period affects inter- and intramodal duration judgment. On each trial, a sample stimulus was followed by a comparison stimulus, after a variable delay period (0.5-5 s). The sample and comparison stimuli were presented in the visual or auditory modality. The participants determined whether the comparison stimulus was longer or shorter than the sample stimulus. The distortion pattern of subjective duration during the delay period depended on the sensory modality of the comparison stimulus but was not affected by that of the sample stimulus. When the comparison stimulus was visually presented, the retained duration of the sample stimulus was shortened as the delay period increased. Contrarily, when the comparison stimulus was presented in the auditory modality, the delay period had little to no effect on the retained duration. Furthermore, whenever the participants did not know the sensory modality of the comparison stimulus beforehand, the effect of the delay period disappeared. These results suggest that the memory process for event duration is specific to sensory modality and that its performance is determined depending on the sensory modality in which the retained duration will be used subsequently.

  14. Rifampicin-dependent antibodies bind a similar or identical epitope to glycoprotein IX-specific quinine-dependent antibodies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burgess, Janette K.; Lopez, Jose A.; Gaudry, Leonie E.; Chong, Beng H.

    2000-01-01

    The drug-dependent antibody of a patient with rifampicin-induced thrombocytopenia was characterized using the antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (MAIPA assay), flow cytometry, and immunoprecipitation. The antibody was found to bind glycoprotein (GP) Ib-IX but not GPIIb-IIIa because

  15. A specific pharmacophore model of sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chunlei; Zhu, Xiaoyun; Huang, Dandan; Zan, Xin; Yang, Baowei; Li, Ying; Du, Xiaoyong; Qian, Hai; Huang, Wenlong

    2012-06-01

    Sodium-dependent glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) plays a pivotal role in maintaining glucose equilibrium in the human body, emerging as one of the most promising targets for the treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2. Pharmacophore models of SGLT2 inhibitors have been generated with a training set of 25 SGLT2 inhibitors using Discovery Studio V2.1. The best hypothesis (Hypo1(SGLT2)) contains one hydrogen bond donor, five excluded volumes, one ring aromatic and three hydrophobic features, and has a correlation coefficient of 0.955, cost difference of 68.76, RMSD of 0.85. This model was validated by test set, Fischer randomization test and decoy set methods. The specificity of Hypo1(SGLT2) was evaluated. The pharmacophore features of Hypo1(SGLT2) were different from the best pharmacophore model (Hypo1(SGLT1)) of SGLT1 inhibitors we developed. Moreover, Hypo1(SGLT2) could effectively distinguish selective inhibitors of SGLT2 from those of SGLT1. These results indicate that a highly predictive and specific pharmacophore model of SGLT2 inhibitors has been successfully obtained. Then Hypo1(SGLT2) was used as a 3D query to screen databases including NCI and Maybridge for identifying new inhibitors of SGLT2. The hit compounds were subsequently subjected to filtering by Lipinski's rule of five. And several compounds selected from the top ranked hits have been suggested for further experimental assay studies.

  16. Impaired fear memory specificity associated with deficient endocannabinoid-dependent long-term plasticity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelace, Jonathan W; Vieira, Philip A; Corches, Alex; Mackie, Ken; Korzus, Edward

    2014-06-01

    In addition to its central role in learning and memory, N-methyl D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR)-dependent signaling regulates central glutamatergic synapse maturation and has been implicated in schizophrenia. We have transiently induced NMDAR hypofunction in infant mice during postnatal days 7-11, followed by testing fear memory specificity and presynaptic plasticity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in adult mice. We show that transient NMDAR hypofunction during early brain development, coinciding with the maturation of cortical plasticity results in a loss of an endocannabinoid (eCB)-mediated form of long-term depression (eCB-LTD) at adult central glutamatergic synapses, while another form of presynaptic long-term depression mediated by the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2/3 (mGluR2/3-LTD) remains intact. Mice with this selective impairment of presynaptic plasticity also showed deficits in fear memory specificity. The observed deficit in cortical presynaptic plasticity may represent a neural maladaptation contributing to network instability and abnormal cognitive functioning.

  17. Gut Immune Maturation Depends on Colonization with a Host-Specific Microbiota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hachung; Pamp, Sünje J.; Hill, Jonathan A.; Surana, Neeraj K.; Edelman, Sanna M.; Troy, Erin B.; Reading, Nicola C.; Villablanca, Eduardo J.; Wang, Sen; Mora, Jorge R.; Umesaki, Yoshinori; Mathis, Diane; Benoist, Christophe; Relman, David A.; Kasper, Dennis L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Gut microbial induction of host immune maturation exemplifies host-microbe mutualism. We colonized germ-free (GF) mice with mouse microbiota (MMb) or human microbiota (HMb) to determine whether small intestinal immune maturation depends on a coevolved host-specific microbiota. Gut bacterial numbers and phylum abundance were similar in MMb and HMb mice, but bacterial species differed, especially the Firmicutes. HMb mouse intestines had low levels of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, few proliferating T cells, few dendritic cells, and low antimicrobial peptide expression–all characteristics of GF mice. Rat microbiota also failed to fully expand intestinal T cell numbers in mice. Colonizing GF or HMb mice with mouse-segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) partially restored T cell numbers, suggesting that SFB and other MMb organisms are required for full immune maturation in mice. Importantly, MMb conferred better protection against Salmonella infection than HMb. A host-specific microbiota appears to be critical for a healthy immune system. PMID:22726443

  18. Context-dependent activation of reduced autobiographical memory specificity as an avoidant coping style.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Hermans, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    According to the affect-regulation hypothesis (Williams et al., 2007), reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) or overgeneral memory (OGM) might be considered a cognitive avoidance strategy; that is, people learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. Based on this hypothesis, one would predict significant negative associations between AMS and avoidant coping. However, studies investigating this prediction have led to equivocal results. In the present study we tested a possible explanation for these contradictory findings. It was hypothesized that rAMS (in part) reflects an avoidant coping strategy, which might only become apparent under certain conditions, that is, conditions that signal the possibility of 'danger.' To test this hypothesis, we assessed AMS and behavioral avoidance but experimentally manipulated the instructions. In the neutral condition, two parallel versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) were presented under neutral instructions. In the threat condition, the first AMT was presented under neutral instructions, while the second AMT was presented under 'threat instructions.' Results showed no significant correlations between avoidance and OGM under neutral conditions but significant and markedly stronger correlations under threat conditions, with more avoidance being associated with fewer specific and more categoric memories. In addition, high avoiders showed a stronger reduction in AMS in the threat condition as compared with the neutral condition, while low avoiders showed no such difference between conditions. The data confirm that OGM can be considered as part of a broader avoidant coping style. However, more importantly, they show that, at least in nonclinical individuals, the activation of this coping style may depend on the context. (c) 2011 APA, all rights reserved.

  19. Traditional vs. Sport-Specific Vertical Jump Tests: Reliability, Validity, and Relationship With the Legs Strength and Sprint Performance in Adult and Teen Soccer and Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rosell, David; Mora-Custodio, Ricardo; Franco-Márquez, Felipe; Yáñez-García, Juan M; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2017-01-01

    Rodríguez-Rosell, D, Mora-Custodio, R, Franco-Márquez, F, Yáñez-García, JM, González-Badillo, JJ. Traditional vs. sport-specific vertical jump tests: reliability, validity, and relationship with the legs strength and sprint performance in adult and teen soccer and basketball players. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 196-206, 2017-The vertical jump is considered an essential motor skill in many team sports. Many protocols have been used to assess vertical jump ability. However, controversy regarding test selection still exists based on the reliability and specificity of the tests. The main aim of this study was to analyze the reliability and validity of 2 standardized (countermovement jump [CMJ] and Abalakov jump [AJ]) and 2 sport-specific (run-up with 2 [2-LEGS] or 1 leg [1-LEG] take-off jump) vertical jump tests, and their usefulness as predictors of sprint and strength performance for soccer (n = 127) and basketball (n = 59) players in 3 different categories (Under-15, Under-18, and Adults). Three attempts for each of the 4 jump tests were recorded. Twenty-meter sprint time and estimated 1 repetition maximum in full squat were also evaluated. All jump tests showed high intraclass correlation coefficients (0.969-0.995) and low coefficients of variation (1.54-4.82%), although 1-LEG was the jump test with the lowest absolute and relative reliability. All selected jump tests were significantly correlated (r = 0.580-0.983). Factor analysis resulted in the extraction of one principal component, which explained 82.90-95.79% of the variance of all jump tests. The 1-LEG test showed the lowest associations with sprint and strength performance. The results of this study suggest that CMJ and AJ are the most reliable tests for the estimation of explosive force in soccer and basketball players in different age categories.

  20. Detailing magnetic field strength dependence and segmental artifact distribution of myocardial effective transverse relaxation rate at 1.5, 3.0, and 7.0 T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Antonella; Hezel, Fabian; Positano, Vincenzo; Keilberg, Petra; Pepe, Alessia; Lombardi, Massimo; Niendorf, Thoralf

    2014-06-01

    Realizing the challenges and opportunities of effective transverse relaxation rate (R2 *) mapping at high and ultrahigh fields, this work examines magnetic field strength (B0 ) dependence and segmental artifact distribution of myocardial R2 * at 1.5, 3.0, and 7.0 T. Healthy subjects were considered. Three short-axis views of the left ventricle were examined. R2 * was calculated for 16 standard myocardial segments. Global and mid-septum R2 * were determined. For each segment, an artifactual factor was estimated as the deviation of segmental from global R2 * value. The global artifactual factor was significantly enlarged at 7.0 T versus 1.5 T (P = 0.010) but not versus 3.0 T. At 7.0 T, the most severe susceptibility artifacts were detected in the inferior lateral wall. The mid-septum showed minor artifactual factors at 7.0 T, similar to those at 1.5 and 3.0 T. Mean R2 * increased linearly with the field strength, with larger changes for global heart R2 * values. At 7.0 T, segmental heart R2 * analysis is challenging due to macroscopic susceptibility artifacts induced by the heart-lung interface and the posterior vein. Myocardial R2 * depends linearly on the magnetic field strength. The increased R2 * sensitivity at 7.0 T might offer means for susceptibility-weighted and oxygenation level-dependent MR imaging of the myocardium. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Building Strength or Lending an Ear in Legal Conflicts: Dependence and Conflict Asymmetry as Distinct Predictors of Needs for Support

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Maria Anna Jozefa; Giebels, Ellen; Zebel, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Being aware of psychological aspects of legal conflicts can benefit the efficiency of legal aid. We propose that needs for support may be particularly dependent upon the experience of asymmetry between conflict parties. We distinguish between two types of asymmetry and examine how they relate to

  2. Temperature and orientation dependence of the short-term strength characteristics, Young's modulus, and linear expansion coefficient of ZhS6F alloy single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svetlov, I L; Sukhanov, N N; Krivko, A I; Roshchina, I N; Khatsinskaia, I M

    1987-01-01

    Experimental data are presented on the temperature dependence of the short- term strength characteristics, Young's modulus, and linear expansion coefficients of single crystals of a nickel alloy, ZhS6F, with crystallographic orientations along the 001, 111, 011, and 112 lines. It is found that the mechanical properties and Young's modulus of the alloy crystals exibit anisotropy in the temperature range 20-900 C. The linear thermal expansion coefficient is isotropic up to 900 C and equal to that of the equiaxed alloy. 10 references.

  3. Temperature dependent and applied field strength dependent magnetic study of cobalt nickel ferrite nano particles: Synthesized by an environmentally benign method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sontu, Uday Bhasker; G, Narsinga Rao; Chou, F. C.; M, V. Ramana Reddy

    2018-04-01

    Spinel ferrites have come a long way in their versatile applications. The ever growing applications of these materials demand detailed study of material properties and environmental considerations in their synthesis. In this article, we report the effect of temperature and applied magnetic field strength on the magnetic behavior of the cobalt nickel ferrite nano powder samples. Basic structural properties of spinel ferrite nano particles, that are synthesized by an environmentally benign method of auto combustion, are characterized through XRD, TEM, RAMAN spectroscopy. Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy (DRS) is done to understand the nickel substitution effect on the optical properties of cobalt ferrite nano particles. Thermo magnetic studies using SQUID in the temperature range 5 K to 400 K and room temperature (300 K) VSM studies are performed on these samples. Fields of 0Oe (no applied field: ZF), 1 kOe (for ZFC and FC curves), 5 kOe (0.5 T), 50 kOe (5T) (for M-H loop study) are used to study the magnetic behavior of these nano particles. The XRD,TEM analysis suggest 40 nm crystallites that show changes in the cation distribution and phase changes in the spinel structure with nickel substitution. Raman micrographs support phase purity changes and cation redistributions with nickel substitution. Diffuse reflectance study on powder samples suggests two band gap values for nickel rich compounds. The Magnetic study of these sample nano particles show varied magnetic properties from that of hard magnetic, positive multi axial anisotropy and single-magnetic-domain structures at 5 K temperature to soft magnetic core shell like structures at 300 K temperature. Nickel substitution effect is non monotonous. Blocking temperature of all the samples is found to be higher than the values suggested in the literature.

  4. Grain size-dependent strength of phyllosilicate-rich gouges in the shallow crust: Insights from the SAFOD site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Noah John; White, Joseph Clancy

    2017-07-01

    The San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth (SAFOD) drilling project directly sampled a transitional (between creeping and locked) segment of the San Andreas Fault at 2.7 km depth. At the site, changes in strain rate occur between periods of coseismic slip (>10-7 s-1) and interseismic creep (10-10 s-1) over decadal scales ( 30 years). Microstructural observations of core retrieved from the SAFOD site show throughgoing fractures and gouge-rich cores within the fractures, evidence of predominantly brittle deformation mechanisms. Within the gouge-rich cores, strong phases show evidence of deformation by pressure solution once the grain size is reduced to a critical effective grain size. Models of pressure solution-accommodated creep for quartz-phyllosilicate mixtures indicate that viscous weakening of quartz occurs during the interseismic period once a critical effective grain size of 1 μm is achieved, consistent with microstructural observations. This causes pronounced weakening, as the strength of the mixture is then controlled by the frictional properties of the phyllosilicate phases. These results have pronounced implications for the internal deformation of fault zones in the shallow crust, where at low strain rates, deformation is accommodated by both viscous and brittle deformation mechanisms. As strain rates increase, the critical effective grain size for weakening decreases, localizing deformation into the finest-grained gouges until deformation can no longer be accommodated by viscous processes and purely brittle failure occurs.

  5. Cell Type-Specific Manipulation with GFP-Dependent Cre Recombinase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jonathan C Y; Rudolph, Stephanie; Dhande, Onkar S; Abraira, Victoria E; Choi, Seungwon; Lapan, Sylvain; Drew, Iain R; Drokhlyansky, Eugene; Huberman, Andrew D; Regehr, Wade G; Cepko, Constance L

    2016-01-01

    Summary There are many transgenic GFP reporter lines that allow visualization of specific populations of cells. Using such lines for functional studies requires a method that transforms GFP into a molecule that enables genetic manipulation. Here we report the creation of a method that exploits GFP for gene manipulation, Cre Recombinase Dependent on GFP (CRE-DOG), a split component system that uses GFP and its derivatives to directly induce Cre/loxP recombination. Using plasmid electroporation and AAV viral vectors, we delivered CRE-DOG to multiple GFP mouse lines, leading to effective recombination selectively in GFP-labeled cells. Further, CRE-DOG enabled optogenetic control of these neurons. Beyond providing a new set of tools for manipulation of gene expression selectively in GFP+ cells, we demonstrate that GFP can be used to reconstitute the activity of a protein not known to have a modular structure, suggesting that this strategy might be applicable to a wide range of proteins. PMID:26258682

  6. Parent-of-origin dependent gene-specific knock down in mouse embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Khursheed; Kues, Wilfried A.; Niemann, Heiner

    2007-01-01

    In mice hemizygous for the Oct4-GFP transgene, the F1 embryos show parent-of-origin dependent expression of the marker gene. F1 embryos with a maternally derived OG2 allele (OG2 mat /-) express GFP in the oocyte and during preimplantation development until the blastocyst stage indicating a maternal and embryonic expression pattern. F1-embryos with a paternally inherited OG2 allele (OG2 pat /-) express GFP from the 4- to 8-cell stage onwards showing only embryonic expression. This allows to study allele specific knock down of GFP expression. RNA interference (RNAi) was highly efficient in embryos with the paternally inherited GFP allele, whereas embryos with the maternally inherited GFP allele showed a delayed and less stringent suppression, indicating that the initial levels of the target transcript and the half life of the protein affect RNAi efficacy. RT-PCR analysis revealed only minimum of GFP mRNA. These results have implications for studies of gene silencing in mammalian embryos

  7. Angiomodulin is a specific marker of vasculature and regulates VEGF-A dependent neo-angiogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Andrea T.; Shmelkov, Sergey V.; Gupta, Sunny; Milde, Till; Bambino, Kathryn; Gillen, Kelly; Goetz, Mollie; Chavala, Sai; Baljevic, Muhamed; Murphy, Andrew J.; Valenzuela, David M.; Gale, Nicholas W.; Thurston, Gavin; Yancopoulos, George D.; Vahdat, Linda; Evans, Todd; Rafii, Shahin

    2010-01-01

    Blood vessel formation is controlled by the balance between pro- and anti-angiogenic pathways. Although much is known about the factors that drive sprouting of neovessels, the factors that stabilize and pattern neovessels are undefined. The expression of angiomodulin (AGM), a VEGF-A binding protein, was increased in the vasculature of several human tumors as compared to normal tissue, raising the hypothesis that AGM may modulate VEGF-A-dependent vascular patterning. To elucidate the expression pattern of AGM, we developed an AGM knockin reporter mouse (AGMlacZ/+) wherein we demonstrate that AGM is predominantly expressed in the vasculature of developing embryos and adult organs. During physiological and pathological angiogenesis, AGM is upregulated in the angiogenic vasculature. Using the zebrafish model, we found that AGM is restricted to developing vasculature by 17-22 hpf. Blockade of AGM activity with morpholino oligomers (MO) results in prominent angiogenesis defects in vascular sprouting and remodeling. Concurrent knockdown of both AGM and VEGF-A results in synergistic angiogenesis defects. When VEGF-A is overexpressed, the compensatory induction of the VEGF-A receptor, VEGFR-2/flk-1, is blocked by the simultaneous injection of AGM MO. These results demonstrate that the vascular-specific marker AGM modulates vascular remodeling in part by temporizing the pro-angiogenic effects of VEGF-A. PMID:19542015

  8. The association between hemispheric specialization for language production and for spatial attention depends on left-hand preference strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zago, Laure; Petit, Laurent; Mellet, Emmanuel; Jobard, Gaël; Crivello, Fabrice; Joliot, Marc; Mazoyer, Bernard; Tzourio-Mazoyer, Nathalie

    2016-12-01

    Cerebral lateralization for language production and spatial attention and their relationships with manual preference strength (MPS) were assessed in a sample of 293 healthy volunteers, including 151 left-handers, using fMRI during covert sentence production (PROD) and line bisection judgment (LBJ) tasks, as compared to high- and low-level reference tasks. At the group level, we found the expected complementary hemispheric specialization (HS) with leftward asymmetries for PROD within frontal and temporal regions and rightward asymmetries for LBJ within frontal and posterior occipito-parieto-temporal regions. Individual hemispheric (HLI) and regional (frontal and occipital) lateralization indices (LI) were then calculated on the activation maps for PROD and LBJ. We found a correlation between the degree of rightward cerebral asymmetry and the leftward behavioral attentional bias recorded during LBJ task. This correlation was found when LBJ-LI was computed over the hemispheres, in the frontal lobes, but not in the occipital lobes. We then investigated whether language production and spatial attention cerebral lateralization relate to each other, and whether manual preference was a variable that impacted the complementary HS of these functions. No correlation was found between spatial and language LIs in the majority of our sample of participants, including right-handers with a strong right-hand preference (sRH, n=97) and mixed-handers (MH, n=97), indicating that these functions lateralized independently. By contrast, in the group of left-handers with a strong left-hand preference (sLH, n= 99), a negative correlation was found between language and spatial lateralization. This negative correlation was found when LBJ-LI and PROD-LI were computed over the hemispheres, in the frontal lobes and between the occipital lobes for LBJ and the frontal lobes for PROD. These findings underline the importance to include sLH in the study sample to reveal the underlying mechanisms of

  9. Testing strength of biotic resistance against an introduced fish: inter-specific competition or predation through facultative piscivory?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Robert Britton

    Full Text Available Biotic resistance is the process where aspects of the receiving environment inhibit the establishment and invasion of an introduced species. Resistance against an introduced fish can be through strong competition and/or predation from resident fishes. Here, the biotic resistance against introduced topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (a highly invasive fish in Europe by resident carp Cyprinus carpio was tested in experimental mesocosms. The introduction scenario was six adult P. parva (three male, three female on a single occasion. Resistance to their establishment was provided by three and six resident C. carpio whose effects on P. parva growth and reproduction were compared to a Control (no resident fish at the time of introduction and treatments containing three and six P. parva. After 120 days, the growth rates of the introduced P. parva were significantly depressed in C. carpio presence and in mesocosms with three C. carpio present, significantly decreased numbers of 0+P. parva were recorded. Where six C. carpio were present, no 0+P. parva were recorded, indicating resistance strength increased with carp abundance. In contrast, there were no differences in P. parva reproduction and growth rates between the Control and treatments containing conspecifics. Stable isotope analysis (δ(15N, δ(13C revealed C. carpio were feeding at one trophic level above 0+P. parva, suggesting the process of resistance was predation (facultative piscivory rather than competition. Thus, if P. parva are to establish and invade following an introduction, they must overcome this biotic resistance from cyprinid fishes such as C. carpio.

  10. An overview of strength training injuries: acute and chronic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavallee, Mark E; Balam, Tucker

    2010-01-01

    This article introduces the history of strength training, explains the many different styles of strength training, and discusses common injuries specific to each style. Strength training is broken down into five disciplines: basic strength or resistance training, bodybuilding, power lifting, style-dependant strength sports (e.g., strongman competitions, Highland games, field events such as shot put, discus, hammer throw, and javelin), and Olympic-style weightlifting. Each style has its own principal injuries, both acute and chronic, related to the individual technique. Acute injuries should be further categorized as emergent or nonemergent. Specific age-related populations (i.e., the very young and the aging athlete) carry additional considerations.

  11. A hypoxia- and {alpha}-fetoprotein-dependent oncolytic adenovirus exhibits specific killing of hepatocellular carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Oh-Joon; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Huyn, Steven; Wu, Lily; Kim, Minjung; Yun, Chae-Ok

    2010-12-15

    Oncolytic adenoviruses (Ad) constitute a new promising modality of cancer gene therapy that displays improved efficacy over nonreplicating Ads. We have previously shown that an E1B 19-kDa-deleted oncolytic Ad exhibits a strong cell-killing effect but lacks tumor selectivity. To achieve hepatoma-restricted cytotoxicity and enhance replication of Ad within the context of tumor microenvironment, we used a modified human α-fetoprotein (hAFP) promoter to control the replication of Ad with a hypoxia response element (HRE). We constructed Ad-HRE(6)/hAFPΔ19 and Ad-HRE(12)/hAFPΔ19 that incorporated either 6 or 12 copies of HRE upstream of promoter. The promoter activity and specificity to hepatoma were examined by luciferase assay and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analysis. In addition, the AFP expression- and hypoxia-dependent in vitro cytotoxicity of Ad-HRE(6)/hAFPΔ19 and Ad-HRE(12)/hAFPΔ19 was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and cytopathic effect assay. In vivo tumoricidal activity on subcutaneous and liver orthotopic model was monitored by noninvasive molecular imaging. Ad-HRE(12)/hAFPΔ19 exhibited enhanced tumor selectivity and cell-killing activity when compared with Ad-hAFPΔ19. The tumoricidal activity of Ad-HRE(12)/hAFPΔ19 resulted in significant inhibition of tumor growth in both subcutaneous and orthotopic models. Histologic examination of the primary tumor after treatment confirmed accumulation of viral particles near hypoxic areas. Furthermore, Ad-HRE(12)/hAFPΔ19 did not cause severe inflammatory immune response and toxicity after systemic injection. The results presented here show the advantages of incorporating HREs into a hAFP promoter-driven oncolytic virus. This system is unique in that it acts in both a tissue-specific and tumor environment-selective manner. The greatly enhanced selectivity and tumoricidal activity of Ad-HRE(12)/hAFPΔ19 make it a promising therapeutic agent in the treatment

  12. Dimethylfumarate attenuates restenosis after acute vascular injury by cell-specific and Nrf2-dependent mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Joo Oh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and incomplete re-endothelialization is a major clinical problem limiting the long-term efficacy of percutaneous coronary angioplasty. We tested if dimethylfumarate (DMF, an anti-psoriasis drug, could inhibit abnormal vascular remodeling via NF−E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2-NAD(PH quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1 activity. DMF significantly attenuated neointimal hyperplasia induced by balloon injury in rat carotid arteries via suppression of the G1 to S phase transition resulting from induction of p21 protein in VSMCs. Initially, DMF increased p21 protein stability through an enhancement in Nrf2 activity without an increase in p21 mRNA. Later on, DMF stimulated p21 mRNA expression through a process dependent on p53 activity. However, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 or NQO1 activity, well-known target genes induced by Nrf2, were dispensable for the DMF induction of p21 protein and the effect on the VSMC proliferation. Likewise, DMF protected endothelial cells from TNF-α-induced apoptosis and the dysfunction characterized by decreased eNOS expression. With knock-down of Nrf2 or NQO1, DMF failed to prevent TNF-α-induced cell apoptosis and decreased eNOS expression. Also, CD31 expression, an endothelial specific marker, was restored in vivo by DMF. In conclusion, DMF prevented abnormal proliferation in VSMCs by G1 cell cycle arrest via p21 upregulation driven by Nrf2 and p53 activity, and had a beneficial effect on TNF-α-induced apoptosis and dysfunction in endothelial cells through Nrf2–NQO1 activity suggesting that DMF might be a therapeutic drug for patients with vascular disease.

  13. SNOSite: exploiting maximal dependence decomposition to identify cysteine S-nitrosylation with substrate site specificity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzong-Yi Lee

    Full Text Available S-nitrosylation, the covalent attachment of a nitric oxide to (NO the sulfur atom of cysteine, is a selective and reversible protein post-translational modification (PTM that regulates protein activity, localization, and stability. Despite its implication in the regulation of protein functions and cell signaling, the substrate specificity of cysteine S-nitrosylation remains unknown. Based on a total of 586 experimentally identified S-nitrosylation sites from SNAP/L-cysteine-stimulated mouse endothelial cells, this work presents an informatics investigation on S-nitrosylation sites including structural factors such as the flanking amino acids composition, the accessible surface area (ASA and physicochemical properties, i.e. positive charge and side chain interaction parameter. Due to the difficulty to obtain the conserved motifs by conventional motif analysis, maximal dependence decomposition (MDD has been applied to obtain statistically significant conserved motifs. Support vector machine (SVM is applied to generate predictive model for each MDD-clustered motif. According to five-fold cross-validation, the MDD-clustered SVMs could achieve an accuracy of 0.902, and provides a promising performance in an independent test set. The effectiveness of the model was demonstrated on the correct identification of previously reported S-nitrosylation sites of Bos taurus dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase 1 (DDAH1 and human hemoglobin subunit beta (HBB. Finally, the MDD-clustered model was adopted to construct an effective web-based tool, named SNOSite (http://csb.cse.yzu.edu.tw/SNOSite/, for identifying S-nitrosylation sites on the uncharacterized protein sequences.

  14. Q2 Dependence of Quadrupole Strength in the gamma*p-->Delta+(1232) --> p pi0 Transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volker Burkert; Kyungseon Joo; Lee Smith; Ralph Minehart

    2002-01-01

    Models of baryon structure predict a small quadrupole deformation of the nucleon due to residual tensor forces between quarks or distortions from the pion cloud. Sensitivity to quark versus pion degrees of freedom occurs through the Q 2 dependence of the magnetic (M 1+ ), electric (E 1+ ), and scalar (S 1+ ) multipoles in the γ*p → Δ + (1232) → pπ 0 transition. New precision measurements of the ratios E 1+ /M 1+ and S 1+ /M 1+ are reported here over the range Q 2 = 0.4-1.8 GeV 2 . Results are best described by recent unitary models in which the pion cloud plays a dominant role

  15. Associations of Walking Speed, Grip Strength, and Standing Balance With Total and Cause-Specific Mortality in a General Population of Japanese Elders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nofuji, Yu; Shinkai, Shoji; Taniguchi, Yu; Amano, Hidenori; Nishi, Mariko; Murayama, Hiroshi; Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Takao

    2016-02-01

    Walking speed, grip strength, and standing balance are key components of physical performance in older people. The present study aimed to evaluate (1) associations of these physical performance measures with cause-specific mortality, (2) independent associations of individual physical performance measures with mortality, and (3) the added value of combined use of the 3 physical performance measures in predicting all-cause and cause-specific mortality. Prospective cohort study with a follow-up of 10.5 years. Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology Longitudinal Interdisciplinary Study on Aging (TMIG-LISA), Japan. A total of 1085 initially nondisabled older Japanese aged 65 to 89 years. Usual walking speed, grip strength, and standing balance were measured at baseline survey. During follow-up, 324 deaths occurred (122 of cardiovascular disease, 75 of cancer, 115 of other causes, and 12 of unknown causes). All 3 physical performance measures were significantly associated with all-cause, cardiovascular, and other-cause mortality, but not with cancer mortality, independent of potential confounders. When all 3 physical performance measures were simultaneously entered into the model, each was significantly independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. The C statistics for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality were significantly increased by adding grip strength and standing balance to walking speed (P balance predicted all-cause, cardiovascular, and other-cause mortality, but not cancer mortality, independent of covariates. Moreover, these 3 components of physical performance were independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality and their combined use increased prognostic power. Copyright © 2016 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Error Processing and Gender-Shared and -Specific Neural Predictors of Relapse in Cocaine Dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xi; Zhang, Sheng; Hu, Sien; Bednarski, Sarah R.; Erdman, Emily; Farr, Olivia M.; Hong, Kwang-Ik; Sinha, Rajita; Mazure, Carolyn M.; Li, Chiang-shan R.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in cognitive control are implicated in cocaine dependence. Previously, combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and a stop signal task, we demonstrated altered cognitive control in cocaine-dependent individuals. However, the clinical implications of these cross-sectional findings and, in particular, whether the changes were…

  17. Nor-ursodeoxycholic acid reverses hepatocyte-specific nemo-dependent steatohepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beraza, Naiara; Ofner-Ziegenfuss, Lisa; Ehedego, Haksier; Boekschoten, Mark; Bischoff, Stephan C; Mueller, Michael; Trauner, Michael; Trautwein, Christian

    2011-03-01

    Hepatocyte-specific NEMO/NF-κB deleted mice (NEMO(Δhepa)) develop spontaneous non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Free fatty acids and bile acids promote DR5 expression. TRAIL/NK cell-mediated activation of TRAIL-R2/DR5 plays an important role during acute injury in NEMO(Δhepa) mice. To inhibit the progression of NASH in the absence of hepatocyte-NEMO/NF-kB signaling. NEMOf/f and NEMO(Δhepa) mice were fed with a low-fat diet, and with two anticholestatic diets; UDCA and NorUDCA. The impact of these treatments on the progression of NASH was evaluated. We show that high expression of DR5 in livers from NEMO(Δhepa) mice is accompanied by an abundant presence of bile acids (BAs), misregulation of BA transporters and significant alteration of lipid metabolism-related genes. Additionally, mice lacking NEMO in hepatocytes spontaneously showed ductular response at young age. Unexpectedly, feeding of NEMO(Δhepa) mice with low-fat diet failed to improve chronic liver injury. Conversely, anti-cholestatic treatment with nor-ursodeoxycholic acid (NorUDCA), but not with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), led to a significant attenuation of liver damage in NEMO(Δhepa) mice. The strong therapeutic effect of NorUDCA relied on a significant downregulation of LXR-dependent lipogenesis and the normalisation of BA metabolism through mechanisms involving cross-talk between Cyp7a1 and SHP. This was associated with the significant improvement of liver histology, NEMO(Δhepa)/NorUDCA-treated mice showed lower apoptosis and reduced CyclinD1 expression, indicating attenuation of the compensatory proliferative response to hepatocellular damage. Finally, fibrosis and ductular reaction markers were significantly reduced in NorUDCA-treated NEMO(Δhepa) mice. Overall, our work demonstrates the contribution of bile acids metabolism to the progression of NASH in the absence of hepatocyte-NF-kB through mechanisms involving DR5-apoptosis, inflammation and fibrosis. Our work suggests a potential

  18. Temperature and air-fuel ratio dependent specific heat ratio functions for lean burned and unburned mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceviz, M.A.; Kaymaz, I.

    2005-01-01

    The most important thermodynamic property used in heat release calculations for engines is the specific heat ratio. The functions proposed in the literature for the specific heat ratio are temperature dependent and apply at or near stoichiometric air-fuel ratios. However, the specific heat ratio is also influenced by the gas composition in the engine cylinder and especially becomes important for lean combustion engines. In this study, temperature and air-fuel ratio dependent specific heat ratio functions were derived to minimize the error by using an equilibrium combustion model for burned and unburned mixtures separately. After the error analysis between the equilibrium combustion model and the derived functions is presented, the results of the global specific heat ratio function, as varying with mass fraction burned, were compared with the proposed functions in the literature. The results of the study showed that the derived functions are more feasible at lean operating conditions of a spark ignition engine

  19. Specificity of genetic and environmental risk factors for symptoms of cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendler, Kenneth S; Myers, John; Prescott, Carol A

    2007-11-01

    Although genetic risk factors have been found to contribute to dependence on both licit and illicit psychoactive substances, we know little of how these risk factors interrelate. To clarify the structure of genetic and environmental risk factors for symptoms of dependence on cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine in males and females. Lifetime history by structured clinical interview. General community. Four thousand eight hundred sixty-five members of male-male and female-female pairs from the Virginia Adult Twin Study of Psychiatric and Substance Use Disorders. Main Outcome Measure Lifetime symptoms of abuse of and dependence on cannabis, cocaine, alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine. Controlling for greater symptom prevalence in males, genetic and environmental parameters could be equated across sexes. Two models explained the data well. The best-fit exploratory model contained 2 genetic factors and 1 individual environmental factor contributing to all substances. The first genetic factor loaded strongly on cocaine and cannabis dependence; the second, on alcohol and nicotine dependence. Nicotine and caffeine had high substance-specific genetic effects. A confirmatory model, which also fit well, contained 1 illicit drug genetic factor--loading only on cannabis and cocaine--and 1 licit drug genetic factor loading on alcohol, caffeine, and nicotine. However, these factors were highly intercorrelated (r = + 0.82). Large substance-specific genetic effects remained for nicotine and caffeine. The pattern of genetic and environmental risk factors for psychoactive substance dependence was similar in males and females. Genetic risk factors for dependence on common psychoactive substances cannot be explained by a single factor. Rather, 2 genetic factors-one predisposing largely to illicit drug dependence, the other primarily to licit drug dependence-are needed. Furthermore, a large proportion of the genetic influences on nicotine and particularly caffeine dependence

  20. Size-dependent oscillator strength and quantum efficiency of CdSe quantum dots controlled via the local density of states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leistikow, M.D.; Johansen, Jeppe; Kettelarij, A.J.

    2009-01-01

    We study experimentally time-resolved emission of colloidal CdSe quantum dots in an environment with a controlled local density of states LDOS. The decay rate is measured versus frequency and as a function of distance to a mirror. We observe a linear relation between the decay rate and the LDOS, ...... with the measured radiative rates. Our results are relevant for applications of CdSe quantum dots in spontaneous emission control and cavity quantum electrodynamics.......We study experimentally time-resolved emission of colloidal CdSe quantum dots in an environment with a controlled local density of states LDOS. The decay rate is measured versus frequency and as a function of distance to a mirror. We observe a linear relation between the decay rate and the LDOS......, allowing us to determine the size-dependent quantum efficiency and oscillator strength. We find that the quantum efficiency decreases with increasing emission energy mostly due to an increase in nonradiative decay. We manage to obtain the oscillator strength of the important class of CdSe quantum dots...

  1. A high gradient and strength bioseparator with nano-sized immunomagnetic particles for specific separation and efficient concentration of E. coli O157:H7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Jianhan; Li, Min; Li, Yanbin; Chen, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Sample pretreatment is a key to rapid screening of pathogens for prevention and control of foodborne diseases. Magnetic immunoseparation is a specific method based on antibody–antigen reaction to capture the target bacteria and concentrate them in a smaller-volume buffer. The use of nano-sized magnetic particles could improve the separation efficiency of bacteria but require much higher gradient and strength magnetic field. In this study, a strong magnetic bioseparator with a mean field strength of 1.35 T and a mean gradient of 90 T/m was developed with the use of the 30 nm and 180 nm magnetic particles to specifically separate and efficiently concentrate foodborne bacterial pathogens using Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model bacterium. The polyclonal antibodies against E. coli were evaluated using Dot ELISA analysis for their good affinity with the target bacteria and then used to modify the surface of the magnetic nanoparticles by 1-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC·HCl) method and streptavidin-biotin binding. The magnetic particle concentrations were optimized to be 40 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml for the 30 nm and 180 nm particles, respectively, the immunoreaction time was optimized to be 45 min for both sizes of particles, and the separation times were optimized to be 60 min and 2 min for the 30 nm and 180 nm particles, respectively. The total magnetic separation time was 2 h and 1 h for the 30 nm and 180 nm particles, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that the bioseparator with the use of either 30 nm or 180 nm immunomagnetic particles could achieve a separation efficiency of >90% for E. coli O157:H7 at the concentrations ranging from 10 2 to 10 5 cfu/ml. No obvious interferences from non-target foodborne pathogens, such as SalmonellaTyphimurium and Listeria innocua, were found. For overall consideration of the consuming time, the cost, and the separation efficiency, the 180 nm magnetic particles are practical for

  2. A high gradient and strength bioseparator with nano-sized immunomagnetic particles for specific separation and efficient concentration of E. coli O157:H7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Jianhan, E-mail: jianhan@cau.edu.cn [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Agricultural Information Acquisition Technology (Beijing), 17 East Tsinghua Road, China Agricultural University, Mailbox 125, Beijing 100083 (China); Li, Min [College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Li, Yanbin [College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Chen, Qi [Modern Precision Agriculture System Integration Research Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2015-03-15

    Sample pretreatment is a key to rapid screening of pathogens for prevention and control of foodborne diseases. Magnetic immunoseparation is a specific method based on antibody–antigen reaction to capture the target bacteria and concentrate them in a smaller-volume buffer. The use of nano-sized magnetic particles could improve the separation efficiency of bacteria but require much higher gradient and strength magnetic field. In this study, a strong magnetic bioseparator with a mean field strength of 1.35 T and a mean gradient of 90 T/m was developed with the use of the 30 nm and 180 nm magnetic particles to specifically separate and efficiently concentrate foodborne bacterial pathogens using Escherichia coli O157:H7 as a model bacterium. The polyclonal antibodies against E. coli were evaluated using Dot ELISA analysis for their good affinity with the target bacteria and then used to modify the surface of the magnetic nanoparticles by 1-(3-Dimethylaminopropyl)-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC·HCl) method and streptavidin-biotin binding. The magnetic particle concentrations were optimized to be 40 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml for the 30 nm and 180 nm particles, respectively, the immunoreaction time was optimized to be 45 min for both sizes of particles, and the separation times were optimized to be 60 min and 2 min for the 30 nm and 180 nm particles, respectively. The total magnetic separation time was 2 h and 1 h for the 30 nm and 180 nm particles, respectively. The experimental results demonstrated that the bioseparator with the use of either 30 nm or 180 nm immunomagnetic particles could achieve a separation efficiency of >90% for E. coli O157:H7 at the concentrations ranging from 10{sup 2} to 10{sup 5} cfu/ml. No obvious interferences from non-target foodborne pathogens, such as SalmonellaTyphimurium and Listeria innocua, were found. For overall consideration of the consuming time, the cost, and the separation efficiency, the 180 nm magnetic particles are

  3. Grouping subjects based on conditioning criteria reveals differences in acquisition rates and in strength of conditioning-specific reflex modification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Bell, Carrie A; Schreurs, Bernard G

    2017-11-01

    Averaging behavioral data such as the nictitating membrane response (NMR) across subjects can conceal important individual and group differences. Analyses were conducted of NMR data from rabbits that were grouped based on the point during NMR conditioning when subjects produced 8 conditioned responses (CR) in a set of 10 trials. This resulted in five groups (Early Day 1, Late Day 1, Early Day 2, Late Day 2, Early Day 3) in which group differences in CR acquisition rates were found. Percent (%) CRs were not found to increase monotonically and between-session differences in % CR were found. Conditioning-specific reflex modification (CRM) of the NMR is a type of enhanced reflexive responding of the NMR that is detected when the unconditioned stimulus (US) is presented in the absence of the conditioned stimulus (CS) following paired classical conditioning. CRM occurred in some subjects in all five groups. Subjects from both the group that was fastest and the group that was slowest to reach the learning criterion had unconditioned response (UR) topographies following NMR conditioning that strongly resembled the CR-UR response sequence elicited during NMR conditioning. This finding was most pronounced when the US duration used to assess CRM was equivalent to that used during NMR conditioning, further evidence to support the hypothesis that CRM is a CR that has generalized from the CS to the US. While grouping data based on conditioning criteria did not facilitate identifying individuals more predisposed to exhibiting CRM, strong CRM only occurred in the groups that reached the conditioning criterion the fastest. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The strength of a calcified tissue depends in part on the molecular structure and organization of its constituent mineral crystals in their organic matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, W. J.

    1995-01-01

    High-voltage electron-microscopic tomographic (3D) studies of the ultrastructural interaction between mineral and organic matrix in a variety of calcified tissues reveal different crystal structural and organizational features in association with their respective organic matrices. In brittle or weak pathologic or ectopic calcifications, including examples of osteogenesis imperfecta, calciphylaxis, calcergy, and dermatomyositis, hydroxyapatite crystals occur in various sizes and shapes and are oriented and aligned with respect to collagen in a manner which is distinct from that found in normal calcified tissues. A model of collagen-mineral interaction is proposed which may account for the observed crystal structures and organization. The results indicate that the ultimate strength, support, and other mechanical properties provided by a calcified tissue are dependent in part upon the molecular structure and arrangement of its constituent mineral crystals within their organic matrix.

  5. Are there gender differences in locus of control specific to alcohol dependence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Andrew; Martin, Colin R

    2017-01-01

    To investigate gender differences in locus of control in an alcohol-dependent population. Locus of control helps to explain behaviour in terms of internal (the individual is responsible) or external (outside forces, such as significant other people or chance, are responsible) elements. Past research on gender differences in locus of control in relation to alcohol dependence has shown mixed results. There is a need then to examine gender and locus of control in relation to alcohol dependence to ascertain the veracity of any locus of control differences as a function of gender. The Multidimensional Health Locus of Control form-C was administered to clients from alcohol dependence treatment centres in the West of Scotland. Independent t-tests were carried out to assess gender differences in alcohol dependence severity and internal/external aspects of locus of control. One hundred and eighty-eight (53% females) participants were recruited from a variety of alcohol dependence treatment centres. The majority of participants (72%) came from Alcoholics Anonymous groups. Women revealed a greater internal locus of control compared with men. Women also had a greater 'significant others' locus of control score than men. Men were more reliant on 'chance' and 'doctors' than women. All these trends were not, however, statistically significant. Gender differences in relation to locus of control and alcohol dependence from past studies are ambiguous. This study also found no clear statistically significant differences in locus of control orientation as a function of gender. This article helps nurses to contextualise health behaviours as a result of internal or external forces. It also helps nursing staff to better understand alcohol dependence treatment in relation to self-efficacy and control. Moreover, it highlights an important concept in health education theory. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Nonadjacent Dependency Learning in Cantonese-Speaking Children With and Without a History of Specific Language Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iao, Lai-Sang; Ng, Lai Yan; Wong, Anita Mei Yin; Lee, Oi Ting

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated nonadjacent dependency learning in Cantonese-speaking children with and without a history of specific language impairment (SLI) in an artificial linguistic context. Sixteen Cantonese-speaking children with a history of SLI and 16 Cantonese-speaking children with typical language development (TLD) were tested with a nonadjacent dependency learning task using artificial languages that mimic Cantonese. Children with TLD performed above chance and were able to discriminate between trained and untrained nonadjacent dependencies. However, children with a history of SLI performed at chance and were not able to differentiate trained versus untrained nonadjacent dependencies. These findings, together with previous findings from English-speaking adults and adolescents with language impairments, suggest that individuals with atypical language development, regardless of age, diagnostic status, language, and culture, show difficulties in learning nonadjacent dependencies. This study provides evidence for early impairments to statistical learning in individuals with atypical language development.

  7. Strength and structure of nanocrystalline titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noskova, N.I.; Pereturina, I.A.; Elkina, O.A.; Stolyarov, V.V.

    2004-01-01

    Investigation results on strength and plasticity of nanocrystalline titanium VT-1 are presented. Specific features of plastic deformation on tension of this material specimens in an electron microscope column are studied in situ. It is shown that nanocrystalline titanium strength and plasticity at room temperature are dependent on the structure and nanograin size. It is revealed that deformation processes in nanocrystalline titanium are characterized by activation of deformation rotational modes and microtwinning [ru

  8. Specific features of the temperature dependence of the exciton absorption integral in CdS crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novikov, A.B.; Solov'ev, L.E.; Talalaev, V.G.

    1986-01-01

    Cadmium sulfide crystals 0.4-2 μm thick in the 4.2-120 K temperature range are investigated experimentally. The shape of the first exciton absorption line in CdS and dependence of integral exciton absorption factor (IEAF) on the quenching constant j are calculated. Rapid growth of the absorption factor in the maximum of the absorption line and decrease of halfwidth of the factor are shown to take place with j increase. The calculation has disclosed that the Bouguer law is observed excluding negligible IEAF oscillations at variation of crystal thickness. Non-monotonous temperature dependence of IEAF is disclosed in some investigated samples; it, obviously, testifies to non-monotonous temperature dependence of j. Depolarization of the absorption line of high-energy exciton states with n=2 and n=3 is discovered in some samples for the first time

  9. A specific primed immune response in Drosophila is dependent on phagocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linh N Pham

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Drosophila melanogaster, like other invertebrates, relies solely on its innate immune response to fight invading microbes; by definition, innate immunity lacks adaptive characteristics. However, we show here that priming Drosophila with a sublethal dose of Streptococcus pneumoniae protects against an otherwise-lethal second challenge of S. pneumoniae. This protective effect exhibits coarse specificity for S. pneumoniae and persists for the life of the fly. Although not all microbial challenges induced this specific primed response, we find that a similar specific protection can be elicited by Beauveria bassiana, a natural fly pathogen. To characterize this primed response, we focused on S. pneumoniae-induced protection. The mechanism underlying this protective effect requires phagocytes and the Toll pathway. However, activation of the Toll pathway is not sufficient for priming-induced protection. This work contradicts the paradigm that insect immune responses cannot adapt and will promote the search for similar responses overlooked in organisms with an adaptive immune response.

  10. Complement-dependent pathogenicity of brain-specific antibodies in cerebrospinal fluid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, Nasrin; Khorooshi, Reza; Lillevang, Søren T

    2013-01-01

    The specificity and potential pathogenicity of autoantibodies vary between neurological diseases. It is often unclear whether their detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a consequence or a cause of pathology. The goal was to test whether administration of brain-specific antibodies into CSF...... would be sufficient for pathology. Purified immunoglobulin G from a neuromyelitis optica patient was injected intrathecally with complement to naive mice. Histopathological analysis at 7 days revealed damage to the ependyma, disruption of the CSF parenchymal barrier and pathologic lesions, distant from...

  11. Tolerance of Escherichia coli to fluoroquinolone antibiotics depends on specific components of the SOS response pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore, Alyssa; Lewis, Kim; Vulic, Marin

    2013-12-01

    Bacteria exposed to bactericidal fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics can survive without becoming genetically resistant. Survival of these phenotypically resistant cells, commonly called "persisters," depends on the SOS gene network. We have examined mutants in all known SOS-regulated genes to identify functions essential for tolerance in Escherichia coli. The absence of DinG and UvrD helicases and the Holliday junction processing enzymes RuvA and RuvB leads to a decrease in survival. Analysis of the respective mutants indicates that, in addition to repair of double-strand breaks, tolerance depends on the repair of collapsed replication forks and stalled transcription complexes. Mutation in recF results in increased survival, which identifies RecAF recombination as a poisoning mechanism not previously linked to FQ lethality. DinG acts upstream of SOS promoting its induction, whereas RuvAB participates in repair only. UvrD directly promotes all repair processes initiated by FQ-induced damage and prevents RecAF-dependent misrepair, making it one of the crucial SOS functions required for tolerance.

  12. Specific fission J-window and angular momentum dependence of the fission barrier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Hiroshi; Saito, Tadashi; Takahashi, Naruto; Yokoyama, Akihiko [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan); Shinohara, Atsushi

    1997-04-01

    A method to determine a unique J-window in the fission process was devised and the fissioning nuclide associated with thus extracted J-window was identified for each of the heavy-ion reaction systems. Obtained fission barriers at the resulting J-window were compared with the calculated values by the rotating finite range model (RFRM). The deduced barriers for individual nuclides were compared with the RFRM barriers to reproduce more or less the angular momentum dependence the RFRM prediction. The deduced systematic behavior of the fission barrier indicates no even-odd and shell corrections are necessary. The nuclear dissipation effect based on Kramer`s model revealed substantial reduction of the statistically deduced barrier heights and brought a fairly large scattering from the RFRM J-dependence. However, introduction of the temperature-dependent friction coefficient ({gamma} = 2 for T {>=} 1.0 MeV and 0.5 for T < 1.0 MeV) was found to bring about satisfactory agreement with both RFRM fission barriers and the pre-fission neutron multiplicity systematics. (author). 81 refs.

  13. Separation of integrin-dependent adhesion from morphological changes based on differential PLC specificities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wooten, D K; Teague, T K; McIntyre, B W

    1999-01-01

    In normal lymphocytes an inside-out signal up-regulating integrin adhesion is followed by a ligand-mediated outside-in cell spreading signal. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition blocks lymphocyte adherence to and spreading on fibronectin. In contrast, putative PLC inhibitors yield distinct differences with respect to adhesion and morphology. The phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitor neomycin blocked spreading of CD3/CD28-activated T cells on fibronectin by disrupting adhesion. Furthermore, when an additional inside-out signal for fibronectin adhesion is unnecessary such as with HPB-ALL T leukemic or phorbol-myristate-acetate-treated normal T cells, neomycin treatment does not alter adhesion or morphology. However, the phosphatidylcholine-specific PLC inhibitor D609 abrogates cell spreading without affecting adhesion to fibronectin in these cells as well as the CD3/CD28-activated T cells. These results strongly suggest that inside-out signaling for the integrin alpha4beta1 in lymphocytes proceeds through phosphatidylinositol-specific PLC and PKC, whereas the outside-in signal utilizes phosphatidylcholine-specific PLC and PKC.

  14. Layer-specific morphological and molecular differences in neocortical astrocytes and their dependence on neuronal layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanjakornsiripan, Darin; Pior, Baek-Jun; Kawaguchi, Daichi; Furutachi, Shohei; Tahara, Tomoaki; Katsuyama, Yu; Suzuki, Yutaka; Fukazawa, Yugo; Gotoh, Yukiko

    2018-04-24

    Non-pial neocortical astrocytes have historically been thought to comprise largely a nondiverse population of protoplasmic astrocytes. Here we show that astrocytes of the mouse somatosensory cortex manifest layer-specific morphological and molecular differences. Two- and three-dimensional observations revealed that astrocytes in the different layers possess distinct morphologies as reflected by differences in cell orientation, territorial volume, and arborization. The extent of ensheathment of synaptic clefts by astrocytes in layer II/III was greater than that by those in layer VI. Moreover, differences in gene expression were observed between upper-layer and deep-layer astrocytes. Importantly, layer-specific differences in astrocyte properties were abrogated in reeler and Dab1 conditional knockout mice, in which neuronal layers are disturbed, suggesting that neuronal layers are a prerequisite for the observed morphological and molecular differences of neocortical astrocytes. This study thus demonstrates the existence of layer-specific interactions between neurons and astrocytes, which may underlie their layer-specific functions.

  15. Transient Kinetics of a cGMP-dependent cGMP-specific Phosphodiesterase from Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Lookeren Campagne, Michiel M. van

    1984-01-01

    Chemotactic stimulation of Dictyostelium discoideum cells induces a fast transient increase of cGMP levels which reach a peak at 10 s. Prestimulation levels are recovered in ~30 s, which is achieved mainly by the action of a guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase. This enzyme

  16. Specific features of time-dependent Psub(N) approximations in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltzer, P.; Pucker, N.

    1979-01-01

    Approximations to the time-dependent linear transport equation can result in more serious distortions in the description of the actual physical situation than in the stationary problem. This is demonstrated in detail for the case of a neutron pulse in spherical geometry, treated within a P 1 approximation. One has to pay special attention to the singularity at r = 0 and to the effect of the boundary conditions. Effects similar to those shown here are also to be expected in connection with Psub(N) approximations of higher order. (Auth.)

  17. High Prognostic Specificity of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Patients with Drug Dependence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fridell, Mats; Hesse, Morten; Johnson, Eva

    2006-01-01

    personality disorder (ASPD) at intake was associated with incarceration, continuous drug use, dependence on welfare support, and fulfilling criteria of adult ASPD at follow-up. Regardless of ASPD status, a decline was seen in drug-related convictions, but subjects with ASPD were found to continue to commit......A sample of 125 consecutive patients from a Swedish detoxification unit were followed up at five years. Register data on criminal behavior were retrieved for 99% of all subjects, including those who were deceased at follow-up, and 76%of living subjects were interviewed. A diagnosis of antisocial...

  18. Atheroprotective immunization with malondialdehyde-modified LDL is hapten specific and dependent on advanced MDA adducts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonen, Ayelet; Hansen, Lotte; Turner, William W

    2014-01-01

    as an immunogen would be impractical for generalized use. Furthermore, when MDA is used to modify LDL, a wide variety of related MDA adducts are formed, both simple and more complex. To define the relevant epitopes that would reproduce the atheroprotective effects of immunization with MDA-LDL, we sought......Immunization with homologous malondialdehyde (MDA)-modified LDL (MDA-LDL) leads to atheroprotection in experimental models supporting the concept that a vaccine to oxidation-specific epitopes (OSEs) of oxidized LDL could limit atherogenesis. However, modification of human LDL with OSE to use...... responses. We further demonstrate that a T helper (Th) 2-biased hapten-specific humoral and cellular response is sufficient, and thus, MAA-modified homologous albumin is an equally effective immunogen. We further show that such Th2-biased humoral responses per se are not atheroprotective if they do...

  19. A randomized trial of female-specific cognitive behavior therapy for alcohol dependent women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Elizabeth E; McCrady, Barbara S; Hallgren, Kevin A; Cook, Sharon; Jensen, Noelle K; Hildebrandt, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    This study compared Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (FS-CBT) to evidence-based, gender-neutral CBT (GN-CBT; Epstein & McCrady, 2009) for women with alcohol use disorder (AUD). Women (N = 99) with AUD, mean age 48, were randomly assigned to 12 outpatient manual-guided sessions of FS-CBT (n = 44) or GN-CBT (n = 55). Women were assessed at baseline and 3, 9 and 15 months after baseline for drinking and for specific issues common among women with AUD. A FS-CBT protocol was developed that was discriminable on treatment integrity ratings from GN-CBT. No treatment condition differences were found in treatment engagement, changes in drinking, alcohol-related coping, abstinence self-efficacy, motivation to change, or constructs directly targeted in FS-CBT (sociotropy, autonomy, depression, anxiety). Women in both conditions were highly engaged and satisfied with treatment, and reported significant reductions in drinking and changes in desired directions for all other variables except social support for abstinence. In the year following treatment, women in the FS-CBT but not in the CBT condition reported an increase in percentage of abstainers in their social networks (0.69% per month, SE = 0.21, p = .002). The value and appeal of female-specific programming in AUD treatment has been established in the wider literature (Epstein & Menges, 2013), and the current study provides support for the use of the Female-Specific Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (FS-CBT) manual as an option that may yield outcomes similar to standard gender-neutral CBT for women with AUD. Future research should examine whether FS-CBT enhances treatment utilization for women. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  20. Substrate specificity and pH dependence of homogeneous wheat germ acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Etten, R L; Waymack, P P

    1991-08-01

    The broad substrate specificity of a homogeneous isoenzyme of wheat germ acid phosphatase (WGAP) was extensively investigated by chromatographic, electrophoretic, NMR, and kinetic procedures. WGAP exhibited no divalent metal ion requirement and was unaffected upon incubation with EDTA or o-phenanthroline. A comparison of two catalytically homogeneous isoenzymes revealed little difference in substrate specificity. The specificity of WGAP was established by determining the Michaelis constants for a wide variety of substrates. p-Nitrophenyl phosphate, pyrophosphate, tripolyphosphate, and ATP were preferred substrates while lesser activities were seen toward sugar phosphates, trimetaphosphate, phosphoproteins, and (much less) phosphodiesters. An extensive table of Km and Vmax values is given. The pathway for the hydrolysis of trimetaphosphate was examined by colorimetric and 31P NMR methods and it was found that linear tripolyphosphate is not a free intermediate in the enzymatic reaction. In contrast to literature reports, homogeneous wheat germ acid phosphatase exhibits no measurable carboxylesterase activity, nor does it hydrolyze phenyl phosphonothioate esters or phytic acid at significant rates.

  1. AMPK governs lineage specification through Tfeb-dependent regulation of lysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Nathan P; Kamireddy, Anwesh; Van Nostrand, Jeanine L; Eichner, Lillian J; Shokhirev, Maxim Nikolaievich; Dayn, Yelena; Shaw, Reuben J

    2016-03-01

    Faithful execution of developmental programs relies on the acquisition of unique cell identities from pluripotent progenitors, a process governed by combinatorial inputs from numerous signaling cascades that ultimately dictate lineage-specific transcriptional outputs. Despite growing evidence that metabolism is integrated with many molecular networks, how pathways that control energy homeostasis may affect cell fate decisions is largely unknown. Here, we show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a central metabolic regulator, plays critical roles in lineage specification. Although AMPK-deficient embryonic stem cells (ESCs) were normal in the pluripotent state, these cells displayed profound defects upon differentiation, failing to generate chimeric embryos and preferentially adopting an ectodermal fate at the expense of the endoderm during embryoid body (EB) formation. AMPK(-/-) EBs exhibited reduced levels of Tfeb, a master transcriptional regulator of lysosomes, leading to diminished endolysosomal function. Remarkably, genetic loss of Tfeb also yielded endodermal defects, while AMPK-null ESCs overexpressing this transcription factor normalized their differential potential, revealing an intimate connection between Tfeb/lysosomes and germ layer specification. The compromised endolysosomal system resulting from AMPK or Tfeb inactivation blunted Wnt signaling, while up-regulating this pathway restored expression of endodermal markers. Collectively, these results uncover the AMPK pathway as a novel regulator of cell fate determination during differentiation. © 2016 Young et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  2. Site-specific glycoprofiling of N-linked glycopeptides using MALDI-TOF MS: strong correlation between signal strength and glycoform quantities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen-Andersen, Morten; Mysling, Simon; Højrup, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Site-specific glycoprofiling of N-linked glycopeptides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an emerging technique, but its quantitative accuracy lacks documentation. Thus, a systematic study of widely different glycopeptides was perf......Site-specific glycoprofiling of N-linked glycopeptides using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is an emerging technique, but its quantitative accuracy lacks documentation. Thus, a systematic study of widely different glycopeptides...... was performed to determine the relationship between the relative abundances of the individual glycoforms and the MALDI-TOF MS signal strength. Glycopeptides derived from glycoproteins containing neutral glycans (ribonuclease B, IgG, and ovalbumin) were initially profiled and yielded excellent and reproducible...... quantitation (correlation coefficient r = 0.9958, n = 5) when evaluated against a normal phase HPLC 2-AB glycan profile. Similarly, precise quantitation was observed for various forms of N-glycans (free, permethylated, and fluorescence-labeled) using MS. In addition, three different sialoglycopeptides from...

  3. Strengths-based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    -being. The Ph.D.-project in Strength-based learning took place in a Danish school with 750 pupils age 6-16 and a similar school was functioning as a control group. The presentation will focus on both the aware-explore-apply processes and the practical implications for the schools involved, and on measurable......Strength-based learning - Children͛s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential͛ is a Ph.D.-project aiming to create a strength-based mindset in school settings and at the same time introducing strength-based interventions as specific tools to improve both learning and well...

  4. Pressure dependence of the specific heat of heavy-fermion YbCu4.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, A.; Fisher, R.A.; Phillips, N.E.; Jaccard, D.; Walker, E.

    1990-03-01

    The specific heat of a polycrystalline sample of YbCu 4.5 has been measured between 0.3 and 20K at pressures to 8.2 kbar. Unlike cerium-based heavy-fermion compounds, an increase of C/T is observed with increasing pressure, with the linear term enhanced by about 16% at 8.2 kbar. Above 7K, (∂C/∂P) T is negative. The nuclear contribution observed at P = 0 is increased by roughly a factor of two at 8.2 kbar. 7 refs., 3 figs

  5. Herbivore-specific, density-dependent induction of plant volatiles: honest or "cry wolf" signals?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Shiojiri

    Full Text Available Plants release volatile chemicals upon attack by herbivorous arthropods. They do so commonly in a dose-dependent manner: the more herbivores, the more volatiles released. The volatiles attract predatory arthropods and the amount determines the probability of predator response. We show that seedlings of a cabbage variety (Brassica oleracea var. capitata, cv Shikidori also show such a response to the density of cabbage white (Pieris rapae larvae and attract more (naive parasitoids (Cotesia glomerata when there are more herbivores on the plant. However, when attacked by diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella larvae, seedlings of the same variety (cv Shikidori release volatiles, the total amount of which is high and constant and thus independent of caterpillar density, and naive parasitoids (Cotesia vestalis of diamondback moth larvae fail to discriminate herbivore-rich from herbivore-poor plants. In contrast, seedlings of another cabbage variety of B. oleracea (var. acephala: kale respond in a dose-dependent manner to the density of diamondback moth larvae and attract more parasitoids when there are more herbivores. Assuming these responses of the cabbage cultivars reflect behaviour of at least some genotypes of wild plants, we provide arguments why the behaviour of kale (B. oleracea var acephala is best interpreted as an honest signaling strategy and that of cabbage cv Shikidori (B. oleracea var capitata as a "cry wolf" signaling strategy, implying a conflict of interest between the plant and the enemies of its herbivores: the plant profits from being visited by the herbivore's enemies, but the latter would be better off by visiting other plants with more herbivores. If so, evolutionary theory on alarm signaling predicts consequences of major interest to students of plant protection, tritrophic systems and communication alike.

  6. Sleep Dependent Synaptic Down-Selection (II: Single Neuron Level Benefits for Matching, Selectivity, and Specificity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atif eHashmi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In a companion paper (Nere et al., this volume, we used computer simulations to show that a strategy of activity-dependent, on-line net synaptic potentiation during wake, followed by off-line synaptic depression during sleep, can provide a parsimonious account for several memory benefits of sleep at the systems level, including the consolidation of procedural and declarative memories, gist extraction, and integration of new with old memories. In this paper, we consider the theoretical benefits of this two-step process at the single neuron level and employ the theoretical notion of Matching between brain and environment to measure how this process increases the ability of the neuron to capture regularities in the environment and model them internally. We show that down-selection during sleep is beneficial for increasing or restoring Matching after learning, after integrating new with old memories, and after forgetting irrelevant material. By contrast, alternative schemes, such as additional potentiation in wake, potentiation in sleep, or synaptic renormalization in wake, decrease Matching. We also argue that, by selecting appropriate loops through the brain that tie feedforward synapses with feedback ones in the same dendritic domain, different subsets of neurons can learn to specialize for different contingencies and form sequences of nested perception-action loops. By potentiating such loops when interacting with the environment in wake, and depressing them when disconnected from the environment in sleep, neurons can learn to match the long-term statistical structure of the environment while avoiding spurious modes of functioning and catastrophic interference. Finally, such a two-step process has the additional benefit of desaturating the neuron's ability to learn and of maintaining cellular homeostasis. Thus, sleep-dependent synaptic renormalization offers a parsimonious account for both cellular and systems-level effects of sleep on learning

  7. Ca2+-dependent proteolytic activity in crab claw muscle: effects of inhibitors and specificity for myofibrillar proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mykles, D.L.; Skinner, D.M.

    1983-01-01

    The claw closer muscle of the Bermuda land crab, Gecarcinus lateralis, undergoes a sequential atrophy and restoration during each molting cycle. The role of Ca 2+ -dependent proteinases in the turn-over of myofibrillar protein in normal anecdysial (intermolt) claw muscle is described. Crab Ca 2+ -dependent proteinase degrades the myofibrillar proteins actin, myosin heavy and light chains, paramyosin, tropomyosin, and troponin-T and -I. Ca 2+ -dependent proteinase activity in whole homogenates and 90,000 x g supernatant fractions from muscle homogenates has been characterized with respect to Ca 2+ requirement, substrate specificity, and effects of proteinase inhibitors. The enzyme is inhibited by antipain, leupeptin, E-64, and iodoacetamide; it is insensitive to pepstatin A. The specificity of crab Ca 2+ -dependent proteinase was examined with native myosin with normal ATPase activity as well as with radioiodinated myosin and radioiodinated hemolymph proteins. Hydrolysis of 125 I-myosin occurs in two phases, both Ca 2+ -dependent: (1) heavy chain (M/sub r/ = 200,000) is cleaved into four large fragments (M/sub r/ = 160,000, 110,000, 73,000, 60,000) and numerous smaller fragments; light chain (M/sub r/ = 18,000) is cleaved to a 15,000-Da fragment; (2) the fragments produced in the first phase are hydrolyzed to acid-soluble material. Although radioiodinated native hemolymph proteins are not susceptible to the Ca 2+ -dependent proteinase, those denatured by carboxymethylation are degraded. These data suggest that crab Ca 2+ -dependent proteinase is involved in turnover of myofibrillar protein in normal muscle and muscle undergoing proecdysial atrophy

  8. Regulatory domain selectivity in the cell-type specific PKN-dependence of cell migration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie Lachmann

    Full Text Available The mammalian protein kinase N (PKN family of Serine/Threonine kinases comprises three isoforms, which are targets for Rho family GTPases. Small GTPases are major regulators of the cellular cytoskeleton, generating interest in the role(s of specific PKN isoforms in processes such as cell migration and invasion. It has been reported that PKN3 is required for prostate tumour cell invasion but not PKN1 or 2. Here we employ a cell model, the 5637 bladder tumour cell line where PKN2 is relatively highly expressed, to assess the potential redundancy of these isoforms in migratory responses. It is established that PKN2 has a critical role in the migration and invasion of these cells. Furthermore, using a PKN wild-type and chimera rescue strategy, it is shown that PKN isoforms are not simply redundant in supporting migration, but appear to be linked through isoform specific regulatory domain properties to selective upstream signals. It is concluded that intervention in PKNs may need to be directed at multiple isoforms to be effective in different cell types.

  9. Regulatory domain selectivity in the cell-type specific PKN-dependence of cell migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachmann, Sylvie; Jevons, Amy; De Rycker, Manu; Casamassima, Adele; Radtke, Simone; Collazos, Alejandra; Parker, Peter J

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian protein kinase N (PKN) family of Serine/Threonine kinases comprises three isoforms, which are targets for Rho family GTPases. Small GTPases are major regulators of the cellular cytoskeleton, generating interest in the role(s) of specific PKN isoforms in processes such as cell migration and invasion. It has been reported that PKN3 is required for prostate tumour cell invasion but not PKN1 or 2. Here we employ a cell model, the 5637 bladder tumour cell line where PKN2 is relatively highly expressed, to assess the potential redundancy of these isoforms in migratory responses. It is established that PKN2 has a critical role in the migration and invasion of these cells. Furthermore, using a PKN wild-type and chimera rescue strategy, it is shown that PKN isoforms are not simply redundant in supporting migration, but appear to be linked through isoform specific regulatory domain properties to selective upstream signals. It is concluded that intervention in PKNs may need to be directed at multiple isoforms to be effective in different cell types.

  10. Moisture Dependence of physical Properties and Specific Heat Capacity of Neem (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss Kernels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Dauda

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of moisture content on the physical properties and specific heat capacity of Neem (Azadirachta Indica A. Juss nut kernels. The major, intermediate and minor axial dimensions of the kernels increased from 1.04 to 1.23cm, 0.42 to 0.6cm, and 0.32 to 0.45cm respectively, as the moisture content increased from 5.2 to 44.9 % (db. The arithmetic and geometric mean diameters determined at the same moisture level were significantly different from each other, with the arithmetic mean diameter being higher. In the above moisture range, one thousand kernel weight, true density, porosity, sphericity, roundness and surface area all increased linearly from 0.0987 to 0.1755kg, 632 to 733kgm-3, 6.42 to 32.14%, 41.3 to 47.5%, 22 to 36% and 13 to 24cm2 respectively, while bulk density decreased from 591.4 to 497.4kgm-3 with increase in moisture content. Angle of repose increased from 21.22 to 29.8o with increase in moisture content. The Static coefficient of friction on ply wood with grains parallel to the direction of movement ranged from 0.41 to 0.61, it ranged from 0.19 to 0.24 on on fiber glass, 0.28 to .038 on hessian bag material and 0.25 to 0.33 on galvanized steel sheet. The specific heat of the seed varied from 2738.1- 4345.4J/kg/oC in the above moisture range.

  11. Pharmacokinetics of colon-specific pH and time-dependent flurbiprofen tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemula, Sateesh Kumar; Veerareddy, Prabhakar Reddy; Devadasu, Venkat Ratnam

    2015-09-01

    Present research deals with the development of compression-coated flurbiprofen colon-targeted tablets to retard the drug release in the upper gastro intestinal system, but progressively release the drug in the colon. Flurbiprofen core tablets were prepared by direct compression method and were compression coated using sodium alginate and Eudragit S100. The formulation is optimized based on the in vitro drug release study and further evaluated by X-ray imaging and pharmacokinetic studies in healthy humans for colonic delivery. The optimized formulation showed negligible drug release (4.33 ± 0.06 %) in the initial lag period followed by progressive release (100.78 ± 0.64 %) for 24 h. The X-ray imaging in human volunteers showed that the tablets reached the colon without disintegrating in the upper gastrointestinal tract. The C max of colon-targeted tablets was 12,374.67 ng/ml at T max 10 h, where as in case of immediate release tablets the C max was 15,677.52 ng/ml at T max 3 h, that signifies the ability of compression-coated tablets to target the colon. Development of compression-coated tablets using combination of time-dependent and pH-sensitive approaches was suitable to target the flurbiprofen to colon.

  12. Anisotropic Concrete Compressive Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gustenhoff Hansen, Søren; Jørgensen, Henrik Brøner; Hoang, Linh Cao

    2017-01-01

    When the load carrying capacity of existing concrete structures is (re-)assessed it is often based on compressive strength of cores drilled out from the structure. Existing studies show that the core compressive strength is anisotropic; i.e. it depends on whether the cores are drilled parallel...

  13. IGF-1 Regulates Vertebral Bone Aging Through Sex-Specific and Time-Dependent Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashpole, Nicole M; Herron, Jacquelyn C; Mitschelen, Matthew C; Farley, Julie A; Logan, Sreemathi; Yan, Han; Ungvari, Zoltan; Hodges, Erik L; Csiszar, Anna; Ikeno, Yuji; Humphrey, Mary Beth; Sonntag, William E

    2016-02-01

    Advanced aging is associated with increased risk of bone fracture, especially within the vertebrae, which exhibit significant reductions in trabecular bone structure. Aging is also associated with a reduction in circulating levels of insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1). Studies have suggested that the reduction in IGF-1 compromises healthspan, whereas others report that loss of IGF-1 is beneficial because it increases healthspan and lifespan. To date, the effect of decreases in circulating IGF-1 on vertebral bone aging has not been thoroughly investigated. Here, we delineate the consequences of a loss of circulating IGF-1 on vertebral bone aging in male and female Igf(f/f) mice. IGF-1 was reduced at multiple specific time points during the mouse lifespan: early in postnatal development (crossing albumin-cyclic recombinase [Cre] mice with Igf(f/f) mice); and in early adulthood and in late adulthood using hepatic-specific viral vectors (AAV8-TBG-Cre). Vertebrae bone structure was analyzed at 27 months of age using micro-computed tomography (μCT) and quantitative bone histomorphometry. Consistent with previous studies, both male and female mice exhibited age-related reductions in vertebral bone structure. In male mice, reduction of circulating IGF-1 induced at any age did not diminish vertebral bone loss. Interestingly, early-life loss of IGF-1 in females resulted in a 67% increase in vertebral bone volume fraction, as well as increased connectivity density and increased trabecular number. The maintenance of bone structure in the early-life IGF-1-deficient females was associated with increased osteoblast surface and an increased ratio of osteoprotegerin/receptor-activator of NF-κB-ligand (RANKL) levels in circulation. Within 3 months of a loss of IGF-1, there was a 2.2-fold increase in insulin receptor expression within the vertebral bones of our female mice, suggesting that local signaling may compensate for the loss of circulating IGF-1. Together, these data

  14. DEPENDENCE BETWEEN ACYLATION DEGREE AND SPECIFIC LYSIS ACTITIVY OF THE PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA М6 BACTERIOPHAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynov A. V.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The purpose of this work is to study the influence of various degrees of protein’s acylation on lytic activity and other biological properties of Pseudomonas M6 bacteriophage. Materials and methods. The subject of the study were samples of the Pseudomonas O 12 bacteriophage, hereinafter named the M6 phage. Pure phage lines were obtained from individual standard-morphology phage plaques (plaque-forming units, or PFUs after ten passes over the indicator strain. In subsequent experiments, M6 phage samples were selected that had a sufficient level of purity (homogeneous in the morphology of virions that inactivated the homologic antiphage serum by no less than 99.0% and the heterologic antibacterial serum by no more than 1%, and a titer no lower than 10 PFU per ml (PFU/ml. Titration of the phages was conducted using the standard bilayer agar. The crude protein content in the phage suspensions was determined using the spectroscopic method (at 280 and 260 nm. Succinylation of the phage samples was conducted according to the method developed by T.J. Molenaar. The phage’s lytic activity spectrum was determined through spot tests on 224 strains of the Pseudomonas genus and 106 strains of other genera (correspondingly, of strains Enterobacter -40, Escherichia -10, Citrobacter -8, Hafnia -7, Serratia -6, Shigella -10, Salmonella -8, Proteus -7 through the use of a phage suspension containing 10 5 - 10 6 PFU/ml. (This concentration of infectious phage corpuscles corresponds with the critical distribution of the M6 phage. The results of the research were subjected to statistical processing using single-factor dispersion analysis. Results and discussion. One hundred percent phage protein acylation leads to a loss of adsorption ability on sensitive cells and is accompanied by a significant (more than 103 times decrease in the level of specific lytic activity in the phage preparations. The succinylation type being studied does not cause

  15. Differences in kinematics of the support limb depends on specific movement tasks of take-off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Hojka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Many sport activities are a sequence of jumps (running, jumping, hurdling etc.. Each jump flight phase is the result of the execution of the previous support phase. Objective: The goal of the research was to identify differences in adjustment of the support lower limb and differences in take-off kinematics in specific take-off movement task. Methods: 14 male athletes (22.6 ± 4.4 years; 182.4 ± 5.3 cm; 74.7 ± 6.2 kg took part in a laboratory experiment. Each athlete performed five different take-off movements (running, acceleration running - second step, long jump take-off, high jump take-off and take-off to the hurdle. System Qualisys was used to analyze the kinematics of the support limb. Dynamics of the support phase was monitored via force plate. ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test were used to measure the significance of the differences between different take off tasks. Results: Dynamic characteristic showed significant differences in take-off (p < .001. This variability is caused by differences in kinematic parameters at the instant of touch-down, minimum joint angles and take-off. The most important finding was different variability in range of motion in eccentric or concentric phases of each jump. Vertically orientated jumps are terminated in a higher degree of extension. Horizontal take-off types are characterized by the highest ranges of motion especially in the ankle joint. Conclusions: The support lower limb compliance is adjusted to the required task, which is related to lower limb kinematics during the support phase. High range of motion in each joint refers to more compliant adjustment of the joint.

  16. Nidogen-1 regulates laminin-1-dependent mammary-specific gene expression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujuguet, Philippe; Simian, Marina; Liaw, Jane; Timpl, Rupert; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J..

    2000-02-01

    Nidogen-1 (entactin) acts as a bridge between the extracellular matrix molecules laminin-1 and type IV collagen, and thus participates in the assembly of basement membranes. To investigate the role of nidogen-1 in regulating cell-type-specific gene expression in mammary epithelium, we designed a culture microecosystem in which each component, including epithelial cells, mesenchymal cells, lactogenic hormones and extracellular matrix, could be controlled. We found that primary and established mesenchymal and myoepithelial cells synthesized and secreted nidogen-1, whereas expression was absent in primary and established epithelial cells. In an epithelial cell line containing mesenchymal cells, nidogen-1 was produced by the mesenchymal cells but deposited between the epithelial cells. In this mixed culture, mammary epithelial cells express b-casein in the presence of lactogenic hormones. Addition of either laminin-1 plus nidogen-1, or laminin-1 alone to mammary epithelial cells induced b- casein production. We asked whether recombinant nidogen-1 alone could signal directly for b-casein. Nidogen-1 did not induce b-casein synthesis in epithelial cells, but it augmented the inductive capacity of laminin-1. These data suggest that nidogen-1 can cooperate with laminin-1 to regulate b-casein expression. Addition of full length nidogen-1 to the mixed cultures had no effect on b-casein gene expression; however, a nidogen-1 fragment containing the laminin-1 binding domain, but lacking the type IV collagen-binding domain, had a dominant negative effect on b-casein expression. These data point to a physiological role for nidogen-1 in the basement membrane-induced gene expression by epithelial cells.

  17. Inferring gene dependency network specific to phenotypic alteration based on gene expression data and clinical information of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xionghui; Liu, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Although many methods have been proposed to reconstruct gene regulatory network, most of them, when applied in the sample-based data, can not reveal the gene regulatory relations underlying the phenotypic change (e.g. normal versus cancer). In this paper, we adopt phenotype as a variable when constructing the gene regulatory network, while former researches either neglected it or only used it to select the differentially expressed genes as the inputs to construct the gene regulatory network. To be specific, we integrate phenotype information with gene expression data to identify the gene dependency pairs by using the method of conditional mutual information. A gene dependency pair (A,B) means that the influence of gene A on the phenotype depends on gene B. All identified gene dependency pairs constitute a directed network underlying the phenotype, namely gene dependency network. By this way, we have constructed gene dependency network of breast cancer from gene expression data along with two different phenotype states (metastasis and non-metastasis). Moreover, we have found the network scale free, indicating that its hub genes with high out-degrees may play critical roles in the network. After functional investigation, these hub genes are found to be biologically significant and specially related to breast cancer, which suggests that our gene dependency network is meaningful. The validity has also been justified by literature investigation. From the network, we have selected 43 discriminative hubs as signature to build the classification model for distinguishing the distant metastasis risks of breast cancer patients, and the result outperforms those classification models with published signatures. In conclusion, we have proposed a promising way to construct the gene regulatory network by using sample-based data, which has been shown to be effective and accurate in uncovering the hidden mechanism of the biological process and identifying the gene signature for

  18. The astrophysical r-process and its dependence on properties of nuclei far from stability: Beta strength functions and neutron capture rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klapdor, H.V.; Metzinger, J.; Oda, T.; Thielemann, F.K.; Hillebrandt, W.

    1981-01-01

    The question of the astrophysical site of the rapid neutron capture (r-) process which is believed to be responsible for the production of the heavy elements in the universe has been a problem in astrophysics for more than two decades. The solution of this problem is not only dependent on the development of realistic astrophysical supernova models, i.e. correct treatment of the hydrodynamics of gravitational collapse and supernova explosion and the equation of state of hot and dense matter, but is shown in this paper to be very sensitive also to 'standard' nuclear physics properties of nuclei far from stability such as beta decay properties and neutron capture rates. For both of the latter, strongly oversimplifying assumptions, not applying the development in nuclear physics during the last decade, have been made in almost all r-process calculations performed up to now. A critical discussion of the state of the art of such calculations seems therefore to be indicated. In this paper procedures are described which allow one to obtain: 1) β-decay properties (decay rates, β-delayed neutron emissions and fission rates); 2) neutron capture rates for neutron-rich nuclei considerably improved over what has been used up to now. The beta strength functions are calculated for approx. equal to6000 nuclei between beta stability line and neutron drip line. By hydrodynamical supernova explosion calculations using realistic stellar models it is shown that as a consequence of the improved β-rates explosive He burning is a convincing alternative site to the 'classical' r-process whose existence still is questionable. The new β-rates will be important also for the investigation of further astrophysical sites producing heavy elements such as the r(n)-processes in explosive C or Ne burning. (orig.)

  19. Frequency-Specific Abnormalities of Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Strength among Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Resting-State fMRI Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangjun; Zhou, Fuqing; Huang, Muhua; Gong, Honghan; Xu, Renshi

    2017-01-01

    The classical concept that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disorder characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons is agreed. However, more and more studies have suggested the involvement of some extra-motor regions. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency-related alteration pattern of intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS) at the voxel-wise level in the relatively early-stage of ALS on a whole brain scale. In this study, 21 patients with ALS and 21 well-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled to examine the intrinsic FCS in the different frequencies (slow-4: 0.027-0.073 Hz; slow-5: 0.01-0.027 Hz, and typical band: 0.01-0.1 Hz). Compared with the control subjects, the ALS patients showed a significantly decreased FCS in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus. In the slow-5 band, the patients with ALS showed decreased FCS in the left lingual gyrus, as well as increased FCS in the left postcentral gyrus/paracentral lobule (PoCG/PARC). In the slow-4 band, the ALS patients presented decreased FCS in the left and right ventrolateral PFC. Moreover, the increased FCS in the left PoCG/PARC in the slow-5 band was positively correlated with the ALSFRS-r score ( P = 0.015). Our results demonstrated that the FCS changes in ALS were wide spread and frequency dependent. These findings may provide some evidences that ALS patients have the consistent impairment in some extra-motor regions at a relatively early-stage.

  20. Frequency-Specific Abnormalities of Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Strength among Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The classical concept that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is a degenerative disorder characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons is agreed. However, more and more studies have suggested the involvement of some extra-motor regions. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency-related alteration pattern of intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS at the voxel-wise level in the relatively early-stage of ALS on a whole brain scale. In this study, 21 patients with ALS and 21 well-matched healthy control subjects were enrolled to examine the intrinsic FCS in the different frequencies (slow-4: 0.027–0.073 Hz; slow-5: 0.01–0.027 Hz, and typical band: 0.01–0.1 Hz. Compared with the control subjects, the ALS patients showed a significantly decreased FCS in the left prefrontal cortex (PFC and the bilateral superior frontal gyrus. In the slow-5 band, the patients with ALS showed decreased FCS in the left lingual gyrus, as well as increased FCS in the left postcentral gyrus/paracentral lobule (PoCG/PARC. In the slow-4 band, the ALS patients presented decreased FCS in the left and right ventrolateral PFC. Moreover, the increased FCS in the left PoCG/PARC in the slow-5 band was positively correlated with the ALSFRS-r score (P = 0.015. Our results demonstrated that the FCS changes in ALS were wide spread and frequency dependent. These findings may provide some evidences that ALS patients have the consistent impairment in some extra-motor regions at a relatively early-stage.

  1. A vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidase in the marine red alga Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty displays clear substrate specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenarska, Zornitsa; Taniguchi, Tomokazu; Ohsawa, Noboru; Hiraoka, Masanori; Itoh, Nobuya

    2007-05-01

    Bromoperoxidase activity was initially detected in marine macroalgae belonging to the Solieriaceae family (Gigartinales, Rhodophyta), including Solieria robusta (Greville) Kylin, Eucheuma serra J. Agardh and Kappaphycus alvarezii (Doty) Doty, which are important industrial sources of the polysaccharide carrageenan. Notably, the purification of bromoperoxidase was difficult because due to the coexistence of viscoid polysaccharides. The activity of the partially purified enzyme was dependent on the vanadate ion, and displayed a distinct substrate spectrum from that of previously reported vanadium-dependent bromoperoxidases of marine macroalgae. The enzyme was specific for Br- and I- ions and inactive toward F- and Cl-. The K(m) values for Br- and H2O2 were 2.5x10(-3) M and 8.5x10(-5) M, respectively. The halogenated product, dibromoacetaldehyde, that accumulated in K. alvarezii was additionally determined.

  2. Model for the orientation, magnetic field, and temperature dependence of the specific heat of CeCu6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelstein, A.S.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a model calculation of the orientation, magnetic field, and temperature dependence of the specific heat C of CeCu 6 are found to be in good agreement with the single-crystal data of Amato et al. The model incorporates both the Kondo and crystal-field effects. It is suggested that the low-temperature Wilson's ratio CTchi, where chi is the susceptibility, may not change in an applied field H and that both CT and chi at low temperatures as a function of H may be proportional to the many-body density of states at the energy μH

  3. Specific Oral Tolerance Induction Using IFN-Gamma in 2 Cases of Food-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geunwoong Noh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anaphylaxis induced by exercise after the intake of certain foods is referred to as food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA. Only the preventive medication such as oral sodium cromoglycate and oral combined cetirizine-montelukast was tried in FDEIA. Specific oral tolerance induction (SOTI using IFN-gamma was tried in 2 cases of FDEIA for wheat. Merely, exercise accompanied every treatment just after the intake of allergenic foods during treatment. Patients acquired tolerance for wheat in both cases successfully. After treatment, two patients take wheat in their food living freely. Conclusively, SOTI using IFN-gamma was effective as the causative treatment for allergenic foods in FDEIA.

  4. Stage-specific and age-dependent profiles of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium in rat seminiferous tubules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Homma-Takeda, S.; Nishimura, Y.; Watanabe, Y.; Imaseki, H.; Yukawa, M.

    2004-01-01

    Stage-specific and age-dependent profiles of zinc, copper, manganese, and selenium in testis were examined in Wistar rats by both inductively coupled argon plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) with a microdissection technique and in situ elemental imaging of micro-PIXE analysis. The young adult animals (10 weeks old) contained higher levels of zinc and manganese in the seminiferous tubules at stages VII-VIII than stages XI through VI and IX-X and the levels were higher than those of the immature and old animals. Copper and selenium levels at stages VII-VIII of the young adult animals were also higher than those of the immature and old animals. In stages VII and VIII, zinc was higher in the central area of the seminiferous epithelium, where spermatozoa were localized, demonstrating a cell-specific property. (author)

  5. Impact parameter dependence of the specific entropy and the light particle yield in relativistic heavy ion collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gudima, K.K.; Toneev, V.D.

    1986-01-01

    The connection between the fragment yield and the associated specific entropy of particles produced in the course of a relativistic heavy ion collision is studied within the cascade approach. The essential impact parameter dependence of the fragment yield indicates that the specific entropy increases with impact parameter and that the critical density of the system decay is the larger the more central the collision process is. The results show that the thermodynamical equilibrium limit for the entropy production is not reached for such heavy systems as Nb+Nb at 400 MeV/nucleon and that the finite size effects and the dynamical freeze-out process are dominant factors in determining the cluster yield

  6. Can a soda-lime glass be used to demonstrate how patterns of strength dependence are influenced by pre-cementation and resin-cementation variables?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hooi, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To determine how the variability in biaxial flexure strength of a soda-lime glass analogue for a PLV and DBC material was influenced by precementation operative variables and following resin-cement coating.

  7. Reconstructed ancestral enzymes reveal that negative selection drove the evolution of substrate specificity in ADP-dependent kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Fernandez, Víctor; Herrera-Morande, Alejandra; Zamora, Ricardo; Merino, Felipe; Gonzalez-Ordenes, Felipe; Padilla-Salinas, Felipe; Pereira, Humberto M; Brandão-Neto, Jose; Garratt, Richard C; Guixe, Victoria

    2017-09-22

    One central goal in molecular evolution is to pinpoint the mechanisms and evolutionary forces that cause an enzyme to change its substrate specificity; however, these processes remain largely unexplored. Using the glycolytic ADP-dependent kinases of archaea, including the orders Thermococcales , Methanosarcinales , and Methanococcales , as a model and employing an approach involving paleoenzymology, evolutionary statistics, and protein structural analysis, we could track changes in substrate specificity during ADP-dependent kinase evolution along with the structural determinants of these changes. To do so, we studied five key resurrected ancestral enzymes as well as their extant counterparts. We found that a major shift in function from a bifunctional ancestor that could phosphorylate either glucose or fructose 6-phosphate (fructose-6-P) as a substrate to a fructose 6-P-specific enzyme was started by a single amino acid substitution resulting in negative selection with a ground-state mode against glucose and a subsequent 1,600-fold change in specificity of the ancestral protein. This change rendered the residual phosphorylation of glucose a promiscuous and physiologically irrelevant activity, highlighting how promiscuity may be an evolutionary vestige of ancestral enzyme activities, which have been eliminated over time. We also could reconstruct the evolutionary history of substrate utilization by using an evolutionary model of discrete binary characters, indicating that substrate uses can be discretely lost or acquired during enzyme evolution. These findings exemplify how negative selection and subtle enzyme changes can lead to major evolutionary shifts in function, which can subsequently generate important adaptive advantages, for example, in improving glycolytic efficiency in Thermococcales . © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Increased CEST specificity for amide and fast-exchanging amine protons using exchange-dependent relaxation rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Wang, Feng; Xu, Junzhong; Gochberg, Daniel F; Gore, John C; Zu, Zhongliang

    2018-02-01

    Chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) imaging of amides at 3.5 ppm and fast-exchanging amines at 3 ppm provides a unique means to enhance the sensitivity of detection of, for example, proteins/peptides and neurotransmitters, respectively, and hence can provide important information on molecular composition. However, despite the high sensitivity relative to conventional magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), in practice, CEST often has relatively poor specificity. For example, CEST signals are typically influenced by several confounding effects, including direct water saturation (DS), semi-solid non-specific magnetization transfer (MT), the influence of water relaxation times (T 1w ) and nearby overlapping CEST signals. Although several editing techniques have been developed to increase the specificity by removing DS, semi-solid MT and T 1w influences, it is still challenging to remove overlapping CEST signals from different exchanging sites. For instance, the amide proton transfer (APT) signal could be contaminated by CEST effects from fast-exchanging amines at 3 ppm and intermediate-exchanging amines at 2 ppm. The current work applies an exchange-dependent relaxation rate (R ex ) to address this problem. Simulations demonstrate that: (1) slowly exchanging amides and fast-exchanging amines have distinct dependences on irradiation powers; and (2) R ex serves as a resonance frequency high-pass filter to selectively reduce CEST signals with resonance frequencies closer to water. These characteristics of R ex provide a means to isolate the APT signal from amines. In addition, previous studies have shown that CEST signals from fast-exchanging amines have no distinct features around their resonance frequencies. However, R ex gives Lorentzian lineshapes centered at their resonance frequencies for fast-exchanging amines and thus can significantly increase the specificity of CEST imaging for amides and fast-exchanging amines. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons

  9. A Xylenol Orange-Based Screening Assay for the Substrate Specificity of Flavin-Dependent para-Phenol Oxidases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom A. Ewing

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO and eugenol oxidase (EUGO are flavin-dependent enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of para-substituted phenols. This makes them potentially interesting biocatalysts for the conversion of lignin-derived aromatic monomers to value-added compounds. To facilitate their biocatalytic exploitation, it is important to develop methods by which variants of the enzymes can be rapidly screened for increased activity towards substrates of interest. Here, we present the development of a screening assay for the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases based on the detection of hydrogen peroxide using the ferric-xylenol orange complex method. The assay was used to screen the activity of VAO and EUGO towards a set of twenty-four potential substrates. This led to the identification of 4-cyclopentylphenol as a new substrate of VAO and EUGO and 4-cyclohexylphenol as a new substrate of VAO. Screening of a small library of VAO and EUGO active-site variants for alterations in their substrate specificity led to the identification of a VAO variant (T457Q with increased activity towards vanillyl alcohol (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol and a EUGO variant (V436I with increased activity towards chavicol (4-allylphenol and 4-cyclopentylphenol. This assay provides a quick and efficient method to screen the substrate specificity of para-phenol oxidases, facilitating the enzyme engineering of known para-phenol oxidases and the evaluation of the substrate specificity of novel para-phenol oxidases.

  10. A Xylenol Orange-Based Screening Assay for the Substrate Specificity of Flavin-Dependent para-Phenol Oxidases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Tom A; van Noord, Aster; Paul, Caroline E; van Berkel, Willem J H

    2018-01-14

    Vanillyl alcohol oxidase (VAO) and eugenol oxidase (EUGO) are flavin-dependent enzymes that catalyse the oxidation of para -substituted phenols. This makes them potentially interesting biocatalysts for the conversion of lignin-derived aromatic monomers to value-added compounds. To facilitate their biocatalytic exploitation, it is important to develop methods by which variants of the enzymes can be rapidly screened for increased activity towards substrates of interest. Here, we present the development of a screening assay for the substrate specificity of para -phenol oxidases based on the detection of hydrogen peroxide using the ferric-xylenol orange complex method. The assay was used to screen the activity of VAO and EUGO towards a set of twenty-four potential substrates. This led to the identification of 4-cyclopentylphenol as a new substrate of VAO and EUGO and 4-cyclohexylphenol as a new substrate of VAO. Screening of a small library of VAO and EUGO active-site variants for alterations in their substrate specificity led to the identification of a VAO variant (T457Q) with increased activity towards vanillyl alcohol (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzyl alcohol) and a EUGO variant (V436I) with increased activity towards chavicol (4-allylphenol) and 4-cyclopentylphenol. This assay provides a quick and efficient method to screen the substrate specificity of para -phenol oxidases, facilitating the enzyme engineering of known para- phenol oxidases and the evaluation of the substrate specificity of novel para -phenol oxidases.

  11. Ploidy-dependent changes in the epigenome of symbiotic cells correlate with specific patterns of gene expression

    KAUST Repository

    Nagymihály, Marianna

    2017-04-13

    The formation of symbiotic nodule cells in Medicago truncatula is driven by successive endoreduplication cycles and transcriptional reprogramming in different temporal waves including the activation of more than 600 cysteine-rich NCR genes expressed only in nodules. We show here that the transcriptional waves correlate with growing ploidy levels and have investigated how the epigenome changes during endoreduplication cycles. Differential DNA methylation was found in only a small subset of symbiotic nodule-specific genes, including more than half of the NCR genes, whereas in most genes DNA methylation was unaffected by the ploidy levels and was independent of the genes\\' active or repressed state. On the other hand, expression of nodule-specific genes correlated with ploidy-dependent opening of the chromatin as well as, in a subset of tested genes, with reduced H3K27me3 levels combined with enhanced H3K9ac levels. Our results suggest that endoreduplication-dependent epigenetic changes contribute to transcriptional reprogramming in the differentiation of symbiotic cells.

  12. Nutritional Supplements for Strength Power Athletes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilborn, Colin

    Over the last decade research involving nutritional supplementation and sport performance has increased substantially. Strength and power athletes have specific needs to optimize their performance. Nutritional supplementation cannot be viewed as a replacement for a balanced diet but as an important addition to it. However, diet and supplementation are not mutually exclusive, nor does one depend on the other. Strength and power athletes have four general areas of supplementation needs. First, strength athletes need supplements that have a direct effect on performance. The second group of supplements includes those that promote recovery. The third group comprises the supplements that enhance immune function. The last group of supplements includes those that provide energy or have a direct effect on the workout. This chapter reviews the key supplements needed to optimize the performance and training of the strength athlete.

  13. Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinases from Arabidopsis show substrate specificity differences in an analysis of 103 substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy eCurran

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The identification of substrates represents a critical challenge for understanding any protein kinase-based signal transduction pathway. In Arabidopsis, there are more than 1000 different protein kinases, 34 of which belong to a family of Ca2+-dependent protein kinases (CPKs. While CPKs are implicated in regulating diverse aspects of plant biology, from ion transport to transcription, relatively little is known about isoform-specific differences in substrate specificity, or the number of phosphorylation targets. Here, in vitro kinase assays were used to compare phosphorylation targets of four CPKs from Arabidopsis (CPK1, 10, 16 and 34. Significant differences in substrate specificity for each kinase were revealed by assays using 103 different substrates. For example CPK16 phosphorylated Serine 109 in a peptide from the stress-regulated protein, Di19-2 with KM ~70 µM, but this site was not phosphorylated significantly by CPKs 1, 10, or 34. In contrast, CPKs 1, 10, and 34 phosphorylated 93 other peptide substrates not recognized by CPK16. Examples of substrate specificity differences among all four CPKs were verified by kinetic analyses. To test the correlation between in vivo phosphorylation events and in vitro kinase activities, assays were performed with 274 synthetic peptides that contained phosphorylation sites previously mapped in proteins isolated from plants (in vivo-mapped sites. Of these, 74 (27% were found to be phosphorylated by at least one of the four CPKs tested. This 27% success rate validates a robust strategy for linking the activities of specific kinases, such as CPKs, to the thousands of in planta phosphorylation sites that are being uncovered by emerging technologies.

  14. TLR2-dependent inhibition of macrophage responses to IFN-gamma is mediated by distinct, gene-specific mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah A Benson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis uses multiple mechanisms to avoid elimination by the immune system. We have previously shown that M. tuberculosis can inhibit selected macrophage responses to IFN-gamma through TLR2-dependent and -independent mechanisms. To specifically address the role of TLR2 signaling in mediating this inhibition, we stimulated macrophages with the specific TLR2/1 ligand Pam(3CSK(4 and assayed responses to IFN-gamma. Pam(3CSK(4 stimulation prior to IFN-gamma inhibited transcription of the unrelated IFN-gamma-inducible genes, CIITA and CXCL11. Surface expression of MHC class II and secretion of CXCL11 were greatly reduced as well, indicating that the reduction in transcripts had downstream effects. Inhibition of both genes required new protein synthesis. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we found that TLR2 stimulation inhibited IFN-gamma-induced RNA polymerase II binding to the CIITA and CXCL11 promoters. Furthermore, TATA binding protein was unable to bind the TATA box of the CXCL11 promoter, suggesting that assembly of transcriptional machinery was disrupted. However, TLR2 stimulation affected chromatin modifications differently at each of the inhibited promoters. Histone H3 and H4 acetylation was reduced at the CIITA promoter but unaffected at the CXCL11 promoter. In addition, NF-kappaB signaling was required for inhibition of CXCL11 transcription, but not for inhibition of CIITA. Taken together, these results indicate that TLR2-dependent inhibition of IFN-gamma-induced gene expression is mediated by distinct, gene-specific mechanisms that disrupt binding of the transcriptional machinery to the promoters.

  15. SU-C-304-07: Are Small Field Detector Correction Factors Strongly Dependent On Machine-Specific Characteristics?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mathew, D; Tanny, S; Parsai, E; Sperling, N

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The current small field dosimetry formalism utilizes quality correction factors to compensate for the difference in detector response relative to dose deposited in water. The correction factors are defined on a machine-specific basis for each beam quality and detector combination. Some research has suggested that the correction factors may only be weakly dependent on machine-to-machine variations, allowing for determinations of class-specific correction factors for various accelerator models. This research examines the differences in small field correction factors for three detectors across two Varian Truebeam accelerators to determine the correction factor dependence on machine-specific characteristics. Methods: Output factors were measured on two Varian Truebeam accelerators for equivalently tuned 6 MV and 6 FFF beams. Measurements were obtained using a commercial plastic scintillation detector (PSD), two ion chambers, and a diode detector. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm with an SSD of 100 cm for jaw-defined field sizes ranging from 3×3 cm 2 to 0.6×0.6 cm 2 , normalized to values at 5×5cm 2 . Correction factors for each field on each machine were calculated as the ratio of the detector response to the PSD response. Percent change of correction factors for the chambers are presented relative to the primary machine. Results: The Exradin A26 demonstrates a difference of 9% for 6×6mm 2 fields in both the 6FFF and 6MV beams. The A16 chamber demonstrates a 5%, and 3% difference in 6FFF and 6MV fields at the same field size respectively. The Edge diode exhibits less than 1.5% difference across both evaluated energies. Field sizes larger than 1.4×1.4cm2 demonstrated less than 1% difference for all detectors. Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest that class-specific correction may not be appropriate for micro-ionization chamber. For diode systems, the correction factor was substantially similar and may be useful for class-specific reference

  16. SU-C-304-07: Are Small Field Detector Correction Factors Strongly Dependent On Machine-Specific Characteristics?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathew, D; Tanny, S; Parsai, E; Sperling, N [University of Toledo Medical Center, Toledo, OH (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The current small field dosimetry formalism utilizes quality correction factors to compensate for the difference in detector response relative to dose deposited in water. The correction factors are defined on a machine-specific basis for each beam quality and detector combination. Some research has suggested that the correction factors may only be weakly dependent on machine-to-machine variations, allowing for determinations of class-specific correction factors for various accelerator models. This research examines the differences in small field correction factors for three detectors across two Varian Truebeam accelerators to determine the correction factor dependence on machine-specific characteristics. Methods: Output factors were measured on two Varian Truebeam accelerators for equivalently tuned 6 MV and 6 FFF beams. Measurements were obtained using a commercial plastic scintillation detector (PSD), two ion chambers, and a diode detector. Measurements were made at a depth of 10 cm with an SSD of 100 cm for jaw-defined field sizes ranging from 3×3 cm{sup 2} to 0.6×0.6 cm{sup 2}, normalized to values at 5×5cm{sup 2}. Correction factors for each field on each machine were calculated as the ratio of the detector response to the PSD response. Percent change of correction factors for the chambers are presented relative to the primary machine. Results: The Exradin A26 demonstrates a difference of 9% for 6×6mm{sup 2} fields in both the 6FFF and 6MV beams. The A16 chamber demonstrates a 5%, and 3% difference in 6FFF and 6MV fields at the same field size respectively. The Edge diode exhibits less than 1.5% difference across both evaluated energies. Field sizes larger than 1.4×1.4cm2 demonstrated less than 1% difference for all detectors. Conclusion: Preliminary results suggest that class-specific correction may not be appropriate for micro-ionization chamber. For diode systems, the correction factor was substantially similar and may be useful for class-specific

  17. Domain-specific perceptual causality in children depends on the spatio-temporal configuration, not motion onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne eSchlottmann

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Humans, even babies, perceive causality when one shape moves briefly and linearly after another. Motion timing is crucial in this and causal impressions disappear with short delays between motions. However, the role of temporal information is more complex: It is both a cue to causality and a factor that constrains processing. It affects ability to distinguish causality from non-causality, and social from mechanical causality. Here we study both issues with 3- to 7-year-olds and adults who saw two computer-animated squares and chose if a picture of mechanical, social or non-causality fit each event best. Prior work fit with the standard view that early in development, the distinction between the social and physical domains depends mainly on whether or not the agents make contact, and that this reflects concern with domain-specific motion onset, in particular, whether the motion is self-initiated or not. The present experiments challenge both parts of this position. In Experiments 1 and 2, we showed that not just spatial, but also animacy and temporal information affect how children distinguish between physical and social causality. In Experiments 3 and 4 we showed that children do not seem to use spatio-temporal information in perceptual causality to make inferences about self- or other-initiated motion onset. Overall, spatial contact may be developmentally primary in domain-specific perceptual causality in that it is processed easily and is dominant over competing cues, but it is not the only cue used early on and it is not used to infer motion onset. Instead, domain-specific causal impressions may be automatic reactions to specific perceptual configurations, with a complex role for temporal information.

  18. On the nature and nurture of intelligence and specific cognitive abilities: the more heritable, the more culture dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Kees-Jan; Wicherts, Jelte M; Dolan, Conor V; van der Maas, Han L J

    2013-12-01

    To further knowledge concerning the nature and nurture of intelligence, we scrutinized how heritability coefficients vary across specific cognitive abilities both theoretically and empirically. Data from 23 twin studies (combined N = 7,852) showed that (a) in adult samples, culture-loaded subtests tend to demonstrate greater heritability coefficients than do culture-reduced subtests; and (b) in samples of both adults and children, a subtest's proportion of variance shared with general intelligence is a function of its cultural load. These findings require an explanation because they do not follow from mainstream theories of intelligence. The findings are consistent with our hypothesis that heritability coefficients differ across cognitive abilities as a result of differences in the contribution of genotype-environment covariance. The counterintuitive finding that the most heritable abilities are the most culture-dependent abilities sheds a new light on the long-standing nature-nurture debate of intelligence.

  19. Electronic Excitations in Solution: The Interplay between State Specific Approaches and a Time-Dependent Density Functional Theory Description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guido, Ciro A; Jacquemin, Denis; Adamo, Carlo; Mennucci, Benedetta

    2015-12-08

    We critically analyze the performances of continuum solvation models when coupled to time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) to predict solvent effects on both absorption and emission energies of chromophores in solution. Different polarization schemes of the polarizable continuum model (PCM), such as linear response (LR) and three different state specific (SS) approaches, are considered and compared. We show the necessity of introducing a SS model in cases where large electron density rearrangements are involved in the excitations, such as charge-transfer transitions in both twisted and quadrupolar compounds, and underline the very delicate interplay between the selected polarization method and the chosen exchange-correlation functional. This interplay originates in the different descriptions of the transition and ground/excited state multipolar moments by the different functionals. As a result, the choice of both the DFT functional and the solvent polarization scheme has to be consistent with the nature of the studied electronic excitation.

  20. Specificity of the trypanothione-dependent Leishmania major glyoxalase I: structure and biochemical comparison with the human enzyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, Antonio; Vickers, Tim J; Greig, Neil; Armour, Kirsten A; Dixon, Mark J; Eggleston, Ian M; Fairlamb, Alan H; Bond, Charles S

    2006-02-01

    Trypanothione replaces glutathione in defence against cellular damage caused by oxidants, xenobiotics and methylglyoxal in the trypanosomatid parasites, which cause trypanosomiasis and leishmaniasis. In Leishmania major, the first step in methylglyoxal detoxification is performed by a trypanothione-dependent glyoxalase I (GLO1) containing a nickel cofactor; all other characterized eukaryotic glyoxalases use zinc. In kinetic studies L. major and human enzymes were active with methylglyoxal derivatives of several thiols, but showed opposite substrate selectivities: N1-glutathionylspermidine hemithioacetal is 40-fold better with L. major GLO1, whereas glutathione hemithioacetal is 300-fold better with human GLO1. Similarly, S-4-bromobenzylglutathionylspermidine is a 24-fold more potent linear competitive inhibitor of L. major than human GLO1 (Kis of 0.54 microM and 12.6 microM, respectively), whereas S-4-bromobenzylglutathione is >4000-fold more active against human than L. major GLO1 (Kis of 0.13 microM and >500 microM respectively). The crystal structure of L. major GLO1 reveals differences in active site architecture to both human GLO1 and the nickel-dependent Escherichia coli GLO1, including increased negative charge and hydrophobic character and truncation of a loop that may regulate catalysis in the human enzyme. These differences correlate with the differential binding of glutathione and trypanothione-based substrates, and thus offer a route to the rational design of L. major-specific GLO1 inhibitors.

  1. Regional Specific Evidence for Memory-Load Dependent Activity in the Dorsal Subiculum and the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-pi Ku

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The subiculum and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC are the main output areas of the hippocampus which contribute to spatial and non-spatial memory. The proximal part of the subiculum (bordering CA1 receives heavy projections from the perirhinal cortex and the distal part of CA1 (bordering the subiculum, both known for their ties to object recognition memory. However, the extent to which the proximal subiculum contributes to non-spatial memory is still unclear. Comparatively, the involvement of the LEC in non-spatial information processing is quite well known. However, very few studies have investigated its role within the frame of memory function. Thus, it is not known whether its contribution depends on memory load. In addition, the deep layers of the EC have been shown to be predictive of subsequent memory performance, but not its superficial layers. Hence, here we tested the extent to which the proximal part of the subiculum and the superficial and deep layers of the LEC contribute to non-spatial memory, and whether this contribution depends on the memory load of the task. To do so, we imaged brain activity at cellular resolution in these areas in rats performing a delayed nonmatch to sample task based on odors with two different memory loads (5 or 10 odors. This imaging technique is based on the detection of the RNA of the immediate-early gene Arc, which is especially tied to synaptic plasticity and behavioral demands, and is commonly used to map activity in the medial temporal lobe. We report for the first time that the proximal part of the subiculum is recruited in a memory-load dependent manner and the deep layers of the LEC engaged under high memory load conditions during the retrieval of non-spatial memory, thus shedding light on the specific networks contributing to non-spatial memory retrieval.

  2. Regional Specific Evidence for Memory-Load Dependent Activity in the Dorsal Subiculum and the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Shih-Pi; Nakamura, Nozomu H; Maingret, Nicolas; Mahnke, Liv; Yoshida, Motoharu; Sauvage, Magdalena M

    2017-01-01

    The subiculum and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) are the main output areas of the hippocampus which contribute to spatial and non-spatial memory. The proximal part of the subiculum (bordering CA1) receives heavy projections from the perirhinal cortex and the distal part of CA1 (bordering the subiculum), both known for their ties to object recognition memory. However, the extent to which the proximal subiculum contributes to non-spatial memory is still unclear. Comparatively, the involvement of the LEC in non-spatial information processing is quite well known. However, very few studies have investigated its role within the frame of memory function. Thus, it is not known whether its contribution depends on memory load. In addition, the deep layers of the EC have been shown to be predictive of subsequent memory performance, but not its superficial layers. Hence, here we tested the extent to which the proximal part of the subiculum and the superficial and deep layers of the LEC contribute to non-spatial memory, and whether this contribution depends on the memory load of the task. To do so, we imaged brain activity at cellular resolution in these areas in rats performing a delayed nonmatch to sample task based on odors with two different memory loads (5 or 10 odors). This imaging technique is based on the detection of the RNA of the immediate-early gene Arc , which is especially tied to synaptic plasticity and behavioral demands, and is commonly used to map activity in the medial temporal lobe. We report for the first time that the proximal part of the subiculum is recruited in a memory-load dependent manner and the deep layers of the LEC engaged under high memory load conditions during the retrieval of non-spatial memory, thus shedding light on the specific networks contributing to non-spatial memory retrieval.

  3. Regional Specific Evidence for Memory-Load Dependent Activity in the Dorsal Subiculum and the Lateral Entorhinal Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Shih-pi; Nakamura, Nozomu H.; Maingret, Nicolas; Mahnke, Liv; Yoshida, Motoharu; Sauvage, Magdalena M.

    2017-01-01

    The subiculum and the lateral entorhinal cortex (LEC) are the main output areas of the hippocampus which contribute to spatial and non-spatial memory. The proximal part of the subiculum (bordering CA1) receives heavy projections from the perirhinal cortex and the distal part of CA1 (bordering the subiculum), both known for their ties to object recognition memory. However, the extent to which the proximal subiculum contributes to non-spatial memory is still unclear. Comparatively, the involvement of the LEC in non-spatial information processing is quite well known. However, very few studies have investigated its role within the frame of memory function. Thus, it is not known whether its contribution depends on memory load. In addition, the deep layers of the EC have been shown to be predictive of subsequent memory performance, but not its superficial layers. Hence, here we tested the extent to which the proximal part of the subiculum and the superficial and deep layers of the LEC contribute to non-spatial memory, and whether this contribution depends on the memory load of the task. To do so, we imaged brain activity at cellular resolution in these areas in rats performing a delayed nonmatch to sample task based on odors with two different memory loads (5 or 10 odors). This imaging technique is based on the detection of the RNA of the immediate-early gene Arc, which is especially tied to synaptic plasticity and behavioral demands, and is commonly used to map activity in the medial temporal lobe. We report for the first time that the proximal part of the subiculum is recruited in a memory-load dependent manner and the deep layers of the LEC engaged under high memory load conditions during the retrieval of non-spatial memory, thus shedding light on the specific networks contributing to non-spatial memory retrieval. PMID:28790897

  4. CYLD, a deubiquitinase specific for lysine63-linked polyubiquitins, accumulates at the postsynaptic density in an activity-dependent manner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dosemeci, Ayse; Thein, Soe; Yang, Yijung; Reese, Thomas S.; Tao-Cheng, Jung-Hwa

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► CYLD is a deubiquitinase specific for lysine63-linked polyubiquitins. ► Presence of CYLD in PSDs is established by biochemistry and immunoEM. ► CYLD accumulates on PSDs upon depolarization of neurons. ► Accumulation of CYLD at PSDs may regulate trafficking/degradation of synaptic proteins. -- Abstract: Polyubiquitin chains on proteins flag them for distinct fates depending on the type of polyubiquitin linkage. While lysine48-linked polyubiquitination directs proteins to proteasomal degradation, lysine63-linked polyubiquitination promotes different protein trafficking and is involved in autophagy. Here we show that postsynaptic density (PSD) fractions from adult rat brain contain deubiquitinase activity that targets both lysine48 and lysine63-linked polyubiquitins. Comparison of PSD fractions with parent subcellular fractions by Western immunoblotting reveals that CYLD, a deubiquitinase specific for lysine63-linked polyubiquitins, is highly enriched in the PSD fraction. Electron microscopic examination of hippocampal neurons in culture under basal conditions shows immunogold label for CYLD at the PSD complex in approximately one in four synapses. Following depolarization by exposure to high K+, the proportion of CYLD-labeled PSDs as well as the labeling intensity of CYLD at the PSD increased by more than eighty percent, indicating that neuronal activity promotes accumulation of CYLD at the PSD. An increase in postsynaptic CYLD following activity would promote removal of lysine63-polyubiquitins from PSD proteins and thus could regulate their trafficking and prevent their autophagic degradation.

  5. Different patterns in the prognostic value of age for bladder cancer-specific survival depending on tumor stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Huan; Zhang, Wei; Li, Jiajun; Lu, Xiaozhe

    2015-01-01

    To compare the pathological features and long-term survival of bladder cancer (BCa) in young patients with elderly counterparts. Using the U.S. National Cancer Institute's Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) population-based data, we identified 93115 patients with non-metastatic bladder cancer diagnosed between 1988 and 2003. Patients were categorized into young (50 years and under) and elderly groups (over 50 years of age). The overall and five-year bladder cancer specific survival (BCSS) data were obtained using Kaplan-Meier plots. Multivariable Cox regression models were built for the analysis of long-term survival outcomes and risk factors. There were significant differences between the two groups in primary site, pathologic grading, histologic type, AJCC stage (pstage patients. The study findings show different patterns in the prognostic value of age for determining BCSS, depending on the tumor stages. Compared with elderly patients, young patients with bladder cancer surgery appear to have unique characteristics and a higher overall and cancer specific survival rate.

  6. CYLD, a deubiquitinase specific for lysine63-linked polyubiquitins, accumulates at the postsynaptic density in an activity-dependent manner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dosemeci, Ayse, E-mail: dosemeca@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Neurobiology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Thein, Soe; Yang, Yijung; Reese, Thomas S. [Laboratory of Neurobiology, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Tao-Cheng, Jung-Hwa [EM Facility, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)

    2013-01-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYLD is a deubiquitinase specific for lysine63-linked polyubiquitins. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Presence of CYLD in PSDs is established by biochemistry and immunoEM. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CYLD accumulates on PSDs upon depolarization of neurons. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accumulation of CYLD at PSDs may regulate trafficking/degradation of synaptic proteins. -- Abstract: Polyubiquitin chains on proteins flag them for distinct fates depending on the type of polyubiquitin linkage. While lysine48-linked polyubiquitination directs proteins to proteasomal degradation, lysine63-linked polyubiquitination promotes different protein trafficking and is involved in autophagy. Here we show that postsynaptic density (PSD) fractions from adult rat brain contain deubiquitinase activity that targets both lysine48 and lysine63-linked polyubiquitins. Comparison of PSD fractions with parent subcellular fractions by Western immunoblotting reveals that CYLD, a deubiquitinase specific for lysine63-linked polyubiquitins, is highly enriched in the PSD fraction. Electron microscopic examination of hippocampal neurons in culture under basal conditions shows immunogold label for CYLD at the PSD complex in approximately one in four synapses. Following depolarization by exposure to high K+, the proportion of CYLD-labeled PSDs as well as the labeling intensity of CYLD at the PSD increased by more than eighty percent, indicating that neuronal activity promotes accumulation of CYLD at the PSD. An increase in postsynaptic CYLD following activity would promote removal of lysine63-polyubiquitins from PSD proteins and thus could regulate their trafficking and prevent their autophagic degradation.

  7. Induction of apoptosis by Fe(salenCl through caspase-dependent pathway specifically in tumor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitika Pradhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Iron-based compounds possess the capability of inducing cell death due to their reactivity with oxidant molecules, but their specificity towards cancer cells and the mechanism of action are hitherto less investigated. A Fe(salenCl derivative has been synthesized that remains active in monomer form. The efficacy of this compound as an anti-tumor agent has been investigated in mouse and human leukemia cell lines. Fe(salenCl induces cell death specifically in tumor cells and not in primary cells. Mouse and human T-cell leukemia cell lines, EL4 and Jurkat cells are found to be susceptible to Fe(salenCl and undergo apoptosis, but normal mouse spleen cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC remain largely unaffected by Fe(salenCl. Fe(salenCl treated tumor cells show significantly higher expression level of cytochrome c that might have triggered the cascade of reactions leading to apoptosis in cancer cells. A significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential upon Fe(salenCl treatment suggests that Fe(salenCl induces apoptosis by disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential and homeostasis, leading to cytotoxity. We also established that apoptosis in the Fe(salenCl-treated tumor cells is mediated through caspase-dependent pathway. This is the first report demonstrating that Fe(salenCl can specifically target the tumor cells, leaving the primary cells least affected, indicating an excellent potential for this compound to emerge as a next-generation anti-tumor drug.

  8. Induction of apoptosis by Fe(salen)Cl through caspase-dependent pathway specifically in tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Nitika; Pratheek, B M; Garai, Antara; Kumar, Ashutosh; Meena, Vikram S; Ghosh, Shyamasree; Singh, Sujay; Kumari, Shikha; Chandrashekar, T K; Goswami, Chandan; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis; Kar, Sanjib; Maiti, Prasanta K

    2014-10-01

    Iron-based compounds possess the capability of inducing cell death due to their reactivity with oxidant molecules, but their specificity towards cancer cells and the mechanism of action are hitherto less investigated. A Fe(salen)Cl derivative has been synthesized that remains active in monomer form. The efficacy of this compound as an anti-tumor agent has been investigated in mouse and human leukemia cell lines. Fe(salen)Cl induces cell death specifically in tumor cells and not in primary cells. Mouse and human T-cell leukemia cell lines, EL4 and Jurkat cells are found to be susceptible to Fe(salen)Cl and undergo apoptosis, but normal mouse spleen cells and human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) remain largely unaffected by Fe(salen)Cl. Fe(salen)Cl treated tumor cells show significantly higher expression level of cytochrome c that might have triggered the cascade of reactions leading to apoptosis in cancer cells. A significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential upon Fe(salen)Cl treatment suggests that Fe(salen)Cl induces apoptosis by disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential and homeostasis, leading to cytotoxity. We also established that apoptosis in the Fe(salen)Cl-treated tumor cells is mediated through caspase-dependent pathway. This is the first report demonstrating that Fe(salen)Cl can specifically target the tumor cells, leaving the primary cells least affected, indicating an excellent potential for this compound to emerge as a next-generation anti-tumor drug. © 2014 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  9. Protective effects of estrogen against vascular calcification via estrogen receptor α-dependent growth arrest-specific gene 6 transactivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanao-Hamai, Michiko; Son, Bo-Kyung; Hashizume, Tsuyoshi; Ogawa, Sumito; Akishita, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Vascular calcification is one of the major complications of cardiovascular disease and is an independent risk factor for myocardial infarction and cardiac death. Postmenopausal women have a higher prevalence of vascular calcification compared with premenopausal women, suggesting protective effects of estrogen (E2). However, the underlying mechanisms of its beneficial effects remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the inhibitory effects of E2 on vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification, and found that growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), a crucial molecule in vascular calcification, is transactivated by estrogen receptor α (ERα) in response to E2. In human aortic smooth muscle cells, physiological levels of E2 inhibited inorganic phosphate (Pi)-induced calcification in a concentration-dependent manner. This inhibitory effect was significantly abolished by MPP, an ERα-selective antagonist, and ERα siRNA, but not by PHTPP, an ERβ-selective antagonist, and ERβ siRNA, implicating an ERα-dependent action. Apoptosis, an essential process for Pi-induced VSMC calcification, was inhibited by E2 in a concentration-dependent manner and further, MPP abolished this inhibition. Mechanistically, E2 restored the inhibited expression of Gas6 and phospho-Akt in Pi-induced apoptosis through ERα. Furthermore, E2 significantly activated Gas6 transcription, and MPP abrogated this E2-dependent Gas6 transactivation. E2-BSA failed to activate Gas6 transcription and to inhibit Ca deposition in VSMC, suggesting beneficial actions of genomic signaling by E2/nuclear ERα. Taken together, these results indicate that E2 exerts inhibitory effects on VSMC apoptosis and calcification through ERα-mediated Gas6 transactivation. These findings indicate a potential therapeutic strategy for the prevention of vascular calcification, especially in postmenopausal women. - Highlights: • E2 inhibits Pi-induced calcification in vascular smooth muscles cells. • E2 inhibits Pi

  10. Location of the major 2Psub(1/2) strength in 49Sc by forward angle heavy-ion j dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, K.W.; Zeller, A.F.; Ophel, T.R.

    1977-12-01

    Foward angle 48 Ca( 7 Li, 6 He) data show the 4.49 MeV state in 49 Sc to be 2Psub(1/2) and not 2Psub(3/2) as reported in an earlier 48 Ca( 15 N, 14 C) work. The ( 3 He,d) spectroscopic factor of 0.55 indicates that this state has the major components of the 2psub(1/2) strength in 49 Sc. (Author)

  11. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate metabolism in synaptic growth, strength, and precision: neural and behavioral phenotype-specific counterbalancing effects between dnc phosphodiesterase and rut adenylyl cyclase mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2012-03-01

    Two classic learning mutants in Drosophila, rutabaga (rut) and dunce (dnc), are defective in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and degradation, respectively, exhibiting a variety of neuronal and behavioral defects. We ask how the opposing effects of these mutations on cAMP levels modify subsets of phenotypes, and whether any specific phenotypes could be ameliorated by biochemical counter balancing effects in dnc rut double mutants. Our study at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) demonstrates that dnc mutations caused severe defects in nerve terminal morphology, characterized by unusually large synaptic boutons and aberrant innervation patterns. Interestingly, a counterbalancing effect led to rescue of the aberrant innervation patterns but the enlarged boutons in dnc rut double mutant remained as extreme as those in dnc. In contrast to dnc, rut mutations strongly affect synaptic transmission. Focal loose-patch recording data accumulated over 4 years suggest that synaptic currents in rut boutons were characterized by unusually large temporal dispersion and a seasonal variation in the amount of transmitter release, with diminished synaptic currents in summer months. Experiments with different rearing temperatures revealed that high temperature (29-30°C) decreased synaptic transmission in rut, but did not alter dnc and wild-type (WT). Importantly, the large temporal dispersion and abnormal temperature dependence of synaptic transmission, characteristic of rut, still persisted in dnc rut double mutants. To interpret these results in a proper perspective, we reviewed previously documented differential effects of dnc and rut mutations and their genetic interactions in double mutants on a variety of physiological and behavioral phenotypes. The cases of rescue in double mutants are associated with gradual developmental and maintenance processes whereas many behavioral and physiological manifestations on faster time scales could not be rescued. We discuss

  12. Cyclic-AMP metabolism in synaptic growth, strength and precision: Neural and behavioral phenotype-specific counterbalancing effects between dnc PDE and rut AC mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2012-01-01

    Two classic learning mutants in Drosophila, rutabaga (rut) and dunce (dnc), are defective in cAMP synthesis and degradation, respectively, exhibiting a variety of neuronal and behavioral defects. We ask how the opposing effects of these mutations on cAMP levels modify subsets of phenotypes, and whether any specific phenotypes could be ameliorated by biochemical counter balancing effects in dnc rut double mutants. Our study at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) demonstrate that dnc mutations caused severe defects in nerve terminal morphology, characterized by unusually large synaptic boutons and aberrant innervation patterns. Interestingly, a counterbalancing effect led to rescue of the aberrant innervation patterns but the enlarged boutons in dnc rut double mutant remained as extreme as those in dnc. In contrast to dnc, rut mutations strongly affect synaptic transmission. Focal loose-patch recording data accumulated over 4 years suggest that synaptic currents in rut boutons were characterized by unusually large temporal dispersion and a seasonal variation in the amount of transmitter release, with diminished synaptic currents in summer months. Experiments with different rearing temperatures revealed that high temperature (29–30 °C) decreased synaptic transmission in rut, but did not alter dnc and WT. Importantly, the large temporal dispersion and abnormal temperature dependence of synaptic transmission, characteristic of rut, still persisted in dnc rut double mutants. To interpret these results in a proper perspective, we reviewed previously documented differential effects of dnc and rut mutations and their genetic interactions in double mutants on a variety of physiological and behavioral phenotypes. The cases of rescue in double mutants are associated with gradual developmental and maintenance processes whereas many behavioral and physiological manifestations on faster time scales could not be rescued. We discuss factors that could contribute to the

  13. Effects of starvation on the transport of Escherichia coli K12 in saturated porous media are dependent on pH and ionic strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, S.; Walczak, J. J.; Wang, L.; Bardy, S. L.; Li, J.

    2010-12-01

    In this research, we investigate the effects of starvation on the transport of E. coli K12 in saturated porous media. Particularly, we examine the relationship between such effects and the pH and ionic strength of the electrolyte solutions that were used to suspend bacterial cells. E. coli K12 (ATCC 10798) cells were cultured using either Luria-Bertani Miller (LB-Miller) broth (10 g trypton, 5 g yeast extract and 10 g NaCl in 1 L of deionized water) or LB-Luria broth (10 g tryptone, 5 g yeast extract and 0.5 g NaCl in 1 L of deionized water). Both broths had similar pH (~7.1) but differed in ionic strength (LB-Miller: ~170 mM, LB-Luria: ~ 8 mM). The bacterial cells were then harvested and suspended using one of the following electrolyte solutions: phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (pH ~7.2; ionic strength ~170 mM), 168 mM NaCl (pH ~5.7), 5% of PBS (pH ~ 7.2; ionic strength ~ 8 mM) and 8 mM NaCl (pH ~ 5.7). Column transport experiments were performed at 0, 21 and 48 hours following cell harvesting to evaluate the change in cell mobility over time under “starvation” conditions. Our results showed that 1) starvation increased the mobility of E. coli K12 cells; 2) the most significant change in mobility occurred when bacterial cells were suspended in an electrolyte solution that had different pH and ionic strength (i.e., LB-Miller culture suspended in 8 mM NaCl and LB-Luria culture suspended in 168 mM Nacl); and 3) the change in cell mobility primarily occurred within the first 21 hours. The size of the bacterial cells was measured and the surface properties (e.g., zeta potential, hydrophobicity, cell-bound protein, LPS sugar content, outer membrane protein profiles) of the bacterial cells were characterized. We found that the measured cell surface properties could not fully explain the observed changes in cell mobility caused by starvation.

  14. Cytoskeletal protein translation and expression in the rat brain are stressor-dependent and region-specific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Sántha

    Full Text Available Stress is an integral component of life that can sometimes cause a critical overload, depending on the qualitative and quantitative natures of the stressors. The involvement of actin, the predominant component of dendritic integrity, is a plausible candidate factor in stress-induced neuronal cytoskeletal changes. The major aim of this study was to compare the effects of three different stress conditions on the transcription and translation of actin-related cytoskeletal genes in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats were exposed to one or other of the frequently used models of physical stress, i.e. electric foot shock stress (EFSS, forced swimming stress (FSS, or psychosocial stress (PSS for periods of 3, 7, 14, or 21 days. The relative mRNA and protein expressions of β-actin, cofilin and mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (MAPK-1 were determined by qRT- PCR and western blotting from hippocampus and frontal cortex samples. Stressor-specific alterations in both β-actin and cofilin expression levels were seen after stress. These alterations were most pronounced in response to EFSS, and exhibited a U-shaped time course. FSS led to a significant β-actin mRNA expression elevation in the hippocampus and the frontal cortex after 3 and 7 days, respectively, without any subsequent change. PSS did not cause any change in β-actin or cofilin mRNA or protein expression in the examined brain regions. EFSS, FSS and PSS had no effect on the expression of MAPK-1 mRNA at any tested time point. These findings indicate a very delicate, stress type-dependent regulation of neuronal cytoskeletal components in the rat hippocampus and frontal cortex.

  15. Dual effect of fetal bovine serum on early development depends on stage-specific reactive oxygen species demands in pigs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seong-Eun Mun

    Full Text Available Despite the application of numerous supplements to improve in vitro culture (IVC conditions of mammalian cells, studies regarding the effect of fetal bovine serum (FBS on mammalian early embryogenesis, particularly in relation to redox homeostasis, are lacking. Herein, we demonstrated that early development of in vitro-produced (IVP porcine embryos highly depends on the combination of FBS supplementation timing and embryonic reactive oxygen species (ROS requirements. Interestingly, FBS significantly reduced intracellular ROS levels in parthenogenetically activated (PA embryos regardless of the developmental stage. However, the beneficial effect of FBS on early embryogenesis was found only during the late phase (IVC 4-6 days treatment group. In particular, developmental competence parameters, such as blastocyst formation rate, cellular survival, total cell number and trophectoderm proportion, were markedly increased by FBS supplementation during the late IVC phase. In addition, treatment with FBS elevated antioxidant transcript levels during the late IVC phase. In contrast, supplementation with FBS during the entire period (1-6 days or during the early IVC phase (1-2 days greatly impaired the developmental parameters. Consistent with the results from PA embryos, the developmental competence of in vitro fertilization (IVF or somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT embryos were markedly improved by treatment with FBS during the late IVC phase. Moreover, the embryonic stage-specific effects of FBS were reversed by the addition of an oxidant and were mimicked by treatment with an antioxidant. These findings may increase our understanding of redox-dependent early embryogenesis and contribute to the large-scale production of high-quality IVP embryos.

  16. Age- and stage-dependent variations of muscle-specific gene expression in brown trout Salmo trutta L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churova, Maria V; Meshcheryakova, Olga V; Ruchev, Mikhail; Nemova, Nina N

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to characterize the features of muscle-specific genes expression during development of brown trout Salmo trutta inhabiting the river Krivoy ruchey (Kola Peninsula, Russia). Gene expression levels of myogenic regulatory factors (MRFs - MyoD1 paralogs (MyoD1a, MyoD1b, MyoD1c), Myf5, myogenin), myostatin paralogs (MSTN-1a, MSTN-1b, MSTN-2a), fast skeletal myosin heavy chain (MyHC) were measured in the white muscles of brown trout parr of ages 0+ (under-yearling), 1+ (yearling) and 2+ (two year old) and smolts of age 2+. Multidirectional changes in MyoD1 and MSTN paralogs expression along with myogenin, Myf 5 and MyHC expression levels in white muscles in parr of trout with age were revealed. The expression of MyoD1c, myogenin, MSTN-2a was the highest in 0+ parr and then decreased. MyoD1a/b expression levels didn't differ between age groups. The simultaneous elevation of MyHC, Myf5, MSTN-1a, and MSTN-1b was found in trout yearlings. In smolts, expression levels of MSTN paralogs, MyHC, Myf5, MyoD1a was lower than in parr. But in contrast, the MyoD1c and myogenin mRNA levels was higher in smolts. The study revealed that there are definite patterns in simultaneous muscle-specific genes expression in age groups of parr and smolts. As MyoD and MSTN paralogs expression changed differently in dependence on age and stage, it was suggested that paralogs of the same gene complementarily control myogenesis during development. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Age-dependent trigeminal and female-specific lumbosacral increase in herpes zoster distribution in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Kimiyasu; Toyama, Nozomu; Shiraki, Atsuko; Yajima, Misako

    2018-05-01

    Varicella-zoster virus causes herpes zoster (HZ) along specific dermatomes, but the effects of age and sex on HZ distribution are unclear. We investigated the age- and sex-dependent distribution characteristics of HZ. Patients with HZ were monitored by members of the Miyazaki Dermatologist Society. Questionnaires containing information on age, sex, and dermatome distribution and lesion specimens from 2730 patients were collected, and 2508 PCR-diagnosed cases were analyzed. The ratio of lesions in the thoracic area to lesions in the whole body decreased with age, whereas those of other areas increased. HZ incidence increased with age to about four times that of the basic incidence in the dermatome areas at age 0-29 years; the incidence in the trigeminal area in both sexes increased 11-fold, and the incidence in the thoracic and lumbosacral areas increased in females more than in males. Furthermore, the fact that the highest incidence was found along the first branch of the trigeminal nerve suggests an association with long-term ultraviolet ray exposure. Segmental dermatomes comprising thoracic 10-lumbar 1/sacral 2-4 and thoracic 5-6 were significantly more frequently affected in female patients at age 50-59 years and are consistent with areas of obstetric anesthesia for childbirth and of breastfeeding, respectively. HZ incidence increased with age; moreover, exposure to ultraviolet rays, childbirth, and breastfeeding might increase the incidence at specific dermatomes in older individuals. This study provides important information on the etiology of HZ. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Organism traits determine the strength of scale-dependent bio-geomorphic feedbacks: a flume study on three intertidal plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Temmerman, S.; van Duren, L.A.; Martini, E.; Vandenbruwaene, W.; Callaghan, D.P.; Balke, T.; Biermans, G.; Klaassen, P.C.; van Steeg, R.; Dekker, F.; van de Koppel, J.; de Vries, Mindert; Herman, P.M.J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the important role of scale-dependent feedback for biogeomorphological landscape formation, where organisms locally improve survival and growth but at the same time negatively affect organisms at larger distance. However, little is known on how scale-dependent

  19. Organism traits determine the strength of scale-dependent bio-geomorphic feedbacks: A flume study on three intertidal plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Temmerman, S.; van Duren, L.A.; Martini, E.; Vandenbruwaene, W.; Callaghan, D.P.; Balke, T.; Biermans, G.; Klaassen, P.C.; van Steeg, R.; Dekker, F.; van de Koppel, J.; Herman, P.M.J.; de Vries, M.B.

    2013-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of the important role of scale-dependent feedback for biogeomorphological landscape formation, where organisms locally improve survival and growth but at the same time negatively affect organisms at larger distance. However, little is known on how scale-dependent

  20. Island-specific preferences of tourists for environmental features: implications of climate change for tourism dependent states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uyarra, M.C.; Cote, I.M. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation; Gill, J.A. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research, Norwich (United Kingdom); Tinch, R.T. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences; Macaulay Land Use Research Inst., Aberdeen (United Kingdom); Viner, D. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Climate Research Unit; Watkinson, A.R. [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). Centre for Ecology, Evolution and Conservation; East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences

    2005-03-15

    Climate change may affect important environmental components of holiday destinations, which might have repercussions for tourism-dependent economies. This study documents the importance of environmental attributes in determining the choice and holiday enjoyment of tourists visiting Bonaire and Barbados, two Caribbean islands with markedly different tourism markets and infrastructure. Three hundred and sixteen and 338 participants from Bonaire and Barbados, respectively, completed standardized questionnaires. Warm temperatures, clear waters and low health risks were the most important environmental features determining holiday destination choice. However, tourists in Bonaire thereafter prioritized marine wildlife attributes (i.e. coral and fish diversity and abundance) over other environmental features, whereas tourists in Barbados exhibited stronger preferences for terrestrial features, particularly beach characteristics. The willingness of tourists to revisit these islands was strongly linked to the state of the preferred environmental attributes. More than 80% of tourists in Bonaire and Barbados would be unwilling to return for the same holiday price in the event, respectively, of coral bleaching as a result of elevated sea surface temperatures and reduced beach area as a result of sea level rise. Climate change might have a significant impact on Caribbean tourism economy through alteration of environmental features important to destination selection. Island-specific management strategies, such as focusing resources on the protection of key marine or terrestrial features, may provide a means of reducing the environmental and economic impacts of climate change. (author)

  1. Cloning of a cDNA encoding the human cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate-specific receptor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohlmann, R.; Nagel, G.; Schmidt, B.

    1987-01-01

    Complementary DNA clones for the human cation-dependent mannose 6-phosphate-specific receptor have been isolated from a human placenta library in λgt11. The nucleotide sequence of the 2463-base-pair cDNA insert includes a 145-base-pair 5' untranslated region, an open reading frame of 831 base pairs corresponding to 277 amino acids, and a 1487-base-pair 3' untranslated region. The deduced amino acid sequence is colinear with that determined by amino acid sequencing of the N-terminus peptide (41 residues) and nine tryptic peptides (93 additional residues). The receptor is synthesized as a precursor with a signal peptide of 20 amino acids. The hydrophobicity profile of the receptor indicates a single membrane-spanning domain, which separates an N-terminal region containing five potential N-glycosylation sites from a C-terminal region lacking N-glycosylation sites. Thus the N-terminal (M/sub r/ = 18,299) and C-terminal (M/sub r/ ≤ 7648) segments of the mature receptor are assumed to be exposed to the extracytosolic and cytosolic sides of the membrane, respectively. Analysis of a panel of somatic cell (mouse-human) hybrids shows that the gene for the receptor is located on human chromosome 12

  2. Enzyme Sorption onto Soil and Biocarbon Amendments Alters Catalytic Capacity and Depends on the Specific Protein and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, E.; Fogle, E. J.; Cotrufo, M. F.

    2017-12-01

    Enzymes catalyze biogeochemical reactions in soils and play a key role in nutrient cycling in agricultural systems. Often, to increase soil nutrients, agricultural managers add organic amendments and have recently experimented with charcoal-like biocarbon products. These amendments can enhance soil water and nutrient holding capacity through increasing porosity. However, the large surface area of the biocarbon has the potential to sorb nutrients and other organic molecules. Does the biocarbon decrease nutrient cycling through sorption of enzymes? In a laboratory setting, we compared the interaction of two purified enzymes β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase with a sandy clay loam and two biocarbons. We quantified the sorbed enzymes at three different pHs using a Bradford protein assay and then measured the activity of the sorbed enzyme via high-throughput fluorometric analysis. Both sorption and activity depended upon the solid phase, pH, and specific enzyme. Overall the high surface area biocarbon impacted the catalytic capacity of the enzymes more than the loam soil, which may have implications for soil nutrient management with these organic amendments.

  3. Casein Hydrolysates by Lactobacillus brevis and Lactococcus lactis Proteases: Peptide Profile Discriminates Strain-Dependent Enzyme Specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bounouala, Fatima Zohra; Roudj, Salima; Karam, Nour-Eddine; Recio, Isidra; Miralles, Beatriz

    2017-10-25

    Casein from ovine and bovine milk were hydrolyzed with two extracellular protease preparations from Lactobacillus brevis and Lactococcus lactis. The hydrolysates were analyzed by HPLC-MS/MS for peptide identification. A strain-dependent peptide profile could be observed, regardless of the casein origin, and the specificity of these two proteases could be computationally ascribed. The cleavage pattern yielding phenylalanine, leucine, or tyrosine at C-terminal appeared both at L. lactis and Lb. brevis hydrolysates. However, the cleavage C-terminal to lysine was favored with Lb. brevis protease. The hydrolysates showed ACE-inhibitory activity with IC 50 in the 16-70 μg/mL range. Ovine casein hydrolysates yielded greater ACE-inhibitory activity. Previously described antihypertensive and opioid peptides were found in these ovine and bovine casein hydrolysates and prediction of the antihypertensive activity of the sequences based on quantitative structure and activity relationship (QSAR) was performed. This approach might represent a useful classification tool regarding health-related properties prior to further purification.

  4. The dopamine transporter gene may not contribute to susceptibility and the specific personality traits of amphetamine dependence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzeng, Nian-Sheng; Lu, Ru-Band; Yeh, Hui-Wen; Yeh, Yi-Wei; Huang, Chang-Chih; Yen, Che-Hung; Kuo, Shin-Chang; Chen, Chun-Yen; Chang, Hsin-An; Ho, Pei-Shen; Cheng, Serena; Shih, Mei-Chen; Huang, San-Yuan

    2015-04-01

    A substantial amount of evidence suggests that dysfunction of the dopamine transporter may be involved in the pathophysiology of amphetamine dependence (AD). The aim of this study was to examine whether the dopamine transporter gene (DAT1, SLC6A3) is associated with development of AD and whether this gene influences personality traits in patients with AD. Eighteen polymorphisms of the DAT1 gene were analyzed in a case-control study that included 909 Han Chinese men (568 patients with AD and 341 control subjects). The patients fulfilled the DSM-IV-TR criteria for AD. The Tridimensional Personality Questionnaire (TPQ) was used to assess personality traits and to examine the association between these traits and DAT1 gene variants. A weak association was found between the rs27072 polymorphism and development of AD, but these borderline associations were unconfirmed by logistic regression and haplotype analysis. Although harm avoidance and novelty seeking scores were significantly higher in patients than in controls, DAT1 polymorphisms did not influence these scores. This study suggests that high harm avoidance and novelty seeking personality traits may be a risk factor for the development of AD. However, the DAT1 gene may not contribute to AD susceptibility and specific personality traits observed in AD among Han Chinese men. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Site-Specific Hydrogen Isotope Composition of Propane: Mass spectrometric methods, equilibrium temperature dependence, and kinetics of exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H.; Ponton, C.; Kitchen, N.; Lloyd, M. K.; Lawson, M.; Formolo, M. J.; Eiler, J. M.

    2016-12-01

    Intramolecular isotope ordering can constrain temperatures of synthesis, mechanisms of formation, and/or source substrates of organic compounds. Here we explore site-specific hydrogen isotope variations of propane. Statistical thermodynamic models predict that at equilibrium methylene hydrogen (-CH2-) in propane will be 10's of per mil higher in D/H ratio than methyl hydrogen (-CH3) at geologically relevant temperatures, and that this difference is highly temperature dependent ( 0.5-1 ‰/°C). Chemical-kinetic controls on site-specific D/H in propane could constrain the mechanisms, conditions and extents of propane synthesis or destruction. We have developed a method for measuring the difference in D/H ratio between methylene and methyl hydrogen in propane by gas source mass spectrometry. The data were measured using the Thermo Fisher Double Focusing Sector high resolution mass spectrometer (DFS), and involve comparison of the D/H ratios of molecular ion (C3H8+) and the ethyl fragmental ion (C2H5+). We demonstrate the accuracy and precision of this method through analysis of D-labeled and independently analyzed propanes. In the exchange experiments, propane was heated (100-200 oC) either alone or in the presence of D-enriched water (δD=1,1419 ‰ SMOW), with or without one of several potentially catalytic substrates for hours to weeks. Propane was found to exchange hydrogen with water vigorously at 200 °C in the presence of metal catalysts. In the presence of Ni catalyst, methylene hydrogen exchanges 2.5 times faster than methyl hydrogen. Hydrogen exchange in the presence of Pd catalyst is more effective and can equilibrate hydrogen isotope distribution on propane on the order of 7 days. Isotopic exchange in the presence of natural materials have also been tested, but is only measurable in the methylene group at 200 °C. High catalytic activity of Pd permits attainment of a bracketed, time-invariant equilibrium state that we use to calibrate the site-specific

  6. Genome-wide linkage scan for maximum and length-dependent knee muscle strength in young men: significant evidence for linkage at chromosome 14q24.3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mars, G; Windelinckx, A; Huygens, W; Peeters, M W; Beunen, G P; Aerssens, J; Vlietinck, R; Thomis, M A I

    2008-05-01

    Maintenance of high muscular fitness is positively related to bone health, functionality in daily life and increasing insulin sensitivity, and negatively related to falls and fractures, morbidity and mortality. Heritability of muscle strength phenotypes ranges between 31% and 95%, but little is known about the identity of the genes underlying this complex trait. As a first attempt, this genome-wide linkage study aimed to identify chromosomal regions linked to muscle and bone cross-sectional area, isometric knee flexion and extension torque, and torque-length relationship for knee flexors and extensors. In total, 283 informative male siblings (17-36 years old), belonging to 105 families, were used to conduct a genome-wide SNP-based multipoint linkage analysis. The strongest evidence for linkage was found for the torque-length relationship of the knee flexors at 14q24.3 (LOD = 4.09; p<10(-5)). Suggestive evidence for linkage was found at 14q32.2 (LOD = 3.00; P = 0.005) for muscle and bone cross-sectional area, at 2p24.2 (LOD = 2.57; p = 0.01) for isometric knee torque at 30 degrees flexion, at 1q21.3, 2p23.3 and 18q11.2 (LOD = 2.33, 2.69 and 2.21; p<10(-4) for all) for the torque-length relationship of the knee extensors and at 18p11.31 (LOD = 2.39; p = 0.0004) for muscle-mass adjusted isometric knee extension torque. We conclude that many small contributing genes rather than a few important genes are involved in causing variation in different underlying phenotypes of muscle strength. Furthermore, some overlap in promising genomic regions were identified among different strength phenotypes.

  7. A Critical Analysis of Grain-Size and Yield-Strength Dependence of Near-Threshold Fatigue-Crack Growth in Steels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-07-15

    of high-strength steel ), and a host of microstructural types (ferritic, martensitic, pearlitic, bainitic , austenitic). Accession For NTIS GRA&l DTIC...IN STEELS , : RPRNGO.RPRTNMR 1~A Tw.R CONTRACT OA4A&XMUt8~ G/~ ! R./koderl L.A./Cooleyad T.W./Crooker 2 .{I 9PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND A10R4SI...growth Steels Microstructure Ferrous alloys Structure-sensitive crack growth 20 ABSTRACT (Con~tinue an r*,er.. side it necesar and Identity by black

  8. Right- and left-brain hemisphere. Rhythm in reaction time to light signals is task-load-dependent: age, gender, and handgrip strength rhythm comparisons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinberg, Alain; Bicakova-Rocher, Alena; Mechkouri, Mohamed; Ashkenazi, Israel

    2002-11-01

    In healthy mature subjects simple reaction time (SRT) to a single light signal (an easy task) is associated with a prominent rhythm with tau = 24 h of dominant (DH) as well as nondominant (NDH) hand performance, while three-choice reaction time (CRT), a complex task, is associated with tau = 24 h of the DH but tau gender on the difference in tau of the NDH and DH, as it relates to the corresponding cortical hemisphere of the brain, in comparison to the rhythm in handgrip strength. Healthy subjects, 9 (5 M and 4 F) adolescents 10-16 yr of age and 15 (8 M and 7 F) adults 18-67 yr of age, active between 08:00 +/- 1 h and 23:00 +/- 1:30 h and free of alcohol, tobacco, and drug consumption volunteered. Data were gathered longitudinally at home and work 4-7 times daily for 11-20 d. At each test time the following variables were assessed: grip strength of both hands (Dynamometer: Colin-Gentile, Paris, France); single reaction time to a yellow signal (SRT); and CRT to randomized yellow, red, or green signal series with varying instruction from test to test (Psycholog-24: Biophyderm, France). Rhythms in the performance in SRT, CRT, and handgrip strength of both DH and NDH were explored. The sleep-wake rhythm was assessed by sleep-logs, and in a subset of 14 subjects it was also assessed by wrist actigraphy (Mini-Motionlogger: AMI, Ardsley NY). Exploration of the prominent period tau of time series was achieved by a special power spectra analysis for unequally spaced data. Cosinor analysis was used to quantify the rhythm amplitude A and rhythm-adjusted mean M of the power spectral analysis determined trial tau. A 24h sleep-wake rhythm was detected in almost all cases. In adults, a prominent tau of 24 h characterized the performance of the easy task by both the DH and NDH. In adults a prominent tau of 24 h was also detected in the complex CRT task performed by the DH, but for the NDH the tau was gender-related but was age-related since it was seldom observed in adolescent

  9. The influence of resistance exercise with emphasis on specific contractions (concentric vs. eccentric on muscle strength and post-exercise autonomic modulation: a randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana O. Gois

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Compared to eccentric contractions, concentric contractions result in higher cardiovascular stress. However, we do not know how these two types of contractions influence cardiac autonomic modulation during the post-exercise recovery period. Objective: to compare the effect of resistance training that is performed with concentric vs. eccentric emphasis on muscle strength and on post-exercise recovery which was assessed by examining heart rate variability (HRV, for the knee extensor muscle group in young healthy adults. Methods: For this study, 105 men between 18 and 30 years of age were randomized into 4 groups: concentric control (CONCC, eccentric control (ECCC, concentric training (CONCT and eccentric training (ECCT. The CONCC and ECCC groups underwent one session of resistance exercise (RE using the knee extensor muscle group (3 sets of 1 repetition at 100% of the maximal repetition [1MR] and the CONCT and ECCT groups performed 10 training sessions. The HRV was analyzed at baseline and across four recovery periods (T1, T2, T3 and T4. Results: The ECCT group exhibited increased muscle strength at the end of the study. Regarding cardiac autonomic modulation, the CONCC and ECCC groups exhibited increases in overall variability (SDNN and SD2 at T1 compared to baseline, and the ECCT group demonstrated increases in variables reflecting vagal modulation and the recovery process (RMSSD, SD1 and HF [ms2] at T1, T2 and T4 compared to baseline. Conclusions: Resistance training with emphasis on eccentric contractions promoted strength gain and an increase in cardiac vagal modulation during recovery compared to baseline.

  10. Frequency-Specific Abnormalities of Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Strength among Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Resting-State fMRI Study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Fangjun; Zhou, Fuqing; Huang, Muhua; Gong, Honghan; Xu, Renshi

    2017-01-01

    The classical concept that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a degenerative disorder characterized by the loss of upper and lower motor neurons is agreed. However, more and more studies have suggested the involvement of some extra-motor regions. The aim of this study is to investigate the frequency-related alteration pattern of intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS) at the voxel-wise level in the relatively early-stage of ALS on a whole brain scale. In this study, 21 patients w...

  11. Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Specific to prM Monoantibody Prevent Antibody Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Dengue virus (DENV co-circulates as four serotypes (DENV1-4. Primary infection only leads to self-limited dengue fever. But secondary infection with another serotype carries a higher risk of increased disease severity, causing life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS. Serotype cross-reactive antibodies facilitate DENV infection in Fc-receptor-bearing cells by promoting virus entry via Fcγ receptors (FcγR, a process known as antibody dependent enhancement (ADE. Most studies suggested that enhancing antibodies were mainly specific to the structural premembrane protein (prM of DENV. However, there is still no effective drugs or vaccines to prevent ADE. In this study, we firstly confirmed that both DENV-2 infected human sera (anti-DENV-2 and DENV-2 prM monoclonal antibody (prM mAb could significantly enhance DENV-1 infection in K562 cells. Then we developed anti-idiotypic antibodies (prM-AIDs specific to prM mAb by immunizing of Balb/c mice. Results showed that these polyclonal antibodies can dramatically reduce ADE phenomenon of DENV-1 infection in K562 cells. To further confirm the anti-ADE effect of prM-AIDs in vivo, interferon-α and γ receptor-deficient mice (AG6 were used as the mouse model for DENV infection. We found that administration of DENV-2 prM mAb indeed caused a higher DENV-1 titer as well as interleukin-10 (IL-10 and alaninea minotransferase (ALT in mice infected with DENV-1, similar to clinical ADE symptoms. But when we supplemented prM-AIDs to DENV-1 challenged AG6 mice, the viral titer, IL-10 and ALT were obviously decreased to the negative control level. Of note, the number of platelets in peripheral blood of prM-AIDs group were significantly increased at day 3 post infection with DENV-1 compared that of prM-mAb group. These results confirmed that our prM-AIDs could prevent ADE not only in vitro but also in vivo, suggested that anti-idiotypic antibodies might be a new choice to be considered to

  12. Anti-Idiotypic Antibodies Specific to prM Monoantibody Prevent Antibody Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Miao; Yang, Fan; Huang, Dana; Huang, Yalan; Zhang, Xiaomin; Wang, Chao; Zhang, Shaohua; Zhang, Renli

    2017-01-01

    Dengue virus (DENV) co-circulates as four serotypes (DENV1-4). Primary infection only leads to self-limited dengue fever. But secondary infection with another serotype carries a higher risk of increased disease severity, causing life-threatening dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome (DHF/DSS). Serotype cross-reactive antibodies facilitate DENV infection in Fc-receptor-bearing cells by promoting virus entry via Fcγ receptors (FcγR), a process known as antibody dependent enhancement (ADE). Most studies suggested that enhancing antibodies were mainly specific to the structural premembrane protein (prM) of DENV. However, there is still no effective drugs or vaccines to prevent ADE. In this study, we firstly confirmed that both DENV-2 infected human sera (anti-DENV-2) and DENV-2 prM monoclonal antibody (prM mAb) could significantly enhance DENV-1 infection in K562 cells. Then we developed anti-idiotypic antibodies (prM-AIDs) specific to prM mAb by immunizing of Balb/c mice. Results showed that these polyclonal antibodies can dramatically reduce ADE phenomenon of DENV-1 infection in K562 cells. To further confirm the anti-ADE effect of prM-AIDs in vivo , interferon-α and γ receptor-deficient mice (AG6) were used as the mouse model for DENV infection. We found that administration of DENV-2 prM mAb indeed caused a higher DENV-1 titer as well as interleukin-10 (IL-10) and alaninea minotransferase (ALT) in mice infected with DENV-1, similar to clinical ADE symptoms. But when we supplemented prM-AIDs to DENV-1 challenged AG6 mice, the viral titer, IL-10 and ALT were obviously decreased to the negative control level. Of note, the number of platelets in peripheral blood of prM-AIDs group were significantly increased at day 3 post infection with DENV-1 compared that of prM-mAb group. These results confirmed that our prM-AIDs could prevent ADE not only in vitro but also in vivo , suggested that anti-idiotypic antibodies might be a new choice to be considered to treat

  13. Onset and organ specificity of Tk2 deficiency depends on Tk1 down-regulation and transcriptional compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorado, Beatriz; Area, Estela; Akman, Hasan O; Hirano, Michio

    2011-01-01

    Deficiency of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) is a frequent cause of isolated myopathy or encephalomyopathy in children with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. To determine the bases of disease onset, organ specificity and severity of TK2 deficiency, we have carefully characterized Tk2 H126N knockin mice (Tk2-/-). Although normal until postnatal day 8, Tk2-/- mice rapidly develop fatal encephalomyopathy between postnatal days 10 and 13. We have observed that wild-type Tk2 activity is constant in the second week of life, while Tk1 activity decreases significantly between postnatal days 8 and 13. The down-regulation of Tk1 activity unmasks Tk2 deficiency in Tk2-/- mice and correlates with the onset of mtDNA depletion in the brain and the heart. Resistance to pathology in Tk2 mutant organs depends on compensatory mechanisms to the reduced mtDNA level. Our analyses at postnatal day 13 have revealed that Tk2-/- heart significantly increases mitochondrial transcript levels relative to the mtDNA content. This transcriptional compensation allows the heart to maintain normal levels of mtDNA-encoded proteins. The up-regulation in mitochondrial transcripts is not due to increased expression of the master mitochondrial biogenesis regulators peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1 alpha and nuclear respiratory factors 1 and 2, or to enhanced expression of the mitochondrial transcription factors A, B1 or B2. Instead, Tk2-/- heart compensates for mtDNA depletion by down-regulating the expression of the mitochondrial transcriptional terminator transcription factor 3 (MTERF3). Understanding the molecular mechanisms that allow Tk2 mutant organs to be spared may help design therapies for Tk2 deficiency.

  14. Lactate promotes specific differentiation in bovine granulosa cells depending on lactate uptake thus mimicking an early post-LH stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Baufeld

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The LH-induced folliculo-luteal transformation is connected with alterations of the gene expression profile in cells of the granulosa layer. It has been described that hypoxic conditions occur during luteinization, thus favoring the formation of L-lactate within the follicle. Despite being a product of anaerobic respiration, L-lactate has been shown to act as a signaling molecule affecting gene expression in neuronal cells. During the present study, we tested the hypothesis that L-lactate may influence differentiation of follicular granulosa cells (GC. Methods In a bovine granulosa cell culture model effects of L- and D-lactate, of increased glucose concentrations and of the lactate transport inhibitor UK5099 were analyzed. Steroid hormone production was analyzed by RIA and the abundance of key transcripts was determined by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Results L-lactate decreased the production of estradiol and significantly affected selected genes of the folliculo-luteal transition as well as genes of the lactate metabolism. CYP19A1, FSHR, LHCGR were down-regulated, whereas RGS2, VNN2, PTX3, LDHA and lactate transporters were up-regulated. These effects could be partly or completely reversed by pre-treatment of the cells with UK5099. The non-metabolized enantiomer D-lactate had even more pronounced effects on gene expression, whereas increased glucose concentrations did not affect transcript abundance. Conclusions In summary, our data suggest that L-lactate specifically alters physiological and molecular characteristics of GC. These effects critically depend on L-lactate uptake, but are not triggered by increased energy supply. Further, we could show that L-lactate has a positive feedback on the lactate metabolism. Therefore, we hypothesize that L-lactate acts as a signaling molecule in bovine and possibly other monovular species supporting differentiation during the folliculo-luteal transformation.

  15. Wear-dependent specific coefficients in a mechanistic model for turning of nickel-based superalloy with ceramic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Lacalle Luis Norberto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Difficult to cut materials such as nickel and titanium alloys are used in the aeronautical industry, the former alloys due to its heat-resistant behavior and the latter for the low weight - high strength ratio. Ceramic tools made out alumina with reinforce SiC whiskers are a choice in turning for roughing and semifinishing workpiece stages. Wear rate is high in the machining of these alloys, and consequently cutting forces tends to increase along one operation.

  16. Mosaic Expression of Thyroid Hormone Regulatory Genes Defines Cell Type-Specific Dependency in the Developing Chicken Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delbaere, Joke; Van Herck, Stijn L J; Bourgeois, Nele M A; Vancamp, Pieter; Yang, Shuo; Wingate, Richard J T; Darras, Veerle M

    2016-12-01

    The cerebellum is a morphologically unique brain structure that requires thyroid hormones (THs) for the correct coordination of key cellular events driving its development. Unravelling the interplay between the multiple factors that can regulate intracellular TH levels is a key step to understanding their role in the regulation of these cellular processes. We therefore investigated the regional/cell-specific expression pattern of TH transporters and deiodinases in the cerebellum using the chicken embryo as a model. In situ hybridisation revealed expression of the TH transporters monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) and 10 (MCT10), L-type amino acid transporter 1 (LAT1) and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1C1 (OATP1C1) as well as the inactivating type 3 deiodinase (D3) in the fourth ventricle choroid plexus, suggesting a possible contribution of the resulting proteins to TH exchange and subsequent inactivation of excess hormone at the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. Exclusive expression of LAT1 and the activating type 2 deiodinase (D2) mRNA was found at the level of the blood-brain barrier, suggesting a concerted function for LAT1 and D2 in the direct access of active T 3 to the developing cerebellum via the capillary endothelial cells. The presence of MCT8 mRNA in Purkinje cells and cerebellar nuclei during the first 2 weeks of embryonic development points to a potential role of this transporter in the uptake of T 3 in central neurons. At later stages, together with MCT10, detection of MCT8 signal in close association with the Purkinje cell dendritic tree suggests a role of both transporters in TH signalling during Purkinje cell synaptogenesis. MCT10 was also expressed in late-born cells in the rhombic lip lineage with a clear hybridisation signal in the outer external granular layer, indicating a potential role for MCT10 in the proliferation of granule cell precursors. By contrast, expression of D3 in the first-born rhombic lip-derived population may

  17. The astrophysical r-process and its dependence on properties of nuclei far from stability beta strength functions and neutron capture rates

    CERN Document Server

    Klapdor-Kleingrothaus, H V; Metzinger, J; Oda, T; Thielemann, F K

    1981-01-01

    It is shown that the astrophysical r-process and the question of its site are very sensitive to 'standard' nuclear physics parameters like the beta decay properties and neutron capture rates. Since for these quantities in almost all r-process calculations up to now, and also in all estimates of the production rates of chronometric pairs, only very rough assumptions have been made, it is attempted to present procedures which put the calculation of these quantities for nuclei far from stability on a reliable physical basis. This is done by a microscopic description of the beta strength function and by using a statistical model based on a 'next to first principles' optical potential including effects of deformation for the neutron capture rates. The beta -decay rates for approximately 6000 nuclei between the beta -stability line and the neutron drip line are calculated. The heavy element synthesis by explosive He burning then is calculated using these beta -rates and using realistic star models treating the supe...

  18. On the nature of anomalies in temperature dependence of the OKh18N1OT steel yield strength after thermal cycling in the low temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medvedev, E.M.; Lavrent'ev, F.F.; Kurmanova, T.N.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated were structural transformations in 0Kh18N10T steel as a result of heating and cooling and of deformation within the range of temperatures between 300 and 77 K, the quantity relationships between the said transformations and the variation of the yield limit with the temperature. The studies were conducted by metallography and mechanical test methods. It was shown that an increase in the number of heating and cooling cycles correlates with a loss in strength of the steel while deformation at 77 K. This anomaly in the temperature relationship of the yield limit is related to the appearance in the course of deformation of α-martensite with a BCC lattice. Deformation at 300 K increases the amount ea of epsilon-martensite, a decrses the effectve size of grain and, in consequence, increases the yield limit. The relationship between the yield limit and the grain size at the temperature of 300 K is described adequately by the Hall-Petch equation

  19. Temperature-dependent tensile strength, surface roughness diagnostics, and magnetic support and positioning of polymer ICF shells. Final report, October 1, 1993--April 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honig, A.

    1995-01-01

    During the course of this grant, we perfected emissivity and accommodation coefficient measurements on polymer ICF shells in the temperature range 250 to 350 K. Values for polystyrene shells are generally between 10 -2 and 10 -3 , which are very advantageous for ICF at cryogenic temperatures. Preliminary results on Br doped target shells indicate an accommodation coefficient, presumably associated with surface roughness on an atomic scale, about an order of magnitude larger than for ordinary polystyrene target shells. We also constructed apparatus with optical access for low temperature tensile strength and emissivity measurements, and made preliminary tests on this system. Magnetic shells were obtained both from GDP coating and from doping styrene with 10 manometer size ferromagnetic particles. The magnetic properties were measured through electron spin resonance (ESR). These experiments confirm the applicability of the Curie law, and establish the validity of using ESR measurements to determine shell temperature in the low temperature regime from 4K to 250K, thus complementing our presently accessible range. The high electron spin densities (> 10 20 /CM 3 ) suggest magnetic levitation should be feasible at cryogenic temperatures. This work has resulted in two conference presentations, a Technical Report, a paper to be published in Fusion Technology, and a Master's Thesis

  20. Dose-dependent ATP depletion and cancer cell death following calcium electroporation, relative effect of calcium concentration and electric field strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Emilie Louise; Sozer, Esin Bengisu; Romeo, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    death and could be a novel cancer treatment. This study aims at understanding the relationship between applied electric field, calcium concentration, ATP depletion and efficacy. METHODS: In three human cell lines--H69 (small-cell lung cancer), SW780 (bladder cancer), and U937 (leukaemia), viability...... was observed with fluorescence confocal microscopy of quinacrine-labelled U937 cells. RESULTS: Both H69 and SW780 cells showed dose-dependent (calcium concentration and electric field) decrease in intracellular ATP (p...-dependently reduced cell survival and intracellular ATP. Increasing extracellular calcium allows the use of a lower electric field. GENERAL SIGNIFICANCE: This study supports the use of calcium electroporation for treatment of cancer and possibly lowering the applied electric field in future trials....

  1. On the Specific Role of Microstructure in Governing Cyclic Fatigue, Deformation, and Fracture Behavior of a High-Strength Alloy Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manigandan, K.; Srivatsan, T. S.

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the results of an experimental study that focused on evaluating the conjoint influence of microstructure and test specimen orientation on fully reversed strain-controlled fatigue behavior of the high alloy steel X2M are presented and discussed. The cyclic stress response of this high-strength alloy steel revealed initial hardening during the first few cycles followed by gradual softening for most of fatigue life. Cyclic strain resistance exhibited a linear trend for the variation of elastic strain amplitude with reversals to failure, and plastic strain amplitude with reversals to failure. Fracture morphology was the same at the macroscopic level over the entire range of cyclic strain amplitudes examined. However, at the fine microscopic level, the alloy steel revealed fracture to be essentially ductile with features reminiscent of predominantly "locally" ductile and isolated brittle mechanisms. The mechanisms governing stress response at the fine microscopic level, fatigue life, and final fracture behavior are presented and discussed in light of the mutually interactive influences of intrinsic microstructural effects, deformation characteristics of the microstructural constituents during fully reversed strain cycling, cyclic strain amplitude, and resultant response stress.

  2. Recruitment of Mediator Complex by Cell Type and Stage-Specific Factors Required for Tissue-Specific TAF Dependent Gene Activation in an Adult Stem Cell Lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chenggang; Fuller, Margaret T

    2015-12-01

    Onset of terminal differentiation in adult stem cell lineages is commonly marked by robust activation of new transcriptional programs required to make the appropriate differentiated cell type(s). In the Drosophila male germ line stem cell lineage, the switch from proliferating spermatogonia to spermatocyte is accompanied by one of the most dramatic transcriptional changes in the fly, as over 1000 new transcripts turn on in preparation for meiosis and spermatid differentiation. Here we show that function of the coactivator complex Mediator is required for activation of hundreds of new transcripts in the spermatocyte program. Mediator appears to act in a sequential hierarchy, with the testis activating Complex (tMAC), a cell type specific form of the Mip/dREAM general repressor, required to recruit Mediator subunits to the chromatin, and Mediator function required to recruit the testis TAFs (tTAFs), spermatocyte specific homologs of subunits of TFIID. Mediator, tMAC and the tTAFs co-regulate expression of a major set of spermatid differentiation genes. The Mediator subunit Med22 binds the tMAC component Topi when the two are coexpressed in S2 cells, suggesting direct recruitment. Loss of Med22 function in spermatocytes causes meiosis I maturation arrest male infertility, similar to loss of function of the tMAC subunits or the tTAFs. Our results illuminate how cell type specific versions of the Mip/dREAM complex and the general transcription machinery cooperate to drive selective gene activation during differentiation in stem cell lineages.

  3. Recruitment of Mediator Complex by Cell Type and Stage-Specific Factors Required for Tissue-Specific TAF Dependent Gene Activation in an Adult Stem Cell Lineage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenggang Lu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Onset of terminal differentiation in adult stem cell lineages is commonly marked by robust activation of new transcriptional programs required to make the appropriate differentiated cell type(s. In the Drosophila male germ line stem cell lineage, the switch from proliferating spermatogonia to spermatocyte is accompanied by one of the most dramatic transcriptional changes in the fly, as over 1000 new transcripts turn on in preparation for meiosis and spermatid differentiation. Here we show that function of the coactivator complex Mediator is required for activation of hundreds of new transcripts in the spermatocyte program. Mediator appears to act in a sequential hierarchy, with the testis activating Complex (tMAC, a cell type specific form of the Mip/dREAM general repressor, required to recruit Mediator subunits to the chromatin, and Mediator function required to recruit the testis TAFs (tTAFs, spermatocyte specific homologs of subunits of TFIID. Mediator, tMAC and the tTAFs co-regulate expression of a major set of spermatid differentiation genes. The Mediator subunit Med22 binds the tMAC component Topi when the two are coexpressed in S2 cells, suggesting direct recruitment. Loss of Med22 function in spermatocytes causes meiosis I maturation arrest male infertility, similar to loss of function of the tMAC subunits or the tTAFs. Our results illuminate how cell type specific versions of the Mip/dREAM complex and the general transcription machinery cooperate to drive selective gene activation during differentiation in stem cell lineages.

  4. JTC801 Induces pH-dependent Death Specifically in Cancer Cells and Slows Growth of Tumors in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinxin; Zhu, Shan; Xie, Yangchun; Liu, Jiao; Sun, Lingyi; Zeng, Dexing; Wang, Pengcheng; Ma, Xiaochao; Kroemer, Guido; Bartlett, David L; Billiar, Timothy R; Lotze, Michael T; Zeh, Herbert J; Kang, Rui; Tang, Daolin

    2018-04-01

    lineage kinase domain like pseudokinase [MLKL]), or ferroptosis (degradation of glutathione peroxidase 4 [GPX4]). Inhibitors of apoptosis (Z-VAD-FMK), necroptosis (necrosulfonamide), ferroptosis (ferrostatin-1), or autophagy (hydroxychloroquine) did not prevent JTC801-induced death of PANC1 or MiaPaCa2 cells. The cytotoxic effects of JTC801 in immortalized fibroblast cell lines was not affected by disruption of genes that promote apoptosis (Bax -/- /Bak -/- cells), necroptosis (Ripk1 -/- , Ripk3 -/- , or Mlkl -/- cells), ferroptosis (Gpx4 -/- cells), or autophagy (Atg3 -/- , Atg5 -/- , Atg7 -/- , or Sqstm1 -/- cells). We found JTC801 to induce a pH-dependent form cell death (alkaliptosis) in cancer cells but not normal cells (hepatocytes, bone marrow CD34 + progenitor cells, peripheral blood mononuclear cells, or dermal fibroblasts) or healthy tissues of C57BL/6 mice. JTC801 induced alkaliptosis in cancer cells by activating NF-κB, which repressed expression of the carbonic anhydrase 9 gene (CA9), whose product regulates pH balance in cells. In analyses of Cancer Genome Atlas data and tissue microarrays, we associated increased tumor level of CA9 mRNA or protein with shorter survival times of patients with pancreatic, kidney, or lung cancers. Knockdown of CA9 reduced the protective effects of NF-κB inhibition on JTC801-induced cell death and intracellular alkalinization in PANC1 and MiaPaCa2 cell lines. Oral administration of JTC801 inhibited growth of xenograft tumors (from PANC1, MiaPaCa2, SK-MEL-28, PC-3, 786-0, SF-295, HCT116, OV-CAR3, and HuH7 cells), orthotropic tumors (from KPC cells), lung metastases (from KPC cells) of mice, and slowed growth of tumors in KCH mice. In a screen of agents that interact with GPCR pathways, we found JTC801 to induce pH-dependent cell death (alkaliptosis) specifically in cancer cells such as PDAC cells, by reducing expression of CA9. Levels of CA9 are increased in human cancer tissues. JTC801 might be developed for treatment of

  5. Sex- and limb-specific differences in the nitric oxide-dependent cutaneous vasodilation in response to local heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanhewicz, Anna E.; Greaney, Jody L.; Larry Kenney, W.

    2014-01-01

    Local heating of the skin is commonly used to assess cutaneous microvasculature function. Controversy exists as to whether there are limb or sex differences in the nitric oxide (NO)-dependent contribution to this vasodilation, as well as the NO synthase (NOS) isoform mediating the responses. We tested the hypotheses that 1) NO-dependent vasodilation would be greater in the calf compared with the forearm; 2) total NO-dependent dilation would not be different between sexes within limb; and 3) women would exhibit greater neuronal NOS (nNOS)-dependent vasodilation in the calf. Two microdialysis fibers were placed in the skin of the ventral forearm and the calf of 19 (10 male and 9 female) young (23 ± 1 yr) adults for the local delivery of Ringer solution (control) or 5 mM Nω-propyl-l-arginine (NPLA; nNOS inhibition). Vasodilation was induced by local heating (42°C) at each site, after which 20 mM NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) was perfused for within-site assessment of NO-dependent vasodilation. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial pressure and normalized to maximum (28 mM sodium nitroprusside, 43°C). Total NO-dependent vasodilation in the calf was lower compared with the forearm in both sexes (Ringer: 42 ± 5 vs. 62 ± 4%; P 0.05). These data suggest that the NO-dependent component of local heating-induced cutaneous vasodilation is lower in the calf compared with the forearm. Contrary to our original hypothesis, there was no contribution of nNOS to NO-dependent vasodilation in either limb during local heating. PMID:25100074

  6. Compressive strain-dependent bending strength property of Al2O3-ZrO2 (1.5 mol% Y2O3) composites performance by HIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reyes-Rojas, A.; Esparza-Ponce, H.; De la Torre, S.D.; Torres-Moye, E.

    2009-01-01

    Nanometric powders and sintered ceramics of Al 2 O 3 -ZrO 2 (1.5 mol% Y 2 O 3 ) prepared by hot isostatic pressing HIP have been studied. A detailed crystallographic study has been performed through X-ray diffraction, Williamson-Hall method, Rietveld method and high-resolution electron microscopy HREM analysis. The crystallographic structure data, such as domain size, lattice parameters, wt% phase, and micro-strain direction have been obtained using Rietveld refinement and Williamson-Hall methods. The results revealed that the compressive strain (ε) increased from 0.56 to 1.18 (10 -3 ) as the t-ZrO 2 content increased too. The HREM interface study conducted along the [0 0 0 1]Al 2 O 3 ||[0 0 1]ZrO 2 zone axis revealed a micro-strain lattice distortion accumulated at the grain boundary due to the ZrO 2 martensitic phase transformation on cooling, t-ZrO 2 grains coalescence and to the grain growth of α-Al 2 O 3 which cause elongated tetragonal crystals. Micro-strain lattice distortion is adjusted by the shear displacements of the planes (1 1 0) and (11-bar0) along [1-bar10] and [1-bar1-bar0] crystallographic directions, respectively; these planes are arrested by the (101-bar0) alumina plane. In this case, semi-coherent interfaces were observed along the grain boundary. It is verified that the bending strength increased in connection with the strain accumulation and amount of tetragonal structure

  7. Non-adjacent dependency learning in Cantonese-speaking\\ud children with and without a history of specific language\\ud impairment

    OpenAIRE

    Iao, L-S; Ng, LY; Wong, AMY; Lee, OT

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated non-adjacent dependency learning in Cantonese-speaking children with and without a history of Specific Language Impairment (SLI) in an artificial linguistic context.\\ud \\ud Method: Sixteen Cantonese-speaking children with SLI history and 16 Cantonese-speaking children with typical language development (TLD) were tested with a non-adjacent dependency learning task using artificial languages that mimic Cantonese.\\ud \\ud Results: Children with TLD performed above...

  8. Allergen-specific Th1 cells counteract efferent Th2 cell-dependent bronchial hyperresponsiveness and eosinophilic inflammation partly via IFN-gamma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, T J; MacAry, P A; Eynott, P; Moussavi, A; Daniel, K C; Askenase, P W; Kemeny, D M; Chung, K F

    2001-01-01

    Th2 T cell immune-driven inflammation plays an important role in allergic asthma. We studied the effect of counterbalancing Th1 T cells in an asthma model in Brown Norway rats that favors Th2 responses. Rats received i.v. transfers of syngeneic allergen-specific Th1 or Th2 cells, 24 h before aerosol exposure to allergen, and were studied 18-24 h later. Adoptive transfer of OVA-specific Th2 cells, but not Th1 cells, and OVA, but not BSA exposure, induced bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to acetylcholine and eosinophilia in a cell number-dependent manner. Importantly, cotransfer of OVA-specific Th1 cells dose-dependently reversed BHR and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) eosinophilia, but not mucosal eosinophilia. OVA-specific Th1 cells transferred alone induced mucosal eosinophilia, but neither BHR nor BAL eosinophilia. Th1 suppression of BHR and BAL eosinophilia was allergen specific, since cotransfer of BSA-specific Th1 cells with the OVA-specific Th2 cells was not inhibitory when OVA aerosol alone was used, but was suppressive with OVA and BSA challenge. Furthermore, recipients of Th1 cells alone had increased gene expression for IFN-gamma in the lungs, while those receiving Th2 cells alone showed increased IL-4 mRNA. Importantly, induction of these Th2 cytokines was inhibited in recipients of combined Th1 and Th2 cells. Anti-IFN-gamma treatment attenuated the down-regulatory effect of Th1 cells. Allergen-specific Th1 cells down-regulate efferent Th2 cytokine-dependent BHR and BAL eosinophilia in an asthma model via mechanisms that depend on IFN-gamma. Therapy designed to control the efferent phase of established asthma by augmenting down-regulatory Th1 counterbalancing mechanisms should be effective.

  9. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  10. Grain-orientation-dependent of γ–ε–α′ transformation and twinning in a super-high-strength, high ductility austenitic Mn-steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskandari, M., E-mail: m.eskandari@scu.ac.ir [Department of Materials Science & Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Ahvaz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zarei-Hanzaki, A. [Hot Deformation & Thermo-mechanical Processing of High Performance Engineering Materials, School of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohtadi-Bonab, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bonab, Velayat Highway (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Onuki, Y. [Frontier Research Center for Applied Atomic Sciences, Ibaraki University (Japan); Basu, R. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, ITM University, Gurgaon (India); Asghari, A. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of Texas at San Antonio, Texas (United States); Szpunar, J.A. [Advanced Materials for Clean Energy, Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan (Canada)

    2016-09-30

    A newly developed, austenitic lightweight steel, containing a low-density element, Al, exhibits tensile elongation up to 50% as well as high ultimate-tensile stress (tensile fracture at 1800 MPa) without necking behavior. Electron backscatter diffraction analysis is carried out to investigate the orientation dependence of the martensitic transformation in tensile testing to 30% strain at 323 K (25 °C). A pronounced γ→ε→α′ transformation is observed in <111> and <110>∥TD (TD: tensile direction) γ-grains. The α′-transformation textures is analyzed. Large misorientation spreads is seen in the <100>∥TD γ-grains. Interestingly, twin-assisted martensitic transformation is detected in the <111>∥TD followed by the twin boundary directly moving to a γ/α′ phase boundary. These phenomena are related to a change of Schmid factor for different orientations of grains.

  11. Brain Region-Specific Effects of cGMP-Dependent Kinase II Knockout on AMPA Receptor Trafficking and Animal Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seonil; Pick, Joseph E.; Abera, Sinedu; Khatri, Latika; Ferreira, Danielle D. P.; Sathler, Matheus F.; Morison, Sage L.; Hofmann, Franz; Ziff, Edward B.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorylation of GluA1, a subunit of AMPA receptors (AMPARs), is critical for AMPAR synaptic trafficking and control of synaptic transmission. cGMP-dependent protein kinase II (cGKII) mediates this phosphorylation, and cGKII knockout (KO) affects GluA1 phosphorylation and alters animal behavior. Notably, GluA1 phosphorylation in the KO…

  12. p53-dependent inhibition of TrxR1 contributes to the tumor-specific induction of apoptosis by RITA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedström, Elisabeth; Eriksson, Sofi; Zawacka-Pankau, Joanna; Arnér, Elias S J; Selivanova, Galina

    2009-11-01

    Thioredoxin reductase 1 (TrxR1) is a key regulator in many redox-dependent cellular pathways, and is often overexpressed in cancer. Several studies have identified TrxR1 as a potentially important target for anticancer therapy. The low molecular weight compound RITA (NSC 652287) binds p53 and induces p53-dependent apoptosis. Here we found that RITA also targets TrxR1 by non-covalent binding, followed by inhibition of its activity in vitro and by inhibition of TrxR activity in cancer cells. Interestingly, a novel approximately 130 kDa form of TrxR1, presumably representing a stable covalently linked dimer, and an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were induced by RITA in cancer cells in a p53-dependent manner. Similarly, the gold-based TrxR inhibitor auranofin induced apoptosis related to oxidative stress, but independently of p53 and without apparent induction of the approximately 130 kDa form of TrxR1. In contrast to the effects observed in cancer cells, RITA did not inhibit TrxR or ROS formation in normal fibroblasts (NHDF). The inhibition of TrxR1 can sensitize tumor cells to agents that induce oxidative stress and may directly trigger cell death. Thus, our results suggest that a unique p53-dependent effect of RITA on TrxR1 in cancer cells might synergize with p53-dependent induction of pro-apoptotic genes and oxidative stress, thereby leading to a robust induction of cancer cell death, without affecting non-transformed cells.

  13. A Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats (SWOT) analysis on the clinical utility of sperm DNA fragmentation testing in specific male infertility scenarios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteves, Sandro C; Agarwal, Ashok; Cho, Chak-Lam; Majzoub, Ahmad

    2017-09-01

    Sperm DNA fragmentation (SDF) is recognized as a leading cause of male infertility because it can impair the paternal genome through distinct pathophysiological mechanisms. Current evidence supports SDF as a major factor in the pathophysiology of several conditions, including varicocele, unexplained infertility, assisted reproductive technology failure, and environmental lifestyle factors, although the mechanisms involved have not been fully described yet. Measurement of the levels of DNA fragmentation in semen provides valuable information on the integrity of paternal chromatin and may guide therapeutic strategies. A recently published clinical practice guideline (CPG) highlighted how to use the information provided by SDF testing in daily practice, which triggered a series of commentaries by leading infertility experts. These commentaries contained an abundance of information and conflicting views about the clinical utility of SDF testing, which underline the complex nature of SDF. A search of papers published in response to the CPG entitled "Clinical utility of sperm DNA fragmentation testing: practice recommendations based on clinical scenarios" was performed within the Translational Andrology and Urology ( TAU ) website (http://tau.amegroups.com/). The start and end dates for the search were May 2017 and August 2017, respectively. Each commentary meeting our inclusion criteria was rated as "supportive without reservation", "supportive with reservation", "not supportive" or "neutral". We recorded whether articles discussed either SDF characteristics as a laboratory test method or clinical scenarios, or both. Subsequently, we extracted the particulars from each commentary and utilized the 'Strengths-Weaknesses-Opportunities-Threats' (SWOT) analysis to understand the perceived advantages and drawbacks of SDF as a specialized sperm function method in clinical practice. Fifty-eight fertility experts from six continents and twenty-two countries contributed

  14. High-strength cellular ceramic composites with 3D microarchitecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Jens; Hengsbach, Stefan; Tesari, Iwiza; Schwaiger, Ruth; Kraft, Oliver

    2014-02-18

    To enhance the strength-to-weight ratio of a material, one may try to either improve the strength or lower the density, or both. The lightest solid materials have a density in the range of 1,000 kg/m(3); only cellular materials, such as technical foams, can reach considerably lower values. However, compared with corresponding bulk materials, their specific strength generally is significantly lower. Cellular topologies may be divided into bending- and stretching-dominated ones. Technical foams are structured randomly and behave in a bending-dominated way, which is less weight efficient, with respect to strength, than stretching-dominated behavior, such as in regular braced frameworks. Cancellous bone and other natural cellular solids have an optimized architecture. Their basic material is structured hierarchically and consists of nanometer-size elements, providing a benefit from size effects in the material strength. Designing cellular materials with a specific microarchitecture would allow one to exploit the structural advantages of stretching-dominated constructions as well as size-dependent strengthening effects. In this paper, we demonstrate that such materials may be fabricated. Applying 3D laser lithography, we produced and characterized micro-truss and -shell structures made from alumina-polymer composite. Size-dependent strengthening of alumina shells has been observed, particularly when applied with a characteristic thickness below 100 nm. The presented artificial cellular materials reach compressive strengths up to 280 MPa with densities well below 1,000 kg/m(3).

  15. The redox state and the phosphorylation state of the mannitol-specific carrier of the E. coli phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent phosphotransferase system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robillard, G.T.; Pas, H.H.; Gage, D.; Elferink, M.G.L.

    1988-01-01

    This review summarizes the recent developments in identifying the activity-linked cysteine as one of the phosphorylation sites on the mannitol-specific EII of the E. coli phosphoenolpyruvate-dependent mannitol transport system. Two phosphorylation sites have been identified, one being the HPr/P-HPr

  16. Extracellular thiol-assisted selenium uptake dependent on the x(c)(-) cystine transporter explains the cancer-specific cytotoxicity of selenite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olm, E.; Fernandes, A. P.; Hebert, C.

    2009-01-01

    The selenium salt selenite (SeO32-) is cytotoxic in low to moderate concentrations, with a remarkable specificity for cancer cells resistant to conventional chemotherapy. Our data show that selenium uptake and accumulation, rather than intracellular events, are crucial to the specific selenite...... cytotoxicity observed in resistant cancer cells. We show that selenium uptake depends on extracellular reduction, and that the extracellular environment is a key factor specific to selenite cytotoxicity. The extracellular reduction is mediated by cysteine, and the efficacy is determined by the uptake...

  17. Dependence of the specific essential work of fracture in mode I in commercially pure copper with thickener

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochoa M, Herman; Monsalve G, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    Due to the great ductility of DHP copper, the classic characterization of the fracture's lineal mechanics with the critical intensity factor of K 10 tensions fails because of the increased amount of plastic deformation that the material displays before fracturing. For this reason other parameters such as the integral J are also not able to characterize the fracture phenomenon. Therefore there is a need to define a more appropriate parameter, that is able to describe the breakage phenomenon in this type of material: the specific essential work of fracture that includes the large amount of plastic deformation that can absorb materials with definite ductile behavior. Tests with DENT (Double Edge Notched Tension) pieces were carried out for the calculation of the specific essential fracture work, according to the pre-standard ESIS 1995. These tests have been carried out with pieces of different ligament lengths, so that the specific fracture energy (W sf ) correlates with the ligament length, allowing the value of the specific essential fracture work (W sf ) to be calculated. Tests have been made using pieces of different thicknesses to establish the relationship between specific essential fracture work and the thickness of the material, finding that the value of W sf increases with the increased thickness of the material (CW)

  18. Wear-dependent specific coefficients in a mechanistic model for turning of nickel-based superalloy with ceramic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Lacalle, Luis Norberto; Urbicain Pelayo, Gorka; Fernández-Valdivielso, Asier; Alvarez, Alvaro; González, Haizea

    2017-09-01

    Difficult to cut materials such as nickel and titanium alloys are used in the aeronautical industry, the former alloys due to its heat-resistant behavior and the latter for the low weight - high strength ratio. Ceramic tools made out alumina with reinforce SiC whiskers are a choice in turning for roughing and semifinishing workpiece stages. Wear rate is high in the machining of these alloys, and consequently cutting forces tends to increase along one operation. This paper establishes the cutting force relation between work-piece and tool in the turning of such difficult-to-cut alloys by means of a mechanistic cutting force model that considers the tool wear effect. The cutting force model demonstrates the force sensitivity to the cutting engagement parameters (ap, f) when using ceramic inserts and wear is considered. Wear is introduced through a cutting time factor, being useful in real conditions taking into account that wear quickly appears in alloys machining. A good accuracy in the cutting force model coefficients is the key issue for an accurate prediction of turning forces, which could be used as criteria for tool replacement or as input for chatter or other models.

  19. Specificity of verbal learning impairment and recovery in a marijuana-dependent male: the effects of sustained marijuana abstinence

    OpenAIRE

    Vadhan, Nehal P.; van Gorp, Wilfred G.; Levin, Frances R.

    2011-01-01

    We present the case of a young adult in treatment for marijuana dependence, with recurrent depression and a history of possible TBI, complaining of concentration, memory and initiation problems. Testing at treatment baseline revealed performance that was generally in the High Average range on measures of reaction time and attention, with a selective impairment in verbal learning (Borderline to Extremely Low range). Following 8 weeks of abstinence from marijuana, his verbal learning recovered ...

  20. DNA Methylation Adjusts the Specificity of Memories Depending on the Learning Context and Promotes Relearning in Honeybees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biergans, Stephanie D; Claudianos, Charles; Reinhard, Judith; Galizia, C G

    2016-01-01

    The activity of the epigenetic writers DNA methyltransferases (Dnmts) after olfactory reward conditioning is important for both stimulus-specific long-term memory (LTM) formation and extinction. It, however, remains unknown which components of memory formation Dnmts regulate (e.g., associative vs. non-associative) and in what context (e.g., varying training conditions). Here, we address these aspects in order to clarify the role of Dnmt-mediated DNA methylation in memory formation. We used a pharmacological Dnmt inhibitor and classical appetitive conditioning in the honeybee Apis mellifera, a well characterized model for classical conditioning. We quantified the effect of DNA methylation on naïve odor and sugar responses, and on responses following olfactory reward conditioning. We show that (1) Dnmts do not influence naïve odor or sugar responses, (2) Dnmts do not affect the learning of new stimuli, but (3) Dnmts influence odor-coding, i.e., 'correct' (stimulus-specific) LTM formation. Particularly, Dnmts reduce memory specificity when experience is low (one-trial training), and increase memory specificity when experience is high (multiple-trial training), generating an ecologically more useful response to learning. (4) In reversal learning conditions, Dnmts are involved in regulating both excitatory (re-acquisition) and inhibitory (forgetting) processes.

  1. 42 CFR 412.79 - Determination of the hospital-specific rate for inpatient operating costs for Medicare-dependent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICARE PROGRAM PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEMS FOR INPATIENT HOSPITAL SERVICES Determination of Transition Period Payment Rates for the Prospective Payment System for Inpatient... § 412.73(c)(14) through (c)(16). (e) DRG adjustment. The applicable hospital-specific cost per discharge...

  2. On the Nature and Nurture of Intelligence and Specific Cognitive Abilities: The More Heritable, the More Culture Dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, K.J.; Wicherts, J.M.; Dolan, C.V.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2013-01-01

    To further knowledge concerning the nature and nurture of intelligence, we scrutinized how heritability coefficients vary across specific cognitive abilities both theoretically and empirically. Data from 23 twin studies (combined N = 7,852) showed that (a) in adult samples, culture-loaded subtests

  3. On the nature and nurture of intelligence and specific cognitive abilities : The more heritable, the more culture dependent

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kan, K.J.; Wicherts, J.M.; Dolan, C.; van der Maas, H.L.J.

    2013-01-01

    To further knowledge concerning the nature and nurture of intelligence, we scrutinized how heritability coefficients vary across specific cognitive abilities both theoretically and empirically. Data from 23 twin studies (combined N = 7,852) showed that (a) in adult samples, culture-loaded subtests

  4. Short-term strength training and the expression of myostatin and IGF-I isoforms in rat muscle and tendon: differential effects of specific contraction types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinemeier, K M; Olesen, J L; Schjerling, P; Haddad, F; Langberg, H; Baldwin, K M; Kjaer, M

    2007-02-01

    In skeletal muscle, an increased expression of insulin like growth factor-I isoforms IGF-IEa and mechano-growth factor (MGF) combined with downregulation of myostatin is thought to be essential for training-induced hypertrophy. However, the specific effects of different contraction types on regulation of these factors in muscle are still unclear, and in tendon the functions of myostatin, IGF-IEa, and MGF in relation to training are unknown. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 4 days of concentric, eccentric, or isometric training (n = 7-9 per group) of the medial gastrocnemius, by stimulation of the sciatic nerve during general anesthesia. mRNA levels for myostatin, IGF-IEa, and MGF in muscle and Achilles' tendon were measured by real-time RT-PCR. Muscle myostatin mRNA decreased in response to all types of training (2- to 8-fold) (P effect of eccentric training was greater than concentric and isometric training (P tendon, myostatin mRNA was detected, but no changes were seen after exercise. IGF-IEa and MGF increased in muscle (up to 15-fold) and tendon (up to 4-fold) in response to training (P tendon no difference was seen between training types, but in muscle the effect of eccentric training was greater than concentric training for both IGF-IEa and MGF (P effect than concentric (P tendon to training, and the combined changes in myostatin and IGF-IEa/MGF expression could explain the important effect of eccentric actions for muscle hypertrophy.

  5. Sex-specific modulation of juvenile social play behavior by vasopressin and oxytocin depends on social context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredewold, Remco; Smith, Caroline J. W.; Dumais, Kelly M.; Veenema, Alexa H.

    2014-01-01

    We recently demonstrated that vasopressin (AVP) in the lateral septum modulates social play behavior differently in male and female juvenile rats. However, the extent to which different social contexts (i.e., exposure to an unfamiliar play partner in different environments) affect the regulation of social play remains largely unknown. Given that AVP and the closely related neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) modulate social behavior as well as anxiety-like behavior, we hypothesized that these neuropeptides may regulate social play behavior differently in novel (novel cage) as opposed to familiar (home cage) social environments. Administration of the specific AVP V1a receptor (V1aR) antagonist (CH2)5Tyr(Me2)AVP into the lateral septum enhanced home cage social play behavior in males but reduced it in females, confirming our previous findings. These effects were context-specific because V1aR blockade did not alter novel cage social play behavior in either sex. Furthermore, social play in females was reduced by AVP in the novel cage and by OXT in the home cage. Additionally, females administered the specific OXT receptor antagonist desGly-NH2,d(CH2)5−[Tyr(Me)2,Thr4]OVT showed less social play in the novel as compared to the home cage. AVP enhanced anxiety-related behavior in males (tested on the elevated plus-maze), but failed to do so in females, suggesting that exogenous AVP alters social play and anxiety-related behavior via distinct and sex-specific mechanisms. Moreover, none of the other drug treatments that altered social play had an effect on anxiety, suggesting that these drug-induced behavioral alterations are relatively specific to social behavior. Overall, we showed that AVP and OXT systems in the lateral septum modulate social play in juvenile rats in neuropeptide-, sex- and social context-specific ways. These findings underscore the importance of considering not only sex, but also social context, in how AVP and OXT modulate social behavior. PMID:24982623

  6. Sex-specific modulation of juvenile social play behavior by vasopressin and oxytocin depends on social context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco eBredewold

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We recently demonstrated that vasopressin (AVP in the lateral septum modulates social play behavior differently in male and female juvenile rats. However, the extent to which different social contexts (i.e., exposure to an unfamiliar play partner in different environments affect the regulation of social play remains largely unknown. Given that AVP and the closely related neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT modulate social behavior as well as anxiety-like behavior, we hypothesized that these neuropeptides may regulate social play behavior differently in novel (novel cage as opposed to familiar (home cage social environments. Administration of the specific AVP V1a receptor (V1aR antagonist (CH25Tyr(Me2AVP into the lateral septum enhanced home cage social play behavior in males but reduced it in females, confirming our previous findings. These effects were context-specific because V1aR blockade did not alter novel cage social play behavior in either sex. Furthermore, social play in females was reduced by AVP in the novel cage and by OXT in the home cage. Additionally, females administered the specific OXT receptor antagonist desGly-NH2,d(CH25-[Tyr(Me2,Thr4]OVT showed less social play in the novel as compared to the home cage. AVP enhanced anxiety-related behavior in males (tested on the elevated plus-maze, but failed to do so in females, suggesting that exogenous AVP alters social play and anxiety-related behavior via distinct and sex-specific mechanisms. Moreover, none of the other drug treatments that altered social play had an effect on anxiety, suggesting that these drug-induced behavioral alterations are relatively specific to social behavior. Overall, we showed that AVP and OXT systems in the lateral septum modulate social play in juvenile rats in neuropeptide-, sex- and social context-specific ways. These findings underscore the importance of considering not only sex, but also social context, in how AVP and OXT modulate social behavior.

  7. Impact of supplier-specific investments in inter-organisational information systems on strategic electronic coordination: the moderation effect of buyer dependence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teryokhin Sergei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the factors which influence sharing of the strategic information (in other words, electronic coordination in a buyer–supplier dyad. The antecedents of this coordination are examined rather well in the transaction cost economics (TCE theory and resource-dependency theory (RDT, while the supply chain management perspective is contemplated. The mentioned frameworks are used in the analysis. However, the research focus is narrowed down to the exploration of the antecedents of information exchange conducted via inter-organisational information systems (IOS. The empirical analysis is based on 198 observations of Norwegian companies operating in different types of industries. A regression model is used to test the hypotheses about the antecedents of strategic electronic coordination. The research results indicate that the direct effect of the supplier-specific investments in the IOS on the exchange of strategic information in the buyer–supplier dyad is not statistically significant. The supplier-specific investment in the IOS becomes positively associated with the strategic information exchange in the buyer–supplier dyad only when the buyer is dependent on the supplier. The buyer dependency creates a high motivation for the company to exchange the strategic information with the supplier who is more powerful in the dyad. This research concludes that the companies making substantial investments in the IOS for electronic coordination purposes may not reach their goals if relation-specific factors, such as buyer dependency, are not comprehensively considered.

  8. Stimulus Dependency of Object-Evoked Responses in Human Visual Cortex: An Inverse Problem for Category Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graewe, Britta; De Weerd, Peter; Farivar, Reza; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    Many studies have linked the processing of different object categories to specific event-related potentials (ERPs) such as the face-specific N170. Despite reports showing that object-related ERPs are influenced by visual stimulus features, there is consensus that these components primarily reflect categorical aspects of the stimuli. Here, we re-investigated this idea by systematically measuring the effects of visual feature manipulations on ERP responses elicited by both structure-from-motion (SFM)-defined and luminance-defined object stimuli. SFM objects elicited a novel component at 200–250 ms (N250) over parietal and posterior temporal sites. We found, however, that the N250 amplitude was unaffected by restructuring SFM stimuli into meaningless objects based on identical visual cues. This suggests that this N250 peak was not uniquely linked to categorical aspects of the objects, but is strongly determined by visual stimulus features. We provide strong support for this hypothesis by parametrically manipulating the depth range of both SFM- and luminance-defined object stimuli and showing that the N250 evoked by SFM stimuli as well as the well-known N170 to static faces were sensitive to this manipulation. Importantly, this effect could not be attributed to compromised object categorization in low depth stimuli, confirming a strong impact of visual stimulus features on object-related ERP signals. As ERP components linked with visual categorical object perception are likely determined by multiple stimulus features, this creates an interesting inverse problem when deriving specific perceptual processes from variations in ERP components. PMID:22363479

  9. Density-dependent sex ratio and sex-specific preference for host traits in parasitic bat flies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szentiványi, Tamara; Vincze, Orsolya; Estók, Péter

    2017-08-29

    Deviation of sex ratios from unity in wild animal populations has recently been demonstrated to be far more prevalent than previously thought. Ectoparasites are prominent examples of this bias, given that their sex ratios vary from strongly female- to strongly male-biased both among hosts and at the metapopulation level. To date our knowledge is very limited on how and why these biased sex ratios develop. It was suggested that sex ratio and sex-specific aggregation of ectoparasites might be shaped by the ecology, behaviour and physiology of both hosts and their parasites. Here we investigate a highly specialised, hematophagous bat fly species with strong potential to move between hosts, arguably limited inbreeding effects, off-host developmental stages and extended parental care. We collected a total of 796 Nycteribia kolenatii bat flies from 147 individual bats using fumigation and subsequently determined their sex. We report a balanced sex ratio at the metapopulation level and a highly variable sex ratio among infrapopulations ranging from 100% male to 100% female. We show that infrapopulation sex ratio is not random and is highly correlated with infrapopulation size. Sex ratio is highly male biased in small and highly female biased in large infrapopulations. We show that this pattern is most probably the result of sex-specific preference in bat flies for host traits, most likely combined with a higher mobility of males. We demonstrate that female bat flies exert a strong preference for high host body condition and female hosts, while the distribution of males is more even. Our results suggest that locally biased sex ratios can develop due to sex-specific habitat preference of parasites. Moreover, it is apparent that the sex of both hosts and parasites need to be accounted for when a better understanding of host-parasite systems is targeted.

  10. The molecular basis of FHA domain:phosphopeptide binding specificity and implications for phospho-dependent signaling mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durocher, D; Taylor, I A; Sarbassova, D; Haire, L F; Westcott, S L; Jackson, S P; Smerdon, S J; Yaffe, M B

    2000-11-01

    Forkhead-associated (FHA) domains are a class of ubiquitous signaling modules that appear to function through interactions with phosphorylated target molecules. We have used oriented peptide library screening to determine the optimal phosphopeptide binding motifs recognized by several FHA domains, including those within a number of DNA damage checkpoint kinases, and determined the X-ray structure of Rad53p-FHA1, in complex with a phospho-threonine peptide, at 1.6 A resolution. The structure reveals a striking similarity to the MH2 domains of Smad tumor suppressor proteins and reveals a mode of peptide binding that differs from SH2, 14-3-3, or PTB domain complexes. These results have important implications for DNA damage signaling and CHK2-dependent tumor suppression, and they indicate that FHA domains play important and unsuspected roles in S/T kinase signaling mechanisms in prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

  11. Onset and organ specificity of Tk2 deficiency depends on Tk1 down-regulation and transcriptional compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Dorado, Beatriz; Area, Estela; Akman, Hasan O.; Hirano, Michio

    2010-01-01

    Deficiency of thymidine kinase 2 (TK2) is a frequent cause of isolated myopathy or encephalomyopathy in children with mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion. To determine the bases of disease onset, organ specificity and severity of TK2 deficiency, we have carefully characterized Tk2 H126N knockin mice (Tk2−/−). Although normal until postnatal day 8, Tk2−/− mice rapidly develop fatal encephalomyopathy between postnatal days 10 and 13. We have observed that wild-type Tk2 activity is constant in t...

  12. Magnetic field dependence of the specific heat of heavy-fermion YbCu4.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amato, A.; Fisher, R.A.; Phillips, N.E.; Jaccard, D.; Walker, E.

    1990-03-01

    The specific heat of a polycrystalline sample of YbCu 4.5 has been measured between 0.3 and 20K in magnetic fields to 7T. At zero field a minimum in C/T is observed near 11K. Below that temperature C/T increases and below 0.5K exhibits an upturn ascribed to a hyperfine contribution. The increase in C/T below 11K is reduced by a factor 1.5 for H = 7T, whereas the hyperfine term is enhanced due to the contribution of the 63 Cu and 65 Cu and nuclei. 5 refs., 3 figs

  13. The NKG2D ligand ULBP2 is specifically regulated through an invariant chain-dependent endosomal pathway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uhlenbrock, Franziska Katharina; Hagemann-Jensen, Michael Henrik; Kehlet, Stephanie

    2014-01-01

    by affecting endosomal/lysosomal integrity and protein kinase C activity. The invariant chain was further essential for endosomal transport of ULBP2. This novel pathway was identified through screening experiments by which methylselenic acid was found to possess notable NKG2D ligand regulatory properties....... The protein kinase C inhibitor methylselenic acid induced MICA/B surface expression but dominantly blocked ULBP2 surface transport. Remarkably, by targeting this novel pathway we could specifically block the production of soluble ULBP2 from different, primary melanomas. Our findings strongly suggest...

  14. Extensive gene-specific translational reprogramming in a model of B cell differentiation and Abl-dependent transformation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamie G Bates

    Full Text Available To what extent might the regulation of translation contribute to differentiation programs, or to the molecular pathogenesis of cancer? Pre-B cells transformed with the viral oncogene v-Abl are suspended in an immortalized, cycling state that mimics leukemias with a BCR-ABL1 translocation, such as Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML and Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL. Inhibition of the oncogenic Abl kinase with imatinib reverses transformation, allowing progression to the next stage of B cell development. We employed a genome-wide polysome profiling assay called Gradient Encoding to investigate the extent and potential contribution of translational regulation to transformation and differentiation in v-Abl-transformed pre-B cells. Over half of the significantly translationally regulated genes did not change significantly at the level of mRNA abundance, revealing biology that might have been missed by measuring changes in transcript abundance alone. We found extensive, gene-specific changes in translation affecting genes with known roles in B cell signaling and differentiation, cancerous transformation, and cytoskeletal reorganization potentially affecting adhesion. These results highlight a major role for gene-specific translational regulation in remodeling the gene expression program in differentiation and malignant transformation.

  15. Evidence for gene-specific rather than transcription rate-dependent histone H3 exchange in yeast coding regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gat-Viks, Irit; Vingron, Martin

    2009-02-01

    In eukaryotic organisms, histones are dynamically exchanged independently of DNA replication. Recent reports show that different coding regions differ in their amount of replication-independent histone H3 exchange. The current paradigm is that this histone exchange variability among coding regions is a consequence of transcription rate. Here we put forward the idea that this variability might be also modulated in a gene-specific manner independently of transcription rate. To that end, we study transcription rate-independent replication-independent coding region histone H3 exchange. We term such events relative exchange. Our genome-wide analysis shows conclusively that in yeast, relative exchange is a novel consistent feature of coding regions. Outside of replication, each coding region has a characteristic pattern of histone H3 exchange that is either higher or lower than what was expected by its RNAPII transcription rate alone. Histone H3 exchange in coding regions might be a way to add or remove certain histone modifications that are important for transcription elongation. Therefore, our results that gene-specific coding region histone H3 exchange is decoupled from transcription rate might hint at a new epigenetic mechanism of transcription regulation.

  16. Effect of silver nanoparticles on Mediterranean sea urchin embryonal development is species specific and depends on moment of first exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burić, Petra; Jakšić, Željko; Štajner, Lara; Dutour Sikirić, Maja; Jurašin, Darija; Cascio, Claudia; Calzolai, Luigi; Lyons, Daniel Mark

    2015-10-01

    With the ever growing use of nanoparticles in a broad range of industrial and consumer applications there is increasing likelihood that such nanoparticles will enter the aquatic environment and be transported through freshwater systems, eventually reaching estuarine or marine waters. Due to silver's known antimicrobial properties and widespread use of silver nanoparticles (AgNP), their environmental fate and impact is therefore of particular concern. In this context we have investigated the species-specific effects of low concentrations of 60 nm AgNP on embryonal development in Mediterranean sea urchins Arbacia lixula, Paracentrotus lividus and Sphaerechinus granularis. The sensitivity of urchin embryos was tested by exposing embryos to nanoparticle concentrations in the 1-100 μg L(-1) range, with times of exposure varying from 30 min to 24 h (1 h-48 h for S. granularis) post-fertilisation which corresponded with fertilized egg, 4 cell, blastula and gastrula development phases. The most sensitive species to AgNP was A. lixula with significant modulation of embryonal development at the lowest AgNP concentrations of 1-10 μg L(-1) with high numbers of malformed embryos or arrested development. The greatest impact on development was noted for those embryos first exposed to nanoparticles at 6 and 24 h post fertilisation. For P. lividus, similar effects were noted at higher concentrations of 50 μg L(-1) and 100 μg L(-1) for all times of first exposure. The S. granularis embryos indicated a moderate AgNP impact, and significant developmental abnormalities were recorded in the concentration range of 10-50 μg L(-1). As later post-fertilisation exposure times to AgNP caused greater developmental changes in spite of a shorter total exposure time led us to postulate on additional mechanisms of AgNP toxicity. The results herein indicate that toxic effects of AgNP are species-specific. The moment at which embryos first encounter AgNP is also shown to be

  17. Elimination of Endogenous Toxin, Creatinine from Blood Plasma Depends on Albumin Conformation: Site Specific Uremic Toxicity & Impaired Drug Binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Ankita; Rehan, Mohd; Subbarao, Naidu; Rabbani, Gulam; Khan, Rizwan Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Uremic syndrome results from malfunctioning of various organ systems due to the retention of uremic toxins which, under normal conditions, would be excreted into the urine and/or metabolized by the kidneys. The aim of this study was to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the renal elimination of uremic toxin creatinine that accumulate in chronic renal failure. Quantitative investigation of the plausible correlations was performed by spectroscopy, calorimetry, molecular docking and accessibility of surface area. Alkalinization of normal plasma from pH 7.0 to 9.0 modifies the distribution of toxin in the body and therefore may affect both the accumulation and the rate of toxin elimination. The ligand loading of HSA with uremic toxin predicts several key side chain interactions of site I that presumably have the potential to impact the specificity and impaired drug binding. These findings provide useful information for elucidating the complicated mechanism of toxin disposition in renal disease state. PMID:21386972

  18. In vitro cell quality of articular chondrocytes assigned for autologous implantation in dependence of specific patient characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pestka, Jan M; Schmal, Hagen; Salzmann, Gian

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) is a well-established therapeutic option for the treatment of cartilage defects of the knee joint. Since information concerning the cellular aspects of ACI is still limited, the aim of the present study was to investigate relevant differences...... between chondrocyte quality after in vitro cultivation and possible correlations with patient-specific factors. DESIGN: Cell quality of 252 consecutive ACI patients was assessed after chondrocyte in vitro expansion by determination of the expression of cartilage relevant surface marker CD44 and cartilage......, aggrecan or collagen type II nor cell density or viability after proliferation seemed to correlate with the grade of joint degeneration, defect aetiology or patient gender. However, chondrocytes harvested from the knee joints of patients at less than 20 years of age showed significantly higher expression...

  19. Expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of NAD(P)H-dependent carbonyl reductase specifically expressed in thyroidectomized chicken fatty liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoneda, Kazunari; Fukuda, Yudai; Shibata, Takeshi; Araki, Tomohiro; Nikki, Takahiro; Sakuraba, Haruhiko; Ohshima, Toshihisa

    2012-01-01

    An NAD(P)H-dependent carbonyl reductase specifically expressed in thyroidectomized chicken fatty liver was successfully isolated and crystallized. An NAD(P)H-dependent carbonyl reductase specifically expressed in thyroidectomized chicken fatty liver was crystallized using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method with polyethylene glycol 300 as the precipitant. The crystals belonged to the monoclinic space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 104.26, b = 81.32, c = 77.27 Å, β = 119.43°, and diffracted to 1.86 Å resolution on beamline NE3A at the Photon Factory. The overall R merge was 5.4% and the data completeness was 99.4%

  20. Bond strength of masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, van der R.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Bond strength is not a well defined property of masonry. Normally three types of bond strength can be distinguished: - tensile bond strength, - shear (and torsional) bond strength, - flexural bond strength. In this contribution the behaviour and strength of masonry in deformation controlled uniaxial

  1. PF-4708671, a specific inhibitor of p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1, activates Nrf2 by promoting p62-dependent autophagic degradation of Keap1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong Su [Severance Biomedical Science Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Dong Hoon [Department of Life Science and Ewha Research Center for Systems Biology (Korea, Republic of); The Research Center for Cell Homeostasis, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 127-750 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Da Hyun [Severance Biomedical Science Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Soo Han, E-mail: soohanbae@yuhs.ac [Severance Biomedical Science Institute (Korea, Republic of); Yonsei Biomedical Research Institute, Yonsei University College of Medicine, 50 Yonsei-ro, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 120-752 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-23

    p70 ribosomal S6 kinase 1 (S6K1) is an important serine/threonine kinase and downstream target of the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway. PF-4708671 is a specific inhibitor of S6K1, and prevents S6K1-mediated phosphorylation of the S6 protein. PF-4708671 treatment often leads to apoptotic cell death. However, the protective mechanism against PF-4708671-induced cell death has not been elucidated. The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1) pathway is essential for protecting cells against oxidative stress. p62, an adaptor protein in the autophagic process, enhances Nrf2 activation through the impairment of Keap1 activity. In this study, we showed that PF-4708671 induces autophagic Keap1 degradation-mediated Nrf2 activation in p62-dependent manner. Furthermore, p62-dependent Nrf2 activation plays a crucial role in protecting cells from PF-4708671-mediated apoptosis. - Highlights: • PF-4708671, a S6K1-specific inhibitor, prevents S6K1-mediated S6 phosphorylation. • However, PF-4708671 treatment often leads to apoptotic cell death. • Protective mechanism against PF-4708671-induced cell death remains to be elucidated. • PF-4708671 induced p62-dependent, autophagic Keap1 degradation-mediated Nrf2 activation. • p62-dependent Nrf2 activation protects cells from PF-4708671-mediated apoptosis.

  2. An Examination by Site-Directed Mutagenesis of Putative Key Residues in the Determination of Coenzyme Specificity in Clostridial NAD+-Dependent Glutamate Dehydrogenase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Griffin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sequence and structure comparisons of various glutamate dehydrogenases (GDH and other nicotinamide nucleotide-dependent dehydrogenases have potentially implicated certain residues in coenzyme binding and discrimination. We have mutated key residues in Clostridium symbiosum NAD+-specific GDH to investigate their contribution to specificity and to enhance acceptance of NADPH. Comparisons with E. coli NADPH-dependent GDH prompted design of mutants F238S, P262S, and F238S/P262S, which were purified and assessed at pH 6.0, 7.0, and 8.0. They showed markedly increased catalytic efficiency with NADPH, especially at pH 8.0 (∼170-fold for P262S and F238S/P262S with relatively small changes for NADH. A positive charge introduced through the D263K mutation also greatly increased catalytic efficiency with NADPH (over 100-fold at pH 8 and slightly decreased activity with NADH. At position 242, “P6” of the “core fingerprint,” where NAD+- and NADP+-dependent enzymes normally have Gly or Ala, respectively, clostridial GDH already has Ala. Replacement with Gly produced negligible shift in coenzyme specificity.

  3. On vitamin D-dependent regulation of local mechanisms of non-specific defense in children with connective tissue dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.I. Omelchenko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background. The influence of active vitamin D (VD metabolites on the reaction of nonspecific defense mechanisms of mucous membranes may be of particular importance in children with connective tissue dysplasia (СТD. The purpose of the study was to establish the concentration of human -defensin (HBD-2 and lysozyme in local secretions in children with CTD taking into account the body’s VD supply. Materials and methods. We examined 127 children aged 11–17 years with phenotypic manifestations of CTD taking into account the supplementation of VD. Four groups of children were identified: group 1 — healthy children with a physiological level of 25OHD, group 2 — children with moderate and severe CTD degrees and physiological concentrations of VD (75–100 nmol/l, group 3 — children with CTD and 25OHD insufficiency (50–75 nmol/l, group 4 — children with CTD and vitamin D deficiency (VDD (below 50 nmol/l. Determination of HBD-2 level by immunoassay and lysozyme using a dry powder of one-day Micrococcus lyzodeiticus culture in local secretions (saliva, coprofiltrate (CF was performed in all children. Results. When studying HBD-2 in saliva, its highest concentrations were found in children of group 1 — 4.52 ± 0.06 ng/ml. Lower levels of HBD-2 were reported in children of groups 2 and 3, and in children with CTD and DVD, the rates were lowest — 3.88 ± 0.08 ng/ml. The highest HBD-2 concentrations in CF were detected in group 1 — 81.14 ± 5.13 ng/ml. In groups of children with dysplastic manifestations, a significant difference in data (p ≤ 0.05 is observed depending on the concentration of 25OHD, with the lowest concentrations found in VDD group — 52.63 ± 3.01 ng/ml. The highest lysozyme levels in CF were in children from groups 1 (4.68 ± 0.10 mg/l and 2 (4.41 ± 0.09 mg/l; however, the lowest concentration of lysozyme was found in children with CTD and VDD — 4.09 ± 0.08 mg/l. A direct relationship is determined between the

  4. Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 is a novel specific molecular target in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narita, Tomoko; Ishida, Takashi; Ito, Asahi; Masaki, Ayako; Kinoshita, Shiori; Suzuki, Susumu; Takino, Hisashi; Yoshida, Takashi; Ri, Masaki; Kusumoto, Shigeru; Komatsu, Hirokazu; Imada, Kazunori; Tanaka, Yuetsu; Takaori-Kondo, Akifumi; Inagaki, Hiroshi; Scholz, Arne; Lienau, Philip; Kuroda, Taruho; Ueda, Ryuzo; Iida, Shinsuke

    2017-08-31

    Cyclin-dependent kinase 9 (CDK9), a subunit of the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) complex, regulates gene transcription elongation by phosphorylating the C-terminal domain (CTD) of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). The deregulation of CDK9/P-TEFb has important implications for many cancer types. BAY 1143572 is a novel and highly selective CDK9/P-TEFb inhibitor currently being investigated in phase 1 studies. We evaluated the therapeutic potential of BAY 1143572 in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). As a result of CDK9 inhibition and subsequent inhibition of phosphorylation at serine 2 of the RNAPII CTD, BAY 1143572 decreased c-Myc and Mcl-1 levels in ATL-derived or human T-cell lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1)-transformed lines and primary ATL cells tested, leading to their growth inhibition and apoptosis. Median inhibitory concentrations for BAY 1143572 in ATL-derived or HTLV-1-transformed lines (n = 8), primary ATL cells (n = 11), and CD4 + cells from healthy volunteers (n = 5) were 0.535, 0.30, and 0.36 μM, respectively. Next, NOG mice were used as recipients of tumor cells from an ATL patient. BAY 1143572-treated ATL-bearing mice (once daily 12.5 mg/kg oral application) demonstrated significantly decreased ATL cell infiltration of the liver and bone marrow, as well as decreased human soluble interleukin-2 receptor levels in serum (reflecting the ATL tumor burden), compared with untreated mice (n = 8 for both). BAY 1143572-treated ATL-bearing mice demonstrated significantly prolonged survival compared with untreated ATL-bearing mice (n = 7 for both). Collectively, this study indicates that BAY 1143572 showed strong potential as a novel treatment of ATL. © 2017 by The American Society of Hematology.

  5. pH Dependence of a Mammalian Polyamine Oxidase: Insights into Substrate Specificity and the Role of Lysine 315†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Michelle Henderson; Gawandi, Vijay; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian polyamine oxidases (PAO) catalyze the oxidation of N1-acetylspermine and N1-acetylspermidine to produce N-acetyl-3-aminopropanaldehyde and spermidine or putrescine. Structurally, PAO is a member of the monoamine oxidase family of flavoproteins. The effects of pH on kinetic parameters of mouse PAO have been determined to provide insight into the protonation state of the polyamine required for catalysis and the roles of ionizable residues in the active site in amine oxidation. For N1-acetylspermine, N1-acetylspermidine, and spermine, the kcat/Kamine-pH profiles are bell-shaped. In each case the profile agrees with that expected if the productive form of the substrate has a single positively charged nitrogen. The pKi-pH profiles for a series of polyamine analogs are most consistent with the nitrogen at the site of oxidation being neutral and one other nitrogen being positively charged in the reactive form of the substrate. With N1-acetylspermine as substrate, the value of kred, the limiting rate constant for flavin reduction, is pH dependent, decreasing below a pKa value of 7.3, again consistent with the requirement for an uncharged nitrogen for substrate oxidation. Lys315 in PAO corresponds to a conserved active site residue found throughout the monoamine oxidase family. Mutation of Lys315 to methionine has no effect on the kcat/Kamine profile for spermine, the kred value with N1-acetylspermine is only 1.8-fold lower in the mutant protein, and the pKa in the kred-pH profile with N1-acetylspermine shifts to 7.8. These results rule out Lys315 as a source of a pKa in the kcat/Kamine or kcat/kred profiles. They also establish that this residue does not play a critical role in amine oxidation by PAO. PMID:19199575

  6. DNA interactions with a Methylene Blue redox indicator depend on the DNA length and are sequence specific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farjami, Elaheh; Clima, Lilia; Gothelf, Kurt V; Ferapontova, Elena E

    2010-06-01

    A DNA molecular beacon approach was used for the analysis of interactions between DNA and Methylene Blue (MB) as a redox indicator of a hybridization event. DNA hairpin structures of different length and guanine (G) content were immobilized onto gold electrodes in their folded states through the alkanethiol linker at the 5'-end. Binding of MB to the folded hairpin DNA was electrochemically studied and compared with binding to the duplex structure formed by hybridization of the hairpin DNA to a complementary DNA strand. Variation of the electrochemical signal from the DNA-MB complex was shown to depend primarily on the DNA length and sequence used: the G-C base pairs were the preferential sites of MB binding in the duplex. For short 20 nts long DNA sequences, the increased electrochemical response from MB bound to the duplex structure was consistent with the increased amount of bound and electrochemically readable MB molecules (i.e. MB molecules that are available for the electron transfer (ET) reaction with the electrode). With longer DNA sequences, the balance between the amounts of the electrochemically readable MB molecules bound to the hairpin DNA and to the hybrid was opposite: a part of the MB molecules bound to the long-sequence DNA duplex seem to be electrochemically mute due to long ET distance. The increasing electrochemical response from MB bound to the short-length DNA hybrid contrasts with the decreasing signal from MB bound to the long-length DNA hybrid and allows an "off"-"on" genosensor development.

  7. On the Size Dependence of Molar and Specific Properties of Independent Nano-phases and Those in Contact with Other Phases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptay, George

    2018-05-01

    Nano-materials are materials with at least one nano-phase. A nano-phase is a phase with at least one of its dimensions below 100 nm. It is shown here that nano-phases have at least 1% of their atoms along their surface layer. The ratio of surface atoms is proportional to the specific surface area of the phase, defined as the ratio of its surface area to its volume. Each specific/molar property has its bulk value and its surface value for the given phase, being always different, as the energetic states of the atoms in the bulk and in the surface layer of a phase are different. The average specific/molar property of a nano-phase is modeled here as a linear combination of the bulk and surface values of the same property, scaled with the ratio of the surface atoms. That makes the performance of all nano-phases proportional to their specific surface area. As the characteristic size of the nano-phase is inversely proportional to its specific surface area, all specific/molar properties of nano-phases are inversely proportional to the characteristic size of the phase. This is applied to the size dependence of the molar Gibbs energy of the nano-phase, which appears to be in agreement with the thermodynamics of Gibbs. This agreement proves the general validity of the present model on the size dependence of the specific/molar properties of independent nano-phases. It is shown that the properties of nano-phases are different for independent nano-phases (surrounded only by their equilibrium vapor phase) and for nano-phases in multi-phase situations, such as a liquid nano-droplet in the sessile drop configuration.

  8. Ion mobility studies of carbohydrates as group I adducts: isomer specific collisional cross section dependence on metal ion radius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuting; Dodds, Eric D

    2013-10-15

    Carbohydrates play numerous critical roles in biological systems. Characterization of oligosaccharide structures is essential to a complete understanding of their functions in biological processes; nevertheless, their structural determination remains challenging in part due to isomerism. Ion mobility spectrometry provides the means to resolve gas phase ions on the basis of their shape-to-charge ratios, thus providing significant potential for separation and differentiation of carbohydrate isomers. Here, we report on the determination of collisional cross sections for four groups of isomeric carbohydrates (including five isomeric disaccharides, four isomeric trisaccharides, two isomeric pentasaccharides, and two isomeric hexasaccharides) as their group I metal ion adducts (i.e., [M + Li](+), [M + Na](+), [M + K](+), [M + Rb](+), and [M + Cs](+)). In all, 65 collisional cross sections were measured, the great majority of which have not been previously reported. As anticipated, the collisional cross sections of the carbohydrate metal ion adducts generally increase with increasing metal ion radius; however, the collisional cross sections were found to scale with the group I cation size in isomer specific manners. Such measurements are of substantial analytical value, as they illustrate how the selection of charge carrier influences carbohydrate ion mobility determinations. For example, certain pairs of isomeric carbohydrates assume unique collisional cross sections upon binding one metal ion, but not another. On the whole, these data suggest a role for the charge carrier as a probe of carbohydrate structure and thus have significant implications for the continued development and application of ion mobility spectrometry for the distinction and resolution of isomeric carbohydrates.

  9. Statistical mechanics of Roskilde liquids: configurational adiabats, specific heat contours, and density dependence of the scaling exponent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Nicholas P; Bøhling, Lasse; Veldhorst, Arno A; Schrøder, Thomas B; Dyre, Jeppe C

    2013-11-14

    We derive exact results for the rate of change of thermodynamic quantities, in particular, the configurational specific heat at constant volume, CV, along configurational adiabats (curves of constant excess entropy Sex). Such curves are designated isomorphs for so-called Roskilde liquids, in view of the invariance of various structural and dynamical quantities along them. The slope of the isomorphs in a double logarithmic representation of the density-temperature phase diagram, γ, can be interpreted as one third of an effective inverse power-law potential exponent. We show that in liquids where γ increases (decreases) with density, the contours of CV have smaller (larger) slope than configurational adiabats. We clarify also the connection between γ and the pair potential. A fluctuation formula for the slope of the CV-contours is derived. The theoretical results are supported with data from computer simulations of two systems, the Lennard-Jones fluid, and the Girifalco fluid. The sign of dγ∕dρ is thus a third key parameter in characterizing Roskilde liquids, after γ and the virial-potential energy correlation coefficient R. To go beyond isomorph theory we compare invariance of a dynamical quantity, the self-diffusion coefficient, along adiabats and CV-contours, finding it more invariant along adiabats.

  10. Adolescent maturation of inhibitory inputs onto cingulate cortex neurons is cell-type specific and TrkB dependent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela eVandenberg

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The maturation of inhibitory circuits during adolescence may be tied to the onset of mental health disorders such as schizophrenia. Neurotrophin signaling likely plays a critical role in supporting inhibitory circuit development and is also implicated in psychiatric disease. Within the neocortex, subcircuits may mature at different times and show differential sensitivity to neurotrophin signaling. We measured miniature inhibitory and excitatory postsynaptic currents (mIPSC and mEPSCs in Layer 5 cell-types in the mouse anterior cingulate across the periadolescent period. We differentiated cell-types mainly by Thy1 YFP transgene expression and also retrobead injection labeling in the contralateral cingulate and ipsilateral pons. We found that YFP- neurons and commissural projecting neurons had lower frequency of mIPSCs than neighboring YFP+ neurons or pons projecting neurons in juvenile mice (P21-25. YFP- neurons and to a lesser extent commissural projecting neurons also showed a significant increase in mIPSC amplitude during the periadolescent period (P21-25 vs. P40-50, which was not seen in YFP+ neurons or pons projecting neurons. Systemic disruption of tyrosine kinase receptor B (TrkB signaling during P23-50 in TrkBF616A mice blocked developmental changes in mIPSC amplitude, without affecting miniature excitatory post synaptic currents (mEPSCs. Our data suggest that the maturation of inhibitory inputs onto layer 5 pyramidal neurons is cell-type specific. These data may inform our understanding of adolescent brain development across species and aid in identifying candidate subcircuits that may show greater vulnerability in mental illness.

  11. Fibril specific, conformation dependent antibodies recognize a generic epitope common to amyloid fibrils and fibrillar oligomers that is absent in prefibrillar oligomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Suhail

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Amyloid-related degenerative diseases are associated with the accumulation of misfolded proteins as amyloid fibrils in tissue. In Alzheimer disease (AD, amyloid accumulates in several distinct types of insoluble plaque deposits, intracellular Aβ and as soluble oligomers and the relationships between these deposits and their pathological significance remains unclear. Conformation dependent antibodies have been reported that specifically recognize distinct assembly states of amyloids, including prefibrillar oligomers and fibrils. Results We immunized rabbits with a morphologically homogeneous population of Aβ42 fibrils. The resulting immune serum (OC specifically recognizes fibrils, but not random coil monomer or prefibrillar oligomers, indicating fibrils display a distinct conformation dependent epitope that is absent in prefibrillar oligomers. The fibril epitope is also displayed by fibrils of other types of amyloids, indicating that the epitope is a generic feature of the polypeptide backbone. The fibril specific antibody also recognizes 100,000 × G soluble fibrillar oligomers ranging in size from dimer to greater than 250 kDa on western blots. The fibrillar oligomers recognized by OC are immunologically distinct from prefibrillar oligomers recognized by A11, even though their sizes overlap broadly, indicating that size is not a reliable indicator of oligomer conformation. The immune response to prefibrillar oligomers and fibrils is not sequence specific and antisera of the same specificity are produced in response to immunization with islet amyloid polypeptide prefibrillar oligomer mimics and fibrils. The fibril specific antibodies stain all types of amyloid deposits in human AD brain. Diffuse amyloid deposits stain intensely with anti-fibril antibody although they are thioflavin S negative, suggesting that they are indeed fibrillar in conformation. OC also stains islet amyloid deposits in transgenic mouse models of type

  12. The adipokinetic hormone receptor modulates sexual behavior, pheromone perception and pheromone production in a sex-specific and starvation-dependent manner in Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastien eLebreton

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Food availability and nutritional status shape the reproductive activity of many animals. In rodents, hormones such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH, restore energy homeostasis not only through regulating e.g. caloric intake and energy housekeeping, but also through modulating sex drive. We investigated whether the insect homologue of the GnRH receptor, the adipokinetic hormone receptor (AKHR modulates sexual behavior of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster depending on nutritional status. We found that AKHR regulates male, but not female sexual behavior in a starvation-dependent manner. Males lacking AKHR showed a severe decrease in their courtship activity when starved, as well as an increase in mating duration when fed. AKHR expression is particularly strong in the subesophageal zone (SEZ, Ito et al. 2014. We found axonal projections from AKHR-expressing neurons to higher brain centers including specific glomeruli in the antennal lobe. Among the glomeruli that received projections were those dedicated to detecting the male specific pheromone cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA. Accordingly, responses to cVA were dependent on the nutritional status of flies. AKHR was also involved in the regulation of the production of cuticular pheromones, 7,11-heptacosadiene and 7-tricosene. This effect was observed only in females and depended on their feeding state. AKHR has therefore a dual role on both pheromone perception and production. For the first time our study shows an effect of AKHR on insect sexual behavior and physiology. Our results support the hypothesis of a conserved role of the GnRH/AKH pathway on a nutritional state-dependent regulation of reproduction in both vertebrates and invertebrates.

  13. Regulatory function of a novel population of mouse autoantigen-specific Foxp3 regulatory T cells depends on IFN-gamma, NO, and contact with target cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyndi Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Both naturally arising Foxp3(+ and antigen-induced Foxp3(- regulatory T cells (Treg play a critical role in regulating immune responses, as well as in preventing autoimmune diseases and graft rejection. It is known that antigen-specific Treg are more potent than polyclonal Treg in suppressing pathogenic immune responses that cause autoimmunity and inflammation. However, difficulty in identifying and isolating a sufficient number of antigen-specific Treg has limited their use in research to elucidate the mechanisms underlying their regulatory function and their potential role in therapy. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a novel class II MHC tetramer, we have isolated a population of CD4(+ Foxp3(- T cells specific for the autoantigen glutamic acid decarboxylase p286-300 peptide (NR286 T cells from diabetes-resistant non-obese resistant (NOR mice. These Foxp3(- NR286 T cells functioned as Treg that were able to suppress target T cell proliferation in vitro and inhibit type 1 diabetes in animals. Unexpected results from mechanistic studies in vitro showed that their regulatory function was dependent on not only IFN-gamma and nitric oxide, but also on cell contact with target cells. In addition, separating NR286 Treg from target T cells in transwell assays abolished both production of NO and suppression of target T cells, regardless of whether IFN-gamma was produced in cell cultures. Therefore, production of NO, not IFN-gamma, was cell contact dependent, suggesting that NO may function downstream of IFN-gamma in mediating regulatory function of NR286 Treg. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These studies identified a unique population of autoantigen-specific Foxp3(- Treg that can exert their regulatory function dependent on not only IFN-gamma and NO but also cell contact with target cells.

  14. Path Dependency

    OpenAIRE

    Mark Setterfield

    2015-01-01

    Path dependency is defined, and three different specific concepts of path dependency – cumulative causation, lock in, and hysteresis – are analyzed. The relationships between path dependency and equilibrium, and path dependency and fundamental uncertainty are also discussed. Finally, a typology of dynamical systems is developed to clarify these relationships.

  15. PsbS-specific zeaxanthin-independent changes in fluorescence emission spectrum as a signature of energy-dependent non-photochemical quenching in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulfugarov, Ismayil S; Tovuu, Altanzaya; Dogsom, Bolormaa; Lee, Chung Yeol; Lee, Choon-Hwan

    2010-05-01

    The PsbS protein of photosystem II is necessary for the development of energy-dependent quenching of chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence (qE), and PsbS-deficient Arabidopsis plant leaves failed to show qE-specific changes in the steady-state 77 K fluorescence emission spectra observed in wild-type leaves. The difference spectrum between the quenched and un-quenched states showed a negative peak at 682 nm. Although the level of qE development in the zeaxanthin-less npq1-2 mutant plants, which lacked violaxanthin de-epoxidase enzyme, was only half that of wild type, there were no noticeable changes in this qE-dependent difference spectrum. This zeaxanthin-independent DeltaF682 signal was not dependent on state transition, and the signal was not due to photobleaching of pigments either. These results suggest that DeltaF682 signal is formed due to PsbS-specific conformational changes in the quenching site of qE and is a new signature of qE generation in higher plants.

  16. CD1d-dependent NKT cells play a protective role in acute and chronic arthritis models by ameliorating antigen-specific Th1 responses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teige, Anna; Bockermann, Robert; Hasan, Maruf

    2010-01-01

    -induced arthritis (AIA) and collagen-induced arthritis (CIA), to evaluate acute and chronic arthritis in CD1d knockout mice and mice depleted of NK1.1(+) cells. CD1d-deficient mice developed more severe AIA compared with wild-type littermates, with a higher degree of inflammation and proteoglycan depletion. Chronic...... arthritis in CIA was also worse in the absence of CD1d-dependent NKTs. Elevated levels of Ag-specific IFN-gamma production accompanied these findings rather than changes in IL-17alpha. Depletion of NK1.1(+) cells supported these findings in AIA and CIA. This report provides support for CD1d-dependent NKTs...

  17. Brain-specific inactivation of the Crhr1 gene inhibits post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake, but does not affect relapse-like drinking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molander, Anna; Vengeliene, Valentina; Heilig, Markus

    2012-01-01

    , a conditional brain-specific Crhr1-knockout (Crhr1(NestinCre)) and a global knockout mouse line were studied for basal alcohol drinking, stress-induced alcohol consumption, deprivation-induced intake, and escalated alcohol consumption in the post-dependent state. In a second set of experiments, we tested CRHR1...... not affect relapse-like drinking after a deprivation period in rats. We conclude that CRH/CRHR1 extra-HPA and HPA signaling may have opposing effects on stress-related alcohol consumption. CRHR1 does not have a role in basal alcohol intake or relapse-like drinking situations with a low stress load.......Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) and its receptor, CRH receptor-1 (CRHR1), have a key role in alcoholism. Especially, post-dependent and stress-induced alcohol intake involve CRH/CRHR1 signaling within extra-hypothalamic structures, but a contribution of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA...

  18. pH-dependence of the specific binding of Cu(II) and Zn(II) ions to the amyloid-β peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghalebani, Leila; Wahlström, Anna; Danielsson, Jens; Wärmländer, Sebastian K.T.S.; Gräslund, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cu(II) and Zn(II) display pH-dependent binding to the Aβ(1–40) peptide. ► At pH 7.4 both metal ions display residue-specific binding to the Aβ peptide. ► At pH 5.5 the binding specificity is lost for Zn(II). ► Differential Cu(II) and Zn(II) binding may help explain metal-induced AD toxicity. -- Abstract: Metal ions like Cu(II) and Zn(II) are accumulated in Alzheimer’s disease amyloid plaques. The amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide involved in the disease interacts with these metal ions at neutral pH via ligands provided by the N-terminal histidines and the N-terminus. The present study uses high-resolution NMR spectroscopy to monitor the residue-specific interactions of Cu(II) and Zn(II) with 15 N- and 13 C, 15 N-labeled Aβ(1–40) peptides at varying pH levels. At pH 7.4 both ions bind to the specific ligands, competing with one another. At pH 5.5 Cu(II) retains its specific histidine ligands, while Zn(II) seems to lack residue-specific interactions. The low pH mimics acidosis which is linked to inflammatory processes in vivo. The results suggest that the cell toxic effects of redox active Cu(II) binding to Aβ may be reversed by the protective activity of non-redox active Zn(II) binding to the same major binding site under non-acidic conditions. Under acidic conditions, the protective effect of Zn(II) may be decreased or changed, since Zn(II) is less able to compete with Cu(II) for the specific binding site on the Aβ peptide under these conditions.

  19. Interaction strength combinations and the overfishing of a marine food web

    OpenAIRE

    Bascompte, Jordi; Melián, Carlos J.; Sala, Enric

    2005-01-01

    The stability of ecological communities largely depends on the strength of interactions between predators and their prey. Here we show that these interaction strengths are structured nonran- domly in a large Caribbean marine food web. Specifically, the cooccurrence of strong interactions on two consecutive levels of food chains occurs less frequently than expected by chance. Even when they occur, these strongly interacting chains are accompa- nied by strong omnivory more often than expected ...

  20. NMDAR NR2A and NR2B specific PKC-dependent regulation of mGluR is defective in the Fragile X Syndrome mouse model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banke, Tue G.; Toft, Anna Karina; Lundbye, Camilla Johanne

    The Fragile X Syndrome (FXS) animal model, the Fmr1 knock-out (KO) mouse, has demonstrated an increased mGluR5-mediated long-term depression (LTD). However, surprisingly little information exists about other ion channels/receptors and their effects on FXS, including NMDA receptors (NMDAR). Here we....... Furthermore, in this model it appears that NR2B activation stimulates PKC, while NR2A activation halts or reverses this effect. In addition, in the KO mice, the coupling between specific NMDAR subunits and mGluR-LTD activity through PKC seems defective in an age-dependent manner. These findings suggest strong...

  1. Regulation of AKT phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308 by endoplasmic reticulum stress modulates substrate specificity in a severity dependent manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Wa Yung

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress is a common factor in the pathophysiology of diverse human diseases that are characterised by contrasting cellular behaviours, from proliferation in cancer to apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders. Coincidently, dysregulation of AKT/PKB activity, which is the central regulator of cell growth, proliferation and survival, is often associated with the same diseases. Here, we demonstrate that ER stress modulates AKT substrate specificity in a severity-dependent manner, as shown by phospho-specific antibodies against known AKT targets. ER stress also reduces both total and phosphorylated AKT in a severity-dependent manner, without affecting activity of the upstream kinase PDK1. Normalisation to total AKT revealed that under ER stress phosphorylation of Thr308 is suppressed while that of Ser473 is increased. ER stress induces GRP78, and siRNA-mediated knock-down of GRP78 enhances phosphorylation at Ser473 by 3.6 fold, but not at Thr308. Substrate specificity is again altered. An in-situ proximity ligation assay revealed a physical interaction between GRP78 and AKT at the plasma membrane of cells following induction of ER stress. Staining was weak in cells with normal nuclear morphology but stronger in those displaying rounded, condensed nuclei. Co-immunoprecipitation of GRP78 and P-AKT(Ser473 confirmed the immuno-complex consists of non-phosphorylated AKT (Ser473 and Thr308. The interaction is likely specific as AKT did not bind to all molecular chaperones, and GRP78 did not bind to p70 S6 kinase. These findings provide one mechanistic explanation for how ER stress contributes to human pathologies demonstrating contrasting cell fates via modulation of AKT signalling.

  2. Regulation of AKT Phosphorylation at Ser473 and Thr308 by Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Modulates Substrate Specificity in a Severity Dependent Manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Hong Wa

    2011-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a common factor in the pathophysiology of diverse human diseases that are characterised by contrasting cellular behaviours, from proliferation in cancer to apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders. Coincidently, dysregulation of AKT/PKB activity, which is the central regulator of cell growth, proliferation and survival, is often associated with the same diseases. Here, we demonstrate that ER stress modulates AKT substrate specificity in a severity-dependent manner, as shown by phospho-specific antibodies against known AKT targets. ER stress also reduces both total and phosphorylated AKT in a severity-dependent manner, without affecting activity of the upstream kinase PDK1. Normalisation to total AKT revealed that under ER stress phosphorylation of Thr308 is suppressed while that of Ser473 is increased. ER stress induces GRP78, and siRNA-mediated knock-down of GRP78 enhances phosphorylation at Ser473 by 3.6 fold, but not at Thr308. Substrate specificity is again altered. An in-situ proximity ligation assay revealed a physical interaction between GRP78 and AKT at the plasma membrane of cells following induction of ER stress. Staining was weak in cells with normal nuclear morphology but stronger in those displaying rounded, condensed nuclei. Co-immunoprecipitation of GRP78 and P-AKT(Ser473) confirmed the immuno-complex consists of non-phosphorylated AKT (Ser473 and Thr308). The interaction is likely specific as AKT did not bind to all molecular chaperones, and GRP78 did not bind to p70 S6 kinase. These findings provide one mechanistic explanation for how ER stress contributes to human pathologies demonstrating contrasting cell fates via modulation of AKT signalling. PMID:21445305

  3. Renal Dysfunction Induced by Kidney-Specific Gene Deletion of Hsd11b2 as a Primary Cause of Salt-Dependent Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Kohei; Nishimoto, Mitsuhiro; Hirohama, Daigoro; Ayuzawa, Nobuhiro; Kawarazaki, Wakako; Watanabe, Atsushi; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Loffing, Johannes; Zhang, Ming-Zhi; Marumo, Takeshi; Fujita, Toshiro

    2017-07-01

    Genome-wide analysis of renal sodium-transporting system has identified specific variations of Mendelian hypertensive disorders, including HSD11B2 gene variants in apparent mineralocorticoid excess. However, these genetic variations in extrarenal tissue can be involved in developing hypertension, as demonstrated in former studies using global and brain-specific Hsd11b2 knockout rodents. To re-examine the importance of renal dysfunction on developing hypertension, we generated kidney-specific Hsd11b2 knockout mice. The knockout mice exhibited systemic hypertension, which was abolished by reducing salt intake, suggesting its salt-dependency. In addition, we detected an increase in renal membrane expressions of cleaved epithelial sodium channel-α and T53-phosphorylated Na + -Cl - cotransporter in the knockout mice. Acute intraperitoneal administration of amiloride-induced natriuresis and increased urinary sodium/potassium ratio more in the knockout mice compared with those in the wild-type control mice. Chronic administration of amiloride and high-KCl diet significantly decreased mean blood pressure in the knockout mice, which was accompanied with the correction of hypokalemia and the resultant decrease in Na + -Cl - cotransporter phosphorylation. Accordingly, a Na + -Cl - cotransporter blocker hydrochlorothiazide significantly decreased mean blood pressure in the knockout mice. Chronic administration of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone significantly decreased mean blood pressure of the knockout mice along with downregulation of cleaved epithelial sodium channel-α and phosphorylated Na + -Cl - cotransporter expression in the knockout kidney. Our data suggest that kidney-specific deficiency of 11β-HSD2 leads to salt-dependent hypertension, which is attributed to mineralocorticoid receptor-epithelial sodium channel-Na + -Cl - cotransporter activation in the kidney, and provides evidence that renal dysfunction is essential for developing the

  4. Rock strength under explosive loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimer, N.; Proffer, W.

    1993-01-01

    This presentation emphasizes the importance of a detailed description of the nonlinear deviatoric (strength) response of the surrounding rock in the numerical simulation of underground nuclear explosion phenomenology to the late times needed for test ban monitoring applications. We will show how numerical simulations which match ground motion measurements in volcanic tuffs and in granite use the strength values obtained from laboratory measurements on small core samples of these rocks but also require much lower strength values after the ground motion has interacted with the rock. The underlying physical mechanisms for the implied strength reduction are not yet well understood, and in fact may depend on the particular rock type. However, constitutive models for shock damage and/or effective stress have been used successfully at S-Cubed in both the Geophysics Program (primarily for DARPA) and the Containment Support Program (for DNA) to simulate late time ground motions measured at NTS in many different rock types

  5. The Effect on Final Bond Strength of Bracket Manipulation Subsequent To Initial Positioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beebe, David A.

    The shear bond strength of light activated orthodontic adhesives varies according to the composition of the material, placement protocol, and time prior to light curing. Manipulating brackets after their initial placement on a tooth can disrupt the adhesive's polymerization and compromise final bond strength. No previous research has investigated how a specific degree of manipulation, and the amount of time elapsed prior to curing, under specific lighting conditions, affects the orthodontic adhesives shear bond strength. Victory SeriesRTM, MBT prescription, premolar (3M Unitek, Monrovia, CA) orthodontic brackets were bonded using three different adhesives to sixty (60) bicuspids and varying the time after bracket manipulation before curing. The shear bond strength was calculated for each specimen. The brackets were debonded and the same teeth were rebonded with new, identical brackets, using the same protocol and under the same conditions. The results showed a statistically significant difference between the shear bond strength of Transbond XT and Grengloo, with Transbond XT having the highest strength. There was also a statistically significance difference in bond strength between the group cured 30 seconds after manipulation and the groups manipulated at different intervals prior to curing, with the 30 second group having the highest bond strength. This study confirms that various orthodontic adhesives have different bond strengths depending on manipulation and varying times prior to curing each adhesive.

  6. Induction of Ca2+-dependent cyclosporin A-insensitive nonspecific permeability of the inner membrane of liver mitochondria and cytochrome c release by α,ω-hexadecanedioic acid in media of varying ionic strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubinin, M V; Vedernikov, A A; Khoroshavina, E I; Samartsev, V N

    2014-06-01

    In liver mitochondria loaded with Ca2+ or Sr(2+), α,ω-hexadecanedioic acid (HDA) can induce nonspecific permeability of the inner membrane (mitochondrial pore) by the mechanism insensitive to cyclosporin A (CsA). In this work we studied the effect of ionic strength of the incubation medium on the kinetics of the processes that accompany Ca2+-dependent induction of the mitochondrial pore by fatty acid: organelle swelling, Ca2+ release from the matrix, changes in transmembrane potential (Δψ) and rate of oxygen consumption, and the release of cytochrome c from the intermembrane space. Two basic incubation media were used: sucrose medium and isotonic ionic medium containing KCl without sucrose. We found that 200 μM Ca2+ and 20 μM HDA in the presence of CsA effectively induce high-amplitude swelling of mitochondria both in the case of sucrose and in the ionic incubation medium. In the presence of CsA, mitochondria can rapidly absorb Ca2+ and retain it in the matrix for a while without reducing Δψ. Upon incubation in the ionic medium, mitochondria retain most of the added Ca2+ in the matrix for a short time without reducing the Δψ. In both cases the addition of HDA to the mitochondria 2 min after the introduction of Ca2+ leads to the rapid release of these ions from the matrix and total drop in Δψ. The mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca2+ and HDA in non-ionic medium is accompanied by almost maximal stimulation of respiration. Under the same conditions, but during incubation of mitochondria in the ionic medium, it is necessary to add cytochrome c for significant stimulation of respiration. The mitochondrial swelling induced by Ca2+ and HDA leads to the release of cytochrome c in a larger amount in the case of ionic medium than for the sucrose medium. We conclude that high ionic strength of the incubation medium determines the massive release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and liberates it from the respiratory chain, which leads to blockade of electron

  7. Leukocyte function-associated antigen-1-dependent lysis of Fas+ (CD95+/Apo-1+) innocent bystanders by antigen-specific CD8+ CTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, H; Eshima, K; Takayama, H; Sitkovsky, M V

    1997-09-15

    Exquisite specificity toward Ag-bearing cells (cognate targets) is one of the most important properties of CD8+ CTL-mediated cytotoxicity. Using highly Ag-specific CD8+ CTL lines and clones, which spare noncognate, Ag-free targets, we found that in the presence of Ag-bearing targets the CTL acquire the ability to lyse noncognate target cells (bystanders). It is shown that the unexpectedly rapid and efficient lysis of bystanders by Ag-activated CTL is mediated by a Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas-based mechanism and does not depend on perforin. The CTL lysed Fas-expressing bystanders, but spared the Fas-negative or anti-Fas mAb-resistant bystander cells. Accordingly, the FasL-deficient gld/gld CTL did not kill bystanders, while perforin-deficient CTL did. Unlike anti-Fas mAb-induced cell death, the lysis of bystanders was not only FasL/Fas dependent but also required adhesion molecule LFA-1 on the surface of the activated CTL. Lysis of bystanders is viewed as acceptable "collateral" damage, but the persistent presence of activated CTL could result in immunopathologies involving functional Fas-expressing tissues.

  8. Hip shape is symmetric, non-dependent on limb dominance and gender-specific. Implications for femoroacetabular impingement. A 3D CT analysis in asymptomatic subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mascarenhas, Vasco V.; Rego, Paulo; Dantas, Pedro; Castro, Miguel; Jans, Lennart; Marques, Rui M.; Gouveia, Nelia; Consciencia, Jose G.; Soldado, Francisco; Ayeni, Olufemi R.

    2018-01-01

    To determine the reference intervals (RefInt) of the quantitative morphometric parameters of femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) in asymptomatic hips with computed tomography (CT) and determine their dependence on age, side, limb dominance and sex. We prospectively included 590 patients and evaluated 1111 hips with semi-automated CT analysis. We calculated overall, side- and sex-specific parameters for imaging signs of cam [omega and alpha angle (α )] and pincer-type morphology [acetabular version (ACvers), lateral centre-edge angle (LCEA) and cranio-caudal coverage]. Hip shape was symmetrical and did not depend on limb dominance. The 95% RefInt limits were sex-different for all cam-type parameters and extended beyond current abnormal thresholds. Specifically, the upper limits of RefInt for α at 12:00, 1:30 and 3:00 o'clock positions were 56 , 70 and 58 , respectively, and 45 for LCEA. Acetabular morphology varied between age groups, with a trend toward an LCEA/ACvers increase over time. Our morphometric measurements can be used to estimate normal hip morphology in asymptomatic individuals. Notably they extended beyond current thresholds used for FAI imaging diagnosis, which was most pronounced for cam-type parameters. We suggest the need to reassess α RefInt and consider a 60 threshold for the 12:00/3:00 positions and 65-70 for other antero-superior positions. (orig.)

  9. PRDM16 enhances nuclear receptor-dependent transcription of the brown fat-specific Ucp1 gene through interactions with Mediator subunit MED1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iida, Satoshi; Chen, Wei; Nakadai, Tomoyoshi; Ohkuma, Yoshiaki; Roeder, Robert G

    2015-02-01

    PR domain-containing 16 (PRDM16) induces expression of brown fat-specific genes in brown and beige adipocytes, although the underlying transcription-related mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, in vitro studies show that PRDM16, through its zinc finger domains, directly interacts with the MED1 subunit of the Mediator complex, is recruited to the enhancer of the brown fat-specific uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1) gene through this interaction, and enhances thyroid hormone receptor (TR)-driven transcription in a biochemically defined system in a Mediator-dependent manner, thus providing a direct link to the general transcription machinery. Complementary cell-based studies show that upon forskolin treatment, PRDM16 induces Ucp1 expression in undifferentiated murine embryonic fibroblasts, that this induction depends on MED1 and TR, and, consistent with a direct effect, that PRDM16 is recruited to the Ucp1 enhancer. Related studies have defined MED1 and PRDM16 interaction domains important for Ucp1 versus Ppargc1a induction by PRDM16. These results reveal novel mechanisms for PRDM16 function through the Mediator complex. © 2015 Iida et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  10. FasL and FADD delivery by a glioma-specific and cell cycle-dependent HSV-1 amplicon virus enhanced apoptosis in primary human brain tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lam Paula Y

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glioblastoma multiforme is the most malignant cancer of the brain and is notoriously difficult to treat due to the highly proliferative and infiltrative nature of the cells. Herein, we explored the combination treatment of pre-established human glioma xenograft using multiple therapeutic genes whereby the gene expression is regulated by both cell-type and cell cycle-dependent transcriptional regulatory mechanism conferred by recombinant HSV-1 amplicon vectors. Results We demonstrated for the first time that Ki67-positive proliferating primary human glioma cells cultured from biopsy samples were effectively induced into cell death by the dual-specific function of the pG8-FasL amplicon vectors. These vectors were relatively stable and exhibited minimal cytotoxicity in vivo. Intracranial implantation of pre-transduced glioma cells resulted in better survival outcome when compared with viral vectors inoculated one week post-implantation of tumor cells, indicating that therapeutic efficacy is dependent on the viral spread and mode of viral vectors administration. We further showed that pG8-FasL amplicon vectors are functional in the presence of commonly used treatment regimens for human brain cancer. In fact, the combined therapies of pG8-FasL and pG8-FADD in the presence of temozolomide significantly improved the survival of mice bearing intracranial high-grade gliomas. Conclusion Taken together, our results showed that the glioma-specific and cell cycle-dependent HSV-1 amplicon vector is potentially useful as an adjuvant therapy to complement the current gene therapy strategy for gliomas.

  11. The Strength Compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    In the Ph.D-project ͚Strengths-based Learning - Children͛s character strengths as a means to their learning potential͛ 750 Danish children have assessed ͚The Strength Compass͛ in order to identify their strengths and to create awareness of strengths. This was followed by a strengths......-based intervention program in order to explore the strengths. Finally different methods to apply the strength in everyday life at school were applied. The paper presentation will show the results for strengths display for children aged 6-16 in different categories: Different age groups: Are the same strengths...... present in both small children and youths? Gender: Do the results show differences between the two genders? Danish as a mother- tongue language: Do the results show any differences in the strengths display when considering different language and cultural backgrounds? Children with Special Needs: Do...

  12. Studies on the concentration dependence of specific rotation of Alpha lactose monohydrate (α-LM) aqueous solutions and growth of α-LM single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinodhini, K.; Divya Bharathi, R.; Srinivasan, K.

    2018-02-01

    Lactose is an optically active substance. As it is one of the reducing sugars, exhibits mutarotation in solution when it dissolves in any solvent. In solution, lactose exists in two isomeric forms, alpha-Lactose (α-L) and beta-lactose (β-L) through the mutarotation reaction. Mutarotation produces a dynamic equilibrium between two isomers in a solution and kinetics of this process determines the growth rate of alpha lactose monohydrate (α-LM) crystals. Since no data were available on the specific rotation of aqueous α-LM solutions at different concentrations at 33 °C, the initial experiments were carried out on the specific rotation of aqueous α-LM solutions at different concentrations at 33 °C. The specific rotations of the solutions were decreased with increasing time through the mutarotation reaction. The initial and final (equilibrium) specific rotations of the solutions were determined by using automatic digital polarimeter. The compositions of α and β-L in all prepared solutions were calculated from initial and final optical rotations by the method of Sharp and Doob. The composition of α-L decreased whereas, the composition of β-L increased in solutions with increasing concentration of α-LM at 33 °C. Experimental results revealed that this method could be easily and safely employed to study the dependence of specific rotation of solutions on their concentration. The effect of β-lactose on the morphology of nucleated α-LM single crystals has been studied at different experimental conditions.

  13. Strength Determinants of Jump Height in the Jump Throw Movement in Women Handball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhie, David; Østerås, Sindre; Ettema, Gertjan; Paulsen, Gøran; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2018-06-08

    McGhie, D, Østerås, S, Ettema, G, Paulsen, G, and Sandbakk, Ø. Strength determinants of jump height in the jump throw movement in women handball players. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-The purpose of the study was to improve the understanding of the strength demands of a handball-specific jump through examining the associations between jump height in a jump throw jump (JTJ) and measures of lower-body maximum strength and impulse in handball players. For comparison, whether the associations between jump height and strength differed between the JTJ and the customarily used countermovement jump (CMJ) was also examined. Twenty women handball players from a Norwegian top division club participated in the study. Jump height was measured in the JTJ and in unilateral and bilateral CMJ. Lower-body strength (maximum isometric force, one-repetition maximum [1RM], impulse at ∼60% and ∼35% 1RM) was measured in seated leg press. The associations between jump height and strength were assessed with correlation analyses and t-tests of dependent r's were performed to determine if correlations differed between jump tests. Only impulse at ∼35% 1RM correlated significantly with JTJ height (p jump height and strength were significantly weaker in the JTJ than in both CMJ tests for all strength measures (p = 0.001-0.044) except one. Maximum strength and impulse at ∼60% 1RM did not seem to sufficiently capture the capabilities associated with JTJ height, highlighting the importance of employing tests targeting performance-relevant neuromuscular characteristics when assessing jump-related strength in handball players. Further, CMJ height seemed to represent a wider range of strength capabilities and care should be taken when using it as a proxy for handball-specific movements.

  14. Oral peptide specific egg antibody to intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate co-transporter-2b is effective at altering phosphate transport in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobeck, Elizabeth A; Hellestad, Erica M; Sand, Jordan M; Piccione, Michelle L; Bishop, Jeff W; Helvig, Christian; Petkovich, Martin; Cook, Mark E

    2015-06-01

    Hyperimmunized hens are an effective means of generating large quantities of antigen specific egg antibodies that have use as oral supplements. In this study, we attempted to create a peptide specific antibody that produced outcomes similar to those of the human pharmaceutical, sevelamer HCl, used in the treatment of hyperphosphatemia (a sequela of chronic renal disease). Egg antibodies were generated against 8 different human intestinal sodium-dependent phosphate cotransporter 2b (NaPi2b) peptides, and hNaPi2b peptide egg antibodies were screened for their ability to inhibit phosphate transport in human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. Antibody produced against human peptide sequence TSPSLCWT (anti-h16) was specific for its peptide sequence, and significantly reduced phosphate transport in human Caco-2 cells to 25.3±11.5% of control nonspecific antibody, when compared to nicotinamide, a known inhibitor of phosphate transport (P≤0.05). Antibody was then produced against the mouse-specific peptide h16 counterpart (mouse sequence TSPSYCWT, anti-m16) for further analysis in a murine model. When anti-m16 was fed to mice (1% of diet as dried egg yolk powder), egg yolk immunoglobulin (IgY) was detected using immunohistochemical staining in mouse ileum, and egg anti-m16 IgY colocalized with a commercial goat anti-NaPi2b antibody. The effectiveness of anti-m16 egg antibody in reducing serum phosphate, when compared to sevelamer HCl, was determined in a mouse feeding study. Serum phosphate was reduced 18% (Pegg yolk powder) and 30% (Pegg immunoglobulin. The methods described and the findings reported show that oral egg antibodies are useful and easy to prepare reagents for the study and possible treatment of select diseases. © 2015 Poultry Science Association Inc.

  15. Effective intracellular inhibition of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase by microinjection of a modified form of the specific inhibitor peptide PKi in living fibroblasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, A; Mery, J; Vandromme, M; Basset, M; Cavadore, J C; Lamb, N J

    1991-08-01

    In order to obtain a peptide retaining its biological activity following microinjection into living cells, we have modified a synthetic peptide [PKi(m)(6-24)], derived from the specific inhibitor protein of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (A-kinase) in two ways: (1) substitution of the arginine at position 18 for a D-arginine; (2) blockade of the side chain on the C-terminal aspartic acid by a cyclohexyl ester group. In an in vitro assay, PKi(m) has retained a specific inhibitory activity against A-kinase as assessed against six other kinases, with similar efficiency to that of the unmodified PKi(5-24) peptide. Microinjection of PKi(m) into living fibroblasts reveals its capacity to prevent the changes in cell morphology and cytoskeleton induced by drugs which activate endogenous A-kinase, whereas the original PKi peptide failed to do so. This inhibition of A-kinase in vivo by PKi(m) lasts between 4 and 6 h after injection. In light of its effective half-life, this modified peptide opens a route for the use of biologically active peptides in vivo, an approach which has been hampered until now by the exceedingly short half-life of peptides inside living cells. By providing a direct means of inhibiting A-kinase activity for sufficiently long periods to observe effects on cellular functions in living cells, PKi(m) represents a powerful tool in studying the potential role of cAMP-dependent phosphorylation in vivo.

  16. Protease activity of PprI facilitates DNA damage response: Mn2+-dependence and substrate sequence-specificity of the proteolytic reaction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunguang Wang

    Full Text Available The extremophilic bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans exhibits an extraordinary resistance to ionizing radiation. Previous studies established that a protein named PprI, which exists only in the Deinococcus-Thermus family, acts as a general switch to orchestrate the expression of a number of DNA damage response (DDR proteins involved in cellular radio-resistance. Here we show that the regulatory mechanism of PprI depends on its Mn(2+-dependent protease activity toward DdrO, a transcription factor that suppresses DDR genes' expression. Recognition sequence-specificity around the PprI cleavage site is essential for DNA damage repair in vivo. PprI and DdrO mediate a novel DNA damage response pathway differing from the classic LexA-mediated SOS response system found in radiation-sensitive bacterium Escherichia coli. This PprI-mediated pathway in D. radiodurans is indispensable for its extreme radio-resistance and therefore its elucidation significantly advances our understanding of the DNA damage repair mechanism in this amazing organism.

  17. Risk factors causing evolvement of alimentary-dependent diseases in specific groups of workers employed at metallurgy production and prevention meausres development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.V. Danilova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The article gives the results of hygienic and epidemiologic research of morbidity, nutrition structure, food stuffs safety, working conditions, and actual nutrition of workers employed at metallurgy productions. The research was carried out at "Magnitogorskiy metallurgy plant" PLC. 1208 steel workers and founders made up the main group. Average age of research participants amounted to 40.0 ± 0.75. The sampling was representative. We studied actual nutrition over 2010–2015 via analyzing food consumption frequency and applying extended base of food stuffs chemical structure and analyzing menus with lists of dishes offered for an organized group nutrition. We assessed both qualitative and quantitative parameters, including consumption of basic nutrients, energy, irreplaceable amino acids, lipids, vitamins, dietary fiber, essential and conditionally essential microbiological elements (60 nutrients totally, allowing for losses on a product peeling, edible contents, and other losses occurring at various treatments during cooking. We also assessed nutrition regime and other nutrition features. We detected that ratio between proteins, fats and carbohydrates was the evidence of mostly fat nutrition type. Workers were found to consume insufficient quantity of certain vitamins (A, D, and folic acid and biological elements (calcium, but they instead consumed excessive quantities of saturated fats and common salt. It is shown that actual nutrition of specific workers' groups at metallurgy production is not rational, imbalanced, and doesn't satisfy body needs causing risks of nutrition state shifts and alimentary-dependent diseases evolvement. Alimentary-dependent diseases on average amounted to 21.6 % in the total morbidity structure in 2010–2015. 10.0 % of all diseases with temporary working disability are diseases determined by mostly nutrition factor. Epidemiologic analysis of morbidity comprising diseases related to non-rational nutrition enabled us

  18. Systemic lipopolysaccharide administration impairs retrieval of context-object discrimination, but not spatial, memory: Evidence for selective disruption of specific hippocampus-dependent memory functions during acute neuroinflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerniawski, Jennifer; Miyashita, Teiko; Lewandowski, Gail; Guzowski, John F

    2015-02-01

    Neuroinflammation is implicated in impairments in neuronal function and cognition that arise with aging, trauma, and/or disease. Therefore, understanding the underlying basis of the effect of immune system activation on neural function could lead to therapies for treating cognitive decline. Although neuroinflammation is widely thought to preferentially impair hippocampus-dependent memory, data on the effects of cytokines on cognition are mixed. One possible explanation for these inconsistent results is that cytokines may disrupt specific neural processes underlying some forms of memory but not others. In an earlier study, we tested the effect of systemic administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on retrieval of hippocampus-dependent context memory and neural circuit function in CA3 and CA1 (Czerniawski and Guzowski, 2014). Paralleling impairment in context discrimination memory, we observed changes in neural circuit function consistent with disrupted pattern separation function. In the current study we tested the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation selectively disrupts memory retrieval in tasks requiring hippocampal pattern separation processes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats given LPS systemically prior to testing exhibited intact performance in tasks that do not require hippocampal pattern separation processes: novel object recognition and spatial memory in the water maze. By contrast, memory retrieval in a task thought to require hippocampal pattern separation, context-object discrimination, was strongly impaired in LPS-treated rats in the absence of any gross effects on exploratory activity or motivation. These data show that LPS administration does not impair memory retrieval in all hippocampus-dependent tasks, and support the hypothesis that acute neuroinflammation impairs context discrimination memory via disruption of pattern separation processes in hippocampus. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nuclear threshold effects and neutron strength function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hategan, Cornel; Comisel, Horia

    2003-01-01

    One proves that a Nuclear Threshold Effect is dependent, via Neutron Strength Function, on Spectroscopy of Ancestral Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the Nuclear Threshold Effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function. Evidence for relation of Nuclear Threshold Effects to Neutron Strength Functions is obtained from Isotopic Threshold Effect and Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly. The empirical and computational analysis of the Isotopic Threshold Effect and of the Deuteron Stripping Threshold Anomaly demonstrate their close relationship to Neutron Strength Functions. It was established that the Nuclear Threshold Effects depend, in addition to genuine Nuclear Reaction Mechanisms, on Spectroscopy of (Ancestral) Neutron Threshold State. The magnitude of the effect is proportional to the Neutron Strength Function, in their dependence on mass number. This result constitutes also a proof that the origins of these threshold effects are Neutron Single Particle States at zero energy. (author)

  20. Antibody-dependent NK cell activation is associated with late kidney allograft dysfunction and the complement-independent alloreactive potential of donor-specific antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tristan Legris

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Although kidney transplantation remains the best treatment for end-stage renal failure, it is limited by chronic humoral aggression of the graft vasculature by donor-specific antibodies (DSAs. The complement-independent mechanisms that lead to the antibody-mediated rejection (ABMR of kidney allografts remain poorly understood. Increasing lines of evidence have revealed the relevance of natural killer (NK cells as innate immune effectors of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity, but few studies have investigated their alloreactive potential in the context of solid organ transplantation. Our study aimed to investigate the potential contribution of the antibody-dependent alloreactive function of NK cells to kidney graft dysfunction. We first conducted an observational study to investigate whether the cytotoxic function of NK cells is associated with chronic allograft dysfunction. The NK-Cellular Humoral Activation Test (NK-CHAT was designed to evaluate the recipient and antibody-dependent reactivity of NK cells against allogeneic target cells. The release of CD107a/Lamp1+ cytotoxic granules, resulting from the recognition of rituximab-coated B cells by NK cells, was analyzed in 148 kidney transplant recipients (KTRs, mean graft duration: 6.2 years. Enhanced ADCC responsiveness was associated with reduced graft function and identified as an independent risk factor predicting a decline in the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR over a 1-year period (hazard ratio: 2.83. In a second approach, we used the NK-CHAT to reveal the cytotoxic potential of circulating alloantibodies in vitro. The level of CD16 engagement resulting from the in vitro recognition of serum-coated allogeneic B cells or splenic cells was further identified as a specific marker of DSA-induced ADCC. The NK-CHAT scoring of sera obtained from 40 patients at the time of transplant biopsy was associated with ABMR diagnosis. Our findings indicate that despite the administration

  1. A Systematic Review of the Effect of Cognitive Strategies on Strength Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tod, David; Edwards, Christian; McGuigan, Mike; Lovell, Geoff

    2015-11-01

    Researchers have tested the beliefs of sportspeople and sports medicine specialists that cognitive strategies influence strength performance. Few investigators have synthesised the literature. The specific objectives were to review evidence regarding (a) the cognitive strategy-strength performance relationship; (b) participant skill level as a moderator; and (c) cognitive, motivational, biomechanical/physiological, and emotional mediators. Studies were sourced via electronic databases, reference lists of retrieved articles, and manual searches of relevant journals. Studies had to be randomised or counterbalanced experiments with a control group or condition, repeated measures, and a quality control score above 0.5 (out of 1). Cognitive strategies included goal setting, imagery, self-talk, preparatory arousal, and free choice. Dependent variables included maximal strength, local muscular endurance, or muscular power. Globally, cognitive strategies were reliability associated with increased strength performance (results ranged from 61 to 65 %). Results were mixed when examining the effects of specific strategies on particular dependent variables, although no intervention had an overall negative influence. Indeterminate relationships emerged regarding hypothesised mediators (except cognitive variables) and participant skill level as a moderator. Although cognitive strategies influence strength performance, there are knowledge gaps regarding specific types of strength, especially muscular power. Cognitive variables, such as concentration, show promise as possible mediators.

  2. PDILT, a divergent testis-specific protein disulfide isomerase with a non-classical SXXC motif that engages in disulfide-dependent interactions in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lith, Marcel; Hartigan, Nichola; Hatch, Jennifer; Benham, Adam M

    2005-01-14

    Protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is the archetypal enzyme involved in the formation and reshuffling of disulfide bonds in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). PDI achieves its redox function through two highly conserved thioredoxin domains, and PDI can also operate as an ER chaperone. The substrate specificities and the exact functions of most other PDI family proteins remain important unsolved questions in biology. Here, we characterize a new and striking member of the PDI family, which we have named protein disulfide isomerase-like protein of the testis (PDILT). PDILT is the first eukaryotic SXXC protein to be characterized in the ER. Our experiments have unveiled a novel, glycosylated PDI-like protein whose tissue-specific expression and unusual motifs have implications for the evolution, catalytic function, and substrate selection of thioredoxin family proteins. We show that PDILT is an ER resident glycoprotein that liaises with partner proteins in disulfide-dependent complexes within the testis. PDILT interacts with the oxidoreductase Ero1alpha, demonstrating that the N-terminal cysteine of the CXXC sequence is not required for binding of PDI family proteins to ER oxidoreductases. The expression of PDILT, in addition to PDI in the testis, suggests that PDILT performs a specialized chaperone function in testicular cells. PDILT is an unusual PDI relative that highlights the adaptability of chaperone and redox function in enzymes of the endoplasmic reticulum.

  3. The strength compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    of agreement/disagreement. Also the child/teacher is asked whether the actual strength is important and if he or she has the possibilities to apply the strength in the school. In a PhDproject ‘Strengths-based Learning - Children’s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential’ 750 Danish children......Individual paper presentation: The ‘Strength Compass’. The results of a PhDresearch project among schoolchildren (age 6-16) identifying VIAstrengths concerning age, gender, mother-tongue-langue and possible child psychiatric diagnosis. Strengths-based interventions in schools have a theoretical...... Psychological Publishing Company. ‘The Strength Compass’ is a computer/Ipad based qualitative tool to identify the strengths of a child by a self-survey or a teacher’s survey. It is designed as a visual analogue scale with a statement of the strength in which the child/teacher may declare the degree...

  4. Haematopoietic depletion in vaccine-induced neonatal pancytopenia depends on both the titre and specificity of alloantibody and levels of MHC I expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Charlotte R; MacHugh, Niall D; Connelley, Timothy K; Degnan, Kathryn; Morrison, W Ivan

    2015-07-09

    Bovine Neonatal Pancytopenia (BNP) is a disease of calves characterised by haematopoietic depletion, mediated by ingestion of alloantibodies in colostrum. It has been linked epidemiologically to vaccination of the dams of affected calves with a particular vaccine (Pregsure) containing a novel adjuvant. Evidence suggests that BNP-alloantibodies are directed against MHC I molecules, induced by contaminant bovine cellular material from Madin-Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells used in the vaccine's production. We aimed to investigate the specificity of BNP-alloantibody for bovine MHC I alleles, particularly those expressed by MDBK cells, and whether depletion of particular cell types is due to differential MHC I expression levels. A complement-mediated cytotoxicity assay was used to assess functional serum alloantibody titres in BNP-dams, Pregsure-vaccinated dams with healthy calves, cows vaccinated with an alternative product and unvaccinated controls. Alloantibody specificity was investigated using transfected mouse lines expressing the individual MHC I alleles identified from MDBK cells and MHC I-defined bovine leukocyte lines. All BNP-dams and 50% of Pregsure-vaccinated cows were shown to have MDBK-MHC I specific alloantibodies, which cross-reacted to varying degrees with other MHC I genotypes. MHC I expression levels on different blood cell types, assessed by flow cytometry, were found to correlate with levels of alloantibody-mediated damage in vitro and in vivo. Alloantibody-killed bone marrow cells were shown to express higher levels of MHC I than undamaged cells. The results provide evidence that MHC I-specific alloantibodies play a dominant role in the pathogenesis of BNP. Haematopoietic depletion was shown to be dependent on the titre and specificity of alloantibody produced by individual cows and the density of surface MHC I expression by different cell types. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that MHC I molecules originating from MDBK cells

  5. Efficient genome editing in hematopoietic stem cells with helper-dependent Ad5/35 vectors expressing site-specific endonucleases under microRNA regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamola Saydaminova

    Full Text Available Genome editing with site-specific endonucleases has implications for basic biomedical research as well as for gene therapy. We generated helper-dependent, capsid-modified adenovirus (HD-Ad5/35 vectors for zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN– or transcription activator-like effector nuclease (TALEN–mediated genome editing in human CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs from mobilized adult donors. The production of these vectors required that ZFN and TALEN expression in HD-Ad5/35 producer 293-Cre cells was suppressed. To do this, we developed a microRNA (miRNA-based system for regulation of gene expression based on miRNA expression profiling of 293-Cre and CD34+ cells. Using miR-183-5p and miR-218-5p based regulation of transgene gene expression, we first produced an HD-Ad5/35 vector expressing a ZFN specific to the HIV coreceptor gene ccr5. We demonstrated that HD-Ad5/35.ZFNmiR vector conferred ccr5 knock out in primitive HSC (i.e., long-term culture initiating cells and NOD/SCID repopulating cells. The ccr5 gene disruption frequency achieved in engrafted HSCs found in the bone marrow of transplanted mice is clinically relevant for HIV therapy considering that these cells can give rise to multiple lineages, including all the lineages that represent targets and reservoirs for HIV. We produced a second HD-Ad5/35 vector expressing a TALEN targeting the DNase hypersensitivity region 2 (HS2 within the globin locus control region. This vector has potential for targeted gene correction in hemoglobinopathies. The miRNA regulated HD-Ad5/35 vector platform for expression of site-specific endonucleases has numerous advantages over currently used vectors as a tool for genome engineering of HSCs for therapeutic purposes.

  6. Sex-, Ethnic-, and Age-Specific Centile Curves for pQCT- and HR-pQCT-Derived Measures of Bone Structure and Strength in Adolescents and Young Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabel, Leigh; Macdonald, Heather M; Nettlefold, Lindsay A; McKay, Heather A

    2018-02-02

    There are presently no adolescent centile curves for bone parameters at the tibial midshaft using peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) or at the distal radius and tibia using high-resolution pQCT (HR-pQCT). Thus, we aimed to develop sex-, ethnic-, site-, and age-specific centile curves for pQCT and HR-pQCT-derived bone outcomes for youth and young adults aged 10 to 21 years. We acquired pQCT scans (XCT3000 or XCT2000) at the tibial midshaft (50% site) and HR-pQCT scans (XtremeCT) at the distal radius (7% site) and tibia (8% site) in a convenience sample of participants in the mixed-longitudinal University of British Columbia Healthy Bones III Study. We scanned 778 10- to 21-year-olds annually for a maximum of 11 years using pQCT (413 girls, 56% Asian; 365 boys, 54% Asian; n = 3160 observations) and 349 10- to 21-year-olds annually for a maximum of 4 years using HR-pQCT (189 girls, 51% Asian; 165 boys, 50% Asian; n = 1090 observations). For pQCT, we report cortical bone mineral density (BMD), total bone cross-sectional area, and polar strength-strain index. For HR-pQCT, we report standard measures (total BMD, trabecular number, thickness, and bone volume fraction) and automated segmentation measures (total bone cross-sectional area, cortical BMD, porosity, and thickness). We applied finite element analysis to estimate failure load. We applied the lamda, mu, sigma (LMS) method using LMS ChartMaker Light (version 2.5, The Institute of Child Health, London, UK) to construct LMS tables and centile plots. We report sex- and age-specific centiles (3rd, 10th, 25th, 50th, 75th, and 97th) for whites and Asians for pQCT bone parameters at the tibial midshaft and HR-pQCT bone parameters at the distal radius and tibia. These centile curves might be used by clinicians and scientists to interpret values or better understand trajectories of bone parameters in clinical populations, those from different geographic regions or of different ethnic origins. © 2018

  7. Impact of Hydrodynamics on Oral Biofilm Strength

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paramonova, E.; Kalmykowa, O. J.; van der Mei, H. C.; Busscher, H. J.; Sharma, P. K.

    2009-01-01

    Mechanical removal of oral biofilms is ubiquitously accepted as the best way to prevent caries and periodontal diseases. Removal effectiveness strongly depends on biofilm strength. To investigate the influence of hydrodynamics on oral biofilm strength, we grew single- and multi-species biofilms of

  8. Betulinic acid inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and induces proteasome-dependent and -independent downregulation of specificity proteins (Sp transcription factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathi Satya

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Betulinic acid (BA inhibits growth of several cancer cell lines and tumors and the effects of BA have been attributed to its mitochondriotoxicity and inhibition of multiple pro-oncogenic factors. Previous studies show that BA induces proteasome-dependent degradation of specificity protein (Sp transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in prostate cancer cells and this study focused on the mechanism of action of BA in colon cancer cells. Methods The effects of BA on colon cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis and tumor growth in vivo were determined using standardized assays. The effects of BA on Sp proteins and Sp-regulated gene products were analyzed by western blots, and real time PCR was used to determine microRNA-27a (miR-27a and ZBTB10 mRNA expression. Results BA inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in RKO and SW480 colon cancer cells and inhibited tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing RKO cells as xenograft. BA also decreased expression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors which are overexpressed in colon cancer cells and decreased levels of several Sp-regulated genes including survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor, p65 sub-unit of NFκB, epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclin D1, and pituitary tumor transforming gene-1. The mechanism of action of BA was dependent on cell context, since BA induced proteasome-dependent and proteasome-independent downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in SW480 and RKO cells, respectively. In RKO cells, the mechanism of BA-induced repression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 was due to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS, ROS-mediated repression of microRNA-27a, and induction of the Sp repressor gene ZBTB10. Conclusions These results suggest that the anticancer activity of BA in colon cancer cells is due, in part, to downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors; however, the mechanism of this response is cell context-dependent.

  9. Betulinic acid inhibits colon cancer cell and tumor growth and induces proteasome-dependent and -independent downregulation of specificity proteins (Sp) transcription factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chintharlapalli, Sudhakar; Papineni, Sabitha; Lei, Ping; Pathi, Satya; Safe, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Betulinic acid (BA) inhibits growth of several cancer cell lines and tumors and the effects of BA have been attributed to its mitochondriotoxicity and inhibition of multiple pro-oncogenic factors. Previous studies show that BA induces proteasome-dependent degradation of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in prostate cancer cells and this study focused on the mechanism of action of BA in colon cancer cells. The effects of BA on colon cancer cell proliferation and apoptosis and tumor growth in vivo were determined using standardized assays. The effects of BA on Sp proteins and Sp-regulated gene products were analyzed by western blots, and real time PCR was used to determine microRNA-27a (miR-27a) and ZBTB10 mRNA expression. BA inhibited growth and induced apoptosis in RKO and SW480 colon cancer cells and inhibited tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing RKO cells as xenograft. BA also decreased expression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors which are overexpressed in colon cancer cells and decreased levels of several Sp-regulated genes including survivin, vascular endothelial growth factor, p65 sub-unit of NFκB, epidermal growth factor receptor, cyclin D1, and pituitary tumor transforming gene-1. The mechanism of action of BA was dependent on cell context, since BA induced proteasome-dependent and proteasome-independent downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 in SW480 and RKO cells, respectively. In RKO cells, the mechanism of BA-induced repression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 was due to induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ROS-mediated repression of microRNA-27a, and induction of the Sp repressor gene ZBTB10. These results suggest that the anticancer activity of BA in colon cancer cells is due, in part, to downregulation of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 transcription factors; however, the mechanism of this response is cell context-dependent

  10. Strength and life under creeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospishil, B.

    1982-01-01

    Certain examples of the application of the Lepin modified creep model, which are of interest from technical viewpoint, are presented. Mathematical solution of the dependence of strength limit at elevated temperatures on creep characteristics is obtained. Tensile test at elevated temperatures is a particular case of creep or relaxation and both strength limit and conventional yield strength at elevated temperatures are completely determined by parameters of state equations during creep. The equation of fracture summing during creep is confirmed not only by the experiment data when stresses change sporadically, but also by good reflection of durability curve using the system of equations. The system presented on the basis of parameters of the equations obtained on any part of durability curve, permits to forecast the following parameters of creep: strain, strain rate, life time, strain in the process of fracture. Tensile test at elevated temperature is advisable as an addition when determining creep curves (time-strain curves) [ru

  11. Assessing the impact of extreme air temperature on fruit trees by modeling weather dependent phenology with variety-specific thermal requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfieri, Silvia Maria; De Lorenzi, Francesca; Missere, Daniele; Buscaroli, Claudio; Menenti, Massimo

    2013-04-01

    Extremely high and extremely low temperature may have a terminal impact on the productivity of fruit tree if occurring at critical phases of development. Notorious examples are frost during flowering or extremely high temperature during fruit setting. The dates of occurrence of such critical phenological stages depend on the weather history from the start of the yearly development cycle in late autumn, thus the impact of climate extremes can only be evaluated correctly if the phenological development is modeled taking into account the weather history of the specific year being evaluated. Climate change impact may lead to a shift in timing of phenological stages and change in the duration of vegetative and reproductive phases. A changing climate can also exhibit a greater climatic variability producing quite large changes in the frequency of extreme climatic events. We propose a two-stage approach to evaluate the impact of predicted future climate on the productivity of fruit trees. The phenological development is modeled using phase - specific thermal times and variety specific thermal requirements for several cultivars of pear, apricot and peach. These requirements were estimated using phenological observations over several years in Emilia Romagna region and scientific literature. We calculated the dates of start and end of rest completion, bud swell, flowering, fruit setting and ripening stages , from late autumn through late summer. Then phase-specific minimum and maximum cardinal temperature were evaluated for present and future climate to estimate how frequently they occur during any critically sensitive phenological phase. This analysis has been done for past climate (1961 - 1990) and fifty realizations of a year representative of future climate (2021 - 2050). A delay in rest completion of about 10-20 days has been predicted for future climate for most of the cultivars. On the other hand the predicted rise in air temperature causes an earlier development of

  12. Topological strength of magnetic skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Ramos, J.G.G.S.; Rodrigues, E.I.B.

    2017-02-01

    This work deals with magnetic structures that attain integer and half-integer skyrmion numbers. We model and solve the problem analytically, and show how the solutions appear in materials that engender distinct, very specific physical properties, and use them to describe their topological features. In particular, we found a way to model skyrmion with a large transition region correlated with the presence of a two-peak skyrmion number density. Moreover, we run into the issue concerning the topological strength of a vortex-like structure and suggest an experimental realization, important to decide how to modify and measure the topological strength of the magnetic structure.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrB Is a Robust DNA-Stimulated ATPase That Also Possesses Structure-Specific ATP-Dependent DNA Helicase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thakur, Manoj; Kumar, Mohan B J; Muniyappa, K

    2016-10-18

    Much is known about the Escherichia coli nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway; however, very little is understood about the proteins involved and the molecular mechanism of NER in mycobacteria. In this study, we show that Mycobacterium tuberculosis UvrB (MtUvrB), which exists in solution as a monomer, binds to DNA in a structure-dependent manner. A systematic examination of MtUvrB substrate specificity reveals that it associates preferentially with single-stranded DNA, duplexes with 3' or 5' overhangs, and linear duplex DNA with splayed arms. Whereas E. coli UvrB (EcUvrB) binds weakly to undamaged DNA and has no ATPase activity, MtUvrB possesses intrinsic ATPase activity that is greatly stimulated by both single- and double-stranded DNA. Strikingly, we found that MtUvrB, but not EcUvrB, possesses the DNA unwinding activity characteristic of an ATP-dependent DNA helicase. The helicase activity of MtUvrB proceeds in the 3' to 5' direction and is strongly modulated by a nontranslocating 5' single-stranded tail, indicating that in addition to the translocating strand it also interacts with the 5' end of the substrate. The fraction of DNA unwound by MtUvrB decreases significantly as the length of the duplex increases: it fails to unwind duplexes longer than 70 bp. These results, on one hand, reveal significant mechanistic differences between MtUvrB and EcUvrB and, on the other, support an alternative role for UvrB in the processing of key DNA replication intermediates. Altogether, our findings provide insights into the catalytic functions of UvrB and lay the foundation for further understanding of the NER pathway in M. tuberculosis.

  14. Cell-type-specific and differentiation-status-dependent variations in cytotoxicity of tributyltin in cultured rat cerebral neurons and astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanagi, Koshi; Tashiro, Tomoko; Negishi, Takayuki

    2015-08-01

    Tributyltin (TBT) is an organotin used as an anti-fouling agent for fishing nets and ships and it is a widespread environmental contaminant at present. There is an increasing concern about imperceptible but serious adverse effect(s) of exposure to chemicals existing in the environment on various organs and their physiological functions, e.g. brain and mental function. Here, so as to contribute to improvement of and/or advances in in vitro cell-based assay systems for evaluating brain-targeted adverse effect of chemicals, we tried to evaluate cell-type-specific and differentiation-status-dependent variations in the cytotoxicity of TBT towards neurons and astrocytes using the four culture systems differing in the relative abundance of these two types of cells; primary neuron culture (> 95% neurons), primary neuron-astrocyte (2 : 1) mix culture, primary astrocyte culture (> 95% astrocytes), and passaged astrocyte culture (100% proliferative astrocytes). Cell viability was measured at 48 hr after exposure to TBT in serum-free medium. IC50's of TBT were 198 nM in primary neuron culture, 288 nM in primary neuron-astrocyte mix culture, 2001 nM in primary astrocyte culture, and 1989 nM in passaged astrocyte culture. Furthermore, in primary neuron-astrocyte mix culture, vulnerability of neurons cultured along with astrocytes to TBT toxicity was lower than that of neurons cultured purely in primary neuron culture. On the other hand, astrocytes in primary neuron-astrocyte mix culture were considered to be more vulnerable to TBT than those in primary or passaged astrocyte culture. The present study demonstrated variable cytotoxicity of TBT in neural cells depending on the culture condition.

  15. Antitumor activity of chLpMab-2, a human-mouse chimeric cancer-specific antihuman podoplanin antibody, via antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mika K; Yamada, Shinji; Nakamura, Takuro; Abe, Shinji; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Kunita, Akiko; Fukayama, Masashi; Fujii, Yuki; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-04-01

    Human podoplanin (hPDPN), a platelet aggregation-inducing transmembrane glycoprotein, is expressed in different types of tumors, and it binds to C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2). The overexpression of hPDPN is involved in invasion and metastasis. Anti-hPDPN monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) such as NZ-1 have shown antitumor and antimetastatic activities by binding to the platelet aggregation-stimulating (PLAG) domain of hPDPN. Recently, we developed a novel mouse anti-hPDPN mAb, LpMab-2, using the cancer-specific mAb (CasMab) technology. In this study we developed chLpMab-2, a human-mouse chimeric anti-hPDPN antibody, derived from LpMab-2. chLpMab-2 was produced using fucosyltransferase 8-knockout (KO) Chinese hamster ovary (CHO)-S cell lines. By flow cytometry, chLpMab-2 reacted with hPDPN-expressing cancer cell lines including glioblastomas, mesotheliomas, and lung cancers. However, it showed low reaction with normal cell lines such as lymphatic endothelial and renal epithelial cells. Moreover, chLpMab-2 exhibited high antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) against PDPN-expressing cells, despite its low complement-dependent cytotoxicity. Furthermore, treatment with chLpMab-2 abolished tumor growth in xenograft models of CHO/hPDPN, indicating that chLpMab-2 suppressed tumor development via ADCC. In conclusion, chLpMab-2 could be useful as a novel antibody-based therapy against hPDPN-expressing tumors. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Propeptides are sufficient to regulate organelle-specific pH-dependent activation of furin and proprotein convertase 1/3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Stephanie L; Williamson, Danielle M; Elferich, Johannes; Radler, David; Joshi, Rajendra; Thomas, Gary; Shinde, Ujwal

    2012-10-12

    The proprotein convertases (PCs) furin and proprotein convertase 1/3 (PC1) cleave substrates at dibasic residues along the eukaryotic secretory/endocytic pathway. PCs are evolutionarily related to bacterial subtilisin and are synthesized as zymogens. They contain N-terminal propeptides (PRO) that function as dedicated catalysts that facilitate folding and regulate activation of cognate proteases through multiple-ordered cleavages. Previous studies identified a histidine residue (His69) that functions as a pH sensor in the propeptide of furin (PRO(FUR)), which regulates furin activation at pH~6.5 within the trans-Golgi network. Although this residue is conserved in the PC1 propeptide (PRO(PC1)), PC1 nonetheless activates at pH~5.5 within the dense core secretory granules. Here, we analyze the mechanism by which PRO(FUR) regulates furin activation and examine why PRO(FUR) and PRO(PC1) differ in their pH-dependent activation. Sequence analyses establish that while both PRO(FUR) and PRO(PC1) are enriched in histidines when compared with cognate catalytic domains and prokaryotic orthologs, histidine content in PRO(FUR) is ~2-fold greater than that in PRO(PC1), which may augment its pH sensitivity. Spectroscopy and molecular dynamics establish that histidine protonation significantly unfolds PRO(FUR) when compared to PRO(PC1) to enhance autoproteolysis. We further demonstrate that PRO(FUR) and PRO(PC1) are sufficient to confer organelle sensing on folding and activation of their cognate proteases. Swapping propeptides between furin and PC1 transfers pH-dependent protease activation in a propeptide-dictated manner in vitro and in cells. Since prokaryotes lack organelles and eukaryotic PCs evolved from propeptide-dependent, not propeptide-independent prokaryotic subtilases, our results suggest that histidine enrichment may have enabled propeptides to evolve to exploit pH gradients to activate within specific organelles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Substrate specificity of flavin-dependent vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum. Evidence for the production of 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols from 4-allylphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraaije, M W; Veeger, C; van Berkel, W J

    1995-11-15

    The substrate specificity of the flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum was investigated. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase catalyzes besides the oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols, the oxidative deamination of 4-hydroxybenzylamines and the oxidative demethylation of 4-(methoxymethyl)phenols. During the conversion of vanillylamine to vanillin, a transient intermediate, most probably vanillylimine, is observed. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase weakly interacts with 4-hydroxyphenylglycols and a series of catecholamines. These compounds are converted to the corresponding ketones. Both enantiomers of (nor)epinephrine are substrates for vanillyl-alcohol oxidase, but the R isomer is preferred. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase is most active with chavicol and eugenol. These 4-allylphenols are converted to coumaryl alcohol and coniferyl alcohol, respectively. Isotopic labeling experiments show that the oxygen atom inserted at the C gamma atom of the side chain is derived from water. The 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohol products and the substrate analog isoeugenol are competitive inhibitors of vanillyl alcohol oxidation. The binding of isoeugenol to the oxidized enzyme perturbs the optical spectrum of protein-bound FAD. pH-dependent binding studies suggest that vanillyl-alcohol oxidase preferentially binds the phenolate form of isoeugenol (pKa < 6, 25 degrees C). From this and the high pH optimum for turnover, a hydride transfer mechanism involving a p-quinone methide intermediate is proposed for the vanillyl-alcohol-oxidase-catalyzed conversion of 4-allylphenols.

  18. Cartilage-Specific and Cre-Dependent Nkx3.2 Overexpression In Vivo Causes Skeletal Dwarfism by Delaying Cartilage Hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Da-Un; Choi, Je-Yong; Kim, Dae-Won

    2017-01-01

    Nkx3.2, the vertebrate homologue of Drosophila bagpipe, has been implicated as playing a role in chondrogenic differentiation. In brief, Nkx3.2 is initially expressed in chondrocyte precursor cells and later during cartilage maturation, its expression is diminished in hypertrophic chondrocytes. In addition to Nkx3.2 expression analyses, previous studies using ex vivo chick embryo cultures and in vitro cell cultures have suggested that Nkx3.2 can suppress chondrocyte hypertrophy. However, it has never been demonstrated that Nkx3.2 functions in regulating chondrocyte hypertrophy during cartilage development in vivo. Here, we show that cartilage-specific and Cre-dependent Nkx3.2 overexpression in mice results in significant postnatal dwarfism in endochondral skeletons, while intramembranous bones remain unaltered. Further, we observed significant delays in cartilage hypertrophy in conditional transgenic ciTg-Nkx3.2 mice. Together, these findings confirm that Nkx3.2 is capable of controlling hypertrophic maturation of cartilage in vivo, and this regulation plays a significant role in endochondral ossification and longitudinal bone growth. J. Cell. Physiol. 232: 78-90, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Patient-specific mutations impair BESTROPHIN1’s essential role in mediating Ca2+-dependent Cl- currents in human RPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yao [Jonas Children’s Vision Care, and Bernard and Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology and Pathology & Cell Biology, Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University, New York, United States; Zhang, Yu [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, United States; Xu, Yu [Jonas Children’s Vision Care, and Bernard and Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology and Pathology & Cell Biology, Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University, New York, United States; Department of Ophthalmology, Xinhua Hospital affiliated to Shanghai Jiao Tong University School of Medicine, Shanghai, China; Kittredge, Alec [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, United States; Ward, Nancy [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, United States; Chen, Shoudeng [Molecular Imaging Center, Department of Experimental Medicine, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Zhuhai, China; Tsang, Stephen H. [Jonas Children’s Vision Care, and Bernard and Shirlee Brown Glaucoma Laboratory, Department of Ophthalmology and Pathology & Cell Biology, Edward S. Harkness Eye Institute, New York Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University, New York, United States; Yang, Tingting [Department of Pharmacology and Physiology, School of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Rochester, Rochester, United States

    2017-10-24

    Mutations in the human BEST1 gene lead to retinal degenerative diseases displaying progressive vision loss and even blindness. BESTROPHIN1, encoded by BEST1, is predominantly expressed in retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), but its physiological role has been a mystery for the last two decades. Using a patient-specific iPSC-based disease model and interdisciplinary approaches, we comprehensively analyzed two distinct BEST1 patient mutations, and discovered mechanistic correlations between patient clinical phenotypes, electrophysiology in their RPEs, and the structure and function of BESTROPHIN1 mutant channels. Our results revealed that the disease-causing mechanism of BEST1 mutations is centered on the indispensable role of BESTROPHIN1 in mediating the long speculated Ca2+-dependent Cl- current in RPE, and demonstrate that the pathological potential of BEST1 mutations can be evaluated and predicted with our iPSC-based ‘disease-in-a-dish’ approach. Moreover, we demonstrated that patient RPE is rescuable with viral gene supplementation, providing a proof-of-concept for curing BEST1-associated diseases.

  20. Comprehensive analysis of area-specific and time-dependent changes in gene expression in the motor cortex of macaque monkeys during recovery from spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Noriyuki; Sato, Akira; Yamamoto, Tatsuya; Oishi, Takao; Nishimura, Yukio; Murata, Yumi; Onoe, Hirotaka; Isa, Tadashi; Kojima, Toshio

    2018-05-01

    The present study aimed to assess the molecular bases of cortical compensatory mechanisms following spinal cord injury in primates. To accomplish this, comprehensive changes in gene expression were investigated in the bilateral primary motor cortex (M1), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), and ventral premotor cortex (PMv) after a unilateral lesion of the lateral corticospinal tract (l-CST). At 2 weeks after the lesion, a large number of genes exhibited altered expression levels in the contralesional M1, which is directly linked to the lesioned l-CST. Gene ontology and network analyses indicated that these changes in gene expression are involved in the atrophy and plasticity changes observed in neurons. Orchestrated gene expression changes were present when behavioral recovery was attained 3 months after the lesion, particularly among the bilateral premotor areas, and a large number of these genes are involved in plasticity. Moreover, several genes abundantly expressed in M1 of intact monkeys were upregulated in both the PMd and PMv after the l-CST lesion. These area-specific and time-dependent changes in gene expression may underlie the molecular mechanisms of functional recovery following a lesion of the l-CST. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Colon-specific delivery of a probiotic-derived soluble protein ameliorates intestinal inflammation in mice through an EGFR-dependent mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fang; Cao, Hanwei; Cover, Timothy L.; Washington, M. Kay; Shi, Yan; Liu, LinShu; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Peek, Richard M.; Wilson, Keith T.; Polk, D. Brent

    2011-01-01

    Probiotic bacteria can potentially have beneficial effects on the clinical course of several intestinal disorders, but our understanding of probiotic action is limited. We have identified a probiotic bacteria–derived soluble protein, p40, from Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), which prevents cytokine-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells. In the current study, we analyzed the mechanisms by which p40 regulates cellular responses in intestinal epithelial cells and p40’s effects on experimental colitis using mouse models. We show that the recombinant p40 protein activated EGFR, leading to Akt activation. Activation of EGFR by p40 was required for inhibition of cytokine-induced apoptosis in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro and ex vivo. Furthermore, we developed a pectin/zein hydrogel bead system to specifically deliver p40 to the mouse colon, which activated EGFR in colon epithelial cells. Administration of p40-containing beads reduced intestinal epithelial apoptosis and disruption of barrier function in the colon epithelium in an EGFR-dependent manner, thereby preventing and treating DSS-induced intestinal injury and acute colitis. Furthermore, p40 activation of EGFR was required for ameliorating colon epithelial cell apoptosis and chronic inflammation in oxazolone-induced colitis. These data define what we believe to be a previously unrecognized mechanism of probiotic-derived soluble proteins in protecting the intestine from injury and inflammation. PMID:21606592

  2. Strand specific RNA-sequencing and membrane lipid profiling reveals growth phase-dependent cold stress response mechanisms in Listeria monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hingston, Patricia; Chen, Jessica; Allen, Kevin; Truelstrup Hansen, Lisbeth

    2017-01-01

    The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes continues to pose a challenge in the food industry, where it is known to contaminate ready-to-eat foods and grow during refrigerated storage. Increased knowledge of the cold-stress response of this pathogen will enhance the ability to control it in the food-supply-chain. This study utilized strand-specific RNA sequencing and whole cell fatty acid (FA) profiling to characterize the bacterium’s cold stress response. RNA and FAs were extracted from a cold-tolerant strain at five time points between early lag phase and late stationary-phase, both at 4°C and 20°C. Overall, more genes (1.3×) were suppressed than induced at 4°C. Late stationary-phase cells exhibited the greatest number (n = 1,431) and magnitude (>1,000-fold) of differentially expressed genes (>2-fold, pmonocytogenes, the growth-phase dependency of its cold-stress regulon, and the active roles of antisense transcripts in regulating its cold stress response. PMID:28662112

  3. Electronic Correlation Strength of Pu

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, A.; C. Albers, R.; E. Christensen, N.

    2013-01-01

    A new electronic quantity, the correlation strength, is defined as a necessary step for understanding the properties and trends in strongly correlated electronic materials. As a test case, this is applied to the different phases of elemental Pu. Within the GW approximation we have surprisingly...... found a "universal" scaling relationship, where the f-electron bandwidth reduction due to correlation effects is shown to depend only upon the local density approximation (LDA) bandwidth and is otherwise independent of crystal structure and lattice constant....

  4. Reactive Strength Index: A Poor Indicator of Reactive Strength?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, Robin; Kenny, Ian; Harrison, Drew

    2017-11-28

    The primary aim was to assess the relationships between reactive strength measures and associated kinematic and kinetic performance variables achieved during drop jumps. A secondary aim was to highlight issues with the use of reactive strength measures as performance indicators. Twenty eight national and international level sprinters, consisting of fourteen men and women, participated in this cross-sectional analysis. Athletes performed drop jumps from a 0.3 m box onto a force platform with dependent variables contact time (CT), landing time (TLand), push-off time (TPush), flight time (FT), jump height (JH), reactive strength index (RSI, calculated as JH / CT), reactive strength ratio (RSR, calculated as FT / CT) and vertical leg spring stiffness (Kvert) recorded. Pearson's correlation test found very high to near perfect relationships between RSI and RSR (r = 0.91 to 0.97), with mixed relationships found between RSI, RSR and the key performance variables, (Men: r = -0.86 to -0.71 between RSI/RSR and CT, r = 0.80 to 0.92 between RSI/RSR and JH; Women: r = -0.85 to -0.56 between RSR and CT, r = 0.71 between RSI and JH). This study demonstrates that the method of assessing reactive strength (RSI versus RSR) may be influenced by the performance strategies adopted i.e. whether an athlete achieves their best reactive strength scores via low CTs, high JHs or a combination. Coaches are advised to limit the variability in performance strategies by implementing upper and / or lower CT thresholds to accurately compare performances between individuals.

  5. Dengue virus specific IgY provides protection following lethal dengue virus challenge and is neutralizing in the absence of inducing antibody dependent enhancement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley L Fink

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF and dengue shock syndrome (DSS are severe disease manifestations that can occur following sequential infection with different dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4. At present, there are no licensed therapies to treat DENV-induced disease. DHF and DSS are thought to be mediated by serotype cross-reactive antibodies that facilitate antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE by binding to viral antigens and then Fcγ receptors (FcγR on target myeloid cells. Using genetically engineered DENV-specific antibodies, it has been shown that the interaction between the Fc portion of serotype cross-reactive antibodies and FcγR is required to induce ADE. Additionally, it was demonstrated that these antibodies were as neutralizing as their non-modified variants, were incapable of inducing ADE, and were therapeutic following a lethal, antibody-enhanced infection. Therefore, we hypothesized that avian IgY, which do not interact with mammalian FcγR, would provide a novel therapy for DENV-induced disease. We demonstrate here that goose-derived anti-DENV2 IgY neutralized DENV2 and did not induce ADE in vitro. Anti-DENV2 IgY was also protective in vivo when administered 24 hours following a lethal DENV2 infection. We were also able to demonstrate via epitope mapping that both full-length and alternatively spliced anti-DENV2 IgY recognized different epitopes, including epitopes that have not been previously identified. These observations provide evidence for the potential therapeutic applications of goose-derived anti-DENV2 IgY.

  6. A new general method for simultaneous fitting of temperature and concentration dependence of reaction rates yields kinetic and thermodynamic parameters for HIV reverse transcriptase specificity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, An; Ziehr, Jessica L; Johnson, Kenneth A

    2017-04-21

    Recent studies have demonstrated the dominant role of induced fit in enzyme specificity of HIV reverse transcriptase and many other enzymes. However, relevant thermodynamic parameters are lacking, and equilibrium thermodynamic methods are of no avail because the key parameters can only be determined by kinetic measurement. By modifying KinTek Explorer software, we present a new general method for globally fitting data collected over a range of substrate concentrations and temperatures and apply it to HIV reverse transcriptase. Fluorescence stopped-flow methods were used to record the kinetics of enzyme conformational changes that monitor nucleotide binding and incorporation. The nucleotide concentration dependence was measured at temperatures ranging from 5 to 37 °C, and the raw data were fit globally to derive a single set of rate constants at 37 °C and a set of activation enthalpy terms to account for the kinetics at all other temperatures. This comprehensive analysis afforded thermodynamic parameters for nucleotide binding ( K d , Δ G , Δ H , and Δ S at 37 °C) and kinetic parameters for enzyme conformational changes and chemistry (rate constants and activation enthalpy). Comparisons between wild-type enzyme and a mutant resistant to nucleoside analogs used to treat HIV infections reveal that the ground state binding is weaker and the activation enthalpy for the conformational change step is significantly larger for the mutant. Further studies to explore the structural underpinnings of the observed thermodynamics and kinetics of the conformational change step may help to design better analogs to treat HIV infections and other diseases. Our new method is generally applicable to enzyme and chemical kinetics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  7. Dengue virus specific IgY provides protection following lethal dengue virus challenge and is neutralizing in the absence of inducing antibody dependent enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Ashley L; Williams, Katherine L; Harris, Eva; Alvine, Travis D; Henderson, Thomas; Schiltz, James; Nilles, Matthew L; Bradley, David S

    2017-07-01

    Dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF) and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) are severe disease manifestations that can occur following sequential infection with different dengue virus serotypes (DENV1-4). At present, there are no licensed therapies to treat DENV-induced disease. DHF and DSS are thought to be mediated by serotype cross-reactive antibodies that facilitate antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) by binding to viral antigens and then Fcγ receptors (FcγR) on target myeloid cells. Using genetically engineered DENV-specific antibodies, it has been shown that the interaction between the Fc portion of serotype cross-reactive antibodies and FcγR is required to induce ADE. Additionally, it was demonstrated that these antibodies were as neutralizing as their non-modified variants, were incapable of inducing ADE, and were therapeutic following a lethal, antibody-enhanced infection. Therefore, we hypothesized that avian IgY, which do not interact with mammalian FcγR, would provide a novel therapy for DENV-induced disease. We demonstrate here that goose-derived anti-DENV2 IgY neutralized DENV2 and did not induce ADE in vitro. Anti-DENV2 IgY was also protective in vivo when administered 24 hours following a lethal DENV2 infection. We were also able to demonstrate via epitope mapping that both full-length and alternatively spliced anti-DENV2 IgY recognized different epitopes, including epitopes that have not been previously identified. These observations provide evidence for the potential therapeutic applications of goose-derived anti-DENV2 IgY.

  8. NSs protein of rift valley fever virus induces the specific degradation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habjan, Matthias; Pichlmair, Andreas; Elliott, Richard M; Overby, Anna K; Glatter, Timo; Gstaiger, Matthias; Superti-Furga, Giulio; Unger, Hermann; Weber, Friedemann

    2009-05-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) continues to cause large outbreaks of acute febrile and often fatal illness among humans and domesticated animals in Africa, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen. The high pathogenicity of this bunyavirus is mainly due to the viral protein NSs, which was shown to prevent transcriptional induction of the antivirally active type I interferons (alpha/beta interferon [IFN-alpha/beta]). Viruses lacking the NSs gene induce synthesis of IFNs and are therefore attenuated, whereas the noninducing wild-type RVFV strains can only be inhibited by pretreatment with IFN. We demonstrate here in vitro and in vivo that a substantial part of the antiviral activity of IFN against RVFV is due to a double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR). PKR-mediated virus inhibition, however, was much more pronounced for the strain Clone 13 with NSs deleted than for the NSs-expressing strain ZH548. In vivo, Clone 13 was nonpathogenic for wild-type (wt) mice but could regain pathogenicity if mice lacked the PKR gene. ZH548, in contrast, killed both wt and PKR knockout mice indiscriminately. ZH548 was largely resistant to the antiviral properties of PKR because RVFV NSs triggered the specific degradation of PKR via the proteasome. The NSs proteins of the related but less virulent sandfly fever Sicilian virus and La Crosse virus, in contrast, had no such anti-PKR activity despite being efficient suppressors of IFN induction. Our data suggest that RVFV NSs has gained an additional anti-IFN function that may explain the extraordinary pathogenicity of this virus.

  9. Cancer-associated fibroblasts regulate keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion via TGF-β-dependent pathways in genotype-specific oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirillo, N; Hassona, Y; Celentano, A; Lim, K P; Manchella, S; Parkinson, E K; Prime, S S

    2017-01-01

    The interrelationship between malignant epithelium and the underlying stroma is of fundamental importance in tumour development and progression. In the present study, we used cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) derived from genetically unstable oral squamous cell carcinomas (GU-OSCC), tumours that are characterized by the loss of genes such as TP53 and p16 INK4A and with extensive loss of heterozygosity, together with CAFs from their more genetically stable (GS) counterparts that have wild-type TP53 and p16 INK4A and minimal loss of heterozygosity (GS-OSCC). Using a systems biology approach to interpret the genome-wide transcriptional profile of the CAFs, we show that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family members not only had biological relevance in silico but also distinguished GU-OSCC-derived CAFs from GS-OSCC CAFs and fibroblasts from normal oral mucosa. In view of the close association between TGF-β family members, we examined the expression of TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in the different fibroblast subtypes and showed increased levels of active TGF-β1 and TGF-β2 in CAFs from GU-OSCC. CAFs from GU-OSCC, but not GS-OSCC or normal fibroblasts, induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition and down-regulated a broad spectrum of cell adhesion molecules resulting in epithelial dis-cohesion and invasion of target keratinocytes in vitro in a TGF-β-dependent manner. The results demonstrate that the TGF-β family of cytokines secreted by CAFs derived from genotype-specific oral cancer (GU-OSCC) promote, at least in part, the malignant phenotype by weakening intercellular epithelial adhesion. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. ChLpMab-23: Cancer-Specific Human-Mouse Chimeric Anti-Podoplanin Antibody Exhibits Antitumor Activity via Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Mika K; Nakamura, Takuro; Kunita, Akiko; Fukayama, Masashi; Abe, Shinji; Nishioka, Yasuhiko; Yamada, Shinji; Yanaka, Miyuki; Saidoh, Noriko; Yoshida, Kanae; Fujii, Yuki; Ogasawara, Satoshi; Kato, Yukinari

    2017-06-01

    Podoplanin is expressed in many cancers, including oral cancers and brain tumors. The interaction between podoplanin and its receptor C-type lectin-like receptor 2 (CLEC-2) has been reported to be involved in cancer metastasis and tumor malignancy. We previously established many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against human podoplanin using the cancer-specific mAb (CasMab) technology. LpMab-23 (IgG 1 , kappa), one of the mouse anti-podoplanin mAbs, was shown to be a CasMab. However, we have not shown the usefulness of LpMab-23 for antibody therapy against podoplanin-expressing cancers. In this study, we first determined the minimum epitope of LpMab-23 and revealed that Gly54-Leu64 peptide, especially Gly54, Thr55, Ser56, Glu57, Asp58, Arg59, Tyr60, and Leu64 of podoplanin, is a critical epitope of LpMab-23. We further produced human-mouse chimeric LpMab-23 (chLpMab-23) and investigated whether chLpMab-23 exerts antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antitumor activity. In flow cytometry, chLpMab-23 showed high sensitivity against a podoplanin-expressing glioblastoma cell line, LN319, and an oral cancer cell line, HSC-2. chLpMab-23 also showed ADCC activity against podoplanin-expressing CHO cells (CHO/podoplanin). In xenograft models with HSC-2 and CHO/podoplanin, chLpMab-23 exerts antitumor activity using human natural killer cells, indicating that chLpMab-23 could be useful for antibody therapy against podoplanin-expressing cancers.

  11. The Impact of HLA Class I-Specific Killer Cell Immunoglobulin-Like Receptors on Antibody-Dependent Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity and Organ Allograft Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajalingam, Raja

    2016-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells of the innate immune system are cytotoxic lymphocytes that play an important roles following transplantation of solid organs and hematopoietic stem cells. Recognition of self-human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I molecules by inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) is involved in the calibration of NK cell effector capacities during the developmental stage, allowing the subsequent recognition and elimination of target cells with decreased expression of self-HLA class I (due to virus infection or tumor transformation) or HLA class I disparities (in the setting of allogeneic transplantation). NK cells expressing an inhibitory KIR-binding self-HLA can be activated when confronted with allografts lacking a ligand for the inhibitory receptor. Following the response of the adaptive immune system, NK cells can further destroy allograft endothelium by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC), triggered through cross-linking of the CD16 Fc receptor by donor-specific antibodies bound to allograft. Upon recognizing allogeneic target cells, NK cells also secrete cytokines and chemokines that drive maturation of dendritic cells to promote cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses against the allograft. The cumulative activating and inhibitory signals generated by ligation of the receptors regulates mature NK cell killing of target cells and their production of cytokines and chemokines. This review summarizes the role of NK cells in allograft rejection and proposes mechanistic concepts that indicate a prominent role for KIR-HLA interactions in facilitating NK cells for Fc receptor-mediated ADCC effector function involved in antibody-mediated rejection of solid organ transplants.

  12. The impact of HLA class I-specific killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors on antibody-dependent natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity and organ allograft rejection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Rajalingam

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural killer (NK cells of the innate immune system are cytotoxic lymphocytes that play important roles following transplantation of solid organs and hematopoietic stem cells. Recognition of self HLA class I molecules by inhibitory killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR is involved in the calibration of NK cell effector capacities during a developmental stage, allowing the subsequent recognition and elimination of target cells with decreased expression of self HLA class I (due to virus infection or tumor transformation or HLA class I disparities (in the setting of allogeneic transplantation. NK cells expressing an inhibitory KIR binding self HLA can be activated when confronted with allografts lacking a ligand for the inhibitory receptor. Following the response of the adaptive immune system, NK cells can further destroy allograft endothelium by antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC, triggered through cross-linking of the CD16 Fc receptor by donor-specific antibodies bound to allograft. Upon recognizing allogeneic target cells, NK cells also secrete cytokines and chemokines that drive maturation of dendritic cells to promote cellular and humoral adaptive immune responses against the allograft. The cumulative activating and inhibitory signals generated by ligation of the receptors regulates mature NK cell killing of target cells and their production of cytokines and chemokines. This review summarizes the role of NK cells in allograft rejection and proposes mechanistic concepts that indicate a prominent role for KIR-HLA interactions in facilitating NK cells for Fc receptor-mediated ADCC effector function involved in antibody-mediated rejection of solid organ transplants.

  13. Where one hand meets the other: limb-specific and action-dependent movement plans decoded from preparatory signals in single human frontoparietal brain areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallivan, Jason P; McLean, D Adam; Flanagan, J Randall; Culham, Jody C

    2013-01-30

    Planning object-directed hand actions requires successful integration of the movement goal with the acting limb. Exactly where and how this sensorimotor integration occurs in the brain has been studied extensively with neurophysiological recordings in nonhuman primates, yet to date, because of limitations of non-invasive methodologies, the ability to examine the same types of planning-related signals in humans has been challenging. Here we show, using a multivoxel pattern analysis of functional MRI (fMRI) data, that the preparatory activity patterns in several frontoparietal brain regions can be used to predict both the limb used and hand action performed in an upcoming movement. Participants performed an event-related delayed movement task whereby they planned and executed grasp or reach actions with either their left or right hand toward a single target object. We found that, although the majority of frontoparietal areas represented hand actions (grasping vs reaching) for the contralateral limb, several areas additionally coded hand actions for the ipsilateral limb. Notable among these were subregions within the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), ventral premotor cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, presupplementary motor area, and motor cortex, a region more traditionally implicated in contralateral movement generation. Additional analyses suggest that hand actions are represented independently of the intended limb in PPC and PMd. In addition to providing a unique mapping of limb-specific and action-dependent intention-related signals across the human cortical motor system, these findings uncover a much stronger representation of the ipsilateral limb than expected from previous fMRI findings.

  14. Give Me Strength.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    维拉

    1996-01-01

    Mort had an absolutely terrible day at the office.Everythingthat could go wrong did go wrong.As he walked home he could beheard muttering strange words to himself:“Oh,give me strength,give me strength.”Mort isn’t asking for the kind of strength thatbuilds strong muscles:he’s asking for the courage or ability to

  15. Accelerated Strength Testing of Thermoplastic Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, J. R.; Allen, D. H.; Bradley, W. L.

    1998-01-01

    Constant ramp strength tests on unidirectional thermoplastic composite specimens oriented in the 90 deg. direction were conducted at constant temperatures ranging from 149 C to 232 C. Ramp rates spanning 5 orders of magnitude were tested so that failures occurred in the range from 0.5 sec. to 24 hrs. (0.5 to 100,000 MPa/sec). Below 204 C, time-temperature superposition held allowing strength at longer times to be estimated from strength tests at shorter times but higher temperatures. The data indicated that a 50% drop in strength might be expected for this material when the test time is increased by 9 orders of magnitude. The shift factors derived from compliance data applied well to the strength results. To explain the link between compliance and strength, a viscoelastic fracture model was investigated. The model, which used compliance as input, was found to fit the strength data only if the critical fracture energy was allowed to vary with temperature reduced stress rate. This variation in the critical parameter severely limits its use in developing a robust time-dependent strength model. The significance of this research is therefore seen as providing both the indication that a more versatile acceleration method for strength can be developed and the evidence that such a method is needed.

  16. INFLUENCE OF STRENGTH TRAINING PROGRAM ON ISOMETRIC MUSCLE STRENGTH IN YOUNG ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragan Radovanovic

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Strength training, or resistance training, is a form of physical conditioning used to increase the ability to resist force. Since muscular strength is required for success in many sports, it is logical to assume that stronger and more powerful young athletes will achieve better results. The aim of the study was to examine the effects of strength training on young athletes. An eight-week strength training program for developing muscle strength was performed in this study. Training protocol was designed specifically for young adolescent’s athletes. The program consisted of exercises for lower and upper body, abdominal and lower back muscles. The programs did not involve the maximal (1-3 repetitions maximum and other very hard intensity exercises that may had negative effect on young athletes. The results showed that strength training program had positive effects on maximal isometric muscle force (Fmax and motor skill. The increase presents the combined influence of strength training and growth.

  17. Acetylation and glycation of fibrinogen in vitro occur at specific lysine residues in a concentration dependent manner: A mass spectrometric and isotope labeling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svensson, Jan; Bergman, Ann-Charlotte; Adamson, Ulf; Blombäck, Margareta; Wallén, Håkan; Jörneskog, Gun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Fibrinogen was incubated in vitro with glucose or aspirin. ► Acetylations and glycations were found at twelve lysine sites by mass spectrometry. ► The labeling by aspirin and glucose occurred dose-dependently. ► No competition between glucose and aspirin for binding to fibrinogen was found. -- Abstract: Aspirin may exert part of its antithrombotic effects through platelet-independent mechanisms. Diabetes is a condition in which the beneficial effects of aspirin are less prominent or absent – a phenomenon called “aspirin resistance”. We investigated whether acetylation and glycation occur at specific sites in fibrinogen and if competition between glucose and aspirin in binding to fibrinogen occurs. Our hypothesis was that such competition might be one explanation to “aspirin resistance” in diabetes. After incubation of fibrinogen in vitro with aspirin (0.8 mM, 24 h) or glucose (100 mM, 5–10 days), we found 12 modified sites with mass spectrometric techniques. Acetylations in the α-chain: αK191, αK208, αK224, αK429, αK457, αK539, αK562, in the β-chain: βK233, and in the γ-chain: γK170 and γK273. Glycations were found at βK133 and γK75, alternatively γK85. Notably, the lysine 539 is a site involved in FXIII-mediated cross-linking of fibrin. With isotope labeling in vitro, using [ 14 C-acetyl]salicylic acid and [ 14 C]glucose, a labeling of 0.013–0.084 and 0.12–0.5 mol of acetylated and glycated adduct/mol fibrinogen, respectively, was found for clinically (12.9–100 μM aspirin) and physiologically (2–8 mM glucose) relevant plasma concentrations. No competition between acetylation and glycation could be demonstrated. Thus, fibrinogen is acetylated at several lysine residues, some of which are involved in the cross-linking of fibrinogen. This may mechanistically explain why aspirin facilitates fibrin degradation. We find no support for the idea that glycation of fibrin(ogen) interferes with acetylation of

  18. Acetylation and glycation of fibrinogen in vitro occur at specific lysine residues in a concentration dependent manner: A mass spectrometric and isotope labeling study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svensson, Jan, E-mail: jan.svensson@ki.se [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden); Bergman, Ann-Charlotte [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Adamson, Ulf [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden); Blombaeck, Margareta [Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital (Solna), SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Wallen, Hakan; Joerneskog, Gun [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd Hospital, SE-182 88 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Fibrinogen was incubated in vitro with glucose or aspirin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylations and glycations were found at twelve lysine sites by mass spectrometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The labeling by aspirin and glucose occurred dose-dependently. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No competition between glucose and aspirin for binding to fibrinogen was found. -- Abstract: Aspirin may exert part of its antithrombotic effects through platelet-independent mechanisms. Diabetes is a condition in which the beneficial effects of aspirin are less prominent or absent - a phenomenon called 'aspirin resistance'. We investigated whether acetylation and glycation occur at specific sites in fibrinogen and if competition between glucose and aspirin in binding to fibrinogen occurs. Our hypothesis was that such competition might be one explanation to 'aspirin resistance' in diabetes. After incubation of fibrinogen in vitro with aspirin (0.8 mM, 24 h) or glucose (100 mM, 5-10 days), we found 12 modified sites with mass spectrometric techniques. Acetylations in the {alpha}-chain: {alpha}K191, {alpha}K208, {alpha}K224, {alpha}K429, {alpha}K457, {alpha}K539, {alpha}K562, in the {beta}-chain: {beta}K233, and in the {gamma}-chain: {gamma}K170 and {gamma}K273. Glycations were found at {beta}K133 and {gamma}K75, alternatively {gamma}K85. Notably, the lysine 539 is a site involved in FXIII-mediated cross-linking of fibrin. With isotope labeling in vitro, using [{sup 14}C-acetyl]salicylic acid and [{sup 14}C]glucose, a labeling of 0.013-0.084 and 0.12-0.5 mol of acetylated and glycated adduct/mol fibrinogen, respectively, was found for clinically (12.9-100 {mu}M aspirin) and physiologically (2-8 mM glucose) relevant plasma concentrations. No competition between acetylation and glycation could be demonstrated. Thus, fibrinogen is acetylated at several lysine residues, some of which are involved in the cross-linking of

  19. Strand specific RNA-sequencing and membrane lipid profiling reveals growth phase-dependent cold stress response mechanisms in Listeria monocytogenes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Hingston

    Full Text Available The human pathogen Listeria monocytogenes continues to pose a challenge in the food industry, where it is known to contaminate ready-to-eat foods and grow during refrigerated storage. Increased knowledge of the cold-stress response of this pathogen will enhance the ability to control it in the food-supply-chain. This study utilized strand-specific RNA sequencing and whole cell fatty acid (FA profiling to characterize the bacterium's cold stress response. RNA and FAs were extracted from a cold-tolerant strain at five time points between early lag phase and late stationary-phase, both at 4°C and 20°C. Overall, more genes (1.3× were suppressed than induced at 4°C. Late stationary-phase cells exhibited the greatest number (n = 1,431 and magnitude (>1,000-fold of differentially expressed genes (>2-fold, p<0.05 in response to cold. A core set of 22 genes was upregulated at all growth phases, including nine genes required for branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA synthesis, the osmolyte transporter genes opuCBCD, and the internalin A and D genes. Genes suppressed at 4°C were largely associated with cobalamin (B12 biosynthesis or the production/export of cell wall components. Antisense transcription accounted for up to 1.6% of total mapped reads with higher levels (2.5× observed at 4°C than 20°C. The greatest number of upregulated antisense transcripts at 4°C occurred in early lag phase, however, at both temperatures, antisense expression levels were highest in late stationary-phase cells. Cold-induced FA membrane changes included a 15% increase in the proportion of BCFAs and a 15% transient increase in unsaturated FAs between lag and exponential phase. These increases probably reduced the membrane phase transition temperature until optimal levels of BCFAs could be produced. Collectively, this research provides new information regarding cold-induced membrane composition changes in L. monocytogenes, the growth-phase dependency of its cold

  20. Capacity of lung stroma to educate dendritic cells inhibiting mycobacteria-specific T-cell response depends upon genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapina, Marina A; Rubakova, Elvira I; Majorov, Konstantin B; Logunova, Nadezhda N; Apt, Alexander S

    2013-01-01

    The balance between activation and inhibition of local immune responses in affected tissues during prolonged chronic infections is important for host protection. There is ample evidence that regulatory, tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC) are developed and present in tissues and inhibit overwhelming inflammatory reactions. Also, it was firmly established that stromal microenvironment of many organs is able to induce development of immature regulatory DC (DCreg), an essential element of a general immune regulatory network. However, direct experimental data demonstrating inhibition of immune responses by stroma-instructed immature DCreg in infectious models are scarce, and virtually nothing is known about functioning of this axis of immunity during tuberculosis (TB) infection. In this study, we demonstrate that lung stromal cells are capable of supporting the development in culture of immature CD11b(+)CD11c(low)CD103(-) DCreg from lineage-negative (lin(-)) bone marrow precursors. DCreg developed on lung stroma isolated from mice of genetically TB-hyper-susceptible I/St and relatively resistant B6 inbred strains inhibited proliferative response of mycobacteria-specific CD4(+) T-cell lines a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, the inhibitory activity of B6 DCreg was substantially higher than that of I/St Dcreg. Moreover, when the donors of stromal cells were chronically infected with virulent mycobacteria, the capacity to instruct inhibitory DCreg was retained in B6, but further diminished in I/St stromal cells. DCreg-provided suppression was mediated by a few soluble mediators, including PGE2, NO and IL-10. The content of CD4(+)Foxp3(+) Treg cells in the mediastinal, lung-draining lymph nodes at the advanced stages of chronic infection did not change in I/St, but increased 2-fold in B6 mice, and lung pathology was much more pronounced in the former mice. Taken together, these data provide genetic evidence that the capacity to maintain populations of regulatory cells

  1. Capacity of lung stroma to educate dendritic cells inhibiting mycobacteria-specific T-cell response depends upon genetic susceptibility to tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina A Kapina

    Full Text Available The balance between activation and inhibition of local immune responses in affected tissues during prolonged chronic infections is important for host protection. There is ample evidence that regulatory, tolerogenic dendritic cells (DC are developed and present in tissues and inhibit overwhelming inflammatory reactions. Also, it was firmly established that stromal microenvironment of many organs is able to induce development of immature regulatory DC (DCreg, an essential element of a general immune regulatory network. However, direct experimental data demonstrating inhibition of immune responses by stroma-instructed immature DCreg in infectious models are scarce, and virtually nothing is known about functioning of this axis of immunity during tuberculosis (TB infection. In this study, we demonstrate that lung stromal cells are capable of supporting the development in culture of immature CD11b(+CD11c(lowCD103(- DCreg from lineage-negative (lin(- bone marrow precursors. DCreg developed on lung stroma isolated from mice of genetically TB-hyper-susceptible I/St and relatively resistant B6 inbred strains inhibited proliferative response of mycobacteria-specific CD4(+ T-cell lines a dose-dependent manner. Importantly, the inhibitory activity of B6 DCreg was substantially higher than that of I/St Dcreg. Moreover, when the donors of stromal cells were chronically infected with virulent mycobacteria, the capacity to instruct inhibitory DCreg was retained in B6, but further diminished in I/St stromal cells. DCreg-provided suppression was mediated by a few soluble mediators, including PGE2, NO and IL-10. The content of CD4(+Foxp3(+ Treg cells in the mediastinal, lung-draining lymph nodes at the advanced stages of chronic infection did not change in I/St, but increased 2-fold in B6 mice, and lung pathology was much more pronounced in the former mice. Taken together, these data provide genetic evidence that the capacity to maintain populations of regulatory

  2. High strength ferritic alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    A high strength ferritic steel is specified in which the major alloying elements are chromium and molybdenum, with smaller quantities of niobium, vanadium, silicon, manganese and carbon. The maximum swelling is specified for various irradiation conditions. Rupture strength is also specified. (U.K.)

  3. Photon strength functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, I.

    1976-01-01

    Methods for extracting photon strength functions are briefly discussed. We follow the Brink-Axel approach to relate the strength functions to the giant resonances observed in photonuclear work and summarize the available data on the E1, E2 and M1 resonances. Some experimental and theoretical problems are outlined. (author)

  4. Interviewing to Understand Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Michael R.

    2018-01-01

    Interviewing clients about their strengths is an important part of developing a complete understanding of their lives and has several advantages over simply focusing on problems and pathology. Prerequisites for skillfully interviewing for strengths include the communication skills that emerge from a stance of not knowing, developing a vocabulary…

  5. Imaging Shear Strength Along Subduction Faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-11-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  6. Imaging shear strength along subduction faults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bletery, Quentin; Thomas, Amanda M.; Rempel, Alan W.; Hardebeck, Jeanne L.

    2017-01-01

    Subduction faults accumulate stress during long periods of time and release this stress suddenly, during earthquakes, when it reaches a threshold. This threshold, the shear strength, controls the occurrence and magnitude of earthquakes. We consider a 3-D model to derive an analytical expression for how the shear strength depends on the fault geometry, the convergence obliquity, frictional properties, and the stress field orientation. We then use estimates of these different parameters in Japan to infer the distribution of shear strength along a subduction fault. We show that the 2011 Mw9.0 Tohoku earthquake ruptured a fault portion characterized by unusually small variations in static shear strength. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that large earthquakes preferentially rupture regions with relatively homogeneous shear strength. With increasing constraints on the different parameters at play, our approach could, in the future, help identify favorable locations for large earthquakes.

  7. Age related changes in erythrocyte A and B antigen strength

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hamilton, H B; Ishii, Goro

    1961-11-01

    The strength of A and B antigens of the erythrocyte, as indicated by agglutinability with dilutions of specific antibody, has been investigated in a group of subjects in Hiroshima. Antigen strength was found to rise to maximal levels at age 25 to 29, and decline with advancing years. Degree of irradiation from the Hiroshima atomic bomb in 1945 did not appear in the limited sample to affect this age-dependent structural property of erythrocytes. Antigen strength of females was somewhat less than that of males for those individuals from 20 to 40 years of age. When compared with group A or B subjects, individuals of group AB demonstrated full strength of both A and B antigens. Since Rh antigenicity also has been reported to change with age, it seems probable that multiple changes in the erythrocyte membrane occur with age. Further investigation into the nature of these changes may be fruitful to an understanding of aging processes at the cellular level. 13 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  8. Predicting hand function in older adults: evaluations of grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Marie, Deana; Fredrick, Aaron; Bertram, Jessica; Utley, Kristen; Fess, Elaine Ewing

    2017-08-01

    Hand function is critical for independence in activities of daily living for older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine how grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterous coordination contributed to time-based versus self-report assessment of hand function in community-dwelling older adults. Adults aged ≥60 years without low vision or neurological disorders were recruited. Purdue Pegboard Test, Jamar hand dynamometer, 30-second arm curl test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, and the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument were administered to assess manual dexterous coordination, grip strength, arm curl strength, time-based hand function, and self-report of hand function, respectively. Eighty-four adults (mean age = 72 years) completed the study. Hierarchical multiple regressions show that older adults with better arm curl strength (β = -.25, p function test. In comparison, older adults with better grip strength (β = .40, p function. The relationship between grip strength and hand function may be test-specific. Grip strength becomes a significant factor when the test requires grip strength to successfully complete the test tasks. Arm curl strength independently contributed to hand function in both time-based and self-report assessments, indicating that strength of extrinsic muscles of the hand are essential for hand function.

  9. Are only Emotional Strengths Emotional? Character Strengths and Disposition to Positive Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güsewell, Angelika; Ruch, Willibald

    2012-07-01

    This study aimed to examine the relations between character strengths and dispositional positive emotions (i.e. joy, contentment, pride, love, compassion, amusement, and awe). A sample of 574 German-speaking adults filled in the Dispositional Positive Emotion Scales (DPES; Shiota, Keltner, & John, 2006), and the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths (VIA-IS; Peterson, Park, & Seligman, 2005). The factorial structure of the DPES was examined on item level. Joy and contentment could not be clearly separated; the items of the other five emotions loaded on separate factors. A confirmatory factor analysis assuming two latent factors (self-oriented and object/situation specific) was computed on scale level. Results confirmed the existence of these factors, but also indicated that the seven emotions did not split up into two clearly separable families. Correlations between dispositional positive emotions and character strengths were positive and generally low to moderate; a few theoretically meaningful strengths-emotions pairs yielded coefficients>.40. Finally, the link between five character strengths factors (i.e. emotional strengths, interpersonal strengths, strengths of restraint, intellectual strengths, and theological strengths) and the emotional dispositions was examined. Each of the factors displayed a distinctive "emotional pattern"; emotional strengths evidenced the most numerous and strongest links to emotional dispositions. © 2012 The Authors. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being © 2012 The International Association of Applied Psychology.

  10. APPLICATION OF ALLOMETRY FOR DETERMINATION OF STRENGTH PROFILE IN YOUNG FEMALE ATHLETES FROM DIFFERENT SPORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gajewski

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the study was to determine a strength profile in young female athletes practising different sports and to use allometry to evaluate muscular strength with respect to body mass. The study included 42 women who practised taekwondo (n = 10, weightlifting (n = 10, canoeing (n = 14 and speed skating (n = 8. Measurements of maximal muscle torques under static conditions in 10 groups of flexors and extensors of the elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and trunk were carried out. The MANCOVA procedure was employed to compare means between the groups. A logarithm of body mass was adopted as a covariate. Relationships between body mass and muscle torques in each muscle group were determined using a procedure of linear regression. The analysis of residuals was employed for the evaluation of maximal muscle torques. Mean values of logarithms of maximal muscle torques were significantly different for the representatives of individual sports and they depended on the logarithm of body mass. It was proposed to use a mean of residuals normalized for individual muscle groups as a synthetic strength index (mean of the strength profile. The women practising canoeing were characterized by the highest strength index. Its lowest values were obtained by weightlifting and taekwondo athletes. Differences in strength profiles in the tested athletes were attributed to the specific nature of their sports. It is suggested to use an allometric relationship scaled by body mass for strength assessment.

  11. Vertebral body bone strength: the contribution of individual trabecular element morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, I H; Badiei, A; Stauber, M; Codrington, J; Müller, R; Fazzalari, N L

    2012-07-01

    Although the amount of bone explains the largest amount of variability in bone strength, there is still a significant proportion unaccounted for. The morphology of individual bone trabeculae explains a further proportion of the variability in bone strength and bone elements that contribute to bone strength depending on the direction of loading. Micro-CT imaging enables measurement of bone microarchitecture and subsequently mechanical strength of the same sample. It is possible using micro-CT data to perform morphometric analysis on individual rod and plate bone trabeculae using a volumetric spatial decomposition algorithm and hence determine their contribution to bone strength. Twelve pairs of vertebral bodies (T12/L1 or L4/L5) were harvested from human cadavers, and bone cubes (10 × 10 × 10 mm) were obtained. After micro-CT imaging, a volumetric spatial decomposition algorithm was applied, and measures of individual trabecular elements were obtained. Bone strength was measured in compression, where one bone specimen from each vertebral segment was tested supero-inferiorly (SI) and the paired specimen was tested antero-posteriorly (AP). Bone volume fraction was the strongest individual determinant of SI strength (r(2) = 0.77, p body bone architecture into its constituent morphological elements shows that trabecular element morphology has specific functional roles to assist in maintaining skeletal integrity.

  12. Recovery Kinetics of Knee Flexor and Extensor Strength after a Football Match

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganidis, Dimitrios; Chatzinikolaou, Athanasios; Avloniti, Alexandra; Barbero-Álvarez, José C.; Mohr, Magni; Malliou, Paraskevi; Gourgoulis, Vassilios; Deli, Chariklia K.; Douroudos, Ioannis I.; Margonis, Konstantinos; Gioftsidou, Asimenia; Fouris, Andreas D.; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z.; Koutedakis, Yiannis; Fatouros, Ioannis G.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the temporal changes of isokinetic strength performance of knee flexor (KF) and extensor (KE) strength after a football match. Players were randomly assigned to a control (N = 14, participated only in measurements and practices) or an experimental group (N = 20, participated also in a football match). Participants trained daily during the two days after the match. Match and training overload was monitored with GPS devices. Venous blood was sampled and muscle damage was assessed pre-match, post-match and at 12h, 36h and 60h post-match. Isometric strength as well as eccentric and concentric peak torque of knee flexors and extensors in both limbs (dominant and non-dominant) were measured on an isokinetic dynamometer at baseline and at 12h, 36h and 60h after the match. Functional (KFecc/KEcon) and conventional (KFcon/KEcon) ratios were then calculated. Only eccentric peak torque of knee flexors declined at 60h after the match in the control group. In the experimental group: a) isometric strength of knee extensors and knee flexors declined (Pfootball-specific conditioning. Our data suggest that recovery kinetics of knee flexor and extensor strength after a football match demonstrate strength, limb and velocity specificity and may depend on match physical overload and players' physical conditioning level. PMID:26043222

  13. Triiodothyronine regulates angiogenic growth factor and cytokine secretion by isolated human decidual cells in a cell-type specific and gestational age-dependent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilopoulou, E; Loubière, L S; Lash, G E; Ohizua, O; McCabe, C J; Franklyn, J A; Kilby, M D; Chan, S Y

    2014-06-01

    cell isolates were unaffected by T3 so changes in cell numbers could not account for any observed effects. In the first trimester, T3 decreased VEGF-A secretion by total decidual cells (P < 0.05) and increased angiopoietin-2 secretion by stromal-depleted cells (P < 0.05) but in the second trimester total decidual cells showed only increased angiogenin secretion (P < 0.05). In the first trimester, T3 reduced IL-10 secretion by total decidual cells (P < 0.05), and reduced granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (P < 0.01), IL-8 (P < 0.05), IL-10 (P < 0.01), IL-1β (P < 0.05) and monocyte chemotactic protein -1 (P < 0.001) secretion by macrophages, but increased tumour necrosis factor-α secretion by stromal-depleted cells (P < 0.05) and increased IL-6 by uNK cells (P < 0.05). In contrast, in the second trimester T3 increased IL-10 secretion by total decidual cells (P < 0.01) but did not affect cytokine secretion by uNK cells and macrophages. Conditioned media from first trimester T3-treated total decidual cells and macrophages did not alter EVT invasion compared with untreated controls. Thus, treatment of decidual cells with T3 resulted in changes in both angiogenic growth factor and cytokine secretion in a cell type-specific and gestational age-dependent manner, with first trimester decidual macrophages being the most responsive to T3 treatment, but these changes in decidual cell secretome did not affect EVT invasion in vitro. Our results are based on in vitro findings and we cannot be certain if a similar response occurs in human pregnancy in vivo. Optimal maternal thyroid hormone concentrations could play a critical role in maintaining a balanced inflammatory response in early pregnancy to prevent fetal immune rejection and promote normal placental development through the regulation of the secretion of critical cytokines and angiogenic growth factors by human decidual cells. Our data suggest that there is an ontogenically determined regulatory 'switch' in T3

  14. The strength research of the adhesive joints of sheet structures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The research results of stress-strained condition of constructional sheet materials are given in the article. The strength dependence on type, configuration and sizes of adhesive joints is analyzed. The research of the strength dependence was made on the samples from bakelite plywood with the main types of adhesive joints ...

  15. Substrate specificity of flavin-dependent vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum.Evidence for the production of 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols from 4-allylphenols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, Marco W.; Veeger, Cees; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    1995-01-01

    The substrate specificity of the flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum was investigated. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase catalyzes besides the oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols, the oxidative deamination of 4-hydroxybenzylamines and the oxidative demethylation of

  16. Pressure dependence of thermal conductivity and specific heat in CeRh2Si2 measured by an extended thermal relaxation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishigori, Shijo; Seida, Osamu

    2018-05-01

    We have developed a new technique for measuring thermal conductivity and specific heat under pressure by improving a thermal relaxation method. In this technique, a cylindrical sample with a small disc heater is embedded in the pressure-transmitting medium, then temperature variations of the sample and heater were directly measured by thermocouples during a heating and cooling process. Thermal conductivity and specific heat are estimated by comparing the experimental data with temperature variations simulated by a finite element method. The obtained thermal conductivity and specific heat of the test sample CeRh2Si2 exhibit a small enhancement and a clear peak arising from antiferromagnetic transition, respectively. The observation of these typical behaviors for magnetic compounds indicate that the technique is valid for the study on thermal properties under pressure.

  17. Specific cerebral heat shock proteins and histamine receptor cross-talking mechanisms promote distinct lead-dependent neurotoxic responses in teleosts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giusi, Giuseppina; Alo, Raffaella; Crudo, Michele; Facciolo, Rosa Maria; Canonaco, Marcello

    2008-01-01

    Recent interests are beginning to be directed towards toxic neurobiological dysfunctions caused by lead (Pb) in aquatic vertebrates. In the present work, treatment with a maximum acceptable toxic concentration of this heavy metal was responsible for highly significant (p 2 R) antagonist cimetidine (Cim), as shown by the very robust (p 3 R) thioperamide (Thio), instead, blocked Pb-dependent up-regulatory trends of both chaperones in mostly hypothalamic areas. Moreover, intense neuronal damages of the above brain regions coincided with altered expressions of HSP70 and HSP90 when treated only with Cim. Overall these first results show that distinct H n R are able to exert a net neuroprotective role arising from their interaction with chaperones in fish exposed to Pb-dependent stressful conditions making this a potentially key interaction especially for T. pavo, aquatic species which plays an important ecological role towards the survival of other commercially vital fishes

  18. Thyroid hormone-dependent development of early cortical networks: Temporal specificity and the contribution of trkB and mTOR pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sören eWesterholz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Early in neocortical network development, triiodothyronine (T3 promotes GABAergic neurons’ population increase, their somatic growth and the formation of GABAergic synapses. In the presence of T3, GABAergic interneurons form longer axons and conspicuous axonal arborizations, with an increased number of putative synaptic boutons. Here we show that the increased GABAergic axonal growth is positively correlated with the proximity to non-GABAergic neurons. A differential innervation emerges from a T3-dependent decrease of axonal length in fields with low density of neuronal cell bodies, combined with an increased bouton formation in fields with high density of neuronal somata. T3 addition to deprived networks after the first two weeks of development did not rescue deficits in the GABAergic synaptic bouton distribution, or in the frequency and duration of spontaneous bursts. During the critical two-week-period, GABAergic signaling is depolarizing as revealed by calcium imaging experiments. Interestingly, T3 enhanced the expression of the potassium-chloride cotransporter 2 (KCC2, and accelerated the developmental shift from depolarizing to hyperpolarizing GABAergic signaling in non-GABAergic neurons.The T3-related increase of spontaneous network activity was remarkably reduced after blockade of either tropomyosin-receptor kinase B (trkB or mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR pathways. T3-dependent increase in GABAergic neurons’ soma size was mediated mainly by mTOR signaling. Conversely, the T3-dependent selective increase of GABAergic boutons near non-GABAergic cell bodies is mediated by trkB signaling only. Both trkB and mTOR signaling mediate T3-dependent reduction of the GABAergic axon extension. The circuitry context is relevant for the interaction between T3 and trkB signaling, but not for the interactions between T3 and mTOR signaling.

  19. Human I-mfa domain proteins specifically interact with KSHV LANA and affect its regulation of Wnt signaling-dependent transcription

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusano, Shuichi, E-mail: skusano@m2.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp [Division of Persistent and Oncogenic Viruses, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan); Eizuru, Yoshito [Division of Persistent and Oncogenic Viruses, Center for Chronic Viral Diseases, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8544 (Japan)

    2010-06-04

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpes virus (KSHV)-encoded latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA) protein has been reported to interact with glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK-3{beta}) and to negatively regulate its activity, leading to stimulation of GSK-3{beta}-dependent {beta}-catenin degradation. We show here that the I-mfa domain proteins, HIC (human I-mfa domain-containing protein) and I-mfa (inhibitor of MyoD family a), interacted in vivo with LANA through their C-terminal I-mfa domains. This interaction affected the intracellular localization of HIC, inhibited the LANA-dependent transactivation of a {beta}-catenin-regulated reporter construct, and decreased the level of the LANA.GSK-3{beta} complex. These data reveal for the first time that I-mfa domain proteins interact with LANA and negatively regulate LANA-mediated activation of Wnt signaling-dependent transcription by inhibiting the formation of the LANA.GSK-3{beta} complex.

  20. Specific dose-dependent effects of ethane 1,2-dimethanesulfonate in rat and mouse Leydig cells and non-steroidogenic cells on programmed cell death

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.F.G. Rommerts (Focko); L. Kuhne; W.A. van Cappellen (Gert); D.M. Stocco; S.R. King (Steven); A. Jankowska

    2004-01-01

    textabstractThe mechanism by which ethane 1,2-dimethanesulfonate (EDS) selectively kills Leydig cells is poorly understood. To characterize further the cell-specific actions of EDS, we studied biochemical and morphological changes during apoptosis in different Leydig cell and

  1. Specificity of the Cyclic GMP-Binding Activity and of a Cyclic GMP-Dependent Cyclic GMP Phosphodiesterase in Dictyostelium discoideum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Walsum, Hans van; Meer, Rob C. van der; Bulgakov, Roman; Konijn, Theo M.

    1982-01-01

    The nucleotide specificity of the cyclic GMP-binding activity in a homogenate of Dictyostelium discoideum was determined by competition of cyclic GMP derivatives with [8-3H] cyclic GMP for the binding sites. The results indicate that cyclic GMP is bound to the binding proteins by hydrogen bonds at

  2. Relating Child Care during Infancy to Externalizing and Internalizing Behaviors in Toddlerhood: How Specific Features of Child Care Quality Matter Depending on a Child's Gender and Temperament

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether the relationships between specific features of child care quality and externalizing and internalizing behaviors in 24-month-old children are moderated by gender and temperament. Questionnaires were used to record children's gender and measure their temperament. Child care quality was observed with the "Échelles…

  3. Association of the OPRM1 variant rs1799971 (A118G) with non-specific liability to substance dependence in a collaborative de novo meta-analysis of European-ancestry cohorts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwantes-An, Tae-Hwi; Zhang, Juan; Chen, Li-Shiun; Hartz, Sarah M.; Culverhouse, Robert C.; Chen, Xiangning; Coon, Hilary; Frank, Josef; Kamens, Helen M.; Konte, Bettina; Kovanen, Leena; Latvala, Antti; Legrand, Lisa N.; Maher, Brion S.; Melroy, Whitney E.; Nelson, Elliot C.; Reid, Mark W.; Robinson, Jason D.; Shen, Pei-Hong; Yang, Bao-Zhu; Andrews, Judy A.; Aveyard, Paul; Beltcheva, Olga; Brown, Sandra A.; Cannon, Dale S.; Cichon, Sven; Corley, Robin P.; Dahmen, Norbert; Degenhardt, Louisa; Foroud, Tatiana; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Giegling, Ina; Glatt, Stephen J.; Grucza, Richard A.; Hardin, Jill; Hartmann, Annette M.; Heath, Andrew C.; Herms, Stefan; Hodgkinson, Colin A.; Hoffmann, Per; Hops, Hyman; Huizinga, David; Ising, Marcus; Johnson, Eric O.; Johnstone, Elaine; Kaneva, Radka P.; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Kiefer, Falk; Kranzler, Henry R.; Krauter, Ken S.; Levran, Orna; Lucae, Susanne; Lynskey, Michael T.; Maier, Wolfgang; Mann, Karl; Martin, Nicholas G.; Mattheisen, Manuel; Montgomery, Grant W.; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Murphy, Michael F.; Neale, Michael C.; Nikolov, Momchil A.; Nishita, Denise; Nöthen, Markus M; Nurnberger, John; Partonen, Timo; Pergadia, Michele L.; Reynolds, Maureen; Ridinger, Monika; Rose, Richard J.; Rouvinen-Lagerström, Noora; Scherbaum, Norbert; Schmäl, Christine; Soyka, Michael; Stallings, Michael C.; Steffens, Michael; Treutlein, Jens; Tsuang, Ming; Wall, Tamara L.; Wodarz, Norbert; Yuferov, Vadim; Zill, Peter; Bergen, Andrew W.; Chen, Jingchun; Cinciripini, Paul M.; Edenberg, Howard J; Ehringer, Marissa A.; Ferrell, Robert E.; Gelernter, Joel; Goldman, David; Hewitt, John K.; Hopfer, Christian J.; Iacono, William G.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kreek, Mary Jeanne; Kremensky, Ivo M.; Madden, Pamela A.F.; McGue, Matt; Munafò, Marcus R.; Philibert, Robert A.; Rietschel, Marcella; Roy, Alec; Rujescu, Dan; Saarikoski, Sirkku T.; Swan, Gary E.; Todorov, Alexandre A.; Vanyukov, Michael M.; Weiss, Robert B.; Bierut, Laura J.; Saccone, Nancy L.

    2015-01-01

    The mu1 opioid receptor gene, OPRM1, has long been a high-priority candidate for human genetic studies of addiction. Because of its potential functional significance, the non-synonymous variant rs1799971 (A118G, Asn40Asp) in OPRM1 has been extensively studied, yet its role in addiction has remained unclear, with conflicting association findings. To resolve the question of what effect, if any, rs1799971 has on substance dependence risk, we conducted collaborative meta-analyses of 25 datasets with over 28,000 European-ancestry subjects. We investigated non-specific risk for “general” substance dependence, comparing cases dependent on any substance to controls who were non-dependent on all assessed substances. We also examined five specific substance dependence diagnoses: DSM-IV alcohol, opioid, cannabis, and cocaine dependence, and nicotine dependence defined by the proxy of heavy/light smoking (cigarettes-per-day > 20 versus ≤ 10). The G allele showed a modest protective effect on general substance dependence (OR = 0.90, 95% C.I. [0.83–0.97], p-value = 0.0095, N = 16,908). We observed similar effects for each individual substance, although these were not statistically significant, likely because of reduced sample sizes. We conclude that rs1799971 contributes to mechanisms of addiction liability that are shared across different addictive substances. This project highlights the benefits of examining addictive behaviors collectively and the power of collaborative data sharing and meta-analyses. PMID:26392368

  4. Site-specific antibodies distinguish single amino acid substitutions in position 57 in HLA-DQ beta-chain alleles associated with insulin-dependent diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Atar, D; Dyrberg, T; Michelsen, Birgitte

    1989-01-01

    The HLA-DQ beta-chain gene shows a close association with susceptibility or resistance to autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) and it has been suggested that the amino acid in position 57 may be of pathogenetic importance. To study the expression of the IDDM associated HLA-DQ beta......-chain alleles, we immunized rabbits with 12 to 13 amino acid long peptides representing HLA-DQw7 and -DQw8 allelic sequences, differing only by one amino acid in position 57 being aspartic acid (Asp) and alanine (Ala), respectively. Immunoblot analysis of lymphoblastoid cells showed that several antisera...

  5. Ca2+-clock-dependent pacemaking in the sinus node is impaired in mice with a cardiac specific reduction in SERCA2 abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil Jit Ramamoorthy Jeewanlal Logantha

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2 pump is an important component of the Ca2+-clock pacemaker mechanism that provides robustness and flexibility to sinus node pacemaking. We have developed transgenic mice with reduced cardiac SERCA2 abundance (Serca2 KO as a model for investigating SERCA2’s role in sinus node pacemaking.Methods and Results: In Serca2 KO mice, ventricular SERCA2a protein content measured by Western blotting was 75% (P70% Serca2 downregulation.Conclusions: Serca2 KO mice show a disrupted Ca2+-clock-dependent pacemaker mechanism contributing to impaired sinus node and atrioventricular node function.

  6. Substrate specificity of flavin-dependent vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum.Evidence for the production of 4-hydroxycinnamyl alcohols from 4-allylphenols

    OpenAIRE

    Fraaije, Marco W.; Veeger, Cees; Berkel, Willem J.H. van

    1995-01-01

    The substrate specificity of the flavoprotein vanillyl-alcohol oxidase from Penicillium simplicissimum was investigated. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase catalyzes besides the oxidation of 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohols, the oxidative deamination of 4-hydroxybenzylamines and the oxidative demethylation of 4-(methoxymethyl)phenols. During the conversion of vanillylamine to vanillin, a transient intermediate, most probably vanillylimine, is observed. Vanillyl-alcohol oxidase weakly interacts with 4-hydroxyph...

  7. Fish allergy in patients with parvalbumin-specific immunoglobulin E depends on parvalbumin content rather than molecular differences in the protein among fish species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Ayako; Kobayashi, Yukihiro; Shiomi, Kazuo

    2016-10-01

    Allergenic characteristics of purified parvalbumins from different fish species have not been thoroughly investigated. We revealed that purified parvalbumins from nine different fish species have identical IgE-reactivities and high cross-reactivities. We also showed that fish allergenicity is associated with the parvalbumin content of the fish species, rather than species-specific differences in the molecular characteristics of the individual parvalbumin proteins.

  8. Drosophila female-specific Ilp7 motoneurons are generated by Fruitless-dependent cell death in males and by a double-assurance survival role for Transformer in females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Sarah Rose C; Castellanos, Monica C; Baillie, Katherine E; Lian, Tianshun; Allan, Douglas W

    2018-01-08

    Female-specific Ilp7 neuropeptide-expressing motoneurons (FS-Ilp7 motoneurons) are required in Drosophila for oviduct function in egg laying. Here, we uncover cellular and genetic mechanisms underlying their female-specific generation. We demonstrate that programmed cell death (PCD) eliminates FS-Ilp7 motoneurons in males, and that this requires male-specific splicing of the sex-determination gene fruitless ( fru ) into the Fru MC isoform. However, in females, fru alleles that only generate Fru M isoforms failed to kill FS-Ilp7 motoneurons. This blockade of Fru M -dependent PCD was not attributable to doublesex gene function but to a non-canonical role for transformer ( tra ), a gene encoding the RNA splicing activator that regulates female-specific splicing of fru and dsx transcripts. In both sexes, we show that Tra prevents PCD even when the Fru M isoform is expressed. In addition, we found that Fru MC eliminated FS-Ilp7 motoneurons in both sexes, but only when Tra was absent. Thus, Fru MC -dependent PCD eliminates female-specific neurons in males, and Tra plays a double-assurance function in females to establish and reinforce the decision to generate female-specific neurons. © 2018. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Strength and power of knee extensor muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knežević Olivera

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the studies of human neuromuscular function, the function of leg muscles has been most often measured, particularly the function of the knee extensors. Therefore, this review will be focused on knee extensors, methods for assessment of its function, the interdependence of strength and power, relations that describe these two abilities and the influence of various factors on their production (resistance training, stretching, movement tasks, age, etc.. Given that it consists of four separate muscles, the variability of their anatomical characteristics affects their participation in strength and power production, depending on the type of movement and motion that is performed. Since KE is active in a variety of activities it must be able to generate great strength in a large and diverse range of muscle lengths and high shortening velocities, in respect to different patterns of strength production, and thus different generation capacities within the muscle (Blazevich et al., 2006. It has been speculated that KE exerts its Pmax at workloads close to subject's own body weight or lower (Rahmani et al., 2001, which is very close to the maximum dynamic output hypothesis (MDI of Jaric and Markovic (2009. Changes under the influence of resistance training or biological age are variously manifested in muscle's morphological, physiological and neural characteristics, and thus in strength and power. Understanding the issues related to strength and power as abilities of great importance for daily activities, is also important for sports and rehabilitation. Performances improvement in sports in which leg muscles strength and power are crucial, as well as recovery after the injuries, are largely dependent on the research results regarding KE function. Also, the appropriate strength balance between knee flexors and extensors is important for the knee joint stability, so that the presence of imbalance between these two muscle groups might be a risk factor for

  10. Strength of Fibrous Composites

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Zheng-Ming

    2012-01-01

    "Strength of Fibrous Composites" addresses evaluation of the strength of a fibrous composite by using its constituent material properties and its fiber architecture parameters. Having gone through the book, a reader is able to predict the progressive failure behavior and ultimate strength of a fibrous laminate subjected to an arbitrary load condition in terms of the constituent fiber and matrix properties, as well as fiber geometric parameters. The book is useful to researchers and engineers working on design and analysis for composite materials. Dr. Zheng-Ming Huang is a professor at the School of Aerospace Engineering & Applied Mechanics, Tongji University, China. Mr. Ye-Xin Zhou is a PhD candidate at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, the University of Hong Kong, China.

  11. Compressive strain-dependent bending strength property of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} (1.5 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) composites performance by HIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyes-Rojas, A. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Cd. de Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)], E-mail: armando_reyesmx@yahoo.com.mx; Esparza-Ponce, H. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Cd. de Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico); De la Torre, S.D. [Centro de Investigacion e Innovacion Tecnologica (CIITEC)-IPN, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Torres-Moye, E. [Centro de Investigacion en Materiales Avanzados S.C. (CIMAV), Miguel de Cervantes 120, Complejo Industrial Chihuahua, Cd. de Chihuahua, Chihuahua (Mexico)

    2009-04-15

    Nanometric powders and sintered ceramics of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-ZrO{sub 2} (1.5 mol% Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}) prepared by hot isostatic pressing HIP have been studied. A detailed crystallographic study has been performed through X-ray diffraction, Williamson-Hall method, Rietveld method and high-resolution electron microscopy HREM analysis. The crystallographic structure data, such as domain size, lattice parameters, wt% phase, and micro-strain direction have been obtained using Rietveld refinement and Williamson-Hall methods. The results revealed that the compressive strain ({epsilon}) increased from 0.56 to 1.18 (10{sup -3}) as the t-ZrO{sub 2} content increased too. The HREM interface study conducted along the [0 0 0 1]Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}||[0 0 1]ZrO{sub 2} zone axis revealed a micro-strain lattice distortion accumulated at the grain boundary due to the ZrO{sub 2} martensitic phase transformation on cooling, t-ZrO{sub 2} grains coalescence and to the grain growth of {alpha}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} which cause elongated tetragonal crystals. Micro-strain lattice distortion is adjusted by the shear displacements of the planes (1 1 0) and (11-bar0) along [1-bar10] and [1-bar1-bar0] crystallographic directions, respectively; these planes are arrested by the (101-bar0) alumina plane. In this case, semi-coherent interfaces were observed along the grain boundary. It is verified that the bending strength increased in connection with the strain accumulation and amount of tetragonal structure.

  12. Control of density-dependent, cell state-specific signal transduction by the cell adhesion molecule CEACAM1, and its influence on cell cycle regulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheffrahn, Inka; Singer, Bernhard B.; Sigmundsson, Kristmundur; Lucka, Lothar; Oebrink, Bjoern

    2005-01-01

    Growth factor receptors, extracellular matrix receptors, and cell-cell adhesion molecules co-operate in regulating the activities of intracellular signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that the cell adhesion molecule CEACAM1 co-regulates growth-factor-induced DNA synthesis in NBT-II epithelial cells in a cell-density-dependent manner. CEACAM1 exerted its effects by regulating the activity of the Erk 1/2 MAP kinase pathway and the expression levels of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27 Kip1 . Interestingly, both inhibitory and stimulatory effects were observed. Confluent cells continuously exposed to fetal calf serum showed little Erk activity and DNA synthesis compared with sparse cells. Under these conditions, anti-CEACAM1 antibodies strongly stimulated Erk activation, decreased p27 expression, and induced DNA synthesis. In serum-starved confluent cells, re-addition of 10% fetal calf serum activated the Erk pathway, decreased p27 expression, and stimulated DNA synthesis to the same levels as in sparse cells. Under these conditions anti-CEACAM1 antibodies de-activated Erk, restored the level of p27, and inhibited DNA synthesis. These data indicate that CEACAM1 mediates contact inhibition of proliferation in cells that are constantly exposed to growth factors, but co-activates growth-factor-induced proliferation in cells that have been starved for growth factors; exposure to extracellular CEACAM1 ligands reverts these responses

  13. Community and species-specific responses of wild bees to insect pest control programs applied to a pollinator-dependent crop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuell, Julianna K; Isaacs, Rufus

    2010-06-01

    Wild bee conservation is regarded as essential for sustainable production of pollinator-dependent crops, yet little is known about the effects on wild bee communities of typical insect pest management programs used postbloom. We developed an insecticide program risk (IPR) index to quantify the relative risk to wild bees of insecticide programs applied to blueberry fields. This was used to determine the relationship between IPR and the abundance, diversity, and richness of wild bee communities sampled during three successive flowering seasons. In 2 of 3 yr, bee abundance and species richness declined with increasing IPR. Bee diversity declined with IPR in one of 3 yr. These results indicate that wild bee communities are negatively affected by increasingly intensive chemical pest management activities in crop fields and that interyear variability in bee populations has the potential to mask such effects in short-term studies. When several wild bee species were analyzed separately, two of three solitary and one of three social blueberry-foraging species declined with increasing IPR values, suggesting that different life histories and nesting habits may help some bee populations escape the negative effects of insecticides applied after bloom. Pollinator conservation programs aimed strictly at reducing insecticide use may have varying success, depending on the biology of the target bee species. The IPR index provides a standard method to compare pest management programs for their potential effect on wild bee communities, with broad application for use in other agricultural systems.

  14. High strength alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maziasz, Phillip James [Oak Ridge, TN; Shingledecker, John Paul [Knoxville, TN; Santella, Michael Leonard [Knoxville, TN; Schneibel, Joachim Hugo [Knoxville, TN; Sikka, Vinod Kumar [Oak Ridge, TN; Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; John, Randy Carl [Houston, TX; Kim, Dong Sub [Sugar Land, TX

    2010-08-31

    High strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one composition of a metal alloy includes chromium, nickel, copper, manganese, silicon, niobium, tungsten and iron. System, methods, and heaters that include the high strength metal alloys are described herein. At least one heater system may include a canister at least partially made from material containing at least one of the metal alloys. At least one system for heating a subterranean formation may include a tubular that is at least partially made from a material containing at least one of the metal alloys.

  15. Hand grip strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...

  16. Geometry and gravity influences on strength capability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poliner, Jeffrey; Wilmington, Robert P.; Klute, Glenn K.

    1994-01-01

    Strength, defined as the capability of an individual to produce an external force, is one of the most important determining characteristics of human performance. Knowledge of strength capabilities of a group of individuals can be applied to designing equipment and workplaces, planning procedures and tasks, and training individuals. In the manned space program, with the high risk and cost associated with spaceflight, information pertaining to human performance is important to ensuring mission success and safety. Knowledge of individual's strength capabilities in weightlessness is of interest within many areas of NASA, including workplace design, tool development, and mission planning. The weightless environment of space places the human body in a completely different context. Astronauts perform a variety of manual tasks while in orbit. Their ability to perform these tasks is partly determined by their strength capability as demanded by that particular task. Thus, an important step in task planning, development, and evaluation is to determine the ability of the humans performing it. This can be accomplished by utilizing quantitative techniques to develop a database of human strength capabilities in weightlessness. Furthermore, if strength characteristics are known, equipment and tools can be built to optimize the operators' performance. This study examined strength in performing a simple task, specifically, using a tool to apply a torque to a fixture.

  17. Relationship between pore structure and compressive strength

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Properties of concrete are strongly dependent on its pore structure features, porosity being an important one among them. This study deals with developing an understanding of the pore structure-compressive strength relationship in concrete. Several concrete mixtures with different pore structures are proportioned and ...

  18. DNA-methylation dependent regulation of embryo-specific 5S ribosomal DNA cluster transcription in adult tissues of sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellavia, Daniele; Dimarco, Eufrosina; Naselli, Flores; Caradonna, Fabio

    2013-10-01

    We have previously reported a molecular and cytogenetic characterization of three different 5S rDNA clusters in the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus and recently, demonstrated the presence of high heterogeneity in functional 5S rRNA. In this paper, we show some important distinctive data on 5S rRNA transcription for this organism. Using single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis, we demonstrate the existence of two classes of 5S rRNA, one which is embryo-specific and encoded by the smallest (700 bp) cluster and the other which is expressed at every stage and encoded by longer clusters (900 and 950 bp). We also demonstrate that the embryo-specific class of 5S rRNA is expressed in oocytes and embryonic stages and is silenced in adult tissue and that this phenomenon appears to be due exclusively to DNA methylation, as indicated by sensitivity to 5-azacytidine, unlike Xenopus where this mechanism is necessary but not sufficient to maintain the silenced status. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Personality Typology in Relation to Muscle Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terracciano, Antonio; Milaneschi, Yuri; Metter, E. Jeffrey; Ferrucci, Luigi

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity plays a central role in the age-related decline in muscle strength, an important component in the process leading to disability. Personality, a significant determinant of health behaviors including physical activity, could therefore impact muscle strength throughout adulthood and affect the rate of muscle strength decline with aging. Personality typologies combining “high neuroticism” (N≥55), “low extraversion” (Epersonality types. Facet analyses suggest an important role for the N components of depression and hostility. Physical activity level appears to partly explain some of these associations. Conclusion Findings provide support for the notion that the typological approach to personality may be useful in identifying specific personality types at risk of low muscle strength and offer the possibility for more targeted prevention and intervention programs. PMID:21614452

  20. Probe tests microweld strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Probe is developed to test strength of soldered, brazed or microwelded joints. It consists of a spring which may be adjusted to the desired test pressure by means of a threaded probe head, and an indicator lamp. Device may be used for electronic equipment testing.

  1. Interaction strength combinations and the overfishing of a marine food web.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bascompte, Jordi; Melián, Carlos J; Sala, Enric

    2005-04-12

    The stability of ecological communities largely depends on the strength of interactions between predators and their prey. Here we show that these interaction strengths are structured nonrandomly in a large Caribbean marine food web. Specifically, the cooccurrence of strong interactions on two consecutive levels of food chains occurs less frequently than expected by chance. Even when they occur, these strongly interacting chains are accompanied by strong omnivory more often than expected by chance. By using a food web model, we show that these interaction strength combinations reduce the likelihood of trophic cascades after the overfishing of top predators. However, fishing selectively removes predators that are overrepresented in strongly interacting chains. Hence, the potential for strong community-wide effects remains a threat.

  2. Plutonium (IV) complexation by nitrate in acid solutions of ionic strengths from 2 to 19 molal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.M.; Veirs, D.K.; Vaughn, R.B.; Cisneros, M.A.; Smith, C.A.

    1997-01-01

    Titrations of Pu(IV) with HNO 3 in a series of aqueous HClO 4 solutions ranging in ionic strength from 2 to 19 molal were followed using absorption spectrophotometry. The Pu 5f-5f spectra in the visible and near IR range change with complex formation. At each ionic strength, a series of spectra were obtained by varying nitrate concentration. Each series was deconvoluted into spectra f Pu 4+ (aq), Pu(NO 3 ) 3+ and Pu(NO 3 ) 2 2+ complexes, and simultaneously their formation constants were determined. When corrected for the incomplete dissociation of nitric acid, the ionic strength dependence of each formation constant can be described by two parameters, β 0 and Δ var-epsilon using the formulae of specific ion interaction theory. The difficulties with extending this analysis to higher nitrate coordination numbers are discussed

  3. [Attitude change toward body image: the role of elaboration on attitude strength].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasco, Margarita; Briñol, Pablo; Horcajo, Javier

    2010-02-01

    Attitude change toward body image: The role of elaboration on attitude strength. Attitudes toward body image have been shown to play a central role in the understanding and treating of eating disorders. In the present research, participants' attitudes toward their body image were changed through a persuasive procedure involving high mental elaboration (self-persuasion) or through a less engaging procedure involving less active participation (passive exposure). As expected, participants in these two groups showed more favourable attitudes toward their bodies than those in the control group. Despite that both treatments were equally efficient in changing attitudes, the strength associated with those attitudes was significantly different depending on the amount of thinking involved in the process of change. Specifically, attitudes were stronger in the high rather than low thinking group of treatment. This finding is important because the strength of the attitude may determine the long-term consequences of an intervention.

  4. Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeat-Dependent, Biofilm-Specific Death of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Mediated by Increased Expression of Phage-Related Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heussler, Gary E; Cady, Kyle C; Koeppen, Katja; Bhuju, Sabin; Stanton, Bruce A; O'Toole, George A

    2015-05-12

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated (CRISPR/Cas) system is an adaptive immune system present in many archaea and bacteria. CRISPR/Cas systems are incredibly diverse, and there is increasing evidence of CRISPR/Cas systems playing a role in cellular functions distinct from phage immunity. Previously, our laboratory reported one such alternate function in which the type 1-F CRISPR/Cas system of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain UCBPP-PA14 (abbreviated as P. aeruginosa PA14) inhibits both biofilm formation and swarming motility when the bacterium is lysogenized by the bacteriophage DMS3. In this study, we demonstrated that the presence of just the DMS3 protospacer and the protospacer-adjacent motif (PAM) on the P. aeruginosa genome is necessary and sufficient for this CRISPR-dependent loss of these group behaviors, with no requirement of additional DMS3 sequences. We also demonstrated that the interaction of the CRISPR system with the DMS3 protospacer induces expression of SOS-regulated phage-related genes, including the well-characterized pyocin operon, through the activity of the nuclease Cas3 and subsequent RecA activation. Furthermore, our data suggest that expression of the phage-related genes results in bacterial cell death on a surface due to the inability of the CRISPR-engaged strain to downregulate phage-related gene expression, while these phage-related genes have minimal impact on growth and viability under planktonic conditions. Deletion of the phage-related genes restores biofilm formation and swarming motility while still maintaining a functional CRISPR/Cas system, demonstrating that the loss of these group behaviors is an indirect effect of CRISPR self-targeting. The various CRISPR/Cas systems found in both archaea and bacteria are incredibly diverse, and advances in understanding the complex mechanisms of these varied systems has not only increased our knowledge of host

  5. hnRNP-U is a specific DNA-dependent protein kinase substrate phosphorylated in response to DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berglund, Fredrik M.; Clarke, Paul R.

    2009-01-01

    Cellular responses to DNA damage are orchestrated by the large phosphoinositol-3-kinase related kinases ATM, ATR and DNA-PK. We have developed a cell-free system to dissect the biochemical mechanisms of these kinases. Using this system, we identify heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U (hnRNP-U), also termed scaffold attachment factor A (SAF-A), as a specific substrate for DNA-PK. We show that hnRNP-U is phosphorylated at Ser59 by DNA-PK in vitro and in cells in response to DNA double-strand breaks. Phosphorylation of hnRNP-U suggests novel functions for DNA-PK in the response to DNA damage.

  6. Quantitative MR imaging of intra-orbital structures: Tissue-specific measurements and age dependency compared to extra-orbital structures using multispectral quantitative MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Memi; Buch, Karen; Fujita, Akifumi; Jara, Hernán; Qureshi, Muhammad Mustafa; Sakai, Osamu

    2017-08-01

    The orbit can be affected by unique pathologic conditions and often requires MRI evaluation. The purpose of this study was to investigate the age-related changes in multiple intra-orbital structures using quantitative MRI (qMRI). Thirty-eight subjects (20 males, 18 females; ages 0.5-87 years) underwent MRI with a mixed turbo spin echo sequence. T1 and T2 measurements were obtained within ROI in 6 intra-orbital structures (medial and lateral rectus muscles, medial and lateral retrobulbar fat, lacrimal gland, and optic nerve), and compared with those of corresponding extra-orbital structures (masseter muscle, subcutaneous cheek fat, buccal fat, parotid gland, and frontal white matter). Statistical analyses were performed using Pearson's correlation coefficients. T1 and T2 values of the extra-ocular muscles increased with age, with higher T1 and T2 values compared to the masseter muscles. Retrobulbar fat showed significant age-associated increases in T1 values in the lateral side and in T2 values in both sides. T1 and T2 values in the lacrimal gland increased with age, while the parotid gland showed an age-associated increase in T2 values and decrease in T1 values. Optic nerves demonstrated age-related changes, similar to that of frontal white matter; rapid decreases with age in T1 and T2 times in early stages of life, and slight increases in T1 and T2 times later in life. Intra-orbital structures demonstrated specific qMRI measurements and aging patterns, which were different from extra-orbital structures. Location-specific age-related changes of intra-orbital structures should be considered in the qMRI assessment of the orbital pathology.

  7. Establishment of human sperm-specific voltage-dependent anion channel 3 recombinant vector for the production of a male contraceptive vaccine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmarinah Asmarinah

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to construct a recombinant vector of human sperm specific VDAC3 gene for production of VDAC3 antibody, which is potential as male contraception vaccine.Methods: Target fragment sequence of VDAC3 gene was obtained through amplification of human sperm VDAC3 cDNA with primers covering exon 5 to exon 8. Its PCR product in size of 435 bp was cloned to the pET101/D-TOPO expression vector (5753 bp. E. coli bacteria were transformed with this vector. Cloning of VDAC3 fragment gene to the vector was confirmed by the using of XbaI restriction enzyme and PCR colony method with primers covering exons 5-8 of the human VDAC3 gene.Results: Alignment analysis of amplified fragment covering exon 5 to exon 8 of VDAC3 gene showed 94% homology to human VDAC3 gene from databank. After cloning to the expression vector and transformation to E. coli competent cells, twelve colonies could grow in culture media. Gel electrophoresis of sliced VDAC3 recombinant vector showed a single band in the size of 6181 bp in 8 colonies. After application of PCR colony and amplicon sequencing, the result showed a single band in the size of 435 bp and fragment sequence with 94% identity to human VDAC3 gene.Conclusion: The construction of human sperm specific VDAC3 gene recombinant vector was established in this study. In the future, this recombinant vector will be used to produce VDAC3 antibody for the development of a male contraception vaccine. (Med J Indones. 2012;21:61-5Keywords: Contraception, recombinant vector, sperm, VDAC3

  8. Droplet electrochemical study of the pH dependent redox behavior of novel ferrocenyl-carborane derivatives and its application in specific cancer cell recognition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Changyu [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics (Chien-Shiung Wu Laboratory), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Shah, Afzal [Department of Chemistry, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Ye, Hongde [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Chen, Xiao; Ye, Jing; Jiang, Hui [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics (Chien-Shiung Wu Laboratory), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Chen, Baoan [Department of Hematology, the Affiliated Zhongda Hospital, Clinical Medical School, Southeast University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Wang, Xuemei, E-mail: xuewang@seu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Bioelectronics (Chien-Shiung Wu Laboratory), Southeast University, Nanjing 210096 (China); Yan, Hong, E-mail: hyan1965@nju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Coordination Chemistry, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2015-02-01

    Highlights: • Electrochemical behaviors of novel ferrocenyl based carboranes (FcCB) were explored with a droplet system. • The shifts of peak potentials with changes of pH values indicated the involvement of proton during electron transfer reaction. • Normal cells and cancer cells could be specifically recognized by using FcCB as probe. • This electrochemical method in a droplet shows great potential application for relevant diagnostics of clinical samples. - Abstract: Novel ferrocenyl based carboranes (FcCBs) and their distinguish behavior for cancer cell recognition have been explored in this contribution. The voltammetric study in a droplet of 10 μL placed on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode demonstrates the excellent electrochemical behavior of FcCBs, which could be further exploited for establishing the promising and sensitive biosensors. The FcCBs’ redox behavior is examined in a wide pH range, and square wave voltammetry revealed the reversible and irreversible nature of first and second anodic peaks. The obvious shifts in peak potentials corresponding with the change of pH values demonstrate the abstraction of electrons to be accompanied with the transfer of protons. By using the droplet electrochemical technique, FcCBs can be employed to distinguish normal and cancer cells with a linear range from 1.0 × 10{sup 3} to 3.0 × 10{sup 4} cells mL{sup −1} and the limit of detection at 800 cells mL{sup −1}. The novel carborane derivatives could be utilized as important potential molecular probes for specific recognition of cancer cells like leukemia cells from normal cells.

  9. The Specification of Cortical Subcerebral Projection Neurons Depends on the Direct Repression of TBR1 by CTIP1/BCL11a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cánovas, José; Berndt, F Andrés; Sepúlveda, Hugo; Aguilar, Rodrigo; Veloso, Felipe A; Montecino, Martín; Oliva, Carlos; Maass, Juan C; Sierralta, Jimena; Kukuljan, Manuel

    2015-05-13

    The acquisition of distinct neuronal fates is fundamental for the function of the cerebral cortex. We find that the development of subcerebral projections from layer 5 neurons in the mouse neocortex depends on the high levels of expression of the transcription factor CTIP1; CTIP1 is coexpressed with CTIP2 in neurons that project to subcerebral targets and with SATB2 in those that project to the contralateral cortex. CTIP1 directly represses Tbr1 in layer 5, which appears as a critical step for the acquisition of the subcerebral fate. In contrast, lower levels of CTIP1 in layer 6 are required for TBR1 expression, which directs the corticothalamic fate. CTIP1 does not appear to play a critical role in the acquisition of the callosal projection fate in layer 5. These findings unravel a key step in the acquisition of cell fate for closely related corticofugal neurons and indicate that differential dosages of transcriptions factors are critical to specify different neuronal identities. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/357552-13$15.00/0.

  10. The AHL- and BDSF-dependent quorum sensing systems control specific and overlapping sets of genes in Burkholderia cenocepacia H111.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadine Schmid

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing in Burkholderia cenocepacia H111 involves two signalling systems that depend on different signal molecules, namely N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs and the diffusible signal factor cis-2-dodecenoic acid (BDSF. Previous studies have shown that AHLs and BDSF control similar phenotypic traits, including biofilm formation, proteolytic activity and pathogenicity. In this study we mapped the BDSF stimulon by RNA-Seq and shotgun proteomics analysis. We demonstrate that a set of the identified BDSF-regulated genes or proteins are also controlled by AHLs, suggesting that the two regulons partially overlap. The detailed analysis of two mutually regulated operons, one encoding three lectins and the other one encoding the large surface protein BapA and its type I secretion machinery, revealed that both AHLs and BDSF are required for full expression, suggesting that the two signalling systems operate in parallel. In accordance with this, we show that both AHLs and BDSF are required for biofilm formation and protease production.

  11. Dynamic balance ability in young elite soccer players: implication of isometric strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chtara, Moktar; Rouissi, Mehdi; Bragazzi, Nicola L; Owen, Adam L; Haddad, Monoem; Chamari, Karim

    2018-04-01

    Soccer requires maintaining unilateral balance when executing movement with the contralateral leg. Despite the fact that balance requires standing with maintaining isometric posture with the support leg, currently there is a lack of studies regarding the implication of isometric strength on dynamic balance's performance among young soccer players. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between the Y-Balance Test and 12 lower limbs isometric strength tests. Twenty-six right footed soccer players (mean±SD, age=16.2±1.6 years, height=175±4.2 cm, body mass=68.8±6.1 kg) performed a dynamic balance test (star excursion balance-test with dominant- (DL) and nondominant-legs (NDL). Furthermore, maximal isometric contraction tests of 12 lower limb muscle groups were assessed in DL and NDL. Correlations analysis reported a significant positive relationship between some of isometric strength tests (with DL and NDL) and the Y-Balance Test. Furthermore, stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that maximal isometric strength explained between 21.9% and 49.4% of the variance of the Y-Balance Test. Moreover, maximal isometric strength was dependent upon the reaching angle of the Y-Balance Test and the leg used to support body weight. This study showed a significant implication of maximal isometric strength of the lower limb and the Y-Balance Test. Moreover, the present investigation suggests the implementation of specific lower limb strengthening exercises depending on players' deficit in each reaching direction and leg. This result suggests that further studies should experiment if increasing lower limbs isometric strength could improve dynamic balance ability among young soccer players.

  12. Renal-Specific Silencing of TNF (Tumor Necrosis Factor) Unmasks Salt-Dependent Increases in Blood Pressure via an NKCC2A (Na+-K+-2Cl- Cotransporter Isoform A)-Dependent Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Shoujin; Hao, Mary; Ferreri, Nicholas R

    2018-06-01

    We tested the hypothesis that TNF (tumor necrosis factor)-α produced within the kidney and acting on the renal tubular system is part of a regulatory mechanism that attenuates increases in blood pressure in response to high salt intake. Intrarenal administration of a lentivirus construct, which specifically silenced TNF in the kidney, did not affect baseline blood pressure. However, blood pressure increased significantly 1 day after mice with intrarenal silencing of TNF ingested 1% NaCl in the drinking water. The increase in blood pressure, which was continuously observed for 11 days, prompt