WorldWideScience

Sample records for strength cutting tools

  1. Materials selection for cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhis, Adel M.

    2008-01-01

    The selection of proper tool steel for a given application is a difficult task. So; the most important selection factors in choosing cutting tool materials are based on their tool material requirements, cutting tool design and service conditions which is mainly considered as functional requirements. The processability requirements concerns in heat treat ability of the material tool. The classification of these tool materials were discussed with their properties requirement and percent of alloying element which is added to give best properties with a little increase in cost that highly appear in comparison of the selection. The cutting tool materials were evaluated based on two cases; The first was in case of rough surface; the high speed steels is the best material and the other was the ceramic material is the highest performance in cutting of soft or high rate of metal removal. (author)

  2. Gluebond strength of laser cut wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles W. McMillin; Henry A. Huber

    1985-01-01

    The degree of strength loss when gluing laser cut wood as compared to conventionally sawn wood and the amount of additional surface treatment needed to improve bond quality were assessed under normal furniture plant operating conditions. The strength of laser cut oak glued with polyvinyl acetate adhesive was reduced to 75 percent of sawn joints and gum was reduced 43...

  3. Tubing and cable cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcsmith, D. D.; Richardson, J. I. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hand held hydraulic cutting tool was developed which is particularly useful in deactivating ejection seats in military aircraft rescue operations. The tool consists primarily of a hydraulic system composed of a fluid reservoir, a pumping piston, and an actuator piston. Mechanical cutting jaws are attached to the actuator piston rod. The hydraulic system is controlled by a pump handle. As the pump handle is operated the actuator piston rod is forced outward and thus the cutting jaws are forced together. The frame of the device is a flexible metal tubing which permits easy positioning of the tool cutting jaws in remote and normally inaccessible locations. Bifurcated cutting edges ensure removal of a section of the tubing or cable to thereby reduce the possibility of accidental reactivation of the tubing or cable being severed.

  4. Laser Cutting Tool Path Optimization

    OpenAIRE

    Dewil, Reginald; Cattrysse, Dirk; Vansteenwegen, Pieter

    2011-01-01

    Given a set of irregular parts nested on a metal sheet, minimize the total non- cutting time for the cutter head, cutting all the required elements and returning to the starting location. The problem is modeled as a generalized traveling sales- person problem with special precedence constraints. An initial feasible solution is generated and improved by local moves embedded in a tabu search framework. The proposed algorithm shows promising results in comparison with a commercial...

  5. Ceramic cutting tools materials, development and performance

    CERN Document Server

    Whitney, E Dow

    1994-01-01

    Interest in ceramics as a high speed cutting tool material is based primarily on favorable material properties. As a class of materials, ceramics possess high melting points, excellent hardness and good wear resistance. Unlike most metals, hardness levels in ceramics generally remain high at elevated temperatures which means that cutting tip integrity is relatively unaffected at high cutting speeds. Ceramics are also chemically inert against most workmetals.

  6. Effects of Cutting Tool Parameters on Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ince Mehmet Alper

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents of the influence on vibration of Co28Cr6Mo medical alloy machined on a CNC lathe based on cutting parameters (rotational speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius. The influences of cutting parameters have been presented in graphical form for understanding. To achieve the minimum vibration, the optimum values obtained for rpm, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius were respectively, 318 rpm, 0.25 mm/rev, 0.9 mm and 0.8 mm. Maximum vibration has been revealed the values obtained for rpm, feed rate, depth of cut and tool tip radius were respectively, 636 rpm, 0.1 mm/rev, 0,5 mm and 0.8 mm.

  7. An FMS Dynamic Production Scheduling Algorithm Considering Cutting Tool Failure and Cutting Tool Life

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setiawan, A; Wangsaputra, R; Halim, A H; Martawirya, Y Y

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with Flexible Manufacturing System (FMS) production rescheduling due to unavailability of cutting tools caused either of cutting tool failure or life time limit. The FMS consists of parallel identical machines integrated with an automatic material handling system and it runs fully automatically. Each machine has a same cutting tool configuration that consists of different geometrical cutting tool types on each tool magazine. The job usually takes two stages. Each stage has sequential operations allocated to machines considering the cutting tool life. In the real situation, the cutting tool can fail before the cutting tool life is reached. The objective in this paper is to develop a dynamic scheduling algorithm when a cutting tool is broken during unmanned and a rescheduling needed. The algorithm consists of four steps. The first step is generating initial schedule, the second step is determination the cutting tool failure time, the third step is determination of system status at cutting tool failure time and the fourth step is the rescheduling for unfinished jobs. The approaches to solve the problem are complete-reactive scheduling and robust-proactive scheduling. The new schedules result differences starting time and completion time of each operations from the initial schedule. (paper)

  8. High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Jackson, Mark J

    2013-01-01

    High Performance Grinding and Advanced Cutting Tools discusses the fundamentals and advances in high performance grinding processes, and provides a complete overview of newly-developing areas in the field. Topics covered are grinding tool formulation and structure, grinding wheel design and conditioning and applications using high performance grinding wheels. Also included are heat treatment strategies for grinding tools, using grinding tools for high speed applications, laser-based and diamond dressing techniques, high-efficiency deep grinding, VIPER grinding, and new grinding wheels.

  9. CO2 laser cutting of advanced high strength steels (AHSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamikiz, A.; Lacalle, L.N. Lopez de; Sanchez, J.A.; Pozo, D. del; Etayo, J.M.; Lopez, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    This article demonstrates the optimum working areas and cutting conditions for the laser cutting of a series of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The parameters that most influence the cutting of sheet metal have been studied and the results have been divided into two large groups with thickness of more and less than 1 mm. The influence of the material and, more important, the effect of coating have been taken into account. The results, have demonstrate very different behaviours between the thinnest and thickest sheets, whilst the variation of the cutting parameters due to the influence of the material is less relevant. The optimum cutting areas and the quality of the cut evaluated with different criteria are presented. Finally, the best position for the laser beam has been observed to be underneath the sheet

  10. The reliability analysis of cutting tools in the HSM processes

    OpenAIRE

    W.S. Lin

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article mainly describe the reliability of the cutting tools in the high speed turning by normaldistribution model.Design/methodology/approach: A series of experimental tests have been done to evaluate the reliabilityvariation of the cutting tools. From experimental results, the tool wear distribution and the tool life are determined,and the tool life distribution and the reliability function of cutting tools are derived. Further, the reliability ofcutting tools at anytime for h...

  11. Comparative assessment of several dismantling cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot, G.; Bernard, J.; Lorin, C.; Ravera, J.P.

    1992-01-01

    The research work relates to semi-industrial scale testing in air of various relevant cutting tools (plasma torch, arc-air, grinder, alternating saw) for mild steel and stainless steel with thicknesses of 10, 30 and 50 mm. Its originality is a comparison between tools in the same normalized conditions of use in order to determine the performances of the different techniques and to measure all the generated secondary solid wastes. Among the tested tools, the plasma torch is the fastest and the alternating saw the slowest. The arc-air produces the widest kerf and thus the most wastes. The electrode of the arc-air and the wheel of the grinder wear the swiftest. The alternating saw generates the least mass of aerosols. (author). 1 ref., 7 figs

  12. Tool life and surface roughness of ceramic cutting tool when turning AISI D2 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan Emri Wan Abdul Rahaman

    2007-01-01

    The tool life of physical vapor deposition (PVD) titanium nitride (TiN) coated ceramic when turning AISI D2 tool steel of hardness 54-55 HRC was investigated. The experiments were conducted at various cutting speed and feed rate combinations with constant depth of cut and under dry cutting condition. The tool life of the cutting tool for all cutting conditions was obtained. The tool failure mode and wear mechanism were also investigated. The wear mechanism that is responsible for the wear form is abrasion and diffusion. Flank wear and crater wear are the main wear form found when turning AISI D2 grade hardened steel with 54-55 HRC using KY 4400 ceramic cutting tool. Additionally catastrophic failure is observed at cutting speed of 183 m/min and feed rate of 0.16 mm/ rev. (author)

  13. Using internally cooled cutting tools in the machining of difficult-to-cut materials based on Waspaloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Isik

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nickel-based superalloys such as Waspaloy are used for engine components and in the nuclear industry, where considerable strength and corrosion resistance at high operating temperatures are called for. These characteristics of such alloys cause increases in cutting temperature and resultant tool damage, even at low cutting speeds and low feed rates. Thus, they are classified as difficult-to-cut materials. This article presents a cooling method to be used in metal cutting based on a tool holder with a closed internal cooling system with cooling fluid circulating inside. Hence, a green cooling method that does not harm the environment and is efficient in removing heat from the cutting zone was developed. A series of cutting experiments were conducted to investigate the practicality and effectiveness of the internally cooled tool model. The developed system achieved up to 13% better surface quality than with dry machining, and tool life was extended by 12%. The results clearly showed that with the reduced cutting temperature of the internal cooling, it was possible to control the temperature and thus prevent reaching the critical cutting temperature during the turning process, which is vitally important in extending tool life during the processing of Waspaloy.

  14. Study of Cutting Edge Temperature and Cutting Force of End Mill Tool in High Speed Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiprawi Mohammad Ashaari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A wear of cutting tools during machining process is unavoidable due to the presence of frictional forces during removing process of unwanted material of workpiece. It is unavoidable but can be controlled at slower rate if the cutting speed is fixed at certain point in order to achieve optimum cutting conditions. The wear of cutting tools is closely related with the thermal deformations that occurred between the frictional contact point of cutting edge of cutting tool and workpiece. This research paper is focused on determinations of relationship among cutting temperature, cutting speed, cutting forces and radial depth of cutting parameters. The cutting temperature is determined by using the Indium Arsenide (InAs and Indium Antimonide (InSb photocells to measure infrared radiation that are emitted from cutting tools and cutting forces is determined by using dynamometer. The high speed machining process is done by end milling the outer surface of carbon steel. The signal from the photocell is digitally visualized in the digital oscilloscope. Based on the results, the cutting temperature increased as the radial depth and cutting speed increased. The cutting forces increased when radial depth increased but decreased when cutting speed is increased. The setup for calibration and discussion of the experiment will be explained in this paper.

  15. Cutting tool wear monitoring with the use of impedance layers

    OpenAIRE

    Sadílek, Marek; Kratochvíl, Jiří; Petrů, Jana; Čep, Robert; Zlámal, Tomáš; Stančeková, Dana

    2014-01-01

    The article deals with problems of cutting process monitoring in real time. It is focused on tool wear by means of impedance layers applied on ceramic cutting inserts. In the experimental part the cutting process is monitored using electrical resistance measurement. The results are compared and verified using the monitored cutting temperature and tool wear. The testing of impedance layers is reasonable mainly for cutting edge diagnostics. The width of this layer determines the wear allowance ...

  16. Effect of cutting fluids and cutting conditions on surface integrity and tool wear in turning of Inconel 713C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikiji, R.

    2018-01-01

    The trend toward downsizing of engines helps to increase the number of turbochargers around Europe. As for the turbocharger, the temperature of the exhaust gas is so high that the parts made of nickel base super alloy Inconel 713C are used as high temperature strength metals. External turning of Inconel 713C which is used as the actual automotive parts was carried out. The effect of the cutting fluids and cutting conditions on the surface integrity and tool wear was investigated, considering global environment and cost performance. As a result, in the range of the cutting conditions used this time, when the depth of cut was small, the good surface integrity and tool life were obtained. However, in the case of the large corner radius, it was found that the more the cutting length increased, the more the tool wear increased. When the cutting length is so large, the surface integrity and tool life got worse. As for the cutting fluids, it was found that the synthetic type showed better performance in the surface integrity and tool life than the conventional emulsion. However, it was clear that the large corner radius made the surface roughness and tool life good, but it affected the size error etc. in machining the workpiece held in a cantilever style.

  17. Machining of Some Difficult-to-Cut Materials with Rotary Cutting Tools

    OpenAIRE

    Stjernstoft, Tero

    2004-01-01

    Automobile and aero industries have an increasing interestin materials with improved mechanical properties. However, manyof these new materials are classified as difficult-to-cut withconventional tools. It is obvious that tools, cutting processesand cutting models has to be devel-oped parallel to materialsscience. In this thesis rotary cutting tools are tested as analternative toexpensive diamond or cubic bore nitridetools. Metal matrix composites mostly consist of a light metalalloy (such as...

  18. STRESS ANALYSIS IN CUTTING TOOLS COATED TiN AND EFFECT OF THE FRICTION COEFFICIENT IN TOOL-CHIP INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kubilay ASLANTAŞ

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The coated tools are regularly used in today's metal cutting industry. Because, it is well known that thin and hard coatings can reduce tool wear, improve tool life and productivity. Such coatings have significantly contributed to the improvements cutting economies and cutting tool performance through lower tool wear and reduced cutting forces. TiN coatings have especially high strength and low friction coefficients. During the cutting process, low friction coefficient reduce damage in cutting tool. In addition, maximum stress values between coating and substrate also decrease as the friction coefficient decreases. In the present study, stress analysis is carried out for HSS (High Speed Steel cutting tool coated with TiN. The effect of the friction coefficient between tool and chip on the stresses developed at the cutting tool surface and interface of coating and HSS is investigated. Damage zones during cutting process was also attempted to determine. Finite elements method is used for the solution of the problem and FRANC2D finite element program is selected for numerical solutions.

  19. Development of lathe tool dynamometer and finding cutting forces using negative and positive rake angle cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeb, M.A.; Irfan, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Most output parameters in machining, such as cutting forces, temperatures, strains and the work-hardening of the chip material, are directly related to the chip formation process. The characteristics of machining processes can be well understood if the forces and strains during chip formation are known. In this research a lathe tool dynamometer was used to measure cutting forces involved in machining of Steel 1045 and Aluminum 2219 T62. High Speed Steel (HSS), cutting tools with positive and negative rake angles were used. It was observed that more cutting forces are experienced by the cutting tool with positive rake angle as compared to the forces experienced by the cutting tool with negative rake angle. For steel 1045 the cutting forces using positive rake angle cutting tool were much higher. This suggested that for harder materials using a negative rake angle is more suitable for cutting. (author)

  20. Stability analysis of multipoint tool equipped with metal cutting ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksarov, V. V.; Khalimonenko, A. D.; Matrenichev, K. G.

    2017-10-01

    The article highlights the issues of determining the stability of the cutting process by a multipoint cutting tool equipped with cutting ceramics. There were some recommendations offered on the choice of parameters of replaceable cutting ceramic plates for milling based of the conducted researches. Ceramic plates for milling are proposed to be selected on the basis of value of their electrical volume resistivity.

  1. Experimental research on the durability cutting tools for cutting-off steel profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristea Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The production lines used for manufacturing U-shaped profiles are very complex and they must have high productivity. One of the most important stages of the fabrication process is the cutting-off. This paper presents the experimental research and analysis of the durability of the cutting tools used for cutting-off U-shaped metal steel profiles. The results of this work can be used to predict the durability of the cutting tools.

  2. Development of thick wall welding and cutting tools for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Akou, Kentaro; Koizumi, Koichi

    1998-01-01

    The Vacuum Vessel, which is a core component of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is required to be exchanged remotely in a case of accident such as superconducting coil failure. The in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor are planned to be exchanged or fixed. In these exchange or maintenance operations, the thick wall welding and cutting are inevitable and remote handling tools are necessary. The thick wall welding and cutting tools for blanket are under developing in the ITER R and D program. The design requirement is to weld or cut the stainless steel of 70 mm thickness in the narrow space. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding, plasma cutting and iodine laser welding/cutting are selected as primary option. Element welding and cutting tests, design of small tools to satisfy space requirement, test fabrication and performance tests were performed. This paper reports the tool design and overview of welding and cutting tests. (author)

  3. Development of thick wall welding and cutting tools for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Akou, Kentaro; Koizumi, Koichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    The Vacuum Vessel, which is a core component of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), is required to be exchanged remotely in a case of accident such as superconducting coil failure. The in-vessel components such as blanket and divertor are planned to be exchanged or fixed. In these exchange or maintenance operations, the thick wall welding and cutting are inevitable and remote handling tools are necessary. The thick wall welding and cutting tools for blanket are under developing in the ITER R and D program. The design requirement is to weld or cut the stainless steel of 70 mm thickness in the narrow space. Tungsten inert gas (TIG) arc welding, plasma cutting and iodine laser welding/cutting are selected as primary option. Element welding and cutting tests, design of small tools to satisfy space requirement, test fabrication and performance tests were performed. This paper reports the tool design and overview of welding and cutting tests. (author)

  4. Effects of Different Cutting Patterns and Experimental Conditions on the Performance of a Conical Drag Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copur, Hanifi; Bilgin, Nuh; Balci, Cemal; Tumac, Deniz; Avunduk, Emre

    2017-06-01

    This study aims at determining the effects of single-, double-, and triple-spiral cutting patterns; the effects of tool cutting speeds on the experimental scale; and the effects of the method of yield estimation on cutting performance by performing a set of full-scale linear cutting tests with a conical cutting tool. The average and maximum normal, cutting and side forces; specific energy; yield; and coarseness index are measured and compared in each cutting pattern at a 25-mm line spacing, at varying depths of cut per revolution, and using two cutting speeds on five different rock samples. The results indicate that the optimum specific energy decreases by approximately 25% with an increasing number of spirals from the single- to the double-spiral cutting pattern for the hard rocks, whereas generally little effect was observed for the soft- and medium-strength rocks. The double-spiral cutting pattern appeared to be more effective than the single- or triple-spiral cutting pattern and had an advantage of lower side forces. The tool cutting speed had no apparent effect on the cutting performance. The estimation of the specific energy by the yield based on the theoretical swept area was not significantly different from that estimated by the yield based on the muck weighing, especially for the double- and triple-spiral cutting patterns and with the optimum ratio of line spacing to depth of cut per revolution. This study also demonstrated that the cutterhead and mechanical miner designs, semi-theoretical deterministic computer simulations and empirical performance predictions and optimization models should be based on realistic experimental simulations. Studies should be continued to obtain more reliable results by creating a larger database of laboratory tests and field performance records for mechanical miners using drag tools.

  5. Optimization and Analysis of Cutting Tool Geometrical Parameters ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    Bassett et al.,(2012);. Kountanya et al., (2016) studied the effect of tool edge geometry and cutting conditions on the chip morphology in orthogonal hard turning of 100Cr6 steel. Their study shows that the edge radius does not influence the geometrical parameters of the chip. Moreover cutting forces decreases as the cutting.

  6. Gear cutting tools fundamentals of design and computation

    CERN Document Server

    Radzevich, Stephen P

    2010-01-01

    Presents the DG/K-based method of surface generation, a novel and practical mathematical method for designing gear cutting tools with optimal parameters. This book proposes a scientific classification for the various kinds of the gear machining meshes, discussing optimal designs of gear cutting tools.

  7. Surface dimpling on rotating work piece using rotation cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhapkar, Rohit Arun; Larsen, Eric Richard

    2015-03-31

    A combined method of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece and a tool assembly that is capable of machining and applying a surface texture to a work piece are disclosed. The disclosed method includes machining portions of an outer or inner surface of a work piece. The method also includes rotating the work piece in front of a rotating cutting tool and engaging the outer surface of the work piece with the rotating cutting tool to cut dimples in the outer surface of the work piece. The disclosed tool assembly includes a rotating cutting tool coupled to an end of a rotational machining device, such as a lathe. The same tool assembly can be used to both machine the work piece and apply a surface texture to the work piece without unloading the work piece from the tool assembly.

  8. Cutting tool for removing materials from well bore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lynde, G.D.; Harvey, H.H. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a cutting tool adapted to be positioned downhole in a well bore for removing a metal member from the well bore; a tool body adapted to be received within said well bore and to be supported at its upper end for rotation about a longitudinal axis; blades at spaced intervals on the body and extending outwardly therefrom, each of the blades having a base with a leading surface relative to the direction of rotation; closely spaced cutting elements of hard cutting material secured to said leading surface of the base in a plurality of transversely extending rows, each cutting element being of a predetermined size and shape and arranged in a predetermined generally symmetrical pattern on the base relative to the other elements, each of said cutting elements having an exposed from cutting face forming a cutting surface, a rear face secured to the leading surface of said base, a peripheral surface extending between said faces, and a relatively sharp edge formed at the juncture of the front face and peripheral surface; the front cutting face of each cutting element being arranged and constructed for directing an extending end portion of a turning cut form said member to effect a breaking of said turning from the member being cut in a predetermined manner to minimize interesting of the turning

  9. Development of bore tools for pipe welding and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Takiguchi, Yuji

    1998-01-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in-vessel components replacement and maintenance requires that connected cooling pipes be cut and removed beforehand and that new components be installed to which cooling pipes must be rewelded. All welding must be inspected for soundness after completion. These tasks require a new task concept for ensuring shielded areas and access from narrow ports. Thus, it became necessary to develop autonomous locomotion welding and cutting tools for branch and main pipes to weld pipes by in-pipe access; a system was proposed that cut and welded branch and main pipes after passing inside pipe curves, and elemental technologies developed. This paper introduces current development in tools for welding and cutting branch pipes and other tools for welding and cutting the main pipe. (author)

  10. Development of bore tools for pipe welding and cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Takiguchi, Yuji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1998-04-01

    In the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), in-vessel components replacement and maintenance requires that connected cooling pipes be cut and removed beforehand and that new components be installed to which cooling pipes must be rewelded. All welding must be inspected for soundness after completion. These tasks require a new task concept for ensuring shielded areas and access from narrow ports. Thus, it became necessary to develop autonomous locomotion welding and cutting tools for branch and main pipes to weld pipes by in-pipe access; a system was proposed that cut and welded branch and main pipes after passing inside pipe curves, and elemental technologies developed. This paper introduces current development in tools for welding and cutting branch pipes and other tools for welding and cutting the main pipe. (author)

  11. Multilayer composition coatings for cutting tools: formation and performance properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabakov, Vladimir P.; Vereschaka, Anatoly S.; Vereschaka, Alexey A.

    2018-03-01

    The paper considers the concept of a multi-layer architecture of the coating in which each layer has a predetermined functionality. Latest generation of coatings with multi-layered architecture for cutting tools secure a dual nature of the coating, in which coatings should not only improve the mechanical and physical characteristics of the cutting tool material, but also reduce the thermo-mechanical effect on the cutting tool determining wear intensity. Here are presented the results of the development of combined methods of forming multi-layer coatings with improved properties. Combined method of forming coatings using a pulsed laser allowed reducing excessively high levels of compressive residual stress and increasing micro hardness of the multilayered coatings. The results in testing coated HSS tools showed that the use of additional pulse of laser processing increases tool life up to 3 times. Using filtered cathodic vacuum arc deposition for the generation of multilayer coatings based on TiAlN compound has increased the wear-resistance of carbide tools by 2 fold compared with tool life of cutting tool with commercial TiN coatings. The aim of this study was to develop an innovative methodological approach to the deposition of multilayer coatings for cutting tools with functional architectural selection, properties and parameters of the coating based on sound knowledge of coating failure in machining process.

  12. Laser beam machining of polycrystalline diamond for cutting tool manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyszyński, Dominik; Ostrowski, Robert; Zwolak, Marek; Bryk, Witold

    2017-10-01

    The paper concerns application of DPSS Nd: YAG 532nm pulse laser source for machining of polycrystalline WC based diamond inserts (PCD). The goal of the research was to determine optimal laser cutting parameters for cutting tool shaping. Basic criteria to reach the goal was cutting edge quality (minimalization of finishing operations), material removal rate (time and cost efficiency), choice of laser beam characteristics (polarization, power, focused beam diameter). The research was planned and realised and analysed according to design of experiment rules (DOE). The analysis of the cutting edge was prepared with use of Alicona Infinite Focus measurement system.

  13. Radioactive wear measurements of cutting tools made of metal in cutting aluminium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frevert, E.

    1977-01-01

    The possibility of making quick checkings of the inhomogeneities of turning materials with radioactive wear measurements has been tested. After activation analysis of the long-lived radioisotopes of cutting tools made of hard metal a method for loss-free collection of the turnings has been developed. The detection limit of the abrasion is about 10 -8 g, the measuring times are 5-10 minutes. Special radiation protection measures are not necessary. An analysis of the abrasion showed that at the beginning of cutting the amount of cobalt is 6 times higher than in the normal composition of the used cutting tools. (author)

  14. Stagnant zone formation on diamond cutting tools during machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izman, S.; Tamin, M.N.; Mon, T.T.; Venkatesh, V.C.; Shaharoun, A.M.

    2007-01-01

    Formation of an intact region on the rake face of cutting tool during machining is quite common phenomenon but its significance in maintaining tool edge sharpness has not been recognized by many researchers. This region is sometimes called stagnant zone. It is believed that when an intact zone present on the rake face, it delays the crater wear progress and hence maintaining the tool edge sharpness longer. This paper investigates the effect of edge radius, surface roughness of the rake face and cutting parameters on the formation of stagnant zone on two different type of diamond tools i.e. polycrystalline diamond PCD-KD100 and diamond-coated inserts when machining titanium alloy. The used inserta and post-processed chips were examined under FESEM and optical microscope after cutting at three different conditions. Experimental results show that the speed and feel, the tool edge radius, and the tool rake surface roughness significantly affect the stagnant zone formation. (author)

  15. Reliability concepts applied to cutting tool change time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patino Rodriguez, Carmen Elena, E-mail: cpatino@udea.edu.c [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Antioquia, Medellin (Colombia); Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems, Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Francisco Martha de Souza, Gilberto [Department of Mechatronics and Mechanical Systems, Polytechnic School, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    This paper presents a reliability-based analysis for calculating critical tool life in machining processes. It is possible to determine the running time for each tool involved in the process by obtaining the operations sequence for the machining procedure. Usually, the reliability of an operation depends on three independent factors: operator, machine-tool and cutting tool. The reliability of a part manufacturing process is mainly determined by the cutting time for each job and by the sequence of operations, defined by the series configuration. An algorithm is presented to define when the cutting tool must be changed. The proposed algorithm is used to evaluate the reliability of a manufacturing process composed of turning and drilling operations. The reliability of the turning operation is modeled based on data presented in the literature, and from experimental results, a statistical distribution of drilling tool wear was defined, and the reliability of the drilling process was modeled.

  16. Reliability concepts applied to cutting tool change time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patino Rodriguez, Carmen Elena; Francisco Martha de Souza, Gilberto

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability-based analysis for calculating critical tool life in machining processes. It is possible to determine the running time for each tool involved in the process by obtaining the operations sequence for the machining procedure. Usually, the reliability of an operation depends on three independent factors: operator, machine-tool and cutting tool. The reliability of a part manufacturing process is mainly determined by the cutting time for each job and by the sequence of operations, defined by the series configuration. An algorithm is presented to define when the cutting tool must be changed. The proposed algorithm is used to evaluate the reliability of a manufacturing process composed of turning and drilling operations. The reliability of the turning operation is modeled based on data presented in the literature, and from experimental results, a statistical distribution of drilling tool wear was defined, and the reliability of the drilling process was modeled.

  17. Modeling of tool path for the CNC sheet cutting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petunin, Aleksandr A.

    2015-11-01

    In the paper the problem of tool path optimization for CNC (Computer Numerical Control) cutting machines is considered. The classification of the cutting techniques is offered. We also propose a new classification of toll path problems. The tasks of cost minimization and time minimization for standard cutting technique (Continuous Cutting Problem, CCP) and for one of non-standard cutting techniques (Segment Continuous Cutting Problem, SCCP) are formalized. We show that the optimization tasks can be interpreted as discrete optimization problem (generalized travel salesman problem with additional constraints, GTSP). Formalization of some constraints for these tasks is described. For the solution GTSP we offer to use mathematical model of Prof. Chentsov based on concept of a megalopolis and dynamic programming.

  18. Numerical modelling of tool wear in turning with cemented carbide cutting tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, P.; Estrems, M.; Faura, F.

    2007-04-01

    A numerical model is proposed for analysing the flank and crater wear resulting from the loss of material on cutting tool surface in turning processes due to wear mechanisms of adhesion, abrasion and fracture. By means of this model, the material loss along cutting tool surface can be analysed, and the worn surface shape during the workpiece machining can be determined. The proposed model analyses the gradual degradation of cutting tool during turning operation, and tool wear can be estimated as a function of cutting time. Wear-land width (VB) and crater depth (KT) can be obtained for description of material loss on cutting tool surface, and the effects of the distinct wear mechanisms on surface shape can be studied. The parameters required for the tool wear model are obtained from bibliography and experimental observation for AISI 4340 steel turning with WC-Co cutting tools.

  19. Numerical modelling of tool wear in turning with cemented carbide cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco, P.; Estrems, M.; Faura, F.

    2007-01-01

    A numerical model is proposed for analysing the flank and crater wear resulting from the loss of material on cutting tool surface in turning processes due to wear mechanisms of adhesion, abrasion and fracture. By means of this model, the material loss along cutting tool surface can be analysed, and the worn surface shape during the workpiece machining can be determined. The proposed model analyses the gradual degradation of cutting tool during turning operation, and tool wear can be estimated as a function of cutting time. Wear-land width (VB) and crater depth (KT) can be obtained for description of material loss on cutting tool surface, and the effects of the distinct wear mechanisms on surface shape can be studied. The parameters required for the tool wear model are obtained from bibliography and experimental observation for AISI 4340 steel turning with WC-Co cutting tools

  20. Carbon nanotube reinforced metal binder for diamond cutting tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sidorenko, Daria; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    The potential of carbon nanotube reinforcement of metallic binders for the improvement of quality and efficiency of diamond cutting wheels is studied. The effect of multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) reinforcement on the mechanical properties i.e. hardness, Young modulus, strength and deformation...... of grain size of the structural constituents of the binder, what in turn leads to the improved simultaneously hardness, Young modulus, plastic extension, bending strength and performances of the metallic binders. Comparing service properties of diamond end-cutting drill bits with and without MWCNT one...

  1. Design principles of metal-cutting machine tools

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1964-01-01

    Design Principles of Metal-Cutting Machine Tools discusses the fundamentals aspects of machine tool design. The book covers the design consideration of metal-cutting machine, such as static and dynamic stiffness, operational speeds, gearboxes, manual, and automatic control. The text first details the data calculation and the general requirements of the machine tool. Next, the book discusses the design principles, which include stiffness and rigidity of the separate constructional elements and their combined behavior under load, as well as electrical, mechanical, and hydraulic drives for the op

  2. Tool post modification allows easy turret lathe cutting-tool alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouts, L.

    1966-01-01

    Modified tool holder and tool post permit alignment of turret lathe cutting tools on the center of the spindle. The tool is aligned with the spindle by the holder which is kept in position by a hydraulic lock in feature of the tool post. The tool post is used on horizontal and vertical turret lathes and other engine lathes.

  3. An ultra-precision tool nanoindentation instrument for replication of single point diamond tool cutting edges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yindi; Chen, Yuan-Liu; Xu, Malu; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Matsukuma, Hiraku; Gao, Wei

    2018-05-01

    Precision replication of the diamond tool cutting edge is required for non-destructive tool metrology. This paper presents an ultra-precision tool nanoindentation instrument designed and constructed for replication of the cutting edge of a single point diamond tool onto a selected soft metal workpiece by precisely indenting the tool cutting edge into the workpiece surface. The instrument has the ability to control the indentation depth with a nanometric resolution, enabling the replication of tool cutting edges with high precision. The motion of the diamond tool along the indentation direction is controlled by the piezoelectric actuator of a fast tool servo (FTS). An integrated capacitive sensor of the FTS is employed to detect the displacement of the diamond tool. The soft metal workpiece is attached to an aluminum cantilever whose deflection is monitored by another capacitive sensor, referred to as an outside capacitive sensor. The indentation force and depth can be accurately evaluated from the diamond tool displacement, the cantilever deflection and the cantilever spring constant. Experiments were carried out by replicating the cutting edge of a single point diamond tool with a nose radius of 2.0 mm on a copper workpiece surface. The profile of the replicated tool cutting edge was measured using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The effectiveness of the instrument in precision replication of diamond tool cutting edges is well-verified by the experimental results.

  4. Tool path strategy and cutting process monitoring in intelligent machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ming; Wang, Chengdong; An, Qinglong; Ming, Weiwei

    2018-06-01

    Intelligent machining is a current focus in advanced manufacturing technology, and is characterized by high accuracy and efficiency. A central technology of intelligent machining—the cutting process online monitoring and optimization—is urgently needed for mass production. In this research, the cutting process online monitoring and optimization in jet engine impeller machining, cranio-maxillofacial surgery, and hydraulic servo valve deburring are introduced as examples of intelligent machining. Results show that intelligent tool path optimization and cutting process online monitoring are efficient techniques for improving the efficiency, quality, and reliability of machining.

  5. Degradation in the fatigue strength of dentin by diamond bur preparations: Importance of cutting direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majd, B; Majd, H; Porter, J A; Romberg, E; Arola, D

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation were to evaluate the degradation in fatigue strength of dentin by diamond bur preparations and to identify the importance of cutting direction. Three groups of coronal dentin specimens were prepared from unrestored third molars, including a flaw free "control," and two groups that received a diamond bur cutting treatment performed parallel or perpendicular to the specimen length. The specimens were subjected to static or cyclic flexural loading to failure and the results were compared with data for carbide bur cutting. Under static loading diamond bur cutting resulted in significantly lower flexure strength (p ≤ 0.05) than the control for both cutting directions (from 154 to ∼124 MPa). However, there was no significant difference in the strength between the control and carbide bur treated specimens. Similarly, the fatigue strength of the diamond bur treated specimens was significantly lower (p ≤ 0.0001) than that of the control for both cutting directions. Cutting in the perpendicular direction resulted in nearly 60% reduction to the endurance limit (from 44 to 19 MPa). Based on the results, diamond bur cutting of cavity preparations causes a reduction in the fatigue strength of dentin, regardless of the cutting direction. To maintain the durability of dentin, cavity preparations introduced using diamond burs must be performed with appropriate cutting direction and followed by a finishing pass. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. 3D cutting tool-wear monitoring in the process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerce, Luka; Pusavec, Franci; Kopac Janez [University of Ljubljana, Askerceva (Slovenia)

    2015-09-15

    The tool-wear of cutting tools has a very strong impact on the product quality as well as efficiency of the machining processes. Therefore, it in-the process characterization is crucial. This paper presents an innovative and reliable direct measuring procedure for measuring spatial cutting tool-wear with usage of laser profile sensor. The technique provides possibility for determination of 3D wear profiles, as advantage to currently used 2D techniques. The influence of the orientation of measurement head on the accuracy and the amount of captured reliable data was examined and the optimal setup of the measuring system was defined. Further, a special clamping system was designed to mount the measurement device on the machine tool turret. To test the measurement system, tool-life experiment was performed. Additionally, a new tool-life criterion was developed, including spatial characteristics of the tool-wear. The results showed that novel tool-wear and tool-life diagnostic represent objective and robust estimator of the machining process. Additionally, such automation of tool-wear diagnostics on machine tool provides higher productivity and quality of the machining process.

  7. Effect of the Cutting Tool Geometry on the Tool Wear Resistance When Machining Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a suitable cutting geometry of a tool for the machining of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy. This alloy is among the hard-to-machine refractory alloys that cause very rapid wear on cutting tools. Therefore, SNMG and RCMT indexable cutting insert were used to machine the alloy. The selected insert geometry should prevent notch wear and extend tool life. The alloy was machined under predetermined cutting conditions. The angle of the main edge and thus the size and nature of the wear changed with the depth of the material layer being cut. The criterion for determining a more suitable cutting geometry was the tool’s durability and the roughness of the machined surface.

  8. Effect of the Cutting Tool Geometry on the Tool Wear Resistance when Machining Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a suitable cutting geometry of a tool for the machining of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy. This alloy is among the hard-to-machine refractory alloys that cause very rapid wear on cutting tools. Therefore, SNMG and RCMT indexable cutting insert were used to machine the alloy. The selected insert geometry should prevent notch wear and extend tool life. The alloy was machined under predetermined cutting conditions. The angle of the main edge and thus the size and nature of the wear changed with the depth of the material layer being cut. The criterion for determining a more suitable cutting geometry was the tool’s durability and the roughness of the machined surface.

  9. Fractal characteristic in the wearing of cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Anhua; Wang, Jinghui

    1995-11-01

    This paper studies the cutting tool wear with fractal geometry. The wearing image of the flank has been collected by machine vision which consists of CCD camera and personal computer. After being processed by means of preserving smoothing, binary making and edge extracting, the clear boundary enclosing the worn area has been obtained. The fractal dimension of the worn surface is calculated by the methods called `Slit Island' and `Profile'. The experiments and calciating give the conclusion that the worn surface is enclosed by a irregular boundary curve with some fractal dimension and characteristics of self-similarity. Furthermore, the relation between the cutting velocity and the fractal dimension of the worn region has been submitted. This paper presents a series of methods for processing and analyzing the fractal information in the blank wear, which can be applied to research the projective relation between the fractal structure and the wear state, and establish the fractal model of the cutting tool wear.

  10. Process Damping and Cutting Tool Geometry in Machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, C. M.; Sims, N. D.; Turner, S.

    2011-12-01

    Regenerative vibration, or chatter, limits the performance of machining processes. Consequences of chatter include tool wear and poor machined surface finish. Process damping by tool-workpiece contact can reduce chatter effects and improve productivity. Process damping occurs when the flank (also known as the relief face) of the cutting tool makes contact with waves on the workpiece surface, created by chatter motion. Tool edge features can act to increase the damping effect. This paper examines how a tool's edge condition combines with the relief angle to affect process damping. An analytical model of cutting with chatter leads to a two-section curve describing how process damped vibration amplitude changes with surface speed for radiussed tools. The tool edge dominates the process damping effect at the lowest surface speeds, with the flank dominating at higher speeds. A similar curve is then proposed regarding tools with worn edges. Experimental data supports the notion of the two-section curve. A rule of thumb is proposed which could be useful to machine operators, regarding tool wear and process damping. The question is addressed, should a tool of a given geometry, used for a given application, be considered as sharp, radiussed or worn regarding process damping.

  11. Process Damping and Cutting Tool Geometry in Machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C M; Sims, N D; Turner, S

    2011-01-01

    Regenerative vibration, or chatter, limits the performance of machining processes. Consequences of chatter include tool wear and poor machined surface finish. Process damping by tool-workpiece contact can reduce chatter effects and improve productivity. Process damping occurs when the flank (also known as the relief face) of the cutting tool makes contact with waves on the workpiece surface, created by chatter motion. Tool edge features can act to increase the damping effect. This paper examines how a tool's edge condition combines with the relief angle to affect process damping. An analytical model of cutting with chatter leads to a two-section curve describing how process damped vibration amplitude changes with surface speed for radiussed tools. The tool edge dominates the process damping effect at the lowest surface speeds, with the flank dominating at higher speeds. A similar curve is then proposed regarding tools with worn edges. Experimental data supports the notion of the two-section curve. A rule of thumb is proposed which could be useful to machine operators, regarding tool wear and process damping. The question is addressed, should a tool of a given geometry, used for a given application, be considered as sharp, radiussed or worn regarding process damping.

  12. The optimization study on the tool wear of carbide cutting tool during milling Carbon Fibre Reinforced (CFRP) using Response Surface Methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nor Khairusshima, M. K.; Hafiz Zakwan, B. Muhammad; Suhaily, M.; Sharifah, I. S. S.; Shaffiar, N. M.; Rashid, M. A. N.

    2018-01-01

    Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) composite has become one of famous materials in industry, such as automotive, aeronautics, aerospace and aircraft. CFRP is attractive due to its properties, which promising better strength and high specification of mechanical properties other than its high resistance to corrosion. Other than being abrasive material due to the carbon nature, CFRP is an anisotropic material, which the knowledge of machining metal and steel cannot be applied during machining CFRP. The improper technique and parameters used to machine CFRP may result in high tool wear. This paper is to study the tool wear of 8 mm diameter carbide cutting tool during milling CFRP. To predict the suitable cutting parameters within range of 3500-6220 (rev/min), 200-245 (mm/min), and 0.4-1.8 (mm) for cutting speed, speed, feed rate and depth of cut respectively, which produce optimized result (less tool wear), Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used. Based on the developed mathematical model, feed rate was identified as the primary significant item that influenced tool wear. The optimized cutting parameters are cutting speed, feed and depth of cut of 3500 rev/min, 200 mm/min and 0.5 mm, respectively, with tool wear of 0.0267 mm. It is also can be observed that as the cutting speed and feed rate increased the tool wear is increasing.

  13. Heat damage-free laser-microjet cutting achieves highest die fracture strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrottet, Delphine; Housh, Roy; Richerzhagen, Bernold; Manley, John

    2005-04-01

    Unlike conventional laser-based technologies, the water jet guided laser does not generate heat damage and contamination is also very low. The negligible heat-affected zone is one reason why die fracture strength is higher than with sawing. This paper first presents the water jet guided laser technology and then explains how it differs from conventional dry laser cutting. Finally, it presents the results obtained by three recent studies conducted to determine die fracture strength after Laser-Microjet cutting.

  14. Investigation of tool engagement and cutting performance in machining a pocket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adesta, E. Y. T.; Hamidon, R.; Riza, M.; Alrashidi, R. F. F. A.; Alazemi, A. F. F. S.

    2018-01-01

    This study investigates the variation of tool engagement for different profile of cutting. In addition, behavior of cutting force and cutting temperature for different tool engagements for machining a pocket also been explored. Initially, simple tool engagement models were developed for peripheral and slot cutting for different types of corner. Based on these models, the tool engagements for contour and zig zag tool path strategies for a rectangular shape pocket with dimension 80 mm x 60 mm were analyzed. Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of tool engagements on cutting force and cutting temperature for the machining of a pocket of AISI H13 material. The cutting parameters used were 150m/min cutting speed, 0.05mm/tooth feed, and 0.1mm depth of cut. Based on the results obtained, the changes of cutting force and cutting temperature performance there exist a relationship between cutting force, cutting temperature and tool engagement. A higher cutting force and cutting temperature is obtained when the cutting tool goes through up milling and when the cutting tool makes a full engagement with the workpiece.

  15. Effect of cutting edge preparation on tool performance in hard-turning of DF-3 tool steel with ceramic tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davoudinejad, A.; Noordin, M. Y.

    2014-01-01

    This study presents an experimental investigation on turning hardened DF-3 tool steel (∼ 58HRC) with PVD-TiN coated mixed ceramic. We focused on the effect of chamfer and honed edge geometry on tool wear, tool life, cutting forces and surface finish of the machined work piece. The effects of the process parameters on performance characteristics were investigated using ANOVA. It was found that longer tool life was recorded with chamfered edge geometry at various cutting conditions. The typical damage observed as flank and crater wear for ceramic tools and abrasive wear was found as the main mechanism.The optimal cutting speed was 155 m/min, with which a tolerable tool life and volume of material removal was obtained for both edges geometry. Finer machined surface was left by chamfered tool with feeds and speeds in the range of 0.125-0.05 mm/rev and 155-210 m/min, respectively; also, cutting forces decrease with increased cutting speed. The obtained consequence of cutting forces shows that tool wear has a considerable effect on cutting forces and greater forces values recorded with honed tools.

  16. Effect of cutting edge preparation on tool performance in hard-turning of DF-3 tool steel with ceramic tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davoudinejad, A.; Noordin, M. Y. [Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Skudai (Malaysia)

    2014-11-15

    This study presents an experimental investigation on turning hardened DF-3 tool steel (∼ 58HRC) with PVD-TiN coated mixed ceramic. We focused on the effect of chamfer and honed edge geometry on tool wear, tool life, cutting forces and surface finish of the machined work piece. The effects of the process parameters on performance characteristics were investigated using ANOVA. It was found that longer tool life was recorded with chamfered edge geometry at various cutting conditions. The typical damage observed as flank and crater wear for ceramic tools and abrasive wear was found as the main mechanism.The optimal cutting speed was 155 m/min, with which a tolerable tool life and volume of material removal was obtained for both edges geometry. Finer machined surface was left by chamfered tool with feeds and speeds in the range of 0.125-0.05 mm/rev and 155-210 m/min, respectively; also, cutting forces decrease with increased cutting speed. The obtained consequence of cutting forces shows that tool wear has a considerable effect on cutting forces and greater forces values recorded with honed tools.

  17. Handgrip strength test as a complementary tool in monitoring asthma in daily clinical practice in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel; Navarro-Martínez, Ana Vanesa; Mañas-Bastidas, Alfonso; García-Pinillos, Felipe

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate that handgrip strength test can discriminate the presence/absence of asthma and between intermittent and moderate persistent asthma in children. 140 children (70 healthy and 70 with asthma) completed the Pediatric Asthma Quality of Life Questionnaire (PAQLQ) and performed the handgrip strength test. Forty-eight hours later, subjects performed spirometry. The results showed Handgrip strength was significantly lower (pstrength test was a predictive factor for asthma (cut-off at 16.84 kg) and for severity of pathology (cut-off at 15.06 kg). Handgrip strength was reduced in children with asthma. Handgrip strength was positively associated with lung capacity and quality of life. The fact that the handgrip strength test was able to discriminate between presence/absence of asthma and between intermittent and moderate persistent asthma in children suggested that this test could be used as a complementary tool in the monitoring of asthma in daily clinical practice.

  18. Implementation Analysis of Cutting Tool Carbide with Cast Iron Material S45 C on Universal Lathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaidi; hestukoro, Soni; yanie, Ahmad; Jumadi; Eddy

    2017-12-01

    Cutting tool is the tools lathe. Cutting process tool CARBIDE with Cast Iron Material Universal Lathe which is commonly found at Analysiscutting Process by some aspects numely Cutting force, Cutting Speed, Cutting Power, Cutting Indication Power, Temperature Zone 1 and Temperatur Zone 2. Purpose of this Study was to determine how big the cutting Speed, Cutting Power, electromotor Power,Temperatur Zone 1 and Temperatur Zone 2 that drives the chisel cutting CARBIDE in the Process of tur ning Cast Iron Material. Cutting force obtained from image analysis relationship between the recommended Component Cuting Force with plane of the cut and Cutting Speed obtained from image analysis of relationships between the recommended Cutting Speed Feed rate.

  19. Influence of laser cutting on the fatigue limit of two high strength steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateo, Antonio; Fargas, Gemma; Calvo, Jessica; Roa, Joan Josep

    2015-01-01

    Laser cutting is widely used in the metal industry, particularly when components of high strength steel sheets are produced. However, the roughness of cut edges produced by laser differs from that obtained by other methods, such as mechanical blanking, and this fact influences the fatigue performance. In the present investigation, specimens of two grades of high strength austenitic steels, i.e. AISI 301LN and TWIP17Mn, were cut by laser and tested in the high cycle fatigue regime to determine their corresponding fatigue limits. A series of fatigue specimens were tested without polishing and other series after a careful polishing of the cut edges, in order to assess the influence of the cut edges condition. Results indicate a significant influence of the edge roughness, more distinctive for AISI 301LN than for TWIP steel.

  20. Influence of laser cutting on the fatigue limit of two high strength steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mateo, Antonio; Fargas, Gemma; Calvo, Jessica; Roa, Joan Josep [Univ. Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering

    2015-02-01

    Laser cutting is widely used in the metal industry, particularly when components of high strength steel sheets are produced. However, the roughness of cut edges produced by laser differs from that obtained by other methods, such as mechanical blanking, and this fact influences the fatigue performance. In the present investigation, specimens of two grades of high strength austenitic steels, i.e. AISI 301LN and TWIP17Mn, were cut by laser and tested in the high cycle fatigue regime to determine their corresponding fatigue limits. A series of fatigue specimens were tested without polishing and other series after a careful polishing of the cut edges, in order to assess the influence of the cut edges condition. Results indicate a significant influence of the edge roughness, more distinctive for AISI 301LN than for TWIP steel.

  1. Study on the Optimum Cutting Parameters of an Aluminum Mold for Effective Bonding Strength of a PDMS Microfluidic Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caffiyar Mohamed Yousuff

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Master mold fabricated using micro milling is an easy way to develop the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS based microfluidic device. Achieving high-quality micro-milled surface is important for excellent bonding strength between PDMS and glass slide. The aim of our experiment is to study the optimal cutting parameters for micro milling an aluminum mold insert for the production of a fine resolution microstructure with the minimum surface roughness using conventional computer numerical control (CNC machine systems; we also aim to measure the bonding strength of PDMS with different surface roughnesses. Response surface methodology was employed to optimize the cutting parameters in order to obtain high surface smoothness. The cutting parameters were demonstrated with the following combinations: 20,000 rpm spindle speed, 50 mm/min feed rate, depth of cut 5 µm with tool size 200 µm or less; this gives a fine resolution microstructure with the minimum surface roughness and strong bonding strength between PDMS–PDMS and PDMS–glass.

  2. CO{sub 2} laser cutting of advanced high strength steels (AHSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamikiz, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII-UPV, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)]. E-mail: implamea@bi.ehu.es; Lacalle, L.N. Lopez de [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII-UPV, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Sanchez, J.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII-UPV, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Pozo, D. del [ROBOTIKER Technology Centre, Parque Tecnologico, Edif. 202, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Etayo, J.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII-UPV, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); ROBOTIKER Technology Centre, Parque Tecnologico, Edif. 202, 48170 Zamudio (Spain); Lopez, J.M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Basque Country, ETSII-UPV, c/Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); ROBOTIKER Technology Centre, Parque Tecnologico, Edif. 202, 48170 Zamudio (Spain)

    2005-04-15

    This article demonstrates the optimum working areas and cutting conditions for the laser cutting of a series of advanced high strength steels (AHSS). The parameters that most influence the cutting of sheet metal have been studied and the results have been divided into two large groups with thickness of more and less than 1 mm. The influence of the material and, more important, the effect of coating have been taken into account. The results, have demonstrate very different behaviours between the thinnest and thickest sheets, whilst the variation of the cutting parameters due to the influence of the material is less relevant. The optimum cutting areas and the quality of the cut evaluated with different criteria are presented. Finally, the best position for the laser beam has been observed to be underneath the sheet.

  3. Self propagating high temperature synthesis of mixed carbide and boride powder systems for cutting tools manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vallauri, D.; Cola, P.L. de; Piscone, F.; Amato, I.

    2001-01-01

    TiC-TiB 2 composites have been produced via SHS technique starting from low cost raw materials like TiO 2 , B 4 C, Mg. The influence of the diluent phase (Mg, TiC) content on combustion temperature has been investigated. The use of magnesium as the reductant phase allowed acid leaching of the undesired oxide product (MgO), leaving pure hard materials with fine particle size suitable to be employed in cutting tools manufacturing through cold pressing and sintering route. The densification has shown to be strongly dependent on the wetting additions. The influence of the metal binder and wetting additions on the sintering process has been investigated. A characterization of the obtained materials was performed by the point of view of cutting tools life (hardness, toughness, strength). (author)

  4. MECHANISMS OF CUTTING BLADE WEAR AND THEIR INFLUENCE ON CUTTING ABILITY OF THE TOOL DURING MACHINING OF SPECIAL ALLOYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With increased requirements for quality and shelf life of machined parts there is also a higher share of the use of material with specific properties that are identified by the term “superalloys”. These materials differ from common steels by mechanical and physical properties that cause their worse machinability. During machining of “superalloys” worse machinability has negative influence primarily on the amount of cutting edge wear, which shortens durability of the cutting tool. The goal of experimental activity shown in this contribution is to determine individual mechanisms of the cutting edge wear and their effects on the cutting ability during high speed machining of nickel superalloy. A specific exchangeable cutting insert made from cubic boric nitride was used for machining of the 625 material according to ASM 5666F. The criteria to evaluate cutting ability and durability of the cutting tool became selected parameters of surface integrity and quality of the machined surface.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE TOOL-CHIP INTERFACE TMPERATURES ON UNCOATED CEMENTIDE CARBIDE CUTTING TOOLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasım HABALI

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that the temperature as the result of the heat developed during machining at the tool-chip interface has an influence on the tool life and workpiece surface guality and the methods for measuring this temperature are constantly under investigation. In this study, the measurement of tool-chip interface temperature using toolworkpiece termocouple method was investigated. The test were carried out on a AISI 1040 steel and the toolchip interface temperature variation was examined depending on the cutting speed and feed rate. The obtained groups show that cutting speed has more influence on the temperature than feedrate has.

  6. Tools for Building on Youth Strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kathy

    2008-01-01

    While rhetoric about strength-based approaches abounds, this perspective has not penetrated the front lines of practice. Many programs serving troubled youngsters are still mired in a deficit and deviance orientation. This article provides practical strategies for assessing the strengths of children and developing interventions to tap their assets…

  7. The Applicability of Taylor’s Model to the Drilling of CFRP Using Uncoated WC-Co Tools: The Influence of Cutting Speed on Tool Wear

    OpenAIRE

    Merino Perez, J.L.; Merson, E.; Ayvar-Soberanis, S.; Hodzic, A.

    2014-01-01

    This work investigates the applicability of Taylor’s model on the drilling of CFRP using uncoated WC-Co tools, by assessing the influence of cutting speed (Vc) on tool wear. Two different resins, possessing low and high glass transition temperatures (Tg), and two different reinforcements, high strength and high modulus woven fabrics, were combined into three different systems. Flank wear rate gradient exhibited to be more reinforcement dependent, while the actual flank wear rate showed to be ...

  8. Prediction and Control of Cutting Tool Vibration in Cnc Lathe with Anova and Ann

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Abuthakeer

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Machining is a complex process in which many variables can deleterious the desired results. Among them, cutting tool vibration is the most critical phenomenon which influences dimensional precision of the components machined, functional behavior of the machine tools and life of the cutting tool. In a machining operation, the cutting tool vibrations are mainly influenced by cutting parameters like cutting speed, depth of cut and tool feed rate. In this work, the cutting tool vibrations are controlled using a damping pad made of Neoprene. Experiments were conducted in a CNC lathe where the tool holder is supported with and without damping pad. The cutting tool vibration signals were collected through a data acquisition system supported by LabVIEW software. To increase the buoyancy and reliability of the experiments, a full factorial experimental design was used. Experimental data collected were tested with analysis of variance (ANOVA to understand the influences of the cutting parameters. Empirical models have been developed using analysis of variance (ANOVA. Experimental studies and data analysis have been performed to validate the proposed damping system. Multilayer perceptron neural network model has been constructed with feed forward back-propagation algorithm using the acquired data. On the completion of the experimental test ANN is used to validate the results obtained and also to predict the behavior of the system under any cutting condition within the operating range. The onsite tests show that the proposed system reduces the vibration of cutting tool to a greater extend.

  9. On-line Cutting Tool Condition Monitoring in Machining Processes Using Artificial Intelligence

    OpenAIRE

    Vallejo, Antonio J.; Morales-Menéndez, Rub&#;n; Alique, J.R.

    2008-01-01

    This chapter presented new ideas for monitoring and diagnosis of the cutting tool condition with two different algorithms for pattern recognition: HMM, and ANN. The monitoring and diagnosis system was implemented for peripheral milling process in HSM, where several Aluminium alloys and cutting tools were used. The flank wear (VB) was selected as the criterion to evaluate the tool's life and four cutting tool conditions were defined to be recognized: New, half new, half worn, and worn conditio...

  10. Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cutting KidsHealth / For Teens / Cutting What's in this article? ... Getting Help Print en español Cortarse What Is Cutting? Emma's mom first noticed the cuts when Emma ...

  11. Metal Cutting Theory and Friction Stir Welding Tool Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payton, Lewis N.

    2003-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a relatively new industrial process that was invented at The Weld Institute (TWI, United Kingdom) and patented in 1992 under research funded by in part by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Often quoted advantages of the process include good strength and ductility along with minimization of residual stress and distortion. Less well advertised are the beneficial effects of this solid state welding process in the field of occupational and environmental safety. It produces superior weld products in difficult to weld materials without producing any toxic fumes or solid waste that must be controlled as hazardous waste. In fact, it reduces noise pollution in the workspace as well. In the early days of FSW, most welding was performed on modified machine tools, in particular on milling machines with modified milling cutters. In spite of the obvious milling heritage of the process, the techniques and lessons learned from almost 250 years of successful metalworking with milling machines have not been applied in the field of modern Friction Stir Welding. The goal of the current research was to study currently successful FSW tools and parameterize the process in such a way that the design of new tools for new materials could be accelerated. Along the way, several successful new tooling designs were developed for current issues at the Marshall Space Flight Center with accompanying patent disclosures

  12. Research of a smart cutting tool based on MEMS strain gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Y. L.; Shao, YW; Hu, T. J.; Zhang, Q.; Ge, X. H.

    2018-03-01

    Cutting force is an important factor that affects machining accuracy, cutting vibration and tool wear. Machining condition monitoring by cutting force measurement is a key technology for intelligent manufacture. Current cutting force sensors exist problems of large volume, complex structure and poor compatibility in practical application, for these problems, a smart cutting tool is proposed in this paper for cutting force measurement. Commercial MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) strain gauges with high sensitivity and small size are adopted as transducing element of the smart tool, and a structure optimized cutting tool is fabricated for MEMS strain gauge bonding. Static calibration results show that the developed smart cutting tool is able to measure cutting forces in both X and Y directions, and the cross-interference error is within 3%. Its general accuracy is 3.35% and 3.27% in X and Y directions, and sensitivity is 0.1 mV/N, which is very suitable for measuring small cutting forces in high speed and precision machining. The smart cutting tool is portable and reliable for practical application in CNC machine tool.

  13. Analyzing the effect of tool edge radius on cutting temperature in micro-milling process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Y. C.; Yang, K.; Zheng, K. N.; Bai, Q. S.; Chen, W. Q.; Sun, G. Y.

    2010-10-01

    Cutting heat is one of the important physical subjects in the cutting process. Cutting heat together with cutting temperature produced by the cutting process will directly have effects on the tool wear and the life as well as on the workpiece processing precision and surface quality. The feature size of the workpiece is usually several microns. Thus, the tiny changes of cutting temperature will affect the workpiece on the surface quality and accuracy. Therefore, cutting heat and temperature generated in micro-milling will have significantly different effect than the one in the traditional tools cutting. In this paper, a two-dimensional coupled thermal-mechanical finite element model is adopted to determine thermal fields and cutting temperature during the Micro-milling process, by using software Deform-2D. The effect of tool edge radius on effective stress, effective strain, velocity field and cutting temperature distribution in micro-milling of aluminum alloy Al2024-T6 were investigated and analyzed. Also, the transient cutting temperature distribution was simulated dynamically. The simulation results show that the cutting temperature in Micro-milling is lower than those occurring in conventional milling processes due to the small loads and low cutting velocity. With increase of tool edge radius, the maximum temperature region gradually occurs on the contact region between finished surfaced and flank face of micro-cutter, instead of the rake face or the corner of micro-cutter. And this phenomenon shows an obvious size effect.

  14. Influence of Cutting Temperature on the Tensile Strength of a Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Polymer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérémy Delahaigue

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber-reinforced plastics (CFRP have seen a significant increase in use over the years thanks to their specific properties. Despite continuous improvements in the production methods of laminated parts, a trimming operation is still necessary to achieve the functional dimensions required by engineering specifications. Laminates made of carbon fibers are very abrasive and cause rapid tool wear, and require high cutting temperatures. This creates damage to the epoxy matrix, whose glass-transition temperature is often recognized to be about 180 °C. This study aims to highlight the influence of the cutting temperature generated by tool wear on the surface finish and mechanical properties obtained from tensile tests. Trimming operations were performed on a quasi-isotropic 24-ply carbon/epoxy laminate, of 3.6 mm thickness, with a 6 flutes diamond-coated (CVD cutter. The test specimens of 6 mm and 12 mm wide were obtained by trimming. The reduced width of the coupons allowed amplification of the effect of defects on the measured properties by increasing the proportion of coupon cross-section occupied by the defects. A new tool and a tool in an advanced state of wear were used to generate different cutting temperatures. Results showed a cutting temperature of 300 °C for the new tool and 475 °C for the worn tool. The analysis revealed that the specimens machined with the new tool have no thermal damage and the cut is clean. The plies oriented at −45° presented the worst surface finish according to the failure mode of the fiber. For the worn tool, the surface was degraded and the matrix was carbonized. After cutting, observations showed a degraded resin spread on the machined surface, which reduced the surface roughness and hid the cutting defects. In support of these observations, the tensile tests showed no variation of the mechanical properties for the 12 mm-wide specimens, but did show a 10% loss in mechanical properties for the 6 mm

  15. Development of remote pipe cutting tool for divertor cassettes in JT-60SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Takao; Sakurai, Shinji; Shibanuma, Kiyoshi; Sakasai, Akira

    2014-01-01

    Remote pipe cutting tool accessing from inside pipe has been newly developed for JT-60SA. The tool head equips a disk-shaped cutter blade and four rollers which are subjected to the reaction force. The tool pushes out the cutter blade by decreasing the distance between two cams. The tool cuts a cooling pipe by both pushing out the cutter blade and rotating the tool head itself. The roller holder is not pushed out anymore after touching the inner wall of the pipe. In other words, only cutter blade is pushed out after bringing the tool axis into the pipe axis. Outer diameter of the cutting tool head is 44 mm. The cutting tool is able to push out the cutter blade up to 32.5 mm in radius, i.e. 65 mm in diameter, which is enough to cut the pipe having an outer diameter of 59.8 mm. The thickness and material of the cooling pipe are 2.8 mm and SUS316L, respectively. The length of the cutting tool head is about 1 m. The tool is able to cut a pipe locates about 480 mm in depth from the mounting surface on the divertor cassette. The pipe cutting system equips two cutting heads and they are able to cut two pipes at the same time in order to remove the inner target plate. Reproducibility of the cross-sectional shape of the cut pipe is required for re-welding. The degree of reproducibility is inside 0.1 mm except for burr at outside of the pipe, which is enough to re-weld the cut pipe. Some swarf is generated during cutting the double-layered pipe assuming a plug located on the top of the pipe. The swarf is deposited on the bottom of the plug and collected by pulling out the plug in the actual equipment

  16. Finite element analysis of cutting tools prior to fracture in hard turning operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakir, M. Cemal; I Sik, Yahya

    2005-01-01

    In this work cutting FEA of cutting tools prior to fracture is investigated. Fracture is the catastrophic end of the cutting edge that should be avoided for the cutting tool in order to have a longer tool life. This paper presents finite element modelling of a cutting tool just before its fracture. The data used in FEA are gathered from a tool breakage system that detects the fracture according to the variations of the cutting forces measured by a three-dimensional force dynamometer. The workpiece material used in the experiments is cold work tool steel, AISI O1 (60 HRC) and the cutting tool material is uncoated tungsten carbide (DNMG 150608). In order to investigate the cutting tool conditions in longitudinal external turning operations prior to fracture, static and dynamic finite element analyses are conducted. After the static finite element analysis, the modal and harmonic response analyses are carried on and the dynamic behaviours of the cutting tool structure are investigated. All FE analyses were performed using a commercial finite element package ANSYS

  17. Assessment of wear dependence parameters in complex model of cutting tool wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antsev, A. V.; Pasko, N. I.; Antseva, N. V.

    2018-03-01

    This paper addresses wear dependence of the generic efficient life period of cutting tools taken as an aggregate of the law of tool wear rate distribution and dependence of parameters of this law's on the cutting mode, factoring in the random factor as exemplified by the complex model of wear. The complex model of wear takes into account the variance of cutting properties within one batch of tools, variance in machinability within one batch of workpieces, and the stochastic nature of the wear process itself. A technique of assessment of wear dependence parameters in a complex model of cutting tool wear is provided. The technique is supported by a numerical example.

  18. High power laser downhole cutting tools and systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zediker, Mark S; Rinzler, Charles C; Faircloth, Brian O; Koblick, Yeshaya; Moxley, Joel F

    2015-01-20

    Downhole cutting systems, devices and methods for utilizing 10 kW or more laser energy transmitted deep into the earth with the suppression of associated nonlinear phenomena. Systems and devices for the laser cutting operations within a borehole in the earth. These systems and devices can deliver high power laser energy down a deep borehole, while maintaining the high power to perform cutting operations in such boreholes deep within the earth.

  19. Effect of micro-scale texturing on the cutting tool performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasumathy, D.; Meena, Anil

    2018-05-01

    The present study is mainly focused on the cutting performance of the micro-scale textured carbide tools while turning AISI 304 austenitic stainless steel under dry cutting environment. The texture on the rake face of the carbide tools was fabricated by laser machining. The cutting performance of the textured tools was further compared with conventional tools in terms of cutting forces, tool wear, machined surface quality and chip curl radius. SEM and EDS analyses have been also performed to better understand the tool surface characteristics. Results show that the grooves help in breaking the tool-chip contact leading to a lesser tool-chip contact area which results in reduced iron (Fe) adhesion to the tool.

  20. Surface modification of multi-point cutting tools using ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Ahmed, W.; Ahmed, M.

    1995-01-01

    Ion-implantation has been used to treat multi-point cutting tools using a 'systems approach' in order to improve the performance of these tools in dynamic cutting conditions. The effects of energy, species and system pressure on life and performance of circular saws have been investigated. For both nitrogen and argon ion-implantation an improvement in cutting performance has been observed as compared to untreated edges. As the energy of the nitrogen ions is increased there is a gradual improvement in the performance of the cutting edge. Ion-implanted tools were compared to those coated with TiN and these results are also presented. (author) 5 figs

  1. Grip Strength Survey Based on Hand Tool Usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erman ÇAKIT

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hand grip strength is broadly used for performing tasks involving equipment in production and processing activities. Most professionals in this field rely on grip strength to perform their tasks. There were three main aims of this study: i determining various hand grip strength measurements for the group of hand tool users, ii investigating the effects of height, weight, age, hand dominance, body mass index, previous Cumulative Trauma Disorder (CTD diagnosis, and hand tool usage experience on hand grip strength, and iii comparing the obtained results with existing data for other populations. The study groups comprised 71 healthy male facility workers. The values of subjects’ ages was observed between 26 and 74 years. The data were statistically analyzed to assess the normality of data and the percentile values of grip strength. The results of this study demonstrate that there were no significance differences noted between dominant and non-dominant hands. However, there were highly significant differences between the CTD group and the other group. Hand grip strength for the dominant hand was positively correlated to height, weight, and body mass index, and negatively correlated to age and tool usage experience. Hand dominance, height, weight, body mass index, age and tool usage experience should be considered when establishing normal values for grip strength.

  2. Design of an instrumented smart cutting tool and its implementation and application perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Chao; Cheng, Kai; Chen, Xun; Minton, Timothy; Rakowski, Richard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an innovative design of a smart cutting tool, using two surface acoustic wave (SAW) strain sensors mounted onto the top and the side surface of the tool shank respectively, and its implementation and application perspectives. This surface acoustic wave-based smart cutting tool is capable of measuring the cutting force and the feed force in a real machining environment, after a calibration process under known cutting conditions. A hybrid dissimilar workpiece is then machined using the SAW-based smart cutting tool. The hybrid dissimilar material is made of two different materials, NiCu alloy (Monel) and steel, welded together to form a single bar; this can be used to simulate an abrupt change in material properties. The property transition zone is successfully detected by the tool; the sensor feedback can then be used to initiate a change in the machining parameters to compensate for the altered material properties. (paper)

  3. SOFTWARE TOOL FOR LASER CUTTING PROCESS CONTROL – SOLVING REAL INDUSTRIAL CASE STUDIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Madić

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Laser cutting is one of the leading non-conventional machining technologies with a wide spectrum of application in modern industry. It order to exploit a number of advantages that this technology offers for contour cutting of materials, it is necessary to carefully select laser cutting conditions for each given workpiece material, thickness and desired cut qualities. In other words, there is a need for process control of laser cutting. After a comprehensive analysis of the main laser cutting parameters and process performance characteristics, the application of the developed software tool “BRUTOMIZER” for off-line control of CO2 laser cutting process of three different workpiece materials (mild steel, stainless steel and aluminum is illustrated. Advantages and abilities of the developed software tool are also illustrated.

  4. Decrease of FIB-induced lateral damage for diamond tool used in nano cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Wei [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xu, Zongwei, E-mail: zongweixu@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Fang, Fengzhou, E-mail: fzfang@gmail.com [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Liu, Bing; Xiao, Yinjing; Chen, Jinping [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measuring Technology and Instruments, Centre of MicroNano Manufacturing Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Wang, Xibin [School of Mechanical Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Liu, Hongzhong [State Key Laboratory for Manufacturing Systems Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • We mainly aim to characterize and decrease the FIB-induced damage on diamond tool. • Raman and XPS methods were used to characterize the nanoscale FIB-induced damage. • Lower energy FIB can effectively lessen the FIB-induced damage on diamond tool. • The diamond tools’ performance was greatly improved after FIB process optimization. • 6 nm chip thickness of copper was achieved by diamond tool with 22 nm edge radius. - Abstract: Diamond cutting tools with nanometric edge radius used in ultra-precision machining can be fabricated by focused ion beam (FIB) technology. However, due to the nanoscale effects, the diamond tools performance and the cutting edge lifetime in nano cutting would be degraded because of the FIB-induced nanoscale lateral damage. In this study, the methods of how to effectively characterize and decrease the FIB-induced lateral damage for diamond tool are intensively studied. Based on the performance optimization diamond machining tools, the controllable chip thickness of less than 10 nm was achieved on a single-crystal copper in nano cutting. In addition, the ratio of minimum thickness of chip (MTC) to tool edge radius of around 0.3–0.4 in nano cutting is achieved. Methods for decreasing the FIB-induced damage on diamond tools and adding coolant during the nano cutting are very beneficial in improving the research of nano cutting and MTC. The nano cutting experiments based on the sharp and high performance of diamond tools would validate the nano cutting mechanisms that many molecular dynamic simulation studies have put forward and provide new findings for nano cutting.

  5. Strength on cut edge and ground edge glass beams with the failure analysis method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Agnetti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is the study of the effect of the finishing of the edge of glass when it has a structural function. Experimental investigations carried out for glass specimens are presented. Various series of annealed glass beam were tested, with cut edge and with ground edge. The glass specimens are tested in four-point bending performing flaw detection on the tested specimens after failure, in order to determine glass strength. As a result, bending strength values are obtained for each specimen. Determining some physical parameter as the depth of the flaw and the mirror radius of the fracture, after the failure of a glass element, it could be possible to calculate the failure strength of that.The experimental results were analyzed with the LEFM theory and the glass strength was analyzed with a statistical study using two-parameter Weibull distribution fitting quite well the failure stress data. The results obtained constitute a validation of the theoretical models and show the influence of the edge processing on the failure strength of the glass. Furthermore, series with different sizes were tested in order to evaluate the size effect.

  6. Investigation of Micro Square Structure Fabrication by Applying Textured Cutting Tool in WEDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Zhang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies micro structure fabrication by means of a textured tool cutting edge, which is manufactured by applying the wire cut electrical discharge machining (WEDM. Machining performance of the square structure fabrication on the tool cutting edge is investigated in the WEDM process, and the machining accuracy is explored in experimental analyses. In this proposed method, undesired overcut comes from the discharge between the processing debris and the side wall of the target structure. Furthermore, by applying the textured cutting tool, the target square structure is directly fabricated on the alumina workpiece with just a simple turning process, which verifies the feasibility of the proposed tool cutting edge textured method by applying the WEDM. This technology is expected to become a potential method for the mass production of micro structure surfaces in the future.

  7. Influence of Cooling Lubricants on the Surface Roughness and Energy Efficiency of the Cutting Machine Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jersák J.

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Technical University of Liberec and Brandenburg University of Technology Cottbus-Senftenberg investigated the influence of cooling lubricants on the surface roughness and energy efficiency of cutting machine tools. After summarizing the achieved experimental results, the authors conclude that cooling lubricants extensively influence the cutting temperature, cutting forces and energy consumption. Also, it is recognizable that cooling lubricants affect the cutting tools lifetime and the workpiece surface quality as well. Furthermore, costs of these cooling lubricants and the related environmental burden need to be considered. A current trend is to reduce the amount of lubricants that are used, e.g., when the Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL technique is applied. The lubricant or process liquid is thereby transported by the compressed air in the form of an aerosol to the contact area between the tool and workpiece. The cutting process was monitored during testing by the three following techniques: lubricant-free cutting, cutting with the use of a lubricant with the MQL technique, and only utilizing finish-turning and finish-face milling. The research allowed the authors to monitor the cutting power and mark the achieved surface quality in relation to the electrical power consumption of the cutting machine. In conclusions, the coherence between energy efficiency of the cutting machine and the workpiece surface quality regarding the used cooling lubricant is described.

  8. Smart Cutting Tools and Smart Machining: Development Approaches, and Their Implementation and Application Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Kai; Niu, Zhi-Chao; Wang, Robin C.; Rakowski, Richard; Bateman, Richard

    2017-09-01

    Smart machining has tremendous potential and is becoming one of new generation high value precision manufacturing technologies in line with the advance of Industry 4.0 concepts. This paper presents some innovative design concepts and, in particular, the development of four types of smart cutting tools, including a force-based smart cutting tool, a temperature-based internally-cooled cutting tool, a fast tool servo (FTS) and smart collets for ultraprecision and micro manufacturing purposes. Implementation and application perspectives of these smart cutting tools are explored and discussed particularly for smart machining against a number of industrial application requirements. They are contamination-free machining, machining of tool-wear-prone Si-based infra-red devices and medical applications, high speed micro milling and micro drilling, etc. Furthermore, implementation techniques are presented focusing on: (a) plug-and-produce design principle and the associated smart control algorithms, (b) piezoelectric film and surface acoustic wave transducers to measure cutting forces in process, (c) critical cutting temperature control in real-time machining, (d) in-process calibration through machining trials, (e) FE-based design and analysis of smart cutting tools, and (f) application exemplars on adaptive smart machining.

  9. Laboratory versus industrial cutting force sensor in tool condition monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szwajka, K

    2005-01-01

    Research works concerning the utilisation of cutting force measures in tool condition monitoring usually present results and deliberations based on laboratory sensors. These sensors are too fragile to be used in industrial practice. Industrial sensors employed on the factory floor are less accurate, and this must be taken into account when creating a tool condition monitoring strategy. Another drawback of most of these works is that constant cutting parameters are used for the entire tool life. This does not reflect industrial practice where the same tool is used at different feeds and depths of cut in sequential passes. This paper presents a comparison of signals originating from laboratory and industrial cutting force sensors. The usability of the sensor output was studied during a laboratory simulation of industrial cutting conditions. Instead of building mathematical models for the correlation between tool wear and cutting force, an FFBP artificial neural network was used to find which combination of input data would provide an acceptable estimation of tool wear. The results obtained proved that cross talk between channels has an important influence on cutting force measurements, however this input configuration can be used for a tool condition monitoring system

  10. LASER CUTTING AS AN INNOVATIVE CREATIVITY TOOL IN TEXTILE DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banu Hatice Gurcum

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Innovative technologies have become the most widespread rapid and flexible technique of cutting, welding, printing and coloring in fashion and textile sectors in a very short time. Laser systems as the most common used innovative technology engrave, cut, form, print, shade appropriated formatted drawings and sketches as well as they provide reliable placements for the lay out plans and precision cutting and the production sector rapid and qualified. The practical applications and conveniences that innovative Technologies employ, influence design process, designers can design in a more creative, rapid, precise and effective manner. Although design is a context where technology is effective, the style, mood and the background of the designer is still important. Designers while making innovative studies should take the advantage of the developing technologies in experimental processes and should combine technological opportunities with aesthetics. Textile designer as in all other domains of design, should harmonise with the change and should define his/her style with the innovative Technologies in an innovative manner and renew him/herself all the time. This study aims to classify laser cutting technology applications available in textile and fashion sector as well as to present the laser technology as a means of process, product, material innovation and explains the contributions of laser systems to creativity.

  11. Investigation of wear land and rate of locally made HSS cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolalu, S. A.; Abioye, A. A.; Dirisu, J. O.; Okokpujie, I. P.; Ajayi, O. O.; Adetunji, O. R.

    2018-04-01

    Production technology and machining are inseparable with cutting operation playing important roles. Investigation of wear land and rate of cutting tool developed locally (C=0.56%) with an HSS cutting tool (C=0.65%) as a control was carried out. Wear rate test was carried out using Rotopol -V and Impact tester. The samples (12) of locally made cutting tools and one (1) sample of a control HSS cutting tool were weighed to get the initial weight and grit was fixed at a point for the sample to revolve at a specific time of 10 mins interval. Approach of macro transfer particles that involved mechanism of abrasion and adhesion which was termed as mechanical wear to handle abrasion adhesion processes was used in developing equation for growth wear at flank. It was observed from the wear test that best minimum wear rate of 1.09 × 10-8 and 2.053 × 10-8 for the tools developed and control were measured. MATLAB was used to simulate the wear land and rate under different conditions. Validated results of both the experimental and modeling showed that cutting speed has effect on wear rate while cutting time has predicted measure on wear land. Both experimental and modeling result showed best performances of tools developed over the control.

  12. The retro-cut process: precision reshaping of magnetic quadrupole lens profiles to improve field strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szymanski, Roland; Jamieson, David N.; Rout, Bibhudutta; Brenn, Ruediger

    2005-01-01

    In the evolution of magnetic quadrupole lens technology for nuclear microprobe systems, the pole profile has seen several improvements that have led to increases in the pole tip field for a given lens current. In a design dating from prior to 1994 the magnetic field strength was compromised by pole tip extensions that allowed significant flux leakage away from the central bore of the lens. There are many similar lenses in use world wide and they have a weaker focusing action compared to more modern designs which omit the pole tip extensions. We demonstrate that these pre-1994 lenses can have a new profile cut into the pole tip using a precision wire cutting machine that does not require the lens to be dismantled and does not compromise the purity of the lens field. We present the results of applying this process to lenses 1 and 4 in the antisymmetric quadruplet nuclear microprobe system at the University of Freiburg. The grid shadow method was used to show lens quality was not compromised by the process and we find that the lens field strength for a given current is increased by 15% when used to focus 2 MeV H + ions in the antisymmetric quadruplet

  13. SOME CONSIDERATIONS REGARDING THE STRENGTH CALCULUS OF A LATHE TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catălin ROŞU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a strength calculus of a lathe tool is made. The main purpose of this study is to determineequivalent stress relations that can be useful for an engineer in the design situation. The simplifying assumptionsand the equivalent stress relations are presented from an original point of view.

  14. Reducing bending stress in external spur gears by redesign of the standard cutting tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2009-01-01

    For the design of gears the stress due to bending plays a significant role. The stress from bending is largest in the root of the gear teeth, and the magnitude of the maximum stress is controlled by the nominal bending stress and stress concentration due to the geometric shape of the tooth....... In this work the bending stress of involute teeth is minimized by shape optimizing the tip of the standard cutting tool. By redesign of the tip of the standard cutting tool we achieve that the functional part of the teeth stays the same while at the same time the root shape is changed so that a reduction...... of the stresses results. The tool tip shape is described by different parameterizations that use the super ellipse as the central shape. For shape optimization it is important that the shape is given analytically. The shape of the cut tooth that is the envelope of the cutting tool is found analytically...

  15. PIXE analysis of cave sediments, prehispanic paintings and obsidian cutting tools from Baja California Sur caves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, J.; Oliver, A.; Dacal, A.; Ruvalcaba, J.L.; Cruz, F.; Ortiz, M.E.; Vinas, R.

    1993-01-01

    Elemental PIXE analysis of cave sediments, minerals, pigments of the prehispanic paintings and obsidian cutting tools from caves in Baja California Sur has been carried out with a 0.7 MeV proton beam. The elements analysed in this sample set (Al to Co) provide an idea of the environment of the caves. The obsidian data analysis suggests that the human communities who made these painting used more than one obsidian source to manufacture cutting tools. (orig.)

  16. Experimental evaluation of tool wear throughout a continuous stroke blanking process of quenched 22MnB5 ultra-high-strength steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, S.; Neumayer, F. F.; Serkyov, I.; Jesner, G.; Kelsch, R.; Geile, M.; Sommer, A.; Golle, R.; Volk, W.

    2017-09-01

    Steel is the most common material used in vehicles’ chassis, which makes its research an important topic for the automotive industry. Recently developed ultra-high-strength steels (UHSS) provide extreme tensile strength up to 1,500 MPa and combine great crashworthiness with good weight reduction potential. However, in order to reach the final shape of sheet metal parts additional cutting steps such as trimming and piercing are often required. The final trimming of quenched metal sheets presents a huge challenge to a conventional process, mainly because of the required extreme cutting force. The high cutting impact, due to the materials’ brittleness, causes excessive tool wear or even sudden tool failure. Therefore, a laser is commonly used for the cutting process, which is time and energy consuming. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the capability of a conventional blanking tool design in a continuous stroke piercing process using boron steel 22MnB5 sheets. Two different types of tool steel were tested for their suitability as active cutting elements: electro-slag remelted (ESR) cold work tool steel Bohler K340 ISODUR and powder-metallurgic (PM) high speed steel Bohler S390 MICROCLEAN. A FEM study provided information about an optimized punch design, which withstands buckling under high cutting forces. The wear behaviour of the process was assessed by the tool wear of the active cutting elements as well as the quality of cut surfaces.

  17. PERFORMANCE STUDY ON AISI316 AND AISI410 USING DIFFERENT LAYERED COATED CUTTING TOOLS IN CNC TURNING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. RAJA

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Stainless steel (SS is used for many commercial and industrial applications owing to its high resistance to corrosion. It is too hard to machine due to its high strength and high work hardening property. A surface property such as surface roughness (SR is critical to the function-ability of machined components. SS is generally regarded as more difficult to machine material and poor SR is obtained during machining. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the SR produced by CNC turning on austenitic stainless steel (AISI316 and martensitic stainless steel (AISI410 by different cases of coated cutting tool used at dry conditions. Multilayered coated with TiCN/Al2O3, multilayered coated with Ti(C, N, B and single layered coated with TiAlN coated cutting tools are used. Experiments were carried out by using Taguchi’s L27 orthogonal array. The effect of cutting parameters on SR is evaluated and optimum cutting conditions for minimizing the SR are determined. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is used for identifying the significant parameters affecting the responses. Confirmation experiments are conducted to validate the results obtained from optimization.

  18. Wear monitoring of single point cutting tool using acoustic emission ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    feeds are used, the coating remains intact throughout the duration of testing. Wear ... present global industrial scenario is to produce quality products at competitive price. .... Coated carbide tool was selected based on its wider application.

  19. Development and characterization of AlCrN coated Si3N4 ceramic cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.V.C.; Nono, M.C.A.; Machado, J.P.B.; Silva, O.M.M.; Sa, F.C.L.

    2010-01-01

    Ceramic cutting tools are showing a growing market perspective in terms of application on machining operations due to their high hardness, wear resistance, and machining without a cutting fluid, therefore are good candidates for cast iron and Nickel superalloys machining. The objective of the present paper was the development of Si 3 N 4 based ceramic cutting insert, characterization of its physical and mechanical properties, and subsequent coating with AlCrN using a PVD method. The characterization of the coating was made using an optical profiler, XRD, AFM and microhardness tester. The results showed that the tool presented a fracture toughness of 6,43 MPa.m 1/2 and hardness of 16 GPa. The hardness reached 31 GPa after coating. The machining tests showed an improvement on work piece roughness when machining with coated insert, in comparison with the uncoated cutting tool. Probably this fact is related to hardness, roughness and topography of AlCrN. (author)

  20. Development and characterization of Si3N4 coated AlCrN ceramic cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, J.V.C.; Nono, M.C.A.; Martins, G.V.; Machado, J.P.B.; Silva, O.M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, silicon nitride based cutting tools are used to machine cast iron from the automotive industry and nickel superalloys from the aero industries. Advances in manufacturing technologies (increased cutting speeds, dry machining, etc.) induced the fast commercial growth of physical vapor deposition (PVD) coatings for cutting tools, in order to increase their life time. In this work, a new composition of the Si 3 N 4 ceramic cutting tool was developed, characterized and subsequently coated, using a PVD process, with aluminum chromium nitride (AlCrN). The Si 3 N 4 substrate properties were analyzed by XRD, AFM, hardness and fracture toughness. The AlCrN coating was analyzed by AFM, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction (GIXRD) and hardness. The results showed that this PVD coating could be formed homogeneously, without cracks and promoted a higher surface hardness to the insert and consequently it can produce a better wear resistance during its application on high speed machining. (author)

  1. Microtensile Bond Strength and Micromorphology of Bur-cut Enamel Using Five Adhesive Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Alexandra; Ramos, João; Messias, Ana; Marques, Fernando; Caramelo, Francisco; Mata, António

    2015-04-01

    This study compared the microtensile bond strengths (μTBS) of two etch-and-rinse (ER) (OptiBond FL [OBFL]; Prime & Bond NT [PBNT]) and three self-etching (SE) (Clearfil SE Bond [CSEB]; Xeno III [XIII]; Xeno V+ [XV+]) adhesives systems to bur-prepared human enamel considering active (AA) and passive (PA) application of the self-etching systems. Ninety-six enamel surfaces were prepared with a medium-grit diamond bur and randomly allocated into 8 groups to receive adhesive restorations: G1: OBFL; G2: PBNT; G3: CSEB/PA; G4: CSEB/ AA; G5: XIII/PA; G6: XIII/AA; G7: XV+/PA; G8: XV+/AA. After composite buildup, samples were sectioned to obtain a total of 279 bonded sticks (1 mm2) that were submitted to microtensile testing (μTBS; 0.5 mm/min) after 24-h water storage (37°C). Etching patterns and adhesive interfacial ultramorphology were also evaluated with confocal laser scanning (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data was analyzed with one-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). Weibull probabilistic distribution was also determined. Regarding μTBS, both adhesive system and application mode yielded statistically significant differences (p systems together with CSEB/AA and XIII/PA recorded the highest and statistically similar bond strength results. XV+ presented very low bond strength values, regardless of the application mode. Among self-etching adhesives, CSEB produced significantly higher μTBS values when applied actively. Qualitative evaluation by SEM and CLSM revealed substantial differences between groups both in adhesive interfaces and enamel conditioning patterns. ER and SE adhesive systems presented distinctive bond strengths to bur-cut enamel. The application mode effect was adhesive dependent. Active application improved etching patterns and resin interfaces micromorphology.

  2. Wear mechanism of CBN cutting tool during high-speed machining of mold steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhat, Z.N.

    2003-01-01

    Wear behavior of cubic boron nitride (CBN) cutting tool when cutting P20 tool steel was investigated. Oblique cutting tests were performed on a CNC lathe using five speeds, namely, 240, 600 and 1000 m min -1 . The CBN cutting tools were found to be superior to tungsten carbide (WC) tools. Fourfold increase in productivity and significant reduction in chipping and cratering was achieved for CBN as compared to WC. Wear, as the width of the wear land (VB), was monitored at selected time intervals; furthermore, topography of worn surfaces was performed, using a profilometer. Wear characterization of the rake and the flank surfaces as well as of the collected chips was conducted using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron imaging and energy depressive X-ray (EDX). It was found that deformation in the chips occurs by localized shear deformation and the dominant wear mechanism at all speeds used was identified to be diffusive wear. At a 1000 m min -1 cutting speed, a secondary wear mechanism was identified, which is melt wear, i.e., formation of low melting point Cr and Mn compounds with the tool material and the subsequent ejection from the cutting zone

  3. Wear and breakage monitoring of cutting tools by an optical method: theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianfeng; Zhang, Yongqing; Chen, Fangrong; Tian, Zhiren; Wang, Yao

    1996-10-01

    An essential part of a machining system in the unmanned flexible manufacturing system, is the ability to automatically change out tools that are worn or damaged. An optoelectronic method for in situ monitoring of the flank wear and breakage of cutting tools is presented. A flank wear estimation system is implemented in a laboratory environment, and its performance is evaluated through turning experiments. The flank wear model parameters that need to be known a priori are determined through several preliminary experiments, or from data available in the literature. The resulting cutting conditions are typical of those used in finishing cutting operations. Through time and amplitude domain analysis of the cutting tool wear states and breakage states, it is found that the original signal digital specificity (sigma) 2x and the self correlation coefficient (rho) (m) can reflect the change regularity of the cutting tool wear and break are determined, but which is not enough due to the complexity of the wear and break procedure of cutting tools. Time series analysis and frequency spectrum analysis will be carried out, which will be described in the later papers.

  4. Cutting force and wear evaluation in peripheral milling by CVD diamond dental tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polini, R.; Allegri, A.; Guarino, S.; Quadrini, F.; Sein, H.; Ahmed, W.

    2004-01-01

    Co-cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools are currently employed in dental application for prosthesis fabrication. The deposition of a diamond coating onto WC-Co tools could allow both to increase the tool life and tool performance at higher speeds. However, at present it is very difficult to quantify the effective advantage of the application of a diamond coating onto dental tools compared to traditional uncoated tools. Therefore, in this work, we have deposited diamond coatings onto WC-Co dental tools having different geometries by Hot Filament Chemical Vapour Deposition (HFCVD). Prior to deposition, the WC-Co tools were pre-treated in order to roughen the surface and to modify the chemical surface composition. The use of the HFCVD process enabled the deposition of a uniform coating despite the complex geometries of the dental mills. For the first time, in accordance to the knowledge of the authors, we have studied and compared the cutting behaviour of both virgin and diamond-coated dental tools by measuring both wear and cutting force time evolution under milling a very hard Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy. To ensure constant cutting rate (20,000-r.p.m. cutting rate, 0.01-m/min feed rate and 0.5-mm depth of cut), a proper experimental apparatus was used. Three different mill geometries were considered in both coated and uncoated conditions. The results showed that, under the high-speed conditions employed, uncoated tools underwent to catastrophic failure within a few seconds of machining. Diamond-coated tools exhibited much longer tool lives. Lower forces were measured when the coated tool was employed due to the much lower material-mill friction. The best behaviour was observed for coated mills with the presence of a chip-breaker

  5. A new mathematical model of the surface degradation causing wear on the cutting tool`s flank land

    OpenAIRE

    Pаlmai, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Having reviewed the extensive literature on the wear of the cutting tool, we chose the theoretical description of flank wear as the subject matter of this paper. Based on the optical electron-optical and morphological studies of the physical characteristics of wear processes we came to the conclusion that the cutting distance need not only be taken into consideration in abrasive, adhesive processes but also in thermally activated diffusion, oxidation processes. Consequently, we propose the ap...

  6. Performance improvement studies for cutting tools with perforated surface in turning of titanium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charitha Rao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In turning process, the cutting tool is essential for shaping materials. The cutting tools with various perforated surfaces help to increase the cutting tool life. Also, advances in CNC machining technologies have enhanced the productivity of machining process. One of the best or futuristic approaches in modern manufacturing engineering is the use of FEM Simulation for the metal cutting process. FEM simulation helps in understanding the metal deformation process and also helps in the reduction of experiments. The simulation helps the researchers to predict the major influencing cutting variable values without carrying out any experiment which is time-consuming and expensive. This research presents the simulation study of the performance of micro-hole patterned Polycrystalline Diamond cutting insert in machining Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V. Micro-holes are drilled using Electrical Discharge Wire Drilling machine on the rake face of Polycrystalline Diamond (PCD cutting inserts. FEM analysis is carried out to evaluate the effect of perforations on the mechanical integrity of insert. The micro-hole patterned insert is modeled in PRO-E modeler and simulated using DEFORM-3D software. The effective stress, strain, and temperature distribution are analyzed and the results are compared with the normal insert.

  7. Advantages of the CCD camera measurements for profile and wear of cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, G; Dudas, I; Balajti, Z

    2005-01-01

    In our paper we prepared an evaluating study of which conclusions draw mainly two directions for our fields of research. On the one hand, this means the measuring of fix, standing workpieces, on the other hand this means geometrical measurement of moving tools. The first case seems to be solved in many respects (in general cases), but the second one is not completely worked out according to the relevant literature. The monitoring of tool wear, the determination of geometrical parameters (this is mainly in case of gear-generating tools) is not really widespread yet, mainly, if optical parameters have influence on the evaluating procedure (e.g. examination of profiles of grinding wheels). We show the elaboration of a process for the practical application of measuring techniques performed by image processing CCD cameras on the basis of wearing criteria of different cutting tools (drilling tool, turning tool). We have made a profile and cutting tool wear measuring program

  8. Reliable tool life measurements in turning - an application to cutting fluid efficiency evaluation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axinte, Dragos A.; Belluco, Walter; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2001-01-01

    The paper proposes a method to obtain reliable measurements of tool life in turning, discussing some aspects related to experimental procedure and measurement accuracy. The method (i) allows and experimental determination of the extended Taylor's equation, with a limited set of experiments and (ii......) provides efficiency evaluation. Six cutting oils, five of which formulated from vegetable basestock, were evaluated in turning. Experiments were run in a range of cutting parameters. according to a 2, 3-1 factorial design, machining AISI 316L stainless steel with coated carbide tools. Tool life...

  9. Identifying the cutting tool type used in excavations using neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonak, J.; Gajewski, J. [Lublin University of Technology, Lublin (Poland). Faculty of Mechanical Engineering

    2006-03-15

    The paper presents results of preliminary research on utilising neural networks to identify excavating cutting tool's type used in multi-tool excavating heads of mechanical coal miners. Such research is necessary to identify rock excavating process with a given head, and construct adaptation systems for control of excavating process with such a head.

  10. Modelling and Development of a High Performance Milling Process with Monolithic Cutting Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozturk, E.; Taylor, C. M.; Turner, S.; Devey, M.

    2011-01-01

    Critical aerospace components usually require difficult to machine workpiece materials like nickel based alloys. Moreover; there is a pressing need to maximize the productivity of machining operations. This need can be satisfied by selection of higher feed velocity, axial and radial depths. But there may be several problems during machining in this case. Due to high cutting speeds in high performance machining, the tool life may be unacceptably low. If magnitudes of cutting forces are high, out of tolerance static form errors may result; moreover in the extreme cases, the cutting tool may break apart. Forced vibrations may deteriorate the surface quality. Chatter vibrations may develop if the selected parameters result in instability. In this study, in order to deal with the tool life issue, several experimental cuts are made with different tool geometries, and the best combination in terms of tool life is selected. A force model is developed and the results of the force model are verified by experimental results. The force model is used in predicting the effect of process parameters on cutting forces. In order to account for the other concerns such as static form errors, forced and chatter vibrations, additional process models are currently under development.

  11. Wear of Cutting Tool with Excel Geometry in Turning Process of Hardened Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardžiová, Michaela

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with hard turning using a cutting tool with Xcel geometry. This is one of the new geometries, and there is not any information about Xcel wear in comparison to the conventional geometry. It is already known from cutting tools producers that using the Xcel geometry leads to higher quality of machined surface, perticularly surface roughness. It is possible to achieve more than 4 times lower Ra and Rz values after turning than after using conventional geometry with radius. The workpiece material was 100Cr6 hardened steel with hardness of 60 ± 1 HRC. The machine used for the experiment was a lathe with counter spindle DMG CTX alpha 500, which is located in the Centre of Excellence of 5-axis Machining at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava. The cutting tools made by CBN were obtained from Sandvik COROMANT Company. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cutting tool wear in hard turning process by the Xcel cutting tool geometry.

  12. Kinect, a Novel Cutting Edge Tool in Pavement Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh, A.; Firoozi Yeganeh, S.; Golroo, A.

    2015-12-01

    Pavement roughness and surface distress detection is of interest of decision makers due to vehicle safety, user satisfaction, and cost saving. Data collection, as a core of pavement management systems, is required for these detections. There are two major types of data collection: traditional/manual data collection and automated/semi-automated data collection. This paper study different non-destructive tools in detecting cracks and potholes. For this purpose, automated data collection tools, which have been utilized recently are discussed and their applications are criticized. The main issue is the significant amount of money as a capital investment needed to buy the vehicle. The main scope of this paper is to study the approach and related tools that not only are cost-effective but also precise and accurate. The new sensor called Kinect has all of these specifications. It can capture both RGB images and depth which are of significant use in measuring cracks and potholes. This sensor is able to take image of surfaces with adequate resolution to detect cracks along with measurement of distance between sensor and obstacles in front of it which results in depth of defects. This technology has been very recently studied by few researchers in different fields of studies such as project management, biomedical engineering, etc. Pavement management has not paid enough attention to use of Kinect in monitoring and detecting distresses. This paper is aimed at providing a thorough literature review on usage of Kinect in pavement management and finally proposing the best approach which is cost-effective and precise.

  13. KINECT, A NOVEL CUTTING EDGE TOOL IN PAVEMENT DATA COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mahmoudzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pavement roughness and surface distress detection is of interest of decision makers due to vehicle safety, user satisfaction, and cost saving. Data collection, as a core of pavement management systems, is required for these detections. There are two major types of data collection: traditional/manual data collection and automated/semi-automated data collection. This paper study different non-destructive tools in detecting cracks and potholes. For this purpose, automated data collection tools, which have been utilized recently are discussed and their applications are criticized. The main issue is the significant amount of money as a capital investment needed to buy the vehicle. The main scope of this paper is to study the approach and related tools that not only are cost-effective but also precise and accurate. The new sensor called Kinect has all of these specifications. It can capture both RGB images and depth which are of significant use in measuring cracks and potholes. This sensor is able to take image of surfaces with adequate resolution to detect cracks along with measurement of distance between sensor and obstacles in front of it which results in depth of defects. This technology has been very recently studied by few researchers in different fields of studies such as project management, biomedical engineering, etc. Pavement management has not paid enough attention to use of Kinect in monitoring and detecting distresses. This paper is aimed at providing a thorough literature review on usage of Kinect in pavement management and finally proposing the best approach which is cost-effective and precise.

  14. Cemented carbide cutting tool: Laser processing and thermal stress analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yilbas, B.S. [Mechanical Engineering Department, KFUPM, Box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)]. E-mail: bsyilbas@kfupm.edu.sa; Arif, A.F.M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, KFUPM, Box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); Karatas, C. [Engineering Faculty, Hacettepe University, Ankara (Turkey); Ahsan, M. [Mechanical Engineering Department, KFUPM, Box 1913, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-04-15

    Laser treatment of cemented carbide tool surface consisting of W, C, TiC, TaC is examined and thermal stress developed due to temperature gradients in the laser treated region is predicted numerically. Temperature rise in the substrate material is computed numerically using the Fourier heating model. Experiment is carried out to treat the tool surfaces using a CO{sub 2} laser while SEM, XRD and EDS are carried out for morphological and structural characterization of the treated surface. Laser parameters were selected include the laser output power, duty cycle, assisting gas pressure, scanning speed, and nominal focus setting of the focusing lens. It is found that temperature gradient attains significantly high values below the surface particularly for titanium and tantalum carbides, which in turn, results in high thermal stress generation in this region. SEM examination of laser treated surface and its cross section reveals that crack initiation below the surface occurs and crack extends over the depth of the laser treated region.

  15. Influence of Thickness of Multilayered Nano-Structured Coatings Ti-TiN-(TiCrAlN and Zr-ZrN-(ZrCrNbAlN on Tool Life of Metal Cutting Tools at Various Cutting Speeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Vereschaka

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the influence of thickness of multilayered nano-structured coatings Ti-TiN-(TiCrAlN and Zr-ZrN-(ZrCrNbAlN on tool life of metal cutting tools at various cutting speeds (vc = 250, 300, 350 and 400 m·min−1. The paper investigates the basic mechanical parameters of coatings and the mechanism of coating failure in scratch testing depending on thickness of coating. Cutting tests were conducted in longitudinal turning of steel C45 with tools with the coatings under study of various thicknesses (3, 5, and 7 µm, with an uncoated tool and with a tool with a “reference” coating of TiAlN. The relationship of “cutting speed vc—tool life T” was built and investigated; and the mechanisms were found to determine the selection of the optimum coating thickness at various cutting speeds. Advantages of cutting tools with these coatings are especially obvious at high cutting speeds (in particular, vc = 400 m·min−1. If at lower cutting speeds, the longest tool life is shown by tools with thicker coatings (of about 7 μm, then with an increase in cutting speed (especially at vc = 400 m·min−1 the longest tool life is shown by tools with thinner coating (of about 3 μm.

  16. PIXE as a characterization technique in the cutting tool industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freemantle, C.S.; Sacks, N.; Topic, M.; Pineda-Vargas, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    Two WC–Co powders have been analyzed using micro-PIXE to identify elemental concentration and distribution. A powder recycled primarily from used mining components and a powder produced exclusively from fresh raw materials was studied. Elemental mapping of major elements as well as impurities, within powder granule cross sections, was performed. Contaminants (e.g. Fe and Ni) from manufacturing processes, as well as trace impurities (e.g. Cr, Cl, Ca and S) from recycling were detected, quantified and compared. The extent of increased concentrations of impurities resulting from recycling were observed, demonstrating the potential for PIXE as a characterization tool for detecting trace elements in cemented carbides, allowing for future improvements in the manufacturing and recycling processes

  17. PIXE as a characterization technique in the cutting tool industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freemantle, C.S., E-mail: chris@freemantle.co.za [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering and DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Pilot Tools (Pty) (Ltd.), P.O. Box 27559, Benrose 2011 (South Africa); Sacks, N. [School of Chemical and Metallurgical Engineering and DST/NRF Centre of Excellence in Strong Materials, University of the Witwatersrand, P/Bag 3, Wits 2050 (South Africa); Topic, M. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Pineda-Vargas, C.A. [iThemba LABS, National Research Foundation, P.O. Box 722, Somerset West 7129 (South Africa); Faculty of Health and Wellness Sciences, CPUT, Bellville (South Africa)

    2014-01-01

    Two WC–Co powders have been analyzed using micro-PIXE to identify elemental concentration and distribution. A powder recycled primarily from used mining components and a powder produced exclusively from fresh raw materials was studied. Elemental mapping of major elements as well as impurities, within powder granule cross sections, was performed. Contaminants (e.g. Fe and Ni) from manufacturing processes, as well as trace impurities (e.g. Cr, Cl, Ca and S) from recycling were detected, quantified and compared. The extent of increased concentrations of impurities resulting from recycling were observed, demonstrating the potential for PIXE as a characterization tool for detecting trace elements in cemented carbides, allowing for future improvements in the manufacturing and recycling processes.

  18. Wear of Cutting Tool with Excel Geometry in Turning Process of Hardened Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samardžiová Michaela

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with hard turning using a cutting tool with Xcel geometry. This is one of the new geometries, and there is not any information about Xcel wear in comparison to the conventional geometry. It is already known from cutting tools producers that using the Xcel geometry leads to higher quality of machined surface, perticularly surface roughness. It is possible to achieve more than 4 times lower Ra and Rz values after turning than after using conventional geometry with radius. The workpiece material was 100Cr6 hardened steel with hardness of 60 ± 1 HRC. The machine used for the experiment was a lathe with counter spindle DMG CTX alpha 500, which is located in the Centre of Excellence of 5–axis Machining at the Faculty of Materials Science and Technology in Trnava. The cutting tools made by CBN were obtained from Sandvik COROMANT Company.

  19. Experimental and theoretical studies on stainless steel transfer onto a TiN-coated cutting tool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiklund, U., E-mail: urban.wiklund@angstrom.uu.se [Applied Materials Science, Department of Engineering Sciences, Box 534, 751 21, Uppsala University (Sweden); Rubino, S. [Electron Microscopy and Nanoengineering, Department of Engineering Sciences, Box 534, 751 21, Uppsala University (Sweden); Kadas, K. [Materials Theory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, 751 20, Uppsala University (Sweden); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, H-1525 Budapest, PO Box 49 (Hungary); Skorodumova, N.V.; Eriksson, O. [Materials Theory, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, 751 20, Uppsala University (Sweden); Hedberg, S. [Outokumpu Stainless AB, Box 74, 774 22 Avesta (Sweden); Collin, M. [AB Sandvik Tooling R and D, SE-126 80 Stockholm (Sweden); Olsson, A. [Angstroem Materials Academy, Box 534, 751 21, Uppsala University (Sweden); Leifer, K. [Electron Microscopy and Nanoengineering, Department of Engineering Sciences, Box 534, 751 21, Uppsala University (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    Stainless steel is a good example of a metal that is not easily machined. To explain such behavior an understanding of the fundamental adhesion between the workpiece and the tool is invaluable. It is a well-known fact that build-up layers form in the interface, but little attention has been given to the very first layer that adheres to the tool surface. Although this layer rapidly becomes covered by successive material transfer, this layer and its ability to stick to the tool surface control the successive material transfer and influence the cutting properties. In this work, a quick stop test is employed to interrupt the cutting of a 316L stainless steel using a TiN-coated cemented carbide cutting insert. Different analytical techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as theoretical atomistic modeling, were used to study the early adhesion.

  20. Experimental and theoretical studies on stainless steel transfer onto a TiN-coated cutting tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiklund, U.; Rubino, S.; Kadas, K.; Skorodumova, N.V.; Eriksson, O.; Hedberg, S.; Collin, M.; Olsson, A.; Leifer, K.

    2011-01-01

    Stainless steel is a good example of a metal that is not easily machined. To explain such behavior an understanding of the fundamental adhesion between the workpiece and the tool is invaluable. It is a well-known fact that build-up layers form in the interface, but little attention has been given to the very first layer that adheres to the tool surface. Although this layer rapidly becomes covered by successive material transfer, this layer and its ability to stick to the tool surface control the successive material transfer and influence the cutting properties. In this work, a quick stop test is employed to interrupt the cutting of a 316L stainless steel using a TiN-coated cemented carbide cutting insert. Different analytical techniques, such as transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy, as well as theoretical atomistic modeling, were used to study the early adhesion.

  1. Artificial Intelligence Based Selection of Optimal Cutting Tool and Process Parameters for Effective Turning and Milling Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saranya, Kunaparaju; John Rozario Jegaraj, J.; Ramesh Kumar, Katta; Venkateshwara Rao, Ghanta

    2016-06-01

    With the increased trend in automation of modern manufacturing industry, the human intervention in routine, repetitive and data specific activities of manufacturing is greatly reduced. In this paper, an attempt has been made to reduce the human intervention in selection of optimal cutting tool and process parameters for metal cutting applications, using Artificial Intelligence techniques. Generally, the selection of appropriate cutting tool and parameters in metal cutting is carried out by experienced technician/cutting tool expert based on his knowledge base or extensive search from huge cutting tool database. The present proposed approach replaces the existing practice of physical search for tools from the databooks/tool catalogues with intelligent knowledge-based selection system. This system employs artificial intelligence based techniques such as artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic and genetic algorithm for decision making and optimization. This intelligence based optimal tool selection strategy is developed using Mathworks Matlab Version 7.11.0 and implemented. The cutting tool database was obtained from the tool catalogues of different tool manufacturers. This paper discusses in detail, the methodology and strategies employed for selection of appropriate cutting tool and optimization of process parameters based on multi-objective optimization criteria considering material removal rate, tool life and tool cost.

  2. Robustness evaluation of cutting tool maintenance planning for soft ground tunneling projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alena Conrads

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel boring machines require extensive maintenance and inspection effort to provide a high availability. The cutting tools of the cutting wheel must be changed timely upon reaching a critical condition. While one possible maintenance strategy is to change tools only when it is absolutely necessary, tools can also be changed preventively to avoid further damages. Such different maintenance strategies influence the maintenance duration and the overall project performance. However, determine downtime related to a particular maintenance strategy is still a challenging task. This paper shows an analysis of the robustness to achieve the planned project performance of a maintenance strategy considering uncertainties of wear behavior of the cutting tools. A simulation based analysis is presented, implementing an empirical wear prediction model. Different strategies of maintenance planning are compared by performing a parameter variation study including Monte-Carlo simulations. The maintenance costs are calculated and evaluated with respect to their robustness. Finally, an improved and robust maintenance strategy has been determined. Keywords: Mechanized tunneling, Maintenance, Wear of cutting tools, Process simulation, Robustness, Uncertainty modeling

  3. An investigation of laser cutting quality of 22MnB5 ultra high strength steel using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Abdul Fattah Mohd; Aqida, Syarifah Nur

    2017-07-01

    In hot press forming, changes of mechanical properties in boron steel blanks have been a setback in trimming the final shape components. This paper presents investigation of kerf width and heat affected zone (HAZ) of ultra high strength 22MnB5 steel cutting. Sample cutting was conducted using a 4 kW Carbon Dioxide (CO2) laser machine with 10.6 μm wavelength with the laser spot size of 0.2 mm. A response surface methodology (RSM) using three level Box-Behnken design of experiment was developed with three factors of peak power, cutting speed and duty cycle. The parameters were optimised for minimum kerf width and HAZ formation. Optical evaluation using MITUTOYO TM 505 were conducted to measure the kerf width and HAZ region. From the findings, laser duty cycle was crucial to determine cutting quality of ultra-high strength steel; followed by cutting speed and laser power. Meanwhile, low power intensity with continuous wave contributes the narrowest kerf width formation and least HAZ region.

  4. Machining of high performance workpiece materials with CBN coated cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlmann, E.; Fuentes, J.A. Oyanedel; Keunecke, M.

    2009-01-01

    The machining of high performance workpiece materials requires significantly harder cutting materials. In hard machining, the early tool wear occurs due to high process forces and temperatures. The hardest known material is the diamond, but steel materials cannot be machined with diamond tools because of the reactivity of iron with carbon. Cubic boron nitride (cBN) is the second hardest of all known materials. The supply of such PcBN indexable inserts, which are only geometrically simple and available, requires several work procedures and is cost-intensive. The development of a cBN coating for cutting tools, combine the advantages of a thin film system and of cBN. Flexible cemented carbide tools, in respect to the geometry can be coated. The cBN films with a thickness of up to 2 μm on cemented carbide substrates show excellent mechanical and physical properties. This paper describes the results of the machining of various workpiece materials in turning and milling operations regarding the tool life, resultant cutting force components and workpiece surface roughness. In turning tests of Inconel 718 and milling tests of chrome steel the high potential of cBN coatings for dry machining was proven. The results of the experiments were compared with common used tool coatings for the hard machining. Additionally, the wear mechanisms adhesion, abrasion, surface fatigue and tribo-oxidation were researched in model wear experiments.

  5. Experimental investigation into effect of cutting parameters on surface integrity of hardened tool steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, K.; Alkali, A. U.; Elmunafi, M. H. S.; Yusof, N. M.

    2018-04-01

    Recent trend in turning hardened materials have gained popularity because of its immense machinability benefits. However, several machining processes like thermal assisted machining and cryogenic machining have reveal superior machinability benefits over conventional dry turning of hardened materials. Various engineering materials have been studied. However, investigations on AISI O1 tool steel have not been widely reported. In this paper, surface finish and surface integrity dominant when hard turning AISI O1 tool steel is analysed. The study is focused on the performance of wiper coated ceramic tool with respect to surface roughness and surface integrity of hardened tool steel. Hard turned tool steel was machined at varying cutting speed of 100, 155 and 210 m/min and feed rate of 0.05, 0.125 and 0.20mm/rev. The depth of cut of 0.2mm was maintained constant throughout the machining trials. Machining was conducted using dry turning on 200E-axis CNC lathe. The experimental study revealed that the surface finish is relatively superior at higher cutting speed of 210m/min. The surface finish increases when cutting speed increases whereas surface finish is generally better at lower feed rate of 0.05mm/rev. The experimental study conducted have revealed that phenomena such as work piece vibration due to poor or improper mounting on the spindle also contributed to higher surface roughness value of 0.66Ra during turning at 0.2mm/rev. Traces of white layer was observed when viewed with optical microscope which shows evidence of cutting effects on the turned work material at feed rate of 0.2 rev/min

  6. Development of pipe welding, cutting and inspection tools for the ITER blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Taguchi, Kou; Takiguchi, Yuji; Takahashi, Hiroyuki; Tada, Eisuke

    1999-07-01

    In D-T burning reactors such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), an internal access welding/cutting of blanket cooling pipe with bend sections is inevitably required because of spatial constraint due to nuclear shield and available port opening space. For this purpose, internal access pipe welding/cutting/inspection tools for manifolds and branch pipes are being developed according to the agreement of the ITER R and D task (T329). A design concept of welding/cutting processing head with a flexible optical fiber has been developed and the basic feasibility studies on welding, cutting and rewelding are performed using stainless steel plate (SS316L). In the same way, a design concept of inspection head with a non-destructive inspection probe (including a leak-testing probe) has been developed and the basic characteristic tests are performed using welded stainless steel pipes. In this report, the details of welding/cutting/inspection heads for manifolds and branch pipes are described, together with the basic experiment results relating to the welding/cutting and inspection. In addition, details of a composite type optical fiber, which can transmit both the high-power YAG laser and visible rays, is described. (author)

  7. Influence of minimum quantity of lubricant (MQL on tool life of carbide cutting tools during milling process of steel AISI 1018

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Núñez

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, high productivity of machining is an important issue to obtain economic benefits in the industry. This purpose could be reached with high cutting velocity and feed rate. However, the inherently behavior produce high temperatures in the interface of couple cutting tool/workpiece. Many cutting fluids have been developed to control temperature in process and increase tool life. The objective of this paper is to compare the carbide milling tool wear using different systems cutting fluids: flood and minimum quantity of lubrication (MQL. The values of carbide milling cutting tool wear was evaluate according with the standard ISO 8688-1 1989. The experimental results showed that using MQL reduces significantly (about 40% tool wear in milling AISI 1018 steel at industrial cutting conditions.

  8. Five-axis Control Processing Using NC Machine Tools : A Tool Posture Decision Using the Tangent Slope at a Cut Point on a Work

    OpenAIRE

    小島, 龍広; 西田, 知照; 扇谷, 保彦

    2003-01-01

    This report deals with the way to decide tool posture and the way to analytically calculate tool path for the work shape requiring 5-axis control machining. In the tool path calculation, basic equations are derived using the principle that the tangent slope at a cut point on a work and the one at a cutting point on a tool edge are identical. A tool posture decision procedure using the tangent slope at each cut point on a work is proposed for any shape of tool edge. The valid- ity of the way t...

  9. Detection of Cutting Tool Wear using Statistical Analysis and Regression Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, Jaharah A.; Rizal, Muhammad; Nuawi, Mohd Zaki; Haron, Che Hassan Che; Ramli, Rizauddin

    2010-10-01

    This study presents a new method for detecting the cutting tool wear based on the measured cutting force signals. A statistical-based method called Integrated Kurtosis-based Algorithm for Z-Filter technique, called I-kaz was used for developing a regression model and 3D graphic presentation of I-kaz 3D coefficient during machining process. The machining tests were carried out using a CNC turning machine Colchester Master Tornado T4 in dry cutting condition. A Kistler 9255B dynamometer was used to measure the cutting force signals, which were transmitted, analyzed, and displayed in the DasyLab software. Various force signals from machining operation were analyzed, and each has its own I-kaz 3D coefficient. This coefficient was examined and its relationship with flank wear lands (VB) was determined. A regression model was developed due to this relationship, and results of the regression model shows that the I-kaz 3D coefficient value decreases as tool wear increases. The result then is used for real time tool wear monitoring.

  10. Heuristic algorithms for solving of the tool routing problem for CNC cutting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chentsov, P. A.; Petunin, A. A.; Sesekin, A. N.; Shipacheva, E. N.; Sholohov, A. E.

    2015-11-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of minimizing the path of the cutting tool to shape cutting machines began. This problem can be interpreted as a generalized traveling salesman problem. Earlier version of the dynamic programming method to solve this problem was developed. Unfortunately, this method allows to process an amount not exceeding thirty circuits. In this regard, the task of constructing quasi-optimal route becomes relevant. In this paper we propose options for quasi-optimal greedy algorithms. Comparison of the results of exact and approximate algorithms is given.

  11. Modelling of tunnelling processes and rock cutting tool wear with the particle finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonell, Josep Maria; Oñate, Eugenio; Suárez, Benjamín

    2013-09-01

    Underground construction involves all sort of challenges in analysis, design, project and execution phases. The dimension of tunnels and their structural requirements are growing, and so safety and security demands do. New engineering tools are needed to perform a safer planning and design. This work presents the advances in the particle finite element method (PFEM) for the modelling and the analysis of tunneling processes including the wear of the cutting tools. The PFEM has its foundation on the Lagrangian description of the motion of a continuum built from a set of particles with known physical properties. The method uses a remeshing process combined with the alpha-shape technique to detect the contacting surfaces and a finite element method for the mechanical computations. A contact procedure has been developed for the PFEM which is combined with a constitutive model for predicting the excavation front and the wear of cutting tools. The material parameters govern the coupling of frictional contact and wear between the interacting domains at the excavation front. The PFEM allows predicting several parameters which are relevant for estimating the performance of a tunnelling boring machine such as wear in the cutting tools, the pressure distribution on the face of the boring machine and the vibrations produced in the machinery and the adjacent soil/rock. The final aim is to help in the design of the excavating tools and in the planning of the tunnelling operations. The applications presented show that the PFEM is a promising technique for the analysis of tunnelling problems.

  12. Performance of Process Damping in Machining Titanium Alloys at Low Cutting Speed with Different Helix Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaharun, M A; Yusoff, A R; Reza, M S; Jalal, K A

    2012-01-01

    Titanium is a strong, lustrous, corrosion-resistant and transition metal with a silver color to produce strong lightweight alloys for industrial process, automotive, medical instruments and other applications. However, it is very difficult to machine the titanium due to its poor machinability. When machining titanium alloys with the conventional tools, the wear rate of the tool is rapidly accelerate and it is generally difficult to achieve at high cutting speed. In order to get better understanding of machining titanium alloy, the interaction between machining structural system and the cutting process which result in machining instability will be studied. Process damping is a useful phenomenon that can be exploited to improve the limited productivity of low speed machining. In this study, experiments are performed to evaluate the performance of process damping of milling under different tool helix geometries. The results showed that the helix of 42° angle is significantly increase process damping performance in machining titanium alloy.

  13. Statistical analysis of surface roughness in turning based on cutting parameters and tool vibrations with response surface methodology (RSM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touati, Soufiane; Mekhilef, Slimane

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, we present an experimental study to determine the effect of the cutting conditions and tool vibration on the surface roughness in finish turning of 32CrMoV12-28 steel, using carbide cutting tool YT15. For these purposes, a linear quadratic model in interaction of connecting surface roughness (Ra, Rz) with different combinations of cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool vibration, in radial and in tangential cutting force directions (Vy) and (Vz) is elaborated. In order to express the degree of interaction of cutting parameters and tool vibration, a multiple linear regression and response surface methodology are adopted. The application of this statistical technique for predicting the surface roughness shows that the feed rate is the most dominant factor followed by the cutting speed. However, the depth of the cut and tool vibrations have secondary effect. The presented models have some interest since they are used in the cutting process optimization.

  14. Finite Element Modelling of the effect of tool rake angle on tool temperature and cutting force during high speed machining of AISI 4340 steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, S; Roshan, A; Ariffin, M K A

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a Finite Element Method (FEM) based on the ABAQUS explicit software which involves Johnson-Cook material model was used to simulate cutting force and tool temperature during high speed machining (HSM) of AISI 4340 steel. In this simulation work, a tool rake angle ranging from 0° to 20° and a range of cutting speeds between 300 to 550 m/min was investigated. The purpose of this simulation analysis was to find optimum tool rake angle where cutting force is smallest as well as tool temperature is lowest during high speed machining. It was found that cutting forces to have a decreasing trend as rake angle increased to positive direction. The optimum rake angle observed between 10° and 18° due to decrease of cutting force as 20% for all simulated cutting speeds. In addition, increasing cutting tool rake angle over its optimum value had negative influence on tool's performance and led to an increase in cutting temperature. The results give a better understanding and recognition of the cutting tool design for high speed machining processes

  15. Optimizing Cutting Conditions for Minimum Surface Roughness in Face Milling of High Strength Steel Using Carbide Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Taha Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A full factorial design technique is used to investigate the effect of machining parameters, namely, spindle speed (N, depth of cut (ap, and table feed rate (Vf, on the obtained surface roughness (Ra and Rt during face milling operation of high strength steel. A second-order regression model was built using least squares method depending on the factorial design results to approximate a mathematical relationship between the surface roughness and the studied process parameters. Analysis of variance was conducted to estimate the significance of each factor and interaction with respect to the surface roughness. For Ra, the results show that spindle speed, depth of cut, and table feed rate have a significant effect on the surface roughness in both linear and quadratic terms. There is also an interaction between depth of cut and feed rate. It also appears that feed rate has the greatest effect on the data variation followed by depth of cut. For Rt, the results show that the table feed rate is the most effective factor followed by the depth of cut, while the spindle speed had a significant small effect only in its quadratic term. The conditions of minimum Ra and Rt are identified through least square optimization. Moreover, multiobjective optimization for minimizing Ra and maximizing metal removal rate Q is conducted and the results are presented.

  16. Method for Friction Force Estimation on the Flank of Cutting Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Huerta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Friction forces are present in any machining process. These forces could play an important role in the dynamics of the system. In the cutting process, friction is mainly present in the rake face and the flank of the tool. Although the one that acts on the rake face has a major influence, the other one can become also important and could take part in the stability of the system. In this work, experimental identification of the friction on the flank is presented. The experimental determination was carried out by machining aluminum samples in a CNC lathe. As a result, two friction functions were obtained as a function of the cutting speed and the relative motion of the contact elements. Experiments using a worn and a new insert were carried out. Force and acceleration were recorded simultaneously and, from these results, different friction levels were observed depending on the cutting parameters, such as cutting speed, feed rate, and tool condition. Finally, a friction model for the flank friction is presented.

  17. An analytical method on the surface residual stress for the cutting tool orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yueen; Zhao, Jun; Wang, Wei

    2010-03-01

    The residual stress is measured by choosing 8 kinds orientations on cutting the H13 dies steel on the HSM in the experiment of this paper. The measured data shows on that the residual stress exists periodicity for the different rake angle (β) and side rake angle (θ) parameters, further study find that the cutting tool orientations have closed relationship with the residual stresses, and for the original of the machined residual stress on the surface from the cutting force and the axial force, it can be gained the simply model of tool-workpiece force, using the model it can be deduced the residual stress model, which is feasible to calculate the size of residual stress. And for almost all the measured residual stresses are compressed stress, the compressed stress size and the direction could be confirmed by the input data for the H13 on HSM. As the result, the residual stress model is the key for optimization of rake angle (β) and side rake angle (θ) in theory, using the theory the more cutting mechanism can be expressed.

  18. Correction method for the error of diamond tool's radius in ultra-precision cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Yu, Jing-chi

    2010-10-01

    The compensation method for the error of diamond tool's cutting edge is a bottle-neck technology to hinder the high accuracy aspheric surface's directly formation after single diamond turning. Traditional compensation was done according to the measurement result from profile meter, which took long measurement time and caused low processing efficiency. A new compensation method was firstly put forward in the article, in which the correction of the error of diamond tool's cutting edge was done according to measurement result from digital interferometer. First, detailed theoretical calculation related with compensation method was deduced. Then, the effect after compensation was simulated by computer. Finally, φ50 mm work piece finished its diamond turning and new correction turning under Nanotech 250. Testing surface achieved high shape accuracy pv 0.137λ and rms=0.011λ, which approved the new compensation method agreed with predictive analysis, high accuracy and fast speed of error convergence.

  19. The impact of process variables and wear characteristics on the cutting tool performance using Finite Element Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Xiaoheng

    2016-01-01

    The frequent failure of cutting tool in the cutting process may cause a huge loss of money and time especially for hard to machine materials such as titanium alloys. Thus this study is mainly focused on the impact of wear characteristics and process variables on the cutting tool which is ignored by most of researchers. A thermo-mechanical finite element model of orthogonal metal cutting with segment chip formation is presented. This model can be used to predict the process performance in the ...

  20. Influence of Cutting Fluid Flow Rate and Cutting Parameters on the Surface Roughness and Flank Wear of TiAlN Coated Tool In Turning AISI 1015 Steel Using Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moganapriya C.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the influence of cutting parameters (Depth of cut, feed rate, spindle speed and cutting fluid flow rate on the surface roughness and flank wear of physical vapor deposition (PVD Cathodic arc evaporation coated TiAlN tungsten carbide cutting tool insert during CNC turning of AISI 1015 mild steel. Analysis of Variance has been applied to determine the critical influence of cutting parameters. Taguchi orthogonal test design has been employed to optimize the process parameters affecting surface roughness and tool wear. Depth of cut was found to be the most dominant factor contributing to high surface roughness (67.5% of the inserts. However, cutting speed, feed rate and flow rate of cutting fluid showed minimal contribution to surface roughness. On the other hand, cutting speed (45.6% and flow rate of cutting fluid (23% were the dominant factors influencing tool wear. The optimum cutting conditions for desired surface roughness constitutes the following parameters such as medium cutting speed, low feed rate, low depth of cut and high cutting fluid flow rate. Minimal tool wear was achieved for the following process parameters such as low cutting speed, low feed rate, medium depth of cut and high cutting fluid flow rate.

  1. Study on Surface Integrity of AISI 1045 Carbon Steel when machined by Carbide Cutting Tool under wet conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamin N. Fauzi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the evaluation of surface roughness and roughness profiles when machining carbon steel under wet conditions with low and high cutting speeds. The workpiece materials and cutting tools selected in this research were AISI 1045 carbon steel and canela carbide inserts graded PM25, respectively. The cutting tools undergo machining tests by CNC turning operations and their performances were evaluated by their surface roughness value and observation of the surface roughness profile. The machining tests were held at varied cutting speeds of 35 to 53 m/min, feed rate of 0.15 to 0.50 mm/rev and a constant depth of cut of 1 mm. From the analysis, it was found that surface roughness increased as the feed rate increased. Varian of surface roughness was suspected due to interaction between cutting speeds and feed rates as well as nose radius conditions; whether from tool wear or the formation of a built-up edge. This study helps us understand the effect of cutting speed and feed rate on surface integrity, when machining AISI 1045 carbon steel using carbide cutting tools, under wet cutting conditions.

  2. Analyzing the effect of cutting parameters on surface roughness and tool wear when machining nickel based hastelloy - 276

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidhir, Basim A; Mohamed, Bashir

    2011-01-01

    Machining parameters has an important factor on tool wear and surface finish, for that the manufacturers need to obtain optimal operating parameters with a minimum set of experiments as well as minimizing the simulations in order to reduce machining set up costs. The cutting speed is one of the most important cutting parameter to evaluate, it clearly most influences on one hand, tool life, tool stability, and cutting process quality, and on the other hand controls production flow. Due to more demanding manufacturing systems, the requirements for reliable technological information have increased. For a reliable analysis in cutting, the cutting zone (tip insert-workpiece-chip system) as the mechanics of cutting in this area are very complicated, the chip is formed in the shear plane (entrance the shear zone) and is shape in the sliding plane. The temperature contributed in the primary shear, chamfer and sticking, sliding zones are expressed as a function of unknown shear angle on the rake face and temperature modified flow stress in each zone. The experiments were carried out on a CNC lathe and surface finish and tool tip wear are measured in process. Machining experiments are conducted. Reasonable agreement is observed under turning with high depth of cut. Results of this research help to guide the design of new cutting tool materials and the studies on evaluation of machining parameters to further advance the productivity of nickel based alloy Hastelloy - 276 machining.

  3. Real-Time Estimation for Cutting Tool Wear Based on Modal Analysis of Monitored Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjiao Chi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of literature that recognizes the importance of product safety and the quality problems during processing. The working status of cutting tools may lead to project delay and cost overrun if broken down accidentally, and tool wear is crucial to processing precision in mechanical manufacturing, therefore, this study contributes to this growing area of research by monitoring condition and estimating wear. In this research, an effective method for tool wear estimation was constructed, in which, the signal features of machining process were extracted by ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD and were used to estimate the tool wear. Based on signal analysis, vibration signals that had better linear relationship with tool wearing process were decomposed, then the intrinsic mode functions (IMFs, frequency spectrums of IMFs and the features relating to amplitude changes of frequency spectrum were obtained. The trend that tool wear changes with the features was fitted by Gaussian fitting function to estimate the tool wear. Experimental investigation was used to verify the effectiveness of this method and the results illustrated the correlation between tool wear and the modal features of monitored signals.

  4. Vibration suppression in cutting tools using collocated piezoelectric sensors/actuators with an adaptive control algorithm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radecki, Peter P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Farinholt, Kevin M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Park, Gyuhae [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bement, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    The machining process is very important in many engineering applications. In high precision machining, surface finish is strongly correlated with vibrations and the dynamic interactions between the part and the cutting tool. Parameters affecting these vibrations and dynamic interactions, such as spindle speed, cut depth, feed rate, and the part's material properties can vary in real-time, resulting in unexpected or undesirable effects on the surface finish of the machining product. The focus of this research is the development of an improved machining process through the use of active vibration damping. The tool holder employs a high bandwidth piezoelectric actuator with an adaptive positive position feedback control algorithm for vibration and chatter suppression. In addition, instead of using external sensors, the proposed approach investigates the use of a collocated piezoelectric sensor for measuring the dynamic responses from machining processes. The performance of this method is evaluated by comparing the surface finishes obtained with active vibration control versus baseline uncontrolled cuts. Considerable improvement in surface finish (up to 50%) was observed for applications in modern day machining.

  5. Investigation of the Effect of Tool Edge Geometry upon Cutting Variables, Tool Wear and Burr Formation Using Finite Element Simulation — A Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sartkulvanich, Partchapol; Al-Zkeri, Ibrahim; Yen, Yung-Chang; Altan, Taylan

    2004-06-01

    This paper summarizes some of the progress made on FEM simulations of metal cutting processes conducted at the Engineering Research Center (ERC/NSM). Presented research focuses on the performance of various cutting edge geometries (hone and chamfer edges) for different tool materials and specifically on: 1) the effect of round and chamfer edge geometries on the cutting variables in machining carbon steels and 2) the effect of the edge hone size upon the flank wear and burr formation behavior in face milling of A356-T6 aluminum alloy. In the second task, an innovative design of edge preparation with varying hone size around the tool nose is also explored using FEM. In order to model three-dimensional conventional turning and face milling with two-dimensional orthogonal cutting simulations, 2D simulation cross-sections consisting of the cutting speed direction and chip flow direction are selected at different locations along the tool nose radius. Then the geometries of the hone and chamfer edges and their associated tool angles as well as uncut chip thickness are determined on these planes and employed in cutting simulations. The chip flow direction on the tool rake face are obtained by examining the wear grooves on the experimental inserts or estimated by using Oxley's approximation theory of oblique cutting. Simulation results are compared with the available experimental results (e.g. cutting forces) both qualitatively and quantitatively.

  6. Investigation of the effect of tool edge geometry upon cutting variables, tool wear and burr formation using finite element simulation - A progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sartkulvanich, Partchapol; Al-Zkeri, Ibrahim; Yen Yungchang; Altan, Taylan

    2004-01-01

    This paper summarizes some of the progress made on FEM simulations of metal cutting processes conducted at the Engineering Research Center (ERC/NSM). Presented research focuses on the performance of various cutting edge geometries (hone and chamfer edges) for different tool materials and specifically on: 1) the effect of round and chamfer edge geometries on the cutting variables in machining carbon steels and 2) the effect of the edge hone size upon the flank wear and burr formation behavior in face milling of A356-T6 aluminum alloy. In the second task, an innovative design of edge preparation with varying hone size around the tool nose is also explored using FEM.In order to model three-dimensional conventional turning and face milling with two-dimensional orthogonal cutting simulations, 2D simulation cross-sections consisting of the cutting speed direction and chip flow direction are selected at different locations along the tool nose radius. Then the geometries of the hone and chamfer edges and their associated tool angles as well as uncut chip thickness are determined on these planes and employed in cutting simulations. The chip flow direction on the tool rake face are obtained by examining the wear grooves on the experimental inserts or estimated by using Oxley's approximation theory of oblique cutting. Simulation results are compared with the available experimental results (e.g. cutting forces) both qualitatively and quantitatively

  7. Optimization of cutting parameters in CNC turning of stainless steel 304 with TiAlN nano coated carbide cutting tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durga Prasada Rao, V.; Harsha, N.; Raghu Ram, N. S.; Navya Geethika, V.

    2018-02-01

    In this work, turning was performed to optimize the surface finish or roughness (Ra) of stainless steel 304 with uncoated and coated carbide tools under dry conditions. The carbide tools were coated with Titanium Aluminium Nitride (TiAlN) nano coating using Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) method. The machining parameters, viz., cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate which show major impact on Ra are considered during turning. The experiments are designed as per Taguchi orthogonal array and machining process is done accordingly. Then second-order regression equations have been developed on the basis of experimental results for Ra in terms of machining parameters used. Regarding the effect of machining parameters, an upward trend is observed in Ra with respect to feed rate, and as cutting speed increases the Ra value increased slightly due to chatter and vibrations. The adequacy of response variable (Ra) is tested by conducting additional experiments. The predicted Ra values are found to be a close match of their corresponding experimental values of uncoated and coated tools. The corresponding average % errors are found to be within the acceptable limits. Then the surface roughness equations of uncoated and coated tools are set as the objectives of optimization problem and are solved by using Differential Evolution (DE) algorithm. Also the tool lives of uncoated and coated tools are predicted by using Taylor’s tool life equation.

  8. Taguchi Optimization of Cutting Parameters in Turning AISI 1020 MS with M2 HSS Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonowal, Dharindom; Sarma, Dhrupad; Bakul Barua, Parimal; Nath, Thuleswar

    2017-08-01

    In this paper the effect of three cutting parameters viz. Spindle speed, Feed and Depth of Cut on surface roughness of AISI 1020 mild steel bar in turning was investigated and optimized to obtain minimum surface roughness. All the experiments are conducted on HMT LB25 lathe machine using M2 HSS cutting tool. Ranges of parameters of interest have been decided through some preliminary experimentation (One Factor At a Time experiments). Finally a combined experiment has been carried out using Taguchi’s L27 Orthogonal Array (OA) to study the main effect and interaction effect of the all three parameters. The experimental results were analyzed with raw data ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and S/N data (Signal to Noise ratio) ANOVA. Results show that Spindle speed, Feed and Depth of Cut have significant effects on both mean and variation of surface roughness in turning AISI 1020 mild steel. Mild two factors interactions are observed among the aforesaid factors with significant effects only on the mean of the output variable. From the Taguchi parameter optimization the optimum factor combination is found to be 630 rpm spindle speed, 0.05 mm/rev feed and 1.25 mm depth of cut with estimated surface roughness 2.358 ± 0.970 µm. A confirmatory experiment was conducted with the optimum factor combination to verify the results. In the confirmatory experiment the average value of surface roughness is found to be 2.408 µm which is well within the range (0.418 µm to 4.299 µm) predicted for confirmatory experiment.

  9. Bond strength of resin modified glass ionomer cement to primary dentin after cutting with different bur types and dentin conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebeca Di Nicoló

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of different bur types and acid etching protocols on the shear bond strength (SBS of a resin modified glass ionomer cement (RM-GIC to primary dentin. Forty-eight clinically sound human primary molars were selected and randomly assigned to four groups (n=12. In G1, the lingual surface of the teeth was cut with a carbide bur until a 2.0-mm-diameter dentin area was exposed, followed by the application of RM-GIC (Vitremer - 3M/ESPE prepared according to the manufacturer's instructions. The specimens of G2, received the same treatment of G1, however the dentin was conditioned with phosphoric acid. In groups G3 and G4 the same procedures of G1 and G2 were conducted respectively, nevertheless dentin cutting was made with a diamond bur. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37ºC for 24h, and then tested in a universal testing machine. SBS. data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA (= 5% and indicated that SBS values of RM-GIC bonded to primary dentin cut with different burs were not statistically different, but the specimens that were conditioned with phosphoric acid presented SBS values significantly higher that those without conditioning. To observe micromorphologic characteristics of the effects of dentin surface cut by diamond or carbide rotary instruments and conditioners treatment, some specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Smear layer was present in all specimens regardless of the type of rotary instrument used for dentin cutting, and specimens etched with phosphoric acid presented more effective removal of smear layer. It was concluded that SBS of a RM-GIC to primary dentin was affected by the acid conditioning but the bur type had no influence.

  10. Decontamination of a rotating cutting tool during operation by means of atmospheric pressure plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leipold, Frank; Kusano, Yukihiro; Hansen, F.

    2010-01-01

    , is used for the experiments. A rotating knife was inoculated with L. innocua. The surface of the rotating knife was partly exposed to an atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge operated in air, where the knife itself served as a ground electrode. The rotation of the knife ensures a treatment...... of the whole cutting tool. A log 5 reduction of L. innocua is obtained after 340 s of plasma operation. The temperature of the knife after treatment was found to be below 30 °C. The design of the setup allows a decontamination during slicing operation....

  11. Ropossum: An Authoring Tool for Designing, Optimizing and Solving Cut the Rope Levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shaker, Mohammad; Shaker, Noor; Togelius, Julian

    2013-01-01

    We present a demonstration of Ropossum, an authoring tool for the generation and testing of levels of the physics-based game, Cut the Rope. Ropossum integrates many features: (1) automatic design of complete solvable content, (2) incorporation of designer’s input through the creation of complete...... or partial designs, (3) automatic check for playability and (4) optimization of a given design based on playability. The system includes a physics engine to simulate the game and an evolutionary framework to evolve content as well as an AI reasoning agent to check for playability. The system is optimised...

  12. Available Tools and Challenges Classifying Cutting-Edge and Historical Astronomical Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerstrom, Jill

    2015-08-01

    The STScI Library assists the Science Policies Division in evaluating and choosing scientific keywords and categories for proposals for the Hubble Space Telescope mission and the upcoming James Webb Space Telescope mission. In addition we are often faced with the question “what is the shape of the astronomical literature?” However, subject classification in astronomy in recent times has not been cultivated. This talk will address the available tools and challenges of classifying cutting-edge as well as historical astronomical documents. In at the process, we will give an overview of current and upcoming practices of subject classification in astronomy.

  13. Knowledge base technology for CT-DIMS: Report 1. [CT-DIMS (Cutting Tool - Database and Information Management System)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelley, E.E.

    1993-05-01

    This report discusses progress on the Cutting Tool-Database and Information Management System (CT-DIMS) project being conducted by the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) under contract to the Department of Energy. This project was initiated in October 1991 by UIUC. The Knowledge-Based Engineering Systems Research Laboratory (KBESRL) at UIUC is developing knowledge base technology and prototype software for the presentation and manipulation of the cutting tool databases at Allied-Signal Inc., Kansas City Division (KCD). The graphical tool selection capability being developed for CT-DIMS in the Intelligent Design Environment for Engineering Automation (IDEEA) will provide a concurrent environment for simultaneous access to tool databases, tool standard libraries, and cutting tool knowledge.

  14. TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCEMENT OF DEPOSIT WELDING AND GAS LASER CUTTING TO INCREASE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE BIMETALLIC TOOL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burlachenko Oleg Vasil’evich

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Deposit welding is the application of a layer of metal on the surface of a product using fusion welding. In this paper, we consider the method of improving the technology of gas laser cutting, which makes it possible to achieve a high productivity of manufacturing a bimetallic tool. The present paper is concerned with the advantages of gas laser cutting which allows to consider this particular process of separating materials as highly-productive, low-waste, and advanced method of removing allowances of weld-deposit high-speed steel on the working surfaces of bimetallic tool. Urgency of the use of deposit welding and gas laser cutting to improve the efficiency of production of bimetallic tool is shown. The comparative analysis of gas-laser cutting and other cutting methods is given according to the geometrical parameters of cutting and surface quality. Analysis of the results of experimental studies has confirmed the high technological attractiveness and economic efficiency of manufacturing composite structures of punches and matrices when applying deposit welding of cutting parts with high-speed steels. The cost of dimensional processing of the welded cutting part is reduced by 4 to 6 times, while the manufacturing time is reduced by 6 to 12 times.

  15. Size effect model for the edge strength of glass with cut and ground edge finishing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vandebroek, M.; Louter, C.; Caspeele, R.; Ensslen, F.; Belis, J.L.I.F.

    2014-01-01

    The edge strength of glass is influenced by the size of the surface (near the edge) which is subjected to tensile stresses. To quantify this size effect, 8 series of single layer annealed glass beam specimens (as-received glass) were subjected to in-plane four-point bending with linearly increased

  16. Estimation of the influence of tool wear on force signals: A finite element approach in AISI 1045 orthogonal cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Equeter, Lucas; Ducobu, François; Rivière-Lorphèvre, Edouard; Abouridouane, Mustapha; Klocke, Fritz; Dehombreux, Pierre

    2018-05-01

    Industrial concerns arise regarding the significant cost of cutting tools in machining process. In particular, their improper replacement policy can lead either to scraps, or to early tool replacements, which would waste fine tools. ISO 3685 provides the flank wear end-of-life criterion. Flank wear is also the nominal type of wear for longest tool lifetimes in optimal cutting conditions. Its consequences include bad surface roughness and dimensional discrepancies. In order to aid the replacement decision process, several tool condition monitoring techniques are suggested. Force signals were shown in the literature to be strongly linked with tools flank wear. It can therefore be assumed that force signals are highly relevant for monitoring the condition of cutting tools and providing decision-aid information in the framework of their maintenance and replacement. The objective of this work is to correlate tools flank wear with numerically computed force signals. The present work uses a Finite Element Model with a Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian approach. The geometry of the tool is changed for different runs of the model, in order to obtain results that are specific to a certain level of wear. The model is assessed by comparison with experimental data gathered earlier on fresh tools. Using the model at constant cutting parameters, force signals under different tool wear states are computed and provide force signals for each studied tool geometry. These signals are qualitatively compared with relevant data from the literature. At this point, no quantitative comparison could be performed on worn tools because the reviewed literature failed to provide similar studies in this material, either numerical or experimental. Therefore, further development of this work should include experimental campaigns aiming at collecting cutting forces signals and assessing the numerical results that were achieved through this work.

  17. Effect of cutting parameters on sustainable machining performance of coated carbide tool in dry turning process of stainless steel 316

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagaber, Salem A.; Yusoff, Ahmed Razlan

    2017-04-01

    The manufacturing industry aims to produce many products of high quality with relatively less cost and time. Different cutting parameters affect the machining performance of surface roughness, cutting force, and material removal rate. Nevertheless, a few studies reported on the effects of sustainable factors such as power consumed, cycle time during machining, and tool life on the dry turning of AISI 316. The present study aims to evaluate the machining performance of coated carbide in the machining of hard steel AISI 316 under the dry turning process. The influence of cutting parameters of cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut with their five (5) levels is established by a central composite design. Highly significant parameters were determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA), and the main effects of power consumed and time during machining, surface roughness, and tool wear were observed. Results showed that the cutting speed was proportional to power consumption and tool wear. Meanwhile, insignificant to surface roughness, feed rate most significantly affected surface roughness and power consumption followed by depth of cut.

  18. The perfection of the construction of a combined cutting tool on the basis of the results of mathematical modelling of working cutting processes in RecurDyn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poddubny Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available As the title implies the article describes how to optimize the construction of a combined cutting tool on the example of developed design of the face milling cutter with regulable rigidity of damping elements in order to improve the vibration resistance of the cutting process. RecurDyn is proposed, which is widely used for creating models of different mechanical systems, their analysis and optimization of construction, uses the ideology of visual object-oriented programming and computer research of volume solid-state models. Much attention is given to the description of the mechanical and mathematical model of the face milling cutter in RecurDyn and the results of mathematical modeling of the face milling cutter with damping elements, consisting of individual elements, with the possibility of program controlling its operation in the process of cutting. The applying of RecurDyn made it possible to carry out a complex assessment of influence of separate elements of a design of the combined cutting tool on quantitative and qualitative parameters of milling process and to define optimal values of the input and output parameters of technological process of machining for various damping elements.

  19. IMPACT OF DEPTH OF CUT ON CHIP FORMATION IN AZ91HP MAGNESIUM ALLOY MILLING WITH TOOLS OF VARYING CUTTING EDGE GEOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Gziut

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Safety of Mg milling processes can be expressed by means of the form and the number of fractions of chips formed during milling. This paper presents the state of the art of magnesium alloys milling technology in the aspect of chip fragmentation. Furthermore, the impact of the depth of cut ap and the rake angle γ on the number of chip fractions was analysed in the study. These were conducted on AZ91HP magnesium cast alloy and milling was performed with carbide tools of varying rake angle values (γ = 5º and γ = 30º. It was observed that less intense chip fragmentation occurs with decreasing depth of cut ap. The number of chip fractions was lower at the tool rake angle of γ = 30º. The test results were formulated as technological recommendations according to the number of generated chip fractions.

  20. Wear resistance and electronic structure of cutting tool materials on a basis carbides of tungsten and titanium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryzhkin, A.A.; Ilyasov, V.V.; Lyulko, A.V.

    2001-01-01

    The tool materials durability problem, in particular shock and wear resistance, has allowed to formulate a set of requirements and also to stablish the dependence between physical properties and wear. However, for understanding the nature of the process, for example determining the tribological property of the cutting tool, it is necessary to consider the atom interactions in a crystal. A theoretical study of the physical properties of cutting tool materials (W-Ti-C) with varying concentration of titanium is presented. Total and partial local electronic density for each atom in such hard solutions were calculated. (nevyjel)

  1. Precision cut lung slices as an efficient tool for in vitro lung physio-pharmacotoxicology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morin, Jean-Paul; Baste, Jean-Marc; Gay, Arnaud; Crochemore, Clément; Corbière, Cécile; Monteil, Christelle

    2013-01-01

    1.We review the specific approaches for lung tissue slices preparation and incubation systems and the research application fields in which lung slices proved to be a very efficient alternative to animal experimentation for biomechanical, physiological, pharmacological and toxicological approaches. 2.Focus is made on air-liquid interface dynamic organ culture systems that allow direct tissue exposure to complex aerosol and that best mimic in vivo lung tissue physiology. 3.A compilation of research applications in the fields of vascular and airway reactivity, mucociliary transport, polyamine transport, xenobiotic biotransformation, chemicals toxicology and complex aerosols supports the concept that precision cut lung slices are a very efficient tool maintaining highly differentiated functions similar to in vivo lung organ when kept under dynamic organ culture. They also have been successfully used for lung gene transfer efficiency assessment, for lung viral infection efficiency assessment, for studies of tissue preservation media and tissue post-conditioning to optimize lung tissue viability before grafting. 4.Taken all together, the reviewed studies point to a great interest for precision cut lung slices as an efficient and valuable alternative to in vivo lung organ experimentation.

  2. Cut It Up and Put It Back Together: Cut-up and Collage as Tools to Overcome Academic Deadlock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager-Elsborg, Anna; Loads, Daphne

    2016-01-01

    This ‘On the Horizon’ paper concerns creativity in the research process as a way to overcome unhelpful pre-understandings and ‘false clarity’. This paper gives an idea of how we can allow research to be as complex and messy as reality. Cut-up and collage are introduced and suggested as a way...... of letting go of rational analysis and allowing subconscious observations to come forward. The research example is from a project examining the disciplinary characteristics of academic law in a research intensive university...

  3. PVD-Alumina Coatings on Cemented Carbide Cutting Tools: A Study About the Effect on Friction and Adhesion Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Cordes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Crystalline PVD γ-alumina coatings are interesting for machining operations due to their outstanding characteristics, such as high hot hardness, high thermal stability and low tendency to adhesion. In the present work (Ti,AlN/γ-Al2O3-coatings are deposited on cemented carbide by means of MSIP. Objectives of this work are to study the effects of coating and cutting fluid regarding friction in tribological tests and to study the wear mechanisms and cutting performance of γ-Al2O3-based coated cemented carbide cutting tools in machining operations of austenitic stainless steels. Based on the remarkable properties of the coating system the performance of the cutting tools is increasing significantly.

  4. Process Optimization of EDM Cutting Process on Tool Steel using Zinc Coated Electrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanizam H.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In WEDM machining process, surface finish quality depends on intensity and duration of spark plasma. Electrode wire diameter has significant effect on the spark intensity and yet the studies on this matter still less. Therefore, the main objectives of this studies are to compare the different diameters of zinc coated and uncoated brass electrode on H13 tool steel surface roughness. The experiments were conducted on Sodick VZ300L WEDM and work piece material of tool steel AISI H13 block. Electrode of zinc coated brass with diameters of 0.1 mm, 0.2 mm, 0.25 mm and uncoated brass 0.2 mm were used. The surface roughness of cutting was measured using the SUR-FTEST SJ-410 Mitutoyo, surface roughness tester. The results suggest that better surface roughness quality can be achieved through smaller electrode wire diameter. The zinc coated improves flushing ability and sparks intensity resulting in better surface finish of H13 tool steel. New alloys and coating materials shall be experimented to optimized the process further.

  5. DIAGNOSTICS OF WORKPIECE SURFACE CONDITION BASED ON CUTTING TOOL VIBRATIONS DURING MACHINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Józwik

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents functional relationships between surface geometry parameters, feed and vibrations level in the radial direction of the workpiece. Time characteristics of the acceleration of cutting tool vibration registered during C45 steel and stainless steel machining for separate axes (X, Y, Z were presented as a function of feedrate f. During the tests surface geometric accuracy assessment was performed and 3D surface roughness parameters were determined. The Sz parameter was selected for the analysis, which was then collated with RMS vibration acceleration and feedrate f. The Sz parameter indirectly provides information on peak to valley height and is characterised by high generalising potential i.e. it is highly correlated to other surface and volume parameters of surface roughness. Test results presented in this paper may constitute a valuable source of information considering the influence of vibrations on geometric accuracy of elements for engineers designing technological processes.

  6. Analysis about diamond tool wear in nano-metric cutting of single crystal silicon using molecular dynamics method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhiguo; Liang, Yingchun; Chen, Mingjun; Tong, Zhen; Chen, Jiaxuan

    2010-10-01

    Tool wear not only changes its geometry accuracy and integrity, but also decrease machining precision and surface integrity of workpiece that affect using performance and service life of workpiece in ultra-precision machining. Scholars made a lot of experimental researches and stimulant analyses, but there is a great difference on the wear mechanism, especially on the nano-scale wear mechanism. In this paper, the three-dimensional simulation model is built to simulate nano-metric cutting of a single crystal silicon with a non-rigid right-angle diamond tool with 0 rake angle and 0 clearance angle by the molecular dynamics (MD) simulation approach, which is used to investigate the diamond tool wear during the nano-metric cutting process. A Tersoff potential is employed for the interaction between carbon-carbon atoms, silicon-silicon atoms and carbon-silicon atoms. The tool gets the high alternating shear stress, the tool wear firstly presents at the cutting edge where intension is low. At the corner the tool is splitted along the {1 1 1} crystal plane, which forms the tipping. The wear at the flank face is the structure transformation of diamond that the diamond structure transforms into the sheet graphite structure. Owing to the tool wear the cutting force increases.

  7. Fatigue crack Behaviour in a High Strength Tool Steel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højerslev, Christian; Carstensen, Jesper V.; Brøndsted, Povl

    2002-01-01

    The influence of microstructure on fatigue crack initiation and crack growth of a hardened and tempered high speed steel was investigated. The evolution of fatigue cracks was followed in four point bending at room temperature. It was found that a carbide damage zone exists above a threshold load...... value of maximally 80% of the yield strength of the steel. The size of this carbide damage zone increases with increasing load amplitude, and the zone is apparently associated with crack nucleation. On fatigue crack propagation plastic deformation of the matrix occurs in a radius of approximately 4...... microns in front of the fatigue crack tip, which is comparable with the relevant mean free carbide spacing....

  8. Effect of finite edge radius on ductile fracture ahead of the cutting tool edge in micro-cutting of Al2024-T3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subbiah, Sathyan; Melkote, Shreyes N.

    2008-01-01

    Evidence of ductile fracture leading to material separation has been reported recently in ductile metal cutting [S. Subbiah, S.N. Melkote, ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 28(3) (2006)]. This paper investigates the effect of finite edge radius on such ductile fracture. The basic question of whether such ductile fracture occurs in the presence of a finite edge radius is explored by performing a series of experiments with inserts of different edge radii at various uncut chip thickness values ranging from 15 to 105 μm. Chip-roots are obtained in these experiments using a quick-stop device and examined in a scanning electron microscope. Clear evidence of material separation is seen at the interface zone between the chip and machined surface even when the edge radius is large compared to the uncut chip thickness. Failure is seen to occur at the upper, middle, and/or the lower edges of the interface zone. Based on these observations, a hypothesis is presented for the events leading to the occurrence of this failure when cutting with an edge radius tool. Finite element simulations are performed to study the nature of stress state ahead of the tool edge with and without edge radius. Hydrostatic stress is seen to be tensile in front of the tool and hence favors the occurrence of ductile fracture leading to material separation. The stress components are, however lower than those seen with a sharp tool

  9. TO DETERMINATION OF INFLUENCE FOR VARIATIONS IN LASER TREATMENT MODES ON TRIBOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CUTTING TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Diachenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers problems pertaining to higher durability and reliability of a cutting tool for cutting gastronomic products while using laser processing that leads to resistance increase of material operating surfaces against impact forces. Influence of laser fusion with additional doping on structure, microhardness, wear resistance for adhesive coatings of Fe–B–Cr–Si system has been studied in the paper. In order to solve a problem for selection of optimal qualitative and subsequently quantitative composition of a multi-component coating a mathematical modeling method using Scheffe’s simplex lattices has been used in the paper. Similar tendency for measuring micro-structure of all adhesive coatings fused by laser beams has been established in the paper. Increase in beam speed has caused the following microstructure changes: cast equilibrium, dendrite, supersaturated boride, carbide and boride. Response surface models have been found and they provide the possibility to assess influence quantity of laser processing parameters on microhardness of adhesive coatings obtained by laser doping and intensity of their wear under various conditions for all investigated compositions.It has been ascertained that there is no strict correlation between hardness and intensity of coating wear after laser doping used for adhesive coatings. This testifies to the fact that hardening has taken place not only due to an increase of carbide-boride phase, but also due to matrix hardening.In addition, a regression model for coating composition effect on tribological characteristics of the adhesive coatings has revealed that an optimal composition of a multicomponent coating ensuring maximum wear resistance of coatings constitutes B4C is 2/3 and 1/3 TaB. It has been determined that hardening of the adhesive coating after laser doping while using multicomponent coating occurs not only due to increase of carbide-boridnoy phase, but also due to matrix hardening.

  10. Mathematical Modelling and Optimization of Cutting Force, Tool Wear and Surface Roughness by Using Artificial Neural Network and Response Surface Methodology in Milling of Ti-6242S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erol Kilickap

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an experimental study was conducted to determine the effect of different cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on cutting force, surface roughness, and tool wear in the milling of Ti-6242S alloy using the cemented carbide (WC end mills with a 10 mm diameter. Data obtained from experiments were defined both Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Response Surface Methodology (RSM. ANN trained network using Levenberg-Marquardt (LM and weights were trained. On the other hand, the mathematical models in RSM were created applying Box Behnken design. Values obtained from the ANN and the RSM was found to be very close to the data obtained from experimental studies. The lowest cutting force and surface roughness were obtained at high cutting speeds and low feed rate and depth of cut. The minimum tool wear was obtained at low cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut.

  11. Effect of cutting parameters on machinability characteristics in milling of magnesium alloy with carbide tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaining Shi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium alloy has attracted more attentions due to its excellent mechanical properties. However, in process of dry cutting operation, many problems restrict its further development. In this article, the effect of cutting parameters on machinabilities of magnesium alloy is explored under dry milling condition. This research is an attempt to investigate the impact of cutting speed at multiple feed rates on cutting force and surface roughness, while a statistical analysis is adopted to determine the influential intensities accurately. The results showed that cutting force is affected by the positively constant intensity from feed rate and the increasingly negative intensity from cutting speed. In contrast, surface roughness is determined by the gradually increasing negative tendency from feed rate and the positive effect with constant intensity from cutting speed. Within the range of the experiments, feed rate is the leading contribution for cutting force while the cutting speed is the dominant factor for surface roughness according to the absolute intensity values. Meanwhile, the trends of influencing intensities between cutting force and surface roughness are opposite. Besides, it is also found that in milling magnesium alloy, chip morphology is highly sensitive to cutting speed while the chip quality mainly depends on feed rate.

  12. Strength analysis and modeling of cellular lattice structures manufactured using selective laser melting for tooling applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Loft Højbjerre, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    in injection molding tools and lattice structures. This research examines the effect of cellular lattice structures on the strength of workpieces additively manufactured from ultra high-strength steel powder. Two commercial SLM machines are used to fabricate cellular samples based on four architectures— solid...... with experimental data and it is shown that they agree well. The results from this research show that using lattice structures significantly reduces the strength of material with respect to solid samples while indicating no serious increase of strength compared to hollow structures. In combination with an analysis...

  13. Study of PVD AlCrN Coating for Reducing Carbide Cutting Tool Deterioration in the Machining of Titanium Alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Natalia L; Cue-Sampedro, Rodrigo; Siller, Héctor R; Arizmendi-Morquecho, Ana M; Rivera-Solorio, Carlos I; Di-Nardo, Santiago

    2013-05-24

    The manufacture of medical and aerospace components made of titanium alloys and other difficult-to-cut materials requires the parallel development of high performance cutting tools coated with materials capable of enhanced tribological and resistance properties. In this matter, a thin nanocomposite film made out of AlCrN (aluminum-chromium-nitride) was studied in this research, showing experimental work in the deposition process and its characterization. A heat-treated monolayer coating, competitive with other coatings in the machining of titanium alloys, was analyzed. Different analysis and characterizations were performed on the manufactured coating by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDXS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, the mechanical behavior of the coating was evaluated through hardness test and tribology with pin-on-disk to quantify friction coefficient and wear rate. Finally, machinability tests using coated tungsten carbide cutting tools were executed in order to determine its performance through wear resistance, which is a key issue of cutting tools in high-end cutting at elevated temperatures. It was demonstrated that the specimen (with lower friction coefficient than previous research) is more efficient in machinability tests in Ti6Al4V alloys. Furthermore, the heat-treated monolayer coating presented better performance in comparison with a conventional monolayer of AlCrN coating.

  14. Prediction of surface roughness in turning of Ti-6Al-4V using cutting parameters, forces and tool vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Neelesh Kumar; Andhare, Atul B.; Andhale, Sandip; Raju Abraham, Roja

    2018-04-01

    Present work deals with prediction of surface roughness using cutting parameters along with in-process measured cutting force and tool vibration (acceleration) during turning of Ti-6Al-4V with cubic boron nitride (CBN) inserts. Full factorial design is used for design of experiments using cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut as design variables. Prediction model for surface roughness is developed using response surface methodology with cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut, resultant cutting force and acceleration as control variables. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is performed to find out significant terms in the model. Insignificant terms are removed after performing statistical test using backward elimination approach. Effect of each control variables on surface roughness is also studied. Correlation coefficient (R2 pred) of 99.4% shows that model correctly explains the experiment results and it behaves well even when adjustment is made in factors or new factors are added or eliminated. Validation of model is done with five fresh experiments and measured forces and acceleration values. Average absolute error between RSM model and experimental measured surface roughness is found to be 10.2%. Additionally, an artificial neural network model is also developed for prediction of surface roughness. The prediction results of modified regression model are compared with ANN. It is found that RSM model and ANN (average absolute error 7.5%) are predicting roughness with more than 90% accuracy. From the results obtained it is found that including cutting force and vibration for prediction of surface roughness gives better prediction than considering only cutting parameters. Also, ANN gives better prediction over RSM models.

  15. Study of the performances of nano-case treatment cutting tools on carbon steel work material during turning operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolalu, S. A.; Okokpujie, I. P.; Salawu, E. Y.; Abioye, A. A.; Abioye, O. P.; Ikumapayi, O. M.

    2018-04-01

    The degree of holding temperature and time play a major role in nano-case treatment of cutting tools which immensely contributed to its performance during machining operation. The objective of this research work is to carryout comparative study of performance of nano-case treatment tools developed using low and medium carbon steel as work piece. Turning operation was carried out under two different categories with specific work piece on universal lathe machine using HSS cutting tools 100 mm × 12mm × 12mm that has been nano-case treated under varying conditions of temperatures and timeof 800,850, 900, 950°C and 60, 90, 120 mins respectively. The turning parameters used in evaluating this experiment were cutting speed of 270, 380 and 560mm/min, feed rate of 0.15, 0.20 and 0.25 mm/min, depth of cut of 2mm, work piece diameter of 25mm and rake angle of 7° each at three levels. The results of comparative study of their performances revealed that the timespent in the machining of low carbon steel material at a minimum temperature and time of 800°C, 60 mins were1.50, 2.17 mins while at maximum temperature and time of 950°C, 120 mins were 1.19, 2.02 mins. It was also observed that at a corresponding constant speed of 270,380 and 560mm/min at higher temperature and time, a relative increased in the length of cut were observed. Critical observation of the result showed that at higher case hardening temperature and time (950°C/120mins), the HSS cutting tool gave a better performance as lesser time was consumed during the turning operation.

  16. Investigation of Coated Cutting Tool Performance during Machining of Super Duplex Stainless Steels through 3D Wear Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassmin Seid Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the wear mechanisms and tribological performance of uncoated and coated carbide tools were investigated during the turning of super duplex stainless steel (SDSS—Grade UNS S32750, known commercially as SAF 2507. The tool wear was evaluated throughout the cutting tests and the wear mechanisms were investigated using an Alicona Infinite Focus microscope and a scanning electron microscope (SEM equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS. Tribo-film formation on the worn rake surface of the tool was analyzed using X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS. In addition, tribological performance was evaluated by studying chip characteristics such as thickness, compression ratio, shear angle, and undersurface morphology. Finally, surface integrity of the machined surface was investigated using the Alicona microscope to measure surface roughness and SEM to reveal the surface distortions created during the cutting process, combined with cutting force analyses. The results obtained showed that the predominant wear mechanisms are adhesion and chipping for all tools investigated and that the AlTiN coating system exhibited better performance in all aspects when compared with CVD TiCN + Al2O3 coated cutting insert and uncoated carbide insert; in particular, built-up edge formation was significantly reduced.

  17. Development of remote bore tools for pipe welding/cutting by YAG laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Nakahira, Masataka; Kakudate, Satoshi; Tada, Eisuke; Obara, Kenjiro; Taguchi, Kou; Nakamori, Naokazu

    1996-07-01

    In D-T burning reactors such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), an internal access welding/cutting of blanket cooling pipe with bend sections is inevitably required because of spatial constraint due to nuclear shield and available port opening space. For this purpose, an internal access pipe welding/cutting using YAG laser beam is being developed according to the agreement of the ITER R and D task (T44). A design concept of welding/cutting processing head with a flexible optical fiber has been developed and the basic feasibility studies on welding, cutting and rewelding are performed using stainless steel plate (SS316L). In this report, the details of a welding/cutting head with a flexible optical fiber for YAG laser are described, together with the basic experiment results relating to the welding/cutting and rewelding. (author)

  18. Effect of bur-cut dentin on bond strength using two all-in-one and one two-step adhesive systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koase, Kaori; Inoue, Satoshi; Noda, Mamoru; Tanaka, Toru; Kawamoto, Chiharu; Takahashi, Akiko; Nakaoki, Yasuko; Sano, Hidehiko

    2004-01-01

    To compare the microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of two all-in-one adhesive systems and one experimental two-step self-etching adhesive system to two types of bur-cut dentin. Using one of the three adhesives, Xeno CF Bond (Xeno), Prompt L-Pop (PL), or the experimental two-step system ABF (ABF), resin composite was bonded to flat buccal and root dentin surfaces of eight extracted human premolars. These surfaces were produced using either regular-grit or superfine-grit diamond burs. After storage overnight in 37 degrees C water, the bonded specimens were sectioned into six or seven slices approximately 0.7 mm thick perpendicular to the bonded surface. They were then subjected to microtensile testing. The surfaces of the fractured specimens were observed microscopically to determine the failure mode. In addition, to observe the effect of conditioning, the two types of bur-cut dentin surfaces were conditioned with the adhesives, rinsed with acetone, and observed with SEM. When Xeno and PL were bonded to dentin cut with a regular-grit diamond bur, MTBS values were lower than to superfine bur-cut dentin, and failures occurred adhesively at the interface, whereas the experimental two-step adhesive showed no significant difference in microtensile bond strength between two differently cut surfaces. The all-in-one adhesives tested here improved bond strengths when bonded to superfine bur-cut dentin as a substrate, whereas the experimental two-step adhesive system showed unchanged bonding to both regular and superfine bur-cut dentin surfaces.

  19. Prediction Model of Cutting Parameters for Turning High Strength Steel Grade-H: Comparative Study of Regression Model versus ANFIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel T. Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Grade-H high strength steel is used in the manufacturing of many civilian and military products. The procedures of manufacturing these parts have several turning operations. The key factors for the manufacturing of these parts are the accuracy, surface roughness (Ra, and material removal rate (MRR. The production line of these parts contains many CNC turning machines to get good accuracy and repeatability. The manufacturing engineer should fulfill the required surface roughness value according to the design drawing from first trail (otherwise these parts will be rejected as well as keeping his eye on maximum metal removal rate. The rejection of these parts at any processing stage will represent huge problems to any factory because the processing and raw material of these parts are very expensive. In this paper the artificial neural network was used for predicting the surface roughness for different cutting parameters in CNC turning operations. These parameters were investigated to get the minimum surface roughness. In addition, a mathematical model for surface roughness was obtained from the experimental data using a regression analysis method. The experimental data are then compared with both the regression analysis results and ANFIS (Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System estimations.

  20. Tool wear of (Ti, Al) N-coated polycrystalline cubic boron nitride compact in cutting of hardened steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tadahiro; Hanyu, Hiroyuki

    2017-11-01

    Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride compact (cBN) is effective tool material for cutting hardened steel. In addition to coated high speed steel and coated cemented carbide that has long been used for cutting materials, more recently, coated cBN has also been used. In this study, to verify the effectiveness of the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN, which is formed on the substrate of cBN by the physical vapor deposition method, the hardened steel was turned with the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN tool at a cutting speed of 3.33, 5.00 m/s, a feed rate of 0.3 mm/rev and a depth of cut of 0.1 mm. Furthermore, the uncoated cBN, which was the substrate of the (Ti,Al)N-coated, was also used. The tool wear of the cBN tools was experimentally investigated. The following results were obtained: (1) The contact area between the rake face and the chip of the (Ti,.Al)N-coated cBN tool was smaller than that of the uncoated cBN tool. (2) The tool wear of the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN was smaller than that of uncoated cBN. (3) The wear progress of the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN with the main element phase of the TiCN-Al, was slower than that of the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN with the main element phase of the TiN-Al. (4) In the case of the high cutting speed of 5.00 m/s, the tool wear of the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN was also smaller than that of uncoated cBN. The above results clarify that the (Ti,Al)N-coated cBN can be used as a tool material in high feed cutting of hardened steel.

  1. Defining the effect of sweep tillage tool cutting edge geometry on tillage forces using 3D discrete element modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Ucgul

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The energy required for tillage processes accounts for a significant proportion of total energy used in crop production. In many tillage processes decreasing the draft and upward vertical forces is often desired for reduced fuel use and improved penetration, respectively. Recent studies have proved that the discrete element modelling (DEM can effectively be used to model the soil–tool interaction. In his study, Fielke (1994 [1] examined the effect of the various tool cutting edge geometries, namely; cutting edge height, length of underside rub, angle of underside clearance, on draft and vertical forces. In this paper the experimental parameters of Fielke (1994 [1] were simulated using 3D discrete element modelling techniques. In the simulations a hysteretic spring contact model integrated with a linear cohesion model that considers the plastic deformation behaviour of the soil hence provides better vertical force prediction was employed. DEM parameters were determined by comparing the experimental and simulation results of angle of repose and penetration tests. The results of the study showed that the simulation results of the soil-various tool cutting edge geometries agreed well with the experimental results of Fielke (1994 [1]. The modelling was then used to simulate a further range of cutting edge geometries to better define the effect of sweep tool cutting edge geometry parameters on tillage forces. The extra simulations were able to show that by using a sharper cutting edge with zero vertical cutting edge height the draft and upward vertical force were further reduced indicating there is benefit from having a really sharp cutting edge. The extra simulations also confirmed that the interpolated trends for angle of underside clearance as suggested by Fielke (1994 [1] where correct with a linear reduction in draft and upward vertical force for angle of underside clearance between the ranges of −25 and −5°, and between −5 and 0°. The

  2. Diamond and cBN hybrid and nanomodified cutting tools with enhanced performance: Development, testing and modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loginov, Pavel; Mishnaevsky, Leon; Levashov, Evgeny

    2015-01-01

    with 25% of diamond replaced by cBN grains demonstrate 20% increased performance as compared with pure diamond machining tools, and more than two times higher performance as compared with pure cBN tools. Further, cast iron machining efficiency of the wheels modified by hBN particles was 80% more efficient......The potential of enhancement of superhard steel and cast iron cutting tool performance on the basis of microstuctural modifications of the tool materials is studied. Hybrid machining tools with mixed diamond and cBN grains, as well as machining tool with composite nanomodified metallic binder...... are developed, and tested experimentally and numerically. It is demonstrated that both combination of diamond and cBN (hybrid structure) and nanomodification of metallic binder (with hexagonal boron nitride/hBN platelets) lead to sufficient improvement of the cast iron machining performance. The superhard tools...

  3. Performance and characterisation of CVD diamond coated, sintered diamond and WC-Co cutting tools for dental and micromachining applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sein, Htet; Ahmed, Waqar; Jackson, Mark; Woodwards, Robert; Polini, Riccardo

    2004-01-01

    Diamond coatings are attractive for cutting processes due to their high hardness, low friction coefficient, excellent wear resistance and chemical inertness. The application of diamond coatings on cemented tungsten carbide (WC-Co) tools was the subject of much attention in recent years in order to improve cutting performance and tool life. WC-Co tools containing 6% Co and 94% WC substrate with an average grain size 1-3 μm were used in this study. In order to improve the adhesion between diamond and WC substrates, it is necessary to etch away the surface Co and prepare the surface for subsequent diamond growth. Hot filament chemical vapour deposition with a modified vertical filament arrangement has been employed for the deposition of diamond films. Diamond film quality and purity have been characterised using scanning electron microscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The performance of diamond coated WC-Co bur, uncoated WC-Co bur, and diamond embedded (sintered) bur have been compared by drilling a series of holes into various materials such as human teeth, borosilicate glass and porcelain teeth. Flank wear has been used to assess the wear rates of the tools. The materials subjected to cutting processes have been examined to assess the quality of the finish. Diamond coated WC-Co microdrills and uncoated microdrills were also tested on aluminium alloys. Results show that there was a 300% improvement when the drills were coated with diamond compared to the uncoated tools

  4. Design and simulation of thermal residual stresses of coatings on WC-Co cemented carbide cutting tool substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Anhai; Zhao, Jun; Zang, Jian; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Large thermal residual stresses in coatings during the coating deposition process may easily lead to coating delamination of coated carbide tools in machining. In order to reduce the possibility of coating delamination during the tool failure process, a theoretical method was proposed and a numerical method was constructed for the coating design of WC-Co cemented carbide cutting tools. The thermal residual stresses of multi-layered coatings were analytically modeled based on equivalent parameters of coating properties, and the stress distribution of coatings are simulated by Finite element method (FEM). The theoretically calculated results and the FEM simulated results were verified and in good agreement with the experimental test results. The effects of coating thickness, tool substrate, coating type and interlayer were investigated by the proposed geometric and FEM model. Based on the evaluations of matchability of tool substrate and tool coatings, the basic principles of tool coating design were proposed. This provides theoretical basis for the selection and design of coatings of cutting tools in high-speed machining

  5. Automatic registration method for multisensor datasets adopted for dimensional measurements on cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaw, L; Mehari, F; Weckenmann, A; Ettl, S; Häusler, G

    2013-01-01

    Multisensor systems with optical 3D sensors are frequently employed to capture complete surface information by measuring workpieces from different views. During coarse and fine registration the resulting datasets are afterward transformed into one common coordinate system. Automatic fine registration methods are well established in dimensional metrology, whereas there is a deficit in automatic coarse registration methods. The advantage of a fully automatic registration procedure is twofold: it enables a fast and contact-free alignment and further a flexible application to datasets of any kind of optical 3D sensor. In this paper, an algorithm adapted for a robust automatic coarse registration is presented. The method was originally developed for the field of object reconstruction or localization. It is based on a segmentation of planes in the datasets to calculate the transformation parameters. The rotation is defined by the normals of three corresponding segmented planes of two overlapping datasets, while the translation is calculated via the intersection point of the segmented planes. First results have shown that the translation is strongly shape dependent: 3D data of objects with non-orthogonal planar flanks cannot be registered with the current method. In the novel supplement for the algorithm, the translation is additionally calculated via the distance between centroids of corresponding segmented planes, which results in more than one option for the transformation. A newly introduced measure considering the distance between the datasets after coarse registration evaluates the best possible transformation. Results of the robust automatic registration method are presented on the example of datasets taken from a cutting tool with a fringe-projection system and a focus-variation system. The successful application in dimensional metrology is proven with evaluations of shape parameters based on the registered datasets of a calibrated workpiece. (paper)

  6. A Comparative Study of the Retentive Strengths of Commercial and Indigenously Developed Luting Cements using Both Lathe-cut and Clinically Simulated Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Joe; Kurian, Byju P; Philip, Biju; Mohammed, Sunil; Menon, Preetha; Raj, Rajan S

    2016-08-01

    Superior adhesive strength in luting agents is of paramount significance in fixed partial denture success. In this in vitro study five cements were tested for retentive qualities, using both lathe-cut and hand-prepared specimens. A total of 104 freshly extracted tooth specimens were prepared. Seventy of them were lathe-cut and 30 specimens were hand-prepared to simulate clinical conditions. Five different cements were tested, which included a compomer, a composite, a zinc phosphate, and 2 glass-ionomer luting cements. Of the 5, 2 trial cements were indigenously developed by Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology (SCTIMST), Trivandrum, India - a glass-ionomer cement (Chitra GIC) and a chemical-cure composite (Chitra CCC). All cements were compared within each group and between groups (lathe-prepared and hand-prepared). GC Fuji 1 (GC America) exhibited superior retentive strengths in both lathe-cut and hand-prepared specimens, whereas the compomer cement displayed the lowest values when tested. In lathe-cut specimens, statistical analysis showed no significant difference between GC Fuji 1 and indigenously developed Chitra CCC. Both Chitra CCC and GC Fuji 1 have comparable strengths in lathe-cut samples, making Chitra CCC a potential luting agent. Statistical analysis reveals that all cements, except GC Fuji 1, exhibited a significant decrease in strength due to the change in design uniformity. The chemical bonding of GC Fuji 1 proves to be quite strong irrespective of shape and precision of the tooth crown. The indigenously developed Chitra GIC and Chitra CCC showed promising results to be used as a potential luting agent.

  7. Analysis of the temperature of the hot tool in the cut of woven fabric using infrared images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borelli, Joao E.; Verderio, Leonardo A.; Gonzaga, Adilson; Ruffino, Rosalvo T.

    2001-03-01

    Textile manufacture occupies a prominence place in the national economy. By virtue of its importance researches have been made on the development of new materials, equipment and methods used in the production process. The cutting of textiles starts in the basic stage, to be followed within the process of the making of clothes and other articles. In the hot cutting of fabric, one of the variables of great importance in the control of the process is the contact temperature between the tool and the fabric. The work presents a technique for the measurement of the temperature based on the processing of infrared images. For this a system was developed composed of an infrared camera, a framegrabber PC board and software that analyzes the punctual temperature in the cut area enabling the operator to achieve the necessary control of the other variables involved in the process.

  8. Microstructural characterization of WC-TiC-Co cutting tools during high-speed machining of P20 mold steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farhat, Z.N.

    2003-01-01

    The wear behavior of tungsten carbide (WC)-TiC-Co cutting tools during cutting P20 tool steel was investigated. Orthogonal cutting tests were performed on a CNC lathe using five speeds, namely, 60, 120, 240, 380 and 600 m/min. Wear, as the width of the wear land, was monitored at five time intervals. Wear characterization of the rake and the flank surfaces as well as the collected chips was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), backscattered electron imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX). Microhardness of collected chips was also performed to monitor strain hardening effects during cutting. Two dominant wear mechanisms were identified: at high speed (380-600 m/min), wear was found to occur by a melt wear mechanism; at low speed (60-120 m/min), adhesion (built-up edge) followed by delamination was found to be the cause of wear damage. It was also found that deformation in the chips occurred by localized shear deformation

  9. Dimensional accuracy of internal cooling channel made by selective laser melting (SLM And direct metal laser sintering (DMLS processes in fabrication of internally cooled cutting tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghani S. A. C.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Selective laser melting(SLM and direct metal laser sintering(DMLS are preferred additive manufacturing processes in producing complex physical products directly from CAD computer data, nowadays. The advancement of additive manufacturing promotes the design of internally cooled cutting tool for effectively used in removing generated heat in metal machining. Despite the utilisation of SLM and DMLS in a fabrication of internally cooled cutting tool, the level of accuracy of the parts produced remains uncertain. This paper aims at comparing the dimensional accuracy of SLM and DMLS in machining internally cooled cutting tool with a special focus on geometrical dimensions such as hole diameter. The surface roughness produced by the two processes are measured with contact perthometer. To achieve the objectives, geometrical dimensions of identical tool holders for internally cooled cutting tools fabricated by SLM and DMLS have been determined by using digital vernier calliper and various magnification of a portable microscope. In the current study, comparing internally cooled cutting tools made of SLM and DMLS showed that generally the higher degree of accuracy could be obtained with DMLS process. However, the observed differences in surface roughness between SLM and DMLS in this study were not significant. The most obvious finding to emerge from this study is that the additive manufacturing processes selected for fabricating the tool holders for internally cooled cutting tool in this research are capable of producing the desired internal channel shape of internally cooled cutting tool.

  10. Fatigue properties of high-strength materials used in cold-forging tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndsted, P.; Skov-Hansen, P.

    1998-01-01

    In the present work classical analytical models are used to describe the static stress–strain curves, low-cycle fatigue properties and fatigue crack growth behaviour of high-strength materials for use in tools for metal-forming processes such as cold forging and extrusion. The paper describes the...

  11. Prepation and Characterization of TiO2 Nanofluid by Sol-gel Method for Cutting Tools

    OpenAIRE

    BİRLİK, Işıl; AZEM, N.Funda Ak; YİĞİT, Recep; EROL, Mustafa; YILDIRIM, Serdar; YURDDAŞKAL, Metin; SANCAKOĞLU, Orkut; ÇELİK, Erdal

    2014-01-01

    In the past few decades, rapid advances in nanotechnology have lead to emerging of new generation of coolants called as nanofluids. Nanofluids are defined as suspension of nanoparticles in a basefluid. Machining experiences high temperatures due to friction between the tool and workpiece, thus influencing the workpiece dimensional accuracy and surface quality. Further, the cutting fluids also incur a major portion of the total manufacturing cost. Nanofluids are containing oxides including MgO...

  12. Prepation and Characterization of TiO2 Nanofluid by Sol-gel Method for Cutting Tools

    OpenAIRE

    BİRLİK, Işıl; AZEM, N.Funda Ak; YİĞİT, Recep; EROL, Mustafa; YILDIRIM, Serdar; YURDDAŞKAL, Metin; SANCAKOĞLU, Orkut; ÇELİK, Erdal

    2015-01-01

    In the past few decades, rapid advances in nanotechnology have lead to emerging of new generation of coolants called as nanofluids. Nanofluids are defined as suspension of nanoparticles in a basefluid. Machining experiences high temperatures due to friction between the tool and workpiece, thus influencing the workpiece dimensional accuracy and surface quality. Further, the cutting fluids also incur a major portion of the total manufacturing cost. Nanofluids are containing oxides including MgO...

  13. Effect of cutting parameters on workpiece and tool properties during drilling of Ti-6Al-4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Celik, Yahya Hisman; Yildiz, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    The main aim of machining is to provide the dimensional preciseness together with surface and geometric quality of the workpiece to be manufactured within the desired limits. Today, it is quite hard to drill widely utilized Ti-6Al-4 V alloys owing to their superior features. Therefore, in this study, the effects of temperature, chip formation, thrust forces, surface roughness, burr heights, hole diameter deviations and tool wears on the drilling of Ti-6Al-4 V were investigated under dry cutting conditions with different cutting speeds and feed rates by using tungsten carbide (WC) and high speed steel (HSS) drills. Moreover, the mathematical modeling of thrust force, surface roughness, burr height and tool wear were formed using Matlab. It was found that the feed rate, cutting speed and type of drill have a major effect on the thrust forces, surface roughness, burr heights, hole diameter deviations and tool wears. Optimum results in the Ti-6Al-4 V alloy drilling process were obtained using the WC drill.

  14. Effect of cutting parameters on workpiece and tool properties during drilling of Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celik, Yahya Hisman; Yildiz, Hakan [Batman Univ. (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Oezek, Cebeli [Firat Univ., Elazig (Turkey)

    2016-08-01

    The main aim of machining is to provide the dimensional preciseness together with surface and geometric quality of the workpiece to be manufactured within the desired limits. Today, it is quite hard to drill widely utilized Ti-6Al-4 V alloys owing to their superior features. Therefore, in this study, the effects of temperature, chip formation, thrust forces, surface roughness, burr heights, hole diameter deviations and tool wears on the drilling of Ti-6Al-4 V were investigated under dry cutting conditions with different cutting speeds and feed rates by using tungsten carbide (WC) and high speed steel (HSS) drills. Moreover, the mathematical modeling of thrust force, surface roughness, burr height and tool wear were formed using Matlab. It was found that the feed rate, cutting speed and type of drill have a major effect on the thrust forces, surface roughness, burr heights, hole diameter deviations and tool wears. Optimum results in the Ti-6Al-4 V alloy drilling process were obtained using the WC drill.

  15. The DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure as a Screening Tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaens, Leo; Galus, James

    2018-03-01

    The DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was developed to aid clinicians with a dimensional assessment of psychopathology; however, this measure resembles a screening tool for several symptomatic domains. The objective of the current study was to examine the basic parameters of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive power of the measure as a screening tool. One hundred and fifty patients in a correctional community center filled out the measure prior to a psychiatric evaluation, including the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview screen. The above parameters were calculated for the domains of depression, mania, anxiety, and psychosis. The results showed that the sensitivity and positive predictive power of the studied domains was poor because of a high rate of false positive answers on the measure. However, when the lowest threshold on the Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure was used, the sensitivity of the anxiety and psychosis domains and the negative predictive values for mania, anxiety and psychosis were good. In conclusion, while it is foreseeable that some clinicians may use the DSM-5 Self-Rated Level 1 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measure as a screening tool, it should not be relied on to identify positive findings. It functioned well in the negative prediction of mania, anxiety and psychosis symptoms.

  16. Investigation of wear and tool life of coated carbide and cubic boron nitride cutting tools in high speed milling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Twardowski, P.; Legutko, S.; Krolczyk, G.; Hloch, Sergej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2015), s. 1-9 ISSN 1687-8132 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : hardened steels * milling tools * high speed machining * tool life * wear Subject RIV: JQ - Machines ; Tools Impact factor: 0.640, year: 2015 http://ade.sagepub.com/content/7/6/1687814015590216.full.pdf+html

  17. A comparative investigation of bone surface after cutting with mechanical tools and Er:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, Kyung-Won; Deibel, Waldemar; Marinov, Dilyan; Griessen, Mathias; Dard, Michel; Bruno, Alfredo; Zeilhofer, Hans-Florian; Cattin, Philippe; Juergens, Philipp

    2015-07-01

    Despite of the long history of medical application, laser ablation of bone tissue became successful only recently. Laser bone cutting is proven to have higher accuracy and to increase bone healing compared to conventional mechanical bone cutting. But the reason of subsequent better healing is not biologically explained yet. In this study we present our experience with an integrated miniaturized laser system mounted on a surgical lightweight robotic arm. An Erbium-doped Yttrium Aluminium Garnet (Er:YAG) laser and a piezoelectric (PZE) osteotome were used for comparison. In six grown up female Göttingen minipigs, comparative surgical interventions were done on the edentulous mandibular ridge. Our laser system was used to create different shapes of bone defects on the left side of the mandible. On the contralateral side, similar bone defects were created by PZE osteotome. Small bone samples were harvested to compare the immediate post-operative cut surface. The analysis of the cut surface of the laser osteotomy and conventional mechanical osteotomy revealed an essential difference. The scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis showed biologically open cut surfaces from the laser osteotomy. The samples from PZE osteotomy showed a flattened tissue structure over the cut surface, resembling the "smear layer" from tooth preparation. We concluded that our new finding with the mechanical osteotomy suggests a biological explanation to the expected difference in subsequent bone healing. Our hypothesis is that the difference of surface characteristic yields to different bleeding pattern and subsequently results in different bone healing. The analyses of bone healing will support our hypothesis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Deep Drawing of High-Strength Tailored Blanks by Using Tailored Tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Mennecart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In most forming processes based on tailored blanks, the tool material remains the same as that of sheet metal blanks without tailored properties. A novel concept of lightweight construction for deep drawing tools is presented in this work to improve the forming behavior of tailored blanks. The investigations presented here deal with the forming of tailored blanks of dissimilar strengths using tailored dies made of two different materials. In the area of the steel blank with higher strength, typical tool steel is used. In the area of the low-strength steel, a hybrid tool made out of a polymer and a fiber-reinforced surface replaces the steel half. Cylindrical cups of DP600/HX300LAD are formed and analyzed regarding their formability. The use of two different halves of tool materials shows improved blank thickness distribution, weld-line movement and pressure distribution compared to the use of two steel halves. An improvement in strain distribution is also observed by the inclusion of springs in the polymer side of tools, which is implemented to control the material flow in the die. Furthermore, a reduction in tool weight of approximately 75% can be achieved by using this technique. An accurate finite element modeling strategy is developed to analyze the problem numerically and is verified experimentally for the cylindrical cup. This strategy is then applied to investigate the thickness distribution and weld-line movement for a complex geometry, and its transferability is validated. The inclusion of springs in the hybrid tool leads to better material flow, which results in reduction of weld-line movement by around 60%, leading to more uniform thickness distribution.

  19. Response Surface Methodology Approach on Effect of Cutting Parameter on Tool Wear during End Milling of High Thermal Conductivity Steel -150 (HTCS-150)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Hadzley, A B; Wan Mohd Azahar, W M Y; Izamshah, R; Mohd Shahir, K; Mohd Amran, A; Anis Afuza, A

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a study of development the tool life's mathematical model during the milling process on High Thermal Conductivity Steel 150 (HTCS-150) 56 HRC. Using response surface methodology, the mathematical models for tool life have been developed in terms of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Box-Behnken techniques is a part of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used to carry out the work plan to predict, the tool wear and generate the numerical equation in relation to independent variable parameters by Design Expert software. Dry milling experiments were conducted by using two levels of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. In this study, the variable for the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were in the range of 484-553 m/min, 0.31-0.36 mm/tooth, and 0.1-0.5 mm, width of cut is constantly 0.01mm per passes. The tool wear was measured using tool maker microscope. The effect of input factors that on the responds were identified by using mean of ANOVA. The responds of tool wear then simultaneously optimized. The validation of the test reveals the model accuracy 5% and low tool wear under same experimental condition. (paper)

  20. Response Surface Methodology Approach on Effect of Cutting Parameter on Tool Wear during End Milling of High Thermal Conductivity Steel -150 (HTCS-150)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Hadzley, A. B.; Mohd Azahar, W. M. Y. Wan; Izamshah, R.; Mohd Shahir, K.; Mohd Amran, A.; Anis Afuza, A.

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents a study of development the tool life's mathematical model during the milling process on High Thermal Conductivity Steel 150 (HTCS-150) 56 HRC. Using response surface methodology, the mathematical models for tool life have been developed in terms of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Box-Behnken techniques is a part of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) has been used to carry out the work plan to predict, the tool wear and generate the numerical equation in relation to independent variable parameters by Design Expert software. Dry milling experiments were conducted by using two levels of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. In this study, the variable for the cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut were in the range of 484-553 m/min, 0.31-0.36 mm/tooth, and 0.1-0.5 mm, width of cut is constantly 0.01mm per passes. The tool wear was measured using tool maker microscope. The effect of input factors that on the responds were identified by using mean of ANOVA. The responds of tool wear then simultaneously optimized. The validation of the test reveals the model accuracy 5% and low tool wear under same experimental condition.

  1. Wear protection in cutting tool applications by PACVD (Ti,Al)N and Al2O3 coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kathrein, M.; Heiss, M.; Rofner, R.; Schleinkofer, U.; Schintlmeister, W.; Schatte, J.; Mitterer, C.

    2001-01-01

    Various (Ti,Al)N-, Al 2 O 3 -, and (Ti,Al)N/Al 2 O 3 multilayer coatings were deposited onto cemented carbide cutting tool inserts by a plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition (PACVD) technique. Al 2 O 3 coatings were deposited using the gaseous mixture AlCl 3 , Ar, H 2 , and O 2 . (Ti,Al)N intermediate layers were deposited in the same device using the process mentioned and the gases AICl 3 , Ar, H 2 , TiCl 4 and N 2 . The unique properties of (Ti,Al)N/Al 2 O 3 multilayer coatings result in superior wear protection for cutting inserts applied in severe multifunction cutting processes. The influence of different deposition temperatures an structure and properties of the coatings like crystallographic phases, chemical composition, mechanical and technological properties is shown. PACVD (Ti,Al)N/Al 2 O 3 coated cutting inserts with fine grained crystalline α/κ-Al 2 O 3 offer performance advantages which are superior with respect to coatings deposited by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) due to the low deposition temperature applied. (author)

  2. Development of a Metal Cutting Tool Fase in Order to Create the Conditions of Ringed Chips Wrapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchuganova, M.; Syrbakov, A.; Chernysheva, T.; Ivanov, G.; Korchuganov, M.

    2016-08-01

    When processing ductile metals with high cutting speed, there is a need to take additional measures for a comfortable and safe formation and removal of chips. In the conditions of large-scale manufacture, it is recommended to produce flow chips in the form of short fragments, while in the conditions of small-lot and single-piece manufacture, it is reasonable to wrap the chips spirally with a rather small turn radius. Such way of chips formation reduces the time of its removal from the working area as well as facilitates its transportation and processing. In order to solve the problem of chip wrapping and breakage, almost all modern manufacturers of tools with replaceable many-sided plates (RMSP) followed the way of complication of tool faces and determination of the areas of effective chip breaking. On the one hand, the suggested solution turns out to be effective; however, as showed the analysis of recommended cutting modes for complex forms of RMSP made by leading manufacturers, they all correspond to the definite cross section of the cut-layer S/t=0.1.

  3. Strength analysis and modeling of cellular lattice structures manufactured using selective laser melting for tooling applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahshid, Rasoul; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Loft Højbjerre, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is rapidly developing and gaining popularity for direct metal fabrication systems like selective laser melting (SLM). The technology has shown significant improvement for high-quality fabrication of lightweight design-efficient structures such as conformal cooling channels...... in injection molding tools and lattice structures. This research examines the effect of cellular lattice structures on the strength of workpieces additively manufactured from ultra high-strength steel powder. Two commercial SLM machines are used to fabricate cellular samples based on four architectures— solid......, hollow, lattice structure and rotated lattice structure. Compression test is applied to the specimens while they are deformed. The analytical approach includes finite element (FE), geometrical and mathematical models for prediction of collapse strength. The results from the the models are verified...

  4. Investigation of fatigue strength of tool steels in sheet-bulk metal forming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, F.; Gröbel, D.; Merklein, M.

    2018-05-01

    To encounter trends regarding an efficient production of complex functional components in forming technology, the process class of sheet-bulk metal forming (SBMF) can be applied. SBMF is characterized by the application of bulk forming operations on sheet metal, often in combination with sheet forming operations [1]. The combination of these conventional process classes leads to locally varying load conditions. The resulting load conditions cause high tool loads, which lead to a reduced tool life, and an uncontrolled material flow. Several studies have shown that locally modified tool surfaces, so-called tailored surfaces, have the potential to control the material flow and thus to increase the die filling of functional elements [2]. A combination of these modified tool surfaces and high tool loads in SBMF is furthermore critical for the tool life and leads to fatigue. Tool fatigue is hardly predictable and due to a lack of data [3], a challenge in tool design. Thus, it is necessary to provide such data for tool steels used in SBMF. The aim of this study is the investigation of the influence of tailored surfaces on the fatigue strength of the powder metallurgical tool steel ASP2023 (1.3344, AISI M3:2), which is typically used in cold forging applications, with a hardness 60 HRC ± 1 HRC. To conduct this investigation, the rotating bending test is chosen. As tailored surfaces, a DLC-coating and a surface manufactured by a high-feed-milling process are chosen. As reference a polished surface which is typical for cold forging tools is used. Before the rotating bending test, the surface integrity is characterized by measuring topography and residual stresses. After testing, the determined values of the surface integrity are correlated with the reached fracture load cycle to derive functional relations. Based on the gained results the investigated tailored surfaces are evaluated regarding their feasibility to modify tool surfaces within SBMF.

  5. Active control of residual tool marks for freeform optics functionalization by novel biaxial servo assisted fly cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiwei; To, Suet; Zhang, Shaojian

    2015-09-01

    The inherent residual tool marks (RTM) with particular patterns highly affect optical functions of the generated freeform optics in fast tool servo or slow tool servo (FTS/STS) diamond turning. In the present study, a novel biaxial servo assisted fly cutting (BSFC) method is developed for flexible control of the RTM to be a functional micro/nanotexture in freeform optics generation, which is generally hard to achieve in FTS/STS diamond turning. In the BSFC system, biaxial servo motions along the z-axis and side-feeding directions are mainly adopted for primary surface generation and RTM control, respectively. Active control of the RTM from the two aspects, namely, undesired effect elimination or effective functionalization, are experimentally demonstrated by fabricating a typical F-theta freeform surface with scattering homogenization and two functional microstructures with imposition of secondary phase gratings integrating both reflective and diffractive functions.

  6. Pneumatically-powered hand tool used for cutting bolts during bone-fixing in surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cool, J.C.; Rijnsaardt, K.A.

    1996-01-01

    Abstract of NL 1000849 (C2) The tool has at least one pneumatic motor (1a, 1b), transmission (2) and regulator. The motor(s) can be of the piston and cylinder type producing reciprocating motion or of the rotary type. The tool is powered by a commercially-available gas cylinder containing 16g of CO2

  7. Operation of the AM-50 cutting head under different cutting conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Kusz, F; Fels, M

    1988-02-01

    Presents results of investigations into operation of the AM-50 heading machine. About 50% of headings, i.e. about 800 km/a, are driven by about 400 heading machines. It has been found that energy consumption depends on compression strength of rock and is 6 times higher for sandstone than for clayey shale. Power consumed by cutting heads depends mainly on the web used (30-150 mm depending on rock strength). Wear of cutting tools is 1-30 pieces per meter of heading advance at a working cross-section area of 15 m/sup 2/. The AM-50 machine uses cutting speeds of 1.1-3.5 m/s. Higher speeds negatively affect the resistance to cutting. Nonuniform tool wear on the cutting head circumference is an indication of improper head design that requires remedying.

  8. Technics Research on Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride Cutting Tools Dry Turning Ti-6AL-4V Alloy Based on Orthogonal Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Yunhai

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ti-6Al-4V components are the most widely used titanium alloy products not only in the aerospace industry, but also for bio-medical applications. The machine-ability of titanium alloys is impaired by their high temperature chemical reactivity, low thermal conductivity and low modulus of elasticity. Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride represents a substitute tool material for turning titanium alloys due to its high hardness, wear resistance, thermal stability and hot red hardness. For determination of suitable cutting parameters in dry turning Ti-6AL-4V alloy by Polycrystalline cubic boron nitride cutting tools, the samples, 300mm in length and 100mm in diameter, were dry machined in a lathe. The turning suitable parameters, such as cutting speed, feed rate and cut depth were determined according to workpieces surface roughness and tools flank wear based on orthogonal experimental design. The experiment showed that the cutting speed in the range of 160~180 m/min, the feed rate is 0.15 mm/rev and the depth of cut is 0.20mm, ideal workpiece surface roughness and little cutting tools flank wear can be obtained.

  9. Tool life and cutting speed for the maximum productivity at the drilling of the stainless steel X22CrMoV12-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlase, A.; Blăjină, O.; Iacob, M.; Darie, V.

    2015-11-01

    Two addressed issues in the research regarding the cutting machinability, establishing of the optimum cutting processing conditions and the optimum cutting regime, do not yet have sufficient data for solving. For this reason, in the paper it is proposed the optimization of the tool life and the cutting speed at the drilling of a certain stainless steel in terms of the maximum productivity. For this purpose, a nonlinear programming mathematical model to maximize the productivity at the drilling of the steel is developed in the paper. The optimum cutting tool life and the associated cutting tool speed are obtained by solving the numerical mathematical model. Using this proposed model allows increasing the accuracy in the prediction of the productivity for the drilling of a certain stainless steel and getting the optimum tool life and the optimum cutting speed for the maximum productivity. The results presented in this paper can be used in the production activity, in order to increase the productivity of the stainless steels machining. Also new research directions for the specialists in this interested field may come off from this paper.

  10. Disk Rock Cutting Tool for the Implementation of Resource-Saving Technologies of Mining of Solid Minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manietyev, Leonid; Khoreshok, Aleksey; Tsekhin, Alexander; Borisov, Andrey

    2017-11-01

    The directions of a resource and energy saving when creating a boom-type effectors of roadheaders of selective action with disc rock cutting tools on a multi-faceted prisms for the destruction of formation of minerals and rocks pricemax are presented. Justified reversing the modes of the crowns and booms to improve the efficiency of mining works. Parameters of destruction of coal and rock faces by the disk tool of a biconical design with the unified fastening knots to many-sided prisms on effectors of extraction mining machines are determined. Parameters of tension of the interfaced elements of knots of fastening of the disk tool at static interaction with the destroyed face of rocks are set. The technical solutions containing the constructive and kinematic communications realizing counter and reverse mode of rotation of two radial crowns with the disk tool on trihedral prisms and cases of booms with the disk tool on tetrahedral prisms in internal space between two axial crowns with the cutter are proposed. Reserves of expansion of the front of loading outside a table of a feeder of the roadheader of selective action, including side zones in which loading corridors by blades of trihedral prisms in internal space between two radial crowns are created are revealed.

  11. Vital Involvement Practice: strengths as more than tools for solving problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivnick, Helen Q; Stoffel, Sharon A

    2005-01-01

    This article describes Vital Involvement Practice, a strength-based approach to clinical practice with elders, including those who are extremely frail. Using this approach, practitioners have been able to help elders increase later-life vitality and associated positive quality of life through: (1) systematic identification of individual strengths and assets (found both in the person and in the surrounding environment), and (2) consideration of these strengths alongside the individual and environmental deficits that are the subject of most geriatric practice. The approach utilizes original data-gathering tools (Occupational Profile; Life Strengths Interview Guide) and a stepwise, worksheet- structured consideration of these data in order to formulate action strategies for achieving client goals (Domain Scan; Domain Goals; Life Plan/Strategy). All elements of VIP emerged in pilot work with gerontological practitioners and their elder clients in such settings as: primary health care; government social service; subsidized senior housing; private clinical practice; community recreation. Limitations, implications, and promise are noted, with respect to practice and research.

  12. ASPECTS REGARDING THE OPTIMUM CUTTING TOOL PATH IN PROCESSING FREE-FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florin CHIFAN

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an approach on tool paths optimization in CAM-type software for milling free forms, with the goal to improve efficiency in processing using CNC machine tools. The methodology proposed in this paper, tackles the problem of mechanical processing in 3 axes using ball nose milling cutters of small diameters, which follows a free form profile. I will consider two cases: the first one considers the ball nose end mill route on a free form with an angle of less than 30°, the second one with a tool path greater than 30°. The main objective of this paper is to determine the optimum angle in order to obtain a better surface roughness, a shorter time of processing and also a higher tool-life, all these by considering all other factors that occurs in the manufacturing process. This will be done by indicating and editing the tool path so that the tools will the minimum entries and exits on the surface of the piece. This will lead to a 10% decrease of the working time.

  13. Si3N4 ceramic cutting tool sintered with CeO2 and Al2O3 additives with AlCrN coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Vitor Candido Souza

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic cutting tools are showing a growing market perspective in terms of application on machining operations due to their high hardness, wear resistance, and machining without a cutting fluid, therefore are good candidates for cast iron and Nickel superalloys machining. The objective of the present paper was the development of Si3N4 based ceramic cutting insert, characterization of its physical and mechanical properties, and subsequent coating with AlCrN using a PVD method. The characterization of the coating was made using an optical profiler, XRD, AFM and microhardness tester. The results showed that the tool presented a fracture toughness of 6.43 MPa.m½ and hardness of 16 GPa. The hardness reached 31 GPa after coating. The machining tests showed a decrease on workpiece roughness when machining with coated insert, in comparison with the uncoated cutting tool. Probably this fact is related to hardness, roughness and topography of AlCrN.

  14. Tool for cutting locking cups from guide tube mounting screws in a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nee, J.D.; Hahn, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an apparatus for freeing a socket-head screw from a locking cup therefor in a reactor cavity, wherein the locking cup includes a fixed cylindrical side wall encircling the side surface of the screw head and an annular end wall overlying the outer end surface of the screw head. The apparatus consists of: frame means, cylindrical cutter means having a longitudinal axis and having a frustoconical cutting surface with an inner diameter less than the inner diameter of the locking cup side wall and with an outer diameter greater than the outer diameter of the locking cup side wall, and drive means carried by the frame means and coupled to the cutter means for effecting rotation thereof about the axis, the rotating cutter means are operable for severing the locking cup end wall from the locking cup side wall at the junction therebetween when the cutter means is moved against the locking cup substantially coaxially therewith

  15. Experimental Investigation on Tool Wear Behavior and Cutting Temperature during Dry Machining of Carbon Steel SAE 1030 Using KC810 and KC910 Coated Inserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Tamerabet

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The removal of cutting fluids and lubrication in dry machining operations requires a good knowledge and full control of all the mechanisms that lead to tool damage. In order to optimize dry machining operations, it is necessary to clearly identify the wear patterns, determine the contact conditions and define the relationship between the contact parameters and the operating conditions. The idea is to choose optimal cutting conditions which lead to the best contact conditions limiting the triggering or aggravation of wear phenomena. The purpose of this paper is to determine the impact multilayer coatings and cutting parameters on tool wear and temperature at the tool-chip interface for two types of coated carbides (KC810 and KC910 Commercialized inserts during dry turning operation of carbon steel SAE 1030, in order to determine the ideal parameters and guarantee the best performances of the cutting tools. Cutting temperature, Crater and Flank wear have been systematically recorded in order to determine their influence on tool life time. To ensure the optimum choice of machining conditions; the TAGUCHI method associated to multi-factorial method were applied to plan the experiments. It has been noted that cutting speed was the most influential factor on temperature and wear evolution. We noted also that the KC810 insert was more suitable for machining of SAE 1030 Carbon Steel; where The best life time was registered (T=228 min. The KC810 inserts offer 30 min of additional machining time for the same work conditions.

  16. Effects of sintering processes on mechanical properties and microstructure of TiB2–TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Bin; Huang Chuanzhen; Song Jinpeng; Liu Ziye; Liu Lin; Zhao Yan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► TiB 2 –TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramic tool material was sintered by six processes. ► The properties of material depended mainly on the holding stages and duration. ► SP1 process was involved with the multiple holding stages and longer duration. ► SP1 process led to many pores, and coarsening and brittle rupture of grains. ► Tool material sintered by SP6 process exhibited the optimum mechanical properties. - Abstract: TiB 2 –TiC composite powder was prepared by ball-milled with ethanol and vacuum dry, and TiB 2 –TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material was sintered using vacuum hot-pressed sintering technique by six processes which included the different holding stages and times. The effects of sintering processes on the mechanical properties and microstructure were investigated. The polished surface and fracture surface of TiB 2 –TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramics sintered by the different sintering processes were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS), and the relationships between mechanical properties and microstructure were discussed. The mechanical properties and microstructure depended mainly on the total holding time and the different holding stages. The longer holding time and multiple holding stages led to coarsening of TiB 2 and TiC grains, formation of pores and the brittle rupture of grains, which deteriorated the mechanical properties of TiB 2 –TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni ceramic. TiB 2 –TiC + 8 wt% nano-Ni composite ceramic cutting tool material sintered by SP6 process exhibited the optimum resultant mechanical properties because of its finer microstructure and higher relative density, and its flexural strength, fracture toughness and hardness were 916.8 MPa, 7.80 MPa m 1/2 and 22.54 GPa, respectively.

  17. Geometric Parameters of Cutting Tools that Can be Used for Forming Sided Surfaces with Variable Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razumov M.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article describes machining technology of polyhedral surfaces with varying profile, which is provided by planetary motion of multiblade block tools. The features of the technology and urgency of the problem is indicated. The purpose of the study is to determine the minimum value of the clearance angle of the tool. Also, the study is carried out about changing the value of the front and rear corners during the formation of polygonal surface using a planetary gear. The scheme of calculating the impact of various factors on the value of the minimum clearance angle of the tool and kinematic front and rear corners of the instrument is provided. The mathematical formula for calculating the minimum clearance angle of the tool is given. Also, given the formula for determining the front and rear corners of the tool during driving. This study can be used in the calculation of the design operations forming multifaceted external surfaces with a variable profile by using the planetary gear.

  18. The Influence of Tool Geometry towards Cutting Performance in Machining Aluminium 7075

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Syafik Jumali

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aerospace industries often use Computer Numerical Control (CNC machining in manufacturing aerospace parts. Aluminium 7075 is the most common material used as aircraft components. This research aims to produce end mill with optimum geometry in terms of the helix angle, primary radial relief angle and secondary relief angle. End mills with different geometry parameters are tested on Aluminium 7075 and data on surface roughness and tool wear were collected. The results were then analysed to determine which parameters brought the optimum result with regards to surface roughness and tool wear.

  19. An Experimental Investigation of Cutting Temperature and Tool Wear in 2 Dimensional Ultrasonic Vibrations Assisted Micro-Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Mohd Rasidi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Two dimensional Ultrasonic vibration assisted milling (2D UVAM well knows process that involved in high tech system to generate ultra range of frequency applied to the milling process. More industries nowadays become aware taking this opportunity to improve their productivity without decreasing their product accuracies. This paper investigate a comparative machining between UVAM and conventional machining (CM in tool wear and cutting temperature in milling process. Micro amplitude and sine wave frequency will be generate into the workpiece jig by piezo-actuator. Thus, creating a micro gap that allow heat remove effectively with the chip produces. A more complex tool trajectory mechanics of 2D UVAM has been found during this research. The approaching the tool tip into the workpiece surfaces is affected by the amplitude displacement along the frequency applied. It is found that the tool wear was reduce and surface roughness improvement by applying the 2D UVAM compared to the CM when choosing the optimum amplitude and appropriate frequency.

  20. Aplicaciones extraorales del bisturí piezoeléctrico Extraoral uses of a piezoelectric surgical cutting tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. González Lagunas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Presentamos nuestra experiencia con el empleo de un bisturí piezoeleéctrico con el fin de efectuar diferentes osteotomias extraorales, Estas indicaciones no se han presentado previamente en la literatura. En los últimos 6 meses hemos utilizado este intrumento para efectuar osteotomías en el cóndilo y en la eminencia articular, para tomar injerto de calota craneal y para realizar las osteotomias de la rinoplastia. Este instrumento permite una inea de osteotomia precisa sin el riesgo de lesionar los tejidos blandos vecinos. Se discuten las ventajas e inconvenientes del instrumento según el procedimiento realizado.We report our experience with the use of a piezoelectric surgical cutting tool in performing extraoral osteotomies. These indications have not been reported previously in the literature. In the last 6 months we have used this instrument to perform osteotomy on the temporomandibular condyle and articular eminence, to obtain grafts from the skull, and to perform osteotomy for rhinoplasty. This instrument can be used to makes an osteotomy cut without risk of injuring adjacent soft tissues. Its advantages and disadvantages are discussed in accordance with the procedure performed.

  1. Influence of friction stir welding process and tool parameters on strength properties of AA7075-T6 aluminium alloy joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajakumar, S.; Muralidharan, C.; Balasubramanian, V.

    2011-01-01

    The aircraft aluminium alloys generally present low weldability by traditional fusion welding process. The development of the friction stir welding has provided an alternative improved way of satisfactorily producing aluminium joints, in a faster and reliable manner. In this present work, the influence of process and tool parameters on tensile strength properties of AA7075-T 6 joints produced by friction stir welding was analysed. Square butt joints were fabricated by varying process parameters and tool parameters. Strength properties of the joints were evaluated and correlated with the microstructure, microhardness of weld nugget. From this investigation it is found that the joint fabricated at a tool rotational speed of 1400 rpm, welding speed of 60 mm/min, axial force of 8 kN, using the tool with 15 mm shoulder diameter, 5 mm pin diameter, 45 HRc tool hardness yielded higher strength properties compared to other joints.

  2. Experimental and numerical investigations on the temperature distribution in PVD AlTiN coated and uncoated Al2O3/TiCN mixed ceramic cutting tools in hard turning of AISI 52100 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sateesh Kumar, Ch; Patel, Saroj Kumar; Das, Anshuman

    2018-03-01

    Temperature generation in cutting tools is one of the major causes of tool failure especially during hard machining where machining forces are quite high resulting in elevated temperatures. Thus, the present work investigates the temperature generation during hard machining of AISI 52100 steel (62 HRC hardness) with uncoated and PVD AlTiN coated Al2O3/TiCN mixed ceramic cutting tools. The experiments were performed on a heavy duty lathe machine with both coated and uncoated cutting tools under dry cutting environment. The temperature of the cutting zone was measured using an infrared thermometer and a finite element model has been adopted to predict the temperature distribution in cutting tools during machining for comparative assessment with the measured temperature. The experimental and numerical results revealed a significant reduction of cutting zone temperature during machining with PVD AlTiN coated cutting tools when compared to uncoated cutting tools during each experimental run. The main reason for decrease in temperature for AlTiN coated tools is the lower coefficient of friction offered by the coating material which allows the free flow of the chips on the rake surface when compared with uncoated cutting tools. Further, the superior wear behaviour of AlTiN coating resulted in reduction of cutting temperature.

  3. Prediction of the wear and evolution of cutting tools in a carbide / titanium-aluminum-vanadium machining tribosystem by volumetric tool wear characterization and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttolamadom, Mathew Abraham

    The objective of this research work is to create a comprehensive microstructural wear mechanism-based predictive model of tool wear in the tungsten carbide / Ti-6Al-4V machining tribosystem, and to develop a new topology characterization method for worn cutting tools in order to validate the model predictions. This is accomplished by blending first principle wear mechanism models using a weighting scheme derived from scanning electron microscopy (SEM) imaging and energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy (EDS) analysis of tools worn under different operational conditions. In addition, the topology of worn tools is characterized through scanning by white light interferometry (WLI), and then application of an algorithm to stitch and solidify data sets to calculate the volume of the tool worn away. The methodology was to first combine and weight dominant microstructural wear mechanism models, to be able to effectively predict the tool volume worn away. Then, by developing a new metrology method for accurately quantifying the bulk-3D wear, the model-predicted wear was validated against worn tool volumes obtained from corresponding machining experiments. On analyzing worn crater faces using SEM/EDS, adhesion was found dominant at lower surface speeds, while dissolution wear dominated with increasing speeds -- this is in conformance with the lower relative surface speed requirement for micro welds to form and rupture, essentially defining the mechanical load limit of the tool material. It also conforms to the known dominance of high temperature-controlled wear mechanisms with increasing surface speed, which is known to exponentially increase temperatures especially when machining Ti-6Al-4V due to its low thermal conductivity. Thus, straight tungsten carbide wear when machining Ti-6Al-4V is mechanically-driven at low surface speeds and thermally-driven at high surface speeds. Further, at high surface speeds, craters were formed due to carbon diffusing to the tool surface and

  4. Influence of tool geometry and process parameters on macrostructure and static strength in friction stir spot welded polyethylene sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilici, Mustafa Kemal; Yuekler, Ahmet Irfan

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: → All velding parameters and different tool geometries have demonstrated a different effects on weld strength. → Friction stir spot welding of polyethylene mechanical scission is very important. → Metric screw the tool has a great influence on the weld strength of FSSW. -- Abstract: The effect of important welding parameters and tool properties that are effective on static strength in friction stir spot welds of polyethylene sheets were studied. Six different tool pin profiles (straight cylindrical, tapered cylindrical, threaded cylindrical, triangular, square and hexagonal) with different shoulder geometries, different pin length, pin angle and concavity angle were used to fabricate the joints. The tool rotational speed, tool plunge depth and dwell time were determined welding parameters. All the welding operations were done at the room temperature. Welding force and welding zone material temperature measurements were also done. Lap-shear tests were carried out to find the weld static strength. Weld cross section appearance observations were also done. From the experiments, the effect of pin profile, pin length, pin angle, dwell time and tool rotational speed on friction stir spot welding formation and weld strength was determined.

  5. Cut-loading: a useful tool for examining the extent of gap junction tracer coupling between retinal neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hee Joo; Ribelayga, Christophe P; Mangel, Stuart C

    2012-01-12

    In addition to chemical synaptic transmission, neurons that are connected by gap junctions can also communicate rapidly via electrical synaptic transmission. Increasing evidence indicates that gap junctions not only permit electrical current flow and synchronous activity between interconnected or coupled cells, but that the strength or effectiveness of electrical communication between coupled cells can be modulated to a great extent(1,2). In addition, the large internal diameter (~1.2 nm) of many gap junction channels permits not only electric current flow, but also the diffusion of intracellular signaling molecules and small metabolites between interconnected cells, so that gap junctions may also mediate metabolic and chemical communication. The strength of gap junctional communication between neurons and its modulation by neurotransmitters and other factors can be studied by simultaneously electrically recording from coupled cells and by determining the extent of diffusion of tracer molecules, which are gap junction permeable, but not membrane permeable, following iontophoretic injection into single cells. However, these procedures can be extremely difficult to perform on neurons with small somata in intact neural tissue. Numerous studies on electrical synapses and the modulation of electrical communication have been conducted in the vertebrate retina, since each of the five retinal neuron types is electrically connected by gap junctions(3,4). Increasing evidence has shown that the circadian (24-hour) clock in the retina and changes in light stimulation regulate gap junction coupling(3-8). For example, recent work has demonstrated that the retinal circadian clock decreases gap junction coupling between rod and cone photoreceptor cells during the day by increasing dopamine D2 receptor activation, and dramatically increases rod-cone coupling at night by reducing D2 receptor activation(7,8). However, not only are these studies extremely difficult to perform on

  6. Equivalent formation strength as a proxy tool for exploring the existence and distribution of gas hydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Sanada, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Kido, Y. N.; Moe, K.

    2017-12-01

    Gas hydrates bearing layer can be normally identified by a basement simulating reflector (BSR) or well logging because of their high acoustic- and electric impedance compared to the surrounding formation. These characteristics of the gas hydrate can also represent contrast of in-situ formation strength. We here attempt to describe gas hydrate bearing layers based on the equivalent strength (EST). The Indian National Gas Hydrate Program (NGHP) Expedition 02 was executed 2015 off the eastern margin of the Indian Peninsula to investigate distribution and occurrence of gas hydrates. From 25 drill sites, downhole logging data, cored samples, and drilling performance data were collected. Recorded drilling performance data was converted to the EST, which is a developed mechanical strength calculated only by drilling parameters (top drive torque, rotation per minute , rate of penetration , and drill bit diameter). At a representative site, site 23, the EST shows constant trend of 5 to 10 MPa, with some positive peaks at 0 - 270 mbsf interval, and sudden increase up to 50 MPa above BSR depth (270 - 290 mbsf). Below the BSR, the EST stays at 5-10 MPa down to the bottom of the hole (378 mbsf). Comparison of the EST with logging data and core sample description suggests that the depth profiles of the EST reflect formation lithology and gas hydrate content: the EST increase in the sand-rich layer and the gas hydrate bearing zone. Especially in the gas hydrate zone, the EST curve indicates approximately the same trend with that of P-wave velocity and resistivity measured by downhole logging. Cross plot of the increment of the EST and resistivity revealed the relation between them is roughly logarithmic, indicating the increase and decrease of the EST strongly depend on the saturation factor of gas hydrate. These results suggest that the EST, proxy of in-situ formation strength, can be an indicator of existence and amount of the gas-hydrate layer. Although the EST was calculated

  7. Comparison of tool life and surface roughness with MQL, flood cooling, and dry cutting conditions with P20 and D2 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senevirathne, S. W. M. A. I.; Punchihewa, H. K. G.

    2017-09-01

    Minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) is a cutting fluid (CF) application method that has given promising results in improving machining performances. It has shown that, the performance of cutting systems, depends on the work and tool materials used. AISI P20, and D2 are popular in tool making industry. However, the applicability of MQL in machining these two steels has not been studied previously. This experimental study is focused on evaluating performances of MQL compared to dry cutting, and conventional flood cooling method. Trials were carried out with P20, and D2 steels, using coated carbides as tool material, emulsion cutting oil as the CF. Tool nose wear, and arithmetic average surface roughness (Ra) were taken as response variables. Results were statistically analysed for differences in response variables. Although many past literature has suggested that MQL causes improvements in tool wear, and surface finish, this study has found contradicting results. MQL has caused nearly 200% increase in tool nose wear, and nearly 11-13% increase in surface roughness compared flood cooling method with both P20 and D2. Therefore, this study concludes that MQL affects adversely in machining P20, and D2 steels.

  8. Investigation of surface roughness and tool wear length with varying combination of depth of cut and feed rate of Aluminium alloy and P20 steel machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varmma Suparmaniam, Madan; Yusoff, Ahmad Razlan

    2016-01-01

    High-speed milling technique is often used in many industries to boost productivity of the manufacturing of high-technology components. The occurrence of wear highly limits the efficiency and accuracy of high- speed milling operations. In this paper, analysis of high-speed milling process parameters such as material removal rate, cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut carried out by implemented to conventional milling. This experiment investigate the effects of varying combination of depth of cut and feed rate to tool wear rate length using metallurgical microscope and surface roughness using portable surface roughness tester after end milling of Aluminium and P20 steel. Results showed that feed rate significantly influences the surface roughness value while depth of cut does not as the surface roughness value keep increasing with the increase of feed rate and decreasing depth of cut. Whereas, tool wear rate almost remain unchanged indicates that material removal rate strongly contribute the wear rate. It believe that with no significant tool wear rate the results of this experiment are useful by showing that HSM technique is possible to be applied in conventional machine with extra benefits of high productivity, eliminating semi-finishing operation and reducing tool load for finishing. (paper)

  9. Effect of cutting edge radius on surface roughness in diamond tool turning of transparent MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Xiaobin; Xu, Min; Du, Wenhao; Chu, Chong

    2017-09-01

    Transparent magnesium aluminate spinel (MgAl2O4) ceramic is one of an important optical materials. However, due to its pronounced hardness and brittleness, the optical machining of this material is very difficult. Diamond turning has advantages over the grinding process in flexibility and material removal rate. However, there is a lack of research that could support the use of diamond turning technology in the machining of MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic. Using brittle-ductile transition theory of brittle material machining, this work provides critical information that may help to realize ductile-regime turning of MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic. A characterization method of determination the cutting edge radius is introduced here. Suitable diamond tools were measured for sharpness and then chosen from a large number of candidate tools. The influence of rounded cutting edges on surface roughness of the MgAl2O4 spinel ceramic is also investigated. These results indicate that surface quality of MgAl2O4 spinel is relate to the radius of diamond tool's cutting edge, cutting speed, and feed rate. Sharp diamond tools (small radius of cutting edge) facilitated ductile-regime turning of MgAl2O4 spinel and shows great potential to reduce surface roughness and produce smoother final surface.

  10. MGDS: Free, on-line, cutting-edge tools to enable the democratisation of geoscience data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwillie, A. M.; Ryan, W. B.; O'Hara, S.; Ferrini, V.; Arko, R. A.; Coplan, J.; Chan, S.; Carbotte, S. M.; Nitsche, F. O.; Bonczkowski, J.; Morton, J. J.; Weissel, R.; Leung, A.

    2010-12-01

    The availability of user-friendly, effective cyber-information resources for accessing and manipulating geoscience data has grown rapidly in recent years. Based at Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory the MGDS group has developed a number of free tools that have wide application across the geosciences for both educators and researchers. A simple web page (http://www.marine-geo.org/) allows users to search for and download many types of data by key word, geographical region, or published citation. The popular Create Maps and Grids function and the downloadable Google Earth-compatible KML files appeal to a wide user base. MGDS MediaBank galleries (http://media.marine-geo.org/) enable users to view and download compelling images that are purposefully selected for their educational value from NSF-funded field programs. GeoMapApp (http://www.geomapapp.org), a free map-based interactive tool that works on any machine, is increasingly being adopted across a broad suite of users from middle school students to university researchers. GeoMapApp allows users to plot, manipulate and present data in an intuitive geographical reference frame. GeoMapApp offers a convenient way to explore the wide range of built-in data sets, to quickly generate maps and images that aid visualisation and, when importing their own gridded and tabular data sets, to access the same rich built-in functionality. A user guide, short multi-media tutorials, and webinar are available on-line. The regularly-updated Global Multi-Resolution Topography (GMRT) Synthesis is used as the default GeoMapApp base map and is an increasingly popular means to rapidly create location maps. Additionally, the layer manager offers a fast way to overlay and compare multiple data sets and is augmented by the ability to alter layer transparency so that underlying layers become visible. Examples of GeoMapApp built-in data sets include high-resolution land topography and ocean floor bathymetry derived from satellite and multi

  11. Mechanisms, Prediction, and Prevention of ACL Injuries: Cut Risk With Three Sharpened and Validated Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewett, Timothy E.; Myer, Gregory D.; Ford, Kevin R.; Paterno, Mark V.; Quatman, Carmen E.

    2017-01-01

    Economic and societal pressures influence modern medical practice to develop and implement prevention strategies. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury devastates the knee joint leading to short term disability and long term sequelae. Due to the high risk of long term osteoarthritis in all treatment populations following ACL injury, prevention is the only effective intervention for this life-altering disruption in knee health. The “Sequence of Prevention” Model provides a framework to monitor progress towards the ultimate goal of preventing ACL injuries. Utilizing this model, our multidisciplinary collaborative research team has spent the last decade working to delineate injury mechanisms, identify injury risk factors, predict which athletes are at-risk for injury, and develop ACL injury prevention programs. Within this model of injury prevention, modifiable factors (biomechanical and neuromuscular) related to injury mechanisms likely provide the best opportunity for intervention strategies aimed to decrease the risk of ACL injury, particularly in female athletes. Knowledge advancements have led to the development of potential solutions that allow athletes to compete with lowered risk of ACL injury. Design and integration of personalized clinical assessment tools and targeted prevention strategies for athletes at high risk for ACL injury may transform current prevention practices and ultimately significantly reduce ACL injury incidence. This 2016 OREF Clinical Research Award focuses on the authors' work and contributions to the field. The author's acknowledge the many research groups who have contributed to the current state of knowledge in the fields of ACL injury mechanisms, injury risk screening and injury prevention strategies. PMID:27612195

  12. Ductile cutting of silicon microstructures with surface inclination measurement and compensation by using a force sensor integrated single point diamond tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yuan-Liu; Cai, Yindi; Shimizu, Yuki; Ito, So; Gao, Wei; Ju, Bing-Feng

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a measurement and compensation method of surface inclination for ductile cutting of silicon microstructures by using a diamond tool with a force sensor based on a four-axis ultra-precision lathe. The X- and Y-directional inclinations of a single crystal silicon workpiece with respect to the X- and Y-motion axes of the lathe slides were measured respectively by employing the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe, in which the tool-workpiece contact is sensitively detected by monitoring the force sensor output. Based on the measurement results, fabrication of silicon microstructures can be thus carried out directly along the tilted silicon workpiece by compensating the cutting motion axis to be parallel to the silicon surface without time-consuming pre-adjustment of the surface inclination or turning of a flat surface. A diamond tool with a negative rake angle was used in the experiment for superior ductile cutting performance. The measurement precision by using the diamond tool as a touch-trigger probe was investigated. Experiments of surface inclination measurement and ultra-precision ductile cutting of a micro-pillar array and a micro-pyramid array with inclination compensation were carried out respectively to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method. (paper)

  13. Stochastic-Strength-Based Damage Simulation Tool for Ceramic Matrix and Polymer Matrix Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel N.; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Pineda, Evan J.; Walton, Owen J.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic-based, discrete-event progressive damage simulations of ceramic-matrix composite and polymer matrix composite material structures have been enabled through the development of a unique multiscale modeling tool. This effort involves coupling three independently developed software programs: (1) the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC), (2) the Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures Life Prediction Program (CARES/ Life), and (3) the Abaqus finite element analysis (FEA) program. MAC/GMC contributes multiscale modeling capabilities and micromechanics relations to determine stresses and deformations at the microscale of the composite material repeating unit cell (RUC). CARES/Life contributes statistical multiaxial failure criteria that can be applied to the individual brittle-material constituents of the RUC. Abaqus is used at the global scale to model the overall composite structure. An Abaqus user-defined material (UMAT) interface, referred to here as "FEAMAC/CARES," was developed that enables MAC/GMC and CARES/Life to operate seamlessly with the Abaqus FEA code. For each FEAMAC/CARES simulation trial, the stochastic nature of brittle material strength results in random, discrete damage events, which incrementally progress and lead to ultimate structural failure. This report describes the FEAMAC/CARES methodology and discusses examples that illustrate the performance of the tool. A comprehensive example problem, simulating the progressive damage of laminated ceramic matrix composites under various off-axis loading conditions and including a double notched tensile specimen geometry, is described in a separate report.

  14. Simultaneous enhancement of strength and ductility in cryogenically treated AISI D2 tool steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, Hadi; Jahazi, Mohammad, E-mail: mohammad.jahazi@etsmtl.ca

    2014-03-01

    In this research, the effect of cryogenic treatment on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties enhancement of AISI D2 tool steel was investigated. Cryogenic treatment down to liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) was added to the conventional heat treatment between hardening and tempering steps. Electron microscopy investigation showed higher volume fraction of fine carbides with average diameter below 1 μm indicating effective retardation in carbide coarsening process as a results of cryogenic treatment. A modification in types of carbides was also observed after cryogenic treatment. X-ray diffraction diagrams revealed transformation of retained austenite to martensite at cryogenic temperature. Weakening or removal of carbides peak in the X-ray diagram was considered as evidence of carbides different behavior at cryogenic temperature. Mechanical testing results indicated higher ultimate tensile strength, better ductility, and higher elastic modulus after cryogenic treatment. Analysis of stress–strain diagrams revealed different strain hardening behavior for cryogenically treated alloy when compared to the conventionally heat treated one. Fractography results confirmed strain hardening behavior and showed cleavage fracture for conventionally treated alloy but mixed cleavage–ductile fracture mode for cryogenically treated alloy. The improved mechanical properties after cryogenic treatment are interpreted in terms of the influence of higher volume fraction and uniform distribution of fine carbides in reducing the average active dislocations length and enhancement of the flow stress at any given plastic strain.

  15. Simultaneous enhancement of strength and ductility in cryogenically treated AISI D2 tool steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghasemi-Nanesa, Hadi; Jahazi, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    In this research, the effect of cryogenic treatment on microstructural evolution and mechanical properties enhancement of AISI D2 tool steel was investigated. Cryogenic treatment down to liquid nitrogen temperature (77 K) was added to the conventional heat treatment between hardening and tempering steps. Electron microscopy investigation showed higher volume fraction of fine carbides with average diameter below 1 μm indicating effective retardation in carbide coarsening process as a results of cryogenic treatment. A modification in types of carbides was also observed after cryogenic treatment. X-ray diffraction diagrams revealed transformation of retained austenite to martensite at cryogenic temperature. Weakening or removal of carbides peak in the X-ray diagram was considered as evidence of carbides different behavior at cryogenic temperature. Mechanical testing results indicated higher ultimate tensile strength, better ductility, and higher elastic modulus after cryogenic treatment. Analysis of stress–strain diagrams revealed different strain hardening behavior for cryogenically treated alloy when compared to the conventionally heat treated one. Fractography results confirmed strain hardening behavior and showed cleavage fracture for conventionally treated alloy but mixed cleavage–ductile fracture mode for cryogenically treated alloy. The improved mechanical properties after cryogenic treatment are interpreted in terms of the influence of higher volume fraction and uniform distribution of fine carbides in reducing the average active dislocations length and enhancement of the flow stress at any given plastic strain

  16. Investigating Micro-Tensile Bond Strength of Silorane Based Composite in Enamel Surfaces Prepared by Er:YAG Laser vs. Bur-Cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Daneshkazemi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Recently, Er:YAG laser has been used for tooth preparations and silorane-based composites have been introduced to dentistry, though investigating this type of composites has received scant attention. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare microtensile bond strength (MTBS of silorane- based composite (Filtek P90 3M/USA to enamel sufaces, prepared by Er:YAG laser irradiation versus bur cut. Methods:Same sized cavities were prepared by ER:YAG laser and bur on the enamel of 20 extracted teeth which were randomly divided into 4 groups:E1 laser + acid etching, E2: laser, E3: bur + acid etching, E4: bur. Then primer, adhesive and P60 resin composite were utilized according to the manufacturer instructions. After thermocycling, 20 samples were created in the form of an hour glass model with 1 mm2 slices in each group, and were tested by SD Mechatronic MTD 500 (Germany machine with cross head speed of 1mm/min to create the fracture. The failure mode was assessed under stereomicroscope (ZTX-3E, Zhejiang/China, and the study data were analysed by ANOVA test. Results: The study results revealed that highest and lowest microtensile bond strength belonged to E3 and E2 group respectively. No significant differences were observed between the tested groups(p= 0.213. Highest and lowest modes of failure were adhesive and cohesive respectively. ANOVA results did not demonstrate any significant differences between groups(p=0.845. Conclusion: Laser-prepared or bur-prepared cavities with or without etching and silorane based composite could not significantly affect MTBS in order to enamel.

  17. Is a sphygmomanometer a valid and reliable tool to measure the isometric strength of hip muscles? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Liam Anthony; De Noronha, Marcos; Taylor, Carolyn; Thomas, James

    2015-02-01

    Muscle strength measurement is a key component of physiotherapists' assessment and is frequently used as an outcome measure. A sphygmomanometer is an instrument commonly used to measure blood pressure that can be potentially used as a tool to assess isometric muscle strength. To systematically review the evidence on the reliability and validity of a sphygmomanometer for measuring isometric strength of hip muscles. A literature search was conducted across four databases. Studies were eligible if they presented data on reliability and/or validity, used a sphygmomanometer to measure isometric muscle strength of the hip region, and were peer reviewed. The individual studies were evaluated for quality using a standardized critical appraisal tool. A total of 644 articles were screened for eligibility, with five articles chosen for inclusion. The use of a sphygmomanometer to objectively assess isometric muscle strength of the hip muscles appears to be reliable with intraclass correlation coefficient values ranging from 0.66 to 0.94 in elderly and young populations. No studies were identified that have assessed the validity of a sphygmomanometer. The sphygmomanometer appears to be reliable for assessment of isometric muscle strength around the hip joint, but further research is warranted to establish its validity.

  18. Development and Assessment of a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Organic Chemistry Students' Alternative Conceptions Related to Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to create a new diagnostic tool to identify organic chemistry students' alternative conceptions related to acid strength. Twenty years of research on secondary and college students' conceptions about acids and bases has shown that these important concepts are difficult for students to apply to qualitative problem…

  19. Flexible Laser Metal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villumsen, Sigurd; Jørgensen, Steffen Nordahl; Kristiansen, Morten

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a new flexible and fast approach to laser cutting called ROBOCUT. Combined with CAD/CAM technology, laser cutting of metal provides the flexibility to perform one-of-a-kind cutting and hereby realises mass production of customised products. Today’s laser cutting techniques...... possess, despite their wide use in industry, limitations regarding speed and geometry. Research trends point towards remote laser cutting techniques which can improve speed and geometrical freedom and hereby the competitiveness of laser cutting compared to fixed-tool-based cutting technology...... such as punching. This paper presents the concepts and preliminary test results of the ROBOCUT laser cutting technology, a technology which potentially can revolutionise laser cutting....

  20. The structure and properties of ZrN-Ni-Co-coatings on the edges steel knives of wood-cutting tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaevskij, V.V.; Grishkevich, A.A.; Zhilinskij, V.V.; Kuleshov, A.K.

    2015-01-01

    Modes were selected and formed electroplated Ni-Co-coatings, ion-plasma Zr N-coatings as well as combined Zr N-Ni-Co-coating on the edges steel (type R6M5) knives of wood-cutting milling tools. Formed electroplated Ni-Co-layers are not mixed with the steel substrate and the Zr N-coating. Microhardness of combined Zr N-Ni-Co-coatings is to 1,2-1,5 times more than microhardness of steel base and bare steel. When cutting laminated chipboard by steel knives of milling tool with a Ni-Co- and Zr N-Ni-Co-coatings under laboratory conditions, abrasive surface wear type of edges knives is observed. Calculating bulk wear of edges knives with Zr N-Ni-Co-coatings showed reduction of more than 3 times value in comparison with knives with Ni-Co-coatings. Pilot testing of tool modified with combined Zr N-Ni-Co-coatings at OJSC 'Minskdrev' when cutting pine confirmed relevance of the tests carried out, as well as showed an increase in durability period of cutters to 30% compared with bare tool. (authors)

  1. Prediction Of Tensile And Shear Strength Of Friction Surfaced Tool Steel Deposit By Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzoor Hussain, M.; Pitchi Raju, V.; Kandasamy, J.; Govardhan, D.

    2018-04-01

    Friction surface treatment is well-established solid technology and is used for deposition, abrasion and corrosion protection coatings on rigid materials. This novel process has wide range of industrial applications, particularly in the field of reclamation and repair of damaged and worn engineering components. In this paper, we present the prediction of tensile and shear strength of friction surface treated tool steel using ANN for simulated results of friction surface treatment. This experiment was carried out to obtain tool steel coatings of low carbon steel parts by changing contribution process parameters essentially friction pressure, rotational speed and welding speed. The simulation is performed by a 33-factor design that takes into account the maximum and least limits of the experimental work performed with the 23-factor design. Neural network structures, such as the Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN), were used to predict tensile and shear strength of tool steel sediments caused by friction.

  2. CONTROL DE CALIDAD DE HERRAMIENTAS DE CORTE CON REMOCIÓN MÍNIMA DE MATERIAL QUALITY CONTROL OF CUTTING TOOLS WITH MINIMUM MATERIAL REMOVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jandrey Maldaner

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Debido a la mejora de las tecnologías de mecanizado, es necesario que las herramientas satisfagan las demandas requeridas. Una condición especial, para poder describir con seguridad el corte con remoción mínima de material, es el conocimiento de los valores característicos de la superficie y de la geometría. Las herramientas poseen una influencia substancial en la calidad de las piezas producidas, así como en la estabilidad y en la seguridad del proceso de mecanizado. Aunque hay una gran cantidad de herramientas para el corte con remoción mínima de material, se presenta como ejemplo la investigación con medición óptica y la obtención de los valores característicos para dientes de sierras de cinta.Due to improved machine cutting technologies it is necessary that tools fulfil the required performance. A special condition, for minimal machine cutting removal, is the knowledge of surface and geometry characteristic values. These tools represent both a substantial influence on the quality of the manufactured pieces and on stability and working safety of the cutting process. Since there is a large number of tools for minimal removal of material, examples of optical measurement and examination of characteristic values by the belt saw teeth are presented.

  3. Adhesion Strength of TiN Coatings at Various Ion Etching Deposited on Tool Steels Using Cathodic Arc Pvd Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mubarak; Hamzah, Esah; Ali, Nouman

    Titanium nitride (TiN) widely used as hard coating material was coated on tool steels, namely on high-speed steel (HSS) and D2 tool steel by physical vapor deposition method. The goal of this study was to examine the effect of ion etching with and without titanium (Ti) and chromium (Cr) on the adhesion strength of TiN coatings deposited on tool steels. From the scratch tester, it was observed that by increasing Ti ion etching showed an increase in adhesion strength of the deposited coatings. The coatings deposited with Cr ion etching showed poor adhesion compared with the coatings deposited with Ti ion etching. Scratch test measurements showed that the coating deposited with titanium ion etching for 16 min is the most stable coating and maintained even at the critical load of 66 N. The curve obtained via penetration depth along the scratch trace is linear in the case of HSS, whereas is slightly flexible in the case of D2 tool steel. The coatings deposited on HSS exhibit better adhesion compared with those on D2 tool steel.

  4. An Experimental Study of Cutting Performances of Worn Picks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogruoz, Cihan; Bolukbasi, Naci; Rostami, Jamal; Acar, Cemil

    2016-01-01

    The best means to assess rock cuttability and efficiency of cutting process for using mechanical excavation is specific energy (SE), measured in full-scale rock cutting test. This is especially true for the application of roadheaders, often fitted with drag-type cutting tools. Radial picks or drag bits are changed during the operation as they reach a certain amount of wear and become blunt. In this study, full-scale cutting tests in different sedimentary rock types with bits having various degree of wear were used to evaluate the influence of bit wear on cutting forces and specific energy. The relationship between the amount of wear as represented by the size of the wear flats at the tip of the bit, and cutting forces as well as specific energy was examined. The influence of various rock properties such as mineral content, uniaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, indentation index, shore hardness, Schmidt hammer hardness, and density with required SE of cutting using different levels of tool wear was also studied. The preliminary analysis of the data shows that the mean cutting forces increase 2-3 times and SE by 4-5 times when cutting with 4 mm wear flat as compared to cutting with new or sharp wedge shape bits. The grain size distribution of the muck for cutting different rock types and different level of bit wear was analyzed and discussed. The best fit prediction models for SE based on statistical analysis of laboratory test results are introduced. The model can be used for estimating the performance of mechanical excavators using radial tools, especially roadheaders, continuous miners and longwall drum shearers.

  5. Development of flank wear model of cutting tool by using adaptive feedback linear control system on machining AISI D2 steel and AISI 4340 steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orra, Kashfull; Choudhury, Sounak K.

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this paper is to build an adaptive feedback linear control system to check the variation of cutting force signal to improve the tool life. The paper discusses the use of transfer function approach in improving the mathematical modelling and adaptively controlling the process dynamics of the turning operation. The experimental results shows to be in agreement with the simulation model and error obtained is less than 3%. The state space approach model used in this paper successfully check the adequacy of the control system through controllability and observability test matrix and can be transferred from one state to another by appropriate input control in a finite time. The proposed system can be implemented to other machining process under varying range of cutting conditions to improve the efficiency and observability of the system.

  6. Analysis of Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats as a Tool for Translating Evidence into Individualized Medical Strategies (I-SWOT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Kodolitsch, Yskert; Bernhardt, Alexander M; Robinson, Peter N; Kölbel, Tilo; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Debus, Sebastian; Detter, Christian

    2015-06-01

    It is the physicians' task to translate evidence and guidelines into medical strategies for individual patients. Until today, however, there is no formal tool that is instrumental to perform this translation. We introduce the analysis of strengths (S) and weaknesses (W) related to therapy with opportunities (O) and threats (T) related to individual patients as a tool to establish an individualized (I) medical strategy (I-SWOT). The I-SWOT matrix identifies four fundamental types of strategy. These comprise "SO" maximizing strengths and opportunities, "WT" minimizing weaknesses and threats, "WO" minimizing weaknesses and maximizing opportunities, and "ST" maximizing strengths and minimizing threats. Each distinct type of strategy may be considered for individualized medical strategies. We describe four steps of I-SWOT to establish an individualized medical strategy to treat aortic disease. In the first step, we define the goal of therapy and identify all evidence-based therapeutic options. In a second step, we assess strengths and weaknesses of each therapeutic option in a SW matrix form. In a third step, we assess opportunities and threats related to the individual patient, and in a final step, we use the I-SWOT matrix to establish an individualized medical strategy through matching "SW" with "OT". As an example we present two 30-year-old patients with Marfan syndrome with identical medical history and aortic pathology. As a result of I-SWOT analysis of their individual opportunities and threats, we identified two distinct medical strategies in these patients. I-SWOT is a formal but easy to use tool to translate medical evidence into individualized medical strategies.

  7. Determining the cut-off point of osteoporosis based on the osteoporosis self-assessment tool, body mass index and weight in Taiwanese young adult women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu Fang; Yang, Rong Sen

    2014-09-01

    To examine the cut-off point of the osteoporosis self-assessment tool, age, weight and body mass index for osteoporosis among young adult Taiwanese women, using a large-scale health examination database containing bone mineral density tests. The cut-off points of osteoporosis risk factors identified earlier focus on menopausal or senior Caucasian and Asian women. However, young adult Asian women have seldom been identified. A retrospective historical cohort study. Using the 2009-2011 health examination database of a large-scale medical centre in northern Taiwan, this study investigated young adult Asian women (i.e. range in age from 30-49 years) in Taiwan who had received dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry test. This study also explored the cut-off point, sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of receiver operating characteristics of osteoporosis among young adult females in Taiwan. This study collected 2454 young adult Asian women in Taiwan. Cochran-Armitage analysis results indicated that the prevalence of osteoporosis increased with decreasing weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment method quartiles. According to the results of receiver operating characteristics, weight, body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment tool approaches can generally be used as indicators to predict osteoporosis among young adult Asian women. Results of this study demonstrate that Taiwanese women contracting osteoporosis tend to be young and underweight, as well as having a low body mass index and osteoporosis self-assessment scores. Those results further suggest that the assessment indicators for cut-off points are appropriately suitable for young adult women in Taiwan. Early detection is the only available means of preventing osteoporosis. Professional nurses should apply convenient and accurate assessment procedures to help young adult women to adopt preventive strategies against osteoporosis early, thus eliminating the probability of osteoporotic

  8. Development, Validation, and Verification of a Self-Assessment Tool to Estimate Agnibala (Digestive Strength).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Aparna; Singh, Girish; Patwardhan, Kishor; Gehlot, Sangeeta

    2017-01-01

    According to Ayurveda, the traditional system of healthcare of Indian origin, Agni is the factor responsible for digestion and metabolism. Four functional states (Agnibala) of Agni have been recognized: regular, irregular, intense, and weak. The objective of the present study was to develop and validate a self-assessment tool to estimate Agnibala The developed tool was evaluated for its reliability and validity by administering it to 300 healthy volunteers of either gender belonging to 18 to 40-year age group. Besides confirming the statistical validity and reliability, the practical utility of the newly developed tool was also evaluated by recording serum lipid parameters of all the volunteers. The results show that the lipid parameters vary significantly according to the status of Agni The tool, therefore, may be used to screen normal population to look for possible susceptibility to certain health conditions. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Subjectivity Inherent In By-Eye Symmetry Judgements and the Large Cutting Tools at the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo Province, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Underhill

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The Stone Age of South Africa is an area of study due for a renaissance, and there is a real need for unification of the extant evidence. As a beginning to this, new methodologies have been proposed. This paper tackles the issue of symmetry, specifically the subjectivity involved in by-eye judgements. Assumptions of subjectivity, however, are not proof: presented here is a critical analysis of the inherent bias of by-eye symmetry judgements. Ultimately it is clear that the method contains a level of subjectivity which strips it of any analytical value. The by-eye judgement of symmetry is replaced by the more robust Flip Test computer program, and a brief study is made of the Large Cutting Tools (LCT at a vitally important, yet often overlooked, site dating from the Pleistocene in South Africa, the Cave of Hearths, Limpopo province. The corollary is that the symmetry present in the Cave of Hearths Large Cutting Tools can be studied with some measure of confidence: suggestions are made regarding the nature of tool typologies and the knappers’ ultimate focus on tip shape and utility.

  10. Integrating the strengths of cognitive emotion models with traditional HCI analysis tools

    OpenAIRE

    Springett, Mark; Law, Effie Lai-Chong; Coulson, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports an attempt to integrate key concepts from cognitive models of emotion to cognitive models of interaction established in HCI literature. The aim is to transfer the strengths of interaction models to analysis of affect-critical systems in games, e-commerce and education, thereby increasing their usefulness in these systems where affect is increasingly recognised as a key success factor. Concepts from Scherer’s appraisal model and stimulation evaluation checks, along with a fr...

  11. Development of a Metal Cutting Tool Fase in Order to Create the Conditions of Ringed Chips Wrapping

    OpenAIRE

    Korchuganova, Mariya Anatolievna; Syrbakov, Andrey Pavlovich; Chernysheva, Tatiana Yurievna; Ivanov, G.; Korchuganov, Maksim Anatolievich

    2016-01-01

    When processing ductile metals with high cutting speed, there is a need to take additional measures for a comfortable and safe formation and removal of chips. In the conditions of large-scale manufacture, it is recommended to produce flow chips in the form of short fragments, while in the conditions of small-lot and single-piece manufacture, it is reasonable to wrap the chips spirally with a rather small turn radius. Such way of chips formation reduces the time of its removal from the working...

  12. Stochastic-Strength-Based Damage Simulation Tool for Ceramic Matrix Composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel; Bednarcyk, Brett; Pineda, Evan; Arnold, Steven; Mital, Subodh; Murthy, Pappu

    2015-01-01

    Reported here is a coupling of two NASA developed codes: CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) with the MAC/GMC (Micromechanics Analysis Code/ Generalized Method of Cells) composite material analysis code. The resulting code is called FEAMAC/CARES and is constructed as an Abaqus finite element analysis UMAT (user defined material). Here we describe the FEAMAC/CARES code and an example problem (taken from the open literature) of a laminated CMC in off-axis loading is shown. FEAMAC/CARES performs stochastic-strength-based damage simulation response of a CMC under multiaxial loading using elastic stiffness reduction of the failed elements.

  13. FEAMAC/CARES Stochastic-Strength-Based Damage Simulation Tool for Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemeth, Noel; Bednarcyk, Brett; Pineda, Evan; Arnold, Steven; Mital, Subodh; Murthy, Pappu; Bhatt, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Reported here is a coupling of two NASA developed codes: CARES (Ceramics Analysis and Reliability Evaluation of Structures) with the MAC/GMC (Micromechanics Analysis Code/ Generalized Method of Cells) composite material analysis code. The resulting code is called FEAMAC/CARES and is constructed as an Abaqus finite element analysis UMAT (user defined material). Here we describe the FEAMAC/CARES code and an example problem (taken from the open literature) of a laminated CMC in off-axis loading is shown. FEAMAC/CARES performs stochastic-strength-based damage simulation response of a CMC under multiaxial loading using elastic stiffness reduction of the failed elements.

  14. Integrating Social Networking Tools into ESL Writing Classroom: Strengths and Weaknesses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Melor Md; Salehi, Hadi; Chenzi, Chen

    2012-01-01

    With the rapid development of world and technology, English learning has become more important. Teachers frequently use teacher-centered pedagogy that leads to lack of interaction with students. This paper aims to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of integrating social networking tools into ESL writing classroom and discuss the ways to…

  15. Mechanical properties and oxidation behaviour of (Al,Cr)N and (Al,Cr,Si)N coatings for cutting tools deposited by HPPMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobzin, K.; Bagcivan, N.; Immich, P. [Surface Engineering Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Augustinerbach 4-22, D-52056 Aachen (Germany); Bolz, S. [Surface Engineering Institute, RWTH Aachen University, Augustinerbach 4-22, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)], E-mail: info1@iot.rwth-aachen.de; Cremer, R.; Leyendecker, T. [CemeCon AG, Wuerselen (Germany)

    2008-12-01

    Hard coatings with high hardness, high oxidation resistance and thermal stability are used for economical machining. In this regard nanostructured (Cr,Al)N and nc-(Cr,Al)N/a-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} films were sputtered on tungsten carbide tools and WC/Co samples by using the HPPMS (High Power Pulse Magnetron Sputtering) technology. The relationship between coating composition, microstructure and mechanical properties was investigated by using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Nanoindentation. The maximum hardness value was about 40 GPa. For the coatings the Al-content was varied from 10-90 at.% while the silicon content was about 5 at.% for the (Cr,Al,Si)N. As this study focuses on oxidation behaviour of the deposited coatings, annealing tests were carried out in air at 1000 deg. C . HPPMS is a promising technology to ensure a uniform coating distribution, especially for complex shaped substrates like cutting tools or moulds. SEM pictures of the cross section have been taken around the cutting edge to determine the deposition rate and the film growth. The coatings morphology has been compared to m. f. (middle frequency)- and d. c. (direct current)-sputtered nanocomposite (Cr,Al,Si)N films indicating enhanced properties due to the application of the HPPMS-technology with regard to denser structure, higher hardness, favourable surface topography and better thickness uniformity.

  16. Influence of the microstructure of a diamond-containing composite material on the tool cutting ability when grinding a diamond single crystal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kuzei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Using the methods of electronic scanning microstructure and X-ray analysis, the influence of the structure of diamond-containing composite materials on the cutting ability of the tool for circular grinding of diamond single crystals has been studied. It is shown that the use of an oxide-hydroxide glass with a spreading temperature of 570–590 K as a precursor of the binder leads to the formation of melt films on the surface of silicon carbide and diamond particles at 600–630 K and the glass content in the batch is 10 vol. %. The conversion of oxidehydroxide glass films to oxide films proceeds at 700–775 K during the sintering of the composite material. Depending on the volume content of the glass in the charge, the porosity of the compact, three types of structure of composite materials are distinguished: a volumetric skeleton of glass-clad diamond particles and silicon carbide with pores at the sites of multiple compounds; a frame made of glass-clad diamond particles and silicon carbide with glass pores in places of multiple connections; a matrix of glass and the particles of diamond, silicon carbide and pores located in it. The maximum cutting ability of the tool for circular grinding of diamond is provided by a composite material with a structure of the first type.

  17. Impact of heat treatment on HSS cutting tool (ASTM A600) and its behaviour during machining of mild steel (ASTM A36)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afolalu, S. A.; Abioye, O. P.; Salawu, E. Y.; Okokpujie, I. P.; Abioye, A. A.; Omotosho, O. A.; Ajayi., O. O.

    2018-04-01

    Carburization is one the best heat treatment that responded well to hardening with Palm Kernel Shell giving the best hardness value. This work studied the influence of carburization on HSStool(ASTM A600) and its behaviour during machining of mild steel (ASTM A36). Composition of the samples (12 pieces of 180 × 12 × 12 mm) HSS tools were checked using UV-VIS spectrometer and the tools were carburized with PKS at holding temperatures and time of 800, 850, 900, 950 °C and 60,90 120 minutes using muffle furnance. The micro structural analysis, surface and core hardnessof the treated samples gave better results than the untreated samples when checked withsoft driven and optical microscope. It wasalso observed that increase in the feed rate and depth for length of cut of 50 mm significantly reduces the wear progression and thereby gave best machining time at maximum carburizing temperature and time(950 °C / 120 minutes) when it was used to cut mild steelon the lathe machine.

  18. Cutting forces during turning with variable depth of cut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sadílek

    2016-03-01

    The proposed research for the paper is an experimental work – measuring cutting forces and monitoring of the tool wear on the cutting edge. It compares the turning where standard roughing cycle is used and the turning where the proposed roughing cycle with variable depth of cut is applied.

  19. Fundamentals of cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J G; Patel, Y

    2016-06-06

    The process of cutting is analysed in fracture mechanics terms with a view to quantifying the various parameters involved. The model used is that of orthogonal cutting with a wedge removing a layer of material or chip. The behaviour of the chip is governed by its thickness and for large radii of curvature the chip is elastic and smooth cutting occurs. For smaller thicknesses, there is a transition, first to plastic bending and then to plastic shear for small thicknesses and smooth chips are formed. The governing parameters are tool geometry, which is principally the wedge angle, and the material properties of elastic modulus, yield stress and fracture toughness. Friction can also be important. It is demonstrated that the cutting process may be quantified via these parameters, which could be useful in the study of cutting in biology.

  20. Identification of leaky steam generators by iodine mapping technique and development of tools for cutting of tubes of steam generators of Indian PHWRS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subba Rao, D.

    2006-01-01

    Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (2X220 MWe) located in Mandvi Taluka of Surat District in the state of Gujarat is the fifth Nuclear Power Station of the country. It has got an excellent record in the field of operation, safety, public awareness and emergency preparedness. KAPS Unit -1 achieved first criticality in Sep-1992 and was declared for commercial operation in may-1993. KAPS Unit -2 achieved first criticality in Jan-1995 and was declared for commercial operation in Sep-1995. So far station has generated about 30 billion units.Unit-1 achieved 98.4% and was graded as a world's No.1 in year 2002 amongst all CANDU type reactors. KAPS Unit -1 has made another record of operating continuously for more than 300 days in Indian PHWR s operating history. This paper mainly deals with the Indian PHWRs Steam Generators (SG) tube leaks, leaky steam generator identification by Iodine mapping, and development of special tool for cutting, removal and plugging of leaky tubes. These Steam Generators are designed by M/s Kraft Werke Union (KWU) of Siemens Group, West Germany, and Manufactured by M/s ENSA, SPAIN for Unit- 1 and by M/s MAN-GHH, Germany for Unit- 2. First time in October-2002 one of the Steam Generators of Unit-1 developed tube leak. To identify leaky Steam Generator, KAPS has established a method of Iodine mapping. With that the leaky SG was identified in very short time and corrective actions were taken immediately. Total three tube leaks (two in SG-4 of Unit-1 and one in SG-1 of unit-2) were experienced in both Units'. Following observations were made on SG tubes failure: All failures were in cold leg side; All Failures / deterioration locations were in front of main feed water nozzle; All Failures / deterioration locations were observed to be just above tube support plate (TSP) number 4 or 5; Deterioration ( i.e. wall thinning) observed from OD side and these tubes were adjacent to failed tubes; In all the three incidents, failed / deteriorated tubes were

  1. Semantic Versus Syntactic Cutting Planes

    OpenAIRE

    Filmus, Yuval; Hrubeš, Pavel; Lauria, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the strength of the semantic and syntactic version of the cutting planes proof system. First, we show that the lower bound technique of Pudlák applies also to semantic cutting planes: the proof system has feasible interpolation via monotone real circuits, which gives an exponential lower bound on lengths of semantic cutting planes refutations. Second, we show that semantic refutations are stronger than syntactic ones. In particular, we give a formula for whic...

  2. search.bioPreprint: a discovery tool for cutting edge, preprint biomedical research articles [version 2; referees: 2 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrie L. Iwema

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The time it takes for a completed manuscript to be published traditionally can be extremely lengthy. Article publication delay, which occurs in part due to constraints associated with peer review, can prevent the timely dissemination of critical and actionable data associated with new information on rare diseases or developing health concerns such as Zika virus. Preprint servers are open access online repositories housing preprint research articles that enable authors (1 to make their research immediately and freely available and (2 to receive commentary and peer review prior to journal submission. There is a growing movement of preprint advocates aiming to change the current journal publication and peer review system, proposing that preprints catalyze biomedical discovery, support career advancement, and improve scientific communication. While the number of articles submitted to and hosted by preprint servers are gradually increasing, there has been no simple way to identify biomedical research published in a preprint format, as they are not typically indexed and are only discoverable by directly searching the specific preprint server websites. To address this issue, we created a search engine that quickly compiles preprints from disparate host repositories and provides a one-stop search solution. Additionally, we developed a web application that bolsters the discovery of preprints by enabling each and every word or phrase appearing on any web site to be integrated with articles from preprint servers. This tool, search.bioPreprint, is publicly available at http://www.hsls.pitt.edu/resources/preprint.

  3. Cutting cleaner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsen, R.P.H. van; Smits, M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a long term field test of the Cutting Cleaner, which is used for the treatment of wet oil contaminated cuttings (WOCC) produced when drilling with Oil Based Mud (OBM). It was concluded that it is possible to reduce the oil content of cuttings to an average of 1 - 2%. The recovered base oil can be reused to make new oil based mud

  4. The Best Cut-Off Value for HbA1c as a Screening Tool in Iranian Women With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedeh Neda Mousavi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is a prevalent disorder which increases maternal and fetal complications. The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT is a traditional, time -consuming and intensive test which is poorly tolerated by pregnant women. To date, increasing evidence considered HbA1c as a screening tool and reported various cut-off values in different populations. In alignment with existing literature, we determined for the first time, the optimal cut-off value for HbA1c in Iranian women with GDM.Materials and methods: This case-control study was conducted in Valie-Asr hospital between June 2015 and March 2016. A total of 200 pregnant women who were diagnosed with GDM were selected as study cases. For the control group, 200 healthy women were randomly selected. Fasting blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis, and OGTT was done in all participants. Demographic and anthropometric indexes were measured. Performance of the HbA1c test was analyzed by the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, and the sensitivity and specificity for different HbA1c cut-off points were calculated subsequently.Results: Analysis showed that the mean age (p < 0.001 and BMI (p < 0.001 were significantly higher in the GDM group compared to those in non-GDM pregnant women. GDM participants reported positive family- and previous history of GDM more than healthy pregnant women (p = 0.04 and p < 0.001, respectively. All the markers for Lipid profile were significantly different between the two groups (p = <0.001 except for total cholesterol. The rate of Caesarean section and neonate’s Apgar score were not significantly different between the two groups. The best equilibrium between sensitivity (80% and specificity (76% for HbA1c was 5.05%.Conclusion: Our results suggest that pregnant women with HbA1c of ≥ 5.05% should proceed with an OGTT. Further investigations with larger sample size are needed to provide more robust evidence for the

  5. Remote Laser Cutting of CFRP: Improvements in the Cut Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, Johannes; Zaeh, Michael F.; Conrad, Markus

    In the automotive industry carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) are considered as a future key material to reduce the weight of the vehicle. Therefore, capable production techniques are required to process this material in mass industry. E.g., state of the art methods for cutting are limited by the high tool wear or the feasible feed rate. Laser cutting processes are still under investigation. This paper presents detailed new studies on remote laser cutting of CFRP focusing on the influence of the material properties and the quality of the cut surface. By adding light absorbing soot particles to the resin of the matrix, the cutting process is improved and fewer defects emerge.

  6. Paper Cuts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Lisa A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how to create paper cuts and suggests the most appropriate materials for young children that give good quality results. Describes the methods the author, a professional artist, uses to assemble her own paper cuts and how these can be adopted by older students. (KM)

  7. Performance Testing of Cutting Fluids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belluco, Walter

    The importance of cutting fluid performance testing has increased with documentation requirements of new cutting fluid formulations based on more sustainable products, as well as cutting with minimum quantity of lubrication and dry cutting. Two sub-problems have to be solved: i) which machining...... tests feature repeatability, reproducibility and sensitivity to cutting fluids, and ii) to what extent results of one test ensure relevance to a wider set of machining situations. The present work is aimed at assessing the range of validity of the different testing methods, investigating correlation...... within the whole range of operations, materials, cutting fluids, operating conditions, etc. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping, and with respect to tool life, cutting forces, chip formation and product quality (dimensional accuracy and surface integrity...

  8. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Applying Tip-bottomed Tool for Bending Advanced Ultra-high Strength Steel Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsomwang, Pusit; Borrisutthekul, Rattana; Klaiw-awoot, Ken; Pattalung, Aran

    2017-09-01

    This research was carried out aiming to investigate the application of a tip-bottomed tool for bending an advanced ultra-high strength steel sheet. The V-die bending experiment of a dual phase steel (DP980) sheet which had a thickness of 1.6 mm was executed using a conventional bending and a tip-bottomed punches. Experimental results revealed that the springback of the bent worksheet in the case of the tip-bottomed punch was less than that of the conventional punch case. To further discuss bending characteristics, a finite element (FE) model was developed and used to simulate the bending of the worksheet. From the FE analysis, it was found that the application of the tip-bottomed punch contributed the plastic deformation to occur at the bending region. Consequently, the springback of the worksheet reduced. In addition, the width of the punch tip was found to affect the deformation at the bending region and determined the springback of the bent worksheet. Moreover, the use of the tip-bottomed punch resulted in the apparent increase of the surface hardness of the bent worksheet, compared to the bending with the conventional punch.

  9. Wet cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hole, B. [IMC Technical Services (United Kingdom)

    1999-08-01

    Continuous miners create dust and methane problems in underground coal mining. Control has usually been achieved using ventilation techniques as experiments with water based suppression have led to flooding and electrical problems. Recent experience in the US has led to renewed interest in wet head systems. This paper describes tests of the Hydraphase system by IMC Technologies. Ventilation around the cutting zone, quenching of hot ignition sources, dust suppression, the surface trial gallery tests, the performance of the cutting bed, and flow of air and methane around the cutting head are reviewed. 1 ref., 2 figs., 2 photos.

  10. Cutting assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racki, Daniel J.; Swenson, Clark E.; Bencloski, William A.; Wineman, Arthur L.

    1984-01-01

    A cutting apparatus includes a support table mounted for movement toward and away from a workpiece and carrying a mirror which directs a cutting laser beam onto the workpiece. A carrier is rotatably and pivotally mounted on the support table between the mirror and workpiece and supports a conduit discharging gas toward the point of impingement of the laser beam on the workpiece. Means are provided for rotating the carrier relative to the support table to place the gas discharging conduit in the proper positions for cuts made in different directions on the workpiece.

  11. The Cutting Process, Chips and Cutting Forces in Machining CFRP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koplev, A.; Lystrup, Aage; Vorm, T.

    1983-01-01

    The cutting of unidirectional CFRP, perpendicular as well as parallel to the fibre orientation, is examined. Shaping experiments, ‘quick-stop’ experiments, and a new chip preparation technique are used for the investigation. The formation of the chips, and the quality of the machined surface...... is discussed. The cutting forces parallel and perpendicular to the cutting direction are measured for various parameters, and the results correlated to the formation of chips and the wear of the tool....

  12. Effects of superfine refractory carbide additives on microstructure and mechanical properties of TiB2–TiC+Al2O3 composite ceramic cutting tool materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Bin; Ji, Wenbin; Huang, Chuanzhen; Wang, Jun; Li, Shasha; Xu, Kaitao

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The superfine carbides determined the mechanical properties of composites. • Superfine HfC or TaC caused some oxide impurities in composites. • Superfine VC or NbC refined and homogenized the microstructure. • Failure of composites containing HfC or TaC was produced by larger grains. • Composite containing VC exhibited more bridging and transcrystalline failure. -- Abstract: A study to increase the mechanical properties of TiB 2 –TiC+Al 2 O 3 composite ceramic cutting tool material by using superfine refractory carbide additives is presented. Four superfine refractory carbides are considered to investigate their effects on the phase composition, element distribution, grain size, fracture surface, crack propagation of the metal ceramic. The physicochemical properties of superfine carbides, such as chemical activities and atom radius, were found to have the significant effects on the microstructure and mechanical properties of the metal ceramic. Hafnium carbide (HfC) and Tantalum carbide (TaC) reduced the mechanical properties of the metal ceramic because of their poor solubility with the Ni binder phase and the formation of oxides. The mechanical properties of the metal ceramic were increased by the addition of superfine niobium carbide (NbC) and vanadium carbide (VC), and their optimum values were a flexural strength of 1100 ± 62 MPa, fracture toughness of 8.5 ± 0.8 MPa.m1/2 and hardness of 21.53 ± 0.36 GPa, respectively, when 3.2 wt% superfine VC was used

  13. Cutting agents for special metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugito, Seiji; Sakakibara, Fumi

    1979-01-01

    The quantity of use of special metals has increased year after year in the Plasma Research Institute, Nagoya University, with the development of researches on plasma and nuclear fusion. Most of these special metals are hard to cut, and in order to secure the surface smoothness and dimensional accuracy, considerable efforts are required. The method of experiment is as follows: cutting agents salt water and acetone, rape-seed oil, sulfide and chloride oil and water soluble cutting oil W grade 3; metals to be cut niobium, molybdenum, tantalum, titanium and tungsten; cutting conditions cutting speed 4.7 to 90 m/min, feed 0.07 to 0.2 mm/rev, depth of cut 0.1 to 0.4 mm, tool cemented carbide bit. Chemicals such as tetrachloromethane and trichloroethane give excellent cutting performance, but the toxicity is intense and the stimulative odor exists, accordingly they are hard to use practically. Cutting was easier when the salt water added with acetone was used than the case of rape-seed oil, but salt water is corrosive. Recently, the machining of molybdenum has been often carried out, and the water soluble cutting oil was the best. It is also good for cutting stainless steel, and its lubricating property is improved by adding some additives such as sulfur, chlorine, phosphorus and molybdenum disulfide. However after cutting with it, washing is required. (Kako, I.)

  14. Abrasive water jet cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leist, K.J.; Funnell, G.J.

    1988-01-01

    In the process of selecting a failed equipment cut-up tool for the process facility modifications (PFM) project, a system using an abrasive water jet (AWJ) was developed and tested for remote disassembly of failed equipment. It is presented in this paper

  15. Improvement of strength and toughness of SKD11 type cold work tool steel; SKD 11 gata reikan koguko no kyojinsei no kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukaura, K.; Sunada, H.; Yokoyama, Y. [Himeji Inst. of Technology, Hyogo (Japan); Teramoto, K. [Himeji Inst. of Technology, Hyogo (Japan). Graduate School| Sanyo Special Steel Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    Toughness and wear resistance are the factors which affect on the lifetime of cold work tool steels importantly. Generally, both properties show the contrary characteristics. The evaluation of tool steel materials has been carried out focusing on the strength and wear resistance mainly. However, owing to the rapid progress of recent plastic working techniques, usage environments are under the severe conditions more and more. Therefore, it is expected to develop the high reliable cold work tool steels which balanced with toughness including wear resistance. In this study, the strength and toughness of a newly developed 0.8C-8Cr cold work tool steel whose composition was controlled to suppress the precipitation of massive eutectic M7C3 carbides were investigated with reference to microstructure and were compared with conventional SKD11. The toughness was evaluated by the area under the stress-strain curve. As a result, it was clarified that the tensile strength of the newly developed steel designated as Mod. SKD 11 was about 400 MPa higher and the toughness was 1.8 times larger than that of SKD 11 throughout a wide range of tempering temperatures and so forth. 17 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Cutting Cosmos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Henrik Hvenegaard

    For the first time in over 30 years, a new ethnographic study emerges on the Bugkalot tribe, more widely known as the Ilongot of the northern Philippines. Exploring the notion of masculinity among the Bugkalot, Cutting Cosmos is not only an experimental, anthropological study of the paradoxes...... around which Bugkalot society revolves, but also a reflection on anthropological theory and writing. Focusing on the transgressive acts through which masculinity is performed, this book explores the idea of the cosmic cut, the ritual act that enables the Bugkalot man to momentarily hold still the chaotic...

  17. Cutting method and cutting device for spent fuel rod of nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komatsu, Masahiko; Ose, Toshihiko.

    1996-01-01

    A control rod transferred under water in a vertically suspended state is postured horizontally at such a water depth that radiations can be shielded, and then it is cut to a dropping speed limiting portion and a cross-like main body. The separated cross-like main body portion is further cut in the longitudinal direction and separated into a pair of cut pieces each having an L-shaped cross section. A disk like metal saw is used as a cutting tool. Alternatively, a plasma jet cutter or a melting-type water jet cutter is used as a cutting tool. Then, since the spent control rod to be cut is postured horizontally under water, the water depth for the cutting position can be reduced. As a result, the cutting state using the cutting tool can be observed by naked eyes from the position above the water surface thereby enabling to perform the cutting operation reliably. (N.H.)

  18. Cutting temperature measurement and material machinability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedić Bogdan P.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cutting temperature is very important parameter of cutting process. Around 90% of heat generated during cutting process is then away by sawdust, and the rest is transferred to the tool and workpiece. In this research cutting temperature was measured with artificial thermocouples and question of investigation of metal machinability from aspect of cutting temperature was analyzed. For investigation of material machinability during turning artificial thermocouple was placed just below the cutting top of insert, and for drilling thermocouples were placed through screw holes on the face surface. In this way was obtained simple, reliable, economic and accurate method for investigation of cutting machinability.

  19. Cutting characteristics and deformed layer of type 316LN stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sun Sae; Yi, Won

    2004-01-01

    The cutting characteristics and the deformed layer of Nitrogen(N)-added type 316LN stainless steel were comparatively investigated to type 316L stainless steel. The cutting force, the surface roughness(Ra) and the tool wear in face milling works were measured with cutting conditions, and the deformed layers were obtained from micro-hardness testing method. The cutting resistance of type 316LN was similar to type 316L in spite of its high strength. The surface roughness of type 316LN was superior to type 316L for all the cutting conditions. In particular, in the high cutting speed above 345m/min, the surface roughness of the two stainless steels was closely same. The deformed layer thickness of the two stainless steels was generated in the 150μm-300μm ranges, and its value of type 316LN was lower than that of type 316L. This is due to the high strength properties by nitrogen effect. It was found that type 316LN was higher in the tool wear than that type 316L, and flank wear was dominant to crater wear. In face milling works of type 316LN steel, tool wear is regarded as a important problem

  20. Effects of glovebox gloves on grip and key pinch strength and contact forces for simulated manual operations with three commonly used hand tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Peng-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effects of glovebox gloves for 11 females on maximum grip and key pinch strength and on contact forces generated from simulated tasks of a roller, a pair of tweezers and a crescent wrench. The independent variables were gloves fabricated of butyl, CSM/hypalon and neoprene materials; two glove thicknesses; and layers of gloves worn including single, double and triple gloving. CSM/hypalon and butyl gloves produced greater grip strength than the neoprene gloves. CSM/hypalon gloves also lowered contact forces for roller and wrench tasks. Single gloving and thin gloves improved hand strength performances. However, triple layers lowered contact forces for all tasks. Based on the evaluating results, selection and design recommendations of gloves for three hand tools were provided to minimise the effects on hand strength and optimise protection of the palmar hand in glovebox environments. To improve safety and health in the glovebox environments where gloves usage is a necessity, this study provides recommendations for selection and design of glovebox gloves for three hand tools including a roller, a pair of tweezers and a crescent wrench based on the results discovered in the experiments.

  1. Technological development of machine tools using less energy in fiscal 2000. Achievement report on research and development of cutting process replacing electric discharge processing; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kosaku kikai nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Hoden kako wo chikansuru sessaku kakoho no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    Research and development has been made with an objective to replace the electric discharge processing consuming a large amount of energy and having environmental load, with the cutting process consuming less energy while maintaining the equivalent processing precision. This paper summarizes the achievements in fiscal 2000. Development of cutting tools has made three times or more as many multi-aspect utilization as compared to conventional tools possible by researching the tip shapes. In addition, ultra hard end mill suitable for cutting very hard materials using an ultrasonic cutting head was fabricated on the trial basis, and its cutting capability was verified. In developing the cutting processing heard, a vibration mode possible of cutting with the ultra hard tool was generated, ATC has become possible, and the possibility of cutting hard-to-cut materials was verified. For processing a narrow and deep part, an improved type tool was developed, whereas the practical cutting performance suppressing wear of the blade tip was obtained. To deal with the environment, development and prototype fabrication were performed on a unit having a grease lubricated high-speed main shaft that is considered to be the mainstream in the future. In the operation test at 20,000 min-L, know-how was acquired in relation with the basic performance, manufacture and use of the unit. (NEDO)

  2. Cutting Itch

    OpenAIRE

    Zellweger, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Cutting Itch” is a curatorial project by artists-duo Baltensperger-Siepert. An exhibition project about the essential need of art to be an active system that reflects, investigates social, cultural and political issues. It is about an existential necessity to shape ones environment, to think about relations, regulating structures and about how we can locate ourselves in a more and more globalised world. (from press material). \\ud \\ud Baltensperger & Siepert identified seven artists from Mexi...

  3. Cutting to the chase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snieckus, D.

    2001-01-01

    This article reports on the development of the cost effective abrasive cutting Sabre system which came as a result of UWG's work on the decommissioning of the Phillips' Maureen wells and adds to UWG's 'total severance solution' tools. The advantages of the system are highlighted and include the ability to operate from a platform or diving support vessel, to cut internal cases, and to eliminate the use of environmentally damaging explosives and the need to operate from a rig. The new Mark II version of the Sabre designed to work at greater depths of water, the range of the severance tools, UWG's well abandonment hole assembly system, and its aim to enter the Gulf of Mexico market are discussed. Details are given of the decommissioning of the Schwedeneck-See platforms in Kiel Bay off Germany and the Phillips' UK decommissioning plans for the Maureen platform

  4. FY 2000 report on the results of the technology development of energy use reduction of machine tools. Development of dry cutting use abrasion resistant/lubricous coated tools; 2000 nendo energy shiyo gorika kosaku kikai nado gijutsu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Dry sessakuyo taimamo junkatsusei hifuku kogu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-03-01

    For the purpose of energy conservation and reduction of environmental loads of machine tools, study was conducted on the dry cutting which is the cutting with no use of cutting oil, and the FY 2000 results were summed up. The study was made on dry cutting use abrasion resistance/lubricous coated tools coated with the composite membrane of which the cutting life become little lower than that of existing tools using coolant. In the survey of abrasion resistant/lubricous films, it was found out that in the adhesion to ultra-hard substrates, the DLC single-layer film consisting only of carbon indicated the same excellent adhesion as intermediate-layer inserts. As to the synthesis of abrasion resistant/lubricous films, the synthesis of the composite membrane (WC/C membrane) consisting of tungsten carbide (WC) and carbon (C) was made using arc ion plating device. The WC/C membrane is composed of W and C and has the structure in which at nm levels the layer with much W and the layer with less W were alternately piled. Study was made of devices necessary for the development of abrasion resistant/lubricous films and the film formation for drill. (NEDO)

  5. Combination of Ultrasonic Vibration and Cryogenic Cooling for Cutting Performance Improvement of Inconel 718 Turning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, S. Y.; Chung, C. T.; Cheng, Y. Y.

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to develop a thermo-elastic-plastic coupling model, based on a combination skill of ultrasonically assisted cutting and cryogenic cooling, under large deformation for Inconel 718 alloy machining process. The improvement extent on cutting performance and tool life promotion may be examined from this investigation. The critical value of the strain energy density of the workpiece will be utilized as the chip separation and the discontinuous chip segmentation criteria. The forced convection cooling and a hydrodynamic lubrication model will be considered and formulated in the model. Finite element method will be applied to create a complete numerical solution for this ultrasonic vibration cutting model. During the analysis, the cutting tool is incrementally advanced forward with superimposed ultrasonic vibration in a back and forth step-by-step manner, from an incipient stage of tool-workpiece engagement to a steady state of chip formation, a whole simulation of orthogonal cutting process under plane strain deformation is thus undertaken. High shear strength induces a fluctuation phenomenon of shear angle, high shear strain rate, variation of chip types and chip morphology, tool-chip contact length variation, the temperature distributions within the workpiece, chip and tool, periodic fluctuation in cutting forces can be determined from the developed model. A complete comparison of machining characteristics between some different combinations of ultrasonically assisted cutting and cryogenic cooling with conventional cutting operation can be acquired. Finally, the high-speed turning experiment for Inconel 718 alloy will be taken in the laboratory to validate the accuracy of the model, and the progressive flank wear, crater wear, notching and chipping of the tool edge can also be measured in the experiments.

  6. BILL MUNDY THEORY, EFFECTIVE RAKE ANGLE CUTTING TOOLS IN COPPER ALLOYS TEORIA DE BILL MUNDY Y EL ANGULO EFECTIVO DE ATAQUE DE HERRAMIENTAS DE CORTE EN ALEACIONES DE COBRE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Miguel Godoy R

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Magazines like American Machinist and Manufacturing Engineering, have explained the Bill Mundy theory about the effective rake angle of cutting tools. These articles show the effective rake angle of cutting tools for carbon steel, steel , alloys, cast iron, aluminium and stainless steel. In the present work the theory is applied to cutting tools used in brass and bronze. The effective rake angle for these materials was obtained with the tensile stress test. The rake angles in the cutting tools were made in a Universal Grinding Machine Heiler. Finally, the power consumption was measured in a CNC Lathe. Tools with commercial rake angles from bibliography were compared with tools with the experimental effective rake angle obtained from the Bill Mundy Theory. The results show that the power consumption is about 10% lower for tools with the experimental effective rake angle.Revistas como American Machinist y Manufacturing Engineering, han explicado la Teoría de Bill Mundy y el ángulo efectivo de ataque en herramientas de corte utilizadas en aceros al carbono, aceros aleados, hierro fundido, aluminio y acero inoxidable. En este trabajo, esta teoría es aplicada a herramientas de corte usadas para latón y bronce y sus resultados son comparados con los ángulos de ataque recomendados por los fabricantes de herramientas de corte. El ángulo de ataque efectivo se obtiene del ensayo de tracción del material a ser mecanizado. Los ángulos de las herramientas fueron hechos en una máquina universal de afilar Heiler. El consumo de potencia fue medido en un torno CNC. El consumo de potencia con herramientas de corte comerciales con ángulos de corte recomendados por la bibliografía existente, fue comparado con las herramientas afiladas con el ángulo de corte efectivo obtenido a través de la teoría de Bill Mundy. Los resultados indican que el consumo de potencia es un 10% menor para las herramientas afiladas con el ángulo efectivo recomendado por la

  7. Comportamiento del acabado superficial de la pieza y el desgaste de la herramienta al fresar aluminio con altas velocidades de corte en fresadoras cnc convencionales. // Superficial finish behavior and tool wear in aluminium milling with high cutting spee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Martínez Aneiro

    2006-05-01

    mechanical components of high quality and great accuracy for systems of high performance isincreasing considerably in the last years at world level. This fact has caused the development of new appliedtechnologies in cutting processes.The development of machine tools (control, high-speed spindle, the cutting tools (new materials, substrata and layers andthe technology of machining, facilitated the application of cut with high cutting speed (High speed Cutting HSC. Theincrease of cutting speeds increases the efficiency of the productive processes through the reduction of the manufacturingtimes. The reduction in several times of the manufacturing process, is not achieved alone for the time of machining but alsofor the substitution of other elaboration processes that are part of the productive chain that are relatively slow in occasionsas the electroerosion (spark erosion, the manual finishing in molds and dies production as well as the changes of spareoperations. Being a relatively new process introduced starting from the decade of the 90’s; many technological questionsare still without answer. This paper presents the benefit of the high cutting speeds HSC on the tool useful life and thesuperficial finishing in spares, working in conventional milling machines of CNC. The results stated, that within the studiedparameters, that the durability of the tool and the surface roughness improve and that the behavior of the machine is stablein spite of not being conceived for high speeds.Keywords: High speed cutting, HSC, HSM, Wear, surface roughness.

  8. Evaluation of the adhesion strength of diamond films brazed on K-10 type hard metal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos Sérgio Ivan dos

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The coating of cutting tools with diamond films considerably increases the tool performance due to the combination of the unique tribological properties of diamond with the bulk properties of the substrate (toughness. The tool performance, however, is strongly related to the adhesion strength between the film and the substrate. In this work our main goal was to propose and to test a procedure, based on a tensile strength test, to evaluate the adhesion strength of a diamond wafer brazed on a hard metal substrate, taking into account the effect of the brazing temperature and time. The temperature range studied was from 800 to 980 °C and the brazing time ranged from 3 to 40 min. The obtained results could be used to optimize the costs and time required to the production of high performance cutting tools with brazed diamond wafers.

  9. Is handgrip strength normalized to body weight a useful tool to identify dynapenia and functional incapacity in post-menopausal women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulac, Maude; Boutros, Guy El Hajj; Pion, Charlotte; Barbat-Artigas, Sébastien; Gouspillou, Gilles; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2016-01-01

    To investigate whether handgrip strength normalized to body weight could be a useful clinical tool to identify dynapenia and assess functional capacity in post-menopausal women. A total of 136 postmenopausal women were recruited. Body composition (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DEXA], Bio-electrical Impedence Analysis [BIA]), grip strength (dynamometer) and functional capacity (senior fitness tests) were evaluated. Dynapenia was established according to a handgrip strength index (handgrip strength divided by body weight (BW) in Kg/KgBW) obtained from a reference population of young women: Type I dynapenic (<0.44 kg/KgBW) and type II dynapenic (<0.35 kg/KgBW). The results show a positive correlation between handgrip strength index (in kg/KgBW) and alternate-step test (r=0.30, p<0.001), chair-stand test (r=0.25, p<0.005) and one-leg stance test (r=0.335, p<0.001). The results also showed a significant difference in non-dynapenic compared to type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic for the chair-stand test (Non-dynapenic: 12.0±3.0; Type I: 11.7±2.5; Type II: 10.3±3.0) (p=0.037 and p=0.005, respectively) and the one-leg stance test (Non-dynapenic: 54.2±14.2; Type I: 43.8±21.4; Type II: 35.0±21.8) (p=0.030 and p=0.004, respectively). Finally, a significant difference was observed between type II dynapenic and non-dynapenic for the chair-stand test (p=0.032), but not with type I dynapenic. The results showed that handgrip strength was positively correlated with functional capacity. In addition, non-dynapenic women displayed a better functional status when compared to type I and type II dynapenic women. Thus, the determination of the handgrip strength thresholds could be an accessible and affordable clinical tool to identify people at risk of autonomy loss.

  10. Is handgrip strength normalized to body weight a useful tool to identify dynapenia and functional incapacity in post-menopausal women?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maude Dulac

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To investigate whether handgrip strength normalized to body weight could be a useful clinical tool to identify dynapenia and assess functional capacity in post-menopausal women. Method A total of 136 postmenopausal women were recruited. Body composition (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DEXA], Bio-electrical Impedence Analysis [BIA], grip strength (dynamometer and functional capacity (senior fitness tests were evaluated. Dynapenia was established according to a handgrip strength index (handgrip strength divided by body weight (BW in Kg/KgBW obtained from a reference population of young women: Type I dynapenic (<0.44 kg/KgBW and type II dynapenic (<0.35 kg/KgBW. Results The results show a positive correlation between handgrip strength index (in kg/KgBW and alternate-step test (r=0.30, p<0.001, chair-stand test (r=0.25, p<0.005 and one-leg stance test (r=0.335, p<0.001. The results also showed a significant difference in non-dynapenic compared to type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic for the chair-stand test (Non-dynapenic: 12.0±3.0; Type I: 11.7±2.5; Type II: 10.3±3.0 (p=0.037 and p=0.005, respectively and the one-leg stance test (Non-dynapenic: 54.2±14.2; Type I: 43.8±21.4; Type II: 35.0±21.8 (p=0.030 and p=0.004, respectively. Finally, a significant difference was observed between type II dynapenic and non-dynapenic for the chair-stand test (p=0.032, but not with type I dynapenic. Conclusion The results showed that handgrip strength was positively correlated with functional capacity. In addition, non-dynapenic women displayed a better functional status when compared to type I and type II dynapenic women. Thus, the determination of the handgrip strength thresholds could be an accessible and affordable clinical tool to identify people at risk of autonomy loss.

  11. Sanitation Can Be A Foundation Disease Management Tool: Potential Of Spreading Binucleate Rhizoctonia from Nursery Propagation Floors To Trays Containing Azalea Stem Cuttings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binucelate Rhizoctonia spp. (BNR), the cause of web blight, are present all year on container-grown azaleas in the southern U.S. BNR can be eliminated during vegetative propagation by submerging stem cuttings in 50°C water for 21 minutes. The objective was to evaluate risk of rooting trays being con...

  12. Laser Cutting of Thin Nickel Bellows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, C. L.

    1986-01-01

    Laser cutting technique produces narrow, precise, fast, and repeatable cuts in thin nickel-allow bellows material. Laser cutting operation uses intense focused beam to melt material and assisting gas to force melted material through part thickness, creating void. When part rotated or moved longitudinally, melting and material removal continuous and creates narrow, fast, precise, and repeatable cut. Technique used to produce cuts of specified depths less than material thickness. Avoids distortion, dents, and nicks produced in delicate materials during lathe trimming operations, which require high cutting-tool pressure and holding-fixture forces.

  13. Laser Cutting of Carbon Fiber Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, A. N.; Schoeberl, M.; Tremmer, J.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Due to their high weight-specific mechanical stiffness and strength, parts made from carbon fiber reinforced polymers (CFRP) are increasingly used as structural components in the aircraft and automotive industry. However, the cutting of preforms, as with most automated manufacturing processes for CFRP components, has not yet been fully optimized. This paper discusses laser cutting, an alternative method to the mechanical cutting of preforms. Experiments with remote laser cutting and gas assisted laser cutting were carried out in order to identify achievable machining speeds. The advantages of the two different processes as well as their fitness for use in mass production are discussed.

  14. X-Ray Microtomography (μCT as a Useful Tool for Visualization and Interpretation of Shear Strength Test Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefaniuk Damian

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper demonstrates the applicability of X-ray microtomography (ìCT to analysis of the results of shear strength examinations of clayey soils. The method of X-ray three-dimensional imaging offers new possibilities in soil testing. The work focuses on a non-destructive method of evaluation of specimen quality used in shear tests and mechanical behavior of soil. The paper presents the results of examination of 4 selected clayey soils. Specimens prepared for the triaxial test have been scanned using ìCT before and after the triaxial compression tests. The shear strength parameters of the soils have been estimated. Changes in soil structure caused by compression and shear failure have been presented as visualizations of the samples tested. This allowed for improved interpretation and evaluation of soil strength parameters and recognition of pre-existing fissures and the exact mode of failure. Basic geometrical parameters have been determined for selected cross-sections of specimens after failure. The test results indicate the utility of the method applied in soil testing.

  15. Inner tubes cutting method by electrical arc saw

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thome, P.

    1990-01-01

    The research program deals on the definition of tools used for dismantling steam generator tubes bundle of PWR and on tool used for cutting pipes of great diameter by using the process of cutting by electrical arc saw. The remote tools are used for cutting by the interior pipes of contamined circuits [fr

  16. Preset pivotal tool holder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmanes, Charles

    1979-01-01

    A tool fixture is provided for precise pre-alignment of a radiused edge cutting tool in a tool holder relative to a fixed reference pivot point established on said holder about which the tool holder may be selectively pivoted relative to the fixture base member to change the contact point of the tool cutting edge with a workpiece while maintaining the precise same tool cutting radius relative to the reference pivot point.

  17. LASER CUTTING MACHINES FOR 3-D THIN SHEET PARTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav RADOVANOVIC

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Laser cutting machines are used for precise contour cutting thin sheet. In industrial application nowadays various types and construction of laser cutting machines can be met. For contour cutting 3-D thin sheet parts laser cutting machines with rotation movements and laser robots are used. Laser generates the light beam, that presents a tool in working process. Application of laser cutting machines made possible good quality of products, flexibility of production and enlargement of economy

  18. Effect of Substrate Bias on Friction Coefficient, Adhesion Strength and Hardness of TiN-COATED Tool Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamzah, Esah; Ali, Mubarak; Toff, Mohd Radzi Hj. Mohd

    In the present study, TiN coatings have been deposited on D2 tool steel substrates by using cathodic arc physical vapor deposition technique. The objective of this research work is to determine the usefulness of TiN coatings in order to improve the micro-Vickers hardness and friction coefficient of TiN coating deposited on D2 tool steel, which is widely used in tooling applications. A Pin-on-Disc test was carried out to study the coefficient of friction versus sliding distance of TiN coating deposited at various substrate biases. The standard deviation parameter during tribo-test result showed that the coating deposited at substrate bias of -75 V was the most stable coating. A significant increase in micro-Vickers hardness was recorded, when substrate bias was reduced from -150 V to zero. Scratch tester was used to compare the critical loads for coatings deposited at different bias voltages and the adhesion achievable was demonstrated with relevance to the various modes, scratch macroscopic analysis, critical load, acoustic emission and penetration depth. A considerable improvement in TiN coatings was observed as a function of various substrate bias voltages.

  19. Nicotine cut-off value in human hair as a tool to distinguish active from passive smokers: A cross-sectional study in Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Masayoshi; Kanda, Hideyuki; Hayakawa, Takehito; Mori, Yayoi; Ito, Teruna; Hidaka, Tomoo; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Osaki, Yoneatsu; Kawazoe, Miki; Sato, Sei; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2017-07-19

    Nicotine concentration in hair is a useful marker of tobacco exposure. Detection of nicotine in the hair of non-smokers indicates passive smoking. Accurate measurement of nicotine among active and passive smokers can help in smoking cessation programs or programs designed to prevent secondhand smoke exposure. To establish, using high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC/UV), a hair nicotine cut-off value to distinguish active from passive smokers. Hair samples were collected from randomly chosen Japanese men (n= 192) between 2009 and 2011. Nicotine and cotinine levels in hair were measured using HPLC/UV with column-switching. T-tests and chi-square tests were performed to compare active and passive smokers, while receiver operating characteristic curves were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the cut-off value. There were 69 active smokers and 123 passive smokers. The nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair were significantly higher in active than in passive smokers (psmokers. Nicotine and cotinine concentrations in hair clearly distinguished active from passive smokers.

  20. Influence of cryogenic treatment on microstructure and mechanical properties of high strength AISI D2 tool steel =

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemi Nanesa, Hadi

    Cryogenic treatment, known as treating materials at sub-zero temperatures, has been added to conventional heat treatment cycle of high alloyed steels where martensitic transformation is incomplete after quenching to room temperature. Incomplete martensitic transformation occurs due to the effect of high content of alloying elements on pushing down martensite start and finish temperatures to very low values, specifically, on tool steels. In spite of obtaining significant improvements in mechanical and wear properties after cryogenic treatment, there is no cohesive picture about what exactly modifies the microstructure of tool steels during cryogenic treatment and therefore divergent opinions on the influence of process parameters are still reported. For example, the suggested time length for cryogenic treatment starts from few seconds to several days indicating the lack of understanding about micromechanisms responsible for microstructural evolution while holding at cryogenic temperatures. In this regard, the main objective of this project is to develop a better understanding on the fundamental micromechanisms operating during cryogenic treatment. To attain this objective, the following milestones are pursued. - To study the conventional cryogenic treatment and finding challenges. - To identify and characterize the optimum starting microstructure before cryogenic treatment. - To determine the important processing parameters those control the evolution of microstructure and hardness. - To investigate the interaction between carbide precipitation and martensitic transformation in the AISI D2 steel. - To propose an optimal cryogenic treatment for AISI D2 steel.

  1. Slice-push, formation of grooves and the scale effect in cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, A G

    2016-06-06

    Three separate aspects of cutting are investigated which complement other papers on the mechanics of separation processes presented at this interdisciplinary Theo Murphy meeting. They apply in all types of cutting whether blades are sharp or blunt, and whether the material being cut is 'hard, stiff and strong' or 'soft, compliant and weak'. The first topic discusses why it is easier to cut when there is motion along (parallel to) the blade as well motion across (perpendicular to) the cutting edge, and the analysis is applied to optimization of blade geometries to produce minimum cutting forces and hence minimum damage to cut surfaces. The second topic concerns cutting with more than one edge with particular application to the formation of grooves in surfaces by hard pointed tools. The mechanics are investigated and applied to the topic of abrasive wear by hard particles. Traditional analyses say that abrasive wear resistance increases monotonically with the hardness of the workpiece, but we show that the fracture toughness of the surface material is also important, and that behaviour is determined by the toughness-to-hardness ratio rather than hardness alone. Scaling forms the third subject. As cutting is a branch of elasto-plastic fracture mechanics, cube-square energy scaling applies in which the important length scale is (ER/k (2)), where E is Young's modulus, R is the fracture toughness and k is the shear yield strength. Whether, in cutting, material is removed as ductile ribbons, as semi-ductile discontinuous chips, or by brittle 'knocking lumps out' is shown to depend on the depth of cut relative to this characteristic length parameter. Scaling in biology is called allometry and its relationship with engineering scaling is discussed. Some speculative predictions are made in relation to the action of teeth on food.

  2. Automated Laser Cutting In Three Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Lisa T.; Yvanovich, Mark A.; Angell, Terry R.; Bishop, Patricia J.; Dai, Weimin; Dobbs, Robert D.; He, Mingli; Minardi, Antonio; Shelton, Bret A.

    1995-01-01

    Computer-controlled machine-tool system uses laser beam assisted by directed flow of air to cut refractory materials into complex three-dimensional shapes. Velocity, position, and angle of cut varied. In original application, materials in question were thermally insulating thick blankets and tiles used on space shuttle. System shapes tile to concave or convex contours and cuts beveled edges on blanket, without cutting through outer layer of quartz fabric part of blanket. For safety, system entirely enclosed to prevent escape of laser energy. No dust generated during cutting operation - all material vaporized; larger solid chips dislodged from workpiece easily removed later.

  3. Material testing of copper by extrusion-cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Segalina, F.; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    2017-01-01

    was developed and implemented on a CNC lathe. An investigation was carried out extrusion-cutting copper discs using high-speed-steel cutting tools at 100 m/min cutting speed. Flow stress values for copper under machining-relevant conditions were obtained from measurement of the extrusion-cutting force...

  4. Plasma arc cutting: speed and cut quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemchinsky, V A; Severance, W S

    2009-01-01

    When cutting metal with plasma arc cutting, the walls of the cut are narrower at the bottom than at the top. This lack of squareness increases as the cutting speed increases. A model of this phenomenon, affecting cut quality, is suggested. A thin liquid layer, which separates the plasma from the solid metal to be melted, plays a key role in the suggested model. This layer decreases heat transfer from the plasma to the solid metal; the decrease is more pronounced the higher the speed and the thicker the liquid metal layer. Since the layer is thicker at the bottom of the cut, the heat transfer effectiveness is lower at the bottom. The decrease in heat transfer effectiveness is compensated by the narrowness of the cut. The suggested model allows one to calculate the profile of the cut. The result of the calculations of the cutting speeds for plates of various thicknesses, at which the squareness of the cut is acceptable, agrees well with the speeds recommended by manufacturers. The second effect considered in the paper is the deflection of the plasma jet from the vertical at a high cutting speed. A qualitative explanation of this phenomenon is given. We believe the considerations of this paper are pertinent to other types of cutting with moving heat sources.

  5. Strengths and weaknesses of working with the Global Trigger Tool method for retrospective record review: focus group interviews with team members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schildmeijer, Kristina; Nilsson, Lena; Perk, Joep; Arestedt, Kristofer; Nilsson, Gunilla

    2013-09-24

    The aim was to describe the strengths and weaknesses, from team member perspectives, of working with the Global Trigger Tool (GTT) method of retrospective record review to identify adverse events causing patient harm. A qualitative, descriptive approach with focus group interviews using content analysis. 5 Swedish hospitals in 2011. 5 GTT teams, with 5 physicians and 11 registered nurses. 5 focus group interviews were carried out with the five teams. Interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim. 8 categories emerged relating to the strengths and weaknesses of the GTT method. The categories found were: Usefulness of the GTT, Application of the GTT, Triggers, Preventability of harm, Team composition, Team tasks, Team members' knowledge development and Documentation. Gradually, changes in the methodology were made by the teams, for example, the teams reported how the registered nurses divided up the charts into two sets, each being read respectively. The teams described the method as important and well functioning. Not only the most important, but also the most difficult, was the task of bringing the results back to the clinic. The teams found it easier to discuss findings at their own clinics. The GTT method functions well for identifying adverse events and is strengthened by its adaptability to different specialties. However, small, gradual methodological changes together with continuingly developed expertise and adaption to looking at harm from a patient's perspective may contribute to large differences in assessment over time.

  6. Modern trends in increasing the quality of the steels intended for cutting and metal-working tools: I. Improvement of granule metallurgy processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyanchikov, L. N.

    2008-12-01

    The following new technological processes for producing fine gas-atomized powders of tool and high-speed steels with a low content of nonmetallic inclusions are considered: the process designed by Böhler Uddeholm Powder Technology (Austria) and processes involving a heated gas. In the former process, a metal is poured from a ladle with electroslag heating, and the atomizing unit consists of three injectors. A new process of producing tools from fine powders by three-dimensional printing, i.e., so-called 3D-printing, is described.

  7. Laser cutting of sheets for Tailored Blanks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    sound welds. Laser cutting the sheets may therefore be an alternative to shear cutting, if the cut kerf squareness can be kept below 0.05 mm.In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the effects of the major process parameters in laser cutting have been investigated. Each cut was quantified...... by the squareness, the surface roughness and the burr height. Mild steel as well as high strength steel with and with out galvanisation with thickness' of 0.7(5) and 1.25 were used.In the tests the difference in cut quality between a 5" and a 7.5" focusing lens were tested and the effect of using pulsed mode laser...

  8. Precision-Cut Liver Slices of Salmo salar as a tool to investigate the oxidative impact of CYP1A-mediated PCB 126 and 3-methylcholanthrene metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Benjamin; Beck, Michaël; Jaspart, Mélanie; Debier, Cathy; Calderon, Pedro Buc; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Rees, Jean-François

    2011-02-01

    Fish isolated cell systems have long been used to predict in vivo toxicity of man-made chemicals. In present study, we tested the suitability of Precision-Cut Liver Slices (PCLS) as an alternative to these models that allows the evaluation of a global tissue response to toxicants, to investigate oxidative stress response to cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A) induction in fish liver. PCLS of Salmo salar were exposed for 21 h to increasing doses of 3-methylcholanthrene (3-MC) and Polychlorobiphenyl 126 (PCB 126). 3-MC (25 μM) strongly induced CYP1A transcription. In dose-response analysis (25-100 μM), EROD activity was strongly increased at intermediate 3-MC concentrations. We found the counter-intuitive decline of EROD at the highest 3-MC doses to result from reversible competition with ethoxyresorufin. No increases of H(2)O(2) production, antioxidant enzymes activities or oxidative damage to lipids were found with 3-MC treatments. PCLS subjected to PCB 126 (2-200 nM) showed increased contamination levels and a parallel increased CYP1A mRNA synthesis and EROD activity. H(2)O(2) production tended to increase but no oxidative damage to lipids was found. As antioxidant enzymes activities declined at the highest PCB 126 dose, it is suggested that longer incubation periods could be required to generate oxidative stress in PCLS. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Feasibility Study of Laser Cutting for Fabrication of Tensile Specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B.

    2015-01-01

    The specimen fabrication technique was established to machine the specimen from the irradiated materials. The wire cut EDM(electric discharge machine) was modified to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from irradiated components and fuel claddings. The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated components and claddings interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, zirconium oxide is protective against further corrosion as well as beneficial to mechanical strength for the tensile deformation of the cladding. Thus, it is important to fabricate the irradiated specimens without removal of oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated structural components and claddings. In the present study, laser cutting system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the feasibility of the laser cutting system was studied for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser beam machining system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the dimensions were compared for the feasibility of the laser cutting system. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer

  10. Feasibility Study of Laser Cutting for Fabrication of Tensile Specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Y. G.; Baik, S. J.; Kim, G. S.; Heo, G. S.; Yoo, B. O.; Ahn, S. B.; Chun, Y. B. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The specimen fabrication technique was established to machine the specimen from the irradiated materials. The wire cut EDM(electric discharge machine) was modified to fabricate the mechanical testing specimens from irradiated components and fuel claddings. The oxide layer removal system was also developed because the oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated components and claddings interrupted the applying the electric current during the processing. However, zirconium oxide is protective against further corrosion as well as beneficial to mechanical strength for the tensile deformation of the cladding. Thus, it is important to fabricate the irradiated specimens without removal of oxide layer on the surface of the irradiated structural components and claddings. In the present study, laser cutting system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the feasibility of the laser cutting system was studied for the fabrication of various types of irradiated specimens in a hot cell at IMEF (Irradiated Materials Examination Facility) of KAERI. Laser beam machining system was introduced to fabricate the various mechanical testing specimens from the unirradiated fuel cladding and the dimensions were compared for the feasibility of the laser cutting system. The effect of surface oxide layer was also investigated for machining process of the zircaloy-4 fuel cladding and it was found that laser beam machining could be a useful tool to fabricate the specimens with surface oxide layer.

  11. The Strength of Ethical Matrixes as a Tool for Normative Analysis Related to Technological Choices: The Case of Geological Disposal for Radioactive Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kermisch, Céline; Depaus, Christophe

    2018-02-01

    The ethical matrix is a participatory tool designed to structure ethical reflection about the design, the introduction, the development or the use of technologies. Its collective implementation, in the context of participatory decision-making, has shown its potential usefulness. On the contrary, its implementation by a single researcher has not been thoroughly analyzed. The aim of this paper is precisely to assess the strength of ethical matrixes implemented by a single researcher as a tool for conceptual normative analysis related to technological choices. Therefore, the ethical matrix framework is applied to the management of high-level radioactive waste, more specifically to retrievable and non-retrievable geological disposal. The results of this analysis show that the usefulness of ethical matrixes is twofold and that they provide a valuable input for further decision-making. Indeed, by using ethical matrixes, implicit ethically relevant issues were revealed-namely issues of equity associated with health impacts and differences between close and remote future generations regarding ethical impacts. Moreover, the ethical matrix framework was helpful in synthesizing and comparing systematically the ethical impacts of the technologies under scrutiny, and hence in highlighting the potential ethical conflicts.

  12. The strength compass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    of agreement/disagreement. Also the child/teacher is asked whether the actual strength is important and if he or she has the possibilities to apply the strength in the school. In a PhDproject ‘Strengths-based Learning - Children’s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential’ 750 Danish children......Individual paper presentation: The ‘Strength Compass’. The results of a PhDresearch project among schoolchildren (age 6-16) identifying VIAstrengths concerning age, gender, mother-tongue-langue and possible child psychiatric diagnosis. Strengths-based interventions in schools have a theoretical...... Psychological Publishing Company. ‘The Strength Compass’ is a computer/Ipad based qualitative tool to identify the strengths of a child by a self-survey or a teacher’s survey. It is designed as a visual analogue scale with a statement of the strength in which the child/teacher may declare the degree...

  13. Laser cutting - trends in the development,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2002-01-01

    Since the laser was invented in 1960, the industrial applications of this tool has grown and grown. And - since the beginning of the 1980'ies, the major industrial application of lasers in production has been laser cutting. In this paper a short review of the development of the laser cutting...

  14. Finite element simulation of laser cutting process of steel sheet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meško Jozef

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Lasers are widely used in industry as cutting tools due to ultra flexibility of the cutting conditions, obtaining high quality end product, quick set up, non-mechanical contact between the workpiece and the tool, and small size of the heat affected zone. In the present study, laser gas assisted cutting process is examined. The laser cutting sheet solution is practically always very convenient compared to conventional technologies and brings the greatest cost savings in the manufacturing process.

  15. Identifying Key Features, Cutting Edge Cloud Resources, and Artificial Intelligence Tools to Achieve User-Friendly Water Science in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Decision making for groundwater systems is becoming increasingly important, as shifting water demands increasingly impact aquifers. As buffer systems, aquifers provide room for resilient responses and augment the actual timeframe for hydrological response. Yet the pace impacts, climate shifts, and degradation of water resources is accelerating. To meet these new drivers, groundwater science is transitioning toward the emerging field of Integrated Water Resources Management, or IWRM. IWRM incorporates a broad array of dimensions, methods, and tools to address problems that tend to be complex. Computational tools and accessible cyberinfrastructure (CI) are needed to cross the chasm between science and society. Fortunately cloud computing environments, such as the new Jetstream system, are evolving rapidly. While still targeting scientific user groups systems such as, Jetstream, offer configurable cyberinfrastructure to enable interactive computing and data analysis resources on demand. The web-based interfaces allow researchers to rapidly customize virtual machines, modify computing architecture and increase the usability and access for broader audiences to advanced compute environments. The result enables dexterous configurations and opening up opportunities for IWRM modelers to expand the reach of analyses, number of case studies, and quality of engagement with stakeholders and decision makers. The acute need to identify improved IWRM solutions paired with advanced computational resources refocuses the attention of IWRM researchers on applications, workflows, and intelligent systems that are capable of accelerating progress. IWRM must address key drivers of community concern, implement transdisciplinary methodologies, adapt and apply decision support tools in order to effectively support decisions about groundwater resource management. This presentation will provide an overview of advanced computing services in the cloud using integrated groundwater management case

  16. ANALYSIS OF CUTTING FORCES ON CNC LATHES EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erdem Koç

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective of this study is to make use easy programming of CNC lathes and to achieve the optimization of part program prepared considering the limiting parameters of the machine. In the present study, a BOXFORD 250 B CNC lathe has been used for experiment and optimization process. The measurement of cutting forces exerted on the cutting tool of CNC lathe has been performed. The cutting forces occurring during the turning operation have been determined for different depth of" cut, feed rate and cutting speed as well as different cutting tools and related data base has been obtained.

  17. Multibeam Fibre Laser Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fibre laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating cutting laser, the CO2-laser. However, quality problems in fibre......-laser cutting have until now limited its application in metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multi beam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from 2 single mode fibre lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W of single...

  18. Multibeam fiber laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Hansen, Klaus Schütt; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2009-01-01

    The appearance of the high power high brilliance fiber laser has opened for new possibilities in laser materials processing. In laser cutting this laser has demonstrated high cutting performance compared to the dominating Cutting laser, the CO2 laser. However, quality problems in fiber......-laser cutting have until now limited its application to metal cutting. In this paper the first results of proof-of-principle Studies applying a new approach (patent pending) for laser cutting with high brightness and short wavelength lasers will be presented. In the approach, multibeam patterns are applied...... to control the melt flow out of the cut kerf resulting in improved cut quality in metal cutting. The beam patterns in this study are created by splitting up beams from two single mode fiber lasers and combining these beams into a pattern in the cut kerf. The results are obtained with a total of 550 W...

  19. Multi-objective optimization of surface roughness, cutting forces, productivity and Power consumption when turning of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Tebassi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel based super alloys are excellent for several applications and mainly in structural components submitted to high temperatures owing to their high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and metallurgical stability such as in cases of jet engine and gas turbine components. The current work presents the experimental investigations of the cutting parameters effects (cutting speed, depth of cut and feed rate on the surface roughness, cutting force components, productivity and power consumption during dry conditions in straight turning using coated carbide tool. The mathematical models for output parameters have been developed using Box-Behnken design with 15 runs and Box-Cox transformation was used for improving normality. The results of the analysis have shown that the surface finish was statistically sensitive to the feed rate and cutting speed with the contribution of 43.58% and 23.85% respectively, while depth of cut had the greatest effect on the evolution of cutting force components with the contribution of 79.87% for feed force, 66.92% for radial force and 66.26% for tangential force. Multi-objective optimization procedure allowed minimizing roughness Ra, cutting forces and power consumption and maximizing material removal rate using desirability approach.

  20. Investigation of cutting-induced damage in CMC bend bars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neubrand A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Ceramic matrix composites (“CMC” with a strong fibre-matrix interface can be made damage-tolerant by introducing a highly porous matrix. Such composites typically have only a low interlaminar shear strength, which can potentially promote damage when preparing specimens or components by cutting. In order to investigate the damage induced by different cutting methods, waterjet cutting with and without abrasives, laser-cutting, wire eroding and cutoff grinding were used to cut plates of two different CMCs with a matrix porosity up to 35 vol.-%. For each combination of cutting method and composite, the flexural and interlaminar shear strength of the resulting specimens was determined. Additionally, the integrity of the regions near the cut surfaces was investigated by high-resolution x-ray computer tomography. It could be shown that the geometrical quality of the cut is strongly affected by the cutting method employed. Laser cut and waterjet cut specimens showed damage and delaminations near the cut surface leading to a reduced interlaminar shear strength of short bend bars in extreme cases.

  1. Cutting thin glass by femtosecond laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hyesung; Kim, Dongsik

    2018-06-01

    The femtosecond laser ablation process for cutting thin aluminoborosilicate glass sheets of thickness 100 μm was investigated with emphasis on effective cutting speed (Veff) and mechanical strength of diced samples. The process parameters including the laser fluence (F), overlap ratio (r) of the laser beam and polarization direction were varied at a fixed pulse repetition rate f = 1 kHz to find the optimal process condition that maximizes Veff and edge strength. A three-point bending test was performed to evaluate the front-side and back-side bending (edge) strength of the laser-cut samples. Veff was proportional to F unless r exceeded a critical value, at which excessive energy began to be delivered at the same spot. The front-side edge strength was bigger than the back-side strength because of the back-side damages such as chipping. Good edge strength, as high as ∼280 MPa (front-side) and ∼230 MPa (back-side), was obtained at F = 19 J/m2, r = 0.99, with laser polarization vertical to the cutting path.

  2. CO2 laser cutting

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, John

    1998-01-01

    The laser has given manufacturing industry a new tool. When the laser beam is focused it can generate one of the world's most intense energy sources, more intense than flames and arcs, though similar to an electron beam. In fact the intensity is such that it can vaporise most known materials. The laser material processing industry has been growing swiftly as the quality, speed and new manufacturing possibilities become better understood. In the fore of these new technologies is the process of laser cutting. Laser cutting leads because it is a direct process substitu­ tion and the laser can usually do the job with greater flexibility, speed and quality than its competitors. However, to achieve these high speeds with high quality con­ siderable know how and experience is required. This information is usually carefully guarded by the businesses concerned and has to be gained by hard experience and technical understanding. Yet in this book John Powell explains in lucid and almost non­ technical language many o...

  3. Strengths-based Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledertoug, Mette Marie

    -being. The Ph.D.-project in Strength-based learning took place in a Danish school with 750 pupils age 6-16 and a similar school was functioning as a control group. The presentation will focus on both the aware-explore-apply processes and the practical implications for the schools involved, and on measurable......Strength-based learning - Children͛s Character Strengths as Means to their Learning Potential͛ is a Ph.D.-project aiming to create a strength-based mindset in school settings and at the same time introducing strength-based interventions as specific tools to improve both learning and well...

  4. Evaluation of cutting force and surface roughness in high-speed milling of compacted graphite iron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azlan Suhaimi Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compacted Graphite Iron, (CGI is known to have outstanding mechanical strength and weight-to-strength ratio as compared to conventional grey cast iron, (CI. The outstanding characteristics of CGI is due to its graphite particle shape, which is presented as compacted vermicular particle. The graphite is interconnected with random orientation and round edges, which results in higher mechanical strength. Whereas, graphite in the CI consists of a smooth-surfaced flakes that easily propagates cracks which results in weaker and brittle properties as compared to CGI. Owing to its improved properties, CGI is considered as the best candidate material in substituting grey cast iron that has been used in engine block applications for years. However, the smooth implementation of replacing CI with CGI has been hindered due to the poor machinability of CGI especially at high cutting speed. The tool life is decreased by 20 times when comparing CGI with CI under the same cutting condition. This study investigates the effect of using cryogenic cooling and minimum quantity lubrication (MQL during high-speed milling of CGI (grade 450. Results showed that, the combination of internal cryogenic cooling and enhanced MQL improved the tool life, cutting force and surface quality as compared to the conventional flood coolant strategy during high-speed milling of CGI.

  5. Skin Cut Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    projects - among others - from ARC are included: Soft Structures builds upon of a series of experimental use of EPS hot wire cutting, where the EPS eventually act as formwork for concrete casting. The processing of the EPS is distinct and delimited by the behaviour and form of both the robot and tool...... of steel and concrete makes it a reliable approach to many challenges in the realisation of buildings. Rebar Inside Out attempts to rethink the possibilities of the reinforced concrete composite starting from its inside. This means starting with the reinforcing steel, the production and shaping of this......, and then through that process build a workflow for the production of the concrete composite. It also means letting the steel out of the concrete, thereby positioning the two materials in a transnational relationship between steel construction and concrete composite....

  6. Experimental analysis of cut welding in aluminium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorph, Pernille; De Chiffre, Leonardo; Bay, Niels

    1993-01-01

    Cut welding is a newly developed cold pressure welding process. In the present work, an experimental investigation was carried out analyzing the mechanisms involved in cut welding of a block to a strip. Experiments were carried out in technically pure aluminium. The investigation has involved...... tensile testing and metallographic investigations of the welds. The results show that this variant of cut welding is a very reproducible process giving a weld strength equal to 30-40% the strength of the parent material. The experiments have shown that the reason for this relatively low strength...... is an uneven pressure distribution along the weld due to a wave formed during sliding. Attempts to alter the material flow during sliding are presented....

  7. Determination of high-strength materials diamond grinding rational modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, P. V.; Lobanov, D. V.; Rychkov, D. A.; Yanyushkin, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    The analysis of methods of high-strength materials abrasive processing is carried out. This method made it possible to determine the necessary directions and prospects for the development of shaping combined methods. The need to use metal bonded diamond abrasive tools in combination with a different kind of energy is noted to improve the processing efficiency and reduce the complexity of operations. The complex of experimental research on revealing the importance of mechanical and electrical components of cutting regimes, on the cutting ability of diamond tools, as well as the need to reduce the specific consumption of an abrasive wheel as one of the important economic indicators of the processing process is performed. It is established that combined diamond grinding with simultaneous continuous correction of the abrasive wheel contributes to an increase in the cutting ability of metal bonded diamond abrasive tools when processing high-strength materials by an average of 30% compared to diamond grinding. Particular recommendations on the designation of technological factors are developed depending on specific production problems.

  8. Experimental test of theory for the stability of partially saturated vertical cut slopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michael M.; Lu, N.; Wayllace, Alexandra; Godt, Jonathan W.; Take, W.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper extends Culmann's vertical-cut analysis to unsaturated soils. To test the extended theory, unsaturated sand was compacted to a uniform porosity and moisture content in a laboratory apparatus. A sliding door that extended the height of the free face of the slope was lowered until the vertical cut failed. Digital images of the slope cross section and upper surface were acquired concurrently. A recently developed particle image velocimetry (PIV) tool was used to quantify soil displacement. The PIV analysis showed strain localization at varying distances from the sliding door prior to failure. The areas of localized strain were coincident with the location of the slope crest after failure. Shear-strength and soil-water-characteristic parameters of the sand were independently tested for use in extended analyses of the vertical-cut stability and of the failure plane angle. Experimental failure heights were within 22.3% of the heights predicted using the extended theory.

  9. Laser circular cutting of Kevlar sheets: Analysis of thermal stress filed and assessment of cutting geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, B. S.; Akhtar, S. S.; Karatas, C.

    2017-11-01

    A Kevlar laminate has negative thermal expansion coefficient, which makes it difficult to machine at room temperaures using the conventional cutting tools. Contararily, laser machining of a Kevlar laminate provides advantages over the conventional methods because of the non-mechanical contact between the cutting tool and the workpiece. In the present study, laser circular cutting of Kevlar laminate is considered. The experiment is carried out to examine and evaluate the cutting sections. Temperature and stress fields formed in the cutting section are simulated in line with the experimental study. The influence of hole diameters on temperature and stress fields are investigated incorporating two different hole diameters. It is found that the Kevlar laminate cutting section is free from large size asperities such as large scale sideways burnings and attachemnt of charred residues. The maximum temperature along the cutting circumference remains higher for the large diameter hole than that of the small diameter hole. Temperature decay is sharp around the cutting section in the region where the cutting terminates. This, in turn, results in high temperature gradients and the thermal strain in the cutting region. von Mises stress remains high in the region where temperature gradients are high. von Mises stress follows similar to the trend of temperature decay around the cutting edges.

  10. Cutting state identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, B.S.; Minis, I.; Rokni, M.

    1997-01-01

    Cutting states associated with the orthogonal cutting of stiff cylinders are identified through an analysis of the singular values of a Toeplitz matrix of third order cumulants of acceleration measurements. The ratio of the two pairs of largest singular values is shown to differentiate between light cutting, medium cutting, pre-chatter and chatter states. Sequences of cutting experiments were performed in which either depth of cut or turning frequency was varied. Two sequences of experiments with variable turning frequency and five with variable depth of cut, 42 cutting experiments in all, provided a database for the calculation of third order cumulants. Ratios of singular values of cumulant matrices find application in the analysis of control of orthogonal cutting

  11. Study of cutting speed on surface roughness and chip formation when machining nickel-based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khidhir, Basim A.; Mohamed, Bashir

    2010-01-01

    Nickel- based alloy is difficult-to-machine because of its low thermal diffusive property and high strength at higher temperature. The machinability of nickel- based Hastelloy C-276 in turning operations has been carried out using different types of inserts under dry conditions on a computer numerical control (CNC) turning machine at different stages of cutting speed. The effects of cutting speed on surface roughness have been investigated. This study explores the types of wear caused by the effect of cutting speed on coated and uncoated carbide inserts. In addition, the effect of burr formation is investigated. The chip burr is found to have different shapes at lower speeds. Triangles and squares have been noticed for both coated and uncoated tips as well. The conclusion from this study is that the transition from thick continuous chip to wider discontinuous chip is caused by different types of inserts. The chip burr has a significant effect on tool damage starting in the line of depth-of-cut. For the coated insert tips, the burr disappears when the speed increases to above 150 m/min with the improvement of surface roughness; increasing the speed above the same limit for uncoated insert tips increases the chip burr size. The results of this study showed that the surface finish of nickel-based alloy is highly affected by the insert type with respect to cutting speed changes and its effect on chip burr formation and tool failure

  12. Wear-dependent specific coefficients in a mechanistic model for turning of nickel-based superalloy with ceramic tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Lacalle, Luis Norberto; Urbicain Pelayo, Gorka; Fernández-Valdivielso, Asier; Alvarez, Alvaro; González, Haizea

    2017-09-01

    Difficult to cut materials such as nickel and titanium alloys are used in the aeronautical industry, the former alloys due to its heat-resistant behavior and the latter for the low weight - high strength ratio. Ceramic tools made out alumina with reinforce SiC whiskers are a choice in turning for roughing and semifinishing workpiece stages. Wear rate is high in the machining of these alloys, and consequently cutting forces tends to increase along one operation. This paper establishes the cutting force relation between work-piece and tool in the turning of such difficult-to-cut alloys by means of a mechanistic cutting force model that considers the tool wear effect. The cutting force model demonstrates the force sensitivity to the cutting engagement parameters (ap, f) when using ceramic inserts and wear is considered. Wear is introduced through a cutting time factor, being useful in real conditions taking into account that wear quickly appears in alloys machining. A good accuracy in the cutting force model coefficients is the key issue for an accurate prediction of turning forces, which could be used as criteria for tool replacement or as input for chatter or other models.

  13. Welding and cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drews, P.; Schulze Frielinghaus, W.

    1978-01-01

    This is a survey, with 198 literature references, of the papers published in the fields of welding and cutting within the last three years. The subjects dealt with are: weldability of the materials - Welding methods - Thermal cutting - Shaping and calculation of welded joints - Environmental protection in welding and cutting. (orig.) [de

  14. An Experimental Study of the Cutting Forces in Metal Turning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoltan Iosif Korka

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cutting forces are classified among the most important technological parameters in machining process. Cutting forces are the background for the evaluation of the necessary machining power, as well as for dimensioning of the tools. Cutting forces are also having a major influence on the deformation of the work piece machined, its dimensional accuracy, and machining system stability.

  15. Tool grinding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, Sr., Charles E.

    1980-01-01

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thickness may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  16. Improved tool grinding machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dial, C.E. Sr.

    The present invention relates to an improved tool grinding mechanism for grinding single point diamond cutting tools to precise roundness and radius specifications. The present invention utilizes a tool holder which is longitudinally displaced with respect to the remainder of the grinding system due to contact of the tool with the grinding surface with this displacement being monitored so that any variation in the grinding of the cutting surface such as caused by crystal orientation or tool thicknesses may be compensated for during the grinding operation to assure the attainment of the desired cutting tool face specifications.

  17. Fractal characteristic study of shearer cutter cutting resistance curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C. [Heilongjiang Scientific and Technical Institute, Haerbin (China). Dept of Mechanical Engineering

    2004-02-01

    The cutting resistance curve is the most useful tool for reflecting the overall cutting performance of a cutting machine. The cutting resistance curve is influenced by many factors such as the pick structure and arrangement, the cutter operation parameters, coal quality and geologic conditions. This paper discusses the use of fractal geometry to study the properties of the cutting resistance curve, and the use of fractal dimensions to evaluate cutting performance. On the basis of fractal theory, the general form and calculation method of fractal characteristics are given. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Design and development of remotely operated coolant channel cutting machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suthar, R.L.; Sinha, A.K.; Srikrishnamurty, G.

    1994-01-01

    One of the coolant tubes of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) reactor needs to be removed. To remove a coolant tube, four cutting operations, (liner tube cutting, end-fitting cutting, machining of seal weld of bellow ring and finally coolant tube cutting) are required to be carried out. A remotely operated cutting machine to carry out all these operations has been designed and developed by Central Workshops. This machine is able to cut at the exact location because of numerically controlled axial and radial travel of tool. Only by changing the tool head and tool holder, same machine can be used for various types of cutting/machining operations. This report details the design, manufacture, assembly and testing work done on the machine. (author). 4 figs

  19. Device for cutting protrusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bzorgi, Fariborz M [Knoxville, TN

    2011-07-05

    An apparatus for clipping a protrusion of material is provided. The protrusion may, for example, be a bolt head, a nut, a rivet, a weld bead, or a temporary assembly alignment tab protruding from a substrate surface of assembled components. The apparatus typically includes a cleaver having a cleaving edge and a cutting blade having a cutting edge. Generally, a mounting structure configured to confine the cleaver and the cutting blade and permit a range of relative movement between the cleaving edge and the cutting edge is provided. Also typically included is a power device coupled to the cutting blade. The power device is configured to move the cutting edge toward the cleaving edge. In some embodiments the power device is activated by a momentary switch. A retraction device is also generally provided, where the retraction device is configured to move the cutting edge away from the cleaving edge.

  20. Laser cutting - from 200 Watt to 12 Kilowatt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2004-01-01

    Laser cutting is the most widespread industrial application of high power lasers. The development of this process was initiated around 1970, when scientists at TWI first demonstrated laser cutting with coaxial gas assistance. 10 years later, the polarisation problem was solved and the technology ...... got its breakthrough. Since then some 30,000 laser cutting systems have been installed worldwide, making the laser an important cutting tool in modern industry....

  1. Wear-dependent specific coefficients in a mechanistic model for turning of nickel-based superalloy with ceramic tools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López de Lacalle Luis Norberto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Difficult to cut materials such as nickel and titanium alloys are used in the aeronautical industry, the former alloys due to its heat-resistant behavior and the latter for the low weight - high strength ratio. Ceramic tools made out alumina with reinforce SiC whiskers are a choice in turning for roughing and semifinishing workpiece stages. Wear rate is high in the machining of these alloys, and consequently cutting forces tends to increase along one operation.

  2. Surface Roughness and Tool Wear on Cryogenic Treated CBN Insert on Titanium and Inconel 718 Alloy Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thamizhmanii, S; Mohideen, R; Zaidi, A M A; Hasan, S

    2015-01-01

    Machining of materials by super hard tools like cubic boron nitride (cbn) and poly cubic boron nitride (pcbn) is to reduce tool wear to obtain dimensional accuracy, smooth surface and more number of parts per cutting edge. wear of tools is inevitable due to rubbing action between work material and tool edge. however, the tool wear can be minimized by using super hard tools by enhancing the strength of the cutting inserts. one such process is cryogenic process. this process is used in all materials and cutting inserts which requires wear resistance. the cryogenic process is executed under subzero temperature -186° celsius for longer period of time in a closed chamber which contains liquid nitrogen. in this research, cbn inserts with cryogenically treated was used to turn difficult to cut metals like titanium, inconel 718 etc. the turning parameters used is different cutting speeds, feed rates and depth of cut. in this research, titanium and inconel 718 material were used. the results obtained are surface roughness, flank wear and crater wear. the surface roughness obtained on titanium was lower at high cutting speed compared with inconel 718. the flank wear was low while turning titanium than inconel 718. crater wear is less on inconel 718 than titanium alloy. all the two materials produced saw tooth chips. (paper)

  3. Experimental Investigation on Cutting Characteristics in Nanometric Plunge-Cutting of BK7 and Fused Silica Glasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Qinglong; Ming, Weiwei; Chen, Ming

    2015-03-27

    Ductile cutting are most widely used in fabricating high-quality optical glass components to achieve crack-free surfaces. For ultra-precision machining of brittle glass materials, critical undeformed chip thickness (CUCT) commonly plays a pivotal role in determining the transition point from ductile cutting to brittle cutting. In this research, cutting characteristics in nanometric cutting of BK7 and fused silica glasses, including machined surface morphology, surface roughness, cutting force and specific cutting energy, were investigated with nanometric plunge-cutting experiments. The same cutting speed of 300 mm/min was used in the experiments with single-crystal diamond tool. CUCT was determined according to the mentioned cutting characteristics. The results revealed that 320 nm was found as the CUCT in BK7 cutting and 50 nm was determined as the size effect of undeformed chip thickness. A high-quality machined surface could be obtained with the undeformed chip thickness between 50 and 320 nm at ductile cutting stage. Moreover, no CUCT was identified in fused silica cutting with the current cutting conditions, and brittle-fracture mechanism was confirmed as the predominant chip-separation mode throughout the nanometric cutting operation.

  4. Material Behavior At The Extreme Cutting Edge In Bandsawing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, Mohammed; Haider, Julfikar; Persson, Martin; Hellbergh, Haakan

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, bandsawing has been widely accepted as a favourite option for metal cutting off operations where the accuracy of cut, good surface finish, low kerf loss, long tool life and high material removal rate are required. Material removal by multipoint cutting tools such as bandsaw is a complex mechanism owing to the geometry of the bandsaw tooth (e.g., limited gullet size, tooth setting etc.) and the layer of material removed or undeformed chip thickness or depth of cut (5 μm-50 μm) being smaller than or equal to the cutting edge radius (5 μm-15 μm). This situation can lead to inefficient material removal in bandsawing. Most of the research work are concentrated on the mechanics of material removal by single point cutting tool such as lathe tool. However, such efforts are very limited in multipoint cutting tools such as in bandsaw. This paper presents the fundamental understanding of the material behaviour at the extreme cutting edge of bandsaw tooth, which would help in designing and manufacturing of blades with higher cutting performance and life. ''High Speed Photography'' has been carried out to analyse the material removal process at the extreme cutting edge of bandsaw tooth. Geometric model of chip formation mechanisms based on the evidences found during ''High Speed Photography'' and ''Quick Stop'' process is presented. Wear modes and mechanism in bimetal and carbide tipped bandsaw teeth are also presented.

  5. Designing for hot-blade cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brander, David; Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Clausen, Kenn

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we present a novel method for the generation of doubly-curved, architectural design surfaces using swept Euler elastica and cubic splines. The method enables a direct design to production workflow with robotic hot-blade cutting, a novel robotic fabrication method under development......-trivial constraints of blade-cutting in a bottom-up fashion, enabling an exploration of the unique architectural potential of this fabrication approach. The method is implemented as prototype design tools in MatLAB, C++, GhPython, and Python and demonstrated through cutting of expanded polystyrene foam design...

  6. Cutting of Two Marble Dummy Crystals in Industrial Prototype Conditions

    CERN Document Server

    De Forni, Armando; Limia-Conde, Francisco; Morino, René

    1997-01-01

    Two marble samples were cut to specified conditions with the tooling set designed for the mass processing of the 110'000 PbWO4 crystals of the CMS Electromagnetic Calorimeter. We wanted to test in particular the reproducibility of the electrical contact on the reference sphere, the accuracy of the new positioning tools at each cutting operation in their respective positions

  7. Extension without Cut

    OpenAIRE

    Straßburger , Lutz

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In proof theory one distinguishes sequent proofs with cut and cut-free sequent proofs, while for proof complexity one distinguishes Frege-systems and extended Frege-systems. In this paper we show how deep inference can provide a uniform treatment for both classifications, such that we can define cut-free systems with extension, which is neither possible with Frege-systems, nor with the sequent calculus. We show that the propositional pigeon-hole principle admits polyno...

  8. Development and characterization of AlCrN coated Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} ceramic cutting tool; Desenvolvimento e caracterizacao de ferramentas ceramicas de Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} revestidas com AlCrN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, J.V.C.; Nono, M.C.A.; Machado, J.P.B., E-mail: vitor@las.inpe.b [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (INPE), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Silva, O.M.M. [Centro Tecnico de Aeronautica (CTA-IAE/AMR), Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Aeronautica e Espaco. Div. de Materiais; Pimenta, M. [Balzers, Jundiai, SP (Brazil); Sa, F.C.L. [Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda (UNIFOA), RJ (Brazil)

    2010-07-01

    Ceramic cutting tools are showing a growing market perspective in terms of application on machining operations due to their high hardness, wear resistance, and machining without a cutting fluid, therefore are good candidates for cast iron and Nickel superalloys machining. The objective of the present paper was the development of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} based ceramic cutting insert, characterization of its physical and mechanical properties, and subsequent coating with AlCrN using a PVD method. The characterization of the coating was made using an optical profiler, XRD, AFM and microhardness tester. The results showed that the tool presented a fracture toughness of 6,43 MPa.m{sup 1/2} and hardness of 16 GPa. The hardness reached 31 GPa after coating. The machining tests showed an improvement on work piece roughness when machining with coated insert, in comparison with the uncoated cutting tool. Probably this fact is related to hardness, roughness and topography of AlCrN. (author)

  9. Underwater cutting techniques developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bach, F.-W.

    1990-01-01

    The primary circuit structures of different nuclear powerplants are constructed out of stainless steels, ferritic steels, plated ferritic steels and alloys of aluminium. According to the level of the specific radiation of these structures, it is necessary for dismantling to work with remote controlled cutting techniques. The most successful way to protect the working crew against exposure of radiation is to operate underwater in different depths. The following thermal cutting processes are more or less developed to work under water: For ferritic steels only - flame cutting; For ferritic steels, stainless steels, cladded steels and aluminium alloys - oxy-arc-cutting, arc-waterjet-cutting with a consumable electrode, arc-saw-cutting, plasma-arc-cutting and plasma-arc-saw. The flame cutting is a burning process, all the other processes are melt-cutting processes. This paper explains the different techniques, giving a short introduction of the theory, a discussion of the possibilities with the advantages and disadvantages of these processes giving a view into the further research work in this interesting field. (author)

  10. PULSED MODE LASER CUTTING OF SHEETS FOR TAILORED BLANKS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagger, Claus; Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes how the laser cutting process can be optimised in such a way that the cut sheets can subsequently be used to laser weld tailored blanks. In a number of systematic laboratory experiments the effect of cutting speed, assist gas pressure, average laser power and pulse energy...... item for parameter optimisation of laser cut sheets used for tailored blanks. It was concluded that high quality cut edges with a squareness as small as 0.015 mm may be obtained. Such edges are well suited for subsequent laser welding....... was analysed. For quality assessment the squareness, roughness and dross attachment of laser cut blanks were measured. In all tests, the medium strength steel GA 260 with a thickness of 1.8 mm was used. In this work it has been successfully demonstrated that the squareness of a cut can be used as a quality...

  11. Nanometric mechanical cutting of metallic glass investigated using atomistic simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Cheng-Da, E-mail: nanowu@cycu.edu.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung Pei Rd., Chung Li District, Taoyuan City 32023, Taiwan (China); Fang, Te-Hua, E-mail: fang.tehua@msa.hinet.net [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China); Su, Jih-Kai, E-mail: yummy_2468@yahoo.com.tw [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Kaohsiung University of Applied Sciences, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A nanoscale chip with a shear plane of 135° is extruded by the tool. • Tangential force and normal force increase with increasing tool nose radius. • Resistance factor increases with increasing cutting depth and temperature. - Abstract: The effects of cutting depth, tool nose radius, and temperature on the cutting mechanism and mechanics of amorphous NiAl workpieces are studied using molecular dynamics simulations based on the second-moment approximation of the many-body tight-binding potential. These effects are investigated in terms of atomic trajectories and flow field, shear strain, cutting force, resistance factor, cutting ratio, and pile-up characteristics. The simulation results show that a nanoscale chip with a shear plane of 135° is extruded by the tool from a workpiece surface during the cutting process. The workpiece atoms underneath the tool flow upward due to the adhesion force and elastic recovery. The required tangential force and normal force increase with increasing cutting depth and tool nose radius; both forces also increase with decreasing temperature. The resistance factor increases with increasing cutting depth and temperature, and decreases with increasing tool nose radius.

  12. The influence of cooling techniques on cutting forces and surface roughness during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wstawska Iwona

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Titanium alloys are one of the materials extensively used in the aerospace industry due to its excellent properties of high specific strength and corrosion resistance. On the other hand, they also present problems wherein titanium alloys are extremely difficult materials to machine. In addition, the cost associated with titanium machining is also high due to lower cutting velocities and shorter tool life. The main objective of this work is a comparison of different cooling techniques during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys. The analysis revealed that applied cooling technique has a significant influence on cutting force and surface roughness (Ra parameter values. Furthermore, in all cases observed a positive influence of cryogenic machining on selected aspects after turning and milling of titanium alloys. This work can be also the starting point to the further research, related to the analysis of cutting forces and surface roughness during cryogenic machining of titanium alloys.

  13. Cutting Class Harms Grades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lewis A., III

    2012-01-01

    An accessible business school population of undergraduate students was investigated in three independent, but related studies to determine effects on grades due to cutting class and failing to take advantage of optional reviews and study quizzes. It was hypothesized that cutting classes harms exam scores, attending preexam reviews helps exam…

  14. Operational dynamics of the cutting head of the AM-50 heading machine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Bak, K; Klich, R [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1987-01-01

    Operation of the cutter head of an AM-50 heading machine is influenced by a large number of factors, many of them of a random character. Forces acting on each of the cutting tools participating in coal or rock cutting are determined and summed up. The total cutting force is then calculated and on that basis the turning moment is derived. Cutting tool operation also is analyzed as a stochastic process. Cutting forces of each cutting tool change from 0 to maximum. However these forces are distributed in cutting time and the total cutting force is not the sum of the average cutting forces, nor is it the sum of maximum cutting forces. Using calculus of probability, the probable force distribution was determined. This distribution is compared to force distribution calculated on the basis of power consumption of the cutter motors. The differences between the two force distributions are, among others, caused by insufficient investigation into operation of conic cutters. 10 refs.

  15. Managing yourself. Stop overdoing your strengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Robert E; Kaiser, Robert B

    2009-02-01

    Although most managers can recognize an off-kilter leader (consider the highly supportive boss who cuts people too much slack), it's quite difficult to see overkill in yourself. Unfortunately, that's where leadership development tools such as 360-degree surveys fail to deliver, say Kaplan and Kaiser. Dividing qualities into "strengths" and "weaknesses" and rating them on a five-point scale will not account for strengths overplayed. The authors suggest several strategies, based on their years of consulting experience and research, for figuring out which attributes you've employed to excess and adjusting your behavior accordingly. Strengths taken too far have two consequences: First, they become weaknesses. For instance, quick-wittedness can turn into impatience with others. Second, you're at risk of becoming extremely lopsided--that is, diminishing your capacity on the opposite pole. A leader who is very good at building consensus, for example, may take too long to move into action. To strike a balance between two key leadership dualities--forceful versus enabling, and strategic versus operational--you need to see your actions and motivations clearly. That's no easy task since most leadership development tools don't spell out that you're overdoing your strengths. But there are other ways to bring that information to light. You can start with a review of the highest ratings on your most recent 360 report. Ask yourself: Is this too much of a good thing? Another technique is to make a list of the traits you most want to have as a leader. Are you going to extremes with any of them? To check for lopsidedness, you can prompt feedback from other people with a list of qualities you've composed or one you've gleaned from other sources. Once you know which attributes you're overdoing, you can recalibrate.

  16. Laser cutting of various materials: Kerf width size analysis and life cycle assessment of cutting process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilbas, Bekir Sami; Shaukat, Mian Mobeen; Ashraf, Farhan

    2017-08-01

    Laser cutting of various materials including Ti-6Al-4V alloy, steel 304, Inconel 625, and alumina is carried out to assess the kerf width size variation along the cut section. The life cycle assessment is carried out to determine the environmental impact of the laser cutting in terms of the material waste during the cutting process. The kerf width size is formulated and predicted using the lump parameter analysis and it is measured from the experiments. The influence of laser output power and laser cutting speed on the kerf width size variation is analyzed using the analytical tools including scanning electron and optical microscopes. In the experiments, high pressure nitrogen assisting gas is used to prevent oxidation reactions in the cutting section. It is found that the kerf width size predicted from the lump parameter analysis agrees well with the experimental data. The kerf width size variation increases with increasing laser output power. However, this behavior reverses with increasing laser cutting speed. The life cycle assessment reveals that material selection for laser cutting is critical for the environmental protection point of view. Inconel 625 contributes the most to the environmental damages; however, recycling of the waste of the laser cutting reduces this contribution.

  17. The results of cutting disks testing for rock destruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoreshok Aleksey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine the rational order of disk tools placement on the working body is necessary to know the maximum amount of rock, destroyed by the disk tool in benching cutting mode depending on the tool geometry parameters, physical and mechanical parameters of rocks. The article contains the definition of rational parameters of cutting disk tools as well as power and energy parameters of the destruction process by cutting disks and by executive body of the coal cutter. The rational geometric parameters of cutting discs are specified. It was found that each step of cutting with a minimum depth of penetration has its own maximum height of bench outcrop. The dependence of the volumes of large items destroyed by the disk tool on the cutting step height was determined. The existence of the cyclic alternation of destruction phases, regardless the fracture parameters, the height of the ledge outcrop, and tools like free cutting geometry were found. In contrast to the free cutting in benching mode of destruction two large fragments of rocks in one cycle were observed. Consequently, the cyclical nature of the destruction process in the benching mode will be characterized by two chips and crushing, and this cycling repeats throughout the destruction process with the same parameters of destruction.

  18. Advanced cutting techniques: laser and fissuration cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Migliorati, B.; Gay, P.

    1984-01-01

    Experimental tests have been performed using CO 2 laser with output power 1 to 15 kW to evaluate the effect of varying the following parameters: material (carbon steel Fe 42 C, stainless steel AISI 304, concrete), laser power, beam characteristics, work piece velocity, gas type and distribution on the laser interaction zone. In the case of concrete, drilling depths of 80 mm were obtained in a few seconds using a 10 kW laser beam. Moreover pieces of 160 mm were cut at 0.01 meters per minute. Results with carbon steel indicated maximum thicknesses of 110 mm, cut at 0.01 meters per minute with 10 kW, depths about 20% lower were obtained with the AISI 304 stainless steel. A parallel investigation was aimed at characterizing particulate emission during the laser cutting process. At the end of the research it was possible to elaborate a preliminary proposal concerning a laser based dismantling system for the application to a typical Nuclear Power Station. (author)

  19. Laser Cutting, Development Trends

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    1999-01-01

    In this paper a short review of the development trends in laser cutting will be given.The technology, which is the fastest expanding industrial production technology will develop in both its core market segment: Flat bed cutting of sheet metal, as it will expand in heavy industry and in cutting...... of 3-dimensional shapes.The CO2-laser will also in the near future be the dominating laser source in the market, although the new developments in ND-YAG-lasers opens for new possibilities for this laser type....

  20. Influence of cutting parameters on the depth of subsurface deformed layer in nano-cutting process of single crystal copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Quanlong; Bai, Qingshun; Chen, Jiaxuan; Su, Hao; Wang, Zhiguo; Xie, Wenkun

    2015-12-01

    Large-scale molecular dynamics simulation is performed to study the nano-cutting process of single crystal copper realized by single-point diamond cutting tool in this paper. The centro-symmetry parameter is adopted to characterize the subsurface deformed layers and the distribution and evolution of the subsurface defect structures. Three-dimensional visualization and measurement technology are used to measure the depth of the subsurface deformed layers. The influence of cutting speed, cutting depth, cutting direction, and crystallographic orientation on the depth of subsurface deformed layers is systematically investigated. The results show that a lot of defect structures are formed in the subsurface of workpiece during nano-cutting process, for instance, stair-rod dislocations, stacking fault tetrahedron, atomic clusters, vacancy defects, point defects. In the process of nano-cutting, the depth of subsurface deformed layers increases with the cutting distance at the beginning, then decreases at stable cutting process, and basically remains unchanged when the cutting distance reaches up to 24 nm. The depth of subsurface deformed layers decreases with the increase in cutting speed between 50 and 300 m/s. The depth of subsurface deformed layer increases with cutting depth, proportionally, and basically remains unchanged when the cutting depth reaches over 6 nm.

  1. INDUSTRIAL APPROBATION OF COMBINED COUNTERSINK-TAP TOOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurulla M. Vagabov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Objectives Based on a critical analysis of the results of complex studies, we set out to demonstrate the advantages, as compared with existing technologies, of a developed technology that uses a new cutting scheme with a combined countersink-tap tool. Methods One way to improve the processing capacity, tool life and quality of a cut thread is to reduce the torque and strain hardening of the processed material by employing a new cutting approach to completely eliminate the friction of the lateral sides of the tooth on the surface of the cut thread. It was necessary for this technology to be checked in real production conditions. Results The conducted production tests of a combined countersink-tap tool with the new cutting scheme developed by the inventors have shown that, as a result of a significant reduction in the torque and a decrease in the strain hardening of the processed material, it is possible to increase the cutting speed and increase labour productivity by more than 2 times as compared with the thread cutting processes using taps with staggered teeth, 1.2 times as compared to taps with a corrected structure, and more than 6 times as compared to standard taps. At the same time, the stability of the tool is increased 3-5 times and the number of breakages is also sharply reduced. Conclusion It has been established that the accuracy of the geometric parameters as well as the strength and quality of the thread surface cut by the combined countersink-tap tool with the new cutting scheme in hard-to-work materials is much higher than the same thread parameters obtained by processing with standard and other known taps. The studies also indicated its high reliability, operability and expediency of application for processing the above-mentioned materials. The advantages of the combined tool also include a reduction in thread cutting time as compared to a separate machining of the threaded hole (countersinking with a standard

  2. A Study on Ultrasonic Elliptical Vibration Cutting of Inconel 718

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Haidong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718 is a kind of nickel-based alloys that are widely used in the aerospace and nuclear industry owing to their high temperature mechanical properties. Cutting of Inconel 718 in conventional cutting (CC is a big challenge in modern industry. Few researches have been studied on cutting of Inconel 718 using single point diamond tool applying the UEVC method. This paper shows an experimental study on UEVC of Inconel 718 by using polycrystalline diamond (PCD coated tools. Firstly, cutting tests have been carried out to study the effect of machining parameters in the UEVC in terms of surface finish and flank wear during machining of Inconel 718. The tests have clearly shown that the PCD coated tools in cutting of Inconel 718 by the UEVC have better performance at 0.1 mm depth of cut as compared to the lower 0.05 mm depth of cut and the higher 0.12 or 0.15 mm depth of cut. Secondly, like CC method, the cutting performance in UEVC increases with the decrease of the feed rate and cutting speed. The CC tests have also been carried out to compare performance of CC with UEVC method.

  3. Failure mechanisms of superhard materials when cutting superalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focke, A.E.; Westermann, F.E.; Ermi, A.; Yavelak, J.; Hoch, M.

    1975-01-01

    The present research studies the reasons for the failure of tungsten carbide tools while cutting superalloys. There is a continuous layer of the superalloy in the bottom of the crater which from time to time is torn away locally, taking tungsten carbide crystal with it. Under recommended cutting conditions a plateau (unworn cutting surface) separates the crater from the cutting edge of the tool when cutting AISI 4340. This plateau is totally absent in all cutting of Inconel 718, even in short, two-minute tests. The crater intersects the cutting edge--only a thin wedge of carbide is left which either breaks off or deforms and wears very rapidly. Temperature measurements carried out by use of an infrared detector aimed on the corner of the tungsten carbide indicate at recommended speeds a sharp rise of the temperature at the beginning of the cutting operation, then a steady-state very slow increase as the cutting continues, and finally just before tool failure a very rapid increase in the temperature again. Scanning and replica electron microscopy through the crater and flank face shows that both under the crater and in the back of the cutting edge a fairly deep layer of ''disturbed metal'' exists in which the tungsten carbide grains are much smaller and have much more rounded edges than in the original material. 10 figures, 4 tables

  4. Experimental testing of exchangeable cutting inserts cutting ability

    OpenAIRE

    Čep, Robert; Janásek, Adam; Čepová, Lenka; Petrů, Jana; Hlavatý, Ivo; Car, Zlatan; Hatala, Michal

    2013-01-01

    The article deals with experimental testing of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts. Eleven types of exchangeable cutting inserts from five different manufacturers were tested. The tested cutting inserts were of the same shape and were different especially in material and coating types. The main aim was both to select a suitable test for determination of the cutting ability of exchangeable cutting inserts and to design such testing procedure that could make it possible...

  5. Augmented Endoscopic Images Overlaying Shape Changes in Bone Cutting Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakao, Megumi; Endo, Shota; Nakao, Shinichi; Yoshida, Munehito; Matsuda, Tetsuya

    2016-01-01

    In microendoscopic discectomy for spinal disorders, bone cutting procedures are performed in tight spaces while observing a small portion of the target structures. Although optical tracking systems are able to measure the tip of the surgical tool during surgery, the poor shape information available during surgery makes accurate cutting difficult, even if preoperative computed tomography and magnetic resonance images are used for reference. Shape estimation and visualization of the target structures are essential for accurate cutting. However, time-varying shape changes during cutting procedures are still challenging issues for intraoperative navigation. This paper introduces a concept of endoscopic image augmentation that overlays shape changes to support bone cutting procedures. This framework handles the history of the location of the measured drill tip as a volume label and visualizes the remains to be cut overlaid on the endoscopic image in real time. A cutting experiment was performed with volunteers, and the feasibility of this concept was examined using a clinical navigation system. The efficacy of the cutting aid was evaluated with respect to the shape similarity, total moved distance of a cutting tool, and required cutting time. The results of the experiments showed that cutting performance was significantly improved by the proposed framework.

  6. Cut without Killing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Susan

    1991-01-01

    The zero-based curriculum model can help school boards and administrators make decisions about what to keep and what to cut. All instructional programs are ranked and judged in categories ranging from required to optional. (MLF)

  7. Short-cut math

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, Gerard W

    1984-01-01

    Clear, concise compendium of about 150 time-saving math short-cuts features faster, easier ways to add, subtract, multiply, and divide. Each problem includes an explanation of the method. No special math ability needed.

  8. NRL Hyperspectral Imagery Trafficability Tool (HITT): Software andSpectral-Geotechnical Look-up Tables for Estimation and Mapping of Soil Bearing Strength from Hyperspectral Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    light weight deflectometer ( LWD )) for recording bearing strength (dynamic deflection modulus). (Middle row) Waimanalo Bay, HI: (left) ASD spectrometer...recording reflectance from backpack configuration; (right) view of the LWD and the data recording unit. (Bottom row, middle) core sample used for...grain size profiles and moisture analysis, flanked by (left) LWD with weight prepared for drop test, and (right) shear measurements with a dynamic

  9. Influence of local surface texture by tool impression on the self piercing\\ud riveting process and the static lap shear strength

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dezhi

    2017-01-01

    To increase fuel efficiency and reduce emission, aluminium alloys have been increasingly used in automotive body-in-white structures for lightweighting. Due to its advantages over some of the more traditional joining technologies, self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been widely used for these lightweight structures. Research has showed that friction is a very important factor that influences both the riveting process and joint strength for SPR, but these influences have not been fully understood...

  10. Laser cutting system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, Thomas J

    2015-03-03

    A workpiece cutting apparatus includes a laser source, a first suction system, and a first finger configured to guide a workpiece as it moves past the laser source. The first finger includes a first end provided adjacent a point where a laser from the laser source cuts the workpiece, and the first end of the first finger includes an aperture in fluid communication with the first suction system.

  11. How Can I Stop Cutting?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Educators Search English Español How Can I Stop Cutting? KidsHealth / For Teens / How Can I Stop Cutting? ... in a soft, cozy blanket Substitutes for the Cutting Sensation You'll notice that all the tips ...

  12. Cutting and Self-Harm

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your feelings Feeling sad Cutting and self-harm Cutting and self-harm Self-harm, sometimes called self- ... There are many types of self-injury, and cutting is one type that you may have heard ...

  13. Cutting zone area and chip morphology in high-speed cutting of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ke, Qing Chan; Xu, Daochun; Xiong, Dan Ping

    2017-01-01

    The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V has superior properties but poor machinability, yet is widely used in aerospace and biomedical industries. Chip formation and cutting zone area are important factors that have received limited attention. Thus, we propose a high-speed orthogonal cutting model for serrated chip formation. The high speed orthogonal cutting of Ti-6Al-4V was studied with a cutting speed of 10-160 m/min and a feed of 0.07-0.11 mm/r. Using theoretical models and experimental results, parameters such as chip shape, serration level, slip angle, and shear slip distance were investigated. Cutting zone boundaries (tool-chip contact length, length of shear plane, and critical slip plane) and cutting zone area were obtained. The results showed that discontinuous, long-curling, and continuous chips were formed at low, medium, and high speeds, respectively. Serration level, shear slip distance, and slip angle rose with increasing cutting speed. The length of shear plane, tool-chip contact, and critical slip plane varied subtly with increased cutting speed, and rose noticeably with increased feed. Cutting zone area grew weakly with increased cutting speed, levelling off at high cutting speed; however, it rose noticeably with increased feed. This study furthers our understanding of the shear slip phenomenon and the mechanism of serrated chip formation

  14. Cutting zone area and chip morphology in high-speed cutting of titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ke, Qing Chan; Xu, Daochun; Xiong, Dan Ping [School of Technology, Beijing Forestry University, Beijing (China)

    2017-01-15

    The titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V has superior properties but poor machinability, yet is widely used in aerospace and biomedical industries. Chip formation and cutting zone area are important factors that have received limited attention. Thus, we propose a high-speed orthogonal cutting model for serrated chip formation. The high speed orthogonal cutting of Ti-6Al-4V was studied with a cutting speed of 10-160 m/min and a feed of 0.07-0.11 mm/r. Using theoretical models and experimental results, parameters such as chip shape, serration level, slip angle, and shear slip distance were investigated. Cutting zone boundaries (tool-chip contact length, length of shear plane, and critical slip plane) and cutting zone area were obtained. The results showed that discontinuous, long-curling, and continuous chips were formed at low, medium, and high speeds, respectively. Serration level, shear slip distance, and slip angle rose with increasing cutting speed. The length of shear plane, tool-chip contact, and critical slip plane varied subtly with increased cutting speed, and rose noticeably with increased feed. Cutting zone area grew weakly with increased cutting speed, levelling off at high cutting speed; however, it rose noticeably with increased feed. This study furthers our understanding of the shear slip phenomenon and the mechanism of serrated chip formation.

  15. Flux cutting in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, A M

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes experiments and theories of flux cutting in superconductors. The use of the flux line picture in free space is discussed. In superconductors cutting can either be by means of flux at an angle to other layers of flux, as in longitudinal current experiments, or due to shearing of the vortex lattice as in grain boundaries in YBCO. Experiments on longitudinal currents can be interpreted in terms of flux rings penetrating axial lines. More physical models of flux cutting are discussed but all predict much larger flux cutting forces than are observed. Also, cutting is occurring at angles between vortices of about one millidegree which is hard to explain. The double critical state model and its developments are discussed in relation to experiments on crossed and rotating fields. A new experiment suggested by Clem gives more direct information. It shows that an elliptical yield surface of the critical state works well, but none of the theoretical proposals for determining the direction of E are universally applicable. It appears that, as soon as any flux flow takes place, cutting also occurs. The conclusion is that new theories are required. (perspective)

  16. On Permuting Cut with Contraction

    OpenAIRE

    Borisavljevic, Mirjana; Dosen, Kosta; Petric, Zoran

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents a cut-elimination procedure for intuitionistic propositional logic in which cut is eliminated directly, without introducing the multiple-cut rule mix, and in which pushing cut above contraction is one of the reduction steps. The presentation of this procedure is preceded by an analysis of Gentzen's mix-elimination procedure, made in the perspective of permuting cut with contraction. It is also shown that in the absence of implication, pushing cut above contraction doesn't p...

  17. Analyses of Effects of Cutting Parameters on Cutting Edge Temperature Using Inverse Heat Conduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ribeiro dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During machining energy is transformed into heat due to plastic deformation of the workpiece surface and friction between tool and workpiece. High temperatures are generated in the region of the cutting edge, which have a very important influence on wear rate of the cutting tool and on tool life. This work proposes the estimation of heat flux at the chip-tool interface using inverse techniques. Factors which influence the temperature distribution at the AISI M32C high speed steel tool rake face during machining of a ABNT 12L14 steel workpiece were also investigated. The temperature distribution was predicted using finite volume elements. A transient 3D numerical code using irregular and nonstaggered mesh was developed to solve the nonlinear heat diffusion equation. To validate the software, experimental tests were made. The inverse problem was solved using the function specification method. Heat fluxes at the tool-workpiece interface were estimated using inverse problems techniques and experimental temperatures. Tests were performed to study the effect of cutting parameters on cutting edge temperature. The results were compared with those of the tool-work thermocouple technique and a fair agreement was obtained.

  18. Force Modelling in Orthogonal Cutting Considering Flank Wear Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathod, Kanti Bhikhubhai; Lalwani, Devdas I.

    2017-05-01

    In the present work, an attempt has been made to provide a predictive cutting force model during orthogonal cutting by combining two different force models, that is, a force model for a perfectly sharp tool plus considering the effect of edge radius and a force model for a worn tool. The first force model is for a perfectly sharp tool that is based on Oxley's predictive machining theory for orthogonal cutting as the Oxley's model is for perfectly sharp tool, the effect of cutting edge radius (hone radius) is added and improve model is presented. The second force model is based on worn tool (flank wear) that was proposed by Waldorf. Further, the developed combined force model is also used to predict flank wear width using inverse approach. The performance of the developed combined total force model is compared with the previously published results for AISI 1045 and AISI 4142 materials and found reasonably good agreement.

  19. Female genital cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Liette; Senikas, Vyta; Burnett, Margaret; Davis, Victoria

    2013-11-01

    To strengthen the national framework for care of adolescents and women affected by female genital cutting (FGC) in Canada by providing health care professionals with: (1) information intended to strengthen their knowledge and understanding of the practice; (2) directions with regard to the legal issues related to the practice; (3) clinical guidelines for the management of obstetric and gynaecological care, including FGC related complications; and (4) guidance on the provision of culturally competent care to adolescents and women with FGC. Published literature was retrieved through searches of PubMed, CINAHL, and The Cochrane Library in September 2010 using appropriate controlled vocabulary (e.g., Circumcision, Female) and keywords (e.g., female genital mutilation, clitoridectomy, infibulation). We also searched Social Science Abstracts, Sociological Abstracts, Gender Studies Database, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses in 2010 and 2011. There were no date or language restrictions. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to December 2011. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, clinical trial registries, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Summary Statements 1. Female genital cutting is internationally recognized as a harmful practice and a violation of girls' and women's rights to life, physical integrity, and health. (II-3) 2. The immediate and long-term health risks and complications of female genital cutting can be serious and life threatening. (II-3) 3. Female genital cutting continues to be practised in many countries, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, Egypt, and Sudan. (II-3) 4. Global migration

  20. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  1. The potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals' strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenov, Vibeke; Wind, Gitte; Skinner, Timothy

    2017-01-01

    engagement. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals’ strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education. Methods: The study entails of two components......: 1) Field observations of five different educational settings including 49 persons with diabetes and 13 healthcare professionals, followed by interviews with 5 healthcare professionals and 28 persons with type 2 diabetes. 2) One professional development workshop involving 14 healthcare professionals...

  2. Side Flow Effect on Surface Generation in Nano Cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feifei; Fang, Fengzhou; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2017-12-01

    The side flow of material in nano cutting is one of the most important factors that deteriorate the machined surface quality. The effects of the crystallographic orientation, feed, and the cutting tool geometry, including tool edge radius, rake angle and inclination angle, on the side flow are investigated employing molecular dynamics simulation. The results show that the stagnation region is formed in front of tool edge and it is characterized by the stagnation radius R s and stagnation height h s . The side flow is formed because the material at or under the stagnation region is extruded by the tool edge to flow to the side of the tool edge. Higher stagnation height would increase the size of the side flow. The anisotropic nature of the material which partly determines the stagnation region also influences the side flow due to the different deformation mechanism under the action of the tool edge. At different cutting directions, the size of the side flow has a great difference which would finally affect the machined surface quality. The cutting directions of {100} , {110} , and {110}  are beneficial to obtain a better surface quality with small side flow. Besides that, the side flow could be suppressed by reducing the feed and optimizing the cutting tool geometry. Cutting tool with small edge radius, large positive rake angle, and inclination angle would decrease the side flow and consequently improve the machined surface quality.

  3. Improved cutting performance in high power laser cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Flemming Ove

    2003-01-01

    Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described.......Recent results in high power laser cutting especially with focus on cutting of mild grade steel types for shipbuilding are described....

  4. AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF CUTTING FLUID EFFECTS IN DRILLING. (R825370C057)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Experiments were designed and conducted on aluminum alloys and gray cast iron to determine the function of cutting fluid in drilling. The variables examined included speed, feed, hole depth, tool and workpiece material, cutting fluid condition, workpiece temperatures and drill...

  5. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, M; Thombansen, U

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable. (paper)

  6. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, M.; Thombansen, U.

    2016-07-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable.

  7. Cutting Edge Localisation in an Edge Profile Milling Head

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Robles, Laura; Azzopardi, George; Alegre, Enrique; Petkov, Nicolai

    2015-01-01

    Wear evaluation of cutting tools is a key issue for prolonging their lifetime and ensuring high quality of products. In this paper, we present a method for the effective localisation of cutting edges of inserts in digital images of an edge profile milling head. We introduce a new image data set of

  8. modelling of responses from orthogonal metal cutting of mild steel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    technical sciences which are shaped by local operating conditions. ... Three different tool types namely, HSS, tungsten carbide and carbide ... procedure indicated that a tape rule model Fat Max Blade. Armor 35' ... Carbon, C. 0.30 – 0.59% ... Block is Mild Steel x carbide. Runs. Cutting Speed. Feed Rate. Depth of Cut. 1. 250.

  9. Underwater plasma arc cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leautier, R.; Pilot, G.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the work done to develop underwater plasma arc cutting techniques, to characterise aerosols from cutting operations on radioactive and non-radioactive work-pieces, and to develop suitable ventilation and filtration techniques. The work has been carried out in the framework of a contract between CEA-CEN Cadarache and the Commission of European Communities. Furthermore, this work has been carried out in close cooperation with CEA-CEN Saclay mainly for secondary emissions and radioactive analysis. The contract started in May 1986 and was completed in December 1988 by a supplementary agreement. This report has been compiled from several progress reports submitted during the work period, contains the main findings of the work and encloses the results of comparative tests on plasma arc cutting

  10. Study of heat generation and cutting force according to minimization of grain size (500 nm to 180 nm) of WC ball endmill using FEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byeon, J. H.; Ahmed, F.; Ko, T. J.; lee, D. K.; Kim, J. S.

    2018-03-01

    As the industry develops, miniaturization and refinement of products are important issues. Precise machining is required for cutting, which is a typical method of machining a product. The factor determining the workability of the cutting process is the material of the tool. Tool materials include carbon tool steel, alloy tool steel, high-speed steel, cemented carbide, and ceramics. In the case of a carbide material, the smaller the particle size, the better the mechanical properties with higher hardness, strength and toughness. The specific heat, density, and thermal diffusivity are also changed through finer particle size of the material. In this study, finite element analysis was performed to investigate the change of heat generation and cutting power depending on the physical properties (specific heat, density, thermal diffusivity) of tool material. The thermal conductivity coefficient was obtained by measuring the thermal diffusivity, specific heat, and density of the material (180 nm) in which the particle size was finer and the particle material (0.05 μm) in the conventional size. The coefficient of thermal conductivity was calculated as 61.33 for 180nm class material and 46.13 for 0.05μm class material. As a result of finite element analysis using this value, the average temperature of exothermic heat of micronized particle material (180nm) was 532.75 °C and the temperature of existing material (0.05μm) was 572.75 °C. Cutting power was also compared but not significant. Therefore, if the thermal conductivity is increased through particle refinement, the surface power can be improved and the tool life can be prolonged by lowering the temperature generated in the tool during machining without giving a great influence to the cutting power.

  11. Numerical Analysis of Mixed Fluid Jet Flows through Cutting Fluid Supplying Nozzle

    OpenAIRE

    S, Chung; B, Shin

    2017-01-01

    Metal cutting operation involves generation of heat due to friction between the tool and the cutting materials. This heat needs to be carried away otherwise it creates white spots. To reduce this abnormal heat cutting fluid is used. Cutting fluid also has an important role in the lubrication of the cutting edges of machine tools and the pieces, and in sluicing away the resulting swarf. As a cutting fluid, water is a great conductor of heat but is not stable at high temperatures, so to improve...

  12. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  13. Theoretical Models for Orthogonal Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo

    This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”......This review of simple models for orthogonal cutting was extracted from: “L. De Chiffre: Metal Cutting Mechanics and Applications, D.Sc. Thesis, Technical University of Denmark, 1990.”...

  14. Mechanisms and FEM Simulation of Chip Formation in Orthogonal Cutting In-Situ TiB₂/7050Al MMC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Yifeng; Wang, Wenhu; Jiang, Ruisong; Lin, Kunyang; Shao, Mingwei

    2018-04-15

    The in-situ TiB₂/7050Al composite is a new kind of Al-based metal matrix composite (MMC) with super properties, such as low density, improved strength, and wear resistance. This paper, for a deep insight into its cutting performance, involves a study of the chip formation process and finite element simulation during orthogonal cutting in-situ TiB₂/7050Al MMC. With chips, material properties, cutting forces, and tool geometry parameters, the Johnson-Cook (J-C) constitutive equation of in-situ TiB₂/7050Al composite was established. Then, the cutting simulation model was established by applying the Abaqus-Explicit method, and the serrated chip, shear plane, strain rate, and temperature were analyzed. The experimental and simulation results showed that the obtained material's constitutive equation was of high reliability, and the saw-tooth chips occurred commonly under either low or high cutting speed and small or large feed rate. From result analysis, it was found that the mechanisms of chip formation included plastic deformation, adiabatic shear, shearing slip, and crack extension. In addition, it was found that the existence of small, hard particles reduced the ductility of the MMC and resulted in segmental chips.

  15. Performance of Ti-multilayer coated tool during machining of MDN431 alloyed steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badiger, Pradeep V.; Desai, Vijay; Ramesh, M. R.

    2018-04-01

    Turbine forgings and other components are required to be high resistance to corrosion and oxidation because which they are highly alloyed with Ni and Cr. Midhani manufactures one of such material MDN431. It's a hard-to-machine steel with high hardness and strength. PVD coated insert provide an answer to problem with its state of art technique on the WC tool. Machinability studies is carried out on MDN431 steel using uncoated and Ti-multilayer coated WC tool insert using Taguchi optimisation technique. During the present investigation, speed (398-625rpm), feed (0.093-0.175mm/rev), and depth of cut (0.2-0.4mm) varied according to Taguchi L9 orthogonal array, subsequently cutting forces and surface roughness (Ra) were measured. Optimizations of the obtained results are done using Taguchi technique for cutting forces and surface roughness. Using Taguchi technique linear fit model regression analysis carried out for the combination of each input variable. Experimented results are compared and found the developed model is adequate which supported by proof trials. Speed, feed and depth of cut are linearly dependent on the cutting force and surface roughness for uncoated insert whereas Speed and depth of cut feed is inversely dependent in coated insert for both cutting force and surface roughness. Machined surface for coated and uncoated inserts during machining of MDN431 is studied using optical profilometer.

  16. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  17. Friction stir welding tool and process for welding dissimilar materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovanski, Yuri; Grant, Glenn J; Jana, Saumyadeep; Mattlin, Karl F

    2013-05-07

    A friction stir welding tool and process for lap welding dissimilar materials are detailed. The invention includes a cutter scribe that penetrates and extrudes a first material of a lap weld stack to a preselected depth and further cuts a second material to provide a beneficial geometry defined by a plurality of mechanically interlocking features. The tool backfills the interlocking features generating a lap weld across the length of the interface between the dissimilar materials that enhances the shear strength of the lap weld.

  18. The use of cutting temperature to evaluate the machinability of titanium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Masafumi

    2009-02-01

    This study investigated the machinability of titanium, two commercial titanium alloys (Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb) and free-cutting brass using the cutting temperature. The cutting temperature was estimated by measuring the thermal electromotive force of the tool-workpiece thermocouple during cutting. The thermoelectric power of each metal relative to the tool had previously been determined. The metals were slotted using a milling machine and carbide square end mills under four cutting conditions. The cutting temperatures of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb were significantly higher than that of the titanium, while that of the free-cutting brass was lower. This result coincided with the relationship of the magnitude of the cutting forces measured in a previous study. For each metal, the cutting temperature became higher when the depth of cut or the cutting speed and feed increased. The increase in the cutting speed and feed was more influential on the value than the increase in the depth of cut when two cutting conditions with the same removal rates were compared. The results demonstrated that cutting temperature measurement can be utilized to develop a new material for dental CAD/CAM applications and to optimize the cutting conditions.

  19. The potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals' strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenov, Vibeke; Wind, Gitte; Skinner, Timothy; Reventlow, Susanne; Hempler, Nana Folmann

    2017-09-18

    Healthcare professionals' person-centered communication skills are pivotal for successful group-based diabetes education. However, healthcare professionals are often insufficiently equipped to facilitate person-centeredness and many have never received post-graduate training. Currently, assessing professionals' skills in conducting group-based, person-centered diabetes education primarily focus on experts measuring and coding skills on various scales. However, learner-centered approaches such as adequate self-reflective tools have been shown to emphasize professional autonomy and promote engagement. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of a self-assessment tool to identify healthcare professionals' strengths and areas in need of professional development to aid effective facilitation of group-based, person-centered diabetes education. The study entails of two components: 1) Field observations of five different educational settings including 49 persons with diabetes and 13 healthcare professionals, followed by interviews with 5 healthcare professionals and 28 persons with type 2 diabetes. 2) One professional development workshop involving 14 healthcare professionals. Healthcare professionals were asked to assess their person-centered communication skills using a self-assessment tool based on challenges and skills related to four educator roles: Embracer, Facilitator, Translator, and Initiator. Data were analyzed by hermeneutic analysis. Theories derived from theoretical model 'The Health Education Juggler' and techniques from 'Motivational Interviewing in Groups' were used as a framework to analyze data. Subsequently, the analysis from the field notes and interview transcript were compared with healthcare professionals' self-assessments of strengths and areas in need to effectively facilitate group-based, person-centered diabetes education. Healthcare professionals self-assessed the Translator and the Embracer to be the two most skilled roles whereas

  20. Tools and their uses

    CERN Document Server

    1973-01-01

    Teaches names, general uses, and correct operation of all basic hand and power tools, fasteners, and measuring devices you are likely to need. Also, grinding, metal cutting, soldering, and more. 329 illustrations.

  1. Skin Cut Construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    of the exhibition is to create a connection between the artistic and technological development through Danish rms and researchers who represent the newest technology in concrete treatment. The rst part exhibition (skin) will focus on the surface treatment of concrete (’graphical concrete’), the second (cut...

  2. Cutting Cakes Carefully

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Theodore P.; Morrison, Kent E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper surveys the fascinating mathematics of fair division, and provides a suite of examples using basic ideas from algebra, calculus, and probability which can be used to examine and test new and sometimes complex mathematical theories and claims involving fair division. Conversely, the classical cut-and-choose and moving-knife algorithms…

  3. Classroom Cut Ups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Stacy

    2011-01-01

    Discovering identity can be a lifelong challenge for some people, while others seem to figure it out right away. During the middle school years, finding one's identity can be a daunting task. Most students will spend a considerable amount of time during these middle years looking for it. This lesson on cut-paper self-portraits lets students delve…

  4. After the Ribbon Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodge, Graeme A.; Boulot, Emille; Duffield, Colin

    2017-01-01

    Much attention has gone towards ‘up-front’ processes when delivering infrastructure public–private partnerships (PPPs), but less on how to best govern after the ribbon is cut and the infrastructure built. This paper identifies the primary contractual and institutional governance challenges arising...

  5. Simultaneous Cake Cutting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balkanski, Eric; Branzei, Simina; Kurokawa, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the simultaneous model for cake cutting (the fair allocation of a divisible good), in which agents simultaneously send messages containing a sketch of their preferences over the cake. We show that this model enables the computation of divisions that satisfy proportionality — a popular...

  6. Effects of Cutting Edge Microgeometry on Residual Stress in Orthogonal Cutting of Inconel 718 by FEM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Qi; Liu, Zhanqiang; Hua, Yang; Zhao, Jinfu; Lv, Woyun; Mohsan, Aziz Ul Hassan

    2018-06-14

    Service performance of components such as fatigue life are dramatically influenced by the machined surface and subsurface residual stresses. This paper aims at achieving a better understanding of the influence of cutting edge microgeometry on machined surface residual stresses during orthogonal dry cutting of Inconel 718. Numerical and experimental investigations have been conducted in this research. The cutting edge microgeometry factors of average cutting edge radius S¯, form-factor K , and chamfer were investigated. An increasing trend for the magnitudes of both tensile and compressive residual stresses was observed by using larger S¯ or introducing a chamfer on the cutting edges. The ploughing depth has been predicted based on the stagnation zone. The increase of ploughing depth means that more material was ironed on the workpiece subsurface, which resulted in an increase in the compressive residual stress. The thermal loads were leading factors that affected the surface tensile residual stress. For the unsymmetrical honed cutting edge with K = 2, the friction between tool and workpiece and tensile residual stress tended to be high, while for the unsymmetrical honed cutting edge with K = 0.5, the high ploughing depth led to a higher compressive residual stress. This paper provides guidance for regulating machine-induced residual stress by edge preparation.

  7. Study on the separation effect of high-speed ultrasonic vibration cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiangyu; Sui, He; Zhang, Deyuan; Jiang, Xinggang

    2018-07-01

    High-speed ultrasonic vibration cutting (HUVC) has been proven to be significantly effective when turning Ti-6Al-4V alloy in recent researches. Despite of breaking through the cutting speed restriction of the ultrasonic vibration cutting (UVC) method, HUVC can also achieve the reduction of cutting force and the improvements in surface quality and cutting efficiency in the high-speed machining field. These benefits all result from the separation effect that occurs during the HUVC process. Despite the fact that the influences of vibration and cutting parameters have been discussed in previous researches, the separation analysis of HUVC should be conducted in detail in real cutting situations, and the tool geometry parameters should also be considered. In this paper, three situations are investigated in details: (1) cutting without negative transient clearance angle and without tool wear, (2) cutting with negative transient clearance angle and without tool wear, and (3) cutting with tool wear. And then, complete separation state, partial separation state and continuous cutting state are deduced according to real cutting processes. All the analysis about the above situations demonstrate that the tool-workpiece separation will take place only if appropriate cutting parameters, vibration parameters, and tool geometry parameters are set up. The best separation effect was obtained with a low feedrate and a phase shift approaching 180 degrees. Moreover, flank face interference resulted from the negative transient clearance angle and tool wear contributes to an improved separation effect that makes the workpiece and tool separate even at zero phase shift. Finally, axial and radial transient cutting force are firstly obtained to verify the separation effect of HUVC, and the cutting chips are collected to weigh the influence of flank face interference. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tool wear and breakage monitoring in machining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madl, J.

    1992-01-01

    Risk minimization of metal cutting operations is one of the main problems of metal cutting technology. This paper describes some aspects in monitoring and control of machining processes. Tool monitoring is the fokus of machining process monitoring. Tool breakage and tool life recognition are the main problems of tool monitoring. All problems of this type of monitoring have not yet been fully solved. (orig.)

  9. Melt Flow and Energy Limitation of Laser Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Hudeček

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser technology is a convertible technology for plenty of parts in most materials. Laser material processing for industrial manufacturing applications is today a widespread procedure for welding, cutting, marking and micro machining of metal and plastic parts and components. Involvement and support this huge mass-production industry of laser cutting, new technology and dry-process using lasers were and are being actively developed. Fundamentally, industrial laser cutting or other applications on industry should satisfy the four key practical application issues including “Quality or Performance”, “Throughput or Speed”, “Cost or Total Ownership Cost”, and “Reliability”. Laser requires for examples several complicated physical factors to be resolved including die strength to be enable good wire-bonding and survival of severe cycling test, clean cutting wall surface, good cutting of direct attach film, and proper speed of cutting for achieving economy of throughput. Some example of maximum cutting rate, wherewith is normally limited laser energy, cutting speed is depend on type laser, different of cutting with one laser beam and beam pattern and applied laser power/material thickness will be introduced in this paper.

  10. Core Cutting Test with Vertical Rock Cutting Rig (VRCR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasar, Serdar; Osman Yilmaz, Ali

    2017-12-01

    Roadheaders are frequently used machines in mining and tunnelling, and performance prediction of roadheaders is important for project economics and stability. Several methods were proposed so far for this purpose and, rock cutting tests are the best choice. Rock cutting tests are generally divided into two groups which are namely, full scale rock cutting tests and small scale rock cutting tests. These two tests have some superiorities and deficiencies over themselves. However, in many cases, where rock sampling becomes problematic, small scale rock cutting test (core cutting test) is preferred for performance prediction, since small block samples and core samples can be conducted to rock cutting testing. Common problem for rock cutting tests are that they can be found in very limited research centres. In this study, a new mobile rock cutting testing equipment, vertical rock cutting rig (VRCR) was introduced. Standard testing procedure was conducted on seven rock samples which were the part of a former study on cutting rocks with another small scale rock cutting test. Results showed that core cutting test can be realized successfully with VRCR with the validation of paired samples t-test.

  11. Kinematics of the AM-50 heading machine cutting head

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Bak, K; Klich, R [Politechnika Slaska, Gliwice (Poland). Instytut Mechanizacji Gornictwa

    1987-01-01

    Analyzes motion of the cutter head of the AM-50 heading machine. Two types of head motion are comparatively evaluated: planar motion and spatial motion. The spatial motion consists of the head rotational motion and horizontal or vertical feed motion, while planar motion consists of rotational motion and vertical feed motion. Equations that describe head motion under conditions of cutter vertical or horizontal feed motion are derived. The angle between the cutting speed direction and working speed direction is defined. On the basis of these formulae variations of cutting speed depending on the cutting tool position on a cutter head are calculated. Calculations made for 2 extreme cutting tools show that the cutting speed ranges from 1,205 m/s to 3,512 m/s. 4 refs.

  12. The effect of cutting conditions on power inputs when machining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrushin, S. I.; Gruby, S. V.; Nosirsoda, Sh C.

    2016-08-01

    Any technological process involving modification of material properties or product form necessitates consumption of a certain power amount. When developing new technologies one should take into account the benefits of their implementation vs. arising power inputs. It is revealed that procedures of edge cutting machining are the most energy-efficient amongst the present day forming procedures such as physical and technical methods including electrochemical, electroerosion, ultrasound, and laser processing, rapid prototyping technologies etc, such as physical and technical methods including electrochemical, electroerosion, ultrasound, and laser processing, rapid prototyping technologies etc. An expanded formula for calculation of power inputs is deduced, which takes into consideration the mode of cutting together with the tip radius, the form of the replaceable multifaceted insert and its wear. Having taken as an example cutting of graphite iron by the assembled cutting tools with replaceable multifaceted inserts the authors point at better power efficiency of high feeding cutting in comparison with high-speed cutting.

  13. Assessment of abrasiveness for research of rock cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Labaš

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Rock abrasiveness is ability of rock to wear down the working tool during the mutual interaction between the working indentorand the rock in the mechanical rock cutting process. The cutting indentor is worn down during the interaction, which changes itsgeometric dimensions causing the enlargement of a contact area between the tool and the rock surface. The changes in these dimensionsconsequently alter the rate of advance of the drilling machine and the specific cutting energy. We have determined the abrasivenessaccording to the norm ON 44 1121 (1982 on the testing device constructed at the Institute of Geotechnics SAS.

  14. ANALYSIS OF CUTTING FORCE AND CHIP MORPHOLOGY DURING HARD TURNING OF AISI D2 STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. M. ANTHONY

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this research work AISI D2 tool steel at a hardness of 55 HRC is being used for experimental investigation. Cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut are the cutting parameters considered for the experimentation along with tool geometry namely, nose radius, clearance angle and rake angle. Three different cutting tool materials are used for experimentation namely multicoated carbide, cermet and ceramic inserts. The cutting force generated during the machining process is being measured using Kistler dynamometer and recorded for further evaluation. The chips produced during the machining process for every experimental trail is also collected for understanding the chip morphology. Based on the experimental data collected Analysis of Variance (ANOVA was conducted to understand the influence of all cutting parameters and tool geometry on cutting force.

  15. Characterisation of aerosols produced by laser cutting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauvel, S.; Pilot, G.; Dinechin, G. de; Gosse, X.; Arnaud, P.

    2007-01-01

    Powerful lasers represent a promising alternative solution to traditional cutting processes used in dismantling nuclear equipments. The use of optical fibers has an unquestionable advantage when dealing with airtight workshops. A study funded by COGEMA Marcoule was undertaken by IRSN/SERAC in collaboration with GIP/GERAILP in order to characterise the aerosols emitted by the cutting of evaporators elements with a 4 kW continuous wave Nd:YAG laser. For this study, laser cutting has been carried out in a tight room of 35 m 3 connected to a particle sampling pipe. Iso-kinetic samplers allowed the measurement of the aerosol concentration. A diffusional and inertial spectrometer (SDI 2001) - an Andersen impinger coupled to a diffusion battery - provided the size distribution. An electrostatic filter used upstream a HEPA filter, itself placed before the extractor fan, collected the majority of the emitted aerosol. Its efficiency was measured and controlled throughout the experiments. The results show the influence of the cutting conditions on the characteristics of the aerosol, and allow a comparison with other cutting tools. (authors)

  16. A study of estimating cutting depth for multi-pass nanoscale cutting by using atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Zone-Ching; Hsu, Ying-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies two models for estimating cutting depth of multi-pass nanoscale cutting by using an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. One estimates cutting depth for multi-pass nanoscale cutting by using regression equations of nanoscale contact pressure factor (NCP factor) while the other uses equation of specific down force energy (SDFE). This paper proposes taking a diamond-coated probe of AFM as the cutting tool to carry out multi-pass nanoscale cutting experiments on the surface of sapphire substrate. In the process of experimentation, different down forces are set, and the probe shape of AFM is known, then using each down force to multi-pass cutting the sapphire substrate. From the measured experimental data of a central cutting depth of the machining groove by AFM, this paper calculates the specific down force energy of each down force. The experiment results reveal that the specific down force energy of each case of multi-pass nanoscale cutting for different down forces under a probe of AFM is close to a constant value. This paper also compares the nanoscale cutting results from estimating cutting depths for each pass of multi-pass among the experimental results and the calculating results obtained by the two theories models. It is found that the model of specific down force energy can calculate cutting depths for each nanoscale cutting pass by one equation. It is easier to use than the multi-regression equations of the nanoscale contact pressure factor. Besides, the estimations of cutting depth results obtained by the model of specific down force energy are closer to that of the experiment results. It shows that the proposed specific down force energy model in this paper is an acceptable model.

  17. Some possibilities for determining cutting data when using laser cutting:

    OpenAIRE

    Radovanović, Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    The technological problems faced in the field of the application of laser-cutting machines lie in insufficient knowledge of the laser technique and the absence of both sufficiently reliable practical data and knowledge about the parameters affecting the work process itself. A significant parameter that is necessary to determine and to enter in an NC-program is the cutting speed. Various authors analyze the laser-cutting process and give mathematical models where laser cutting is modeled by us...

  18. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  19. Making the cut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mcshannon, G. [Hydra Mining Tools International Ltd. (United Kingdom)

    2006-04-15

    The paper explains how coal mines around the world can benefit from the use of cowless, radial shearer drums. Hydra Mining has designed and manufactured a range of shearer drums to combat problems ranging from dust, frictional ignitions, geological problems or low production rates. This allows the mine operator to maximise production efficiency. The company tailor-makes shearer drums for each longwall face to optimise the cutting performance of every installation. 8 figs.

  20. Cutting Out Continuations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Hutton, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In the field of program transformation, one often transforms programs into continuation-passing style to make their flow of control explicit, and then immediately removes the resulting continuations using defunctionalisation to make the programs first-order. In this article, we show how these two...... transformations can be fused together into a single transformation step that cuts out the need to first introduce and then eliminate continuations. Our approach is calculational, uses standard equational reasoning techniques, and is widely applicable....

  1. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  2. Vortex cutting in superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasko-Vlasov, Vitalii K.; Koshelev, Alexei E.; Glatz, Andreas; Welp, Ulrich; Kwok, Wai-K.

    2015-03-01

    Unlike illusive magnetic field lines in vacuum, magnetic vortices in superconductors are real physical strings, which interact with the sample surface, crystal structure defects, and with each other. We address the complex and poorly understood process of vortex cutting via a comprehensive set of magneto-optic experiments which allow us to visualize vortex patterns at magnetization of a nearly twin-free YBCO crystal by crossing magnetic fields of different orientations. We observe a pronounced anisotropy in the flux dynamics under crossing fields and the filamentation of induced supercurrents associated with the staircase vortex structure expected in layered cuprates, flux cutting effects, and angular vortex instabilities predicted for anisotropic superconductors. At some field angles, we find formation of the vortex domains following a type-I phase transition in the vortex state accompanied by an abrupt change in the vortex orientation. To clarify the vortex cutting scenario we performed time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau simulations, which confirmed formation of sharp vortex fronts observed in the experiment and revealed a left-handed helical instability responsible for the rotation of vortices. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division.

  3. Study of the Vibration Effect on the Cutting Forces and Roughness of Slub Milling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germa, S.; Estrems Amestoy, M.; Sánchez Reinoso, H. T.; Franco Chumillas, P.

    2009-11-01

    For the planning process of slab milling operations, the vibration of the tool is the main factor to be considered. Under vibration conditions, the effect of the small displacements of the cutting tool and the cutting forces on the chip thickness must be minimized in order to avoid undesirable consequences, such as the fast flank wear, superficial defects and roughness increase. In this work, a mathematical model is developed to take into account the combined effect of the cutting tool and workpiece oscillation, as well as the axial errors of different milling tool tips. As a result, the model estimates the variation of the cutting forces and the ideal surface roughness.

  4. COMPARATIVE PERFORMANCE OF COATED AND UNCOATED INSERTS DURING INTERMITTENT CUT MILLING OF AISI 4340 STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SARAVANAN L.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Machining behaviour of TiN coated and uncoated cemented carbide tools were studied during intermittent milling operation of AISI 4340 steel. Series of orthogonal intermittent milling tests were performed subsequently to investigate the role of the selected tools and cutting parameters. Three cutting parameters namely cutting speed, feed and depth of cut with three different levels and two types of cutting tools (coated and uncoated were considered for conducting the experimental trials. Intermittent face milling was employed to study the wear behaviour of the tools and the resulting surface roughness. The cyclic load induced during the entry and exit of the tool, leads to unstable temperature at cutting zone. This unstable temperature affects the tool life badly during intermittent milling. Tool wear increases considerably with an increase in frequency of the interruption. The experimental results indicated that the coated tool out performed uncoated tool in terms of tool life and surface finish. The other interesting observation was the uncoated tool performed better than coated tool at moderate cutting parameters. Results also indicated that the fracture and chipping were the dominant tool failure modes in uncoated tool. The chipping of uncoated tool causes the surface quality to deteriorate. TiN coating ensures the toughness of the cutting tool, which leads to good surface quality during the machining process. A detailed analysis of tool wear and surface roughness was done and the results are employed to create a linear regression model. This model established the relation between the cutting parameters and the response variables. ANOVA was used to identify the influential parameters which affect the tool wear and surface roughness.

  5. Cutting force measurement of electrical jigsaw by strain gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazup, L; Varadine Szarka, A

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes a measuring method based on strain gauges for accurate specification of electric jigsaw's cutting force. The goal of the measurement is to provide an overall perspective about generated forces in a jigsaw's gearbox during a cutting period. The lifetime of the tool is affected by these forces primarily. This analysis is part of the research and development project aiming to develop a special linear magnetic brake for realizing automatic lifetime tests of electric jigsaws or similar handheld tools. The accurate specification of cutting force facilitates to define realistic test cycles during the automatic lifetime test. The accuracy and precision resulted by the well described cutting force characteristic and the possibility of automation provide new dimension for lifetime testing of the handheld tools with alternating movement. (paper)

  6. Mechanism of cutting edge chipping and its suppression in diamond turning of copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimada, Shoichi; Higuchi, Masahiro; Kaneeda, Toshiaki; Higashi, Yasuo; Yokomizo, Seiichi

    2005-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanism of cutting edge chipping in diamond turning of copper in terms of the change in Hertzian strength of diamond specimens subjected to thermal histories. The study suggests that the strength of diamond decreases as the result of the propagation of existing surface micro cracks caused by the thermo-chemical erosion of oxygen at the crack tips. The catalytic reaction involving copper is also shown to accelerate the crack propagation. Then, a cutting technique of reduced oxygen atmosphere is proposed to suppress the cutting edge chipping in diamond turning of copper over an extended cutting time. (author)

  7. Riemannian and Lorentzian flow-cut theorems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Headrick, Matthew; Hubeny, Veronika E.

    2018-05-01

    We prove several geometric theorems using tools from the theory of convex optimization. In the Riemannian setting, we prove the max flow-min cut (MFMC) theorem for boundary regions, applied recently to develop a ‘bit-thread’ interpretation of holographic entanglement entropies. We also prove various properties of the max flow and min cut, including respective nesting properties. In the Lorentzian setting, we prove the analogous MFMC theorem, which states that the volume of a maximal slice equals the flux of a minimal flow, where a flow is defined as a divergenceless timelike vector field with norm at least 1. This theorem includes as a special case a continuum version of Dilworth’s theorem from the theory of partially ordered sets. We include a brief review of the necessary tools from the theory of convex optimization, in particular Lagrangian duality and convex relaxation.

  8. Emergency Department Sickle Cell Assessment of Needs and Strengths (ED-SCANS), a Focus Group and Decision Support Tool Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanabe, Paula; Reddin, Christopher; Thornton, Victoria L.; Todd, Knox H.; Wun, Ted; Lyons, John S.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives A decision support tool may guide emergency clinicians in recognizing assessment, analgesic and overall management, and health service delivery needs for patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) in the emergency department (ED). We aimed to identify data and process elements important in making decisions regarding evaluation and management of adult patients in the ED with painful episodes of sickle cell disease. Methods Qualitative methods using a series of focus groups and grounded theory were used. Eligible participants included adult clients with SCD, and emergency physicians and nurses with a minimum of one year of experience providing care to patients with SCD in the ED. Patients were recruited in conjunction with annual SCD meetings, and providers included clinicians who were and were not affiliated with sickle cell centers. Groups were conducted until saturation was reached, and included a total of two patient groups, three physician groups, and two nurse groups. Focus groups were held in New York, Durham, Chicago, New Orleans, and Denver. Clinician participants were asked the following three questions to guide the discussion: 1) what information would be important to know about patients with SCD in the ED setting to effectively care for them and help you identify patient analgesic, treatment, and referral needs? 2) what treatment decisions would you make with this information? and 3) what characteristics would a decision support tool need to have to make it meaningful and useful? Client participants were asked the same questions with re-wording to reflect what they believed providers should know to provide the best care, and what they should do with the information. All focus groups were audio taped and transcribed. The constant comparative method was used to analyze the data. Two coders independently coded participant responses and identified focal themes based on the key questions. An investigator and assistant independently reviewed the

  9. Review on advanced composite materials boring mechanism and tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Runping; Wang, Chengyong

    2011-05-01

    With the rapid development of aviation and aerospace manufacturing technology, advanced composite materials represented by carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) and super hybrid composites (fibre/metal plates) are more and more widely applied. The fibres are mainly carbon fibre, boron fibre, Aramid fiber and Sic fibre. The matrixes are resin matrix, metal matrix and ceramic matrix. Advanced composite materials have higher specific strength and higher specific modulus than glass fibre reinforced resin composites of the 1st generation. They are widely used in aviation and aerospace industry due to their high specific strength, high specific modulus, excellent ductility, anticorrosion, heat-insulation, sound-insulation, shock absorption and high&low temperature resistance. They are used for radomes, inlets, airfoils(fuel tank included), flap, aileron, vertical tail, horizontal tail, air brake, skin, baseboards and tails, etc. Its hardness is up to 62~65HRC. The holes are greatly affected by the fibre laminates direction of carbon fibre reinforced composite material due to its anisotropy when drilling in unidirectional laminates. There are burrs, splits at the exit because of stress concentration. Besides there is delamination and the hole is prone to be smaller. Burrs are caused by poor sharpness of cutting edge, delamination, tearing, splitting are caused by the great stress caused by high thrust force. Poorer sharpness of cutting edge leads to lower cutting performance and higher drilling force at the same time. The present research focuses on the interrelation between rotation speed, feed, drill's geometry, drill life, cutting mode, tools material etc. and thrust force. At the same time, holes quantity and holes making difficulty of composites have also increased. It requires high performance drills which won't bring out defects and have long tool life. It has become a trend to develop super hard material tools and tools with special geometry for drilling

  10. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdan Nedic; Milan Eric; Marijana Aleksijevic

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, compar...

  11. Corium crust strength measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lomperski, S. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: lomperski@anl.gov; Farmer, M.T. [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439-4840 (United States)], E-mail: farmer@anl.gov

    2009-11-15

    Corium strength is of interest in the context of a severe reactor accident in which molten core material melts through the reactor vessel and collects on the containment basemat. Some accident management strategies involve pouring water over the melt to solidify it and halt corium/concrete interactions. The effectiveness of this method could be influenced by the strength of the corium crust at the interface between the melt and coolant. A strong, coherent crust anchored to the containment walls could allow the yet-molten corium to fall away from the crust as it erodes the basemat, thereby thermally decoupling the melt from the coolant and sharply reducing the cooling rate. This paper presents a diverse collection of measurements of the mechanical strength of corium. The data is based on load tests of corium samples in three different contexts: (1) small blocks cut from the debris of the large-scale MACE experiments, (2) 30 cm-diameter, 75 kg ingots produced by SSWICS quench tests, and (3) high temperature crusts loaded during large-scale corium/concrete interaction (CCI) tests. In every case the corium consisted of varying proportions of UO{sub 2}, ZrO{sub 2}, and the constituents of concrete to represent a LWR melt at different stages of a molten core/concrete interaction. The collection of data was used to assess the strength and stability of an anchored, plant-scale crust. The results indicate that such a crust is likely to be too weak to support itself above the melt. It is therefore improbable that an anchored crust configuration could persist and the melt become thermally decoupled from the water layer to restrict cooling and prolong an attack of the reactor cavity concrete.

  12. Metal Cutting for Large Component Removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hulick, Robert M.

    2008-01-01

    been employed for cutting the reactor nozzles at San Onofre Unit 1 and at Connecticut Yankee. These carbon steel nozzles ranged up to 54 inch diameter with a 15 inch thick wall and an interior stainless cladding. Diamond wire sawing using traditional water cooling has been used to segment the reactor head at Rancho Seco and for cutting reactor nozzles and control rod drive tubes at Dairyland Power's Lacrosse BWR project. Advantages: - ALARA: All cutting is preformed remotely significantly reducing dose. Stringing of wires is accomplished using long handle tools. - Secondary waste is reduced to just the volume of material cut with the diamond wire. - The potential for airborne contamination is eliminated. Due to the flexibility of the wire, any access restrictions and interferences can be accommodated using pulleys and long handle tools. - The operation is quiet. Disadvantages: - With Liquid Carbon Dioxide cooling and cleaning, delivery of the material must be carefully planned. The longer the distance from the source to the cut area, the greater the chance for pressure drop and subsequent problems with line freezing. - Proper shrouding and ventilation are required for environmental reasons. In each case, the metal structures were cut at a precise location. Radiation dose was reduced significantly by operating the equipment from a remote location. The cuts were very smooth and completed on schedule. Each project must be analyzed individually and take into account many factors including access, radiological conditions, environmental conditions, schedule requirements, packaging requirements and size of cuts

  13. Grading technologies for the manufacture of innovative cutting blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostek, Tim; Homberg, Werner

    2018-05-01

    Cutting blades for harvesting applications are used in a variety of agricultural machines. These parts are in contact with highly abrasive lawn clippings and often wear out within hours which results in high expensive re-sharpening maintenance. This paper relates to manufacturing techniques enhancing the durability of cutting blades based on a structural analysis of the prevailing wear mechanisms containing chipping and abrasive wear. Each mechanism results in specific demands on the cutting edge's mechanical characteristics. The design of evaluation methods respectively is one issue of the paper. This is basis for approaches to improve the cutting edge performance on purpose. On option to improve abrasive wear resistance and, thus, service life is the application of locally graded steel materials as semi-finished products for self-sharpening cutting blades. These materials comprise a layered structure consisting of a hard, wear resistant layer and a relatively softer layer which is lesser wear resistant. As the cutting blade is subjected to wear conditions, the less wear resistant layer wears faster than the relatively more wear resistant harder layer revealing a durable cross section of the cutting edge and, thus, cutting performance. Anyways, chipping is another key issue on the cutting edge's lifetime. Here, the cutting edges cross section by means of geometry and grind respectively as well as its mechanical properties matter. FEM analysis reveal innovative options to optimize the cross section of the blade as well as thermomechanical strengthening add further strength to reduce chipping. This paper contains a comprehensive strategy to improve cutting blades with use of innovative manufacturing technologies which apply application-specific graded mechanical characteristics and, thus, significantly improved performance characteristics.

  14. A Surgery Issue: Cutting through the Architectural Fabric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athina Angelopoulou

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines the material ontologies of surgical trans-modifications. Focusing on incisions and subsequent scars, the essay argues for the queering of architecture and design as an act of cutting through structures and processes. I start by rereading a topological body plan, used by surgeons as a guide for performing incisions. I suggest that this plan constitutes a variation within topological representations. It is thus reconceptualised as an internally contradictory representation, calling for dis/continuous cutting acts upon the represented body; that is an amphi-topological representation. The notion of the cut is further approached from the point of view of queer theory and ‘agential realism’. This perspective offers affirmative ways of discussing about acts of cutting. When performed into self-organizing fabrics, cuts appear to act as ‘agents of dis/continuity’. Then, the discussion passes through the genealogy of the architectural section and the building cuts of Gordon Matta Clark, so as to show that the production of buildings by ‘cutting through them to come to matter’ is deep-rooted in the architectural discipline. Next, the philosophical origins of the idea of cutting through the material fabric of the world are sought. It is argued that the latter, beginning as a gnosiological tool, was transformed into a fabricating tool and then into a tool of smoothing the striated. The essay concludes with the presentation of SCARchiCAD; a computational design tool which takes the skin’s wound healing process as a model, offering an interpretation of what the ‘cutting through a virtual form’ could suggest for the design of architectural bodies and the queering of architecture.

  15. Can You Cut It?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Tina; Lillelund, Christoffer Bredo; Moth-Poulsen, Mie

    2017-01-01

    The advent of affordable virtual reality (VR) displays and 360◦ video cameras has sparked an interest in bringing cinematic experiences from the screen and into VR. However, it remains uncertain whether traditional approaches to filmmaking can be directly applied to cinematic VR. Historically......’ sense of disorientation and their ability to follow the story, during exposure to fictional 360◦ films experienced using a head-mounted display. The results revealed no effects of increased cut frequency which leads us to conclude that editing need not pose a problem in relation to cinematic VR, as long...

  16. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-07-31

    We have tested the loop elevation system. We raised the mast to approximately 25 to 30 degrees from horizontal. All went well. However, while lowering the mast, it moved laterally a couple of degrees. Upon visual inspection, severe spalling of the concrete on the face of the support pillar, and deformation of the steel support structure was observed. At this time, the facility is ready for testing in the horizontal position. A new air compressor has been received and set in place for the ACTS test loop. A new laboratory has been built near the ACTS test loop Roughened cups and rotors for the viscometer (RS300) were obtained. Rheologies of aqueous foams were measured using three different cup-rotor assemblies that have different surface roughness. The relationship between surface roughness and foam rheology was investigated. Re-calibration of nuclear densitometers has been finished. The re-calibration was also performed with 1% surfactant foam. A new cuttings injection system was installed at the bottom of the injection tower. It replaced the previous injection auger. A mechanistic model for cuttings transport with aerated mud has been developed. Cuttings transport mechanisms with aerated water at various conditions were experimentally investigated. A total of 39 tests were performed. Comparisons between the model predictions and experimental measurements show a satisfactory agreement. Results from the ultrasonic monitoring system indicated that we could distinguish between different sand levels. We also have devised ways to achieve consistency of performance by securing the sensors in the caps in exactly the same manner as long as the sensors are not removed from the caps. A preliminary test was conducted on the main flow loop at 100 gpm flow rate and 20 lb/min cuttings injection rate. The measured bed thickness using the ultrasonic method showed a satisfactory agreement with nuclear densitometer readings. Thirty different data points were collected after the test

  17. Cutting the Cord-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the rear hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting from the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn took place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  18. Cutting the Cord

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This animation shows the view from the front hazard avoidance cameras on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit as the rover turns 45 degrees clockwise. This maneuver is the first step in a 3-point turn that will rotate the rover 115 degrees to face west. The rover must make this turn before rolling off the lander because airbags are blocking it from exiting off the front lander petal. Before this crucial turn could take place, engineers instructed the rover to cut the final cord linking it to the lander. The turn took around 30 minutes to complete.

  19. Surface roughness and cutting force estimation in the CNC turning using artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramezani

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Surface roughness and cutting forces are considered as important factors to determine machinability rate and the quality of product. A number of factors like cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cutting and tool noise radius influence the surface roughness and cutting forces in turning process. In this paper, an Artificial Neural Network (ANN model was used to forecast surface roughness and cutting forces with related inputs, including cutting speed, feed rate, depth of cut and tool noise radius. The machined surface roughness and cutting force parameters related to input parameters are the outputs of the ANN model. In this work, 24 samples of experimental data were used to train the network. Moreover, eight other experimental tests were implemented to test the network. The study concludes that ANN was a reliable and accurate method for predicting machining parameters in CNC turning operation.

  20. ITER lip seal welding and cutting developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesy, B.; Cordier, J.J.; Jokinen, T.; Kujanpää, V.; Karhu, M.; Le Barbier, R.; Määttä, T.; Martins, J.P.; Utin, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Different TIG and Laser welding techniques are tested. • Twin spot laser welding techniques is the best. • Limited heat input gives a stable weld pool in all positions. • Penetrations is achieved. • Lip seal welding and cutting with a robotic arm is successfully performed on a representative mock-up. - Abstract: The welded lip seals form part of the torus primary vacuum boundary in between the port plugs and the vacuum vessel, and are classified as Protection Important Component. In order to refurbish the port plugs or the in-vessel components, port plugs have to be removed from the machine. The lip seal design must enable up to ten opening of the vacuum vessel during the life time operation of the ITER machine. Therefore proven, remote reliable cutting and re-welding are essential, as these operations need to be performed in the port cells in a nuclear environment, where human presence will be restricted. Moreover, the combination of size of the components to be welded (∼10 m long vacuum compatible thin welds) and the congested environment close to the core of the machine constraint the type and size of tools to be used. This paper describes the lip seal cutting and welding development programme performed at the VTT Technical Research Centre, Finland. Potential cutting and welding techniques are analyzed and compared. The development of the cutting, TIG and laser welding techniques on samples are presented. Effects of lip seal misalignments and optimization of the 2 welding processes are discussed. Finally, the manufacturing and test of the two 1.2 m × 1 m representative mock-ups are presented. The set-up and use of a robotic arm for the mock-up cutting and welding operations are also described.

  1. ITER lip seal welding and cutting developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesy, B.; Cordier, J.J.; Jokinen, T. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Kujanpää, V.; Karhu, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Le Barbier, R. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Määttä, T. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland (Finland); Martins, J.P.; Utin, Y. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Different TIG and Laser welding techniques are tested. • Twin spot laser welding techniques is the best. • Limited heat input gives a stable weld pool in all positions. • Penetrations is achieved. • Lip seal welding and cutting with a robotic arm is successfully performed on a representative mock-up. - Abstract: The welded lip seals form part of the torus primary vacuum boundary in between the port plugs and the vacuum vessel, and are classified as Protection Important Component. In order to refurbish the port plugs or the in-vessel components, port plugs have to be removed from the machine. The lip seal design must enable up to ten opening of the vacuum vessel during the life time operation of the ITER machine. Therefore proven, remote reliable cutting and re-welding are essential, as these operations need to be performed in the port cells in a nuclear environment, where human presence will be restricted. Moreover, the combination of size of the components to be welded (∼10 m long vacuum compatible thin welds) and the congested environment close to the core of the machine constraint the type and size of tools to be used. This paper describes the lip seal cutting and welding development programme performed at the VTT Technical Research Centre, Finland. Potential cutting and welding techniques are analyzed and compared. The development of the cutting, TIG and laser welding techniques on samples are presented. Effects of lip seal misalignments and optimization of the 2 welding processes are discussed. Finally, the manufacturing and test of the two 1.2 m × 1 m representative mock-ups are presented. The set-up and use of a robotic arm for the mock-up cutting and welding operations are also described.

  2. Study of AFM-based nanometric cutting process using molecular dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Pengzhe; Hu Yuanzhong; Ma Tianbao; Wang Hui

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are conducted to investigate the atomic force microscope (AFM)-based nanometric cutting process of copper using diamond tool. The effects of tool geometry, cutting depth, cutting velocity and bulk temperature are studied. It is found that the tool geometry has a significant effect on the cutting resistance. The friction coefficient (cutting resistance) on the nanoscale decreases with the increase of tool angle as predicted by the macroscale theory. However, the friction coefficients on the nanoscale are bigger than those on the macroscale. The simulation results show that a bigger cutting depth results in more material deformation and larger chip volume, thus leading to bigger cutting force and bigger normal force. It is also observed that a higher cutting velocity results in a larger chip volume in front of the tool and bigger cutting force and normal force. The chip volume in front of the tool increases while the cutting force and normal force decrease with the increase of bulk temperature.

  3. Prediction of Cutting Force in Turning Process-an Experimental Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thangarasu, S. K.; Shankar, S.; Thomas, A. Tony; Sridhar, G.

    2018-02-01

    This Paper deals with a prediction of Cutting forces in a turning process. The turning process with advanced cutting tool has a several advantages over grinding such as short cycle time, process flexibility, compatible surface roughness, high material removal rate and less environment problems without the use of cutting fluid. In this a full bridge dynamometer has been used to measure the cutting forces over mild steel work piece and cemented carbide insert tool for different combination of cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. The experiments are planned based on taguchi design and measured cutting forces were compared with the predicted forces in order to validate the feasibility of the proposed design. The percentage contribution of each process parameter had been analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). Both the experimental results taken from the lathe tool dynamometer and the designed full bridge dynamometer were analyzed using Taguchi design of experiment and Analysis of Variance.

  4. Leptogenesis: The other cuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbrecht, Bjoern

    2011-01-01

    For standard leptogenesis from the decay of singlet right-handed neutrinos, we derive source terms for the lepton asymmetry that are present in a finite density background but absent in the vacuum. These arise from cuts through the vertex correction to the decay asymmetry, where in the loop either the Higgs boson and the right-handed neutrino or the left-handed lepton and the right-handed neutrino are simultaneously on-shell. We evaluate the source terms numerically and use them to calculate the lepton asymmetry for illustrative points in parameter space, where we consider only two right-handed neutrinos for simplicity. Compared to calculations where only the standard cut through the propagators of left-handed lepton and Higgs boson is included, sizable corrections arise when the masses of the right-handed neutrinos are of the same order, but the new sources are found to be most relevant when the decaying right-handed neutrino is heavier than the one in the loop. In that situation, they can yield the dominant contribution to the lepton asymmetry.

  5. El portafolio digital como herramienta didáctica: una evaluación crítica de fortalezas y debilidades = The digital portfolio as a teaching tool: a critical evaluation of its strengths and weaknesses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Moreno-Fernández

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: Se presenta un estudio exploratorio sobre el uso del portafolio digital como herramienta educativa. La experiencia se centró en valorar las debilidades, amenazas, fortalezas y oportunidades de esta herramienta a partir de las apreciaciones de los participantes. De igual modo, se pretende conocer hasta qué punto su utilización potencia habilidades y competencias relevantes en el Espacio Europeo de Educación Superior, tanto a nivel individual como grupal. Para ello, se llevó a cabo un estudio de naturaleza descriptiva a través de la técnica de la encuesta (cuestionario. Los resultados muestran que se trata de una herramienta de aprendizaje valorada positivamente que favorece cuestiones como la accesibilidad al aprendizaje cooperativo o el ahorro económico y medioambiental. A partir de estas valoraciones concluimos que el portafolio digital contribuye al proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje, favoreciendo que el alumnado sea consciente de éste, y acercándole progresivamente a un aprendizaje más autónomo y responsable.Abstract: An exploratory study on the use of the digital portfolio as an educational tool is presented. The experience focused on assessing the weaknesses, threats, strengths and opportunities of this tool based on the participants' assessments. Likewise, it seeks to know to what extent its use enhances skills and competences relevant in the European Higher Education Area, both individually and as a group. To do this, we conducted a study of descriptive nature through technical survey (questionnaire. The results show that this is a positively valued learning tool that favors issues such as accessibility to cooperative learning or economic and environmental cost savings without printing paper. We conclude therefore that the digital portfolio contributes to the process of teaching and learning, encouraging the students to be aware of this, and progressively bringing you to a more autonomous and responsible learning.

  6. Attitude Strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Lauren C; Krosnick, Jon A

    2017-01-03

    Attitude strength has been the focus of a huge volume of research in psychology and related sciences for decades. The insights offered by this literature have tremendous value for understanding attitude functioning and structure and for the effective application of the attitude concept in applied settings. This is the first Annual Review of Psychology article on the topic, and it offers a review of theory and evidence regarding one of the most researched strength-related attitude features: attitude importance. Personal importance is attached to an attitude when the attitude is perceived to be relevant to self-interest, social identification with reference groups or reference individuals, and values. Attaching personal importance to an attitude causes crystallizing of attitudes (via enhanced resistance to change), effortful gathering and processing of relevant information, accumulation of a large store of well-organized relevant information in long-term memory, enhanced attitude extremity and accessibility, enhanced attitude impact on the regulation of interpersonal attraction, energizing of emotional reactions, and enhanced impact of attitudes on behavioral intentions and action. Thus, important attitudes are real and consequential psychological forces, and their study offers opportunities for addressing behavioral change.

  7. Investigation of Physical Phenomena and Cutting Efficiency for Laser Cutting on Anode for Li-Ion Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongkyoung Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion batteries have a higher energy density than other secondary batteries. Among the lithium-ion battery manufacturing process, electrode cutting is one of the most important processes since poor cut quality leads to performance degradation, separator protrusion, and local electric stress concentration. This may, eventually, lead to malfunction of lithium-ion batteries or explosion. The current mechanical cutting technology uses a contact process and this may lead to process instability. Furthermore, there are additional costs if the tools and cell design are changed. To solve these issues, laser cutting has been used. Conventional dependent parameters have limitations in investigating and explaining many physical phenomena during the laser cutting of electrodes. Therefore, this study proposes specific widths such as melting, top, and kerf width. Moreover, the relationship between laser parameters and multiphysical phenomena with the proposed widths are investigated. Five types of classification with regard to physical phenomena are presented and explained with SEM images. Cutting efficiency is estimated with the proposed widths. The proposed specific cutting widths, five types of geometrical classification, and cutting efficiency can be used as standardized parameters to evaluate the cutting quality.

  8. On the closed form mechanistic modeling of milling: Specific cutting energy, torque, and power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayoumi, A. E.; Yücesan, G.; Hutton, D. V.

    1994-02-01

    Specific energy in metal cutting, defined as the energy expended in removing a unit volume of workpiece material, is formulated and determined using a previously developed closed form mechanistic force model for milling operations. Cutting power is computed from the cutting torque, cutting force, kinematics of the cutter, and the volumetric material removal rate. Closed form expressions for specific cutting energy were formulated and found to be functions of the process parameters: pressure and friction for both rake and flank surfaces and chip flow angle at the rake face of the tool. Friction is found to play a very important role in cutting torque and power. Experiments were carried out to determine the effects of feedrate, cutting speed, workpiece material, and flank wear land width on specific cutting energy. It was found that the specific cutting energy increases with a decrease in the chip thickness and with an increase in flank wear land.

  9. Influence of Fiber Orientation on Single-Point Cutting Fracture Behavior of Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Prepreg Sheets

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Yingying; An, Qinglong; Cai, Xiaojiang; Chen, Ming; Ming, Weiwei

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to investigate the influences of carbon fibers on the fracture mechanism of carbon fibers both in macroscopic view and microscopic view by using single-point flying cutting method. Cutting tools with three different materials were used in this research, namely, PCD (polycrystalline diamond) tool, CVD (chemical vapor deposition) diamond thin film coated carbide tool and uncoated carbide tool. The influence of fiber orientation on the cutting force and fracture to...

  10. On the development of a dual-layered diamond-coated tool for the effective machining of titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, Balaji; Rao, Balkrishna C; Ramachandra Rao, M S

    2017-01-01

    This work is focused on the development of a dual-layered diamond-coated tungsten carbide tool for machining titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy. A hot-filament chemical vapor deposition technique was used to synthesize diamond films on tungsten carbide tools. A boron-doped diamond interlayer was added to a microcrystalline diamond layer in an attempt to improve the interface adhesion strength. The dual-layered diamond-coated tool was employed in machining at cutting speeds in the range of 70 to 150 m min −1 with a lower feed and a lower depth of cut of 0.5 mm rev −1 and 0.5 mm, respectively, to operate in the transition from adhesion- to diffusion-tool-wear and thereby arrive at suitable conditions for enhancing tool life. The proposed tool was then compared, on the basis of performance under real-time cutting conditions, with commercially available microcrystalline diamond, nanocrystalline diamond, titanium nitride and uncoated tungsten carbide tools. The life and surface finish of the proposed dual-layered tool and uncoated tungsten carbide were also investigated in interrupted cutting such as milling. The results of this study show a significant improvement in tool life and finish of Ti-6Al-4V parts machined with the dual-layered diamond-coated tool when compared with its uncoated counterpart. These results pave the way for the use of a low-cost tool, with respect to, polycrystalline diamond for enhancing both tool life and machining productivity in critical sectors fabricating parts out of titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The application of this coating technology can also be extended to the machining of non-ferrous alloys owing to its better adhesion strength. (paper)

  11. Machine Tool Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    A NASA-developed software package has played a part in technical education of students who major in Mechanical Engineering Technology at William Rainey Harper College. Professor Hack has been using (APT) Automatically Programmed Tool Software since 1969 in his CAD/CAM Computer Aided Design and Manufacturing curriculum. Professor Hack teaches the use of APT programming languages for control of metal cutting machines. Machine tool instructions are geometry definitions written in APT Language to constitute a "part program." The part program is processed by the machine tool. CAD/CAM students go from writing a program to cutting steel in the course of a semester.

  12. Prediction of melt geometry in laser cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, Giovanni; Tomesani, Luca; Campana, Giampaolo

    2003-03-15

    In this paper, an analytical model for the evaluation of the melt film geometry in laser cutting of steels is developed. Using as basis, a previous model for kerf geometry estimation developed by the authors, with both reactive and non-reactive process gases, the film thickness and velocity were determined as a function of the kerf depth in the cutting plate. Two criteria were then adopted to predict the quality of the laser cutting operation: the first is based on a minimum acceptable value of the ejection speed of the melt from the bottom of the kerf, the second on the occlusion of the kerf itself due to an excess of molten material in the boundary layer at the kerf width. These criteria determined a feasibility region in the domain of the process and material variables, such as cutting speed, assistant gas pressure, laser beam power and material characteristics. These factors may be successfully used to build a process-planning tool for parameters optimisation and setting, in order to achieve a satisfactory process quality. The model response is in excellent agreement with the feasibility regions reported from experimental data by various authors and demonstrates a relationship between the occurrence of dross adhesion and the two different mechanisms predicted for such a phenomenon were: unsatisfactory ejection speed of the melt film from the bottom of the kerf and occlusion of the kerf.

  13. Automatic Generation of Minimal Cut Sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sentot Kromodimoeljo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cut set is a collection of component failure modes that could lead to a system failure. Cut Set Analysis (CSA is applied to critical systems to identify and rank system vulnerabilities at design time. Model checking tools have been used to automate the generation of minimal cut sets but are generally based on checking reachability of system failure states. This paper describes a new approach to CSA using a Linear Temporal Logic (LTL model checker called BT Analyser that supports the generation of multiple counterexamples. The approach enables a broader class of system failures to be analysed, by generalising from failure state formulae to failure behaviours expressed in LTL. The traditional approach to CSA using model checking requires the model or system failure to be modified, usually by hand, to eliminate already-discovered cut sets, and the model checker to be rerun, at each step. By contrast, the new approach works incrementally and fully automatically, thereby removing the tedious and error-prone manual process and resulting in significantly reduced computation time. This in turn enables larger models to be checked. Two different strategies for using BT Analyser for CSA are presented. There is generally no single best strategy for model checking: their relative efficiency depends on the model and property being analysed. Comparative results are given for the A320 hydraulics case study in the Behavior Tree modelling language.

  14. Investigations of Cutting Fluid Performance Using Different Machining Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Chiffre, Leonardo; Belluco, Walter

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of cutting fluid performance in dif-ferent metal cutting operations is presented based on performance criteria, work material and fluid type. Cutting fluid performance was evaluated in turning, drilling, reaming and tapping operations, with respect to tool life, cutting forces and prod...... will get the same performance ranking for different metalworking fluids no matter what machining test is used, when the fluids are of the same type. Results show that this is mostly true for the water-based fluids on austenitic stainless steel while ranking did change depending on the test with straight......-gated. In the case of austenitic stainless steel as the workpiece material, results using the different operations under different cutting conditions show that the performance of vegetable oil based prod-ucts is superior or equal to that of mineral oil based products. The hypothesis was investigated that one...

  15. Methods and Research for Multi-Component Cutting Force Sensing Devices and Approaches in Machining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaokang Liang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-component cutting force sensing systems in manufacturing processes applied to cutting tools are gradually becoming the most significant monitoring indicator. Their signals have been extensively applied to evaluate the machinability of workpiece materials, predict cutter breakage, estimate cutting tool wear, control machine tool chatter, determine stable machining parameters, and improve surface finish. Robust and effective sensing systems with capability of monitoring the cutting force in machine operations in real time are crucial for realizing the full potential of cutting capabilities of computer numerically controlled (CNC tools. The main objective of this paper is to present a brief review of the existing achievements in the field of multi-component cutting force sensing systems in modern manufacturing.

  16. Methods and Research for Multi-Component Cutting Force Sensing Devices and Approaches in Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiaokang; Zhang, Dan; Wu, Wanneng; Zou, Kunlin

    2016-11-16

    Multi-component cutting force sensing systems in manufacturing processes applied to cutting tools are gradually becoming the most significant monitoring indicator. Their signals have been extensively applied to evaluate the machinability of workpiece materials, predict cutter breakage, estimate cutting tool wear, control machine tool chatter, determine stable machining parameters, and improve surface finish. Robust and effective sensing systems with capability of monitoring the cutting force in machine operations in real time are crucial for realizing the full potential of cutting capabilities of computer numerically controlled (CNC) tools. The main objective of this paper is to present a brief review of the existing achievements in the field of multi-component cutting force sensing systems in modern manufacturing.

  17. Aerodynamic Interactions During Laser Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieret, J.; Terry, M. J.; Ward, B. A.

    1986-11-01

    Most laser cutting systems utilise a gas jet to remove molten or vaporised material from the kerf. The speed, economy and quality of the cut can be strongly dependent on the aerodynamic conditions created by the nozzle, workpiece proximity and kerf shape. Adverse conditions can be established that may lead to an unwelcome lack of reproducibility of cut quality. Relatively low gas nozzle pressures can result in supersonic flow in the jet with its associated shock fronts. When the nozzle is placed at conventional distances (1-2mm) above the workpiece, the force exerted by the gas on the workpiece and the cut products (the cutting pressure) can be significantly less than the nozzle pressure. Higher cutting pressures can be achieved by increasing the height of the nozzle above the workpiece, to a more damage resistant zone, provided that the shock structure of the jet is taken into account. Conventional conical nozzles with circular exits can be operated with conditions that will result in cutting pressures up to 3 Bar (g) in the more distant zone. At higher pressures in circular tipped nozzles the cutting pressure in this zone decays to inadequate levels. Investigations of a large number of non-circular nozzle tip shapes have resulted in the selection of a few specific shapes that can provide cutting pressures in excess of 6 Bar(g) at distances of 4 to 7mm from the nozzle tip. Since there is a strong correlation between cutting pressure and the speed and quality of laser cutting, the paper describes the aerodynamic requirements for achieving the above effects and reports the cutting results arising from the different nozzle designs and conditions. The results of the work of other investigators, who report anomalous laser cutting results, will be examined and reviewed in the light of the above work.

  18. Ag-catalysed cutting of multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Torre, A; Rance, G A; Miners, S A; Lucas, C Herreros; Smith, E F; Giménez-López, M C; Khlobystov, A N; Fay, M W; Brown, P D; Zoberbier, T; Kaiser, U

    2016-01-01

    In this work, the cutting of carbon nanotubes is investigated using silver nanoparticles deposited on arc discharge multi-walled carbon nanotubes. The composite is subsequently heated in air to fabricate shortened multi-walled nanotubes. Complementary transmission electron microscopy and spectroscopy techniques shed light on the cutting mechanism. The nanotube cutting is catalysed by the fundamental mechanism based on the coordination of the silver atoms to the π-bonds of carbon nanotubes. As a result of the metal coordination, the strength of the carbon–carbon bond is reduced, promoting the oxidation of carbon at lower temperature when heated in air, or lowering the activation energy required for the removal of carbon atoms by electron beam irradiation, assuring in both cases the cutting of the nanotubes. (paper)

  19. Characterization of Flame Cut Heavy Steel: Modeling of Temperature History and Residual Stress Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jokiaho, T.; Laitinen, A.; Santa-aho, S.; Isakov, M.; Peura, P.; Saarinen, T.; Lehtovaara, A.; Vippola, M.

    2017-12-01

    Heavy steel plates are used in demanding applications that require both high strength and hardness. An important step in the production of such components is cutting the plates with a cost-effective thermal cutting method such as flame cutting. Flame cutting is performed with a controlled flame and oxygen jet, which burns the steel and forms a cutting edge. However, the thermal cutting of heavy steel plates causes several problems. A heat-affected zone (HAZ) is generated at the cut edge due to the steep temperature gradient. Consequently, volume changes, hardness variations, and microstructural changes occur in the HAZ. In addition, residual stresses are formed at the cut edge during the process. In the worst case, unsuitable flame cutting practices generate cracks at the cut edge. The flame cutting of thick steel plate was modeled using the commercial finite element software ABAQUS. The results of modeling were verified by X-ray diffraction-based residual stress measurements and microstructural analysis. The model provides several outcomes, such as obtaining more information related to the formation of residual stresses and the temperature history during the flame cutting process. In addition, an extensive series of flame cut samples was designed with the assistance of the model.

  20. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi

    2004-01-31

    Final design of the mast was completed (Task 5). The mast is consisting of two welded plate girders, set next to each other, and spaced 14-inches apart. Fabrication of the boom will be completed in two parts solely for ease of transportation. The end pivot connection will be made through a single 2-inch diameter x 4 feet-8 inch long 316 SS bar. During installation, hard piping make-ups using Chiksan joints will connect the annular section and 4-inch return line to allow full movement of the mast from horizontal to vertical. Additionally, flexible hoses and piping will be installed to isolate both towers from piping loads and allow recycling operations respectively. Calibration of the prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed and experiments are now being conducted. We were able to generate up to 95% quality foam. Work is currently underway to attach the Thermo-Haake RS300 viscometer and install a view port with a microscope to measure foam bubble size and bubble size distribution. Foam rheology tests (Task 13) were carried out to evaluate the rheological properties of the proposed foam formulation. After successful completion of the first foam test, two sets of rheological tests were conducted at different foam flow rates while keeping other parameters constant (100 psig, 70F, 80% quality). The results from these tests are generally in agreement with the previous foam tests done previously during Task 9. However, an unanticipated observation during these tests was that in both cases, the frictional pressure drop in 2 inch pipe was lower than that in the 3 inch and 4 inch pipes. We also conducted the first foam cuttings transport test during this quarter. Experiments on aerated fluids without cuttings have been completed in ACTF (Task 10). Gas and liquid were injected at different flow rates. Two different sets of experiments were carried out, where the only difference was the temperature. Another set of tests was performed, which covered a wide range of

  1. Modeling of Wear of Knives of Paper-Cutting Machines in Use

    OpenAIRE

    Кулак, Михаил Иосифович; Медяк, Диана Михайловна

    2016-01-01

    Development of the theory of cutting of paper and methods of measurement of width of the cutting edge in the course of wear of a knife is analyzed. Device to a micrometer for measurement of the tool edge width and a way of determination of radius of a curve of the cutting edge of such tool is presented. The card of wear of a knife is constructed and process of wear of the self-sharpened knife is investigated.

  2. The influence of mechanical properties of workpiece material on the main cutting force in face milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sekulić

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the research into cutting forces in face milling of three different materials: steel Č 4732 (EN42CrMo4, nodular cast iron NL500 (EN-GJS-500-7 and silumine AlSi10Mg (EN AC-AlSi10Mg. Obtained results show that hardness and tensile strength values of workpiece material have a significant influence on the main cutting force, and thereby on the cutting energy in machining.

  3. Numerical simulation of rock cutting using 2D AUTODYN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woldemichael, D E; Rani, A M Abdul; Lemma, T A; Altaf, K

    2015-01-01

    In a drilling process for oil and gas exploration, understanding of the interaction between the cutting tool and the rock is important for optimization of the drilling process using polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) cutters. In this study the finite element method in ANSYS AUTODYN-2D is used to simulate the dynamics of cutter rock interaction, rock failure, and fragmentation. A two-dimensional single PDC cutter and rock model were used to simulate the orthogonal cutting process and to investigate the effect of different parameters such as depth of cut, and back rake angle on two types of rocks (sandstone and limestone). In the simulation, the cutting tool was dragged against stationary rock at predetermined linear velocity and the depth of cut (1,2, and 3 mm) and the back rake angles(-10°, 0°, and +10°) were varied. The simulation result shows that the +10° back rake angle results in higher rate of penetration (ROP). Increasing depth of cut leads to higher ROP at the cost of higher cutting force. (paper)

  4. Mechanisms and FEM Simulation of Chip Formation in Orthogonal Cutting In-Situ TiB2/7050Al MMC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhu; Jiang, Ruisong; Lin, Kunyang; Shao, Mingwei

    2018-01-01

    The in-situ TiB2/7050Al composite is a new kind of Al-based metal matrix composite (MMC) with super properties, such as low density, improved strength, and wear resistance. This paper, for a deep insight into its cutting performance, involves a study of the chip formation process and finite element simulation during orthogonal cutting in-situ TiB2/7050Al MMC. With chips, material properties, cutting forces, and tool geometry parameters, the Johnson–Cook (J–C) constitutive equation of in-situ TiB2/7050Al composite was established. Then, the cutting simulation model was established by applying the Abaqus–Explicit method, and the serrated chip, shear plane, strain rate, and temperature were analyzed. The experimental and simulation results showed that the obtained material’s constitutive equation was of high reliability, and the saw-tooth chips occurred commonly under either low or high cutting speed and small or large feed rate. From result analysis, it was found that the mechanisms of chip formation included plastic deformation, adiabatic shear, shearing slip, and crack extension. In addition, it was found that the existence of small, hard particles reduced the ductility of the MMC and resulted in segmental chips. PMID:29662047

  5. Nanomechanical cutting of boron nitride nanotubes by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Meng; Chen, Xiaoming; Ke, Changhong; Park, Cheol; Fay, Catharine C; Pugno, Nicola M

    2013-01-01

    The length of nanotubes is a critical structural parameter for the design and manufacture of nanotube-based material systems and devices. High-precision length control of nanotubes by means of mechanical cutting using a scriber has not materialized due to the lack of the knowledge of the appropriate cutting conditions and the tube failure mechanism. In this paper, we present a quantitative nanomechanical study of the cutting of individual boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) using atomic force microscopy (AFM) probes. In our nanotube cutting measurements, a nanotube standing still on a flat substrate was laterally scribed by an AFM tip. The tip–tube collision force deformed the tube, and eventually fractured the tube at the collision site by increasing the cutting load. The mechanical response of nanotubes during the tip–tube collision process and the roles of the scribing velocity and the frictional interaction on the tip–tube collision contact in cutting nanotubes were quantitatively investigated by cutting double-walled BNNTs of 2.26–4.28 nm in outer diameter. The fracture strength of BNNTs was also quantified based on the measured collision forces and their structural configurations using contact mechanics theories. Our analysis reports fracture strengths of 9.1–15.5 GPa for the tested BNNTs. The nanomechanical study presented in this paper demonstrates that the AFM-based nanomechanical cutting technique not only enables effective control of the length of nanotubes with high precision, but is also promising as a new nanomechanical testing technique for characterizing the mechanical properties of tubular nanostructures. (paper)

  6. Laser Cutting of Different Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir ÇAVDAR

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper; in general potential developments and trends of a particular machining field by extensively evaluating present studies of laser beam machining have been discussed. As it is indicated below, technical literatures have been subsumed under five major headlines: Experimental studies, reviews, optimization researches of the cutting parameters, theoretical modelling studies of laser beam cutting and academic studies relating to laser cutting

  7. Latest development of laser cutting

    OpenAIRE

    Wetzig, Andreas; Herwig, Patrick; Hauptmann, Jan; Goppold, Cindy; Baumann, Robert; Fürst, Andreas; Rose, Michael; Pinder, Thomas; Mahrle, Achim; Beyer, Eckhard

    2016-01-01

    Laser cutting was one of the first applications of laser material processing. Today, laser cutting is the most widespread application among laser material processing besides laser marking. Meanwhile, nearly each material can be cut by means of a laser, in particular since ultra short pulse lasers are available in the power range of up to 100 W. The to be cut material can come with thicknesses from a few microns till tens of millimeters as flat stock or as free form shapes. The paper will conc...

  8. CALCULATION OF LASER CUTTING COSTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Nedic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents description methods of metal cutting and calculation of treatment costs based on model that is developed on Faculty of mechanical engineering in Kragujevac. Based on systematization and analysis of large number of calculation models of cutting with unconventional methods, mathematical model is derived, which is used for creating a software for calculation costs of metal cutting. Software solution enables resolving the problem of calculating the cost of laser cutting, comparison' of costs made by other unconventional methods and provides documentation that consists of reports on estimated costs.

  9. Prototype arc saw design and cutting trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, G.S.

    1980-09-01

    A program was initiated to develop the arc saw as a tool capable of removing the end fittings from spent nuclear fuel bundles. A special arc saw for this purpose was designed, installed at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory and satisfactorily operated to remove end fittings from simulated, nonradioactive fuel bundles. The design of the arc saw included consideration of the cutting environment, power supply size, control equipment, and work piece size. Several simulated fuel bundles were cut to demonstrate that the arc saw met design specifications. Although the arc saw development program was curtailed before significant performance data could be collected, tests indicate that the arc saw is a good means of cropping spent fuel bundles and is well suited to remote operation and maintenance

  10. Evaluating optical hazards from plasma arc cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassford, Eric; Burr, Gregory

    2018-01-01

    The Health Hazard Evaluation Program of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health evaluated a steel building materials manufacturer. The employer requested the evaluation because of concerns about optical radiation hazards from a plasma arc cutting system and the need to clarify eye protection requirements for plasma operators, other employees, and visitors. The strength of the ultraviolet radiation, visible radiation (light), and infrared radiation generated by the plasma arc cutter was measured at various distances from the source and at different operating amperages. Investigators also observed employees performing the plasma arc cutting. Optical radiation above safe levels for the unprotected eyes in the ultraviolet-C, ultraviolet-B, and visible light ranges were found during plasma arc cutting. In contrast, infrared and ultraviolet-A radiation levels during plasma arc cutting were similar to background levels. The highest non-ionizing radiation exposures occurred when no welding curtains were used. A plasma arc welding curtain in place did not eliminate optical radiation hazards to the plasma arc operator or to nearby employees. In most instances, the measured intensities for visible light, UV-C, and UV-B resulted in welding shade lens numbers that were lower than those stipulated in the OSHA Filter Lenses for Protection Against Radiant Energy table in 29 CFR 1910.133(a)(5). [1] Investigators recommended using a welding curtain that enclosed the plasma arc, posting optical radiation warning signs in the plasma arc cutter area, installing audible or visual warning cues when the plasma arc cutter was operating, and using welding shades that covered the plasma arc cutter operator's face to protect skin from ultraviolet radiation hazards.

  11. The effects of cutting parameters on cutting forces and heat generation when drilling animal bone and biomechanical test materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cseke, Akos; Heinemann, Robert

    2018-01-01

    The research presented in this paper investigated the effects of spindle speed and feed rate on the resultant cutting forces (thrust force and torque) and temperatures while drilling SawBones ® biomechanical test materials and cadaveric cortical bone (bovine and porcine femur) specimens. It also investigated cortical bone anisotropy on the cutting forces, when drilling in axial and radial directions. The cutting forces are only affected by the feed rate, whereas the cutting temperature in contrast is affected by both spindle speed and feed rate. The temperature distribution indicates friction as the primary heat source, which is caused by the rubbing of the tool margins and the already cut chips over the borehole wall. Cutting forces were considerably higher when drilling animal cortical bone, in comparison to cortical test material. Drilling direction, and therewith anisotropy, appears to have a negligible effect on the cutting forces. The results suggest that this can be attributed to the osteons being cut at an angle rather than in purely axial or radial direction, as a result of a twist drill's point angle. Copyright © 2017 IPEM. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A new concept for the targeted cutting of concrete structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, Steffen; Gentes, Sascha; Weidemann, Roman; Geimer, Marcus

    2011-01-01

    The decontamination and crushing of reinforced concrete is a main part during deconstruction of nuclear facilities. The selective treatment of contaminated or activated material is of special interest, since the non-contaminated material can be transferred into the normal reprocessing cycle. In the frame of a project concerning the innovative cutting of massive reinforced concrete structures an all-purpose system for spatially restricted and defined cutting of strongly reinforced concrete including packaging suitable for final disposal was developed. Due to the remote handling of the machine the dose rate for personnel can be reduced significantly. Main part of the system is the tool that can cut highly reinforced concrete without system or component replacement. The authors describe preliminary tests of these tools, further experiments and process optimization are necessary before the tools can be integrated into the new system.

  13. Influence of non-edible vegetable based oil as cutting fluid on chip, surface roughness and cutting force during drilling operation of Mild Steel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmitha, M.; Sharan, P.; Jyothi, P. N.

    2016-09-01

    Friction between work piece-cutting tool-chip generates heat in the machining zone. The heat generated reduces the tool life, increases surface roughness and decreases the dimensional sensitiveness of work material. This can be overcome by using cutting fluids during machining. They are used to provide lubrication and cooling effects between cutting tool and work piece and cutting tool and chip during machining operation. As a result, important benefits would be achieved such longer tool life, easy chip flow and higher machining quality in the machining processes. Non-edible vegetable oils have received considerable research attention in the last decades owing to their remarkable improved tribological characteristics and due to increasing attention to environmental issues, have driven the lubricant industry toward eco friendly products from renewable sources. In the present work, different non-edible vegetable oils are used as cutting fluid during drilling of Mild steel work piece. Non-edible vegetable oils, used are Karanja oil (Honge), Neem oil and blend of these two oils. The effect of these cutting fluids on chip formation, surface roughness and cutting force are investigated and the results obtained are compared with results obtained with petroleum based cutting fluids and dry conditions.

  14. A cutting fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kajdas, C.; Dominiak, M.; Kozinski, R.; Misterkiewicz, B.; Polowniak, J.; Szczepaniak, S.

    1982-06-30

    The cutting fluid (SOZh) contains 0.5 to 10 percent vegetable or animal fats, selectively sulfurized in the presence of a catalyst (Kt): 0.1 to 10 percent chlorinated C2O to C3O paraffins, which contain 10 to 50 percent Chlorine in a molecule, and 0.001 to 0.5 percent dialkyldithiocarbamic or alkylen-bis-(dithiocarbamic) acids or their salts or derivatives of the form (R(R')NC(S)SRn'', (CH2)n(NHC(S)S)2R'' or R(R')NC(S)SnC(S)(R)R', where R and R' are alkyl or cycloalkyl of the C1 to C6 fractions, R'' is Hydrogen, a metal, or aliphatic or heterocyclic amine, n = 2 to 6 and 0.001 to 0.3 percent of heterocyclic mercaptanes or disulfides of the cited formula, where A is Nitrogen or Sulfur, and up to 100 percent petroleum oil with a kinematic viscosity of 5 to 50 square millimeters per second at 323K.

  15. Impact of Cutting Forces and Chip Microstructure in High Speed Machining of Carbon Fiber – Epoxy Composite Tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roy Y. Allwin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced polymeric (CFRP composite materials are widely used in aerospace, automobile and biomedical industries due to their high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance and durability. High speed machining (HSM of CFRP material is needed to study the impact of cutting parameters on cutting forces and chip microstructure which offer vital inputs to the machinability and deformation characteristics of the material. In this work, the orthogonal machining of CFRP was conducted by varying the cutting parameters such as cutting speed and feed rate at high cutting speed/feed rate ranges up to 346 m/min/ 0.446 mm/rev. The impact of the cutting parameters on cutting forces (principal cutting, feed and thrust forces and chip microstructure were analyzed. A significant impact on thrust forces and chip segmentation pattern was seen at higher feed rates and low cutting speeds.

  16. ANALYSIS OF PARAMETERS AFFECTING THE QUALITY OF A CUTTING MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iveta Onderová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The quality of cutting machines is affected by several factors that can be directly or indirectly influenced by manufacturers, technicians and users of machine tools. The most critical qualitative evaluation parameters of machine tools include accuracy and stability. Investigations of accuracy and repeatable positioning accuracy were essential for the research presented in this paper. The aim was to develop and experimentally verify the design of a methodology for cutting centers aimed at achieving the desired working precision. Before working on the topic described here, it was necessary to make several scientific analyses, which are summarized in this paper. We can build on the initial working hypothesis that by improving the technological parameters (e.g. by increasing the working speed of the machine, or by improving the precision of the positioning the quality of the cutting machine will also be improved. For the purposes of our study, several investigated parameters were set affecting positioning accuracy, such as rigidity, positioning speed, etc. First, the stiffness of the portal structure of the cutting machine was analyzed. FEM analysis was used to investigate several alternative structures of the cutting machine, and also an innovative solution for beam mounting. The second step was to integrate two types of drives into the design of the cutting machine. The first drive is a classic rack and pinion drive for cutting machines. To increase (improve the working speed of the machine, linear motors were designed as an alternative drive. The portal of the cutting machine was designed for a working speed of 260mmin−1 and acceleration of 25 m. s−2. The third step was based on the results of the analysis. In collaboration with Microstep, an experimental cutting machine in a portal version was produced using linear synchronous motors driving the portal on both sides, and with direct linear metering of its position. In the fourth step, an

  17. The Gesso Cut for Printmaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Perry; Sarvis, Alva

    1969-01-01

    Directions are given for the preparation, cutting, and printing of a gesso board. A gesso cut is defined as a board coated with gesso into which a design has been impressed. The process is similar to the woodcut, but offers greater textural possibilities. (BF)

  18. Shearer drums - the cutting edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neill, M.; Wright, C.

    2004-09-15

    The paper discusses continuous miner and shearer cutters. It claims cutting drum require the same level of engineering know-how and technical expertise as do the machines driving them, and that the cutting drum, whether on a longwall shearer or continuous miner, comprises, the steel, pedestals, bit holders and the bits.

  19. Water-Cut Sensor System

    KAUST Repository

    Karimi, Muhammad Akram; Shamim, Atif; Arsalan, Muhammad

    2018-01-01

    Provided in some embodiments is a method of manufacturing a pipe conformable water-cut sensors system. Provided in some embodiments is method for manufacturing a water-cut sensor system that includes providing a helical T-resonator, a helical ground

  20. Cutting method and device underwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takano, Genta; Kamei, Hiromasa; Beppu, Seiji

    1998-01-01

    A place of material to be cut is surrounded by an openable/closable box. The material to be cut is cut underwater, and materials generated in this case are removed from the cut portion by a pressurized water jet. The removed materials are sucked and recovered together with water in the box. Among the materials caused by the cutting underwater, solid materials not floating on water are caused to stay in the midway of a sucking and recovering channel. A large sucking force might be required for the entire region of the sucking and recovering channel when sucking and recovering large sized solid materials not floating on water, but even large sized materials can be recovered easily according to the present invention since they are recovered after being sucked and stayed in the midway of the sucking and recovering channel. (N.H.)

  1. Cutting concrete with abrasion jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yie, G.G.

    1982-01-01

    Fluidyne Corporation has developed a unique process and apparatus that allow selected abrasives to be introduced into high-speed waterjet to produce abrasive-entrained waterjet that has high material-cutting capabilities, which is termed by Fluidyne as the Abrasion Jet. Such Abrasion Jet has demonstrated capability in cutting hard rock and concrete at a modest pressure of less than 1360 bars (20,000 psi) and a power input of less than 45 kW (60 horsepower). Abrasion Jet cutting of concrete is characterized by its high rate of cutting, flexible operation, good cut quality, and relatively low costs. This paper presents a general description of this technology together with discussions of recent test results and how it could be applied to nuclear decontamination and decommissioning work. 8 references

  2. Forecasting grain size distribution of coal cut by a shearer loader

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, W; Chodura, J; Siwiec, J

    1983-02-01

    Analyzed are effects of shearer loader design on grain size distribution of coal, particularly on proportion of the finest size group and proportion of largest coal grains. The method developed by the IGD im. A.A. Skochinski Institute in Moscow is used. Effects of cutting tool design and mechanical coal properties are analyzed. Of the evaluated factors, two are of decisive importance: thickness of the coal chip cut by a cutting tool and coefficient of coal disintegration which characterizes coal behavior during cutting. Grain size distribution is also influenced by cutting tool geometry. Two elements of cutting tool design are of major importance: dimensions of the cutting edge and angle of attack. Effects of cutting tool design and coal mechanical properties on grain size distribution are shown in 12 diagrams. Using the forecasting method developed by the IGD im. A.A. Skochinski Institute in Moscow grain size distribution of coal cut by three shearer loaders is calculated: the KWB-3RDU with a drum 1600 mm in diameter, the KWB-6W with a drum 2500 mm in diameter, and a shearer loader being developed with a 1550 mm drum. The results of comparative evaluations are shown in two tables. 5 references.

  3. Bond strength of masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluijm, van der R.; Vermeltfoort, A.Th.

    1992-01-01

    Bond strength is not a well defined property of masonry. Normally three types of bond strength can be distinguished: - tensile bond strength, - shear (and torsional) bond strength, - flexural bond strength. In this contribution the behaviour and strength of masonry in deformation controlled uniaxial

  4. predicting the compressive strength of concretes made with granite

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... computational model based on artificial neural networks for the determination of the compressive strength of concrete ... Strength being the most important property of con- ... to cut corners use low quality concrete materials in .... manner of operation of natural neurons in the human body. ... the output ai.

  5. Evaluation of microtensile and tensile bond strength tests ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-11-03

    Nov 3, 2015 ... Bond strength tests and Er,Cr:YSGG laser frequency. 586 ... power, 90% air pressure, 75% water pressure, 45 s irradiation ..... geometry on the measurement of the tensile bond strength to dentin. J Dent ... Bur‑cut enamel and.

  6. Machine tool structures

    CERN Document Server

    Koenigsberger, F

    1970-01-01

    Machine Tool Structures, Volume 1 deals with fundamental theories and calculation methods for machine tool structures. Experimental investigations into stiffness are discussed, along with the application of the results to the design of machine tool structures. Topics covered range from static and dynamic stiffness to chatter in metal cutting, stability in machine tools, and deformations of machine tool structures. This volume is divided into three sections and opens with a discussion on stiffness specifications and the effect of stiffness on the behavior of the machine under forced vibration c

  7. Mapping strengths into virtues: The relation of the 24 VIA-strengths to six ubiquitous virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willibald eRuch

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The Values-in-Action (VIA-classification distinguishes six core virtues and 24 strengths. As the assignment of the strengths to the virtues was done on theoretical grounds it still needs empirical verification. As an alternative to factor analytic investigations the present study utilizes expert judgments. In a pilot study the conceptual overlap among five sources of knowledge (strength’s name including synonyms, short definitions, brief descriptions, longer theoretical elaborations, and item content about a particular strength was examined. The results show that the five sources converged quite well, with the short definitions and the items being slightly different from the other. All strengths exceeded a cut-off value but the convergence was much better for some strengths (e.g., zest than for others (e.g., perspective. In the main study 70 experts (from psychology, philosophy, theology, etc. and 41 laypersons rated how prototypical the strengths are for each of the six virtues. The results showed that 10 were very good markers for their virtues, 9 were good markers, four were acceptable markers, and only one strength failed to reach the cut-off score for its assigned virtue. However, strengths were often markers for two or even three virtues, and occasionally they marked the other virtue more strongly than the one they were assigned to. The virtue prototypicality ratings were slightly positively correlated with higher coefficients being found for justice and humanity. A factor analysis of the 24 strengths across the ratings yielded the six factors with an only slightly different composition of strengths and double loadings. It is proposed to adjust either the classification (by reassigning strengths and by allowing strengths to be subsumed under more than one virtue or to change the definition of certain strengths so that they only exemplify one virtue. The results are discussed in the context of factor analytic attempts to verify the

  8. A combination method of the theory and experiment in determination of cutting force coefficients in ball-end mill processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yung-Chou Kao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the cutting force calculation of ball-end mill processing was modeled mathematically. All derivations of cutting forces were directly based on the tangential, radial, and axial cutting force components. In the developed mathematical model of cutting forces, the relationship of average cutting force and the feed per flute was characterized as a linear function. The cutting force coefficient model was formulated by a function of average cutting force and other parameters such as cutter geometry, cutting conditions, and so on. An experimental method was proposed based on the stable milling condition to estimate the cutting force coefficients for ball-end mill. This method could be applied for each pair of tool and workpiece. The developed cutting force model has been successfully verified experimentally with very promising results.

  9. Experimental investigation of piercing of high-strength steels within a critical range of slant angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, S.; Liewald, M.

    2017-09-01

    Deep drawn parts often do have complex designs and, therefore, must be trimmed or punched subsequently in a second stage. Due to the complex part geometry, most punching areas do reveal critical slant angle (angle between part surface and ram movement direction) different to perpendicular direction. Piercing within a critical range of slant angle may lead to severe damage of the cutting tool. Consequently, expensive cam units are required to transform the ram moving direction in order to perform the piercing process perpendicularly to the local part surface. For modern sheet metals, however, the described critical angle of attack has not been investigated adequately until now. Therefore, cam units are used in cases in which regular piercing with high slant angle wouldn’t be possible. Purpose of this study is to investigate influencing factors and their effect on punch damage during piercing of high strength steels with slant angles. Therefore, a modular shearing tool was designed, which allows to simply switch die parts to vary cutting clearance and cutting angle. The target size of the study is to measure the lateral deviation of the punch which is monitored by an eddy current sensor. The sensor is located in the downholder and measures the lateral punch deviation in-line during manufacturing. The deviation is mainly influenced by slant angle of workpiece surface. In relation to slang angle and sheet thickness the clearance has a small influence on the measured punch deflection.

  10. Plasma hot machining for difficult-to-cut materials, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kitagawa, Takeaki; Maekawa, Katsuhiro; Kubo, Akihiko

    1987-01-01

    Machinability of difficult-to-cut materials has been a great concern to manufacturing engineers since demands for new materials in the aerospace and nuclear industries are more and more increasing. The purpose of this study is to develop a hot machining to improve machinability of high hardness materials. A plasma arc is used for heating materials cut. The surface just after being heated is removed as a chip by tungsten carbide tools. The turning experiments of high hardness steels with aid of plasma arc heating show not only the decrease in cutting forces but also the following effectiveness: (1) The application of the plasma hot machining to the condition, under which a built-up edge (BUE) appears in turning 0.46%C steel, makes the BUE disappeared, bringing less flank wear. (2) In the case of 18%Mn steel cutting, deep groove wear on the end-cutting edge diminishes, and roughness of the machined surface is improved by the prevention from chatter. (3) Although the chilled cast iron has high hardness of above HB = 350, the plasma hot machining makes it possible to cut it with tungsten carbide tools having less chipping and flank wear. (author)

  11. Structural and Mechanical Properties of the ZrC/Ni-Nanodiamond Coating Synthesized by the PVD and Electroplating Processes for the Cutting Knifes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayeuski, V.; Zhylinski, V.; Cernashejus, O.; Visniakov, N.; Mikalauskas, G.

    2018-04-01

    In this work, combined gradient ZrC/Ni-nanodiamond ultradispersed diamonds (UDD) coatings were synthesized on the surface of knife blades made of hard alloy WC-2 wt.% Co by electroplating and cathode arc evaporation PVD techniques to increase the durability period of a wood-cutting milling tool. The microstructure, phase and elemental composition, microhardness, and adhesion strength of the coatings were investigated. Ni-UDD layer is not mixed with the ZrC coating and hard alloy substrate. Cobalt is present in Ni-UDD layer after deposition of ZrC. The ZrC/Ni-nanodiamond coating consists of separate phases of zirconium carbide (ZrC), α-Ni, and Ni-UDD. The maximum value of microhardness of the Ni-nanodiamond coating is 5.9 GPa. The microhardness value of the ZrC/Ni-nanodiamond coatings is 25 ± 6 GPa, which corresponds to the microhardness of the hard alloy substrate and ZrC coating. The obtained high values of the critical loads on the scratch track of the ZrC/Ni-nanodiamond coating in 24 N prove a sufficiently high value of the adhesion strength of the bottom Ni-UDD layer with WC-Co substrate. Pilot testing of ZrC/Ni-nanodiamond-coated cutting tools proved their increasing durability period to be 1.5-1.6 times higher than that of bare tools, when milling laminated chipboard.

  12. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdil Kus

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  13. Thermocouple and infrared sensor-based measurement of temperature distribution in metal cutting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Abdil; Isik, Yahya; Cakir, M Cemal; Coşkun, Salih; Özdemir, Kadir

    2015-01-12

    In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining.

  14. Forces, surface finish and friction characteristics in surface engineered single- and multiple-point cutting edges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarwar, M.; Gillibrand, D.; Bradbury, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    Advanced surface engineering technologies (physical and chemical vapour deposition) have been successfully applied to high speed steel and carbide cutting tools, and the potential benefits in terms of both performance and longer tool life, are now well established. Although major achievements have been reported by many manufacturers and users, there are a number of applications where surface engineering has been unsuccessful. Considerable attention has been given to the film characteristics and the variables associated with its properties; however, very little attention has been directed towards the benefits to the tool user. In order to apply surface engineering technology effectively to cutting tools, the coater needs to have accurate information relating to cutting conditions, i.e. cutting forces, stress and temperature etc. The present paper describes results obtained with single- and multiple-point cutting tools with examples of failures, which should help the surface coater to appreciate the significance of the cutting conditions, and in particular the magnitude of the forces and stresses present during cutting processes. These results will assist the development of a systems approach to cutting tool technology and surface engineering with a view to developing an improved product. (orig.)

  15. Thermocouple and Infrared Sensor-Based Measurement of Temperature Distribution in Metal Cutting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kus, Abdil; Isik, Yahya; Cakir, M. Cemal; Coşkun, Salih; Özdemir, Kadir

    2015-01-01

    In metal cutting, the magnitude of the temperature at the tool-chip interface is a function of the cutting parameters. This temperature directly affects production; therefore, increased research on the role of cutting temperatures can lead to improved machining operations. In this study, tool temperature was estimated by simultaneous temperature measurement employing both a K-type thermocouple and an infrared radiation (IR) pyrometer to measure the tool-chip interface temperature. Due to the complexity of the machining processes, the integration of different measuring techniques was necessary in order to obtain consistent temperature data. The thermal analysis results were compared via the ANSYS finite element method. Experiments were carried out in dry machining using workpiece material of AISI 4140 alloy steel that was heat treated by an induction process to a hardness of 50 HRC. A PVD TiAlN-TiN-coated WNVG 080404-IC907 carbide insert was used during the turning process. The results showed that with increasing cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut, the tool temperature increased; the cutting speed was found to be the most effective parameter in assessing the temperature rise. The heat distribution of the cutting tool, tool-chip interface and workpiece provided effective and useful data for the optimization of selected cutting parameters during orthogonal machining. PMID:25587976

  16. Chip science: Basic study of the single-point cutting process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, R.R.; Riddle, R.A.; Syn, C.K.; Taylor, J.S.

    1986-01-01

    Wear that diamond tools sustain during the cutting of electroless nickel (eNi) has been measured. Wear was detected at previously unattained levels, down to 100 A, and it was found that the tool wear resulted in a burnishing action after a relatively short cutting distance. To provide a more direct connection between computer-based modeling and experimental measurements, macroscopic cutting tests on a well-characterized aluminum material were also performed. The results showed good agreement between calculated and measured cutting forces

  17. Long-term effects of clear-cutting and selective cutting on soil methane fluxes in a temperate spruce forest in southern Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xing; Brueggemann, Nicolas; Gasche, Rainer; Papen, Hans; Willibald, Georg; Butterbach-Bahl, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    Based on multi-year measurements of CH 4 exchange in sub-daily resolution we show that clear-cutting of a forest in Southern Germany increased soil temperature and moisture and decreased CH 4 uptake. CH 4 uptake in the first year after clear-cutting (-4.5 ± 0.2 μg C m -2 h -1 ) was three times lower than during the pre-harvest period (-14.2 ± 1.3 μg C m -2 h -1 ). In contrast, selective cutting did not significantly reduce CH 4 uptake. Annual mean uptake rates were -1.18 kg C ha -1 yr -1 (spruce control), -1.16 kg C ha -1 yr -1 (selective cut site) and -0.44 kg C ha -1 yr -1 (clear-cut site), respectively. Substantial seasonal and inter-annual variations in CH 4 fluxes were observed as a result of significant variability of weather conditions, demonstrating the need for long-term measurements. Our findings imply that a stepwise selective cutting instead of clear-cutting may contribute to mitigating global warming by maintaining a high CH 4 uptake capacity of the soil. - Highlights: → Long-term, sub-daily measurements of CH 4 exchange at differently managed forest sites. → Inter-annual variability in CH 4 uptake is affected by annual precipitation. → Clear-cutting reduces the CH 4 sink strength of forest soils, whereas thinning has no significant effect. → Sink strength changes due to clear cutting are long-term and were still present approx. nine years following forest harvest. - Forest management affects the soil CH 4 sink strength, with clear-cutting reducing uptake rates for at least eight years.

  18. Drilling of metal matrix composites: cutting forces and chip formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Songmene, V.; Balout, B.; Masounave, J.

    2002-01-01

    Particulate metal matrix composites (MMCs) are known for their low weight and their high wear resistance, but also for the difficulties encountered during their machining. New aluminium MMCs containing with both soft lubricating graphite particles and hard particles (silicon carbide or alumina) with improved machinability were developed. This study investigates the drilling of these composites as compared to non-reinforced aluminium. The microstructure of chip, the cutting forces, the shear angles and the friction at tool-chip interface are used to compare the machinability of these composites. It was found that, during drilling of this new family of composites, the feed rate, and the nature of reinforcing particles govern the cutting forces. The mathematical models established by previous researchers for predicting the cutting forces when drilling metals were validated for these composites. The reinforcing particles within the composite help for chip segmentation, making the composite more brittle and easy to shear during the cutting process. (author)

  19. Experimental Research Using of MQL in Metal Cutting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Globočki Lakić

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper an effect of using of minimal quantity lubrication (MQL technique in turning operations is presented. Experimental research was performed on carbon steel C45E. Technological parameters: depth of cut, feed rate and cutting speed were adjusted to semi-machining and roughing. Higher values ​​of feed and cutting speed were used, than recommended from literature and different types of cooling and lubrication in turning conditions were applied. As a conventional procedure and technology, lubrication with flooding was applied. As special lubrication the MQL technique was used. During research, monitoring of the cutting force, chip shape, tool wear and surface roughness was performed. Relations between parameters, material machinability and economy of process were analyzed.

  20. Novel fungal disease in complex leaf-cutting ant societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hughes, David Peter; Evans, Harry C.; Hywel-Jones, Nigel

    2009-01-01

    1. The leaf-cutting ants practise an advanced system of mycophagy where they grow a fungus as a food source. As a consequence of parasite threats to their crops, they have evolved a system of morphological, behavioural, and chemical defences, particularly against fungal pathogens (mycopathogens). 2....... Specific fungal diseases of the leaf-cutting ants themselves have not been described, possibly because broad spectrum anti-fungal defences against mycopathogens have reduced their susceptibility to entomopathogens. 3. Using morphological and molecular tools, the present study documents three rare infection...... events of Acromyrmex and Atta leaf-cutting ants by Ophiocordyceps fungi, agenus of entomopathogens that is normally highly specific in its host choice. 4. As leaf-cutting ants have been intensively studied, the absence of prior records of Ophiocordyceps suggests that these infections may be a novel event...