WorldWideScience

Sample records for street london wc1e

  1. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Paolo Masucci

    Full Text Available We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

  2. Limited urban growth: London's street network dynamics since the 18th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masucci, A Paolo; Stanilov, Kiril; Batty, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the growth dynamics of Greater London defined by the administrative boundary of the Greater London Authority, based on the evolution of its street network during the last two centuries. This is done by employing a unique dataset, consisting of the planar graph representation of nine time slices of Greater London's road network spanning 224 years, from 1786 to 2010. Within this time-frame, we address the concept of the metropolitan area or city in physical terms, in that urban evolution reveals observable transitions in the distribution of relevant geometrical properties. Given that London has a hard boundary enforced by its long standing green belt, we show that its street network dynamics can be described as a fractal space-filling phenomena up to a capacitated limit, whence its growth can be predicted with a striking level of accuracy. This observation is confirmed by the analytical calculation of key topological properties of the planar graph, such as the topological growth of the network and its average connectivity. This study thus represents an example of a strong violation of Gibrat's law. In particular, we are able to show analytically how London evolves from a more loop-like structure, typical of planned cities, toward a more tree-like structure, typical of self-organized cities. These observations are relevant to the discourse on sustainable urban planning with respect to the control of urban sprawl in many large cities which have developed under the conditions of spatial constraints imposed by green belts and hard urban boundaries.

  3. The Haunting Presence of the Feminine: Virginia Woolf in the Streets of London

    OpenAIRE

    Agnieszka Pantuchowicz

    2017-01-01

    Beginning with the theme of the location of haunting in Gothic interiors and the confusion of life and death and the “sub-central” positioning of the feminine as the hidden source of fearfulness, the paper analyzes Virginia Woolf’s “Street Haunting: A London Adventure” as an example of a narrative written from the position of the haunting in which the figure of fearful feminine is transformed into a “hauntess” participating in the public world on equal rights with others. Woolf’s text, though...

  4. In-Street Wind Direction Variability in the Vicinity of a Busy Intersection in Central London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balogun, Ahmed A.; Tomlin, Alison S.; Wood, Curtis R.; Barlow, Janet F.; Belcher, Stephen E.; Smalley, Robert J.; Lingard, Justin J. N.; Arnold, Sam J.; Dobre, Adrian; Robins, Alan G.; Martin, Damien; Shallcross, Dudley E.

    2010-09-01

    We present results from fast-response wind measurements within and above a busy intersection between two street canyons (Marylebone Road and Gloucester Place) in Westminster, London taken as part of the DAPPLE (Dispersion of Air Pollution and Penetration into the Local Environment; www.dapple.org.uk ) 2007 field campaign. The data reported here were collected using ultrasonic anemometers on the roof-top of a building adjacent to the intersection and at two heights on a pair of lamp-posts on opposite sides of the intersection. Site characteristics, data analysis and the variation of intersection flow with the above-roof wind direction ( θ ref ) are discussed. Evidence of both flow channelling and recirculation was identified within the canyon, only a few metres from the intersection for along-street and across-street roof-top winds respectively. Results also indicate that for oblique roof-top flows, the intersection flow is a complex combination of bifurcated channelled flows, recirculation and corner vortices. Asymmetries in local building geometry around the intersection and small changes in the background wind direction (changes in 15- min mean θ ref of 5°-10°) were also observed to have profound influences on the behaviour of intersection flow patterns. Consequently, short time-scale variability in the background flow direction can lead to highly scattered in-street mean flow angles masking the true multi-modal features of the flow and thus further complicating modelling challenges.

  5. The Haunting Presence of the Feminine: Virginia Woolf in the Streets of London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Pantuchowicz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Beginning with the theme of the location of haunting in Gothic interiors and the confusion of life and death and the “sub-central” positioning of the feminine as the hidden source of fearfulness, the paper analyzes Virginia Woolf’s “Street Haunting: A London Adventure” as an example of a narrative written from the position of the haunting in which the figure of fearful feminine is transformed into a “hauntess” participating in the public world on equal rights with others. Woolf’s text, though seemingly positing the protagonist in the position of flâneuse, in fact implicitly criticizes flâneuring as a masculine kind of looking and participating in the public space. Taking place away from home, Woolf’s strolling in the streets of London carnivalizes (in the Bakhtinian sense the activity by way of a joyful blurring of the split between the home and the market. Transgressing what Kathryn Simpson calls “the male privilege of the flâneur” (2010, p. 47 and rendering the transgression as haunting, Woolf evades participation in the masculine world of traffic and exchange by way of bringing the space of the Gothic confinement, and also of entombment, to the public.

  6. Ranking current and prospective NO2 pollution mitigation strategies: An environmental and economic modelling investigation in Oxford Street, London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeanjean, A P R; Gallagher, J; Monks, P S; Leigh, R J

    2017-06-01

    Air pollution continues to be a problem in the urban environment. A range of different pollutant mitigation strategies that promote dispersion and deposition exist, but there is little evidence with respect to their comparative performance from both an environmental and economic perspective. This paper focuses on examining different NO 2 mitigation strategies such as trees, buildings facades coated with photocatalytic paint and solid barriers in Oxford Street in London. The case study findings will support ranking the environmental and economic impacts of these different strategies to improve personal exposure conditions on the footpath and on the road in a real urban street canyon. CFD simulations of airflow and NO 2 dispersion in Oxford Street in London were undertaken using the OpenFOAM software platform with the k-ε model, taking into account local prevailing wind conditions. Trees are shown to be the most cost-effective strategy, with a small reduction in NO 2 concentrations of up to 0.7% on the road. However, solid barriers with and without the application of photocatalytic paint and an innovative material (20 times more expensive than trees) can improve air quality on the footpaths more substantially, up to 7.4%, yet this has a significant detrimental impact on NO 2 concentrations (≤23.8%) on the road. Photocatalytic paint on building surfaces presented a minimal environmental reductions (1.2%) and economic (>100 times more expensive than trees) mitigation strategy. The findings recognised the differences between footpath and road concentrations occurred and that a focused examination of three pollution hotspots can provide more cost effective pollution mitigation. This study considers how a number of pollutant mitigation measures can be applied in a single street canyon and demonstrates the strengths and weaknesses of these strategies from economic and environmental perspectives. Further research is required to extrapolate the findings presented here to

  7. One Street, Twenty Children and the Experience of a Changing Town: Year 7 Explore the Story of a London Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amy; De Silva, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Michael Wood and others have recently drawn attention to the ways in which big stories can be told through local histories. Hughes and De Silva report a teaching unit through which they aimed to help Year 7 pupils make history come alive by exploring the history of a local street and the people who lived in it using census materials, the physical…

  8. Excessive nickel release from earrings purchased from independent shops and street markets--a field study from Warsaw and London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thyssen, J P; Menné, T; Lidén, C; White, I R; White, J; Spiewak, R; Johansen, J D

    2011-09-01

    Nickel allergy is frequent and cause morbidity and increased health care costs. The aim of this study was to determine the proportion of inexpensive earrings randomly purchased from stores and street markets in two capitals that gave positive dimethylglyoxime (DMG) test reactions and to determine whether the degree of nickel release was related to shop category. Random inexpensive metallic earrings were purchased from stores and vendors in London and Warsaw. A qualitative investigation of nickel release by using the DMG test was performed. DMG testing revealed that respectively 15.1% (n=205) and 18.4% (n=206) of earrings purchased in London and Warsaw released nickel as indicated by positive test outcomes. Stratification by store category showed that DMG test-positive jewellery were mainly purchased from street markets and from stores that were not part of national or international chains. Despite the EU Nickel Directive having resulted in decreasing prevalence of nickel allergy, a large proportion of inexpensive earrings still release nickel in concentrations that may result in nickel allergy and dermatitis. Authorities should prioritize information campaigns and random inspections as a legislation that is not followed is of limited value. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology © 2010 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  9. Resilience of Self-Organised and Top-Down Planned Cities--A Case Study on London and Beijing Street Networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiaqiu Wang

    Full Text Available The success or failure of the street network depends on its reliability. In this article, using resilience analysis, the author studies how the shape and appearance of street networks in self-organised and top-down planned cities influences urban transport. Considering London and Beijing as proxies for self-organised and top-down planned cities, the structural properties of London and Beijing networks first are investigated based on their primal and dual representations of planar graphs. The robustness of street networks then is evaluated in primal space and dual space by deactivating road links under random and intentional attack scenarios. The results show that the reliability of London street network differs from that of Beijing, which seems to rely more on its architecture and connectivity. It is found that top-down planned Beijing with its higher average degree in the dual space and assortativity in the primal space is more robust than self-organised London using the measures of maximum and second largest cluster size and network efficiency. The article offers an insight, from a network perspective, into the reliability of street patterns in self-organised and top-down planned city systems.

  10. Genetic diversity in Entamoeba histolytica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Graham Clark1 Mehreen Zaki2 Ibne Karim Md Ali1. Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E 7HT, UK; Department of Infectious and Tropical Diseases, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, Keppel Street, London WC1E ...

  11. Fritz London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavroglu, Kostas

    2005-11-01

    Preface; Acknowledgements; Part I. From Philosophy to Physics: The years that left nothing unaffected; 1. The appeal of ideas; 2. Goëthe as a scientist; 3. How absolute is our knowledge?; 4. How do we come to know things?; 5. London's teachers in philosophy; 6. Husserl's teachings; 7. Expectations of things to come; 8. The thesis in philosophy; 9. Tolman's principle of similitude; 10. The necessary clarifications; 11. Work on quantum theory; 12. Transformation theory; 13. Unsuccessful attempts at unification; Part II. The Years in Berlin and the Beginnings of Quantum Chemistry: The mysterious bond; 14. London in Zürich; 15. Binding forces; 16. The Pauli principle; 17. Reactions to the Heitler-London paper; 18. Polyelectronic molecules and the application of group theory to problems of chemical valence; 19. Chemists as physicists?; 20. London's first contacts in Berlin; 21. Marriage; 22. Job offers; 23. Intermolecular forces; 24. The book which could not be written; 25. Leningrad and Rome; 26. Difficulties with group theory; 27. Linus Pauling's resonance structures; 28. Robert Mulliken's molecular orbitals; Part III. Oxford and Superconductivity: The rise of the Nazis; 29. Going to Oxford; 30. Lindemann, Simon and Heinz London; 31. Electricity in the very cold; 32. The end of old certainties; 33. The thermodynamic treatment; 34. The theory of Fritz and Heinz London; 35. Initial reactions by von Laue; 36. The discussion at the Royal Society; 37. Termination of the ICI fellowship; Part IV. Paris and Superfluidity: The Front Populaire; 38. The article in Nature 1937 and 'Nouvelle Conception'; 39. Laue again; 40. The structure of solid helium; 41. The peculiar properties of helium; 42. Bose-Einstein condensation; 43. The note in Nature; 44. The two-fluid model; 45. The trip to Jerusalem; 46. Leaving again; 47. The observer in quantum mechanics; Part V. United States and the Typing up of Loose Ends: Duke University, North Carolina; 48. The Soviet Union, Kapitza and

  12. Turner's prize[London transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherrington, M.

    2000-10-26

    The article describes Ken Livingstone's plans for solving London's traffic problems: Derek Turner will be 'in charge of the capital's streets' but Livingstone will chair the board meetings. The radical new scheme will apply to both the Greater London Authority, its transport branch Transport for London (TfL) and 33 London Boroughs. Within TfL there is a core division called 'street management services' which has five area teams for day-to-day street management including road maintenance and street lighting. Other departments are communications, support services, traffic technology services, service development and performance, a London bus department and a department concentrating on congestion charging. There are plans to support pedestrians and cyclists but 'bus travel is really what it is all about'.

  13. Urban streets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönfeld, von Kim Carlotta; Bertolini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Today's urban streets are usually planned for purposes of mobility: pedestrians, as well as a variety of vehicles such as cars, trucks, and sometimes bicycles, are usually factored into an urban street plan. However, urban streets are also increasingly recognized as public spaces, accommodating

  14. London, England

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    For almost 2,000 years, the River Thames has served as the life force of London, capital of the United Kingdom and one of the world's most famous cities. In AD 43 the Romans established the trading settlement of Londinium at a favorable crossing point on the river. The Romans remained until the 5th century, when the city came under Saxon control. The early 17th century saw enormous growth, but the deadly plague of 1664 and 1665 ravaged the population, and in the following year the Great Fire, which burned for four days, destroyed most of the city. A public transportation system and other city services in the early 19th century eased many of the increasing urban problems of the burgeoning capital of the wealthy British Empire. After coping with the devastating effects of bombing during World War II and the gradual dismantling of the empire, London today thrives as a vital modern metropolis. London is one of 100 cities being studied using ASTER data to map and monitor urban use patterns and growth.This image was acquired on October 12, 2001 by the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite. With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER will provide scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring

  15. Street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non­governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop­in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.

  16. Street outreach with no streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Bruce; Peters, Heather

    2005-01-01

    A street nurse position in the rural and small-town interior of British Columbia has been addressing the needs of street-involved or otherwise marginalized client populations by bringing healthcare services to wherever those clients are, rather than waiting for the clients to seek care. The primary reason for a street outreach approach is that marginalized populations face a variety of barriers to accessing traditional healthcare services--barriers such as homelessness, mental health problems, criminal involvement, lack of transportation, lack of ability to pay for prescriptions, lack of specialized or knowledgeable providers and provider discrimination. In the rural street nurse program, the target population includes the usual street nurse populations of illegal drug users and sex trade workers, which are more hidden in small communities than in larger urban centres, creating the community denial that is a barrier to healthcare access. Yet another barrier is the co-locaton of services common in small communities, where public health clinics might share a building with police services, making marginalized clients reluctant to attend clinics. The rural street nurse collaborates with public health nurses and other care providers (mental health workers, social workers, etc) with collegial advice and support, making and receiving referrals, and generally assisting one another--the street nurse through his rapport with the marginalized individuals and the others with their specialized knowledge. Rural street services are delivered whereverthe clientsfeel comfortable: a school, a drop-in centre, a mall, a youth centre or simplythe street. Services provided include sexually transmitted infection testing, chlamydia treatments, pregnancy testing emergency contraception pills and assistance with filling out forms for financial support. Accordingly, the street nurse's truck is equipped as a mobile treatment centre and office, with a cellphone and a stock of testing and

  17. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  18. Marketing modest fashion or fashioning modesty? HijUp Unveiled at London Fashion Week

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    The Indonesians came, they saw and we learned more about their spicy blend of fashion and fun, in the streets of London. Here’s a slice of what’s going on in the emerging global Modest Fashion scene.

  19. Street Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shapiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  20. Autistic Disorder in Nineteenth-Century London. Three Case Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waltz, Mitzi; Shattock, Paul

    2004-01-01

    This article examines the existence, description, perception, treatment, and outcome of symptoms consistent with autistic disorder in nineteenth-century London, England, based on case histories from the notes of Dr William Howship Dickinson at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children. Three cases meeting the DSM-IV criteria for autistic disorder…

  1. Taaskasutuses London / Marlen Promann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Promann, Marlen

    2007-01-01

    "100% Disain London" messist, kus peateemaks oli säästlikkus disainis, materjalides, tehnoloogias ja tootmises. Markko Karu jõudis sellel noore disainiettevõtja auhinna finaali (International Young Design Entrepreneur of the Year)

  2. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  3. What makes london work like london?

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan; Yang, Yongliang; Wonka, Peter; Mitra, Niloy J.

    2014-01-01

    Urban data ranging from images and laser scans to traffic flows are regularly analyzed and modeled leading to better scene understanding. Commonly used computational approaches focus on geometric descriptors, both for images and for laser scans. In contrast, in urban planning, a large body of work has qualitatively evaluated street networks to understand their effects on the functionality of cities, both for pedestrians and for cars. In this work, we analyze street networks, both their topology (i.e., connectivity) and their geometry (i.e., layout), in an attempt to understand which factors play dominant roles in determining the characteristic of cities. We propose a set of street network descriptors to capture the essence of city layouts and use them, in a supervised setting, to classify and categorize various cities across the world. We evaluate our method on a range of cities, of various styles, and demonstrate that while standard image-level descriptors perform poorly, the proposed network-level descriptors can distinguish between different cities reliably and with high accuracy. © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. What makes london work like london?

    KAUST Repository

    AlHalawani, Sawsan

    2014-08-01

    Urban data ranging from images and laser scans to traffic flows are regularly analyzed and modeled leading to better scene understanding. Commonly used computational approaches focus on geometric descriptors, both for images and for laser scans. In contrast, in urban planning, a large body of work has qualitatively evaluated street networks to understand their effects on the functionality of cities, both for pedestrians and for cars. In this work, we analyze street networks, both their topology (i.e., connectivity) and their geometry (i.e., layout), in an attempt to understand which factors play dominant roles in determining the characteristic of cities. We propose a set of street network descriptors to capture the essence of city layouts and use them, in a supervised setting, to classify and categorize various cities across the world. We evaluate our method on a range of cities, of various styles, and demonstrate that while standard image-level descriptors perform poorly, the proposed network-level descriptors can distinguish between different cities reliably and with high accuracy. © 2014 The Eurographics Association and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. 46th Street pilot street lighting project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Street lighting improvements provide an opportunity for governments to save money and to reduce their : environmental footprint. New energy-efficient technologies are being perfected that are more efficient than : standard high-pressure sodium street...

  6. Kommunisme i London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Benjamin; Nielsen, Kasper Porsgaard

    2010-01-01

    Begrebet ”kommunisme” var på dagsordenen, da over 800 mennesker mødtes i Birkbeck University College i London, den 13.-15. marts, 2009. En perlerække af talere var inviteret: Alain Badiou, Michael Hardt, Bruno Bosteels, Peter Hallward, Allesandro Russo, Alberto Toscano, Toni Negri, Terry Eagleton......, Jacques Rancière, Slavoj Žižek, Gianni Vattimo og Judith Balso. Her følger en rapport fra begivenheden....

  7. Wealth, health and frailty in industrial-era London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitte, Sharon N; Hughes-Morey, Gail; Bekvalac, Jelena; Karsten, Jordan

    2016-05-01

    Socioeconomic status is a powerful predictor of mortality in living populations, as status affects exposure or access to a variety of factors that impact health and survival, such as diet, healthcare, infectious disease and pollution. This study examines the effect of socioeconomic status on mortality and survival in London during a period spanning the early 18th through mid-19th centuries. During this period, London experienced rapid industrialization and heightened class distinctions. This study examines whether low-socioeconomic status was associated with reduced survival at a time when the distinctions between social strata were peaking. The samples for this study are drawn from three skeletal assemblages in London that represent lower and higher social strata. The upper socioeconomic status sample (n = 394) is from Chelsea Old Church and St Bride's Fleet Street (crypt assemblage). The low socioeconomic status sample (n = 474) is from St. Bride's Lower Churchyard (also known as St Bride's Farringdon Street). The effect of status on mortality and survival is assessed using hazard analysis and Kaplan-Meier analysis. The results reveal elevated mortality and reduced survival for lower socioeconomic status children, but no strong effect of status on adult mortality or survival. These results might indicate strong selective mortality operating during childhood or the effects of migration in the industrial-era population of London.

  8. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary Road,...

  9. Emergency procedures in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cree, D.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the following: emergency services (fire brigade, ambulance and police) that would be involved in dealing with an accident to a nuclear fuel flask in transport through London, with special reference to procedures used by the Metropolitan Police; geographical area covered by Metropolitan Police; initiation of action; decision whether to evacuate the area of the accident; examples of action taken to deal with non-radiation accidents (in absence of any example of relevant radiation accident); specific instructions, or advice, to police relating to the movement of irradiated fuel; training exercises. (U.K.)

  10. Olympic emblem guidelines: London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”) by LOCOG and the International Olympic Committee (IOC) creative, marketing and communications personnel, agencies and consultants only who are authorised to use the London 2012 marks. The purpose of these guidelines is to preserve and enhance the value of the Emblem for t...

  11. The Olympic legacy: feeding London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssens, F.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last decades, the Olympic Games have increasingly claimed to deliver a social and economic ‘legacy’ to the host city. The 2012 Olympic Games in London have set out to deliver a legacy of better food for east London, an area perceived as ‘deprived’, with higher than average rates of obesity

  12. The Making of London Narratives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carbone, Claudia; Toft, Anne Elisabeth

    2009-01-01

    Den følgende tekst består af to dele. Begge dele omhandler workshoppen The Making of London Narratives, der var et undervisningsforløb for 52 studerende fra Arkitektskolen Aarhus og School of Architecture and the Visual Arts University of East London. I den første del perspektiveres workshoppens...

  13. London International Youth Science Forum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auty, Geoff

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the 2010 London International Youth Science Forum (LIYSF) and shares his experience in attending the forum. Unlike the Harry Messel event in Sydney, which takes place every two years, LIYSF is an annual event. Before moving to Imperial College London, LIYSF was held at the Institute of Electrical Engineers and…

  14. A Virtual Walk through London: Culture Learning through a Cultural Immersion Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Ya-Chun

    2015-01-01

    Integrating Google Street View into a three-dimensional virtual environment in which users control personal avatars provides these said users with access to an innovative, interactive, and real-world context for communication and culture learning. We have selected London, a city famous for its rich historical, architectural, and artistic heritage,…

  15. Intelligent street lighting clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, R.; Jovanovic, N.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The advances in dynamic street lighting introduce new functionality for control and maintenance of the street lighting infrastructure. Vital elements in this infrastructure are the powerful controlling devices that control separate groups of light poles and collect information from the system. For

  16. An investigation on the effect of street morphology to ambient air quality using six real-world cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jialei; Gao, Zhi; Ding, Wowo; Yu, Ying

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are vulnerable to air pollution mainly caused by vehicle emissions, which are therefore closely related to pedestrians' health. Previous studies have showed that air quality in street canyons is associated with street morphology, though the majority of them have focused on idealized street models. This paper attempts to investigate the relationship of street morphology to air quality for 6 irregular real-world cases selected from America, Europe, and China, i.e. Manhattan, Paris, Barcelona, Berlin, London and Nanjing. Each street is analyzed as a set of slices to propose a couple of morphology indices for quantitatively assessing the actual street morphology. Pollutant transport rate of mean flows and turbulent diffusion, net escape velocity and age of air are obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to assess the ventilations and pollutant dispersion within street canyons with a parallel approaching wind. The results show that the street morphology characteristics, including the street width, lateral openings and intersections, are closely related to the air flows in street canyons. The air quality improves with a decreasing aspect ratio of central street owing to a larger vertical exchange through the street roof, which suggests an open central street is of better air quality. The lateral openings and intersections of streets have important effects on the air flows in street canyons, and the effects are particularly pronounced when the street widths are similar. The street continuity ratio indicates street continuity. It relates to the openings and the symmetry of a street and impacts on the air flows and pollutant dispersion through the lateral openings of the central street. The street spatial closure ratio is determined by the street continuity ratio and the aspect ratio of the central street. When the aspect ratio of central street is not excessively high, higher values of street continuity ratio and spatial closure ratio

  17. London's historic ''pea-soupers''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbinato, D.

    1994-01-01

    Americans may think smog was invented in Los Angeles. Not so. In fact, a Londoner coined the term ''smog'' in 1905 to describe the city's insidious combination of natural fog and coal smoke. By then, the phenomenon was part of London history, and dirty, acrid smoke-filled ''pea-soupers'' were as familiar to Londoners as Big Ben and Westminster Abby. Smog in London predates Shakespeare by four centuries. Until the 12th century, most Londoners burned wood for fuel. But as the city grew and the forests shrank, wood became scarce and increasingly expensive. Large deposits of ''sea-coal'' off the northeast coast provided a cheap alternative. Soon, Londoners were burning the soft, bituminous coal to heat their homes and fuel their factories. Sea-coal was plentiful, but it didn't burn efficiently. A lot of its energy was spent making smoke, not heat. Coal smoke drifting through thousands of London chimneys combined with clean natural fog to make smog. If the weather conditions were right, it would last for days. Early on, no one had the scientific tools to correlate smog with adverse health effects, but complaints about the smoky air as an annoyance date back to at least 1272, when King Edward I, on the urging of important noblemen and clerics, banned the burning of sea-coal. Anyone caught burning or selling the stuff was to be tortured or executed. The first offender caught was summarily put to death. This deterred nobody. Of necessity, citizens continued to burn sea-coal in violation of the law, which required the burning of wood few could afford

  18. Further observations on London fog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waller, R E; Lawther, P J

    1957-01-01

    The degree of illness in a group of people with bonchitis or emphysema residing in London during the winter of 1955--56 was monitored by personal diary methods. Concentration of smoke was related to degree of illness, with rapid response at onset and slow recovery. Wet fogs were no worse than dry ones.

  19. London´s erotic masterpiece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerchlango, Jørg

    2004-01-01

    Londoners call it the erotic ghurkin. Architects proclaim Norman Foster´s new building a revolutionary masterwork......Londoners call it the erotic ghurkin. Architects proclaim Norman Foster´s new building a revolutionary masterwork...

  20. Classification guide: Paralympic Games London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The London 2012 Paralympic Games Classification Guide is designed to provide National Paralympic Committees (NPCs) and International Paralympic Sport Federations (IPSFs) with information about the classification policies and procedures that will apply to the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

  1. Olympics Legacy: the London Olympics 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Gulsen, Guler; Holden, Robert

    2010-01-01

    The reasons for proposing a London 2012 bid are outlined in the light of London city planning over the past sixty years. The processes influencing the bid for the London 2012 Olympics are investigated in respect of the lessons from Barcelona and Sydney. The role of environmental\\ud and landscape improvement is examined and the importance of legacy is described and analysed. The cost of Olympiads since Sydney 2000 are described and compared. Then progress of the London 2012 Olympics developmen...

  2. Street-art

    OpenAIRE

    Rybnikářová, Klára

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the street-art and graffiti phenomenon. The theoretical research is focused on presenting the essence and character of this art style, while also watching it from socio-cultural point of view and observing it in context of art history. The theoretical study is followed by the didactical part of thesis, where I present possibilities of using the street-art theme in art education programs in the school setting. My thesis is concluded with a discussion of a practica...

  3. Street level society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinum, Christine; Nissen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to reflect on research findings from different empirical studies of social work with young drug users and socially excluded young people in Copenhagen. In the paper we account for historical changes in social policy and interventions into young people's drug taking in Copenhagen......, and partly from the decentralizing and specializing efforts characteristic of the Danish welfare state and its institutions. We discuss a general turn towards street level interventions to address the problems of social exclusion, as well as different attempts to create what we term street level heterotopias...

  4. Street Children and Employment Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enos, H.N.; Njoka, M.

    1999-01-01

    Although there is a general realization that there are 'people' in the streets, we often take the phenomenon for granted probably because we wake up and go home only to come to the streets the following morning and still find the people. This situation is however changing with the emergence of 'birth' and increase of street children as we begin to take into consideration the category of people to be routinely found on the streets. The phrase 'street children' refer to the children below the statutory adult age living on or found on the streets. These children derive their livelihood from the streets. While the children on the streets may have a 'home' to go to, the latter are an integral part of the street having nowhere to retire to at the end of the day. The street children live in abject poverty and are exposed to many risks. They suffer from malnutrition and deficiency diseases due to low and poor nutrition intake. The street girls get trapped in teenage prostitution quite early in life. Of concern are the issues related to the working street children. Many street children engage in collecting and selling waste paper, bottles and plastics. They are referred to as 'chokora' because of their work of turning garbage upside down as they look for something useful. Unfortunately they have to sell these wastes to powerful forces including people who underpay and harrass them

  5. The City Street

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. van der Wouden

    1999-01-01

    Original title: De stad op straat. The city street; the public space in perspective (De stad op straat; de openbare ruimte in perspectief) by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP is intended to contribute to the formation of new ideas about the public space and the future of

  6. Occupy Wall Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael J.; Bang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional...

  7. Saving Mango Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza,…

  8. Street Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Streets for the United States. The Streets layer contains all roads plus all Road Network attributes such as direction of travel, lanes, dividers, speed...

  9. Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...

  10. Smart street lighting management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuti, S.; Annunziato, M. [Energy New Technologies and Sustainable Economic Development Agency ENEA, Rome (Italy); Moretti, F. [Automation and Computer Science Department, University & #x27; Roma Tre& #x27; , Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    In this work, we propose a new street lighting energy management system in order to reduce energy consumption. The key idea we want to accomplish is that of 'energy on demand' meaning that energy, in this case light, is provided only when needed. In order to achieve this goal, it is critical to have a reliable demand model, which in the case of street lighting turns out to be a traffic flow rate forecasting model. In order to achieve this goal, several methods on the 1-h prediction have been compared and the one providing the best results is based on artificial neural networks. Moreover, several control strategies have been tested and the one which gave the best energy savings is the adaptive one we carried out. Experimentation has been carried out on real data and the study shows that with the proposed approach, it is possible to save up to 50 % of energy compared to no regulation systems.

  11. From charity to caring: Nightingale's experience at Harley Street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanders, Louise C; Lake, Karen; Crane, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    Florence Nightingale has been the subject of numerous biographies and topical studies since she became a public figure during the Crimean War of 1854-1856. However, both the biographical and the topical literature have given little emphasis to the fourteen months of Nightingale's superintendency at The Establishment for Gentlewomen During Illness located on Harley Street, London. Thematic analysis of primary documents including Nightingale's Quarterly Reports to the Governors of her Nursing Home and the recently identified found Minutes of the Ladies' Committee of the Establishment of Gentlewomen During Illness were utilized to identify specific themes considered essential to Nightingale's professional and philosophical development. Harley Street proved to be the catalyst of opportunity that later launched her into the public view as a visionary through which she was to develop nursing as a profession and promote nursing as a legitimate route for women's education and employment.

  12. Street as Public Space - Measuring Street Life of Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Normah; Ayu Abdullah, Yusfida; Hamdan, Hazlina

    2017-10-01

    Kuala Lumpur has envisioning in becoming World Class City by the year 2020. Essential elements of form and function of the urban environment are streets. Streets showcase the community and connect people. It’s one of the most comfortable social environment that provides aesthetical and interaction pleasure for everyone. Classified as main shopping streets in the local Kuala Lumpur urban design guidelines, Jalan Masjid India (JMI) has its uniqueness of shopping experience and social interaction. This conceptual paper will study the physical and cultural characteristics of the street that will generate the street character by mapping its original characters. The findings will focus on strengthening the methodology applied to promote improvements in evaluating it as a great public space. Results will also contribute to understanding the overall site context, the street connectivity, and urban dynamics. This paper is part of a larger study that addresses on transforming the sociability of public space.

  13. Street Prostitution Zones and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bisschop, Paul; Kastoryano, Stephen; van der Klaauw, Bas

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of introducing legal street prostitution zones on both registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where legal street prostitution zones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. We provide evidence that the opening of these zones was not in response to changes in crime. Our difference-in-difference analysis using data on the largest 25 Dutch cities between 1994 and 2011 shows that opening a legal street pr...

  14. Embodied Protest in Occupy London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Costas, Jana; Reinecke, Juliane

    In this paper we discuss the relation of embodied protest and public space in Occupy London. We draw on Agamben’s notion of the homo sacer – the excluded included life embodied by the figure of the homeless, refugee and so forth – to analyze how in protest camps embodied protest relates...... with the general public and media. Particularly, tensions became manifest as the homines sacri of the homeless people joined the camp. We discuss the implications of Agamben’s biopolitical insights for the relation of resistance, public space and community building in protest movements....... sacri – “bare life” challenging sovereign power. Yet, we also show how protesters struggled to navigate tensions between representing such “bare life” of the homo sacer and the biopolitical body. This lead not only to various difficulties in building protest community but also in the interactions...

  15. Street canyon aerosol pollutant transport measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, I D; Gallagher, M W; Dorsey, J R; Flynn, M; Bower, K N; Allan, J D

    2004-12-01

    Current understanding of dispersion in street canyons is largely derived from relatively simple dispersion models. Such models are increasingly used in planning and regulation capacities but are based upon a limited understanding of the transport of substances within a real canyon. In recent years, some efforts have been made to numerically model localised flow in idealised canyons (e.g., J. Appl. Meteorol. 38 (1999) 1576-89) and stepped canyons (Assimakopoulos V. Numerical modelling of dispersion of atmospheric pollution in and above urban canopies. PhD thesis, Imperial College, London, 2001) but field studies in real canyons are rare. To further such an understanding, a measurement campaign has been conducted in an asymmetric street canyon with busy one-way traffic in central Manchester in northern England. The eddy correlation method was used to determine fluxes of size-segregated accumulation mode aerosol. Measurements of aerosol at a static location were made concurrently with measurements on a platform lift giving vertical profiles. Size-segregated measurements of ultrafine and coarse particle concentrations were also made simultaneously at various heights. In addition, a small mobile system was used to make measurements of turbulence at various pavement locations within the canyon. From this data, various features of turbulent transport and dispersion in the canyon will be presented. The concentration and the ventilation fluxes of vehicle-related aerosol pollutants from the canyon will be related to controlling factors. The results will also be compared with citywide ventilation data from a separate measurement campaign conducted above the urban canopy.

  16. Street Papers, Work, and Begging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Street papers are publications produced specifically for sale by the homeless and other vulnerable people in many countries around the world. Their social status is, however, often conspicuously unstable: ‘Get a job!’ has been reported as a common insult addressed to vendors, and street paper...

  17. The Regulation of Street Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forkour, John Boulard; Samuelsen, Helle; Yeboah, Eric Henry

    2017-01-01

    the challenges and negotiating strategies of regulators of street-vended foods in Ghana and analyses the implication for their relationship with street food vendors. The paper reveals that regulators operate in a context of limited resources, leading to a general feeling of neglect. In coping, regulators adopt...

  18. Violence in the Street, Violence of the Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    While in his early and general theory of interaction rituals Randall Collins emphasised that social situations are both ’symbolic’ and ’material’, the latter dimension is largely absent from Collins’ theory of violence(Collins 2004; 1993: 214). Compared with criminology’s more recent situational...... studies of violence, it is noticeable that the analytical success of these studies is closely linked with understanding street violence as a spatial-situational phenomenon (Clarke 1997; Eck & Weisburd 1995; Bragand & Weisburd; 2010; Wikström et al. 2012; Sampson et al. 1997). In light of evidence...... for the spatial concentration of street violence, this paper takes its point of departure in a large study of Street Violence among youth in Copenhagen, Denmark (combining quantitative data from filed police reports (N = 501), data from CCTV (N=100) and qualitative analysis of selected cases of street violence...

  19. Institutional profile: the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, David; Bontoux, Thierry

    2009-12-01

    Located in the London neighborhoods of Bloomsbury and South Kensington, the London Centre for Nanotechnology is a UK-based multidisciplinary research center that operates at the forefront of science and technology. It is a joint venture between two of the world's leading institutions, UCL and Imperial College London, uniting their strong capabilities in the disciplines that underpin nanotechnology: engineering, the physical sciences and biomedicine. The London Centre for Nanotechnology has a unique operating model that accesses and focuses the combined skills of the Departments of Chemistry, Physics, Materials, Medicine, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Biochemical Engineering and Earth Sciences across the two universities. It aims to provide the nanoscience and nanotechnology required to solve major problems in healthcare, information processing, energy and the environment.

  20. Case studies of transport for London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    This project was motivated by the election of Ken Livingston as Mayor of London in : 2000. Mayor Livingston campaigned on a platform of improving transportation service through : such innovative means as congestion pricing. Mayor Livingston relied on...

  1. CITY OF LONDON: THE SECRETS OF STABILITY

    OpenAIRE

    M. K. Belyaev

    2010-01-01

    Reasons why the City, oldest London global financial centre, keeps to hold up leading positions in the financial world, are thoroughly discussed. Initially, this phenomenon was explained by dominating position England held as world industrial power. However, the City has not lost its leadership over last decades when England economics suffered bad times. This is explained by traditions, by the history as well as by specific position London holds as place where «business is made» as well as by...

  2. The theatrical portrait in eighteenth century London

    OpenAIRE

    West, Shearer

    1986-01-01

    A theatrical portrait is an image of an actor or actors in character. This genre was widespread in eighteenth century London and was practised by a large number of painters and engravers of all levels of ability. The sources of the genre lay in a number of diverse styles of art, including the court portraits of Lely and Kneller and the fetes galantes of Watteau and Mercier. Three types of media for theatrical portraits were particularly prevalent in London, between c.1745...

  3. Towards a sociological analysis of London 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Silk, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    Within this article, I focus on a number of productive scholarly avenues to which sociological analysis of London 2012 might want to attend. Understanding major sporting events - and thus the Olympic Games - as inextricably entangled with the media-industrial complex, I suggest London 2012 as a commodity spectacle that will emphasize gleaming aesthetics, a (sporting) city and nation collapsed into (simple) tourist images, and the presentation of a particular expression of self within the logi...

  4. Carbon dioxide and methane emission dynamics in central London (UK)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helfter, Carole; Nemitz, Eiko; Barlow, Janet F.; Wood, Curtis R.

    2013-04-01

    London, with a population of 8.2 million, is the largest city in Europe. It is heavily built-up (typically 8% vegetation cover within the central boroughs) and boasts some of the busiest arteries in Europe despite efforts to reduce traffic in the city centre with the introduction of a congestion charging scheme in 2007. We report on two substantial pollution monitoring efforts in the heart of London between October 2006 and present. Fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) were measured continuously by eddy-covariance in central London from October 2006 until May 2008 from a 190 m telecommunication tower (BT tower; 51° 31' 17.4'' N 0° 8' 20.04'' W). The eddy-covariance system consisted of a Gill R3-50 ultrasonic anemometer operated at 20 Hz and a LI-COR 6262 infrared gas analyser. Air was sampled 0.3 m below the sensor head of the ultrasonic anemometer - which was itself mounted on a 3 m mast to the top of a 15 m lattice tower situated on the roof of the tower (instrument head at 190 m above street level) - and pulled down 45 m of 12.7 mm OD Teflon tubing. In addition, meteorological variables (temperature, relative humidity, pressure, precipitation, wind speed and direction) were also measured with a multi-sensor (Weather Transmitter WXT510, Vaisala). Eddy-covariance measurements at the BT tower location were reinstated in July 2011 and include methane (CH4), CO2 and H2O concentrations measured by a Picarro fast methane analyser (G2301-f). CO2 emissions were found to be mainly controlled by fossil fuel combustion (e.g. traffic, commercial and domestic heating). Diurnal averages of CO2 fluxes were found to be highly correlated to traffic. However changes in heating-related natural gas consumption and, to a lesser extent, photosynthetic activity in two large city centre green spaces (Hyde Park and Regent's Park) explained the seasonal variability. Annual estimates of net exchange of CO2 obtained by eddy-covariance agreed well with up-scaled data from the UK

  5. Austere kindness or mindless austerity: the efects of gift-giving to beggars in east London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Lenhard

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The current austerity policies in the United Kingdom are creating a precarious situation for many people on the margins of society. Employing micro-level ethnographic analysis, this article addresses how government decisions affect people living on the street. Observations of how local policies demonize gift-giving to street people led me to revisit arguments about the positive and negative effects of gifts. Four months of fieldwork amongst people who beg in the City of London confirmed the Maussian ambiguity of gift exchange. The material benefit of monetary gifts is often accompanied by shared time and conversation; gifts to beggars can go beyond materiality and are hence able to create bonds of sociability.

  6. Understanding Financial Viability of Urban Consolidation Centres: Regent Street (London), Bristol/Bath & Nijmegen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Duin, Ron; van Dam, T; Wiegmans, B.; Tavasszy, L.A.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of an urban consolidation centre (UCC) has been extensively researched. Despite the potential positive environmental and social impact, the main obstacle remains the lack of a sustainable business model. The goal of this paper is to understand how to organize UCC viability as a concept

  7. Safety of street: The role of street design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Suhaila Abdul; Wahab, Mohammad Hussaini; Rani, Wan Nurul Mardiah Wan Mohd.; Ismail, Syuhaida

    2017-10-01

    Living in the cities poses many challenges for the vulnerable group of user especially women where they are exposed to many issues related to safety. With the changing of lifestyle and demands, women are expected to play multiple roles in the society and working is one of the tasks. When women are expected to be working as men do, they are no longer occupied at one place. Women nowadays travel on a daily basis and being in the streets is one of the important activities. With the influx of diverse group of people into the country, our streets are dominated by different types of people from different background. Due to these factors, there are possibilities of challenges and threats for users especially women. Therefore, city spaces especially the street become an important public realm for women. The design of the street should be able to make women feel safe as these are the public space where they spend time getting to and from work. The way women perceived their environment might be different from men especially when they fear of crime. Perception of safety will affect the quality of life where fear is an important psychological factor in human life. Living in fear will restrict human's freedom. Therefore, this study aimed to explore women's perception of safety in the streets of Kuala Lumpur. The study adopted a mixed-method approach of qualitative and quantitative in order to understand the safety perception among women that will later establish the relationship between built environment and human psychology. 120 respondents were selected randomly around Jalan Benteng, Jalan Tun Perak, Jalan Melaka and Jalan Melayu. Questionnaire survey forms were distributed and structured observation was conducted at interval period at these streets to examined and assess women's behavior. Finding shows that fear does affect women's perception and physical design of the streets are important in affecting their behavior.

  8. Modelling traffic pollution in streets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowicz, R.; Hertel, O. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Larsen, S.E.; Soerensen, N.N.; Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Meteorology and Wind Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This report concerns mainly the subject related to modelling air pollution from traffic in urban streets. A short overview is presented over the theoretical aspects and examples of most commonly used methods and models are given. Flow and dispersion conditions in street canyons are discussed and the presentation is substantiated with the analysis of the experimental data. The main emphasis is on the modelling methods that are suitable for routine applications and a more detailed presentation is given of the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM), which was developed by the National Environmental Research Institute. The model is used for surveillance of air pollution from traffic in Danish cities and also for special air pollution studies. (au) 76 refs.

  9. The (Street) Art of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.; Wagoner, Brady; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the interrelation between resistance, novelty and social change We will consider resistance as both a social and individual phenomenon, a constructive process that articulates continuity and change and as an act oriented towards an imagined future of different communities....... In this account, resistance is thus a creative act having its own dynamic and, most of all, aesthetic dimension. In fact, it is one such visibly artistic form of resistance that will be considered here, the case of street art as a tool of social protest and revolution in Egypt. Street art is commonly defined...... in sharp contrast with high or fine art because of its collective nature and anonymity, its different kind of aesthetics, and most of all its disruptive, ‘anti-social’ outcomes. With the use of illustrations, we will argue here that street art is prototypical of a creative form of resistance, situated...

  10. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  11. Strategic guidelines for street canyon geometry to achieve sustainable street air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Andy T.; So, Ellen S.P.; Samad, Subash C. [Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the motion of air within the urban street canyon and is directed towards a deeper understanding of pollutant dispersion with respect to various simple canyon geometries and source positions. Taking into account the present days typical urban configurations, three principal flow regimes 'isolated roughness flow', 'skimming flow' and 'wake interference flow' (Boundary Layer Climates, 2nd edition, Methuen, London) and their corresponding pollutant dispersion characteristics are studied for various canopies aspect ratios, namely relative height (h{sub 2}/H{sub 1}), canyon height to width ratio (h/w) and canyon length to height ratio (l/h). A field-size canyon has been analysed through numerical simulations using the standard k-{sup {epsilon}} turbulence closure model. It is found that the pollutant transport and diffusion is strongly dependent upon the type of flow regime inside the canyon and exchange between canyon and the above roof air. Some rules of thumbs have been established to get urban canyon geometries for efficient dispersion of pollutants. (Author)

  12. Mean Streets: An analysis on street level pollution in NYC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G.

    2017-12-01

    The overarching objective of this study is to quantify the spatial and temporal variability in particulatematter concentration (PM 2.5) along crowded streets in New York City. Due to their fine size and lowdensity PM 2.5 stays longer in the atmosphere and could bypass human nose and throat and penetratedeep in to the lungs and even enter the circulatory system. PM 2.5 is a by-product of automobilecombustion and is a primary cause of respiratory malfunction in NYC. The study would monitor streetlevel concentration of PM2.5 across three different routes that witness significant pedestrian traffic;observations will be conducted along these three routes at different time periods. The study will use theAirBeam community air quality monitor. The monitor tracks PM 2.5 concentration along with GPS, airtemperature and relative humidity. The surface level concentration monitored by AirBeam will becompared with atmospheric concentration of PM 2.5 that are monitored at the NOAA CREST facility onCCNY campus. The lower atmospheric values will be correlated with street level values to assess thevalidity of using of lower atmospheric values to predict street level concentrations. The street levelconcentration will be compared to the air quality forecasted by the New York Department ofEnvironment Conservation to estimate its accuracy and applicability.

  13. Movement and Character. Lecture, London, 1946

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montesorri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Dr. Montessori's words from the 1946 London Lectures describe principles of intelligence and character, the work of the hand, and movement with a purpose as being integral to self-construction. The perfection of movement is spiritual, says Dr. Montessori. Repetition of practical life exercises are exercises in movement with the dignity of human…

  14. Analysis of the London dumping convention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nauke, M.K.

    1983-05-01

    This report gives an in-depth review of the provisions of the London Dumping Convention and of its origins in the context of the international legal framework for controlling all aspects of marine pollution. Particular attention is paid to the provisions concerning radioactive waste. (NEA) [fr

  15. Staging the orient in Aladdin: London - Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svane, Marie-Louise

    2018-01-01

    En sammenligning af John O'Keefes / Charles Farleys sceniske opsætning af Aladdin-eventyret fra Tusind og én nats eventyr i London (1813) med Adam Oehlenschlägers Aladdin-lystspil i København (1805). Artiklen diskuterer de to versioner af eventyrstykket som fortolkning og respons på to forskellige...

  16. Reading Samuel Selvon's The Lonely Londoners

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    is represented when he says to Moses in confidence: 'Don't worry, I will get fix up as .... of the immigrants in London, these are the things they strive .... cultures could be done, a task one can argue he sets out to do and reconcile in his novel.

  17. Accounting for Impact at Imperial College London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perkmann, Markus; Fini, Riccardo; Ross, Jan-Michael

    We report findings of a study of academic engagement and commercialisation at Imperial College London. We detail the extent of collaboration with industry, consulting, patenting and entrepreneurship by Imperial academics, as well as individuals’ motivations and perceived barriers to engagement. T...

  18. Stage Voice Training in the London Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubin, Lucille S.

    This report is the result of a six-week study in which the voice training offerings at four schools of drama in London were examined using interviews of teachers and directors, observation of voice classes, and attendance at studio presentations and public performances. The report covers such topics as: textbooks and references being used; courses…

  19. Street photography as social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Street photographers know quite well that taking a picture is a form of social interaction. The birth of this genre of photography, they have been discussing at length about the ethical problems involved in taking pictures of personal strangers in public places without asking permission.

  20. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  1. Street prostitution zones and crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P.; Kastoryano, S.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of legal street prostitution zones on registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where these tippelzones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. Our difference-in-difference analysis of 25 Dutch cities between

  2. Host government directorate: London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic emblem guidelines

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines issued by the London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games and Paralympic Games Ltd (“LOCOG”) provide standards, requirements and guidelines for use of the London 2012 Olympic Games Emblem (the “Emblem”), the London 2012 Paralympic Games Emblem (the “Paralympic Emblem”) and the Dual London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Emblems (“Dual Emblems”) by authorised Host Government Directorate only.

  3. Street Pastors : on security, care and faith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steden, R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a study of Street Pastors in Cardiff, the capital city of Wales. Street Pastors are Christian volunteers who look after vulnerable people in the night-time economy. In this manner, they provide ‘securitas’ through empathy and care. The motives of Street Pastors for engaging with

  4. School Me, School Me Not, Street Me, Street Me Not…

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    School Me, School Me Not, Street Me, Street Me Not… (1099) David Thore Gravesen, Peter Hornbæk Frostholm ECER 2016, 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research, Session: 14 SES 10 A When picking leaves of a marguerite, whilst doing the “she loves me, she loves me not” game, you....... Obviously, the skaters attend the site to skate. But also other, more vulnerable groupings, use the site to socialize, meet peers and perhaps escape an unreliable and risky family arena. One particular group, the self-named Thugz, primarily formed around a number of young boys with non-Danish ethnic...... milieu. With a criminal gang-like behavior (Hoeben & Weerman 2013; Hviid 2007; Rasmussen 2012) involving petty crime and violence, one would think the group members would be indifferent towards their schooling and future careers. This was not the case. The informants proved to be very aware...

  5. Making Bengali Brick Lane: claiming and contesting space in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Claire

    2011-06-01

    Based on a recent empirical project on 'the Bengal diaspora', the paper explores the construction and contestation of meanings around the iconic East London street, Brick Lane. Taking the 2006 protests around the film Brick Lane as its starting point, the paper draws on original interviews conducted in 2008 with a range of Bengali community representatives, to examine the narratives of space, community and belonging that emerge around the idea of Brick Lane as the 'cultural heartland' of the British Bangladeshi community. By exploring the representation, production and contestation of 'social space' through everyday practices, the paper engages with and contests the representation of minority ethnic 'communities' in the context of contemporary multicultural London and examines the process of 'claiming' and 'making' space in East London. In so doing, the paper contributes to a critical tradition that challenges essentialising and pathologizing accounts of ethnic communities and racialized spaces, or that places them outside of broader social and historical processes - redolent, for example, in contemporary discussions about 'parallel lives' or 'the clash of civilizations'. By contrast, this paper views social space as made through movement and narration, with a particular emphasis on the social agency of local Bengali inhabitants and the multiple meanings that emerge from within this 'imagined community'. However, rather than simply stressing the unfinished and processual nature of spatial meanings, the paper insists on the historical, embodied and affective dimensions of such meaning making, and a reckoning with the broader social and political landscape within which such meanings take shape. The focus on Brick Lane provides an empirically rich, geographically and historically located lens through which to explore the complex role of ethnicity as a marker of social space and of spatial practices of resistance and identity. By exploring Bengali Brick Lane through

  6. Street art - vandalismus nebo umění?

    OpenAIRE

    Grabmüllerová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis ‚Street Art - Vandalism or Art?' deals with a world-wide phenomenon of contemporary art. The thesis focuses on the characterization of street art and history of street art (its origin and development) and analyzes the difference between street art and graffiti. The thesis presents street art techniques as well as notable street artists. The thesis also observes street art scene in the Czech Republic and depicts features that street art has in common with other art movements...

  7. Launch of the London Centre for Nanotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aeppli, Gabriel; Pankhurst, Quentin

    2006-12-01

    Is nanomedicine an area with the promise that its proponents claim? Professors Gabriel Aeppli and Quentin Pankhurst explore the issues in light of the new London Centre for Nanotechnology (LCN)--a joint enterprise between Imperial College and University College London--opened on November 7, 2006. The center is a multidisciplinary research initiative that aims to bridge the physical, engineering and biomedical sciences. In this interview, Professor Gabriel Aeppli, LCN co-Director, and Deputy Director Professor Quentin Pankhurst discuss the advent and future role of the LCN with Nanomedicine's Morag Robertson. Professor Aeppli was formerly with NEC, Bell Laboratories and MIT and has more than 15 years' experience in the computer and telecommunications industry. Professor Pankhurst is a physicist with more than 20 years' experience of working with magnetic materials and nanoparticles, who now works closely with clinicians and medics on innovative healthcare applications. He also recently formed the new start-up company Endomagnetics Inc.

  8. COMMON GROUNDS BETWEEN PRINTMAKING AND STREET ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Balamber

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Graffiti movement, born as a result of an effort of the youth, who felt themselves socially excluded and alone, to show their existence and identities during the 1960s, expanded its scope owing to street based artists such as Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat entering to the galleries, and transformed into an artistic manner of expression having aesthetic concerns by adopting a more inclusive definition ‘street art’. During this transformation of street art,street artists experimented with various methods from many different disciplines and hence created works in a wide range of varieties in terms of plastic and artistic values. Among these disciplines, printmakinghastaken its own place in street artas a discipline thatdeeply influenced street artists.Printmaking has fascinated street artists and become a part of their production process, not only with its philosophy sharing common grounds with street art and advantages in terms of its tecnical practices but also its unique plastic and linear values.Thanks to the opportunities of printmaking, street art has succeeded creating a tremendous impression worldwide, and even positioned itself into today’s greatest museums/gallery halls. This article aims to show how and in what way printmaking has influenced street art being in a transformation since the 1960s, and to put an emphasis on theimportance of printmaking on today’s street art.

  9. Kingsnorth-London dc transmission link

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1966-03-11

    The hvdc transmission link between one of the 500 MW generators at Kingsnorth Power Station and two receiving stations in London will use a three-wire dc cable system rated to carry 1200 A at +- 266 kV. This 51-mile system will be the first dc link in the world to be used as an integral part of a complex interconnected ac network.

  10. Political opposition in patriarchal East London

    OpenAIRE

    Atkinson, D

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the growing level of politicization in East London in the 1950s, and the way this affected the patriarchal normative system, which prevailed in urban administration. Patriarchalism, as a system, was susceptible of different interpretations by white municipal officials, and their response to black political opposition ranged from liberal forbearance to rigid and uncompromising intolerance. Black leaders’ attitudes to the patriarchal order were similarly nuan...

  11. Renaming Zagreb Streets and Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stanić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with changes in street names in the city of Zagreb. Taking the Lower Town (Donji grad city area as an example, the first part of the paper analyses diachronic street name changes commencing from the systematic naming of streets in 1878. Analysis of official changes in street names throughout Zagreb’s history resulted in categorisation of five periods of ideologically motivated naming/name-changing: 1. the Croatia modernisation period, when the first official naming was put into effect, with a marked tendency towards politicisation and nationalisation of the urban landscape; 2. the period of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians/Yugoslavia, when symbols of the new monarchy, the idea of the fellowship of the Southern Slavs, Slavenophilism and the pro-Slavic geopolitical orientation were incorporated into the street names, and when the national idea was highly evident and remained so in that process; 3. the period of the NDH, the Independent State of Croatia, with decanonisation of the tokens of the Yugoslavian monarchy and the Southern Slavic orientation, and reference to the Ustashi and the German Nazi and Italian Fascist movement; 4. the period of Socialism, embedding the ideals and heroes of the workers’ movement and the War of National Liberation into the canonical system; and, 5. the period following the democratic changes in 1990, when almost all the signs of Socialism and the Communist/Antifascist struggle were erased, with the prominent presence of a process of installing new references to early national culture and historical tradition. The closing part of the paper deals with public discussions connected with the selection of a location for a square to bear the name of the first president of independent Croatia, Franjo Tuđman. Analysis of these public polemics shows two opposing discourses: the right-wing political option, which supports a central position for the square and considers the chosen area to

  12. The London low emission zone baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Frank; Armstrong, Ben; Atkinson, Richard; Anderson, H Ross; Barratt, Ben; Beevers, Sean; Cook, Derek; Green, Dave; Derwent, Dick; Mudway, Ian; Wilkinson, Paul

    2011-11-01

    On February 4, 2008, the world's largest low emission zone (LEZ) was established. At 2644 km2, the zone encompasses most of Greater London. It restricts the entry of the oldest and most polluting diesel vehicles, including heavy-goods vehicles (haulage trucks), buses and coaches, larger vans, and minibuses. It does not apply to cars or motorcycles. The LEZ scheme will introduce increasingly stringent Euro emissions standards over time. The creation of this zone presented a unique opportunity to estimate the effects of a stepwise reduction in vehicle emissions on air quality and health. Before undertaking such an investigation, robust baseline data were gathered on air quality and the oxidative activity and metal content of particulate matter (PM) from air pollution monitors located in Greater London. In addition, methods were developed for using databases of electronic primary-care records in order to evaluate the zone's health effects. Our study began in 2007, using information about the planned restrictions in an agreed-upon LEZ scenario and year-on-year changes in the vehicle fleet in models to predict air pollution concentrations in London for the years 2005, 2008, and 2010. Based on this detailed emissions and air pollution modeling, the areas in London were then identified that were expected to show the greatest changes in air pollution concentrations and population exposures after the implementation of the LEZ. Using these predictions, the best placement of a pollution monitoring network was determined and the feasibility of evaluating the health effects using electronic primary-care records was assessed. To measure baseline pollutant concentrations before the implementation of the LEZ, a comprehensive monitoring network was established close to major roadways and intersections. Output-difference plots from statistical modeling for 2010 indicated seven key areas likely to experience the greatest change in concentrations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) (at least 3

  13. Pollutant Dilution and Diffusion in Urban Street Canyon Neighboring Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Fu, Zh. M.

    2011-09-01

    In the present study we investigated the airflow patterns and air quality of a series of typical street canyon combinations, developed a mass balance model to determine the local pollutant dilution rate, and discuss the impact of upstream canyon on the air quality of downstream canyon. The results indicated that the geometrical size of upstream and downstream buildings have significant impacts on the ambient airflow patterns. The pollution distribution within the canyons varies with different building combinations and flow patterns. Within the upstream canyon, pollution always accumulates to the low building side for non-symmetrical canyon, and for symmetrical canyon high level of pollution occurs at the leeward side. The height of the middle and downstream buildings can evidently change the pollutant dispersion direction during the transport process. Within the polluted canyon, the pollutant dilution rate (PDR) also varies with different street canyon combinations. The highest PDR is observed when the upstream buildings are both low buildings no matter the height of downstream building. However, the two cases are likely to contribution pollution to the downstream canyon. The H-L-H combination is mostly against local pollution remove, while the L-H-L case is considered the best optimistic building combination with both the ability of diluting local pollution and not remarkably decreasing air quality of downstream canyon. The current work is expected instructive for city designers to optimize traffic patterns under typical existing geometry or in the development of urban geometry modification for air quality control.

  14. Built historiography in Glasgow’s New Gorbals – the Crown Street Regeneration Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Urban

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In 2000, the Crown Street redevelopment in Glasgow’s New Gorbals was completed after a master plan by Piers Gough of the London firm CZWG. Built on symbolically contested grounds that were previously occupied by the Gorbals tenements (1870s-1960s and the high-rise Hutchesontown flats (1960s-1990s, the new development is a textbook example of neo-traditional design. This article looks at the Crown Street redevelopment as a form of built historiography that inscribes a harmonized account of the past into the urban fabric. Like a written narrative, plan and buildings convey a historic narrative through tropes and character types. The historiographic dimension of the Crown Street redevelopment works on three levels. There is the site, which in various moments in the twentieth century came to signify the urban ‘other’ – the city’s underbelly of crime, plight, and misery – and which, as a result of both gentrification and architectural redesign, is now apparently pacified. There are carefully chosen historic references such as tenement façades, bay windows, underpasses, courtyards, and rues corridors, which communicate certain conceptions about recent history. And there is a municipal strategy for Glasgow’s economic revival, of which the re-writing of history is a part, and which, among others, makes use of the Crown Street redevelopment’s architectural imagery. On all three levels the Crown Street redevelopment reconciles conflicting perspectives: on the one hand a break almost as comprehensive as the modernist upheaval, which involved complete redesign and exchange of the population, and on the other hand the conception of historical continuity and long-lasting community life. Conveying a historical image cleared of ambiguities and imperfections, the Crown Street redevelopment thus communicates a message of both renewal and permanence.

  15. Structural value of Yerevan streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avetisyan Arsen Grantovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The absence of the methods of urban analysis in the process of urban development of Yerevan is the reason of urban planning activities that tend to decrease the urban value of Yerevan territories. Meanwhile the studies in the sphere of urban planning and urban analysis prove the dependence of the life in the city on its structure and distribution of the functions. The mentioned issue highlights the importance of urban analysis. The paper discusses space syntax, which is one of the initial methods of urban analysis. The basic concept of Space syntax is based on the assumption that urban fabric can be presented and studied as a power graph. The method provides the measures that evaluate the land use, traffic and pedestrian movement, land value and even carbon emissions. The paper discusses also recent attempts of integration of space syntax method into GIS environment. GIS databases provide researchers with vast amount of urban data. Analyses presented in the current paper were performed on the basis of the open street map, which was imported from the GIS environment. With the application of space syntax methods analysis of connectivity, integration choice (betweenness and depth from the city center were performed to evaluate the structural value of Yerevan streets. Municipal regions of Yerevan were classified by the level of their accessibility and by their distances from the city center on the base of the results of depth measures from the city center. Evaluation of the street network aims to define the most integrated and centrally positioned parts of the city. These areas can be locations for the organization of sub centers of Yerevan in the municipal regions.

  16. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Waruguru Mburu

    Full Text Available Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use.

  17. Environmental Risk Factors influencing Bicycle Theft: A Spatial Analysis in London, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mburu, Lucy Waruguru; Helbich, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Urban authorities are continuously drawing up policies to promote cycling among commuters. However, these initiatives are counterproductive for the targeted objectives because they increase opportunities for bicycle theft. This paper explores Inner London as a case study to address place-specific risk factors for bicycle theft at the street-segment level while controlling for seasonal variation. The presence of certain public amenities (e.g., bicycle stands, railway stations, pawnshops) was evaluated against locations of bicycle theft between 2013 and 2016 and risk effects were estimated using negative binomial regression models. Results showed that a greater level of risk stemmed from land-use facilities than from area-based socioeconomic status. The presence of facilities such as train stations, vacant houses, pawnbrokers and payday lenders increased bicycle theft, but no evidence was found that linked police stations with crime levels. The findings have significant implications for urban crime prevention with respect to non-residential land use.

  18. PLC based Smart Street Lighting Control

    OpenAIRE

    D.V.Pushpa Latha; K.R.Sudha; Swati Devabhaktuni

    2013-01-01

    Conventional street lighting systems in most of the areas are Online at regular intervals of time irrespective of the seasonal variations. The street lights are simply switched on at afternoon and turned off in the morning. The consequence is that a large amount of Power is wasted meaninglessly. As energy consumption is an issue of increasing interest, possible energy savings in public street lighting systems are recently discussed from different viewpoints. The purpose of this work is to des...

  19. London forces in highly oriented pyrolytic graphite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Poperenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Surface of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite with terrace steps was studied using scanning tunneling microscopy with high spatial resolution. Spots with positive and negative charges were found in the vicinity of the steps. Values of the charges depended both on the microscope needle scan velocity and on its motion direction. The observed effect was theoretically explained with account of London forces that arise between the needle tip and the graphite surface. In this scheme, a terrace step works as a nanoscale diode for surface electric currents.

  20. London limit for lattice model of superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ktitorov, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenological approach to the strong-bond superconductor, which is based on the Ginzburg-Landau equation in the London limit, is considered. The effect of the crystalline lattice discreteness on the superconductors electromagnetic properties is studied. The classic problems on the critical current and magnetic field penetration are studied within the frames of the lattice model for thin superconducting films. The dependence of the superconducting current on the thin film order parameter is obtained. The critical current dependence on the degree of deviation from the continual approximation is calculated [ru

  1. [Street prostitution and drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishøy, Torben; Ishøy, Pelle Lau; Olsen, Lis Raabaek

    2005-09-26

    Street-based prostitution accounts for 10% of the prostitution activity in Denmark, mainly involving female drug addicts. We studied a group of women with a common history of substance abuse and their comparative psychosocial characteristics, correlated with whether they had previously been a prostitute or not. Their psychic symptoms were evaluated and compared with those of controls. 27 females receiving maintenance treatment for substance abuse completed a questionnaire dealing with their social background, substance abuse profile, and history of sexual abuse and prostitution, as well as their current health status, including SCL-90. The scores were compared to those of a control group of an age- and gender-matched Danish standard population. Neglect in childhood and adulthood corresponded to international findings. 14 of the women had previous sex-trading experience, and early use of heroin and cocaine was a predictor for starting a career in prostitution. The SCL-90 scores for the dimensions of somatization and depression were significantly higher for drug-abusing women in general than in the control group. The scores of drug-abusing former prostitutes were similarly significantly higher on most of the dimensions except the hostility dimension when compared to those of drug-abusing women who had never been involved in prostitution. Rape and domestic violence were characteristic phenomena among drug-abusing prostitutes (p prostitution. Various psychosocial stress factors among street-based prostitutes indicate the need for broader psychiatric approaches in Danish drug addiction maintenance programmes.

  2. Georges Charpak street sign unveiled

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    2011-01-01

    While it might not be the only French street named in honour of the late Georges Charpak, who passed away in September 2010 at the age of 87, the street chosen by the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly is certainly the only one located directly opposite the CERN "campus". The road overlooks buildings on the CERN Meyrin site, where Georges Charpak spent most of his career as a physicist, conducting the research that won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1992.   From left to right: Sigurd Lettow, Dominique Charpak and the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly. The unveiling took place on 17 October and was organised by the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly. George Charpak’s wife, Dominique, and Sigurd Lettow, CERN Director of Administration and General Infrastructure, attended what was an intimate and touching ceremony. The mayor’s speech at the event praised Georges’ commitment to scientific education. The highlight of the event, however, was a witty and humorous ...

  3. London-type congestion tax with revenue-recycling

    OpenAIRE

    Yukihiro Kidokoro

    2005-01-01

    Road pricing in London attracts a great deal of interest. A challenging aspect of the London scheme is that congestion tax revenue is used to upgrade public transit networks. Although Parry and Bento (2001) show that the total social surplus would increase if congestion tax revenues are used to cut labor taxes, political difficulties exist in implementing revenue-recycling between congestion taxes and labor taxes. Given such political difficulties, the London scheme seems to be very attractiv...

  4. London SPAN version 4 parameter file format

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-06-01

    Powernext SA is a Multilateral Trading Facility in charge of managing the French power exchange through an optional and anonymous organised trading system. Powernext SA collaborates with the clearing organization LCH.Clearnet SA to secure and facilitate the transactions. The French Standard Portfolio Analysis of Risk (SPAN) is a system used by LCH.Clearnet to calculate the initial margins from and for its clearing members. SPAN is a computerized system which calculates the impact of several possible variations of rates and volatility on by-product portfolios. The initial margin call is equal to the maximum probable loss calculated by the system. This document contains details of the format of the London SPAN version 4 parameter file. This file contains all the parameters and risk arrays required to calculate SPAN margins. London SPAN Version 4 is an upgrade from Version 3, which is also known as LME SPAN. This document contains the full revised file specification, highlighting the changes from Version 3 to Version 4

  5. Adolescent Hopefulness in Tanzania: Street Youth, Former Street Youth, and School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalkur, Priya G.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares hope in street youth, former street youth, and school youth (aged 12-18) in Tanzania. Responding to Snyder's hope theory, the author argues that not only personal agency but also the stability of living context (street, shelter, home) shapes hopefulness. Employing qualitative and quantitative analyses, the author presents a…

  6. Personal and Familial Properties of Street Children--"Street Children: The Forgotten or Not Remembered Ones"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbas, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    With this research it is aimed to determine the personal traits of Street Children depending on them and also the socio-economic variables of Street Children resulting from their families. For this main aim in the research process, it is provided to have communication directly with the parents of Street Children using one-to-one and face-to-face…

  7. RACE, CODE OF THE STREET, AND VIOLENT DELINQUENCY: A MULTILEVEL INVESTIGATION OF NEIGHBORHOOD STREET CULTURE AND INDIVIDUAL NORMS OF VIOLENCE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric A.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    The study outlined in this article drew on Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street perspective to examine the impact of neighborhood street culture on violent delinquency. Using data from more than 700 African American adolescents, we examined 1) whether neighborhood street culture predicts adolescent violence above and beyond an adolescent’s own street code values and 2) whether neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on adolescent violence. Consistent with Anderson’s hypotheses, neighborhood street culture significantly predicts violent delinquency independent of individual-level street code effects. Additionally, neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on violence in neighborhoods where the street culture is widespread. In particular, the effect of street code values on violence is enhanced in neighborhoods where the street culture is endorsed widely. PMID:21666759

  8. MAPCERN links to Google Street View

    CERN Multimedia

    Matilda Heron

    2015-01-01

    CERN’s online maps, MAPCERN, now have the added bonus of Google Street View, thanks to the new release of images of many CERN sites captured by Google.   New Street View images of CERN sites have been added to MAPCERN, see bottom-right-hand image in the screenshot above.   Google Street View, an integrated service of Google Maps introduced in 2007, links 360-degree panoramic photos into a virtual tour. CERN and Google began collaborating on this Street View project in 2010 and now these Street View images have been embedded into MAPCERN, accessible by clicking the “Street View” tab in MAPCERN’s bottom-right-hand window. If you need to locate a building at CERN, or plan an operation on some equipment, you can save time by using the Street View images to check out the area in advance. The CERN Meyrin site has been fully mapped, as well as the surfaces of the eight LHC points, BA2 and BA3. New Street View images of CERN, including the Pr...

  9. Street as Sustainable City Structural Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyzerova, A. V.; Bagina, E. J.

    2017-11-01

    Sustainability in architecture is nowadays of particular significance in the course of globalization and information density. The technospehere spontaneous development poses a threat to the sustainability of traditional urban forms where a street is one of the essential forming elements in the urban structure. The article proposes to consider formally compositional street features in relation to one of the traditional streets in the historic center of Ekaterinburg. The study examines the street-planning structure, the development of its skeleton elements, silhouette and fabric elevation characteristics as well as the scale characteristics and visual complexity of objects. The study provided architectural and artistic aspects of street sustainability, and limits of the appropriate scale and composition consistency under which the compatibility of alternative compositional forms existing at different times is possible.

  10. Cleaning up the Streets of Denver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegen, R.L.; Wood, T.R.; Hackett, J.R.; Sogue, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1913 and 1924, several Denver area facilities extracted radium from carnotite ore mined from the Paradox basin region of Colorado. Tailings or abandoned ores from these facilities were apparently incorporated into asphalt used to pave approximately 7.2 kilometers (4.5 miles) of streets in Denver. A majority of the streets are located in residential areas. The radionuclides are bound within the asphalt matrix and pose minimal risk unless they are disturbed. The City and County of Denver (CCoD) is responsible for controlling repairs and maintenance on these impacted streets. Since 2002, the CCoD has embarked on a significant capital improvement project to remove the impacted asphalt for secure disposal followed by street reconstruction. To date, Parsons has removed approximately 55 percent of the impacted asphalt. This paper discusses the history of the Denver Radium Streets and summarizes on-going project efforts. (authors)

  11. Thermal Comfort Assessment in The Open Space in Bandung Case Study Dago Street and Riau Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugangga, M.; Janesonia, K. I.; Illiyin, D. F.; Donny Koerniawan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Bandung’s temperature has been higher since last years. This phenomenon affects the level of thermal comfort in open space. One indicator that determines the thermal comfort level is the type of activity performed by the open space user. Riau Street and Dago Street are corridors that are often used by the people for strolling, jogging, shopping. Dago Street has special event every Sunday namely car free day. Both corridors have different orientation; Dago Street is North to South corridor while Riau Street’s is West to East. The goal of the study is to compare people’s perception of thermal comfort in both corridors. This research uses two methods, namely qualitative method and quantitative method. Based on the results of qualitative analysis found that the thermal conditions in Dago Street more comfortable than the Riau Street. The result of quantitative analysis found that the average PET (thermal comfort indices) value of Dago Street was at 27.5 °C PET and Riau Street 28.6 °C PET. Dago Street is considered more convenient because it has a lower PET value than Riau Street. The people perception of thermal comfort is very important to start the steps for designing the orientation of street in urban design.

  12. Road and Street Centerlines, Street-The data set is a line feature consisting of 13948 line segments representing streets. It was created to maintain the location of city and county based streets., Published in 1989, Davis County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road and Street Centerlines dataset current as of 1989. Street-The data set is a line feature consisting of 13948 line segments representing streets. It was created...

  13. The Great London Smog of 1952.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polivka, Barbara J

    2018-04-01

    : The Great London Smog of December 1952 lasted five days and killed up to 12,000 people. The smog developed primarily because of extensive burning of high-sulfur coal. The health effects were both immediate and long lasting, with a recent study revealing an increased likelihood of childhood asthma development in those exposed to the Great Smog while in utero or during their first year of life. Subsequent pollution legislation-including the U.S. Clean Air Act and its amendments-have demonstrably reduced air pollution and positively impacted health outcomes. With poor air quality events like the Great Smog continuing to occur today, nurses need to be aware of the impact such environmental disasters can have on human health.

  14. Bronchitis: sickness absence in London Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornwall, C J; Raffle, P A.B.

    1961-01-01

    Analysis of records of bronchitis morbidity of 4 days or more among 60,000 male London Transport employees for the years 1952 to 1956 is discussed. Bronchitis morbidity accounted for about 10% of the absences, similar to that for the country as a whole. Annual inception rate increased with age after age 45; average length of spell increased with age over the whole age range. Absence from bronchitis broadly correlated with foggy periods (Dec, 52; Jan, 56), more so with city workers. Higher rates exist in north sectors where pollution is higher (south wind), and there is more industry and a higher population density. Lower rates exist among country workers. 20 to 25% of bronchitis morbidity can be ascribed to air pollution when country and city workers are compared.

  15. Leading increasingly linguistically diverse London schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Mehmedbegović

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Engaging with bilingual parents, students and teachers with little awareness of the benefits of bilingualism has initiated a search for factors resulting in the low value attached to certain types of bilingualism. Working on the hypothesis that prevalent practice is influenced more by attitudes to bilingualism rather than relevant research and pedagogical theory, this research focuses on attitudes. This small-scale qualitative study conducted with a group of London headteachers provides an insight into the attitudes to bilingualism and how they impact on policy and practice in schools with significant proportions of multilingual learners. It also raises the question if schools which claim to support multilingual students in realising their full potential can achieve that without including home languages as an integral part of learning.

  16. Constructing and Contesting City of London Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Andrew; Wigan, Duncan

    2017-01-01

    Existing literature on the City of London has tended to focus on its ‘structural power’, while neglecting political and narrative agency. This paper acts as a corrective by presenting evidence to show that since the financial crash of 2008 the political terrain the City operates on has become more...... contested, crowded and noisier. The contribution develops a middle course between a positive assessment of the role of civil society in relation to global finance, and a more pessimistic reading. We demonstrate how macro-narratives and public story-telling both construct and contest City and financial...... sector power. In a new pattern since the financial crash, NGOs have moved from campaigns of limited duration and narrow focus, to a more sustained presence on macro-structural issues. Adopting a supply–demand framework for assessing governance and regulatory change, we look at the emergence of TheCity...

  17. Sorption of radionuclides on London clay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, J.A.; Bourke, P.J.; Green, A.; Littleboy, A.K.

    1989-02-01

    Techniques for studying the sorption of radionuclides on London clay have been investigated. This work involved the use of through-diffusion, in-diffusion, high-pressure convection and batch methods to study the sorption of iodide, strontium, caesium and americium. Through-diffusion and high-pressure convection methods were found to be most useful for investigating weakly and moderately sorbing nuclides and give realistic values for sorptivity. The batch technique remains the most practical method of obtaining large quantities of data within a relatively short timescale but gives very high sorptivity values. It is however very useful for intercomparisons of nuclides or geological media. The in-diffusion method requires further refinement for use with strongly sorbing nuclides. Good agreement between through-diffusion and high-pressure convection methods was obtained for the sorptivity of strontium, whilst trends observed for caesium by through-diffusion were confirmed by batch measurements. (author)

  18. Development of a novel walkability index for London, United Kingdom: cross-sectional application to the Whitehall II Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jemima C. Stockton

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical activity is essential for health; walking is the easiest way to incorporate activity into everyday life. Previous studies report positive associations between neighbourhood walkability and walking but most focused on cities in North America and Australasia. Urban form with respect to street connectivity, residential density and land use mix—common components of walkability indices—differs in European cities. The objective of this study was to develop a walkability index for London and test the index using walking data from the Whitehall II Study.  Methods A neighbourhood walkability index for London was constructed, comprising factors associated with walking behaviours: residential dwelling density, street connectivity and land use mix. Three models were produced that differed in the land uses included. Neighbourhoods were operationalised at three levels of administrative geography: (i 21,140 output areas, (ii 633 wards and (iii 33 local authorities. A neighbourhood walkability score was assigned to each London-dwelling Whitehall II Study participant (2003–04, N = 3020, mean ± SD age = 61.0 years ± 6.0 based on residential postcode. The effect of changing the model specification and the units of enumeration on spatial variation in walkability was examined. Results There was a radial decay in walkability from the centre to the periphery of London. There was high inter-model correlation in walkability scores for any given neighbourhood operationalisation (0.92–0.98, and moderate-high correlation between neighbourhood operationalisations for any given model (0.39–0.70. After adjustment for individual level factors and area deprivation, individuals in the most walkable neighbourhoods operationalised as wards were more likely to walk >6 h/week (OR = 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.1–1.9 than those in the least walkable. Conclusions Walkability was associated with walking time in adults. This

  19. Development of a novel walkability index for London, United Kingdom: cross-sectional application to the Whitehall II Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockton, Jemima C; Duke-Williams, Oliver; Stamatakis, Emmanuel; Mindell, Jennifer S; Brunner, Eric J; Shelton, Nicola J

    2016-05-18

    Physical activity is essential for health; walking is the easiest way to incorporate activity into everyday life. Previous studies report positive associations between neighbourhood walkability and walking but most focused on cities in North America and Australasia. Urban form with respect to street connectivity, residential density and land use mix-common components of walkability indices-differs in European cities. The objective of this study was to develop a walkability index for London and test the index using walking data from the Whitehall II Study. A neighbourhood walkability index for London was constructed, comprising factors associated with walking behaviours: residential dwelling density, street connectivity and land use mix. Three models were produced that differed in the land uses included. Neighbourhoods were operationalised at three levels of administrative geography: (i) 21,140 output areas, (ii) 633 wards and (iii) 33 local authorities. A neighbourhood walkability score was assigned to each London-dwelling Whitehall II Study participant (2003-04, N = 3020, mean ± SD age = 61.0 years ± 6.0) based on residential postcode. The effect of changing the model specification and the units of enumeration on spatial variation in walkability was examined. There was a radial decay in walkability from the centre to the periphery of London. There was high inter-model correlation in walkability scores for any given neighbourhood operationalisation (0.92-0.98), and moderate-high correlation between neighbourhood operationalisations for any given model (0.39-0.70). After adjustment for individual level factors and area deprivation, individuals in the most walkable neighbourhoods operationalised as wards were more likely to walk >6 h/week (OR = 1.4; 95 % CI: 1.1-1.9) than those in the least walkable. Walkability was associated with walking time in adults. This walkability index could help urban planners identify and design neighbourhoods in

  20. Assessing the representativeness of monitoring data from an urban intersection site in Central London, UK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaperdas, A.; Colvile, R.N. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Centre for Environmental Technology

    1999-02-01

    The wind flow field around urban street-building configurations has an important influence on the microscale pollutant dispersion from road traffic, affecting overall dilution and creating localised spatial variations of pollutant concentration. As a result, the ``representatives`` of air quality measurements made at different urban monitoring sites can be strongly dependent on the interaction of the local wind flow field with the street-building geometry surrounding the monitor. The present study is an initial attempt to develop a method for appraising the significance of air quality measurements from urban monitoring sites, using a general application computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code to simulate small-scale flow and dispersion patterns around real urban building configurations. The main focus of the work was to evaluate routine CO monitoring data collected by Westminster City Council at an intersection of street canyons at Marylebone Road, Central London. Many monitors in the UK are purposely situated at urban canyon intersections, which are thought to be local ``hot spots`` of pollutant emissions, however very limited information exists in the literature on the flow and dispersion patterns associated with them. With the use of simple CFD simulations and the analysis of available monitoring data, it was possible to gain insights into the effect of wind direction on the small-scale dispersion patterns at the chosen intersection, and how that can influence the data captured by a monitor. It was found that a change in wind direction could result in an increase or decrease of monitored CO concentration of up to 80%, for a given level of traffic emissions and meteorological conditions. Understanding and de-coupling the local effect of wind direction from monitoring data using the methods presented in this work could prove a useful new tool for urban monitoring data interpretation. (author)

  1. Practicing Reflexivity in the Study of Italian Migrants in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seganti, Francesca Romana

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses the centrality of reflexivity in qualitative research through examples from my study on the role new media play in the lives of Italians in London. My hypothesis was that Italians were "in transit" in London and they were using new media to build "temporary" communities. I conducted in-depth interviews…

  2. Art in wartime: The First Wounded, London Hospital, August 1914.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, M P; Park, R H R

    2011-06-01

    John Lavery's The First Wounded, London Hospital, August 1914 records a memorable event in the First World War. This painting and the archives of the Royal London Hospital provide a fascinating insight into the nursing and medical care of these early war casualties.

  3. Changing the Subject: English in London, 1945-1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yandell, John

    2014-01-01

    Two recent books, "English Teachers in a Postwar Democracy: Emerging Choice in London Schools, 1945-1965" and "The London Association for the Teaching of English, 1947-67: A History," explore an important period in the development of English as a school subject and in the remaking of the professional identity of English…

  4. Street children and political violence: a socio-demographic analysis of street children in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Angela; Donà, Giorgia

    2003-03-01

    The aims were: (1) to examine the profile of African street children and to assess the link between street children in Africa and political violence; (2) to undertake a systematic examination of causal factors of street children in postgenocide Rwanda; and (3) to situate this analysis in the context of the socio-cultural and political impact of the genocide on Rwandan communities. Observational mapping examined the profile and activities of Rwandan street children. Structured interviews were carried out with 290 children in four regional towns to obtain information on socio-demographic, familial, educational background, causal factors surrounding street life involvement, psychological well-being, and relationship to the street. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews examined the relationship between street children and the broader Rwandan society. Street children in Rwanda were predominantly adolescent boys, almost half of whom were homeless (42%), with a high proportion of orphaned children or children who had lost at least one parent. Two variables predicted homelessness: child's guardian and reason for being in street. Qualitative accounts of children conveyed the impact of death of family members, repatriation, imprisonment of parents, and poverty on their lives. The analysis highlighted the need for community based support for children in alternative guardianship care and for policies to support the reintegration of male youths in postconflict welfare strategies as prevention strategies for street migration.

  5. Victims and survivors: stable isotopes used to identify migrants from the Great Irish Famine to 19th century London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaumont, Julia; Geber, Jonny; Powers, Natasha; Wilson, Andrew; Lee-Thorp, Julia; Montgomery, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Historical evidence documents mass migration from Ireland to London during the period of the Great Irish Famine of 1845-52. The rural Irish were reliant on a restricted diet based on potatoes but maize, a C(4) plant, was imported from the United States of America in 1846-47 to mitigate against Famine. In London, Irish migrants joined a population with a more varied diet. To investigate and characterize their diet, carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios were obtained from bone collagen of 119 and hair keratin of six individuals from Lukin Street cemetery, Tower Hamlets (1843-54), and bone collagen of 20 individuals from the cemetery at Kilkenny Union Workhouse in Ireland (1847-51). A comparison of the results with other contemporaneous English populations suggests that Londoners may have elevated δ(15) N compared with their contemporaries in other cities. In comparison, the Irish group have lower δ(15) N. Hair analysis combined with bone collagen allows the reconstruction of perimortem dietary changes. Three children aged 5-15 years from Kilkenny have bone collagen δ(13) C values that indicate consumption of maize (C(4)). As maize was only imported into Ireland in quantity from late 1846 and 1847, these results demonstrate relatively rapid bone collagen turnover in children and highlight the importance of age-related bone turnover rates, and the impact the age of the individual can have on studies of short-term dietary change or recent migration. Stable light isotope data in this study are consistent with the epigraphic and documentary evidence for the presence of migrants within the London cemetery. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hygiene practices among street food vendors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    giene regulations to keep street food save for consumers. Journal of Medical ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294 ... authorities to enforce food safety regulations, unlike .... (50%) school food vendors sampled in Konongo.

  7. Capturing the benefits of complete streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotal information indicates that private investment and property value increases are associated : with featured Complete Streets projects. However, to date, little research has been done to confirm : these benefits. Much of the relevant literatur...

  8. Pühendusega isadele - Baker Street

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Üritusest 7. novembril Kuressaares Arensburg lounge-restoranis Muusa toimuvast isadepäevahõngulisest üritusest, esinevad Virgo Veldi & Band kavaga "Baker Street", erikülalisena Villu Veski. Saksofonistist Virgo Veldist

  9. Hiding in Plain Sight: Street artists online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Barbour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Identity and privacy concerns related to social media are the subject of widespread academic enquiry and mass media reporting. Although in most circumstances academic research tends to present identity play and online self­presentation as positive, media reporting in Australia makes much of the risks of identity theft, privacy breaches and online predators. This research explores the phenomenological experience of creating an online persona, focusing particularly on street artists. For street artists, the threat of unwanted exposure has to be balanced with the positive implications of sharing their creative work outside its geographical and temporal constraints. I argue that street artists use complex persona­creation strategies in order to both protect and promote themselves. The two street artists discussed in this article experience their engagement with social media and digital networks in ways that offer new insight into the opportunities and problems associated with the presentation of a persona online.

  10. Modelling Pollutant Dispersion in a Street Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, N. Ben; Garbero, V.; Salizzoni, P.; Lamaison, G.; Soulhac, L.

    2015-04-01

    This study constitutes a further step in the analysis of the performances of a street network model to simulate atmospheric pollutant dispersion in urban areas. The model, named SIRANE, is based on the decomposition of the urban atmosphere into two sub-domains: the urban boundary layer, whose dynamics is assumed to be well established, and the urban canopy, represented as a series of interconnected boxes. Parametric laws govern the mass exchanges between the boxes under the assumption that the pollutant dispersion within the canopy can be fully simulated by modelling three main bulk transfer phenomena: channelling along street axes, transfers at street intersections, and vertical exchange between street canyons and the overlying atmosphere. Here, we aim to evaluate the reliability of the parametrizations adopted to simulate these phenomena, by focusing on their possible dependence on the external wind direction. To this end, we test the model against concentration measurements within an idealized urban district whose geometrical layout closely matches the street network represented in SIRANE. The analysis is performed for an urban array with a fixed geometry and a varying wind incidence angle. The results show that the model provides generally good results with the reference parametrizations adopted in SIRANE and that its performances are quite robust for a wide range of the model parameters. This proves the reliability of the street network approach in simulating pollutant dispersion in densely built city districts. The results also show that the model performances may be improved by considering a dependence of the wind fluctuations at street intersections and of the vertical exchange velocity on the direction of the incident wind. This opens the way for further investigations to clarify the dependence of these parameters on wind direction and street aspect ratios.

  11. Street-Level Bureaucrats as Individual Policymakers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baviskar, Siddhartha; Winter, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Lipsky (1980) pointed out that street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) are important policymakers due to the discretion they exercise and argued from a structural perspective that these workers manifest relatively similar coping behaviors owing to their shared working conditions, characterized by chronic......Lipsky (1980) pointed out that street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) are important policymakers due to the discretion they exercise and argued from a structural perspective that these workers manifest relatively similar coping behaviors owing to their shared working conditions, characterized...

  12. Solar charge controller in solar street light

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, with the rapid development of scientific technology, the conventional energy cannot meet the requirement of human beings. People are looking for the utilization of renew energy. Solar en-ergy as a new clean energy has attract the eyes of people. The applications of solar energy are popular to human society. Solar street light is a good example. This thesis will focus on a deeper research of the popular and ubiquitous solar street light in China. However, solar charge controll...

  13. OpenStreetMap over WMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Přemysl Vohnout

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss the issues which we faced, while preparing WMS server with OpenStreetMap data of whole Europe. This article is divided into three sections. First is about mandatory applications which are required for working WMS service with OpenStreetMap data. Second is focused on tuning up PostgreSQL. Third is focused on rendering time improvement of layers.

  14. MAINTENANCE OF THE CARPARK AND STREET LIGHTING

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-FM Group

    2002-01-01

    The ST Division informs you that the control and maintenance of the carpark and street lighting will be carried out during the next few weeks. These lightings work normally by photocells but during these tests they will be turned on zone by zone during the day. So we ask the users not to be surprised to see the street lighting on during the day and thank them for their comprehension. ST-FM Group

  15. Teaching the History of Astronomy On Site in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Linda M.

    2016-01-01

    In the autumn of 2014, the author had the opportunity to teach a class on the history of astronomy in England as part of a study abroad experience for students at Illinois Wesleyan University. The philosophy of the program is to use the rich cultural environment of London as a setting for active learning. In the classroom, students read and discussed selected works by Ptolemy, Copernicus, Kepler, Galileo, and Herschel. We visited Stonehenge, the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the London Science Museum, the London Monument, and the library of the Royal Astronomical Society. Lessons learned from the experience will be shared.

  16. Comparison of safety equipment between London underground and Beijing subway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T.; Zhang, S. Y.; Zhao, L. Z.; Xia, J. J.; Fu, X. C.; Bao, Z. M.; Chen, Y.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, R. J.; Hu, C.; Jing, L. S.; Wang, Y.

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this paper was to improve the safety equipment’s effectiveness through the comparison. Firstly, the history and safety accident of London Underground and Beijing Subway were shown. Secondly, fire equipment between these two cities was compared including station’s hardware installations and carriage’s hardware installations. Thirdly, the relative software installations were also compared such as emergency drills. The results showed that Beijing Subway’s hardware installations were better than London. However, London Underground’s some installations were more effective than Beijing. Both cities would pay more attention on anti-terrorist in tunnel.

  17. Collider – the LHC in London

    CERN Multimedia

    Emma Sanders

    2013-01-01

    In November the London Science Museum will open a major new exhibition about the LHC. The project marks an ambitious new approach for the museum who will work with an eclectic design team that includes a video artist and a playwright. Both Olivier Award winners, they are more renowned for their work on stage and screen than inside museums.   Image courtesy of Science Museum / Nissen Richards Studio. The Science Museum team came to Geneva expecting to be blown away by the extraordinary physics and engineering at CERN and they weren’t disappointed. But what impressed them most was the people who made it all happen. Physicists of all kinds, restaurant staff, engineers, administrators, those working in transport and logistics, all had in common a passion for CERN and an enthusiasm for communicating their work. “What really struck us was how every single person mentioned the spirit of international collaboration and the importance of curiosity,” Alison Boyle told the ...

  18. Tracker electronics testing at Imperial College London

    CERN Multimedia

    PPARC, UK

    2006-01-01

    Jonathon Fulcher and Rob Bainbridge testing a rack of CMS Tracker readout electronics at Imperial College London. The signals from the front end APV chips will be transmitted optically to racks of electronics ~100m away in an adjacent underground cavern where they are fed into ~20 crates where 500 CMS Front End Driver boards (FEDs) are located. The FED inputs are 8 fibre ribbons, each ribbon consisting of 12 fibres, each fibre carrying the serially multiplexed data originating from 2 APVs. To test the FEDs special tester boards have been designed to produce simulated APV data in optical form. In the picture the yellow cables are the fibres, which originate from the FED tester boards on the left hand side of the crate as 96 individual fibres, which are then combined into the 8 fibre ribbons feeding the FED board on the right hand side of the crate. Fig. 2 shows an APV25 test board mounted in the X-ray irradiation setup, Fig. 3 the X-ray machine where the chips are irradiated and Fig. 4 the MGPA (Multi-Gain Pre...

  19. [Sharing and distrusting: street merchants' view of children in street situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Suárez, Diana M; Giraldo-Puerta, Alexandra; Giraldo-Pineda, Álvaro; Forero-Pulido, Constanza

    2016-06-01

    Objective To understand the meanings, through the description of experiences that street merchants have of their interactions with children in a street situation in downtown of Medellin in 2013. Methodology Qualitative investigation with ethnographic approach. Observations were made in the zone at different times of the day. Twelve interviews with street merchants were held in their work places. Records were kept in a field journal. Results The street merchants and children in street situations share the same space. Both groups try to survive and their relationship is mediated by the trust-distrust that is established between them. The coexistence generates ambivalent feelings. For the street merchants, children in street situations are the result of abandonment by the family, the state and society. They live in a hard world in which they are exposed to a series of risks that they must face. Conclusion The interaction between street merchants and children in street situations is good to the extent that conflicts are avoided, establishing norms of coexistence. The element that determines this relationship is trust-distrust. In trust, strong affective ties are generated, considering each other family. Distrust generates a preventative attitude.

  20. Universal design characteristic on themed streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsritanto, Bangun IR; Indriastjario; Wijayanti

    2017-12-01

    People around the world can access the streets to fulfil their daily activities regardless of their gender, age, and abilities. The streetscape is an urban public space which is built to facilitate the basic needs of people as social being. The themed street is an urban streetscape designed and built in detail with a theme or special purpose in an of urban development process. Universal design facilitates the full range of human diversity as physical appearance, perception, cognitive abilities, sizes, and shapes. By designing for the diversity, the specialized streets become more functional and user-friendly. The purpose of this study is to examine several design characteristics of themed streets in several countries from three different continents using universal design principles for giving proper directions to develop more user-friendly streets. Literature review and case study were used as research methods. The literature review was extracted and compiled from manuscripts, streetscape design books, and from universal design principles. Furthermore, the constructed theory were used to examine the case studies of themed streets. The findings indicated that themed streets’ character design were strongly influenced by local cultural aspect even though the basic guidelines were universal design principles; the resumed design direction can be suggested universal along with the richness of local aspects.

  1. Designing safe and inclusive streets in India | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 nov. 2016 ... Safe streets play a crucial role in enabling livelihoods, mobility, and access to services. In fast-growing Indian cities such as Ahmedabad, streets are also the site of conflict. With incomes and vehicle ownership on the rise, traffic has replaced people as the central point of street design. Vehicle-focused street ...

  2. StreetMekka - Ledelse af Københavns nye streetkulturhus

    OpenAIRE

    Gjelstrup, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    Street culture is spreading out through the streets of Denmark and in the summer of 2009 the City of Copenhagen will open up an indoor street culture facility called StreetMekka. Moving street culture from its natural concrete habitat to a communal facility presents challenges. The City of Copenhagen has made official guideline for the StreetMekka facility to follow, but the free and self organized street culture is not an easy thing to keep within guidelines. This master thesis discusses fro...

  3. Public Reactions to New Street Tree Planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Rae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MillionTreesNYC, which has the goal of planting one million trees in New York City by 2017, is intended to make New York City a greener, more sustainable city and is part of the Mayor’s comprehensive long term strategic plan, PlaNYC. Through planting a tree at every suitable sidewalk location in the city, the City of New York is transforming blocks and communities, and providing a variety of environmental, social and aesthetic benefits. This article examines the large scale municipal planting of new street trees and the reaction by some of the pubic to this planting.Trees offer benefits to the city overall, but the public may not understand these benefits or the street tree planting process. Between 2007 and 2009, the Department of Parks & Recreation planted 53,235 new street trees, and received 4,108 items of correspondence from the public. The majority of this correspondence consisted of public comments about the City’s new street tree planting policies and processes including placement objections, maintenance concerns, reports of resultant damage from tree planting operations, requests for new street trees and reports of tree conditions.This study describes the operational policies that guide New York City's municipal street tree planting, and results of content and spatial analysis of the correspondence. Qualitative analysis of the correspondence revealed the public perceptions and concerns related to the MillionTreesNYC program. Spatial analysis explored the relationship between the planting locations of new street trees and the locations of the citizen correspondence.Public reactions to this large scale municipal planting are related to the dual public and private nature of the sidewalk, issues of territoriality, responsibility, aesthetics and place attachment. Correspondence volume was associated with the scale of the new street tree block planting program, and the effectiveness of NYC’s 311 Customer Service Center. The discussion

  4. Idealism to Realism- Representing London in Black British Writing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... self denigration, exploitation and discrimination meted on them by the British as well as their feeling of alienation, cultural dislocation and their struggle for self ... adaptation through which these immigrants will make the best out of London ...

  5. A Little Known Utraquist Gradual in the British Library London

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šárovcová, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 62, Suppl. 1 (2014), s. 250-278 ISSN 0015-1831 Institutional support: RVO:68378033 Keywords : illuminated manuscripts * British library * London Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  6. Price, exclusivity and luxury: Exploring London's luxury hotels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-07-11

    Jul 11, 2016 ... Price, exclusivity and luxury: Exploring London's luxury hotels. Andy Heyes ... strategy now looks to target middle-market consumers with reasonable ...... celebrities and high profiles from politics to corporate…whom are well ...

  7. Exploration of the Energy Efficiency of the Greater London Authority ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GLA Building/City Hall) ... Journal Home > Vol 11, No 2 (2007) > ... The Greater London Authority building was acclaimed as being energy efficient, with claims of 75 % reduction in its annual energy consumption compared to a high specification ...

  8. A Study on Evaluation for Street Space using AHP Method

    OpenAIRE

    小塚, みすず; 許, 彦; 川本, 義海; 本多, 義明

    2004-01-01

    Street space is an important public area which forms the framework of city space. In addition, from the view of the traffic functions, street space also plays a role to support people's activities performed in city. This paper examines the evaluations of street space among the cities of Fukui (Japan), Toyota (Japan) and Suzhou (China). Therefore, a questionnaire has been carried out and actual conditions of street space are grasped. In addition street functions were evaluated with the AHP met...

  9. Amsterdam and London as financial centers in the eighteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Ann M. Carlos; Larry Neal

    2011-01-01

    In the seventeenth century, Amsterdam and London developed distinctive innovations in finance through both banks and markets that facilitated the growth of trade in each city. In the eighteenth century, a symbiotic relation developed that led to bank-oriented finance in Amsterdam cooperating with market-oriented finance in London. The relationship that emerged allowed each to rise to unprecedented dominance in Europe, while the respective financial innovations in each city provided the means ...

  10. Eating fuet in London: From Autoethnography to Transnational Ethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Rubio

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available My own experience as a young Spanish migrant in London drove me to consider the importance that Spanish food has for emigrants and to consider its role within the community. This article presents food as a metaphor of the youth migration process to London during the economic crisis, and is based on three elements: how they construct their identity, their transition to adulthood and their condition as transmigrants.

  11. London forum targets Africa's cancer crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Africa stands on the brink of a cancer epidemic, with more than a million new cases a year by 2020. Raising awareness of the threat is one of the biggest challenges facing the global health community today. Finding solutions is an even greater one. The University of Oxford's Africa-Oxford Cancer Consortium (AfrOx), together with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is assembling some of the world's most prominent cancer experts and policymakers in London, UK, on 10-11 May, 2007, to take up the challenge. Cancer care services in Africa are desperately limited. Life-saving radiotherapy, which is used effectively on more than 50% of cancer patients in the developed world, is available in only 21 of Africa's 53 countries, or to less than 20% of the total population. Lack of resources and basic infrastructure mean that millions of people have no access to cancer screening, early diagnosis, treatment or palliative care. Moreover, nearly 45% of cancer deaths in Africa are due to rampant viral infection, poor nutrition and widespread tobacco use. 'Many lives in Africa could be saved through prevention strategies and investments in comprehensive cancer control,' says Massoud Samiei, Head of the IAEA's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT). 'PACT seeks to mobilize new resources and enable African countries to expand radiotherapy and cancer care in a sustainable manner.' The Cancer Control in Africa meeting will focus on Africa's deepening cancer crisis and develop strategies for much-needed national cancer control programmes. It will also act as a forum for cancer experts and health policymakers to evaluate priorities, guided by needs and available resources. By holding the meeting in London, the organizers hope to place the African problem at the forefront of the global health agenda and to enlist support and new funding from European governments to fight cancer in Africa through joint international programmes. 'We have a timely opportunity to

  12. London forum targets Africa's cancer crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    Full text: Africa stands on the brink of a cancer epidemic, with more than a million new cases a year by 2020. Raising awareness of the threat is one of the biggest challenges facing the global health community today. Finding solutions is an even greater one. The University of Oxford's Africa-Oxford Cancer Consortium (AfrOx), together with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), is assembling some of the world's most prominent cancer experts and policymakers in London, UK, on 10-11 May, 2007, to take up the challenge. Cancer care services in Africa are desperately limited. Life-saving radiotherapy, which is used effectively on more than 50% of cancer patients in the developed world, is available in only 21 of Africa's 53 countries, or to less than 20% of the total population. Lack of resources and basic infrastructure mean that millions of people have no access to cancer screening, early diagnosis, treatment or palliative care. Moreover, nearly 45% of cancer deaths in Africa are due to rampant viral infection, poor nutrition and widespread tobacco use. 'Many lives in Africa could be saved through prevention strategies and investments in comprehensive cancer control,' says Massoud Samiei, Head of the IAEA's Programme of Action for Cancer Therapy (PACT). 'PACT seeks to mobilize new resources and enable African countries to expand radiotherapy and cancer care in a sustainable manner.' The Cancer Control in Africa meeting will focus on Africa's deepening cancer crisis and develop strategies for much-needed national cancer control programmes. It will also act as a forum for cancer experts and health policymakers to evaluate priorities, guided by needs and available resources. By holding the meeting in London, the organizers hope to place the African problem at the forefront of the global health agenda and to enlist support and new funding from European governments to fight cancer in Africa through joint international programmes. 'We have a timely opportunity to

  13. The struggle for Via Bologna street market: crisis, racial denial and speaking back to power in Naples Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Antonia

    2018-01-10

    This paper is based on ethnographic research conducted with migrant and Italian street vendors in Naples, southern Italy, in 2012. It tells the story of Via Bologna market which was nearly closed down by the City Hall at the time. Naples is a city where issues of poverty and unemployment pre-date and have been exacerbated by manifold narratives of crisis now unfolding across Europe regarding the economy, political legitimacy, security and migration. Street markets have always been an important and visible economic survival strategy for both Neapolitans and migrants there. This article shows how the Via Bologna street vendors appropriated and adapted discourses about crisis to form their own cosmopolitan social movement that halted the closure of the market. It argues that, in the age of globalized migration, the multilingual nature of such collective action is central to understanding social struggles that must be organized between marginalized groups of people divided by race, religion, politics and legal status. This, frequently ambiguous, transcultural solidarity speaks back against a mainstream post-racial discourse - often articulated by the Neapolitan street vendors at the market - that would reduce the complexity of such collective action to questions of poverty and class struggle. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  14. Spectator Consumer Behaviors at the 2012 London Paralympic Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridvan Ekmekci

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the Paralympics are the world’s second largest sporting event after the Olympics and continue to grow in popularity, there is little available research regarding spectators of sport competitions for disabled athletes. The purpose of this study was to profile spectators’ consumer behaviors in order to understand what factors explain spectators’ spending, length of stay, and attendance at the London Paralympic Games. Data was collected in a six-day period from a sample of 504 people present in London at three Paralympic sport facilities during the 2012 Paralympic Games. The results of the regression analyses revealed that nationality, attended contests, group size, having a connection with a Paralympic athlete, length of stay, gender and London Olympics’ spectators were significant determinants of Paralympics spectators’ spending in London. The data also indicated that spending, being from England (or not, gender, and being a friend/relative of a Paralympic athlete significantly affected spectators’ length of stay in London. Additionally, spectators’ attendance at the London Paralympic contests was predicted by spending, the size of the travel group, Beijing Paralympics’ spectators and age.

  15. The role of one large greenspace in mitigating London's nocturnal urban heat island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doick, Kieron J; Peace, Andrew; Hutchings, Tony R

    2014-09-15

    The term urban heat island (UHI) describes a phenomenon where cities are on average warmer than the surrounding rural area. Trees and greenspaces are recognised for their strong potential to regulate urban air temperatures and combat the UHI. Empirical data is required in the UK to inform predictions on cooling by urban greenspaces and guide planning to maximise cooling of urban populations. We describe a 5-month study to measure the temperature profile of one of central London's large greenspaces and also in an adjacent street to determine the extent to which the greenspace reduced night-time UHI intensity. Statistical modelling displayed an exponential decay in the extent of cooling with increased distance from the greenspace. The extent of cooling ranged from an estimated 20 m on some nights to 440 m on other nights. The mean temperature reduction over these distances was 1.1 °C in the summer months, with a maximum of 4 °C cooling observed on some nights. Results suggest that calculation of London's UHI using Met Stations close to urban greenspace can underestimate 'urban' heat island intensity due to the cooling effect of the greenspace and values could be in the region of 45% higher. Our results lend support to claims that urban greenspace is an important component of UHI mitigation strategies. Lack of certainty over the variables that govern the extent of the greenspace cooling influence indicates that the multifaceted roles of trees and greenspaces in the UK's urban environment merit further consideration. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Road and Street Centerlines - COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN: Street Centerlines Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN is a line feature class that contains street centerlines maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  17. The social world of street children : street children's peer friendship, group life and subculture in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Fikre, Kaleab

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to explore the street children’s social world, focusing on their peer friendship, group life, and street subculture in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study shows how street children’s peer friendship, street group, and subculture are part and parcel of children’s quest for survival in the street in the absence of guardians conventionally considered as responsible for the provision and protection of children. The main perspective of the study is grounded in the p...

  18. Street Children as M arginal People: The Relationship between Life History and Social Networks on the Street

    OpenAIRE

    SUCHARITKUL, Juthathip

    2007-01-01

    This paper assumes that street children are victims of socioeconomic development policy. As a consequence of the street life experience, children are labeled as street children by society and their way of their life is different from ordinary children, thus pushing them to become marginalized people. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Street Children phenomenon, and especially to study the relationship between their life history and personal networks on the street. The focus is to...

  19. Generative Street Addresses from Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlke Demir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe our automatic generative algorithm to create street addresses from satellite images by learning and labeling roads, regions, and address cells. Currently, 75% of the world’s roads lack adequate street addressing systems. Recent geocoding initiatives tend to convert pure latitude and longitude information into a memorable form for unknown areas. However, settlements are identified by streets, and such addressing schemes are not coherent with the road topology. Instead, we propose a generative address design that maps the globe in accordance with streets. Our algorithm starts with extracting roads from satellite imagery by utilizing deep learning. Then, it uniquely labels the regions, roads, and structures using some graph- and proximity-based algorithms. We also extend our addressing scheme to (i cover inaccessible areas following similar design principles; (ii be inclusive and flexible for changes on the ground; and (iii lead as a pioneer for a unified street-based global geodatabase. We present our results on an example of a developed city and multiple undeveloped cities. We also compare productivity on the basis of current ad hoc and new complete addresses. We conclude by contrasting our generative addresses to current industrial and open solutions.

  20. Life satisfaction and air quality in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacKerron, George; Mourato, Susana

    2009-01-01

    A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 μg/m 3 in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce urban air

  1. Life satisfaction and air quality in London

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacKerron, George; Mourato, Susana [Department of Geography and Environment, and Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment, London School of Economics and Political Science, Houghton Street, London WC2A 2AE (United Kingdom)

    2009-03-15

    A growing body of research in economics concerns self-reported happiness, or life satisfaction (LS), and its relationship to a wide range of other variables. The findings of this research tend to highlight the importance of non-income aspects of individuals' life conditions. These findings are strongly complementary to themes within the sustainable development discourse. Firstly, they suggest ways in which we might consume less without compromising on our current levels of LS. And secondly, they help demonstrate the immediate LS benefits that could be gained from higher levels of environmental quality (EQ). However, the empirical evidence for the link between EQ and LS is, to date, somewhat weak, due in part to a lack of EQ data at a level of detail to match the individual-by-individual resolution of LS measures. This small, exploratory study therefore seeks to assess how the use of EQ data at very high spatial resolution could advance the empirical literature examining connections between LS and EQ levels, focusing on air quality in particular. It collects original survey data for approximately 400 Londoners, and uses geographical information system (GIS) software to calculate pollutant concentrations in the immediate vicinity of their homes. It uses this data to estimate maximum likelihood regression models explaining LS ratings in terms of a range of individual, household and local variables. Both perceived and measured air pollution levels are significantly negatively associated with the LS of the survey respondents, even when controlling for a wide range of other effects. An increase of 10 {mu}g/m{sup 3} in annual mean nitrogen dioxide concentration appears to correspond on average to a drop of nearly half a point of LS on an 11-point rating scale. These findings cannot yet be generalised with confidence. However, if they were confirmed by larger future studies, they would appear to strengthen and extend existing arguments in favour of policies to reduce

  2. Notes on LED Installations in Street Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Spunei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study made on choosing LED street lighting installations, such that the quality requirements for exterior artificial lighting are fulfilled. We analyze two types of LED street lighting installations from a technical point of view, together with lighting level and brightness values obtained during the measurements. Following on the field measurements, the lighting quality parameters are calculated, and, for the lighting installation with the best performance, optimal mounting suggestions are made. The optimal quality parameters are calculated by simulations using the Dialux software. The same software and the same light sources we also compute an optimal street lighting by determining the size of the installation that provides the best lighting parameter values.

  3. Lead in Glasgow street dirt and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J G [Univ. of Glasgow; Lyon, T D.B.

    1977-07-01

    The levels of lead in city street dirt and in soil from various locations in Glasgow were investigated during spring 1976. Lead concentrations in street dirt ranged from 150 to 2300 ppM, mean 960 ppM, and were significantly elevated with respect to the observed ''natural'' level of 78 ppM. Lead derived from anti-knock compounds in petrol and introduced to the environment via automobile exhausts was clearly implicated as the main source of lead pollution in a series of soil lead measurements at the centre and periphery of eight Glasgow parks. Various chemical leaching techniques were employed and compared. Less than 5 percent of street dirt and soil lead was found to be associated with the organic phase.

  4. Risk behaviour of street children in Colombo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratna, B C V; Wijewardana, B V N

    2012-09-01

    Sri Lankan street children live in insecure and disadvantaged environments and have disrupted and poorly functioning families resulting in their poor socialisation. In this backdrop they are at high risk of adopting delinquent and antisocial behaviour and becoming victims of abuse. Despite recognition of this as a social problem, an in-depth exploration of their behaviour and its correlates has not been attempted. To describe risk behaviour among street children in Colombo city and the determinants of such behaviour. A cross sectional qualitative study in Colombo Fort, Pettah, Slave Island, and Maradana areas was conducted using focus group discussions (FGDs) with street children and semi-structured interviews (SSIs) with street children and key informants in their environment. Data generated were used to profile 283 children identified through referral sampling. An observation study was conducted to validate data generated through FGDs and SSIs. Semi-structured questionnaires, a moderator guide, an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and an observational checklist were used for SSIs, FGDs, profiling, and observational study, respectively. Majority of street children were boys and were aged 14 years or less. Nearly 18% lived alone without a guardian. Two thirds had never enrolled in a school. Many children were used for begging, neglecting their health vulnerabilities. Occupational risk behaviour included heavy manual labour, transportation and sale of illicit alcohol and narcotics, robbing/pick-pocketing, commercial sex work, and pimping. Recreational risk behaviour included abuse of alcohol/narcotics, smoking, sexual promiscuity, and patronising commercial sex workers. Increased awareness and strategies are required to minimise threats to street children and society.

  5. Street children of India -- a glimpse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S

    1994-01-01

    In India, 90% of street children are working children with regular family ties who live with their families, but are on the streets due to poverty and their parents' unemployment. The remaining 10% are either working children with few family ties who view the streets as their homes or abandoned and neglected children with no family ties. The National Policy for Children established in 1974 emphasizes the provision of equal opportunities for the development to all children during their growing years. Policy stresses programs to maintain, educate, and train destitute children and orphans. Policy is also to protect children against neglect, cruelty, and exploitation, but this is only on paper. An UNICEF study found that almost 40,000 children die every day in developing countries, 25% of whom are in India. Studies in some major cities indicate that the street children in India are of moderate health status, suffering from various chronic diseases and undernourishment. They are deprived of all health programs, but seem to prefer government hospitals in case of dire need. Street children often have to pay for water. Almost 97% in Calcutta, 99% in Bangalore, and 90% in Madras reported having no access to toilet and bathing facilities; 83% in Kanpur, however, had access to such facilities. Nothing has been heard in recent years of the National Children's Board established in 1975. Apparently the board has gradually waned. Various schemes were planned in 1992 by the Union Welfare Ministry in association with UNICEF. Extending extra health facilities, establishing nutrition programs, providing vocational training, protecting children from abuse, distributing dry-food polypacks, providing night shelters, providing ration cards, and creating bathing and toilet facilities would go far in improving the quality of life and the future of street children in India.

  6. Street Cries and the urban refrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Rasmussen have investigated Danish street cries as respectably a musical and a spatial phenomenon. Such studies – from each their perspectives – can be said to explore the aesthetics of urban environments, since street calls are specifically developed and heard in the context of the city. Investigating...... the different methods employed in the two studies and presenting Deleuze and Guattaris theory about the refrain as a framework for further studies in the field, this article seeks to outline a fertile area of study for sound studies: the investigation of everyday refrains and the environmental relations...

  7. Citygml and the Streets of New York - a Proposal for Detailed Street Space Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, C.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional semantic city models are increasingly used for the analysis of large urban areas. Until now the focus has mostly been on buildings. Nonetheless many applications could also benefit from detailed models of public street space for further analysis. However, there are only few guidelines for representing roads within city models. Therefore, related standards dealing with street modelling are examined and discussed. Nearly all street representations are based on linear abstractions. However, there are many use cases that require or would benefit from the detailed geometrical and semantic representation of street space. A variety of potential applications for detailed street space models are presented. Subsequently, based on related standards as well as on user requirements, a concept for a CityGML-compliant representation of street space in multiple levels of detail is developed. In the course of this process, the CityGML Transportation model of the currently valid OGC standard CityGML2.0 is examined to discover possibilities for further developments. Moreover, a number of improvements are presented. Finally, based on open data sources, the proposed concept is implemented within a semantic 3D city model of New York City generating a detailed 3D street space model for the entire city. As a result, 11 thematic classes, such as roadbeds, sidewalks or traffic islands are generated and enriched with a large number of thematic attributes.

  8. Evaluation of the source area of rooftop scalar measurements in London, UK using wind tunnel and modelling approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocklehurst, Aidan; Boon, Alex; Barlow, Janet; Hayden, Paul; Robins, Alan

    2014-05-01

    The source area of an instrument is an estimate of the area of ground over which the measurement is generated. Quantification of the source area of a measurement site provides crucial context for analysis and interpretation of the data. A range of computational models exists to calculate the source area of an instrument, but these are usually based on assumptions which do not hold for instruments positioned very close to the surface, particularly those surrounded by heterogeneous terrain i.e. urban areas. Although positioning instrumentation at higher elevation (i.e. on masts) is ideal in urban areas, this can be costly in terms of installation and maintenance costs and logistically difficult to position instruments in the ideal geographical location. Therefore, in many studies, experimentalists turn to rooftops to position instrumentation. Experimental validations of source area models for these situations are very limited. In this study, a controlled tracer gas experiment was conducted in a wind tunnel based on a 1:200 scale model of a measurement site used in previous experimental work in central London. The detector was set at the location of the rooftop site as the tracer was released at a range of locations within the surrounding streets and rooftops. Concentration measurements are presented for a range of wind angles, with the spread of concentration measurements indicative of the source area distribution. Clear evidence of wind channeling by streets is seen with the shape of the source area strongly influenced by buildings upwind of the measurement point. The results of the wind tunnel study are compared to scalar concentration source areas generated by modelling approaches based on meteorological data from the central London experimental site and used in the interpretation of continuous carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration data. Initial conclusions will be drawn as to how to apply scalar concentration source area models to rooftop measurement sites and

  9. Non-London electrodynamics in a multiband London model: Anisotropy-induced nonlocalities and multiple magnetic field penetration lengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silaev, Mihail; Winyard, Thomas; Babaev, Egor

    2018-05-01

    The London model describes strongly type-2 superconductors as massive vector field theories, where the magnetic field decays exponentially at the length scale of the London penetration length. This also holds for isotropic multiband extensions, where the presence of multiple bands merely renormalizes the London penetration length. We show that, by contrast, the magnetic properties of anisotropic multiband London models are not this simple, and the anisotropy leads to the interband phase differences becoming coupled to the magnetic field. This results in the magnetic field in such systems having N +1 penetration lengths, where N is the number of field components or bands. That is, in a given direction, the magnetic field decay is described by N +1 modes with different amplitudes and different decay length scales. For certain anisotropies we obtain magnetic modes with complex masses. That means that magnetic field decay is not described by a monotonic exponential increment set by a real penetration length but instead is oscillating. Some of the penetration lengths are shown to diverge away from the superconducting phase transition when the mass of the phase-difference mode vanishes. Finally the anisotropy-driven hybridization of the London mode with the Leggett modes can provide an effectively nonlocal magnetic response in the nominally local London model. Focusing on the two-component model, we discuss the magnetic field inversion that results from the effective nonlocality, both near the surface of the superconductor and around vortices. In the regime where the magnetic field decay becomes nonmonotonic, the multiband London superconductor is shown to form weakly-bound states of vortices.

  10. PATTERNS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG KENYAN STREET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sample of 50 (36 male and 14 female) street children currently in a remand home at Kabete in Nairobi, Kenya, were interviewed using a predesigned questionnaire in order to estimate prevalence rates for use of selected substances. The lifetime prevalence rates of the drugs most commonly used were volatile ...

  11. Wall Street sours on nuke plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Wall Street has been threatening to join the antinuclear campaign for years as construction lead times and costs grew and the financial condition of utilities building reactors deteriorated. With nuclear plant cancellations, licensing problems, quality-assurance breakdowns, and elevated costs, stock prices have dropped causing unrest among utility investors

  12. Smart street lights using power line communication

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Toit, P

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of automation has resulted in the development of “smart” systems for a variety of different applications. One such application is street lighting which still mostly uses very primitive methods of maintenance. The use...

  13. [Agnosia for streets and defective root finding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobuyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Topographical disorientation is identified as a condition in which patients are unable to find their way in familiar surroundings, such as their home neighborhood or the admitting hospital after the onset of illness. I proposed to classify topographical disorientation into two categories: agnosia for streets (landmark agnosia) and defective root finding (heading disorientation). Patients with agnosia for streets are unable to identify familiar buildings and landscapes. They can, however, morphologically perceive them and remember their way around familiar areas. The lesions are located in the right posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus, anterior half of the lingual gyrus and adjacent fusiform gyrus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions play a crucial role in the interaction between the visual information of streets and memories of them, which are thought to be retained in the right anterior part of the temporal lobe. In particular, the posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus is critical for the acquisition of novel information. On the other hand, patients with defective root finding can identify familiar streets, but cannot remember their own location or positional relation between two points within a comparatively wide range not surveyable at one time. The lesions are located in the right retrosplenial cortex (Areas 29, 30), posterior cingulate cortex (Areas 23, 31) and precuneus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions are involved in the orientation function for navigating in wide spaces. In particular, the retrosplenial cortex is critical for encoding novel information.

  14. Vortex Cloud Street during AMTEX 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Agee, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    Strong northerly flow across Cheju Island, Korea, during the 1975 Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX 75) resulted in a pronounced vortex cloud street to the lee of the island on February 17 1975. This pattern has been studied and explained in terms of classical von Karman eddies shed...

  15. CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF STREET FOOD CONSUMERS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    diet of people living in low- and middle-income countries ... market for SF consumers in Cape Town. However, most ... beverages prepared and/or sold by vendors and hawkers ... many street-food items sold are unhealthy ...... going children in lower-income groups, who may ... The dangers of regular consumption of sugar-.

  16. Opportunities and constraints facing informal street traders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A small income and the limited ability of the government and the formal business sector to provide sufficient employment opportunities to people in the economically active age categories are two of the main reasons for informal trading in South African cities. As a result, the informal street trading sector plays an important ...

  17. The Earl Lee Street Art Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubba

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a catchy phrase with more to its meaning than first view. A slogan "All the girls love Earl Lee," appears in street art around the world. Earl Lee is a lovable, handsome man who owns the fictitious Earl Lube industries. Originally intended to bring a smile to people's faces at a time when there wasn't much to smile…

  18. Social Sustainability of Shopping Streets in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge YALÇINER ERCOŞKUN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Shopping streets are integral parts of public spaces in traditional shopping areas of Central Business Districts (CBD. Furthermore, as modern shopping venues, shopping centers offer advantages for modern lifestyles with spacious shopping areas, variety of commercial and social activities, and economic value of their investments. These advantages act in favor of shopping centers and improve the level of shopping street social sustainability and its relevant concepts. The aim of this study is to analyze the main shopping streets of Ankara, using the concepts of social sustainability. In this study, these concepts, such as locality, identity, vitality, viability, sense of place, conviviality, meaning and local characteristics of the shopping streets are investigated. For the first time, the retail unit locations in Ankara, their brands and their business types, are illustrated on thematic land use maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS software. Next, population activities and consumer spatial behavior are observed and marked on maps that are also referred to as social sustainability maps. The results of the study can be useful in formulating strategies within the framework of social sustainability, which is a relatively new concept.

  19. Agnosia for streets and defective root finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Topographical disorientation is identified as a condition in which patients are unable to find their way in familiar surroundings, such as their home neighborhood or the admitting hospital after the onset of illness. I proposed to classify topographical disorientation into two categories: agnosia for streets (landmark agnosia) and defective root finding (heading disorientation). Patients with agnosia for streets are unable to identify familiar buildings and landscapes. They can, however, morphologically perceive them and remember their way around familiar areas. The lesions are located in the right posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus, anterior half of the lingual gyrus and adjacent fusiform gyrus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions play a crucial role in the interaction between the visual information of streets and memories of them, which are thought to be retained in the right anterior part of the temporal lobe. In particular, the posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus is critical for the acquisition of novel information. On the other hand, patients with defective root finding can identify familiar streets, but cannot remember their own location or positional relation between two points within a comparatively wide range not surveyable at one time. The lesions are located in the right retrosplenial cortex (Areas 29, 30), posterior cingulate cortex (Areas 23, 31) and precuneus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions are involved in the orientation function for navigating in wide spaces. In particular, the retrosplenial cortex is critical for encoding novel information. (author)

  20. Turbulent ventilation of a street canyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2000-01-01

    A selection of turbulence data corresponding to 185 days of field measurements has een analysed. The non-ideal building geometry influenced the circulation patterns in the street canyon and the largest average vertical velocities were observed in the wake of an unbroken line of buildings. The sta...

  1. Travel Time Estimation on Urban Street Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kajalić

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Level of service (LOS is used as the main indicator of transport quality on urban roads and it is estimated based on the travel speed. The main objective of this study is to determine which of the existing models for travel speed calculation is most suitable for local conditions. The study uses actual data gathered in travel time survey on urban streets, recorded by applying second by second GPS data. The survey is limited to traffic flow in saturated conditions. The RMSE method (Root Mean Square Error is used for research results comparison with relevant models: Akcelik, HCM (Highway Capacity Manual, Singapore model and modified BPR (the Bureau of Public Roads function (Dowling - Skabardonis. The lowest deviation in local conditions for urban streets with standardized intersection distance (400-500 m is demonstrated by Akcelik model. However, for streets with lower signal density (<1 signal/km the correlation between speed and degree of saturation is best presented by HCM and Singapore model. According to test results, Akcelik model was adopted for travel speed estimation which can be the basis for determining the level of service in urban streets with standardized intersection distance and coordinated signal timing under local conditions.

  2. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage ...

  3. Lichen flora of London: effects of air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laundon, J R

    1967-01-01

    There is good, but not conclusive, evidence that sulfur dioxide is the pollutant which deleteriously affects lichens. The distribution of many lichens in London corresponds closely with the concentrations of sulfur dioxide. Low humidity is also a factor. Apart from actually killing lichens, increasing air pollution can render certain species incapable of colonizing new surfaces, although the old thalli themselves are able to survive as relicts. Until the early nineteenth century air pollution affected the lichen flora only in the small built-up area of London. The halting of building around London since 1938 has brought stability to the lichen vegetation of the area, and since then changes have been minor ones. Recent changes in pollution emissions have had little effect on the lichen flora between 1950 and 1967. This is to be expected as sulfur dioxide concentrations have remained fairly constant at ground level.

  4. Cosmopolitanism, geographical imaginaries and belonging in North London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devadason, Ranji

    2010-01-01

    Cosmopolitanism has been described as the cultural habitus of globalisation. It is therefore, albeit defined somewhat loosely, often associated with ethnically diverse, global cities. This paper considers the extent to which London engenders cosmopolitan values amongst its residents. It draws on survey data from the LOCAL MULTIDEM study of minorities' political participation to address these themes. The analysis examines perceptions of respect, belonging and geographical imaginaries - amongst established minorities and the ethnic majority - in north London. It is argued that cosmopolitan ethics are transformative and dialectical and, critically, cannot remain the preserve of the privileged in multi-ethnic neighbourhoods. The analysis presented demonstrates that a sense of belonging and cosmopolitan imaginaries are not evenly accessed by different ethnic groups; notably, that Bangladeshi Londoners who are born and bred in the city are less likely to appropriate these discourses than Caribbean, Indian or White residents.

  5. Clean Air for London (CLEARFLO) Final Campaign Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsnop, D. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Williams, L. R. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Herndon, S. C. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States); Dubey, M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ng, N. L. [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Thornton, J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Knighton, B. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Coulter, R. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Prévôt, Ash [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    2016-03-01

    This field campaign funded the participation of scientists from seven different research groups and operated over thirty instruments during the Winter Intensive Operating Period (January-February 2012) of the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. The campaign took place at a rural site in Detling, UK, 45 kilometers southeast of central London. The primary science questions for the ClearfLo winter IOP (intensive operational periods) were: 1) “what is the urban increment of particulate matter (PM) and other pollutants in the greater London area?” and 2) “what is the contribution of solid fuel use for home heating to wintertime PM?” An additional motivation for the Detling measurements was the question of whether coatings on black carbon particles enhance absorption.

  6. Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Revsbech, Christine

    Learning as Social Exchange in City Year London: Action towards an image of greatness contributes to the growing field of research on social entrepreneurship. The thesis is the result of an interesting, anthropological study of a social voluntary organisation, City Year London, a British affiliate...... of an American charity. Young volunteers were followed in their daily activities working as mentors for public primary school children, and the interaction between staff and volunteers in City Year London were observed. Also, interviews with both volunteers and staff were carried out. The thesis explores...... the empirical findings applying an understanding of learning as social exchange of value. The rich empirical data has led to analyses that draw on and contribute to economic anthropology, learning theories and social entrepreneurship....

  7. Streets? Where We're Going, We Don't Need Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.

    2017-12-01

    In 2007 Google Street View started as a project to provide 360-degree imagery along streets, but in the decade since has evolved into a platform through which to explore everywhere from the slope of everest, to the middle of the Amazon rainforest to under the ocean. As camera technology has evolved it has also become a tool for ground truthing maps, and provided scientific observations, storytelling and education. The Google Street View "special collects" team has undertaken increasingly more challenging projects across 80+ countries and every continent. All of which culminated in possibly the most ambitious collection yet, the capture of Street View on board the International Space Station. Learn about the preparation and obstacles behind this and other special collects. Explore these datasets through both Google Earth and Google Expeditions VR, an educational tool to take students on virtual field trips using 360 degree imagery.

  8. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The bulk of the smuggled cigarettes are sold by street vendors, many of them women and children, ... and its implications for government revenue;; identify the reasons why people sell on the streets; and, ... Agent(e) responsable du CRDI.

  9. Reproductive health behaviour of street youth and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-03-30

    Mar 30, 2014 ... street, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking and khat chewing. Among the .... Street youth: In this study, youth is defined as the people ... factors that influence sexual behaviours of ... means of preventing pregnancy. Condom ...

  10. Pan-London tuberculosis services: a service evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belling Ruth

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background London has the largest proportion of tuberculosis (TB cases of any western European capital, with almost half of new cases drug-resistant. Prevalence varies considerably between and within boroughs with research suggesting inadequate control of TB transmission in London. Economic pressures may exacerbate the already considerable challenges for service organisation and delivery within this context. This paper presents selected findings from an evaluation of London’s TB services’ organisation, delivery, professional workforce and skill mix, intended to support development of a strategic framework for a pan-London TB service. These may also interest health service professionals and managers in TB services in the UK, other European cities and countries and in services currently delivered by multiple providers operating independently. Methods Objectives were: 1 To establish how London’s TB services are structured and delivered in relation to leadership, management, organisation and delivery, coordination, staffing and support; 2 To identify tools/models for calculating skill mix as a basis for identifying skill mix requirements in delivering TB services across London; 3 To inform a strategic framework for the delivery of a pan-London TB service, which may be applicable to other European cities. The multi-method service audit evaluation comprised documentary analysis, semi-structured interviews with TB service users (n = 10, lead TB health professionals and managers (n = 13 representing London’s five sectors and focus groups with TB nurses (n = 8 and non-London network professionals (n = 2. Results Findings showed TB services to be mainly hospital-based, with fewer community-based services. Documentary analysis and professionals’ interviews suggested difficulties with early access to services, low suspicion index amongst some GPs and restricted referral routes. Interviews indicated lack of managed

  11. On the dynamic London-van der Waals interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzman, A.

    2003-08-01

    We present a theory of atomic reflection by evanescent waves in the quantized electromagnetic field vacuum that yields an analytical expression for the radiation pressure resulting from the combined effect of the evanescent field and spontaneous emission. The dynamic London-van der Waals potential between atoms and a dielectric wall is introduced as the effective interaction between the induced oscillating atomic dipole and its dipole image. Dissipative effects due to the imaginary part of the London-van der Waals potential are predicted. (author)

  12. Sources and contributions of wood smoke during winter in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crilley, Leigh; Bloss, William; Yin, Jianxin; Beddows, David; Harrison, Roy; Zotter, Peter; Prevot, Andre; Green, David

    2014-05-01

    Determining the contribution of wood smoke in large urban centres such as London is becoming increasingly important with the changing nature of domestic heating partly due to the installation of biomass burning heaters to meet renewable energy targets imposed by the EU and also a rise in so-called recreational burning for aesthetic reasons (Fuller et al., 2013). Recent work in large urban centres (London, Paris and Berlin) has demonstrated an increase in the contribution of wood smoke to ambient particles during winter that can at times exceed traffic emissions. In Europe, biomass burning has been identified as a major cause of exceedances of European air quality limits during winter (Fuller et al., 2013). In light of the changing nature of emissions in urban areas there is a need for on-going measurements to assess the impact of biomass burning in cities like London. Therefore we aimed to determine quantitatively the contribution of biomass burning in London and surrounding rural areas. We also aimed to determine whether local emissions or regional sources were the main source of biomass burning in London. Sources of wood smoke during winter in London were investigated at an urban background site (North Kensington) and two surrounding rural sites (Harwell and Detling) by analysing selected wood smoke chemical tracers. Concentrations of levoglucosan, elemental carbon (EC), organic carbon (OC) and K+ were generally well correlated, indicating a similar source of these species at the three sites. Based on the conversion factor for levoglucosan, mean wood smoke mass at Detling, North Kensington and Harwell was 0.78, 0.87 and 1.0 µg m-3, respectively. At all the sites, biomass burning was found to be a source of OC and EC, with the largest source of OC and EC found to be secondary organic aerosols and traffic emissions, respectively. Peaks in levoglucosan concentrations at the sites were observed to coincide with low ambient temperature, suggesting domestic heating as

  13. POLICY EVALUATION OF RESTRUCTURING STREET VENDORS IN SURAKARTA CITY (Study of Street Vendors in Monument Park Banjarsari and Street Vendors in Manahan Stadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frahlevi Prajasari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the policy evaluation of restructuring street vendors in Surakarta city. Street vendors represent the economic actors in the informal sector of urban economic activity. The government of City/District usually removes these street vendors by disguising this activity behind the reason of structuring, . The study used descriptive research with a qualitative approach. The relocation of street vendors in Surakarta City is orderly and smooth without violence which may impact badly on physic and material because the government of Surakarta City, especially Surakarta Mayor, uses persuasive approach. Notoharjo Market is a relocation place for street vendors at Banjarsari Monument Park. In the beginning, Notoharjo Market is crowded with buyers but current days, street vendors who occupy Notoharjo Market complain about lack of buyers. The lack of buyers at Notoharjo Market is because the facilities previously provided by the government of Surakarta City are not well maintained. The government of Surakarta City must listening all complains of street vendors for the smoothness and orderliness of trading activity of street vendors. Not only listening, but the government of Surakarta City also gives appropriate and best solution to street vendors such that street vendors feel comfort in selling and their income is better than before.

  14. Socio - demographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Involvement of children in street trading is inimical, contrary to the Rights of the Child, and threatens holistic child development. Objective: To describe the sociodemographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi. Method: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of children selling wares on the streets of ...

  15. Street Food Consumption and its associated socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street Food Consumption and its associated socio-demographic factors in Oyo town, Nigeria. ... Abstract. Background: Contemporary life-styles have made street foods to be an important meal option in Nigeria. They contribute ... Nutrition education is suggested for people to make a better choice of nourishing street foods.

  16. Psychosocial profile of institutionalised street children in Alexandria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The phenomenon of street children in Egypt constitutes a public health concern. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of institutionalised street children in Alexandria, to compare the prevalence of substance abuse and conduct disorder between street children and school children, and to identify ...

  17. An Art of Resistance: From the Street to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Rooted in graffiti culture and its attitude toward the world, street art is regarded as a postgraffiti movement. Street art encompasses a wide array of media and techniques, such as traditional spray-painted tags, stickers, stencils, posters, photocopies, murals, paper cutouts, mosaics, street installations, performances, and video projections…

  18. Socio-demographic characteristics of street children in rural ... - Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15.0%), part-time driving (9.5%) and car washing (5.0%) were the commonest types of work. Of those still schooling, 41.6% had no form of part-time work on the streets. None of the street children lived on the street with 65% still living with parents.

  19. Martha Whiteley of Imperial College, London: A Pioneering Woman Chemist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, Rafaelle M.; Nicholson, John W.

    2012-01-01

    Martha Whiteley (1866-1956) was one of the most important women chemists in the United Kingdom in the first half of the 20th century. In a male-dominated field, she was an academic on the staff of a co-educational university, Imperial College, London, where she carried out research of her own choosing, rather than assisting a male professor. She…

  20. The social impact of dizziness in London and Siena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bronstein, Adolfo M; Golding, John F; Gresty, Michael A; Mandalà, Marco; Nuti, Daniele; Shetye, Anu; Silove, Yvonne

    2010-02-01

    Although dizziness is a common presenting symptom in general and hospital practice, its social cost is not known. We assessed the social and work life impact of dizziness on patients in two contrasting European cities, Siena and London. First, we developed the 'Social life & Work Impact of Dizziness questionnaire' (SWID), which was validated by administering it to 43 patients with dizziness and 45 normal controls and by correlating the results with the EQ-5D (Europe quality of life) questionnaire. The SWID and EQ-5D scores were worse in patients than controls (p work as a result of the dizziness. Over 50% of patients felt that their efficiency at work had dropped considerably. The mean number of days off work attributed to the dizziness in the previous 6 months was 7.15 days. Social life was disrupted in 57% of all 400 patients. Factor analysis identified that detrimental effects on work, travel, social and family life combine to create a single factor accounting for much of the overall impact of their dizziness. Significant differences in some measures of handicap between London and Siena emerged, with London patients often faring worse. Reasons for these location differences include, as expected, a higher proportion of neurological patients in London than in Siena. However, factors related to city demographics and social cohesion may also modulate the impact on quality of life and working practice. Regardless of inter-city differences, these findings highlight the high social and economic impact of dizziness.

  1. A Community Approach to Youth Work in East London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Derek M.

    Instituted as part of "Avenues Unlimited" (The Tower Hamlets Youth Project), a community development approach to youth services was attempted in the cosmopolitan inner city slum district of Spitalfields, East London. Efforts began in 1966 with a clean up campaign, a neighborhood club for parents and youth, and other activities by the…

  2. Case Study: North Laurel High School, London, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, GA.

    When North Laurel High School, London, Kentucky, opened in Fall 1992, students and teachers entered a new facility and a new era of commitment to excellence for all students. In Spring 1993, North Laurel joined the Southern Regional Education Board's High Schools That Work initiative. The new school replaced the general track and raised graduation…

  3. Connecting Londoners with Their City through Digital Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swift, Frazer

    2013-01-01

    London is one of the most complex, dynamic and diverse cities in the world, with 8 million residents, over 300 languages spoken in its schools, and some 30 million overseas visitors every year. Reaching out to and connecting all these people with the city's heritage while catering to their many interests, motivations and learning needs is a huge…

  4. Iain Sinclair: Noise, Neoliberalism and the Matter of London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martin, N.

    2015-01-01

    For much of the 20th century the modernist city was articulated in terms of narratives of progress and development. Today the neoliberal city confronts us with all the cultural 'noise' of disorder and excess meaning. As this book demonstrates, for more than 40 years London-based writer, film-maker

  5. JACK LONDON ETNÓLOGO AMATEUR DEL PUGILISMO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Wacquant

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available De los relatos que Jack London ha consagrado al boxeo, A Piece of Steak es sin dudas aquel que merece hoy nuestra mayor atención, e incluso un lugar en el panteón de los textos literarios sobre el Noble Arte, y junto a él otros tres títulos...

  6. London tõukas New Yorgi troonilt / Kertu Ruus

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ruus, Kertu, 1977-

    2007-01-01

    Maailma finantskeskuste indeksi järgi on London tõuganud New Yorgi teisele kohale, neile järgnevad Hongkong, Singapur ja Zürich. Vt. samas: IPOd on USAs kokku kuivanud. Tabel: Londoni börsile tuli mullu rohkem firmasid

  7. 'ah famous citie' : women, writing, and early modern London

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilcox - Boulton, Helen

    2010-01-01

    This article explores aspects of the textual relationship between women and early modern London by examining three verbal 'snapshots' of the city in works either written by women or focusing on women in their urban environment. The first text, Isabella Whitney's 'Wyll and Testament' (1573),

  8. Skin Colour Awareness and Preference in London Nursery School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laishley, Jenny

    1971-01-01

    Study focuses on children aged 3 to 5 years from 3 London areas. Contrary to expectation, awareness of differences in skin color was not a simple function of age and contact with colored children and adults; no clear evidence of prejudiced thinking was found in the subjects studied. (RJ)

  9. Trauma, workfare and the social contingency of precarity and its sufferings: the story of Marius, a street-youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolson, Mark S

    2015-03-01

    Based on ethnographic fieldwork in London, Ontario, Canada, with homeless and street-involved youth in a youth drop-in shelter that I call "At Home", this paper is an ethnographically grounded narrative analysis of interview content and participant observation with a centre focus on my key informant, a youth from Eastern Europe whom I call "Marius". Like many other street youth, Marius lives a life marked by precarity. His daily life is marked by traumatic memories of abandonment and abuse, which has lead to an inability to work; and structural violence facilitated by Ontario's workfare program called Ontario Works, especially its mandate that all "participants" (i.e. those in receipt of social assistance, such as Marius) seek employment or face termination of their social assistance check. For Marius, the recounting of traumatic memories at At Home opened up a shared rhetorical space from which he could narratively align himself vis-à-vis other street youth as a victim of precarity and trauma and therefore absolve himself of the onus to find employment. Regardless of his narrative positioning, he is constantly terminated from Ontario Works for not submitting proof of citizenship and proof of job-seeking activities. In conclusion, the only way for Marius to find any form of solace from his past and the constraints of OW is through isolation: a cultural stance that serves as a coping mechanism, and allows Marius to muddle through each day, all the while holding precarity and its pursuant anxiety and depression at bay.

  10. LES of flow in the street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, Vladimír; Brechler, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Results of computer simulation of flow over a series of street canyons are presented in this paper. The setup is adapted from an experimental study by [4] with two different shapes of buildings. The problem is simulated by an LES model CLMM (Charles University Large Eddy Microscale Model) and results are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. The results in the channel (layout from the experiment) are compared with results with a free top boundary.

  11. Finding Street Gang Members on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Balasuriya, Lakshika; Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Doran, Derek; Sheth, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Most street gang members use Twitter to intimidate others, to present outrageous images and statements to the world, and to share recent illegal activities. Their tweets may thus be useful to law enforcement agencies to discover clues about recent crimes or to anticipate ones that may occur. Finding these posts, however, requires a method to discover gang member Twitter profiles. This is a challenging task since gang members represent a very small population of the 320 million Twitter users. ...

  12. 75 FR 71744 - Fifth Street Finance Corp., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Street Finance Corp., et al.; Notice of Application November 18, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Street Finance Corp. (``Fifth Street''), Fifth Street Management LLC, Fifth Street Mezzanine Partners IV... regulated as a business development company (``BDC'') under the Act. Fifth Street is a specialty finance...

  13. Self-Localization at Street Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Giovanni; Shen, Huiying; Coughlan, James M

    2014-05-01

    There is growing interest among smartphone users in the ability to determine their precise location in their environment for a variety of applications related to wayfinding, travel and shopping. While GPS provides valuable self-localization estimates, its accuracy is limited to approximately 10 meters in most urban locations. This paper focuses on the self-localization needs of blind or visually impaired travelers, who are faced with the challenge of negotiating street intersections. These travelers need more precise self-localization to help them align themselves properly to crosswalks, signal lights and other features such as walk light pushbuttons. We demonstrate a novel computer vision-based localization approach that is tailored to the street intersection domain. Unlike most work on computer vision-based localization techniques, which typically assume the presence of detailed, high-quality 3D models of urban environments, our technique harnesses the availability of simple, ubiquitous satellite imagery (e.g., Google Maps) to create simple maps of each intersection. Not only does this technique scale naturally to the great majority of street intersections in urban areas, but it has the added advantage of incorporating the specific metric information that blind or visually impaired travelers need, namely, the locations of intersection features such as crosswalks. Key to our approach is the integration of IMU (inertial measurement unit) information with geometric information obtained from image panorama stitchings. Finally, we evaluate the localization performance of our algorithm on a dataset of intersection panoramas, demonstrating the feasibility of our approach.

  14. Accelerated Innovation Deployment (AID) Demonstration : KYTC—Roundabout Installation Project in London, Kentucky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-01

    This document serves as the final report on the construction and opening of the Roundabout Project in London, Kentucky (Kentucky Item Number 11904.1). This project (hereafter referred to as the London Roundabout) was constructed on the authority o...

  15. Royal london hospital set P28 plans 30th anniversary reunion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibthorpe, Fran

    2013-04-03

    Members of Set P28 at the Royal London Hospital who began their training in February 1980 are planning a reunion on July 27 in London. The venue will be announced later. Email fran-joy@hotmail.com for details.

  16. Estimating the influence of different urban canopy cover types on atmospheric particulate matter (PM10) pollution abatement in London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallis, Matthew; Freer-Smith, Peter; Sinnett, Danielle; Aylott, Matthew; Taylor, Gail

    2010-05-01

    In the urban environment atmospheric pollution by PM10 (particulate matter with a diameter less than 10 x 10-6 m) is a problem that can have adverse effects on human health, particularly increasing rates of respiratory disease. The main contributors to atmospheric PM10 in the urban environment are road traffic, industry and power production. The urban tree canopy is a receptor for removing PM10s from the atmosphere due to the large surface areas generated by leaves and air turbulence created by the structure of the urban forest. In this context urban greening has long been known as a mechanism to contribute towards PM10 removal from the air, furthermore, tree canopy cover has a role in contributing towards a more sustainable urban environment. The work reported here has been carried out within the BRIDGE project (SustainaBle uRban plannIng Decision support accountinG for urban mEtabolism). The aim of this project is to assess the fluxes of energy, water, carbon dioxide and particulates within the urban environment and develope a DSS (Decision Support System) to aid urban planners in sustainable development. A combination of published urban canopy cover data from ground, airborne and satellite based surveys was used. For each of the 33 London boroughs the urban canopy was classified to three groups, urban woodland, street trees and garden trees and each group quantified in terms of ground cover. The total [PM10] for each borough was taken from the LAEI (London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory 2006) and the contribution to reducing [PM10] was assessed for each canopy type. Deposition to the urban canopy was assessed using the UFORE (Urban Forest Effects Model) approach. Deposition to the canopy, boundary layer height and percentage reduction of the [PM10] in the atmosphere was assessed using both hourly meterological data and [PM10] and seasonal data derived from annual models. Results from hourly and annual data were compared with measured values. The model was then

  17. The district nursing and community matron services workforce: A scoping review in South London for the South London Nursing Network

    OpenAIRE

    Drennan, Vari

    2014-01-01

    This report presents both an overview of the issues influencing district nursing and community matron \\ud workforces and also a scoping of key issues in respect of workforce development in district nursing and\\ud community matron services in South London

  18. Dark London: Dimensions and characteristics of dark tourism supply in the UK capital

    OpenAIRE

    Powell, Raymond; Iankova, Katia

    2016-01-01

    This paper will investigate the characteristics of the supply of dark tourism in London, UK through an examination of the identified main dark sites in London, UK. Our methodology is based on web analysis of the presence of marketed and non-marketed dark tourist sites in London, their web visitation, the level of their commercialisation and the characteristics which place them in the various scales as categorised in current literature, notably Stone (2006). We identified that London offers a ...

  19. The Royal Entries of Henry VI in a London Civic Manuscript

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourassa, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    London Metropolitan Archives, MS Letter Book K, contains descriptions of Henry VI’s royal entries into both Paris (1431) and London (1432). Their placement one after the other in a London Letter Book was likely the work of the city’s common clerk, John Carpenter, who was the author of the descrip...

  20. Determinants of black carbon, particle mass and number concentrations in London transport microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Ioar; Kumar, Prashant; Hagen-Zanker, Alex; Andrade, Maria de Fatima; Slovic, Anne Dorothee; Pritchard, John P.; Geurs, Karst T.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the determinants of personal exposure concentrations of commuters' to black carbon (BC), ultrafine particle number concentrations (PNC), and particulate matter (PM1, PM2.5 and PM10) in different travel modes. We quantified the contribution of key factors that explain the variation of the previous pollutants in four commuting routes in London, each covered by four transport modes (car, bus, walk and underground). Models were performed for each pollutant, separately to assess the effect of meteorology (wind speed) or ambient concentrations (with either high spatial or temporal resolution). Concentration variations were mainly explained by wind speed or ambient concentrations and to a lesser extent by route and period of the day. In multivariate models with wind speed, the wind speed was the common significant predictor for all the pollutants in the above-ground modes (i.e., car, bus, walk); and the only predictor variable for the PM fractions. Wind speed had the strongest effect on PM during the bus trips, with an increase in 1 m s-1 leading to a decrease in 2.25, 2.90 and 4.98 μg m-3 of PM1, PM2.5 and PM10, respectively. PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations in car trips were better explained by ambient concentrations with high temporal resolution although from a single monitoring station. On the other hand, ambient concentrations with high spatial coverage but lower temporal resolution predicted better the concentrations in bus trips, due to bus routes passing through streets with a high variability of traffic intensity. In the underground models, wind speed was not significant and line and type of windows on the train explained 42% of the variation of PNC and 90% of all PM fractions. Trains in the district line with openable windows had an increase in concentrations of 1 684 cm-3 for PNC and 40.69 μg m-3 for PM2.5 compared with trains that had non-openable windows. The results from this work can be used to target efforts to reduce personal exposures of

  1. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M; Anderson, Andrew R; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F

    2017-12-01

    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Vermeer's The Little Street: a precise location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Grijzenhout

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 2015, Frans Grijzenhout published his sensational findings regarding the likely location of Johannes Vermeer’s ‘little street’ (The Little Street. After consulting a variety of sources, including the ‘The Ledger of Dredging of the Canals in the Town of Delft’ from 1666–1667, he had reached the conclusion that the famous painting by Vermeer must have been based on the houses and two intervening passageways that in Vermeer’s day stood on Vlamingstraat, an unassuming canal in the eastern part of Delft, where numbers 40 and 42 stand today. He had also ascertained that one of Vermeer’s aunts, Ariaentgen Claes van der Minne, was the occupant of 42 Vlamingstraat at that time. Several authors have since produced material indicating that Vermeer painted the right-hand house in Little Street ‘from life’: the house was, it now appears, observed and reproduced in meticulous detail. The same can now be confirmed for other aspects, such as the colour used for the painted shutters and the recesses for wind hooks in the sill of the window of the righthand house. Philip Steadman has rightly pointed to an apparent discrepancy of four feet (c. 1.25 m. between the details in the aforementioned ‘Ledger of the Dredging of the Canals in the Town of Delft’ and the actual spatial situation at 40 Vlamingstraat. This difference can be traced back to the fact that the gateway provided access to both front and back houses. Accordingly, the owners of both front and back houses would have been taxed on the width (four feet of the passageway. Given what we know about the meticulous precision with which the Ledger was compiled in the case of 42 Vlamingstraat, it is inconceivable that the authors of the register for number 40 should have made a mistake. A spatial rendering based on an earlier perspective study of The Little Street, corresponds surprisingly well, and in some respects in detail, with the cadastral and other information we

  3. "Mothering through Islam": Narratives of Religious Identity in London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Ryan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper draws upon research with mothers of diverse Muslim backgroundsin London to explore how these women use ‘conservative’ interpretations ofIslamic beliefs and practices to underpin their parenting strategies. In particularthe paper looks at how mothers use religion as a frame to make sense of andgive meaning to their experiences and encounters in Britain. We suggest thatthe women use Islam in four key ways: (i as a framework for teaching theirchildren right and wrong, (ii as a means of protecting children from the ‘moral’dangers of British society, (iii as an authoritative voice that reinforces parentingand (iv as a means of critiquing specific aspects of both the traditional andBritish culture in which they live and daily negotiate their different cultural andreligious belonging. In attempting to instil religious values in their London-basedchildren, these mothers have to negotiate the hostility that Islam increasinglyprovokes in British society’s public arenas.

  4. Origins and properties of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jeremy W; Bothamley, Graham H; Drobniewski, Francis; Gillespie, Stephen H; McHugh, Timothy D; Pitman, Richard

    2005-06-01

    Using similarities of IS6110 banding patterns, isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from a population-based study in London were assigned to 12 large groups termed 'superfamilies' (sfams). Analysis of patient data showed a marked geographical association in the distribution of these sfams. In particular, isolates from patients born in Europe were from different sfams than those born elsewhere, indicating that there had been relatively little transmission of tuberculosis in London from immigrant communities into the endogenous population. Multivariate analysis showed that certain sfams were significantly associated with pulmonary rather than extrapulmonary disease, or with sputum smear negativity, independently of country of birth or ethnicity, suggesting that the properties of the infecting organism play a role in the nature of the disease process.

  5. Reducing stigma in healthcare and law enforcement: a novel approach to service provision for street level sex workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodkin, Kate; Delahunty-Pike, Alannah; O'Shea, Tim

    2015-04-09

    Providing services for street level sex workers requires a multidisciplinary approach, addressing both health and safety concerns typical of their age and gender and those that arise specific to their line of work. Despite being a diverse population, studies have identified some specific health needs for sex workers including addictions treatment, mental health. Additionally, studies have shown a higher risk of physical and sexual assault for this population. The Persons at Risk program (PAR) in London, Ontario, Canada was started in 2005 to address the specific needs of street level sex workers by using a harm-reduction model for policing and healthcare provision. This qualitative study evaluated this model of care in terms of improving access to healthcare and essential police services for street level sex workers. A total of 14 semi-structured interviews were conducted with current and former female street level sex workers enrolled in the PAR program. In addition, 3 semi-structured interviews were conducted with health and law enforcement professionals. The research team then analyzed and coded the transcripts using qualitative description to identify key themes in the data. Results indicated that participants represent a vulnerable population with increased safety concerns and healthcare needs relating to addictions, mental health and infectious disease. Despite this, participants reported avoiding healthcare workers and police officers in the past because of fear of stigma or repercussions. All participants identified the harm reduction approach of the PAR program as being essential to their continued engagement with the program. Other important aspects included flexible hours, the location of the clinic, streamlined access to mental health and addictions treatment and the female gender of the police and healthcare worker. The PAR program provides sex workers access to much needed primary healthcare that is flexible and without judgment. In addition, they are

  6. Penciptaan Drama Musikal Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street (Sweeney Todd:Tukang Cukur Haus Darah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husni Wardhana

    2013-11-01

    seluruh pertunjukan. Kata kunci: penyutradaraan, drama musikal, kisah legendaris, Sweeney Todd, teater sekolah. ABSTRACT The musical drama Sweeney Todd: Th e Demon Barber of Fleet Street. The creative directing process of this drama has given many good lessons to the art work of performing arts, especially to musical drama performance. The musical drama has its own unique characteristics in its process and performance. This type of drama is very popular in the USA, and has been the only contribution from the USA to enrich the typical of world theater. Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street is as an English legend, especially in England. This script created by Christopher Bond has been performed for several times in all around the globe. Having seen from its creating history, the story of a barber who takes revenge has been through long adaptation process. Some big authors in this era, before proceeded by Christopher Bond’s creative touch, had creatively recreated this script. The musical drama Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street was fi rstly created from the musical comedy drama and since 1920 has shown serious themes that are well known as Broadway music or American music. This drama has commonly been shown on a big stage West End and Broadway in London and New York, also in Australia and Asia. Moreover, it has also been performed by groups of school-theater and amateur theater. Most of the musical drama performances Sweeney Todd: The Demon Barber of Fleet Street are accompanied by music and are sung as well. The dialog is changed into songs. The actors are supposed to be able to sing, to act, and to dance. The musical drama is a performance that uses three main characteristics, namely: singing (solo, ensemble, and choir, dancing (individual and group, and acting, that dominates in most parts of the performance. Key words: directing, musical drama, legend story, Sweeney Todd, theater.

  7. The use of street-level bureaucracy theory in health policy analysis in low- and middle-income countries: a meta-ethnographic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Ermin

    2014-12-01

    This article presents a synthesis of studies that explicitly use the theory of street-level bureaucracy to illuminate health policy implementation in low- and middle-income countries. Street-level bureaucrats are frontline workers in bureaucracies, e.g. nurses, who regularly interact directly with citizens in discharging their policy implementation duties and who have some discretion over which services are offered, how services are offered and the benefits and sanctions allocated to citizens. This synthesis seeks to achieve the dual objectives of, first, reflecting on how street-level bureaucracy theory has been used in the literature and, second, providing an example of the application of the synthesis methodology of meta-ethnography to the health policy analysis literature. The article begins by outlining meta-ethnography and providing more information on the papers on which the synthesis is based. This is followed by a detailed account of how the synthesis was achieved and by an articulation of the synthesis. It then concludes with thoughts and questions on the value and relevance of the synthesis, the experience of conducting the synthesis and the partial way in which street-level bureaucracy theory has been used in the literature examined. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  8. [Homeless on the streets of Copenhagen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, M

    1994-05-16

    A group of homeless people living in the streets is described with the purpose of gaining the knowledge necessary to prevent development of homelessness and establishing programmes for the homeless. Out-reach work in the streets and cooperation with private and religious organisations was conducted during a two-year period and 59 homeless persons were interviewed. Fifteen were women and 44 were men. Upbringing, social conditions, daily living, physical and mental health and contact with health services, social security and private organisations were highlighted in a structured and semistructured interview. Compared with the background population the homeless had much more frequently childhood experience of parents' divorce or death of one of the parents. The women were significantly older than the men and the majority of the women were suffering from schizophrenia and had very little contact with network and public services. The majority of the men were abusing alcohol or drugs, many had had a troublesome childhood with stays in institutions. Many had had many contacts with different social institutions and a criminal record. Among the homeless in the streets of Copenhagen, the prevalence of mental illness, especially schizophrenia, is high. It is recommended that homelessness among the mentally ill is prevented by a special effort directed towards the patient group at risk of becoming homeless and through establishing different housing facilities with varying degrees of professional support. Out-reach work towards the homeless mentally ill should be carried out with the purpose of establishing contact with psychiatric services and securing the possibility of compulsory admission.

  9. Modern Special Collections Cataloguing: A University of London Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Attar, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have seen a growing emphasis on modern special collections (in themselves no new phenomenon), with a dichotomy between guidance for detailed cataloguing in Descriptive Cataloging of Rare Materials (Books) (DCRM(B), 2007) and the value of clearing cataloguing backlogs expeditiously. This article describes the De la Mare Family Archive of Walter de la Mare's Printed Oeuvre at Senate House Library, University of London, as an example of a modern author collections in an institutiona...

  10. A London shop window for PPARC industry partnership successes

    CERN Multimedia

    Neale, R

    2002-01-01

    The UK Particle Physics and Astronomy Research Council recently held a seminar in London to reveal the results of the impressive work they are doing in fostering partnerships between science and industry. They have many different types of funded programmes, the purpose of all of them is to encourage industry and entrepreneurs to both benefit from and service the requirements of particle physics science and technology (1 page).

  11. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage...... of caseworkers emphasizing actions that are consistent with the national employment reform goal of getting clients into jobs quickly. The influence of politicians and managers in bringing this about is relatively limited in comparison to the influences of caseworkers’ understanding of policy goals...

  12. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage...... of caseworkers emphasizing actions that are consistent with the national employment reform goal of getting clients into jobs quickly. The influence of politicians and managers in bringing this about is relatively limited in comparison to the influences of caseworkers’ understanding of policy goals...

  13. Philippines: street children, children at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantoco, F G

    1993-01-01

    Almost 2 million of Manila's 2.5 million children younger than 15 years old live on or below the poverty line. 75,000 of these children live on the streets after having run away from home or being abandoned. They beg, steal, scavenge for food, and sell newspapers, cigarettes, and leis. About 20,000 of the street children prostitute themselves. It is these latter children and adolescents who are at particular risk of HIV infection. Studies in the Philippines indicate that 91% of reported HIV infections are among individuals aged 15-44, the male/female infection ratio is one to one, the transmission rate is 45%, and the most common mode of transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The high incidence of child sexual abuse and child prostitution in the Philippines would suggest that there are a significant number of children and adolescents under age 15 who are infected with HIV. Caritas Manila has developed an information, education, and communication program for HIV/AIDS prevention focusing upon individuals who have direct influence upon and are in direct contact with people: clergy, religious and civic associations, educators, and social and health workers. Caritas has also to a limited extent reached out directly to populations at risk, while collaborating with human rights advocacy groups and networking with other children-oriented agencies in the interest of providing resources to street children. Efforts must be made to protect the rights of children and provide them with an environment conducive to their growth and development. The author notes how off-duty policemen in Manila help real estate developers forcibly eject the poor from their shelters to clear the way for the construction of new infrastructure without concern for the legal processes and requirements in the humane and peaceful relocation of the homeless poor. Many women and children are hurt and killed in the process. It has also been reported that off-duty policemen in Rio de Janeiro

  14. CONTROLLING STREET DOG POPULATION IN MOSCOW

    OpenAIRE

    ZHULENKO A.S.; POLYNOVA G.V.

    2016-01-01

    The issue represents the analysis of the fundamentals and world-wide best practices of controlling street dog population in Moscow and other global cities. Actions proposed to improve the strategy of managing free-ranging dogs in Moscow.Some reasons of increase in number of stray dogs and “pet overpopulation” ware studied. There are ecological types of stray dogs characterized the types of running wild of dogs and foraging (food procurement) strategy of animals.The analysis of the basic princ...

  15. Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as

  16. The Institute of Epileptology of King's College, University of London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, E H

    1995-01-01

    The Institute of Epileptology of King's College, London has arisen from need and from opportunity. The need is due to the relative neglect nationally and internationally of the most common serious brain disorder with important physical, psychological, and social complications. The relative neglect is reflected in services, research, charitable donations, public profile, and stigma and in a serious lack of professional education. The opportunity arose because of the existence in several medical institutions at Denmark Hill, London, of a group of medical and related colleagues with a special interest covering almost every aspect of this multidisciplinary disorder who agreed to combine their expertise in this initiative. The idea was born and developed in 1991-1992 and was supported by all the parent institutions: The Maudsley and King's College Hospitals, St. Piers Lingfield, The Institute of Psychiatry, King's College School of Medicine and Dentistry, and the School of Life, Basic Medical and Health Sciences, all under the umbrella of King's College, University of London. Further stimulus and help came from a group of dedicated supporters in private and public life. There are three strands to this initiative: (a) a charity, The Fund for Epilepsy; (b) the clinical Centre for Epilepsy, which was formally opened at the Maudsley Hospital in July 1994; and (c) the academic Institute of Epileptology for research and teaching, which was launched on November 15, 1994.

  17. Enhancing Resilience of London by Learning from Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Atun

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The concept of resilience was introduced at the beginning of the 70s to indicate the capability of natural systems to absorb perturbations, preserving their structure and keeping the system functioning. The paper considers London as an example to a resilient city by focusing on some remarkable disasters in the history of London, such as the Great Fire of 1666, the air raids during the World War 2, 18 December 1987 Kings Cross Fire, terrorist attack to tube network on the 7th of July 2005, 1928 flooding and 1953 storm surge. The paper starts by giving short descriptions of these disasters and continues by discussing the lessons learned. In this paper, the concept of resilience has been studied in three phases: prepare for, respond to and recover from a disaster. Besides, actions that have to be taken according to these three phases are going to be explored in detail. In conclusion, the notable effects of the mentioned disasters on the structural and non-structural tools for disaster prevention have been revealed by considering resilience of London.

  18. A social work study on family patterns and street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between various family characteristics and street children in rural area as well as city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 150 street children, 75 from city and 75 from rural area, and using some statistical tests verifies the effects of three factors including family income, place of residency and family size on street children. The results indicate that the city residence had more street children than rural residence did. In addition, there was a meaningful difference between the number of street children in low-income families and high-income families. Finally, the survey results indicate that big size families more likely suffered from street children than low size families did.

  19. Diversity of contexts in drug use among street adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves de Moura, Yone; van der Meer Sanchez, Zila; Noto, Ana Regina

    2010-09-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate through ethnographic methods the different contexts of drug use by street adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Participant observations and semistructured interviews were performed at 11 major points of adolescent concentration in the streets of the city and in 10 care institutions. The sample was composed of 17 adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age. Data showed diverse patterns of drug use distributed by geographic situation and street circumstances. Observations were grouped into three main contexts: (a) immersion: greater intensity of drug use associated with greater involvement in the street culture; (b) surface: less drug use associated with family closeness; and (c) alternative-migratory: greater involvement with drug trafficking and prostitution associated with less family closeness and street culture. The drug use patterns varied in accordance with the diversity of street situations. Therefore, the peculiarities of each context should be taken into consideration in the development of social/ health policies.

  20. [Street social education: historical, political and pedagogical bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Walter Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    This work is about street social education as a pedagogical system that started in Latin America in the late 1970s, as the street population formed mostly by children and adolescents called for attention. The first street social educators were 'pastoral' agents working at the praça da Sé a place with large numbers of street children in São Paulo. Based on the Liberation Theology and on the pedagogies developed by Paulo Freire, Celestine Freinet, Anton Makarenko, and Emília Ferreiro, the street educators developed a conceptual field and participated in the promulgation of the 1988 Federal Constitution, particularly by writing and introducing the 'Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente' (the 'Child and Adolescent Statute'). Street social education is currently latent and suffering the consequences of program discontinuity caused by successive changes of government. It is, therefore important to know the conceptual proposals.

  1. Whose Bay Street? Competing Narratives of Nassau's City Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nona Patara Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bay Street has always been at the centre of commercial, cultural and political life in the Bahama Islands. It also acts as a gateway for millions of tourists who come to Nassau, the Bahamian capital, via cruise ships every year. Not surprisingly, Bahamians and non-Bahamians have widely divergent impressions of Bay Street. The need to accommodate the tourists who are critical to the Bahamian economy has meant that Bay Street, despite its deep social significance for Bahamians, has increasingly become a tourist space. With reference to the ‘sense of place’ and place attachment literature, this paper traces the transformation of Bay Street and attempts to tease out the most obvious tensions between the Bay Street that Bahamians experience and Bay Street as a port of call.

  2. The on-street parking premium and car drivers' choice between street and garage parking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobus, M.B.W.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.; Rietveld, P.; van Ommeren, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a methodology to estimate the effect of parking prices on car drivers' choice between street and garage parking. Our key identifying assumption is that the marginal benefit of parking duration does not depend on this choice. The endogeneity of parking duration is acknowledged in the

  3. The Ballet of the Streets: Teaching about Cities at Street Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick A.; Spates, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The urban scholar Jane Jacobs once described city life as "the ballet of the streets." In more than a quarter century of joint teaching, the authors have used Jacobs' metaphor to help their students understand that cities are living organisms created and maintained, for good or ill, by the people who live and work in them. At heart their…

  4. 19th century London dust-yards: A case study in closed-loop resource efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velis, Costas A.; Wilson, David C.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2009-01-01

    The material recovery methods used by dust-yards in early 19th century London, England and the conditions that led to their development, success and decline are reported. The overall system developed in response to the market value of constituents of municipal waste, and particularly the high coal ash content of household 'dust'. The emergence of lucrative markets for 'soil' and 'breeze' products encouraged dust-contractors to recover effectively 100% of the residual wastes remaining after readily saleable items and materials had been removed by the thriving informal sector. Contracting dust collection to the private sector allowed parishes to keep the streets relatively clean, without the need to develop institutional capacity, and for a period this also generated useful income. The dust-yard system is, therefore, an early example of organised, municipal-wide solid waste management, and also of public-private sector participation. The dust-yard system had been working successfully for more than 50 years before the Public Health Acts of 1848 and 1875, and was thus important in facilitating a relatively smooth transition to an institutionalised, municipally-run solid waste management system in England. The dust-yards can be seen as early precursors of modern materials recycling facilities (MRFs) and mechanical-biological treatment (MBT) plants; however, it must be emphasised that dust-yards operated without any of the environmental and occupational health considerations that are indispensable today. In addition, there are analogies between dust-yards and informal sector recycling systems currently operating in many developing countries

  5. [Addictive behavior of street children: interculturation and resilience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommegne, T; Denoux, P; Bernoussi, A; Njiengwe, E F

    2014-09-01

    This research belongs to a more comprehensive study on the care of street children in Cameroon. The idea is to develop an analysis of the street pathology where symptoms such as addictive behavior and drug addiction can be found. Beside HIV AIDS, addictive behaviors are the main risk factors that many professionals have to face with while dealing with the street problems today. Through an intercultural approach, we examined the practices of addictive typology, their initiatory role and their function in the integration of the street system. We also analysed their importance in the survival strategies. After an overview of theoretical controversies that feed the debate on addictions, we questioned the impact of these practices on the street career through the prism of general theory of addictions, particularly the hedonic management model. Addiction helps to resist adversity, it helps to desist and then to begin a harmonious neo development despite the horrors of the street experience. We undertook a quantitative and qualitative study on a sample of 148 street children. We proposed to 128 of them a questionnaire focused on addictive behaviors and survival strategies in the street context. We notably evaluated the street career of 24 of them, using interviews and standardized tests to assess self-esteem (Coopersmith's SEI) frustration tolerance (Rosenweig's P-F) and self-efficacy (Sherer's SE Scale) in order to measure the impact of addictive behaviors on the resilience process. We found that the street career is essentially traumatic, and that addictive behaviors involving various integration strategies are strongly linked to the interculturation process through the identity strategies and the intercultural competences. Addiction itself is not significantly related to self-esteem issues but strongly impacts on self-efficacy and the ability to tolerate frustration. They allow the street children to withstand the street adversity but are a real obstacle to their

  6. Trees in the city: valuing street trees in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.H. Donovan; D.T. Butry

    2010-01-01

    We use a hedonic price model to simultaneously estimate the effects of street trees on the sales price and the time-on-market (TOM) of houses in Portland. Oregon. On average, street trees add $8,870 to sales price and reduce TOM by 1.7 days. In addition, we found that the benefits of street trees spill over to neighboring houses. Because the provision and maintenance...

  7. Playing With the City: Street Art and Videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Vazques Marquez, Israel; Pajares Tosca, Susana

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectator...

  8. On the escape of pollutants from urban street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, J.J.; Kim, J.J. [Kwangju Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Pollutant transport from urban street canyons is numerically investigated using a two-dimensional flow and dispersion model. The ambient wind blows perpendicular to the street and passive pollutants are released at the street level. Results from the control experiment with a street aspect ratio of 1 show that at the roof level of the street canyon, the vertical turbulent flux of pollutants is upward everywhere and the vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow is upward or downward. The horizontally integrated vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow at the roof level of the street canyon is downward and its magnitude is much smaller than that by turbulent process. These results indicate that pollutants escape from the street canyon mainly by turbulent process and that the net effect of mean flow is to make some escaped pollutants reenter the street canyon. Further experiments with different inflow turbulence intensities, inflow wind speeds, and street aspect ratio confirm the findings from the control experiment. In the case of two isolated buildings, the horizontally integrated vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow is upward due to flow separation but the other main results are the same as those from the control experiment. (author)

  9. [Street Outreach Offices: visibility, invisibility, and enhanced visibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallais, Janaína Alves da Silveira; Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2015-07-01

    This article discusses care for street people from a socio-anthropological perspective, using participant observation conducted with a team from a street outreach project. Based on observations, street people are historically viewed as marginal and rarely obtain access to health services, thus making them invisible to the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Brazil's National Policy for the Homeless provides for their access to health care, but such care is not always guaranteed in practice, because health services and professionals have little experience in dealing with homeless persons. The study concludes that enhanced visibility is needed to ensure care for people living on the street, establishing a therapeutic bond that deconstructs stigmatizing practice.

  10. Into a Mapping of Copenhagen Street Lighting 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja; Asp, Claus; Kongshaug, Jesper

    LED lighting is a new lighting component in urban Spaces. How does LED lighting change the visual experience of a street, how did it use to be and how will it become? The book presents a mapping method in which an overview map of light sources in the Copenhagen streets is combined with a video...... recording and a series of photos from a route, whick goes through different city parts and types of streets. The mapping is done in the crucial changing fase, in which the street lighting in Copenhagen is a mix of previously used light sources and LED....

  11. Cohort profile: Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London: the ENABLE London-Olympic Park cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Bina; Nightingale, Claire M; Hudda, Mohammed T; Kapetanakis, Venediktos V; Ellaway, Anne; Cooper, Ashley R; Page, Angie; Lewis, Daniel; Cummins, Steven; Giles-Corti, Billie; Whincup, Peter H; Cook, Derek G; Rudnicka, Alicja R; Owen, Christopher G

    2016-10-28

    The Examining Neighbourhood Activities in Built Living Environments in London (ENABLE London) project is a natural experiment which aims to establish whether physical activity and other health behaviours show sustained changes among individuals and families relocating to East Village (formerly the London 2012 Olympics Athletes' Village), when compared with a control population living outside East Village throughout. Between January 2013 and December 2015, 1497 individuals from 1006 households were recruited and assessed (at baseline) (including 392 households seeking social housing, 421 seeking intermediate and 193 seeking market rent homes). The 2-year follow-up rate is 62% of households to date, of which 57% have moved to East Village. Assessments of physical activity (measured objectively using accelerometers) combined with Global Positioning System technology and Geographic Information System mapping of the local area are being used to characterise physical activity patterns and location among study participants and assess the attributes of the environments to which they are exposed. Assessments of body composition, based on weight, height and bioelectrical impedance, have been made and detailed participant questionnaires provide information on socioeconomic position, general health/health status, well-being, anxiety, depression, attitudes to leisure time activities and other personal, social and environmental influences on physical activity, including the use of recreational space and facilities in their residential neighbourhood. The main analyses will examine the changes in physical activity, health and well-being observed in the East Village group compared with controls and the influence of specific elements of the built environment on observed changes. The ENABLE London project exploits a unique opportunity to evaluate a 'natural experiment', provided by the building and rapid occupation of East Village. Findings from the study will be generalisable to

  12. Smart street lighting : The advantages of LED street lighting and a smart control system in Uppsala municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Inga; Gidén Hember, Amanda; Wallerström, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to examine how LED street lights and a smart street light control system can reduce the energy consumption, costs and in extension the CO2 equivalents in a geographically delimited area. In 2015 the municipality of Sala installed LED armatures connected to a smart control system in the whole municipality. The smart control system enables for instance adjustment of the light intensity at specific times during the day and a supervision of the street light ...

  13. Simulating the impacts of on-street vehicle parking on traffic operations on urban streets using cellular automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingxu; Li, Zhibin; Jiang, Hang; Zhu, Senlai; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, many bicycle lanes on urban streets are replaced with vehicle parking places. Spaces for bicycle riding are reduced, resulting in changes in bicycle and vehicle operational features. The objective of this study is to estimate the impacts of on-street parking on heterogeneous traffic operation on urban streets. A cellular automaton (CA) model is developed and calibrated to simulate bicycle lane-changing on streets with on-street parking. Two types of street segments with different bicycle lane width are considered. From the simulation, two types of conflicts between bicycles and vehicles are identified which are frictional conflicts and blocking conflicts. Factors affecting the frequency of conflicts are also identified. Based on the results, vehicle delay is estimated for various traffic situations considering the range of occupancy levels for on-street parking. Later, a numerical network example is analyzed to estimate the network impact of on-street parking on traffic assignment and operation. Findings of the study are helpful to policies and design regarding on-street vehicle parking to improve the efficiency of traffic operations.

  14. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M.; Anderson, Andrew R.; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. - Highlights: • Green streets can be used for both stormwater and air quality management. • Design considerations must be made to minimize human exposure to air pollutants. • Urban vegetation can improve air quality with careful selection and placement.

  15. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Kawada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation. The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive and CARS (negative. Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive.

  16. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Ko; Yamada, Takashi; Kishimoto, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction) model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation). The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive) and CARS (negative). Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive). PMID:25379274

  17. Health policy making for street children: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Saeieh, Sara Esmaelzadeh; Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh

    2017-08-17

    Background The phenomenon of street children is a bio-psychological and social issue that not only harms children, but also endangers the health of a society. In line with the national programs for the development and promotion of street children's health in Iran, health policy making and essential strategies for this group of children will be presented in this paper. This paper will discuss the main issues and challenges of street children's health and, also, health policy and guidelines for this population. Methods In this review study, the keywords; street children, health, challenges, policy, and health policy making were searched through PubMed, SID, Iranmedex, World Health Organization (WHO), Emro, the Cochran Library, Medline and Google scholar to collect data. The search resulted in 84 related resources from which 48 cases that were more relevant to this research and covered the issue more comprehensively, were used. All data published during 2002-2015 have been included in this paper. Results Key concepts including street children and their health, health policy, strategies to improve the health of street children, health policy approaches for street children, the WHO's strategies, and social support program for street children must be considered in the health policy making processes for street children, as precise identification of the relevant information makes planning more effective in health policy making for this group of children. Conclusion The phenomenon of street children is a growing problem in the world and it has turned into a serious concern in many countries including Iran. The findings of this study can be used for identifying necessary measures in order to use research outcomes more effectively in policy making processes and reforming street children's health policies in Iran.

  18. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage...... of caseworkers emphasizing actions that are consistent with thenational employment reform goal of getting clients into jobs quickly. The influence of politicians and managers in bringing this about is relatively limited in comparison to the influences of caseworkers’ understanding of policy goals......, their professional knowledge, and their policy predispositions. Our main contribution is an unpacking of the political and managerial influences on caseworkers’ policy emphases. We find direct effects and, more notably, indirect effects that operate on the influence of caseworkers’ perceptions of policy goals...

  19. The digital evolution of occupy wall street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Michael D; Ferrara, Emilio; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation from a set of highly interconnected users with pre-existing interests in domestic politics and foreign social movements. These users, while highly vocal in the months immediately following the birth of the movement, appear to have lost interest in Occupy related communication over the remainder of the study period.

  20. Technology transfer, a two-way street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Technology transfer through the Pollution Prevention ampersand Control Conferences, which have been cosponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and by the professional societies of industry, greatly improved the environmental projects of the Department of Energy at Savannah River Site (SRS) in the mid-1980's. Those technologies, used in the liquid effluent treatment of the metal finishing liquid effluents from aluminum cleaning and nickel plating of fuel and targets for the nuclear production reactors, have been enhanced by the research and development of SRS engineers and scientists. The technology transfer has now become a two-way street to the benefit of our Nation's environment as these enhancements are being adopted in the metal finishing industry. These success stories are examples of the achievements anticipated in the 1990's as technology development in the federal facilities is shared with commercial industry

  1. The digital evolution of occupy wall street.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Conover

    Full Text Available We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation from a set of highly interconnected users with pre-existing interests in domestic politics and foreign social movements. These users, while highly vocal in the months immediately following the birth of the movement, appear to have lost interest in Occupy related communication over the remainder of the study period.

  2. Introduction. Street Art: Iconoclasm and Institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Bianchi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On the night of May 12, 2016 the street artist Blu, armed with a roller and some grey paint, set out to paint over all the works he had done in the city of Bologna. In this intent, the following day also, he was helped by activists from the community centers, his own collaborators and ordinary citizens united in an informal community that upheld his cause. Many others gathered either to celebrate this rite of destruction or to complain in disbelief, but in any case, to watch as it happened. Attention centered particularly on #OccupyMordor, a large mural that dominated the XM24 (an occupied social community center in the Bolognina district which had previously been a focus when citizens mobilized to protect it from new building projects that envisaged the destruction of the building (July 2013.

  3. Road dust emission sources and assessment of street washing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Linares, C.; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust

  4. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  5. INTRODUCTION The term street children has many definitions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this, the still schooling street children in this study may likely have gravitated to the streets due to the lack of recreational facilities to keep youths occupied after school hours in the rural areas. As at the time of study, no amusement parks, cinemas and other recreational places exists in the Local Government Area. It is known.

  6. Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine ...

  7. Adolescent Street Boy Urchins and Vocational Training in Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2009-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, over 80% of the unskilled and uneducated adolescent street boys, or "Almajiris", are from the ethnic Hausa-Fulani tribes. They depend on street begging and menial jobs for daily survival. In dealing with the situation, state vocational centers were established as the Millennium Hope Project (MHP) to provide the boys…

  8. Gender Differences in the Family Situation of Brazilian Street Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S. H.; Reppold, C.; Kuschick, M.; Krum, F.; Bandeira, D.; Simoes, C.

    The goal of this analysis was to examine gender differences in the experiences of children and adolescents found on city streets. It has been proposed that girls who leave home to seek their survival on city streets are from more disturbed families than boys, reflecting cultural factors that result in differential norms for male and female…

  9. Green Street in District of Columbia Curbs Harmful Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    The name of the block hasn’t been changed to “Oh!” Street, but a revamped section of O Street NW in the District of Columbia is turning heads with green features that are keeping stormwater pollution out of the Anacostia River.

  10. HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents in rehabilitation centres in Kinshasa; DRC: gender differences. ... Background: Street children, common in Africa, are increasingly vulnerable to alcohol and drugs of abuse and lack access to both healthcare and knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Hence, this ...

  11. Land Use Correlates of Street Children in Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There exist many locations in which street children are found: public spheres such as markets, bus stops, car parks, garages, street corners, and under the bridges .... attributes of space such as form, pattern and aspect and are descriptive in ...

  12. 77 FR 67689 - Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ...] Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.; Notice of Application November 6, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and... arrangements (``Prior Order'').\\1\\ \\1\\ Colchester Street Trust, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos... Trust, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos. 23787 (Apr. 15, 1999) (notice) and 23831 (May 11...

  13. A Semiotic Reading and Discourse Analysis of Postmodern Street Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Postmodern street art operates under a set of references that requires art educators and researchers to adopt alternative analytical frameworks in order to understand its meanings. In this article, we describe social semiotics, critical discourse analysis, and postmodern street performance as well as the relevance of the former two in interpreting…

  14. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  15. Hygiene practices among street food vendors in Tamale Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study noted that street food business in the Tamale Metropolis was women dominated (76%). Majority of vendors (78%) were aged 20-39 years. Public toilets (pit latrines) were accessible to all vending sites. Though high number of street food vendors had some form of formal education (66%) and knowledge of food ...

  16. Detecting Themed Streets Using a Location Based Service Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeongsuk Ji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Various themed streets have recently been developed by local governments in order to stimulate local economies and to establish the identity of the corresponding places. However, the motivations behind the development of some of these themed street projects has been based on profit, without full considerations of people’s perceptions of their local areas, resulting in marginal effects on the local economies concerned. In response to this issue, this study proposed a themed street clustering method to detect the themed streets of a specific region, focusing on the commercial themed street, which is more prevalent than other types of themed streets using location based service data. This study especially uses “the street segment” as a basic unit for analysis. The Sillim and Gangnam areas of Seoul, South Korea were chosen for the evaluation of the adequacy of the proposed method. By comparing trade areas that were sourced from a market analysis report by a reliable agent with the themed streets detected in this study, the experiment results showed high proficiency of the proposed method.

  17. Relationships as determinants of substance use amongst street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unrestrained exposure to street life often makes the street child vulnerable to psychoactive substances. In other settings, the social relationships of the substance user with those around him or her and family norms of parenting have been docu-mented to modulate use. However, there is a dearth of literature on ...

  18. An Assessment of the Emerging Networks of Support for Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria, being asignatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC, 1989) promulgated the Child Rights Act 2003, which aimed at ameliorating the condition of street children in Nigeria. In line with this, there are emerging networks of support for street children. The extent to which these support networks are ...

  19. Poverty alleviation from the perspective of street vendors in Lesoth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper was to examine from the perspective of street vendors how they are fighting poverty and the extent of winning this endemic cankerworm. The findings of this paper are informed by a study carried in 2007 on poverty and street vendors in Lesotho. Questionnaires and focus group discussions were used ...

  20. Designing safe and inclusive streets in India | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-17

    Nov 17, 2016 ... In fast-growing Indian cities such as Ahmedabad, streets are also the site of conflict. ... while instances of violence against women are partly linked to land ... by poor street design, and to develop people-centred alternatives.

  1. Health problems of street children and women in Awassa, Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The number of street children and women in major towns of Ethiopia is rapidly increasing. Yet their problems have not been fully studied. Objective: To assess health and related problems in street children and women. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted in Awassa town, women southern ...

  2. Management of response to the polonium-210 incident in London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croft, John; Bailey, Michael; Tattersall, Phil; Morrey, Mary; McColl, Neil; Prosser, Lesley; Maguire, Helen; Fraser, Graham; Gross, Roger

    2008-01-01

    On the 23 November 2006, Alexander Litvinenko died in London allegedly from poisoning by 210 Po, an alpha particle emitter. The spread of radioactive contamination, arising from the poisoning and the events leading up to it, involved many locations in London. The potential for intakes of 210 Po arising from the contamination posed a public health risk and generated significant public concern. The scale of the event required a multi-agency response, including top level UK Government emergency response management arrangements. The Health Protection Agency (HPA) had a leading role in co-ordinating and managing the public health response. This paper reviews the management of the incident response and the issues involved. The fatal poisoning of Mr Litvinenko with 210 Po, and the associated public health hazard from the spread of contamination to many locations across London, was an unprecedented event. Fortunately, no one else is known to have suffered any acute effects. Results from the programme of individual monitoring showed that whilst more than 100 people had measurable intakes of 210 Po, only 17 had assessed doses in excess of 6 mSv. The highest dose of about 100 mSv gives rise to an increased risk of fatal cancer of about 0.5%, compared with the natural incidence of about 25%. The incident required a co-ordinated and sustained multi-agency emergency response. The Health Protection Agency, as the lead on public health matters played a significant role in this. Whilst inevitably some lessons have been identified, the response is considered to have been very effective and to have benefited from the wide spectrum of experience and expertise developed through normal work, together with the effort put into emergency preparedness and the various emergency response. (author)

  3. Quality Analysis of Open Street Map Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Li, Q.; Hu, Q.; Zhou, M.

    2013-05-01

    Crowd sourcing geographic data is an opensource geographic data which is contributed by lots of non-professionals and provided to the public. The typical crowd sourcing geographic data contains GPS track data like OpenStreetMap, collaborative map data like Wikimapia, social websites like Twitter and Facebook, POI signed by Jiepang user and so on. These data will provide canonical geographic information for pubic after treatment. As compared with conventional geographic data collection and update method, the crowd sourcing geographic data from the non-professional has characteristics or advantages of large data volume, high currency, abundance information and low cost and becomes a research hotspot of international geographic information science in the recent years. Large volume crowd sourcing geographic data with high currency provides a new solution for geospatial database updating while it need to solve the quality problem of crowd sourcing geographic data obtained from the non-professionals. In this paper, a quality analysis model for OpenStreetMap crowd sourcing geographic data is proposed. Firstly, a quality analysis framework is designed based on data characteristic analysis of OSM data. Secondly, a quality assessment model for OSM data by three different quality elements: completeness, thematic accuracy and positional accuracy is presented. Finally, take the OSM data of Wuhan for instance, the paper analyses and assesses the quality of OSM data with 2011 version of navigation map for reference. The result shows that the high-level roads and urban traffic network of OSM data has a high positional accuracy and completeness so that these OSM data can be used for updating of urban road network database.

  4. Lessons for climate policy from The Great Stink of London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuce, A.

    2012-12-01

    A rapidly growing population and the introduction of the flush toilet in nineteenth-century London caused a crisis with sewage pollution in the River Thames (Halliday, 1999). There were decades of delays in implementing solutions owing to: inadequate governance institutions; political inertia; difficulties with financing; opposition from vested interests; scientific uncertainties; and technological challenges. Effective counter-measures were started only once the problem arose, quite literally, under the noses of parliamentarians. There are parallels, some of them pointed out earlier by Alley et al (2010), between the sewage crisis in Victorian London and the current problem with climate change. Both involve the unsustainable use of a common resource (a river, the atmosphere) for the unconstrained disposal of human waste products. Alley (2011) estimated that the costs of providing clean water and sanitation are comparable to the expected costs of reducing greenhouse gas emissions. Despite the similarities, the climate change issue is actually much more difficult because of: a) the unequal and uncertain global distribution of cause and effect; b) its long, intergenerational time lines; c) the insufficiency of adequate institutions, conventions or the tools— political, moral or economic—for tackling the climate crisis. This analysis is consistent with the model proposed by Gardiner (2011) in his book A Perfect Moral Storm. The three "storms" he identifies, the global, intergenerational and theoretical storms, combine in a powerful synergy to create a challenge of unprecedented intractability, providing opportunities for what Gardiner calls moral corruption: the obscuring of the buck-passing and procrastination that characterizes climate policy today. In Victorian London, the crucial steps to solve the sewage crises were not taken until the stench from the River Thames during the hot summer of 1858 rendered the House of Commons uninhabitable. A greater stink of a

  5. Conference Scene: Summary report from EAACI: London 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiehm, Matthias; Bufe, Albrecht

    2010-09-01

    Immunotherapy is, to date, the only effective curative method for the treatment of allergic disorders. Great efforts have been made to improve the efficacy, safety and patient compliance with this method. The growing understanding of the immunological mechanisms underlying immunotherapy has led to new approaches for immunotherapy involving the routes of administration and the kinds of molecules used. In addition, new vaccines are being created that combine the advantageous immunological charasteristics of different substances, such as virus-like particles linked to allergens. Many new results from ongoing research into these topics were presented at the 29th congress of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in London.

  6. Mothering through Islam: narratives of religious identity in London

    OpenAIRE

    Ryan, Louise; Vacchelli, Elena

    2013-01-01

    This paper draws upon research with mothers of diverse Muslim backgrounds in London to explore how these women use ‘conservative’ interpretations of Islamic beliefs and practices to underpin their parenting strategies. In particular the paper looks at how mothers use religion as a frame to make sense of and give meaning to their experiences and encounters in Britain. We suggest that the women use Islam in four key ways: (i) as a framework for teaching their children right and wrong, (ii) as a...

  7. Testing Efficiency of the London Metal Exchange: New Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehwan Park

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the market efficiency of the six base metals traded on the LME (London Metal Exchange using daily data from January 2000 to June 2016. The hypothesis that futures prices 3M (3-month are unbiased predictors of spot prices (cash in the LME is rejected based on the false premise that the financialization of commodities has been growing. For the robustness check, monthly data is analyzed using ordinary least squares (OLS and GARCH (1,1 models. We reject the null hypothesis for all metals except for zinc.

  8. Regeneralized London free energy for high-Tc vortex lattices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Shahzamanian

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available   The London free-energy is regeneralized by the Ginsburg-Landau free-energy density in the presence of both d and s order parameters. We have shown that the strength of the s-d coupling, makes an important rule to determine the form of the lattice vortex. Appearance of the ratios of the coherence length to penetration depth in the higher order corrections of the free-energy density will truncate these corrections for even large values of .

  9. Contrasting VOC Composition in London, UK and Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunmore, R.; Hopkins, J. R.; Shaw, M.; Squires, F. A.; Lee, J. D.; Lewis, A. C.; Hamilton, J. F.

    2017-12-01

    With an increasing fraction of the world's population now living in megacities, urban air quality in those locations has the potential to be one of the largest controllable factors for public health. Both London and Beijing are classified as megacities, with the latter almost twice as densely populated. The key drivers and trajectory of air pollution are unique to each location; London has substantially reduced PM10 concentrations over the past two decades but continues to have high urban NO2. Beijing has had well-reported high levels of PM, is now in a phase of gradual decline, and has proportionately low NO2. Both locations however, continue to emit a mix of gas phase pollutants with the potential to form photochemical ozone. Whilst the abundance of NOx in each city is relatively straightforward to quantify, the VOC mixtures that are present differ between these two cities and this has consequential impacts on the downwind ozone formation potential. This work reports a comprehensive assessment of VOC speciation, reactivity and abundance in the two cities using a common set of inter-comparable measurement approaches. Hourly observations of VOCs over the range C2 - C13+ were made using two gas chromatography (GC) instruments; a PLOT column based GC for the most volatile fraction (C2-C7) and a comprehensive two-dimensional GC (GCxGC) for VOCs with more than 7 carbons. London has atmospheric VOC concentrations that in mass and reactivity terms are dominated by longer chain VOCs from diesel fuel. The VOC mixture in ambient Beijing air is dominated by short chain VOCs, a mix of both alkenes from incomplete combustion sources and alkanes and aromatics from petrochemical sources. The substantial difference in the fleet proportions of gasoline and diesel powered vehicles between the two cities is clearly reflected in ambient VOCs. In summertime, isoprene was a notable contributor to VOC reactivity in both cities despite both being highly urbanised locations. The absolute

  10. The Education Rights of Street-Involved Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Grover

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of certain key aspects of the practical and legal situation of street-involved children globally. The inadequate protection of these children under both domestic and international law is addressed. The diversity of the population of street-involved children is considered as is the fact that this group is composed of both legally stateless and de facto stateless children. The relationship of street involvement to child labor, various health risks and victimization is discussed. The educational needs of older street-involved children are addressed including their right to participate in decision-making regarding aspects of educational service design and delivery. The overall objective of this paper is to encourage those who are involved in, or could impact upon educational policy to include street-involved children in their educational planning implementation and advocacy efforts.

  11. Diffusion of Complete Streets policies Across US communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Eyler, Amy; Barbero, Colleen; Hipp, J Aaron; Walsh, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Complete Streets policies guide planning in communities by making the transportation system accommodating to all users including vehicle drivers, pedestrians, and bicyclists, as well as those using public transportation. While the number of Complete Streets policies has increased over the past decade, no research has explored the factors attributing to the widespread diffusion of these policies. The purpose of this study was to apply concepts of the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to data related to Complete Streets policies in order to identify potential patterns and correlates. The main outcome of this study was policy adoption. Using the Diffusion of Innovation Theory and results from previous literature, we identified several factors that had the potential to affect the rate of Complete Streets policy diffusion: rural/urban status, state obesity rate, state funding for transportation, state obesity prevention funding, percentage of people who walk or bike to work in the state, presence of a state Complete Streets policy, and the number of bordering communities with Complete Streets policy. We used event history analysis as the main analysis method. Data from 49 community-level policies were analyzed, with a "community" defined as a city, a county, or a regional/Metropolitan Planning Organization. Three variables were significant predictors of Complete Streets policy adoption: state obesity rate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.465; confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-1.96) percentage of people who bike or walk to work in the state (OR = 1.726; CI = 1.069-2.79), and presence of a border community with a Complete Streets policy (OR = 3.859; CI = 1.084-13.742). Communities with Complete Streets policies varied in geographic and sociodemographic factors. Information about communities that are more likely to adopt a policy can be a tool for advocates and policy makers interested in this topic. Because adoption does not imply implementation, further research is needed to study

  12. Road and Street Centerlines, StreetLabels-The data set is a text feature consisting of 6329 label points representing street names. It was created to show the names of city and county based streets., Published in 1989, Davis County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road and Street Centerlines dataset current as of 1989. StreetLabels-The data set is a text feature consisting of 6329 label points representing street names. It was...

  13. Sex Trafficking and State Intervention: Conflicts and Contradictions during the 2012 London Olympics

    OpenAIRE

    Jelbert, Charmaine

    2015-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the British human trafficking prevention policies adopted for the 2012 London Olympics using mixed methods including participation-observation, qualitative interviews, theoretical analysis and policy evaluation. I was invited to observe the Human Trafficking Network and London 2012, the Mayor of London’s official response to the claim that human trafficking would increase at the London Olympics. My presence enabled me to witness first-hand the key policy debates su...

  14. Carbon Capture and Storage and the London Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    The International Energy Agency (IEA) estimates that 100 Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) projects will be required by 2020 and over 3000 by 2050 if CCS is to contribute fully to the least-cost technology portfolio for CO2 mitigation. For CCS to reach its emissions reduction potential, the 2009 IEA publication Technology Roadmap: Carbon Capture and Storage recommends that international legal obstacles associated with global CCS deployment be removed by 2012 -- including the prohibition on transboundary CO2 transfer under the London Protocol. The London Protocol was amended by contracting parties in 2009 to allow for cross-border transportation of CO2 for sub-seabed storage, but the amendment must be ratified by two-thirds of contracting parties to enter into force. It is unlikely that this will occur in the near term; this working paper therefore outlines options that may be available to contracting parties under international law to address the barrier to deployment presented by Article 6, pending formal entry into force of the 2009 amendment.

  15. The Competition between London Companies Regarding Their Financial Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simionescu Mihaela

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a high level of competition between companies and the final result is often measured by their financial performance. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the financial performance of a sample of companies from London. Statistical analysis is performed of 293 companies randomly selected from the population of firms resident in London, the economic indicators being registered for 2014. The main results indicated that most of the variation in financial performance is explained by the book-to-market ratio and cash-to-assets ratio. On the other hand, financial performance is also explained by cash flow and leverage. Most of the firms that were placed in the same group had a successful financial performance in 2014. Few companies located in the other cluster encountered some difficulties regarding cash flow and sales. This situation could be explained by the difficulties of facing the economic crisis. Thus the financial performance evaluation is useful in improving a firm’s financial indicators in order to achieve a higher profit. The diagnosis will help managers in taking the most suitable decisions to solve the financial problems by selecting the best strategies.

  16. Stinking Foreshore to Tree Lined Avenue: Investigating the Riverine Lives Impacted by the Construction of the Thames Embankments in Victorian London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Louise Steyne

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Victorian London saw dramatic physical changes along the river Thames. Large enclosed Docks and Thames Embankments were constructed as the city struggled to cope with its ballooning population and prospering shipping industry. Whilst the Thames Embankments have been hailed as engineering triumphs, the fate of those whose livelihood relied on access to the river in central London (such as wharf workers, barge, ferry and lighter men, and others is unknown. In order to investigate the impact of the Embankment, a methodology has been developed which enables characterisation of a large swathe of urban riverside throughout the mid- to late 19th century, whilst also ensuring that the stories of individuals and communities are not lost. The approach combines and adapts established methodologies, such as Historic Landscape/Seascape Characterisation and Maritime Cultural Landscapes, to understand the nature and changes in the urban riverside landscape. This methodology forms the background for detailed research on smaller sites, such as a single street, housing block, or industrial site, in order to create ‘Ethnographies of Place’. These small-scale ‘Ethnographies’ have the potential to tell stories about how the social and economic circumstances of individuals and communities changed as a result of the landscape changes associated with the Embankment construction. This paper presents the initial work to establish the methodology and preliminary conclusions based on key sources.

  17. Public health assessment for US Naval Submarine Base, New London, Groton, New London County, Connecticut, Region 1. CERCLIS No. CTD980906515. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The New London Submarine Base was divided by the town boundaries of Groton to the south and Ledyard to the north in New London County, Connecticut. In 1983, the Navy identified 16 potential source areas of environmental contamination during their investigations. The submarine base was listed on the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Priorities List in August 1990 because of the potential for on-base groundwater contamination to migrate to off-base residential wells that are close to the New London Submarine Base

  18. Childcare needs of female street vendors in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, P; Zetina, A; Tapia, M; Ortiz, C; Soto, I C

    1996-06-01

    This article reports on strategies developed by female street vendors (vendedoras ambulantes) in Mexico City to ensure the care of their young children in the absence of a specific and operational government policy to fulfil this need. The information concerning child care and health was gathered by a survey of 426 street traders selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling in four of the administrative districts (delegaciones politicas) of Mexico City during 1990. It was found that, as mothers of young children, street vendors most frequently looked after their children personally on the street or left them with other members of the family. Related factors were availability of alternative child care providers in the family, the age of the children and working conditions of the mother. Children who remained on the streets with their mothers suffered more frequently from gastro-intestinal diseases and accidents than the national average. The incidence of acute respiratory diseases, however, was similar in the cases of maternal care in the street and care by family members in another environment. Existing public health measures show a greater concern for the health of food consumers than that of workers in this area. Current public policy seeks to regulate street vending activities and to concentrate traders in ad hoc areas and facilities. Our research results document the need for actions that can contribute to an improvement in the care and health conditions of these young children.

  19. A Solution for Street Lighting in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart Cities is a domain of great interest in the modern society. The aim of a smart urban environment is to increase citizens’ comfort and quality of life with minimum resources and power consumption and without affecting the natural environment. Street lighting is one of the main interests in such a smart environment. This thesis focuses on implementing a lighting control system that makes street lighting to be an autonomous and efficient part of the urban environment. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed using an OMNET++ network simulation. The results lead to the conclusion that the smart control system improves some drawbacks of a classic street lighting system.

  20. Playing With the City: Street Art and Videogames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazques Marquez, Israel; Pajares Tosca, Susana

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact...... that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectators, who are invited to play in symbolic ways that actualize nostalgic memories of gaming and can be related...

  1. Street vending and informal economy: Survey data from Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Lina M; Estrada, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    This data brief describes data collected in Cali, Colombia about the economic dynamic and socioeconomic conditions of street vendors in the city. The study was conducted between 2014 and 2016 in two populated sites in terms of formal and informal commerce in the city. We present the methodology followed in the study, location of street vending sites and type of data collected to approximate to the economic dimension of street vending. Data collected contains information about sociodemographic characteristics, life satisfaction, business operation and characteristics, income and expenses, official license for operation. This information is linked to the publication (Martinez et al., 2017) [1].

  2. Street canyon ventilation control by proper planning and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakin Vladimir Vasil'evich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of street canyon ventilation control in major streets is a tool of air pollution prevention in them, protection of housing areas from excessive wind or preservation and intensification of existing wind speed in case of insufficient ventilation. The maximum permissible concentration of car exhaust pollutants with wind speed within comfortable and permissible values by physiological and hygienic criteria, are ensured as from 40 to 70 % of thoroughfares in major cities. The dependence of air pollution level on wind speed is comparable to its dependence on traffic intensity and ratio of buildings height (H to street width. But one has to take into account that, if the wind blows across the street, vortices form within the street canyon, which results in higher concentration of car exhaust pollutants near the downwind buildings. The objective of this work is to find the functional dependences of wind speed in a major street on its width and density of buildings, and also to find out which street configurations are favorable for formation of closed air circulation within it, resulting in insufficient aeration. The experimental research was done on a site for large-scale modeling of built-up urban territory, using cup anemometers. The coefficients of dependence of wind speed within a street on the types of buildings and on the street width were obtained. Characteristics of street layouts for control of aeration were determined. Building density rates for maximizing or optimizing the wind speed were determined. Street layouts are considered where stable vortices form between the buildings. For example, vortices within the street canyon’s cross-section appear when buildings squarish in ground plan situated far apart are replaced by oblong ones with the minimum allowed intervals of 15 meters between them (for 5-storeyed buildings; or intervals equal to the buildings’ height, or where the buildings are long and close together. With

  3. Offshore wind power fundaments. Practical experience from the projects London Array and Dan Tysk; Offshore Windkraft Fundamente. Praxiserfahrung aus den Projekten London Array und DanTysk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horn, Moritz [Bilfinger Berger Ingenieurbau GmbH, Hamburg (Germany). Ingenieurwasserbau

    2012-11-01

    Based on a collection of diagrams and images the authors of the contribution under consideration report on practical experiences resulting from the project London Array and Dan Tysk with respect to the foundations of offshore wind turbines.

  4. Correlations of particle number concentrations and metals with nitrogen oxides and other traffic-related air pollutants in Glasgow and London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez Jiménez, Araceli; Heal, Mathew R.; Beverland, Iain J.

    2012-07-01

    Particle number concentration (PNC) and transition metal content are implicated in the health effects of airborne particulate matter (PM) but they are difficult to measure so consequently their temporal and spatial variations are not well characterized. Daily concentrations of PNC and particle-bound water-soluble metals (V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, As, Cd and Pb) were measured at background and kerbside sites in Glasgow and London to examine if other metrics of air pollution such as optical darkness (absorbance) of collected filter samples of PM, gravimetric PM, and NO, NO2 and CO gas concentrations, can be used as surrogates for the temporal and spatial variations of the former. NO2 and NOx exhibited a high degree of within-site correlation and with PNC and water-soluble metals (Fe, Cu, As, Cd, Pb) at background sites in both cities. There is therefore potential to use NO2 and NOx as surrogates for PNC and water-soluble metal at background sites. However, correlation was weaker in complex street canyon environments where pollutant concentrations are strongly affected by local sources and the small-scale variations in pollutant dispersion induced by the wind regimes within street canyons. The corollary of the high correlation between NO2 and PNC and water-soluble metals at the background sites is that the latter pollutants may act as confounders for health effects attributed to NO2 from such sites. Concentrations of CO cannot be used as a surrogate for PNC. Increments in daily NOx and NO2 concentrations between trafficked and background sites were shown to be a simple and novel surrogate for daily spatial variation of PNC; for example, increments in NOx explained 78-79% of the variance in PNC at the paired sites in both Glasgow and London, but relationships were city specific. The increments in NOx also explained 70% of the spatial variation in Cu and Ni in Glasgow but not in London. Weekly NO2 measurements derived from passive diffusion tubes were also shown to

  5. Habitual micronutrient intake during and after pregnancy in Caucasian Londoners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derbyshire, E; Davies, G J; Costarelli, V; Dettmar, P W

    2009-01-01

    Micronutrient status is of fundamental importance both upon conception and throughout pregnancy. There is an abundance of literature investigating nutrient intakes during individual trimesters of pregnancy but few studies have investigated baseline intakes of nutrients throughout gestation as a continuum. The current investigation set out to measure habitual micronutrient intakes at weeks 13, 25, 35 of pregnancy and 6 weeks postpartum using a prospective background information questionnaire, 4-7-day weighed food diary and postnatal questionnaire. Seventy-two primiparous, Caucasian Londoners were recruited at the study start with 42 completing the first, second, third trimester and postpartum study stages respectively. Study findings indicated that sodium intakes were significantly higher than UK guidelines throughout and after pregnancy (P pregnancy, but to varying levels of statistical significance (P health interventions may be required to help expectant mothers achieve an optimal diet, particularly after birth when dietary recommendations increase for some micronutrients.

  6. The London polonium poisoning: Events and medical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    The poisoning of Alexander Litvinenko on 23 November 2006 was an unprecedented event. Po-210 is a highly toxic radioactive heavy metal with a physical half-life of 138 days. Dispersal of the material by the perpetrators and the victim resulted in widespread contamination that led to a trail across London and abroad. This resulted in a massive operation for health protection staff and the police service. The surreptitious nature of this act almost escaped detection. The fact that the nature of the poison was not known for a number of weeks after admission to hospital indicates the difficulty in detecting alpha radiation. In this article, the sequence of events, the nature and uses of this radioactive element and the medical consequences of ingestion are outlined. The illicit use of radioactive materials raises important health and security issues. Medical and scientific staff in nuclear medicine and hospital emergency departments should be aware of these issues. (author)

  7. The Design of a Renewable Hydrogen Fuel Infrastructure for London

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parissis, O.; Bauen, A.

    2006-01-01

    The development of a least cost hydrogen infrastructure is key to the introduction of hydrogen fuel in road transport. This paper presents a generic framework for modelling the development of a renewable hydrogen infrastructure that can be applied to different cases and geographical regions. The model was designed by means of mixed integer linear programming and developed in MATLAB. It was applied to the case of London aiming to examine the possibilities of developing a renewable hydrogen infrastructure within a 50 years time horizon. The results presented here are preliminary results from a study looking at the least cost solutions to supplying hydrogen produced exclusively from renewable energy resources to large urban centres. (authors)

  8. International Symposium for Thyroid Eye Disease (June 2016, London

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Y. Sviridenko

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In June 2016, an International Symposium dedicated to the cutting edge research and achievements in Thyroid Eye Disease (TED diagnosis and treatment was held in London. The symposium was organized by the International Thyroid Eye Disease (ITEDs. It was attended EUGOGO, North American Neuro-Ophthalmological Society (NANOS and Orbit Society members. The symposium was attended by leading experts in the field of ophthalmology, orbital surgery and endocrinology: Rebecca S. Bahn, Maarten Mourits, Claudio Marcocci, George Kahaly, Mario Salvi, Antony Weetman, Anja Eckstein, Daniel Rootman, Geoffrey Rose, Robert Goldberg and Susanne Pitz, as well as doctors, specializing in the field of endocrinology, ophthalmology, radiology and other specialties. The symposium program was focused on the discussion of TED pathogenesis, classification and new therapeutic and surgical approaches. TED problems discussed by more than 300 professionals (65% ophthalmologists, 18% ophthalmic surgeons and 17% endocrinologists. North America was represented by 50 delegates. Representation of other continents was not less impressive.

  9. Ethnopharmacy of Turkish-speaking Cypriots in Greater London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yöney, Ahmet; Prieto, José M; Lardos, Andreas; Heinrich, Michael

    2010-05-01

    For centuries, in the Eastern Mediterranean region, medicinal plant use has been widely accepted as a treatment method for both minor and major diseases. Although some knowledge exists on the use of such medicinal plants within the Greek Cypriot culture and considerable information is available on various regions in Turkey, no detailed ethnopharmaceutical or ethnobotanical studies exist on Turkish-speaking Cypriots (TSC) both in Cyprus and within one of the largest TSC migrant communities in London, UK. Semi-structured interviews with members of the TSC community in London were conducted by using a questionnaire consisting both of open and closed questions. Open questions were aimed at identifying herbs, spices, medicinal plants and their uses. Also, graded questions were used to define informants' opinions as a quantitative parameter, constructing a statistical basis. A wide range of therapeutic claims were recorded, including 13 chronic illnesses within 85 different plant species, of which 18 were cited more than 10 times. The most frequently mentioned species were Mentha spicata, Salvia fruticosa and Pimpinella anisum. The plants recorded are frequently based on knowledge derived from Turkish-Cypriot traditions, but many examples of medicinal plants with a use based on UK or general western herbal medical traditions were also recorded. Informants highlighted the risk of knowledge loss in younger generations and thus this study serves as a repository of knowledge for use in the future. Due to a lack of knowledge about such usages in the healthcare professions, our study also highlights the need to develop information sources for use by healthcare practitioners in order to raise awareness about benefits and risks of such medical and health food products. Copyright (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. The epidemiology of injuries at the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willick, Stuart E; Webborn, Nick; Emery, Carolyn; Blauwet, Cheri A; Pit-Grosheide, Pia; Stomphorst, Jaap; Van de Vliet, Peter; Patino Marques, Norma Angelica; Martinez-Ferrer, J Oriol; Jordaan, Esmè; Derman, Wayne; Schwellnus, Martin

    2013-05-01

    The characteristics and incidence of injuries at the Summer Paralympic Games have not previously been reported. A better understanding of injuries improves the medical care of athletes and informs future injury prevention strategies. The objective of this prospective cohort study was to characterise the incidence and nature of injuries during the London 2012 Summer Paralympic Games. Injury information was obtained from two databases. One database was populated from medical encounter forms completed by providers at the time of assessment in one of the medical stations operated by the Organising Committee. The second database was populated daily with information provided by team medical personnel who completed a comprehensive, web-based injury survey. The overall injury incidence rate was 12.7 injuries/1000 athlete-days. Injury rates were similar in male and female athletes. The precompetition injury rates in women were higher than those in the competition period. Higher injury rates were found in older athletes and certain sports such as football 5-a-side (22.4 injuries/1000 athlete-days). Overall, 51.5% of injuries were new onset acute traumatic injuries. The most commonly injured region (percentage of all injuries) was the shoulder (17.7%), followed by the wrist/hand (11.4%), elbow (8.8%) and knee (7.9%). This is the largest and most comprehensive epidemiological report examining injuries in Paralympic athletes. Injury rates differ according to age and sport. Upper limb injuries are common. The knowledge gained from this study will inform future injury surveillance studies and the development of prevention strategies in Paralympic sport. The Epidemiology of Injuries at the London 2012 Paralympic Games.

  11. Engendering City Politics and Educational Thought: Elite Women and the London Labour Party, 1914-1965

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article uses biographical approaches to recover the contribution of hitherto neglected figures in the history of education and the political history of the Left in London. Place and location are important since it is important to grasp the uniqueness of the London County Council within the framework of English local government and of the…

  12. 77 FR 54495 - Regulated Navigation Area; Thames River Degaussing Range Replacement Operations; New London, CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... London Harbor, New London, CT. The proposed RNA would establish speed and wake restrictions as well as... comments by mail and would like to know that they reached the Facility, please enclose a stamped, self.... 0170.1. This proposal would establish speed and wake restrictions as well as allow the Coast Guard to...

  13. Psychoanalysis of Jack London's "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    "The Call of the Wild" and "White Fang" both are masterpieces of Jack London. The protagonists Buck and White Fang are the incarnation of Jack himself to some extent for the two novels reveal a great deal of the writer. This essay aims at psychoanalyzing Jack London's creative process, the Oedipus complex and the confliction…

  14. A bicycle safety index for evaluating urban street facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Shekari, Zohreh; Moeinaddini, Mehdi; Zaly Shah, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to conceptualize the Bicycle Safety Index (BSI) that considers all parts of the street and to propose a universal guideline with microscale details. A point system method comparing existing safety facilities to a defined standard is proposed to estimate the BSI. Two streets in Singapore and Malaysia are chosen to examine this model. The majority of previous measurements to evaluate street conditions for cyclists usually cannot cover all parts of streets, including segments and intersections. Previous models also did not consider all safety indicators and cycling facilities at a microlevel in particular. This study introduces a new concept of a practical BSI to complete previous studies using its practical, easy-to-follow, point system-based outputs. This practical model can be used in different urban settings to estimate the level of safety for cycling and suggest some improvements based on the standards.

  15. Street Littering in Nigerian Towns: towards a Framework for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    behaviour certainly affects everyone's quality of life, gives a visitor a bad first impression and .... sex, education level, occupation, effects of littering, etc.). Levels of .... creams, bananas, junk food, etc) along the streets than older people, as the.

  16. Relationships as determinants of substance use amongst street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stress, peer relationships and frequency of family meals.7,8,9,10 Amongst ... students with the fewest peer interaction problems.12 Furthermore, the ..... substance use among street children in a local government area of Nigeria: Drug and.

  17. Procedures for waste management from street sweeping and stormwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Street sweeping and storm water system cleaning activities are conducted regularly by ODOT to comply with NPDES permit requirements and to ensure roadway safety. Once collected, these materials are classified as solid waste and require cost-effective...

  18. demographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-05-14

    May 14, 2012 ... Teaching Hospital Nnewi,. Anambra State .... formed consent obtained before interview. A semi- structured .... obtaining a higher education if given the opportunity. Another 18 .... differences in Brazilian street youth's family ...

  19. Street Harassment in Cairo: A Symptom of Disintegrating Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... and contextualize street harassment as a social phenomenon and secondly ..... incidents, which were widely reported in the media, spurred many dis- ... impact on the general economic development of Egypt and on the tourist.

  20. Evaluation of complete streets policy implementation by metropolitan planning organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Over the last ten years, communities around the country have begun to implement comprehensive reforms : designed to ensure that roadway users of all ages and abilities can safely utilize the transportation system. : This complete streets policy frame...

  1. Drivers willingness to pay progressive rate for street parking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This study finds willingness to pay and price elasticity for on-street parking demand using stated : preference data obtained from 238 respondents. Descriptive, statistical and economic analyses including : regression, generalized linear model, and f...

  2. Implementing a Dynamic Street-Children's Program: Successes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dynamic street children's program in Mzuzu Malawi – using a developmental ... dynamics of parentchild, parent-parent and child-parent-environment; life-events; ... of child and adolescent development, and how they can influence the child's ...

  3. Characterization of Residuals Collected from Street Sweeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Street sweeping is a routine roadway maintenance activity conducted by the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT). It also provides an added benefit as a non-structural stormwater best management practice implemented by VDOT to meet total maxim...

  4. A street rubbish detection algorithm based on Sift and RCNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, XiPeng; Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Ting

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a street rubbish detection algorithm based on image registration with Sift feature and RCNN. Firstly, obtain the rubbish region proposal on the real-time street image and set up the CNN convolution neural network trained by the rubbish samples set consists of rubbish and non-rubbish images; Secondly, for every clean street image, obtain the Sift feature and do image registration with the real-time street image to obtain the differential image, the differential image filters a lot of background information, obtain the rubbish region proposal rect where the rubbish may appear on the differential image by the selective search algorithm. Then, the CNN model is used to detect the image pixel data in each of the region proposal on the real-time street image. According to the output vector of the CNN, it is judged whether the rubbish is in the region proposal or not. If it is rubbish, the region proposal on the real-time street image is marked. This algorithm avoids the large number of false detection caused by the detection on the whole image because the CNN is used to identify the image only in the region proposal on the real-time street image that may appear rubbish. Different from the traditional object detection algorithm based on the region proposal, the region proposal is obtained on the differential image not whole real-time street image, and the number of the invalid region proposal is greatly reduced. The algorithm has the high mean average precision (mAP).

  5. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The City of Detroit is in the midst of a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing HPS sources to LED. This report provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far — and contains useful information about issues that arise during large-scale LED street lighting projects.

  6. A Solution for Street Lighting in Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    M. Popa; A. Marcu

    2012-01-01

    Smart Cities is a domain of great interest in the modern society. The aim of a smart urban environment is to increase citizens’ comfort and quality of life with minimum resources and power consumption and without affecting the natural environment. Street lighting is one of the main interests in such a smart environment. This thesis focuses on implementing a lighting control system that makes street lighting to be an autonomous and efficient part of the urban environment. The performance of th...

  7. Structure, function and value of street trees in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Natalie van Doorn; John de Goede

    2016-01-01

    This study compiled recent inventory data from 929,823 street trees in 50 cities to determine trends in tree number and density, identify priority investments and create baseline data against which the efficacy of future practices can be evaluated. The number of street trees increased from 5.9 million in 1988 to 9.1 million in 2014, about one for every four residents....

  8. Street trees reduce the negative effects of urbanization on birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, João Carlos de Castro; Martello, Felipe; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Armitage, Richard A; Young, Robert J; Rodrigues, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    The effects of streets on biodiversity is an important aspect of urban ecology, but it has been neglected worldwide. Several vegetation attributes (e.g. street tree density and diversity) have important effects on biodiversity and ecological processes. In this study, we evaluated the influences of urban vegetation-represented by characteristics of street trees (canopy size, proportion of native tree species and tree species richness)-and characteristics of the landscape (distance to parks and vegetation quantity), and human impacts (human population size and exposure to noise) on taxonomic data and functional diversity indices of the bird community inhabiting streets. The study area was the southern region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil), a largely urbanized city in the understudied Neotropical region. Bird data were collected on 60 point count locations distributed across the streets of the landscape. We used a series of competing GLM models (using Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes) to assess the relative contribution of the different sets of variables to explain the observed patterns. Seventy-three bird species were observed exploiting the streets: native species were the most abundant and frequent throughout this landscape. The bird community's functional richness and Rao's Quadratic Entropy presented values lower than 0.5. Therefore, this landscape was favoring few functional traits. Exposure to noise was the most limiting factor for this bird community. However, the average size of arboreal patches and, especially the characteristics of street trees, were able to reduce the negative effects of noise on the bird community. These results show the importance of adequately planning the urban afforestation process: increasing tree species richness, preserving large trees and planting more native trees species in the streets are management practices that will increase bird species richness, abundance and community functional aspects and

  9. The relationship between high street footfall, attraction and conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, CD

    2016-01-01

    The three critical measures of retail performance are often suggested to be “location, location, location”. However this generalisation, like many others in the literature, is of little practical use without underpinning empirical evidence. At a time when high streets find themselves under pressure from emerging omni-channel shopping behaviours, now more than ever retail managers need reliable performance benchmarks and comparators. We report findings from a mass observation of high street sh...

  10. Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?

    OpenAIRE

    Mensah, Patience; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Owusu-Darko, Kwaku; Ablordey, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined...

  11. Community Engagement using World Café: The Well London Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheridan, Kevin; Adams-Eaton, Faye; Trimble, Allison; Renton, Adrian; Bertotti, Marcello

    2010-01-01

    The Well London programme was launched across twenty boroughs in London during late 2007 to improve the health and well-being of residents living in some of the most deprived communities in London. Well London employed a multi-stage community engagement process which informed the overall project strategy for each intervention area. In this article we establish and describe the key principles that guided the design of this innovative community engagement process. Principles included building collaborative partnerships, working with whole-systems, privileging community knowledge and working with the deficit of experience in each area. The article then describes in detail how these principles were operationalised throughout the preparation and delivery of forty World Cafes, which were the first open community activities of the Well London community engagement process. Finally, this article reflects on and summarises the lessons learned when employing innovative, inclusive and transparent community engagement for health promotion.

  12. Urban street structure and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Villaveces, Andres

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports the influence of road type and junction density on road traffic fatality rates in U.S. cities. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) files were used to obtain fatality rates for all cities for the years 2005-2010. A stratified random sample of 16 U.S. cities was taken, and cities with high and low road traffic fatality rates were compared on their road layout details (TIGER maps were used). Statistical analysis was done to determine the effect of junction density and road type on road traffic fatality rates. The analysis of road network and road traffic crash fatality rates in these randomly selected U.S. cities shows that, (a) higher number of junctions per road length was significantly associated with a lower motor- vehicle crash and pedestrian mortality rates, and, (b) increased number of kilometers of roads of any kind was associated with higher fatality rates, but an additional kilometer of main arterial road was associated with a significantly higher increase in total fatalities. When compared to non-arterial roads, the higher the ratio of highways and main arterial roads, there was an association with higher fatality rates. These results have important implications for road safety professionals. They suggest that once the road and street structure is put in place, that will influence whether a city has low or high traffic fatality rates. A city with higher proportion of wider roads and large city blocks will tend to have higher traffic fatality rates, and therefore in turn require much more efforts in police enforcement and other road safety measures. Urban planners need to know that smaller block size with relatively less wide roads will result in lower traffic fatality rates and this needs to be incorporated at the planning stage. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. [Effect of greenbelt on pollutant dispersion in street canyon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Jia; Xing, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2012-02-01

    The effect feature of greenbelt on flow field and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyon was researched. The greenbelt was assumed as uniform porous media and its aerodynamics property defined by the pressure loss coefficient. Subsequently, the pollutant dispersion in the street canyon of which there was greenbelt in the middle was simulated with the steady-state standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model and species transport equation. The simulated results agreed well with the wind-tunnel data. Compared with the treeless case, it finds that the street canyon contain a clockwise vortex, the pollutant concentration of the leeward was several times than the windward and the growth rate of pollutant concentration was 46.0%. The further simulation for the impact of tree crown position on the airflow and pollutant dispersion finds that the height of major vortex center in the street canyon increases with the height of tree crown and gradually closes the top of windward building This causes that the average wind speed in the street canyon decreases. Especially when the top of tree crown over the roof and hinder the air flow above the street canyon, the average pollutant concentration increases with the height of tree crown rapidly.

  14. NUTRIENTS INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF STREET CHILDREN IN BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Patriasih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objectives of this research were to analyze food habits and nutrients intake, and health and nutritional status of street children. The research was carried out in the City of Bandung, West Java; Indonesia. A sample of 324 street children was selected randomly. The sample consisted of 232 boys and 92 girls. The data obtained from questionnaires. Means, standard deviation, frequency and proportion were calculated with a combination of software applications:  Microsoft Excel and Statistical Analysis System. The result showed the level of consumption adequacy did not meet the recommended dietary allowances i.e. with the shortage of 10-15%, this is an indication that the street children should be aware of their daily food consumption. The most common diseases suffered by the respondents were acute respiratory infections (ARI (47%. In addition, 22.7 % and 18.4 % of them suffered from diarrhoea and skin diseases, respectively. Blood haemoglobin status of street children shows that the incidence of anemia was 29.3%. Based on the classification of nutritional status, 42.7% and 80.4 % of street children were underweight and stunted, respectively. Key words: nutrients intake, nutritional status, street children

  15. Drug use among street children and adolescents: what helps?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yone Gonçalves de Moura

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated to frequent and heavy drug use among street children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. A sample of 2,807 street children and adolescents from the 27 Brazilian state capital cities was analyzed. A World Health Organization questionnaire for non-students was adapted for use in Brazil. Data analysis was performed using logistic regression and decision tree models. Factors inversely associated with frequent and heavy drug use were: being age nine to 11 years (OR = 0.1; school attendance (OR = 0.3; daily time (one to five hours spent on the streets (OR = 0.3 and 0.4; not sleeping on the streets (OR = 0.4; being on the streets for less than one year (OR = 0.4; maintenance of some family bonds (OR = 0.5; presence on the streets of a family member (OR = 0.6; not suffering domestic violence (OR = 0.6; being female (OR = 0.8. All of these variables were significant at the p < 0.05 level. The findings suggest that being younger, having family bonds and engagement in school are important protective factors that affect drug use among this population and should be considered in the formulation of public policies.

  16. Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research: report on a symposium at King's College London, London UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Persaud, Shanta J; Arden, Catherine; Bergsten, Peter; Bone, Adrian J; Brown, James; Dunmore, Simon; Harrison, Moira; Hauge-Evans, Astrid; Kelly, Catriona; King, Aileen; Maffucci, Tania; Marriott, Claire E; McClenaghan, Neville; Morgan, Noel G; Reers, Christina; Russell, Mark A; Turner, Mark D; Willoughby, Emma; Younis, Mustafa Y G; Zhi, Z L; Jones, Peter M

    2010-01-01

    Laboratory-based research aimed at understanding processes regulating insulin secretion and mechanisms underlying β-cell dysfunction and loss in diabetes often makes use of rodents, as these processes are in many respects similar between rats/mice and humans. Indeed, a rough calculation suggests that islets have been isolated from as many as 150,000 rodents to generate the data contained within papers published in 2009 and the first four months of 2010. Rodent use for islet isolation has been mitigated, to a certain extent, by the availability of a variety of insulin-secreting cell lines that are used by researchers world-wide. However, when maintained as monolayers the cell lines do not replicate the robust, sustained secretory responses of primary islets which limits their usefulness as islet surrogates. On the other hand, there have been several reports that configuration of MIN6 β-cells, derived from a mouse insulinoma, as three-dimensional cell clusters termed ‘pseudoislets’ largely recapitulates the function of primary islet β-cells. The Diabetes Research Group at King’s College London has been using the MIN6 pseudoislet model for over a decade and they hosted a symposium on “Pseudoislets as primary islet replacements for research”, which was funded by the UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), in London on 15th and 16th April 2010. This small, focused meeting was conceived as an opportunity to consolidate information on experiences of working with pseudoislets between different UK labs, and to introduce the theory and practice of pseudoislet culture to laboratories working with islets and/or β-cell lines but who do not currently use pseudoislets. This short review summarizes the background to the development of the cell line-derived pseudoislet model, the key messages arising from the symposium and emerging themes for future pseudoislet research.

  17. Do suburban residents want to pay for wide streets? a survey on consumer preference and ability to afford towards wide street and on-street parking in American suburbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    All local governments in the U.S. set the street minimum width and cross-section design for local : neighborhood streets. Because local streets typically require no more than two traffic lanes (approx. 20 feet : wide), a minimum width of 26 feet or w...

  18. Competition for the Elements of the City Environment for Irkutsk’s Public Spaces: Street Furniture, Street Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Danilova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the contest «Street furniture. Street design», which was held this summer by manufacturing company «PalpNord», International research laboratory of study and design of the urban environment «Urban Planning School» and the Union of Architects of Russia. The winners and their projects are also listed in the article.

  19. Identification on the street: A field comparison of police street identifications and video line-ups in England

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Josh P.; Valentine, Tim; Memon, Amina; Roberts, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    A street identification or live show-up provides an eyewitness with an opportunity to identify a suspect shortly after a crime. In England, the majority of suspects identified are subsequently included in a video line-up for the same witness to view. In Study 1, robbery squad data from three English police forces recorded 696 crimes, the identification procedures employed and prosecution decisions. A street identification was the most frequent identification procedure, being attempted in 22.7...

  20. The 'other' London effect: the diversification of London's suburban grammar schools and the rise of hyper-selective elite state schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamsu, Sol

    2018-03-30

    This paper examines the rise of a new elite of 'super-state' schools in London, revealing a growing divide within the state sector which problematizes claims that the capital is a 'hotspot' for social mobility (Social Mobility Commission ). Although recent research has revealed a 'London effect' in which students in the capital on Free School Meals outperform their peers in other regions (Greaves, Macmillan and Sibieta ), inequalities between London's schools in access to elite universities have been overlooked. Drawing on a case study of a suburban London grammar school, 'King Henry's School', I show how ethnic-minority suburbanization has combined with an institutional strategy to compete with elite private schools. Strategies of selection have been mobilized alongside elements of elite 'gentlemanly' educational culture in order to reposition the school within the hierarchy of London's schools. The result is a hyper-selective school which provides a conduit to elite universities for upwardly mobile British-Asian students. I show that this strategy has strong parallels with the school's attempts in the early twentieth century to compete with London's fee-paying 'public' schools. The continuing symbolic value of 'traditional' forms of elite educational culture to a school seeking to reposition itself within the field reflects deep structural patterns of inequality in English education. To understand how apparent improvements in social mobility can sit alongside deepening inequalities between state schools, there is a need for a historical sociological approach that takes account of long-term processes of institutional change (Savage ; Inglis ). © London School of Economics and Political Science 2018.

  1. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were che...

  2. Street art a jeho vliv na současnou českou malbu

    OpenAIRE

    Grabmüllerová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Street Art and Its Influence on Contemporary Czech Painting Street art as a concept refers to an artistic expression, which is, however, not defined by one homogenous technique or subject. The only attribute that conjoins the diverse forms and subjects of street art is a very specific urban area utilization. Although street art encompasses many diverse forms and techniques, the most prevalent ones are sticker art, street posters art, stencil graffiti, murals, traditional graffiti artwork, art...

  3. POLE-LIKE STREET FURNITURE DECOMPOSTION IN MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A nove...

  4. Dispersion and photochemical evolution of reactive pollutants in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Baik, Jong-Jin; Lee, Kwang-Yeon

    2013-05-01

    Dispersion and photochemical evolution of reactive pollutants in street canyons with canyon aspect ratios of 1 and 2 are investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model coupled with the carbon bond mechanism IV (CBM-IV). Photochemical ages of NOx and VOC are expressed as a function of the NO2-to-NOx and toluene-to-xylene ratios, respectively. These are found to be useful for analyzing the O3 and OH oxidation processes in the street canyons. The OH oxidation process (O3 oxidation process) is more pronounced in the upper (lower) region of the street canyon with a canyon aspect ratio of 2, which is characterized by more (less) aged air. In the upper region of the street canyon, O3 is chemically produced as well as transported downward across the roof level, whereas O3 is chemically reduced in the lower region of the street canyon. The O3 chemical production is generally favorable when the normalized photochemical ages of NOx and VOC are larger than 0.55 and 0.28, respectively. The sensitivities of O3 chemical characteristics to NOx and VOC emission rates, photolysis rate, and ambient wind speed are examined for the lower and upper regions of the street canyon with a canyon aspect ratio of 2. The O3 concentration and the O3 chemical production rate divided by the O3 concentration increase as the NOx emission rate decreases and the VOC emission rate and photolysis rate increase. The O3 concentration is less sensitive to the ambient wind speed than to other factors considered. The relative importance of the OH oxidation process compared to the O3 oxidation process increases with increasing NOx emission rate and photolysis rate and decreasing VOC emission rate. In this study, both O3 and OH oxidation processes are found to be important in street-canyon scale chemistry. The methodology of estimating the photochemical ages can potentially be adopted to neighborhood scale chemistry.

  5. "Street Love": How Street Life Oriented U. S. Born African Men Frame Giving Back to One Another and the Local Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Yasser Arafat; Hamdi, Hanaa A.

    2009-01-01

    This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. born African men, to document how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. born African men between the ages of 16-65, frame and use "street life" as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; "Journal of Black Psychology" 34(1):3-31,…

  6. Pecan Street Grid Demonstration Program. Final technology performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-02-10

    This document represents the final Regional Demonstration Project Technical Performance Report (TPR) for Pecan Street Inc.’s (Pecan Street) Smart Grid Demonstration Program, DE-OE-0000219. Pecan Street is a 501(c)(3) smart grid/clean energy research and development organization headquartered at The University of Texas at Austin (UT). Pecan Street worked in collaboration with Austin Energy, UT, Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), the City of Austin, the Austin Chamber of Commerce and selected consultants, contractors, and vendors to take a more detailed look at the energy load of residential and small commercial properties while the power industry is undergoing modernization. The Pecan Street Smart Grid Demonstration Program signed-up over 1,000 participants who are sharing their home or businesses’s electricity consumption data with the project via green button protocols, smart meters, and/or a home energy monitoring system (HEMS). Pecan Street completed the installation of HEMS in 750 homes and 25 commercial properties. The program provided incentives to increase the installed base of roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, plug-in electric vehicles with Level 2 charging, and smart appliances. Over 200 participants within a one square mile area took advantage of Austin Energy and Pecan Street’s joint PV incentive program and installed roof-top PV as part of this project. Of these homes, 69 purchased or leased an electric vehicle through Pecan Street’s PV rebate program and received a Level 2 charger from Pecan Street. Pecan Street studied the impacts of these technologies along with a variety of consumer behavior interventions, including pricing models, real-time feedback on energy use, incentive programs, and messaging, as well as the corresponding impacts on Austin Energy’s distribution assets.The primary demonstration site was the Mueller community in Austin, Texas. The Mueller development, located less than three miles from the Texas State Capitol

  7. A Probabilistic Analysis of Surface Water Flood Risk in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Katie; Hall, Jim; Glenis, Vassilis; Kilsby, Chris

    2017-10-30

    Flooding in urban areas during heavy rainfall, often characterized by short duration and high-intensity events, is known as "surface water flooding." Analyzing surface water flood risk is complex as it requires understanding of biophysical and human factors, such as the localized scale and nature of heavy precipitation events, characteristics of the urban area affected (including detailed topography and drainage networks), and the spatial distribution of economic and social vulnerability. Climate change is recognized as having the potential to enhance the intensity and frequency of heavy rainfall events. This study develops a methodology to link high spatial resolution probabilistic projections of hourly precipitation with detailed surface water flood depth maps and characterization of urban vulnerability to estimate surface water flood risk. It incorporates probabilistic information on the range of uncertainties in future precipitation in a changing climate. The method is applied to a case study of Greater London and highlights that both the frequency and spatial extent of surface water flood events are set to increase under future climate change. The expected annual damage from surface water flooding is estimated to be to be £171 million, £343 million, and £390 million/year under the baseline, 2030 high, and 2050 high climate change scenarios, respectively. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  8. Scaling and allometry in the building geometries of Greater London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batty, M.; Carvalho, R.; Hudson-Smith, A.; Milton, R.; Smith, D.; Steadman, P.

    2008-06-01

    Many aggregate distributions of urban activities such as city sizes reveal scaling but hardly any work exists on the properties of spatial distributions within individual cities, notwithstanding considerable knowledge about their fractal structure. We redress this here by examining scaling relationships in a world city using data on the geometric properties of individual buildings. We first summarise how power laws can be used to approximate the size distributions of buildings, in analogy to city-size distributions which have been widely studied as rank-size and lognormal distributions following Zipf [ Human Behavior and the Principle of Least Effort (Addison-Wesley, Cambridge, 1949)] and Gibrat [ Les Inégalités Économiques (Librarie du Recueil Sirey, Paris, 1931)]. We then extend this analysis to allometric relationships between buildings in terms of their different geometric size properties. We present some preliminary analysis of building heights from the Emporis database which suggests very strong scaling in world cities. The data base for Greater London is then introduced from which we extract 3.6 million buildings whose scaling properties we explore. We examine key allometric relationships between these different properties illustrating how building shape changes according to size, and we extend this analysis to the classification of buildings according to land use types. We conclude with an analysis of two-point correlation functions of building geometries which supports our non-spatial analysis of scaling.

  9. Healthcare planning for the Olympics in London: a qualitative evaluation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgia Black

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. METHODS: We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. FINDINGS: We identified five key themes: (1 Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2 Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3 Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4 Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5 Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. INTERPRETATION: Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential.

  10. Healthcare planning for the Olympics in London: a qualitative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia; Kononovas, Kostas; Taylor, Jayne; Raine, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. We identified five key themes: (1) Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2) Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3) Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4) Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5) Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential.

  11. Healthcare Planning for the Olympics in London: A Qualitative Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Georgia; Kononovas, Kostas; Taylor, Jayne; Raine, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    Background Mass gatherings, such as the Olympic and Paralympic Games, represent an enormous logistical challenge for the host city. Health service planners must deliver routine and emergency services and, in recent Games, health legacy initiatives, for the local and visiting population. However there is little evidence to support their planning decisions. We therefore evaluated the strategic health planning programme for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games to identify generalisable information for future Games. Methods We thematically analysed data from stakeholder interviews and documents. The data were prospectively collected in three phases, before, during and after the Games. Findings We identified five key themes: (1) Systemic Improvement for example in communications, (2) Effective relationships led to efficiencies and permanent gains, such as new relationships with the private sector (3) Difficult relationships led to inefficiencies, for instance, duplication in testing and exercising emergency scenarios, (4) Tendency to over-estimate demand for care, particularly emergency medicine, and (5) Difficulties establishing a health legacy due to its deprioritisation and lack of vision by the programme team. Interpretation Enduring improvements which are sustained after the Games are possible, such as the establishment of new and productive partnerships. Relationships must be established early on to avoid duplication, delay and unnecessary expense. There should be greater critical evaluation of the likely demand for health services to reduce the wasting of resources. Finally, if a health legacy is planned, then clear definitions and commitment to its measurement is essential. PMID:24647613

  12. Greeks, British Greek Cypriots and Londoners: a comparison of morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavreas, V G; Bebbington, P E

    1988-05-01

    This paper reports the results of a comparison of the rates of psychiatric disorder from three general population surveys in which the PSE-ID-CATEGO system was used for case-definition. These surveys were of an English sample in Camberwell, London, and of two Greek samples, the first in Athens, the second of Greek Cypriot immigrants living in Camberwell. The results show that the rates of psychiatric disorders in both Greek samples were somewhat higher than those of the Camberwell population, the differences being accounted for by higher rates of anxiety disorders, especially in women. Comparisons in terms of syndrome profiles showed that Greeks reported more symptoms of generalized anxiety than their English counterparts who, in their turn, reported higher rates of obsessive symptoms, and symptoms of social anxiety. The higher rates in the Greek samples were possibly due to an increased frequency of non-specific neurotic symptoms like worrying and tension. The results of other European community surveys with the PSE suggest that there might be a genuine and general North-South difference in the expression of psychological distress. Cultural differences in terms of personality traits and culturally sanctioned child rearing practices might account for the findings.

  13. Occupy London und die besetzte Friern Barnet Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Diesing

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Gegenstand des Beitrages ist die besetzte Friern Barnet Library in Nord-London. Dieser steht für eine ‚Politik des Politischen‘, die sich gegen die Privatisierungsmaßnahmen der regierenden liberal-konservativen Koalition richtet. In diesem Kampf um die Bibliothek wurden Aussagen der programmatischen Vision der Regierung von einer Allianz aus Aktivist_innen und Bürger_innen polemisch gegen die Politik gewendet, deren Umsetzung diese Vision ideologisch legitimieren sollte. Es werden zunächst die Rahmenbedingungen der Besetzung beschrieben, danach wird detailliert auf das Geschehen im Herbst 2012 und Winter 2012/13 eingegangen. Es wird erklärt, warum die Auseinandersetzung um die Bibliothek für das Verständnis gegenwärtiger sozialer Kämpfe in der ‚postpolitischen Stadt‘ hilfreich ist. Zum Begriff der Postpolitik bzw. der Postdemokratie haben sowohl Colin Crouch als auch Jacques Rancière Theorien vorgelegt. Der Aufsatz wird den theoretischen Schwerpunkt auf Rancière legen, Crouchs Überlegungen jedoch ebenfalls mit einbeziehen.

  14. Familism and Social Inclusion: Hispanics in New London, Connecticut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Amparo Cruz-Saco

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the financial support and inclusiveness within Hispanic families in New London, Connecticut, and the causes of their social exclusion in the larger society. We designed and administered a survey of 114 items that was answered by 148 participants representing 1.3% of the non-Puerto Rican Hispanic population. Using factor analysis, we reduced a large number of items in two familism scores to four latent factors: "Financial Support for Family", "Obligation to Family", "Plan to Return", and "Filial Responsibility". We found that financial support for family and obligation to family are strongly endorsed by participants. Approximately one-half would return back to their home countries where they believe to be happier. One-fifth rejects this option. Three-quarters of participants remit money to family, parents in particular, who reside in countries of origin. In contrast to other studies, remitting money is not affected by any given personal characteristic such as gender, income or level of education. Similarly, participants remit irrespective of their degree of self-reported familism measured by scores on the latent factors. A large incidence of poverty among this population, lack of English proficiency, low skills, immigration status, and a lack of voice and political representation inhibit their social inclusion.

  15. Can activity support influence image of a street?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiami Fachrudin, Hilma

    2018-03-01

    Activity support may affect the formation of the image of a corridor and street. Form, place, and character of activity support in an area will have the function attraction and usefulness of its activities. The aim of this research is to analyze how the influence of activity support on the image of a street, in this case, Dr.Mansyur street which located in front of Universitas Sumatera Utara. Along the street, there are various activities that conducted from morning until evening. The method used is a quantitative method with observation and questionnaire techniques. A population of this study is visitors and students of architecture department from Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) with sample number is 100 respondents for visitors and 100 respondents for students. Independent variables are activity support factors that consist of the type of activity, form, color, dimension, material, position and lighting. The dependent variable is imageability by [1]. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that activity support influences image Dr. Mansyur street that has an image as a campus and culinary area and easy to identify.

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STREET PATTERNS IN ISRAELI CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak OMER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Street patterns of Israeli cities were investigated by comparing three time periods of urban development: (I the late 19th century until the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948; (II 1948 until the 1980s; and (III the late 1980s until the present. These time periods are related respectively to the pre-modern, modern and late-modern urban planning approach. Representative urban street networks were examined in selected cities by means of morphological analysis of typical street pattern properties: curvature, fragmentation, connectivity, continuity and differentiation. The study results reveal significant differences between the street patterns of the three examined periods in the development of cities in Israel. The results show clearly the gradual trends in the intensification of curvature, fragmentation, complexity and hierarchical organization of street networks as well as the weakening of the network's internal and external connectivity. The implications of these changes on connectivity and spatial integration are discussed with respect to planning approaches.

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STREET PATTERNS IN ISRAELI CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak OMER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Street patterns of Israeli cities were investigated by comparing three time periods of urban development: (I the late 19th century until the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948; (II 1948 until the 1980s; and (III the late 1980s until the present. These time periods are related respectively to the pre-modern, modern and late-modern urban planning approach. Representative urban street networks were examined in selected cities by means of morphological analysis of typical street pattern properties: curvature, fragmentation, connectivity, continuity and differentiation. The study results reveal significant differences between the street patterns of the three examined periods in the development of cities in Israel. The results show clearly the gradual trends in the intensification of curvature, fragmentation, complexity and hierarchical organization of street networks as well as the weakening of the network's internal and external connectivity. The implications of these changes on connectivity and spatial integration are discussed with respect to planning approaches.

  18. Modelling the air flow in symmetric and asymmetric street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J.L.; Martin, F. [Research Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain). Fossil Fuels Dept., Numerical Simulation and Modelling Program

    2004-07-01

    In recent years a large amount of research has been conducted on urban scale and street canyon. Control of air quality inside cities is important for human health. To achieve this objective, street canyon modelling plays a significant role. Pollutant dispersion inside canyons are determined by wind flow around this complex geometry. Experimental investigations have been made by means of field measurements such as Vachon, G. et al. or wind tunnel experiences as Meroney, R.N. et al. or Kastner-Klein, P. and E.J. Plate. In many of these researches, they have used CFD models in several configurations, for instance Assimakopoulos, V.D. et al. or Sini, J.-F. et al. These models are based on a numerical resolution of Navier-Stokes equations with a turbulence closure. In this study, the aim is contribute to the understanding of air circulation inside street canyons. In order to achieve this purpose, several configurations of canyons are investigated. Two-dimensional sequences of real-scale street canyons (order to obstacles height is meters) with different features (symmetric canyons and asymmetric canyons forming step-up and step-down notch configurations) are simulated. These general configurations are modified to investigate some parameters such as aspect ratio, W/H, where W is the width of street and H is the height of buildings. Flows with high Reynolds numbers are modelling. FLUENT CFD software is used. (orig.)

  19. A qualitative enquiry into OpenStreetMap making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Wei

    2011-04-01

    Based on a case study on the OpenStreetMap community, this paper provides a contextual and embodied understanding of the user-led, user-participatory and user-generated produsage phenomenon. It employs Grounded Theory, Social Worlds Theory, and qualitative methods to illuminate and explores the produsage processes of OpenStreetMap making, and how knowledge artefacts such as maps can be collectively and collaboratively produced by a community of people, who are situated in different places around the world but engaged with the same repertoire of mapping practices. The empirical data illustrate that OpenStreetMap itself acts as a boundary object that enables actors from different social worlds to co-produce the Map through interacting with each other and negotiating the meanings of mapping, the mapping data and the Map itself. The discourses also show that unlike traditional maps that black-box cartographic knowledge and offer a single dominant perspective of cities or places, OpenStreetMap is an embodied epistemic object that embraces different world views. The paper also explores how contributors build their identities as an OpenStreetMaper alongside some other identities they have. Understanding the identity-building process helps to understand mapping as an embodied activity with emotional, cognitive and social repertoires.

  20. Trees and Streets as Drivers of Urban Stormwater Nutrient Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Benjamin D; Finlay, Jacques C; Hobbie, Sarah E

    2017-09-05

    Expansion of tree cover is a major management goal in cities because of the substantial benefits provided to people, and potentially to water quality through reduction of stormwater volume by interception. However, few studies have addressed the full range of potential impacts of trees on urban runoff, which includes deposition of nutrient-rich leaf litter onto streets connected to storm drains. We analyzed the influence of trees on stormwater nitrogen and phosphorus export across 19 urban watersheds in Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, U.S.A., and at the scale of individual streets within one residential watershed. Stormwater nutrient concentrations were highly variable across watersheds and strongly related to tree canopy over streets, especially for phosphorus. Stormwater nutrient loads were primarily related to road density, the dominant control over runoff volume. Street canopy exerted opposing effects on loading, where elevated nutrient concentrations from trees near roads outweighed the weak influence of trees on runoff reduction. These results demonstrate that vegetation near streets contributes substantially to stormwater nutrient pollution, and therefore to eutrophication of urban surface waters. Urban landscape design and management that account for trees as nutrient pollution sources could improve water quality outcomes, while allowing cities to enjoy the myriad benefits of urban forests.

  1. Neighborhood sampling: how many streets must an auditor walk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Tracy E; Cubbin, Catherine; Parmenter, Barbara; Medina, Ashley V; Lee, Rebecca E

    2010-03-12

    This study tested the representativeness of four street segment sampling protocols using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan (PEDS) in eleven neighborhoods surrounding public housing developments in Houston, TX. The following four street segment sampling protocols were used (1) all segments, both residential and arterial, contained within the 400 meter radius buffer from the center point of the housing development (the core) were compared with all segments contained between the 400 meter radius buffer and the 800 meter radius buffer (the ring); all residential segments in the core were compared with (2) 75% (3) 50% and (4) 25% samples of randomly selected residential street segments in the core. Analyses were conducted on five key variables: sidewalk presence; ratings of attractiveness and safety for walking; connectivity; and number of traffic lanes. Some differences were found when comparing all street segments, both residential and arterial, in the core to the ring. Findings suggested that sampling 25% of residential street segments within the 400 m radius of a residence sufficiently represents the pedestrian built environment. Conclusions support more cost effective environmental data collection for physical activity research.

  2. Alcohol in urban streetscapes: a comparison of the use of Google Street View and on-street observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clews, Chris; Brajkovich-Payne, Roza; Dwight, Emily; Ahmad Fauzul, Ayob; Burton, Madeleine; Carleton, Olivia; Cook, Julie; Deroles, Charlotte; Faulkner, Ruby; Furniss, Mary; Herewini, Anahera; Huband, Daymen; Jones, Nerissa; Kim, Cho Wool; Li, Alice; Lu, Jacky; Stanley, James; Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George

    2016-05-26

    Alcohol-related harm is a major global health issue, and controls on alcohol marketing are one intervention utilized by governments. This study investigated the use of Google Street View (GSV) as a novel research method for collecting alcohol-related data in the urban environment. The efficacy of GSV and on-street observation by observer teams was compared by surveying 400 m stretches of 12 streets in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. Data on alcohol sale, alcohol-related advertising, health promotion materials, regulatory information and visible alcohol consumption were collected. A total of 403 retailers with evidence of alcohol sales and 1161 items of alcohol-related communication were identified in on-street observation. Of the latter, 1028 items (89 %) were for alcohol marketing and 133 (11 %) were for alcohol-related health promotion and alcohol regulation. GSV was found to be a less sensitive tool than on-street observation with only 50 % of the alcohol venues identified and 52 % of the venue-associated brand marketing identified. A high degree of inter-observer reliability was generally found between pairs of observers e.g., for the detection of alcohol retail venues the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.78 to 0.98) for on-street observation and 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.49 to 0.96) for using GSV. GSV does not seem suitable for the comprehensive study of the influences on alcohol consumption in the urban streetscape. However, it may still have value for large, static objects in the environment and be more time efficient than traditional on-street observation measures, especially when used to collect data across a wide geographical area. Furthermore, GSV might become a more useful research tool in settings with better image quality (such as more 'footpath views') and with more regularly updated GSV imagery.

  3. Analyzing Thermal Characteristics of Urban Streets Using a Thermal Imaging Camera: A Case Study on Commercial Streets in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugie Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to continuing city growth and global warming over the past decades, urban heat island (UHI effects, referring to the phenomena wherein the ambient air temperatures in cities are higher than those in rural areas, have become a serious threat to urban populations. Impervious surfaces, buildings with low-albedo materials, and a lack of vegetated areas are the major causes of poor urban thermal environments, particularly during the summer. Previous research has focused primarily on the thermal characteristics of individual building units. Few studies consider the impact of the street-scale thermal environments on the surface temperature, which affects pedestrian thermal comfort. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal characteristics of various physical elements on urban streets using thermal imaging cameras, and present policy implications for improving pedestrian thermal comfort. This study examines street-scale thermal environments of three major commercial streets: Garosu road, Serosu road, and Narosu road, in Seoul, Korea. This study conducted field measurements both during the day and the night in June 2017 in order to investigate changes in the urban surface temperatures across time. The results show that street trees are the most effective mitigation element for reducing surface temperatures. With regard to building use types, the highest surface temperatures are typically measured near restaurant buildings. Building façades that are dark-colored or partially covered with a metal contribute to high surface temperatures. Similarly, the temperatures of artificial turf or wooden decks on urban streets are also significantly high during the daytime. The thermal characteristics of various urban street elements should be considered to reduce the surface temperature and mitigate the urban heat island effect.

  4. risk factors for severe pre - eclampsia and eclampsia in mulago

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-10-10

    Oct 10, 2010 ... Medicine, Keppel Street WC1E 7HT and G. Welishe, MBChB, MMed(foun med) Med (Fam Med) Makerere University ... In Mexico low socio - economic status of women ... double entered using Epi-Info 6.04 statistical software.

  5. Spatial Character Analysis of Streets as Public Spaces: The Case of Izmit Hurriyet and Cumhuriyet Street, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbayraktar, Mehtap; Pekdemir, Merve; Mırzaliyeva, Gumru

    2017-10-01

    The word “public” was first used to refer to the theatre audience in France in the mid-17th century. In the 18th century, it turned into the meaning of “public space incorporating a large variety of people and composed of acquaintances and strangers”. The concepts of publicity, public space, and public realm have been studied and described by many researchers in the course of time. These descriptions show the development of public space as well. In the very general sense, public spaces are areas of personal and social happiness; collective living spaces of the society; areas of expression of natural and cultural variety; and key elements providing a ground for the establishment of an identity. In the United Nations’ report on public spaces, public space is addressed under six groups: 1. The spaces we intensely used in our daily life; 2. Green open public spaces; 3. Public activity spaces which users can go in without any difficulty, are open to public, and are under protection; 4. Public sector realm (social agreements in which the people are represented, contribute to collective goods, and trust in the administrators elected); 5. City as a public space; 6. Cyberspace. As cities grow, public spaces transform and diversify. Attempts are made to meet the changing needs through types of space developed. However, the character of the existing public spaces, the distribution of open spaces and parks and their inadequacy, the destruction of public space, and the things that are required to be done stand as important issues to be addressed. One of the public spaces going through transformation are streets which we intensely use in our daily life. In general, streets are defined as roads with buildings on both sides in settlements such as provinces and districts whose boundaries are determined by neighbouring buildings. Some researchers have defined streets based on their social functions. According to them, streets are meeting spaces; spaces to deal with

  6. POLE-LIKE STREET FURNITURE DECOMPOSTION IN MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii pole extraction, (iii components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  7. Pole-Like Street Furniture Decompostion in Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i) acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii) pole extraction, (iii) components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  8. Ergonomics and design: traffic sign and street name sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture.

  9. AUTOMATIC ADJUSTMENT OF WIDE-BASE GOOGLE STREET VIEW PANORAMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boussias-Alexakis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issue of sparse matching in cases of extremely wide-base panoramic images such as those acquired by Google Street View in narrow urban streets. In order to effectively use affine point operators for bundle adjustment, panoramas must be suitably rectified to simulate affinity. To this end, a custom piecewise planar projection (triangular prism projection is applied. On the assumption that the image baselines run parallel to the street façades, the estimated locations of the vanishing lines of the façade plane allow effectively removing projectivity and applying the ASIFT point operator on panorama pairs. Results from comparisons with multi-panorama adjustment, based on manually measured image points, and ground truth indicate that such an approach, if further elaborated, may well provide a realistic answer to the matching problem in the case of demanding panorama configurations.

  10. A review of variables of urban street connectivity for spatial connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, W S N W; Said, I

    2014-01-01

    Several studies on street connectivity in cities and towns have been modeled on topology, morphology, technology and psychology of people living in the urban environment. Street connectivity means the connection of streets that offers people alternative routes. However, there emerge difficulties to determine the suitable variables and analysis to be chosen in defining the accurate result for studies street connectivity. The aim of this paper is to identify variables of street connectivity by applying GIS and Space Syntax. This paper reviews the variables of street connectivity from 15 past articles done in 1990s to early 2000s from journals of nine disciplines on Environment and Behavior, Planning and Design, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information, Environment and Planning, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Environmental Psychology, Social Science and Medicine and Building and Environment. From the review, there are four variables found for street connectivity: link (streets-streets, street-nodes or node-streets, nodes-nodes), accessibility, least-angle, and centrality. Space syntax and GIS are suitable tools to analyze the four variables relating to systematic street systems for pedestrians. This review implies that planners of the street systems, in the aspect of street connectivity in cities and towns, should consider these four variables

  11. A review of variables of urban street connectivity for spatial connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, W. S. N. W.; Said, I.

    2014-02-01

    Several studies on street connectivity in cities and towns have been modeled on topology, morphology, technology and psychology of people living in the urban environment. Street connectivity means the connection of streets that offers people alternative routes. However, there emerge difficulties to determine the suitable variables and analysis to be chosen in defining the accurate result for studies street connectivity. The aim of this paper is to identify variables of street connectivity by applying GIS and Space Syntax. This paper reviews the variables of street connectivity from 15 past articles done in 1990s to early 2000s from journals of nine disciplines on Environment and Behavior, Planning and Design, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information, Environment and Planning, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Environmental Psychology, Social Science and Medicine and Building and Environment. From the review, there are four variables found for street connectivity: link (streets-streets, street-nodes or node-streets, nodes-nodes), accessibility, least-angle, and centrality. Space syntax and GIS are suitable tools to analyze the four variables relating to systematic street systems for pedestrians. This review implies that planners of the street systems, in the aspect of street connectivity in cities and towns, should consider these four variables.

  12. Mapping Urban Land Use at Street Block Level Using OpenStreetMap, Remote Sensing Data, and Spatial Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taïs Grippa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Up-to-date and reliable land-use information is essential for a variety of applications such as planning or monitoring of the urban environment. This research presents a workflow for mapping urban land use at the street block level, with a focus on residential use, using very-high resolution satellite imagery and derived land-cover maps as input. We develop a processing chain for the automated creation of street block polygons from OpenStreetMap and ancillary data. Spatial metrics and other street block features are computed, followed by feature selection that reduces the initial datasets by more than 80%, providing a parsimonious, discriminative, and redundancy-free set of features. A random forest (RF classifier is used for the classification of street blocks, which results in accuracies of 84% and 79% for five and six land-use classes, respectively. We exploit the probabilistic output of RF to identify and relabel blocks that have a high degree of uncertainty. Finally, the thematic precision of the residential blocks is refined according to the proportion of the built-up area. The output data and processing chains are made freely available. The proposed framework is able to process large datasets, given that the cities in the case studies, Dakar and Ouagadougou, cover more than 1000 km2 in total, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 m.

  13. On street observations of particulate matter movement and dispersion due to traffic on an urban road

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Aditya; Colvile, Roy; Arnold, Samantha; Bowen, Emma; Shallcross, Dudley; Martin, Damien; Price, Catheryn; Tate, James; ApSimon, Helen; Robins, Alan

    Empirical models for particulate matter emissions from paved road surfaces have been criticised for their lack of realism and accuracy. To support the development of a less empirical model, a study was conducted in a busy street at the DAPPLE site in Central London to understand the processes and to identify important parameters that influence emission from paved roads. Ordinary road gritting salt was applied to the road and the particulate matter entering the air at near-road surface level was monitored using optical particle counters. The grit acted as a tracer. The grit moved rapidly along the road in the direction of traffic flow. Build-up of material at the kerb indicated material being thrown across the road by the traffic. Coarser particles were resuspended faster than the finer ones. A clear decay profile was seen in the case of particles larger than 2μm; particles smaller than 2μm did not show any decay pattern during the experiment duration. Grinding of material appears to control the reservoir of fine particles on the road surface. The amount of material resuspended by traffic is about 30% less than those removed along the road and a factor of 6 higher than the amount removed across the road. Resuspension accounts for 40% of the total material removed from a road segment and 70% of the material removed together along and across the road. On average a single vehicle pass removes 0.08% of material present on a road segment at that instant. The calculation scheme is obtained from a short-duration study and therefore further studies of long duration involving varying road geometry and different traffic and meteorological condition need to be carried out before applying parameter estimates presented in this paper.

  14. [Street food among children: a study in north Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffati, Larbi; Ridha, Hamza; Kolsteren, Patrick; Hilderbrand, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    As urbanization increases in Tunisia, eating meals outside the home is becoming more frequent. Children are prime consumers for the fast food sold in the streets. Neither their nor their parents' attitude towards street food is well documented as yet. This study was conducted in the city of Bizerte in February 1998. Its aim was to gather information about street food and parents' and children's attitudes towards it to help organize educational sessions with the children, parents, teachers, and vendors. The study interviewed 421 primary school children, ranging in age from 6 to 15 years (mean age: 10 years), from 24 schools. Half received pocket money, a percentage that did not differ by sex. Three quarters of the children used more than 75% of their pocket money to buy street food. The items bought most frequently were candy (27.2%), sandwiches (23.9%), pastries (23.9%), sunflower seeds and peanuts (21%), and either pizza, chocolate, or cheese (20.3%); the largest proportion of money was spent on sandwiches. In more than half the cases (55.7% of the children), the main motivation for buying street food was either to replace or fill out a meal at home, with sandwiches or pastries. The parents' monthly income did not influence the children's purchasing behavior, but the rhythm of receiving pocket money did. Most children were satisfied with the nutritional and hygienic quality of the food available, but their opinion of this quality as well as the reasons for buying the food and the prices spent on it differed considerably from that of their parents. This study highlights the important role of street foods in the daily diet of schoolchildren and the need for appropriate nutrition education in primary schools.

  15. Exploring the World using Street View 360 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.

    2016-12-01

    The phrase "A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words" is an idiom of unknown 20th century origin. There is some belief that the modern use of the phrase stems from an article in a 1921 issue of a popular trade journal, that used "One Look is Worth A Thousand Words" to promote the use of images in advertisements on the sides of streetcars. There is a certain irony to this as nearly a century later the camera technologies on "Street View cars" are collecting images that look everywhere at once. However, while it can be to fun drive along the World's streets, it was the development of Street View imaging systems that could be mounted on other modes of transport or capture platforms (Street View Special Collects) that opened the door for these 360 images to become a tool for exploration and storytelling. Using Special Collect imagery captured in "off-road" and extreme locations, scientists are now using Street View images to assess changes to species habitats, show the impact of natural disasters and even perform "armchair" geology. A powerful example is the imagery captured before and after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan. However, it is use of the immersive nature of 360 images that truly allows them to create wonder and awe, especially when combined with Virtual Reality (VR) viewers. Combined with the Street View App or Google Expeditions, VR provides insight into what it is like to swim with sealions in the Galapagos or climb El Capitan in Yosemite National Park. While these image could never replace experiencing these locations in real-life, they can inspire the viewer to explore and learn more about the many wonders of our planet. https://www.google.com/streetview/https://www.google.com/expeditions/

  16. Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi / Jonathan Swain

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Swain, Jonathan

    1991-01-01

    Uuest heliplaadist "Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. London Symphony Orchestra, Neeme Järvi. Chandos MC ABTD 1496; CD CHAN 8885 (57 minutes). Brahms J. Hungarian Dances. Staatskapelle Berlin. Otmar Suitner." Denon CD CO- 74597 (53 minutes)

  17. Tracer concentration profiles measured in central London as part of the REPARTEE campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There have been relatively few tracer experiments carried out that have looked at vertical plume spread in urban areas. In this paper we present results from two tracer (cyclic perfluorocarbon experiments carried out in 2006 and 2007 in central London centred on the BT Tower as part of the REPARTEE (Regent's Park and Tower Environmental Experiment campaign. The height of the tower gives a unique opportunity to study vertical dispersion profiles and transport times in central London. Vertical gradients are contrasted with the relevant Pasquill stability classes. Estimation of lateral advection and vertical mixing times are made and compared with previous measurements. Data are then compared with a simple operational dispersion model and contrasted with data taken in central London as part of the DAPPLE campaign. This correlates dosage with non-dimensionalised distance from source. Such analyses illustrate the feasibility of the use of these empirical correlations over these prescribed distances in central London.

  18. Secondary school pupils' food choices around schools in a London borough: Fast food and walls of crisps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caraher, M; Lloyd, S; Mansfield, M; Alp, C; Brewster, Z; Gresham, J

    2016-08-01

    The objective was to observe and document food behaviours of secondary school pupils from schools in a London borough. The research design combined a number of methods which included geographic information system (GIS) mapping of food outlets around three schools, systemised observations of food purchasing in those outlets before, during and after school, and focus groups conducted with pupils of those schools to gather their views in respect to those food choices. Results are summarised under the five 'A's of Access, Availability, Affordability and Acceptability & Attitudes: Access in that there were concentrations of food outlets around the schools. The majority of pupil food purchases were from newsagents, small local shops and supermarkets of chocolate, crisps (potato chips), fizzy drinks and energy drinks. Availability of fast food and unhealthy options were a feature of the streets surrounding the schools, with 200 m the optimal distance pupils were prepared to walk from and back to school at lunchtime. Affordability was ensured by the use of a consumer mentality and pupils sought out value for money offers; group purchasing of 'two for one' type offers encouraged this trend. Pupils reported healthy items on sale in school as expensive, and also that food was often sold in smaller portion sizes than that available from external food outlets. Acceptability and Attitudes, in that school food was not seen as 'cool', queuing for school food was not acceptable but queuing for food from takeaways was not viewed negatively; for younger pupils energy drinks were 'cool'. In conclusion, pupils recognised that school food was healthier but provided several reasons for not eating in school related to the five 'A's above. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Design of Automatic Intensity Varying Smart Street Lighting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Gupta, Shipra

    2017-08-01

    The paper is proposed with an aim of power conservation. In this era of development, it is essential to develop a streetlight that turns on and off automatically without human interference. To achieve this light sensor have been placed in each panel which turns the street light on and off automatically. For energy conservation cool-white LED’s have been used in street light panel and dimmer modules have been installed which changes the intensity of the streetlight depending on the darkness.

  20. Institutional Trajectories of Street Youth in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Litichever

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores citizenship formation in institutional settings. Based on life stories and participant observation, it studies how street youth in Buenos Aires experience State institutions in charge of children and youth at risk. It analyzes the level of involvement, the demands, the expression of needs and negotiations that take place within various public institutions and explores how these interactions shape the process of citizenship formation. Results suggest three different institutional trajectories amongst street youth that lead to different processes of citizenship formation.

  1. Wall Street: money never sleeps : Motion picture (2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Lucente, Gloria; Buhagiar, Celaine

    2011-01-01

    The Social Network : Harvard student Mark Zuckerberg creates the social networking site that would become known as Facebook, but is later sued by two brothers who claimed he stole their idea, and the cofounder who was later squeezed out of the business. Wall Street: money never sleeps : Now out of prison but still disgraced by his peers, Gordon Gekko works his future son-in-law, an idealistic stock broker, when he sees an opportunity to take down a Wall Street enemy and rebuild his empire.

  2. Asthma Length of Stay in Hospitals in London 2001?2006: Demographic, Diagnostic and Temporal Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Soyiri, Ireneous N.; Reidpath, Daniel D.; Sarran, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    Asthma is a condition of significant public health concern associated with morbidity, mortality and healthcare utilisation. This study identifies key determinants of length of stay (LOS) associated with asthma-related hospital admissions in London, and further explores their effects on individuals. Subjects were primarily diagnosed and admitted for asthma in London between 1(st) January 2001 and 31(st) December 2006. All repeated admissions were treated uniquely as independent cases. Negative...

  3. Sex-related dietary changes of Portuguese university students after migration to London, UK

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, S.; Vilela, S.; Padrão, P.; Caraher, M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To assess the changes in eating habits and food choice motives of Portuguese university students after migration to London, according to sex.\\ud \\ud Methods: Fifty-five Portuguese university students (52.7% female) from 12 randomly selected London universities underwent a face-to-face interview. Trained interviewers administered a structured questionnaire comprising questions on socio-demographic characteristics, the frequency of consumption of selected food and beverage items, and the m...

  4. Looking for ‘Home’? New Zealand Soldiers Visiting London during the First World War

    OpenAIRE

    Maguire, Anna

    2016-01-01

    For colonial troops from the British Empire, the military mobilizations of the First World War created the opportunity to visit the imperial metropolis – London – leaving the war behind. This article explores the experience and encounters of New Zealand's soldiers in London during the First World War and the ambiguity of their identity and belonging in a city that could be positioned as ‘home’. Using diaries, letters, newspapers and oral testimonies, the article builds on the work of Felicity...

  5. London 2012 Paralympic swimming: passive drag and the classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yim-Taek; Burkett, Brendan; Osborough, Conor; Formosa, Danielle; Payton, Carl

    2013-09-01

    The key difference between the Olympic and Paralympic Games is the use of classification systems within Paralympic sports to provide a fair competition for athletes with a range of physical disabilities. In 2009, the International Paralympic Committee mandated the development of new, evidence-based classification systems. This study aims to assess objectively the swimming classification system by determining the relationship between passive drag and level of swimming-specific impairment, as defined by the current swimming class. Data were collected on participants at the London 2012 Paralympic Games. The passive drag force of 113 swimmers (classes 3-14) was measured using an electro-mechanical towing device and load cell. Swimmers were towed on the surface of a swimming pool at 1.5 m/s while holding their most streamlined position. Passive drag ranged from 24.9 to 82.8 N; the normalised drag (drag/mass) ranged from 0.45 to 1.86 N/kg. Significant negative associations were found between drag and the swimming class (τ = -0.41, p < 0.01) and normalised drag and the swimming class (τ = -0.60, p < 0.01). The mean difference in drag between adjacent classes was inconsistent, ranging from 0 N (6 vs 7) to 11.9 N (5 vs 6). Reciprocal Ponderal Index (a measure of slenderness) correlated moderately with normalised drag (r(P) = -0.40, p < 0.01). Although swimmers with the lowest swimming class experienced the highest passive drag and vice versa, the inconsistent difference in mean passive drag between adjacent classes indicates that the current classification system does not always differentiate clearly between swimming groups.

  6. Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-06-01

    Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders.

  7. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. Setting A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. Context E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Key findings Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked ‘aid in stop smoking’ as the most important (56%), with ‘cheaper alternative’ (43%) and ‘social/recreational use’ (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as ‘e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic’ were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Conclusions Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community

  8. Down and Out in London: Addictive Behaviors in Homelessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharman, Steve; Dreyer, Jenny; Clark, Luke; Bowden-Jones, Henrietta

    2016-01-01

    Backgrounds and aims Problem gambling occurs at higher levels in the homeless than the general population. Past work has not established the extent to which problem gambling is a cause or consequence of homelessness. This study sought to replicate recent observations of elevated rates of problem gambling in a British homeless sample, and extend that finding by characterizing (a) the temporal sequencing of the effect, (b) relationships with drug and alcohol misuse, and (c) awareness and access of treatment services for gambling by the homeless. Methods We recruited 72 participants from homeless centers in Westminster, London, and used the Problem Gambling Severity Index to assess gambling involvement, as well as DSM-IV criteria for substance and alcohol use disorders. A life-events scale was administered to establish the temporal ordering of problem gambling and homelessness. Results Problem gambling was evident in 23.6% of the sample. In participants who endorsed any gambling symptomatology, the majority were categorized as problem gamblers. Within those problem gamblers, 82.4% indicated that gambling preceded their homelessness. Participants displayed high rates of substance (31.9%) and alcohol dependence (23.6%); these were not correlated with PGSI scores. Awareness of treatment for gambling was significantly lower than for substance and alcohol use disorders, and actual access of gambling support was minimal. Discussion and conclusions Problem gambling is an under-recognized health issue in the homeless. Our observation that gambling typically precedes homelessness strengthens its role as a causal factor. Despite the elevated prevalence rates, awareness and utilization of gambling support opportunities were low compared with services for substance use disorders. PMID:27348556

  9. Connected or informed?: Local Twitter networking in a London neighbourhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Bingham-Hall

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper asks whether geographically localised, or ‘hyperlocal’, uses of Twitter succeed in creating peer-to-peer neighbourhood networks or simply act as broadcast media at a reduced scale. Literature drawn from the smart cities discourse and from a UK research project into hyperlocal media, respectively, take on these two opposing interpretations. Evidence gathered in the case study presented here is consistent with the latter, and on this basis we criticise the notion that hyperlocal social media can be seen as a community in itself. We demonstrate this by creating a network map of Twitter followers of a popular hyperlocal blog in Brockley, southeast London. We describe various attributes of this network including its average degree and clustering coefficient to suggest that a small and highly connected cluster of visible local entities such as businesses form a clique at the centre of this network, with individual residents following these but not one another. We then plot the locations of these entities and demonstrate that sub-communities in the network are formed due to close geographical proximity between smaller sets of businesses. These observations are illustrated with qualitative evidence from interviews with users who suggest instead that rather than being connected to one another they benefit from what has been described as ‘neighbourhood storytelling’. Despite the limitations of working with Twitter data, we propose that this multi-modal approach offers a valuable way to investigate the experience of using social media as a communication tool in urban neighbourhoods.

  10. Motivation to study dental professions in one London Dental Institute.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belsi, A; Asimakopoulou, K; Donaldson, N; Gallagher, J

    2014-02-01

    While past research has explored dental students' motivation to study, there is limited understanding in the reasons behind career choice for hygienists/therapists and dental nurses. The aim of this study was to investigate simultaneously the views of students of dentistry, hygiene/therapy and dental nursing in King's College London and explore similarities or differences in career choice. All first-year students were invited to the questionnaire survey, exploring motivation to study using a 23-item instrument. Data were analysed using SPSS v18; statistical analysis included one-way analyses of variance and factor analysis. The overall response rate to the study was 75% (n = 209). Ten out of 23 factors were considered important by more than 80% of respondents, with 'job security' (93.8%), 'desire to work with people' (88%) and 'degree leading to recognised job' (87.5%) being top three. Analysis suggested that 52% of the total variation in motivating influences was explained by four factors: 'features of the job' (26%), 'education/skills' (11%), 'public service' (8%) and 'careers-advising' (7%); at group level 'features of the job' were significantly more important for the direct entrants to dentistry (P = 0.001). The findings suggest that across groups students were motivated to study by common influences reflecting altruistic, but also pragmatic and realistic motives, while 'features of the job' were more important for the direct entrants to dentistry. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The 2nd Generation Street Children (SGSC) in Accra: Developing Teaching Strategies to Enhance Positive Learning Outcomes in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyini, Alhassan Abdul-Razak; Abosi, Okechuwu

    2011-01-01

    Ghana is witnessing an increasing number of 2nd generation street children (SGSC) living in the street of Accra, the capital city as a result of many factors including teenage pregnancy among street girls, ethnic conflicts and rural-urban migration. Street presents enormous risks to street children; they are excluded from safe-family environment,…

  12. Lichen and bryophyte distribution on oak in London in relation to air pollution and bark acidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsen, R.S.; Bell, J.N.B.; James, P.W.; Chimonides, P.J.; Rumsey, F.J.; Tremper, A.; Purvis, O.W.

    2007-01-01

    Epiphytic lichen and bryophyte distribution and frequency were investigated on the trunks of 145 young oak trees throughout London and surrounding counties, and compared with pollution levels and bark pH. Sixty-four lichen and four bryophyte species were recorded. Three major zones were identified: (i) two central regions with a few lichens, bryophytes absent; (ii) a surrounding region with a more diverse flora including a high cover of nitrophyte lichens; and (iii) an outer region, characterised by species absent from central London, including acidophytes. Nineteen species were correlated with nitrogen oxides and 16 with bark pH, suggesting that transport-related pollution and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution in London today. Lichens and bryophytes are responding to factors that influence human and environmental health in London. Biomonitoring therefore has a practical role to assess the effects of measures to improve London's air quality. - Transport-related pollutants and bark acidity influence lichen and bryophyte distribution and abundance in London today

  13. Social and economic characteristics of street youth by gender and level of street involvement in Eldoret, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Sorber

    Full Text Available Street-connected youth are a neglected and vulnerable population, particularly in resource-constrained settings. The development of interventions and supports for this population requires insight into how they live. This study describes the social and economic characteristics of a convenience sample of street youth (SY in Eldoret, Kenya.Participants were eligible if they were aged 12-21, living in Eldoret, spending days only (part-time, or nights and days on the street (full-time and able and willing to consent or assent. Data were collected using a standardized interview conducted in English or Kiswahili. Binary dependent variables were having been arrested and/or jailed, and first priority for spending money (food vs. other. Nominal categorical dependent variables included major source of support, and major reason for being street-involved. Multivariable analysis used logistic regression models to examine the association of gender and level of street-involvement with social and economic factors of interest adjusting for age and length of time on the street. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3.Of the 200 SY enrolled, 41% were female, mean age of 16.3 years; 71% were on the street full-time, and 29% part-time. Compared with part-time SY, full-time SY were more likely to have been arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.33, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]:1.01-5.35, name food as their first spending priority (AOR: 2.57, 95%CI:1.03-6.45, have left home due to violence (AOR: 5.54, 95%CI: 1.67-18.34, and more likely to report friends on the street as a major source of support (AOR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.01-12.82. Compared with females, males were more likely to have ever been arrested (AOR: 2.66, 95%CI:1.14-6.18, and to have ever been jailed (AOR: 3.22, 95%CI:1.47-7.02.These results suggest a high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability among SY in this setting. There is an urgent need for interventions taking into consideration these characteristics.

  14. Development and evaluation of thermoplastic street maintenance material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    An all-weather permanent street patching material was investigated for flexible and rigid pavements. The economic, operational, and material requirements are discussed along with the results of field tests with various mixtures of EVA resins and asphalt. Cost analyses for thermoplastic patching methods are included.

  15. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leftover, heated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, were collected from three locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial count at each stage of handling from the raw state to marketing and consumption. The plate count ...

  16. Estimation of air quality improvement at road and street intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, P.G. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Traffic and Transport Planning

    1995-12-31

    There has always been a very great problem to quantify the detrimental exhaust air pollution related to the traffic flow, especially at road and street intersections. Until now model calculations have been developed mainly for the links between the intersections. In an attempt to remedy this situation the author has developed a method of estimating emissions on the micro level from motor vehicles at intersections as a help for infrastructural design related to improved environmental conditions. Very parsimonious knowledge exists regarding the deceleration and acceleration patterns at road- and street intersections. Not many surveys are done neither in Sweden nor within other countries. Evidently, the need for knowledge regarding deceleration and acceleration behaviour on the micro level has until now not been given priority. In traffic safety related research studies have been done describing the drivers` deceleration and acceleration behaviour and the vehicles` braking performance. Those results give deceleration data for extreme situations and are not useful for describing normal decelerations and accelerations at road- and street intersections. Environment related problems within the traffic flow analysis are now accentuating the need for the studying of special deceleration and acceleration behaviours in combination with an alternative design of the road and street infrastructure. There is a big difference in different vehicles` amount of emitted exhaust pollutions during the passing of intersections depending on the vehicles` speed levels related to their deceleration and acceleration levels. (author)

  17. Single Parenthood Impact on Street Children in Ibadan Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal , Ethiopia. Vol. 4 (2) April ... free and compulsory education to children without family support and help the less ... Key words: Single Parenthood, Street Children, Anti-Social Behaviour,. Aggression ... foregoing, this study therefore sought to look at the impact of single parenthood on ...

  18. Selecting reference cities for i-Tree Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2010-01-01

    The i-Tree Streets (formerly STRATUM) computer program quantifies municipal forest structure, function, and value using tree growth and geographic data from sixteen U.S. reference cities, one for each of sixteen climate zones. Selecting the reference city that best matches a subject city is problematic when the subject city is outside the U.S., lays on the border...

  19. Effects of street tree shade on asphalt concrete pavement performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J. Muchnick

    2005-01-01

    Forty-eight street segments were paired into 24 high-and low-shade pairs in Modesto, California, U.S. Field data were collected to calculate a Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and Tree Shade Index (TSI) for each segment. Statistical analyses found that greater PCI was associated with greater TSI, indicating that tree shade was partially responsible for reduced pavement...

  20. INTRODUCTION The term street children has many definitions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The street child in rural communities differs from the urban ... higher risk of getting involved in hard drug use and/ or peddling8. ..... school hours in the rural areas. As at the ... their attention and energy while under supervision of.

  1. The Impact of Hybrid Vehicles on Street Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, William; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Salisbury, Brad; Rozema, Randall

    2006-01-01

    The authors had three purposes: (a) to compare the sound output of a Toyota Corolla, a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE) with that of a hybrid vehicle (Prius) under conditions of acceleration and approach in relation to the potential decision of a pedestrian who is visually impaired to begin to cross the street, (b) to…

  2. What information do Karman streets offer to flow sensing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akanyeti, Otar; Venturelli, Roberto; Visentin, Francesco; Fiorini, Paolo [Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, 37134 Verona (Italy); Chambers, Lily; Megill, William M, E-mail: otarakanyeti@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    In this work, we focus on biomimetic lateral line sensing in Karman vortex streets. After generating a Karman street in a controlled environment, we examine the hydrodynamic images obtained with digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). On the grounds that positioning in the flow and interaction with the vortices govern bio-inspired underwater locomotion, we inspect the fluid in the swimming robot frame of reference. We spatially subsample the flow field obtained using DPIV to emulate the local flow around the body. In particular, we look at various sensor configurations in order to reliably identify the vortex shedding frequency, wake wavelength and downstream flow speed. Moreover, we propose methods that differentiate between being in and out of the Karman street with >70% accuracy, distinguish right from left with respect to Karman vortex street centreline (>80%) and highlight when the sensor system enters the vortex formation zone (>75%). Finally, we present a method that estimates the relative position of a sensor array with respect to the vortex formation point within 15% error margin.

  3. Suicide and Prostitution among Street Youth: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants. Additionally it was found that prostitution was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high…

  4. Integrating the Wall Street Journal into AIS Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeyer, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    While it is important for accounting information systems (AIS) students to understand computer technology, internal controls and business processes, such knowledge is of little use without reference to appropriate contexts. Integrating Wall Street Journal (WSJ) readings and discussions into AIS classes can enrich learning by stimulating…

  5. Using "The Wall Street Journal" To Stimulate Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roever, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Describes an assignment in a business-communication class in which student teams construct portfolios with articles from "The Wall Street Journal," explaining and clearly expressing how these articles relate to class concepts. Argues that the assignment encourages critical-thinking skills, focuses on writing skills, and develops an…

  6. 75 FR 35478 - Funding Opportunity; Street Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... services will be carried out. D. Training: Grantees must provide initial and periodic training to staff... supervision by appropriately trained senior staff; and Back-up personnel for on-street staff. F. Positive... social contribution; (D) Independence and control over one's life; and (E) Closeness in interpersonal...

  7. Aerodynamic effects of trees on pollutant concentration in street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buccolieri, R.; Gromke, C.B.; Sabatino, Di S.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Several parameters affecting pedestrian level concentration are investigated, namely plant

  8. Implications of tree planting on pollutant dispersion in street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Traffic pollutant dispersion processes inside urban street canyons with avenue-like tree planting have been studied in wind tunnel experiments. Tree planting of different crown porosities and their effects on the pollutant concentrations at the canyon walls have been investigated for wind

  9. Ventilation Processes in a Three-Dimensional Street Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, Libor; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2016-05-01

    The ventilation processes in three different street canyons of variable roof geometry were investigated in a wind tunnel using a ground-level line source. All three street canyons were part of an urban-type array formed by courtyard-type buildings with pitched roofs. A constant roof height was used in the first case, while a variable roof height along the leeward or windward walls was simulated in the two other cases. All street-canyon models were exposed to a neutrally stratified flow with two approaching wind directions, perpendicular and oblique. The complexity of the flow and dispersion within the canyons of variable roof height was demonstrated for both wind directions. The relative pollutant removals and spatially-averaged concentrations within the canyons revealed that the model with constant roof height has higher re-emissions than models with variable roof heights. The nomenclature for the ventilation processes according to quadrant analysis of the pollutant flux was introduced. The venting of polluted air (positive fluctuations of both concentration and velocity) from the canyon increased when the wind direction changed from perpendicular to oblique, irrespective of the studied canyon model. Strong correlations (>0.5) between coherent structures and ventilation processes were found at roof level, irrespective of the canyon model and wind direction. This supports the idea that sweep and ejection events of momentum bring clean air in and detrain the polluted air from the street canyon, respectively.

  10. Robbed of Humanity: Lives of Guatemalan Street Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Nancy Leigh

    The situation for "street children" has degenerated over the past two decades following the economic and political transitions in much of Latin America. Drawing on scholarly materials, interviews with child rights advocates, and the words of the children themselves, this book explores the abuse, limited choices, despair, loyalty, and…

  11. Blossoms in the Dust: Street Children in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velis, Jean-Pierre

    For many African children today, the grim realities of everyday life are far removed from models of education based on traditional wisdom. Part of an attempt to draw the attention of a wide public to the situation of street children, this book focuses on the educational aspects of a problem from which no country is spared. The book focuses…

  12. Street Crossing: Observational Research and Developing Health Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Wyeth, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Students in communication, and particularly in advertising, are encouraged to value creativity. However, even in programs that value creativity, it can be difficult to encourage creativity in the process of research that guides communication efforts. The project described in this paper--"Street Crossing"--is used in upper-division and…

  13. Food safety knowledge and practices of street foodvendors in Atbara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the food safety knowledge and practices of street food vendors in Atbara city between March and April, 2008. The questionnaires respondents were 28% male and 72% were female, 48% of them had primary school education while 42% were illiterates. The most prevalent isolated ...

  14. Interactive green street enhancement using light dependent sensors and actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Ivo; Chen, W.; Oorschot, van B.; Smeenk, W.

    2008-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a design of an interactive green street facility using light dependent sensors and actuators for enhancing the social cohesion of people. We show that electronics and green design can have positive effect on social interaction in a neighbourhood by a design example, called

  15. The topoligical relations of corner buildings in the street fabric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the role of the corner and corner buildings in the architectural relations of the street. Referring to affordance, legibility and Weber´s (1995) psychological approach to perceived architectural space, the paper discusses the value of clearly articulated corner constructions...

  16. Demographic trends in Claremont California’s street tree population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalie S. van Doorn; E. Gregory McPherson

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify street tree population dynamics in the city of Claremont, CA. A repeated measures survey (2000 and 2014) based on a stratified random sampling approach across size classes and for the most abundant 21 species was analyzed to calculate removal, growth, and replacement planting rates. Demographic rates were estimated using a...

  17. Smart street lighting solution for remote rural areas of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Debdyut

    2017-09-01

    Though many smart street lighting solutions is available for urban areas, comparatively fewer solutions exist for rural areas. In the recent times, village streets have been illuminated with artificial lights as a part of rural development drive undertaken by the governments of respective countries. But, vehicle and pedestrian traffic is quite low through village roads. Hence, if light remains on all night long on such roads, then there is a huge wastage of energy. This calls for solutions to reduce this energy loss in an efficient manner. There are a lot of factors which must be kept in mind while designing solutions. Many villages lack the proper infrastructure to support new technologies. Communication facilities are limited, lack of local technically skilled labor, lack of security, etc. After evaluating these opportunities and challenges, an attempt has been made to devise a smart street lighting solution tailored for remote rural areas in India. One part of the solution discusses how intensity of the LED street lights can be varied according to the ambient lighting conditions using sensors and LED switching in LED matrix. An artificial intelligence (AI) has also been modelled to identify traffic conditions using PIR sensors and object identification through image processing and independently control the lights. It also tracks the performance and status of each light. It would send this data and necessary notifications to a distant control center for human evaluation. This solution is also applicable for other rural areas throughout the world.

  18. Dietary patterns and prevalence of wasting among street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cross-sectional study of 36 street children in Lilongwe, Malawi, dietary practices and the prevalence of wasting were assessed to provide information on the risk of poor dietary intake and malnutrition in this population. A food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine dietary practices, ...

  19. Book review : Street Architecture: Work by Hans van der Heijden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenniskens, D.P.H.

    The recently published book Street Architecture is the result of a collaboration between Karin Templin, currently pursuing a PhD in architecture at the University of Cambridge, and Hans van der Heijden, an Amsterdam-based architect of mainly urban renewal projects and residential architecture. The

  20. Theory, Method, and Triangulation in the Study of Street Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a comparative study of street children in Montevideo (Uruguay), Rio de Janeiro, and Mexico City contributes to a synergism between theory and method. Notes how theoretical approaches of symbolic interactionism, genetic structuralism, and habitus theory complement interview, participant observation, and content analysis methods;…

  1. Street-level bureaucrats help clients, even in difficult circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    This policy brief presents the main findings of the Marie Curie Project “COPING: Policy implementation in stressful times: Analyzing coping strategies of civil servants”. The project combines insights from public administration and psychology to study how street-level bureaucrats (also termed

  2. Street-level bureaucrats help clients, even in difficult circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis policy brief presents the main findings of the Marie Curie Project “COPING: Policy implementation in stressful times: Analyzing coping strategies of civil servants”. The project combines insights from public administration and psychology to study how street-level bureaucrats (also

  3. Invisible Culture: Taking Art Education to the Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darts, David

    2011-01-01

    Art educators and administrators allowed a project to evolve based on the "street life" experiences of ordinarily invisible people. The goal was to create a space or number of spaces for celebrating the human spirit through art, music, dance, poetry, theater, and story while also providing a forum for exploring some of the social issues affecting…

  4. Main Street as Art Museum: Metaphor and Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    A walk down Main Street can be very much like a stroll through a museum gallery--visually rich, inviting unexpected choices, aesthetically rewarding. This article explores the concept of shop windows as visually ordered compositions, much like paintings and other art objects, and suggests some approaches to applying this concept in teaching a…

  5. Street level bureaucracy and the dilemmas of private entities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given that they a pose threat to government's efforts, government sometimes moves to curtail their power of discretion and autonomy. Street-level bureaucrats are rational and activate mechanisms to escape government control. This study examines the coping mechanisms of the Ghana Private Road Transport Union ...

  6. Street foods contribute to nutrient intakes among children from rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of Street Foods (SF) to the energy and nutrient intakes of young children in rural African communities has been understudied. Under the Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project, a microcredit and nutrition education intervention with caregivers of children 2-to ...

  7. Seri Rama: converting a shadow play puppet to Street Fighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, D B A

    2012-01-01

    Shadow puppet plays, a traditional Malaysian theater art, is slowly losing its appeal to adolescents, who prefer computer games. To help reverse this decline, the authors incorporated the traditional Seri Rama character into the Street Fighter video game. Using modeling, texturing, and animation, they developed a 3D Seri Rama prototype. Users can control Seri Rama with a PlayStation game controller.

  8. Estimation of air quality improvement at road and street intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, P G [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Traffic and Transport Planning

    1996-12-31

    There has always been a very great problem to quantify the detrimental exhaust air pollution related to the traffic flow, especially at road and street intersections. Until now model calculations have been developed mainly for the links between the intersections. In an attempt to remedy this situation the author has developed a method of estimating emissions on the micro level from motor vehicles at intersections as a help for infrastructural design related to improved environmental conditions. Very parsimonious knowledge exists regarding the deceleration and acceleration patterns at road- and street intersections. Not many surveys are done neither in Sweden nor within other countries. Evidently, the need for knowledge regarding deceleration and acceleration behaviour on the micro level has until now not been given priority. In traffic safety related research studies have been done describing the drivers` deceleration and acceleration behaviour and the vehicles` braking performance. Those results give deceleration data for extreme situations and are not useful for describing normal decelerations and accelerations at road- and street intersections. Environment related problems within the traffic flow analysis are now accentuating the need for the studying of special deceleration and acceleration behaviours in combination with an alternative design of the road and street infrastructure. There is a big difference in different vehicles` amount of emitted exhaust pollutions during the passing of intersections depending on the vehicles` speed levels related to their deceleration and acceleration levels. (author)

  9. Anthropometric and motor development profiles of street children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With regard to the gross motor development, deficits were found with regard to running speed and agility, bilateral coordination and strength. Fine motor deficits were found in upper limb speed and dexterity, response speed and visual motor control. The neuromotor development of street children also showed deficits, ...

  10. Bacteria associated with street vended foods: implications to food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street vended foods were analysed for the bacterial load and the presence of pathogenic and/or potentially pathogenic bacteria. The foods were collected randomly from ambulatory and stationary vendors and analysed individually and then categorized as meats, salads and carbohydrates. The microbial analysis indicated ...

  11. Antigenic analysis of some Nigerian street rabies virus using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors studied 12 street rabies virus isolates from 3 states of Nigeria using both the anti-nucleocapsid and anti-glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies and cross-protection tests. It was observed that all the viruses were rabies having divergent antigenic presentation. Also noticed was an antigenic shift when the viruses ...

  12. Defining pyromes and global syndromes of fire regimes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Archibald, S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available . Bradstocke aNatural Resources and the Environment, Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Pretoria 0001, South Africa; bSchool of Animal, Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg 2050, South Africa; c...Department of Biological Sciences, Macquarie University, North Ryde, NSW 2109, Australia; dNational Centre for Earth Observation and Department of Geography, University College London, London WC1E 6BT, United Kingdom; and eInstitute for Conservation Biology...

  13. Survey of community pharmacists' perception of electronic cigarettes in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques Gomes, Ana C N; Nabhani-Gebara, Shereen; Kayyali, Reem; Buonocore, Federico; Calabrese, Gianpiero

    2016-11-10

    To seek community pharmacists' perception on use, safety and possible effectiveness of e-cigarettes as quit smoking tools, and their future regulation. A survey of a sample of 154 community pharmacies across London, UK. E-cigarettes have exclusively established themselves in the market through consumers-led demand. To date, e-cigarettes still remain unregulated and can be easily purchased in shops, over the internet, but more controversially also in pharmacies in the UK. Pharmacists find themselves with a shortage of information on their safety and efficacy, and may experience an ethical dilemma when consulted by patients/customers. Response rate: 60% (n=92). Independent pharmacies accounted for 90% of the sample. The majority of participants (73%) sell e-cigarettes. A minority of participants (20%) have been presented with adverse effects such as cough and dry mouth. As possible reasons for their use, pharmacists ranked 'aid in stop smoking' as the most important (56%), with 'cheaper alternative' (43%) and 'social/recreational use' (31%) being the least important ones. Safety issues were raised as statements such as 'e-liquid in cartridges may be toxic' were agreed by 52% of respondents. The majority of pharmacists (97%) were supportive of e-cigarettes being regulated, expressing current concerns regarding excipients (42%) and nicotine content (34%). Participants indicated that they would require training in the form of information packs (88%), online tutorials (67%), continuous professional development (CPD) workshops (43%) to cover safety, counselling, dosage instructions, adverse effects and role in the smoking cessation care pathway in the future. Pharmacists expressed concerns about the safety of e-cigarettes, especially regarding the amounts of excipients and nicotine as these still remain unregulated. Currently, there are no guidelines for pharmacists regarding e-cigarettes. Community pharmacists look forward to regulations so to conduct their duties in a

  14. The propagation of sound in narrow street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iu, K. K.; Li, K. M.

    2002-08-01

    This paper addresses an important problem of predicting sound propagation in narrow street canyons with width less than 10 m, which are commonly found in a built-up urban district. Major noise sources are, for example, air conditioners installed on building facades and powered mechanical equipment for repair and construction work. Interference effects due to multiple reflections from building facades and ground surfaces are important contributions in these complex environments. Although the studies of sound transmission in urban areas can be traced back to as early as the 1960s, the resulting mathematical and numerical models are still unable to predict sound fields accurately in city streets. This is understandable because sound propagation in city streets involves many intriguing phenomena such as reflections and scattering at the building facades, diffusion effects due to recessions and protrusions of building surfaces, geometric spreading, and atmospheric absorption. This paper describes the development of a numerical model for the prediction of sound fields in city streets. To simplify the problem, a typical city street is represented by two parallel reflecting walls and a flat impedance ground. The numerical model is based on a simple ray theory that takes account of multiple reflections from the building facades. The sound fields due to the point source and its images are summed coherently such that mutual interference effects between contributing rays can be included in the analysis. Indoor experiments are conducted in an anechoic chamber. Experimental data are compared with theoretical predictions to establish the validity and usefulness of this simple model. Outdoor experimental measurements have also been conducted to further validate the model. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  15. Street children turn to sex-work to survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The Kenyan government currently deports tourists who are caught with child prostitutes and charges the children with prostitution. A harder treatment of foreigners caught with child prostitutes may soon emerge. The Undugu Society in Kenya, an organization working with street children, welcomes such changes. It teaches children practical skills, e.g., tailoring and carpentry. The Society has four schools and sponsors 1000 children to attend school or workshops. It sends social workers into the slums to counsel and gain the trust of street children as well as to encourage them to attend workshops. The Society has workshops on HIV transmission and emphasizes behavior change rather than condom use. Kenyan law prohibits adults from having sex with a child less than 18 years old. Juvenile courts deal with children caught engaging in solicitation of customers and/or prostitution. Children found guilty go to children's homes for rehabilitation into mainstream society. More and more countries of sex-tourists are punishing tourists who engage in sexual intercourse with minors in Kenya. Fear that high-profile cases will harm the multi-million-dollar tourist industry as well as lack of state resources makes Kenya reluctant to prosecute tourists. In 1994, most of Nairobi's 40,000 street children were engaged in prostitution. The leading centers of child prostitution are all tourist areas: Nairobi, Mombasa, Malindi, Lamu, and Diani. 80% of pornographic material in Kenya features children. Kenyan taxi drivers, tour guides, and hotel workers serve as middlemen in child prostitution. Urban poverty forces many children on to the streets. Rural children sent to urban areas to work as maids or servants in a rich house are often sexually abused. They then escape to the streets. Many child prostitutes come from poor families and have low literacy and no practical skills. AIDS orphans also become prostitutes to survive.

  16. [Who told you to grow old and live on the streets?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brêtas, Ana Cristina Passarella; Marcolan, João Fernando; Rosa, Anderson da Silva; Fernandes, Flávia Saraiva Leão; Raizer, Milena Veiga

    2010-06-01

    This qualitative case study is part of another study: Aging, health and work. The objective of this excerpt was to identify the meaning of aging on the streets for the elderly living on the street. The subjects' statements were analyzed under the light of the following themes: history of aging and history of life on the streets. It was understood that the streets are usually a hostile environment for the elderly. It does not guarantee the basic life conditions, affecting the mental health of people who are forced to live on the streets, particularly the elderly. The street does not offer any way out and, together with to the life conditions of the elderly living on the streets leads to the gradual loss of self-esteem, significantly affecting self-care. In addition to these issues, we found that compromised functional capacity puts the life/survival of the elderly living on the streets at risk.

  17. Redesigning Main Streets in Small Communities: The Viagra of Transportation Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-16

    The national Main Street movement is building momentum. Over 1,200 small : communities across America have rediscovered their Main Streets with impressive : investment in time, energy and money. The tangible measures of return include: : economic gro...

  18. Safety and security in acute admission psychiatric wards in Ireland and London: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowman, Seamus; Bowers, Len

    2009-05-01

    The comparative element of this study is to describe safety and security measures in psychiatric acute admission wards in the Republic of Ireland and London; to describe differences and similarities in terms of safety and security patterns in the Republic of Ireland and London; and to make recommendations on safety and security to mental health services management and psychiatric nurses. Violence is a serious problem in psychiatric services and staff experience significant psychological reactions to being assaulted. Health and Safety Authorities in the UK and Ireland have expressed concern about violence and assault in healthcare, however, there remains a lack of clarity on matters of procedure and policy pertaining to safety and security in psychiatric hospitals. A descriptive survey research design was employed. Questionnaires were circulated to all acute wards in London and in Ireland and the resulting data compared. A total of 124 psychiatric wards from London and 43 wards from Ireland were included in this study and response rates of 70% (London) and 86% (Ireland) were obtained. Differences and similarities in safety and security practices were identified between London and Ireland, with Irish wards having generally higher and more intensive levels of security. There is a lack of coherent policy and procedure in safety and security measures across psychiatric acute admission wards in the Republic of Ireland and London. Given the trends in European Union (EU) regulation, there is a strong argument for the publication of acceptable minimum guidelines for safety and security in mental health services across the EU. There must be a concerted effort to ensure that all policy and procedure in safety and security is founded on evidence and best practice. Mental health managers must establish a review of work safety and security procedures and practices. Risk assessment and environmental audits of all mental health clinical environments should be mandatory.

  19. CODASC : a database for the validation of street canyon dispersion models

    OpenAIRE

    Gromke, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    CODASC stands for Concentration Data of Street Canyons (CODASC 2008, www.codasc.de). It is a database which provides traffic pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons obtained from wind-tunnel dispersion experiments. CODASC comprises concentration data of street canyons with different aspect ratios subjected to various wind directions and also for street canyons with tree-avenues. The database includes concentration data of tree-avenue configurations of different tree arrangement, tree...

  20. An Analysis of the Street-Children Phenomenon in the City of Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Alireza Afshani; Abbas Askari-Nodoushan; Mohammad Heydari; Mohammad Noorian Najafabadi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction   In nearly all big cities around the world, the phenomenon of street children is one of the contemporary social issues. During past several decades, there is an increase in the volume of street children phenomenon around the world. The rising number of street children has many pathological and consequential negative impacts for children, youth, families, and the society at the whole . According to 2000 UN report, the number of street children is estimated between 100 to140 milli...

  1. Alcohol in urban streetscapes: a comparison of the use of Google Street View and on-street observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Clews

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol-related harm is a major global health issue, and controls on alcohol marketing are one intervention utilized by governments. This study investigated the use of Google Street View (GSV as a novel research method for collecting alcohol-related data in the urban environment. Methods The efficacy of GSV and on-street observation by observer teams was compared by surveying 400 m stretches of 12 streets in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. Data on alcohol sale, alcohol-related advertising, health promotion materials, regulatory information and visible alcohol consumption were collected. Results A total of 403 retailers with evidence of alcohol sales and 1161 items of alcohol-related communication were identified in on-street observation. Of the latter, 1028 items (89 % were for alcohol marketing and 133 (11 % were for alcohol-related health promotion and alcohol regulation. GSV was found to be a less sensitive tool than on-street observation with only 50 % of the alcohol venues identified and 52 % of the venue-associated brand marketing identified. A high degree of inter-observer reliability was generally found between pairs of observers e.g., for the detection of alcohol retail venues the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.78 to 0.98 for on-street observation and 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.49 to 0.96 for using GSV. Conclusions GSV does not seem suitable for the comprehensive study of the influences on alcohol consumption in the urban streetscape. However, it may still have value for large, static objects in the environment and be more time efficient than traditional on-street observation measures, especially when used to collect data across a wide geographical area. Furthermore, GSV might become a more useful research tool in settings with better image quality (such as more ‘footpath views’ and with more regularly updated GSV imagery.

  2. Playing Sport In The Stormy Sea Of Street Life | Human | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, there are many street children in South Africa (SA). They have been robbed from the safe harbour of family life and on a daily basis experience the stormy sea of street life. Society has an obligation to intervene in the lives of these street children through, for example, quality education, basic health services and ...

  3. CODASC : a database for the validation of street canyon dispersion models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    CODASC stands for Concentration Data of Street Canyons (CODASC 2008, www.codasc.de). It is a database which provides traffic pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons obtained from wind-tunnel dispersion experiments. CODASC comprises concentration data of street canyons with different aspect

  4. Influence of local parameters on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants within street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Styliani; Malki-Epshtein, Liora; Martin Hyde Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    Ventilation within urban cities and street canyons and the associated air quality is a problem of increasing interest in the last decades. It is important for to minimise exposure of the population to traffic-related pollutants at street level. The residence time of pollutants within the street canyons depends on the meteorological conditions such as wind speed and direction, geometry layout and local parameters (position of traffic lane within the street). An experimental study was carried out to investigate the influence of traffic lane position on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants within different street canyons geometries: symmetrical (equal building heights on both sides of the street), non-symmetrical (uniform building heights but lower on one side of the street) and heterogeneous (non-uniform building heights on both sides of the street) under constant meteorological conditions. Laboratory experiments were carried out within a water channel and simultaneous measurements of velocity field and concentration scalar levels within and above the street canyons using PIV and PLIF techniques. Traffic -related emissions were simulated using a line emission source. Two positions were examined for all street geometries: line emission source was placed in the centre of the street canyon; line emission source was placed off the centre of the street. TSI Incorporated.

  5. Beyond discourse and competence : Science and subjugated knowledge in street children studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigengack, Roy

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that street children studies (SCS) has reduced its central concept to a discursive construct, and the young street people themselves to capable 'agents'. One consequence is that street children are not recognized as distinct intergenerational groupings in society. The traditional

  6. Beyond discourse and competence: Science and subjugated knowledge in street children studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigengack, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that street children studies (SCS) has reduced its central concept to a discursive construct, and the young street people themselves to capable ‘agents’. One consequence is that street children are not recognized as distinct intergenerational groupings in society. The traditional

  7. Street children in Mafikeng, North-West Province: A qualitative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general perception, on the part of South African society, is that street children are a major social menace. Yet the reality is that, street children are a vulnerable group that suffer both psychological and physical violence including sexual abuse. This qualitative study investigated the social experiences of street children in ...

  8. Bridging the "Widest Street in the World": Reflections on the History of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirel, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    For at least a half century, education reformers have quipped that 120th Street in New York City, the street that separates Teachers College from the rest of Columbia University, "is the widest street in the world." Underlying this quip is the belief that Columbia's liberal arts faculty members regularly dismiss the child-centered educational…

  9. 75 FR 11153 - Main Mill Street Investments, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13631-000] Main Mill Street..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications March 1, 2010. On November 16, Main Mill Street Investments, LLC (Main Mill Street Investments) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to...

  10. Socio-economic and hygiene features of street food vending in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study were firstly to determine the health risks associated with street food vending, secondly to determine the opinions of street food ... such as South Africa be allowed to earn their livelihood by means of an 'easy-to-enter' business such as street food vending when hygiene standards are acceptable.

  11. Attitudes of street children to the network of support for them in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study findings show that 'of' the street children are the major targets by the network of the support since children 'on' the street are still being supported by their families and the assistance received by these children of the street from their peers and homeless adults is preferred to assistance from other support providers.

  12. Space Livability of Street Vendors in Simpang Lima Public Space, Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjajanti, R.; Wahyono, H.

    2018-02-01

    Street vendors in Semarang have been growing rapidly and uncontrolled. They always use public space such as public roads, sidewalks, parks and fields as trading locations. The street vendors’ activities in the public space are considered as the cause of declining on environmental quality and aesthetics of the city. All these years, the government often evicted the street vendors than organized and provides adequate space for them. As one of the actual urban activities, the street vendors’ activities should be accommodated by the government and the location for them is managed in the urban spatial plan. Street vendors need spaces which livable and suitable to their activities’ requirements, has a relationship with users (street vendors’ doers and consumers) and the activities of street vendors themselves. Research on the aspect of space for street vendors is still less in quantity, whereas space for them is an urgent matter for the government in managing their activities. This study aims to identify the livability of space based on the street vendors’ behavior in their location. This research used descriptive quantitative method with questionnaires and GIS as the mapping tool for street vendors’ location. The result of the research shows that the livability of street vendor space is based on the activity of street vendors (type of merchandise, trading places’ size, trade place assessment, space dimension, trading time, duration and period) and space conditions (access, natural elements, safety and parking space).

  13. “This fabulous flotsam”: Michael Moorcock’s Urban Anthropology in “London under London”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houswitschka Christoph

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Michael Moorcock is often described as “one of the most prolific and varied writers working in Britain” (Malcolm 146. His success as a writer and editor of science fiction and fantasy literature is well established, but he is also the author of two novels about London, Mother London (1988 and King of the City (2000. Hardly known, Mother London by Michael Moorcock, offers itself to a variety of approaches that have been widely discussed in the context of studies on English literature during the Thatcher years, post-modernism, and psycho-geography. The novel resonates with the author’s own childhood in war-time London without being autobiographical. It tells the story of three Londoners who were traumatised during the Blitz. The following article focuses on the mysteries of subterranean London that represents the hidden and unconscious identities of its inhabitants in the post-war period.

  14. The Influence of Green Infrastructure on Urban Resilience in Greater London

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Yukyung

    2017-04-01

    High population densities and diverse economic activities in urban areas create social issues as well as a range of environmental impacts including air pollution, soil contamination, loss of biodiversity and health problems (Alberti et al., 2003; Dobbs, Escobedo, & Zipperer, 2011; Grimm et al., 2008). The concept of urban resilience has been used for increasing the capacity of the entities and players to adapt to rapid changes, and urban green spaces play a crucial role in increasing urban resilience. Greater London has a good case for increasing urban green spaces and resilience under the London Plan. The relevance of urban open spaces and several socioeconomic indicators would provide researchers and policy makers with the information for managing green coverage. The correlation analysis of two quantitative data such as open space and socioeconomic data of Greater London was conducted with SPSS. The data for open spaces in Greater London was gained through Greenspace Information for Greater London. The data was converted from vector to raster in Geographic Information System (GIS), so as to calculate landscape metrics for open spaces in Greater London through a spatial pattern analysis program, FRAGSTATS 4.2. The socioeconomic data was obtained from "London Borough Profile", London Datastore. In addition, data on total carbon emissions from Industry and Commercial, Domestic, Transport, LULUCF Net Emissions, and per capita emissions were gained from UK local authority and regional carbon dioxide emissions national statistics: 2005-2014 released from Department of Energy and Climate Change. The indicators from open spaces are total area of open space and patch density or contagion of open spaces. The latter indicator allows to figure out the level of fragmentation of open spaces. The socioeconomic indicators cover number of jobs by workplace, jobs density, crime rates per thousand population, and several wellbeing indicators such as life satisfaction

  15. Characteristics of flow and reactive pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Minjoong J.; Park, Rokjin J.; Cheong, Hyeong-Bin

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the effects of aspect ratio defined as the ratio of building height to street width on the dispersion of reactive pollutants in street canyons were investigated using a coupled CFD-chemistry model. Flow characteristics for different aspect ratios were analyzed first. For each aspect ratio, six emission scenarios with different VOC-NOX ratios were considered. One vortex was generated when the aspect ratio was less than 1.6 (shallow street canyon). When the aspect ratio was greater than 1.6 (deep street canyon), two vortices were formed in the street canyons. Comparing to previous studies on two-dimensional street canyons, the vortex center is slanted toward the upwind building and reverse and downward flows are dominant in street canyons. Near the street bottom, there is a marked difference in flow pattern between in shallow and deep street canyons. Near the street bottom, reverse and downward flows are dominant in shallow street canyon and flow convergence exists near the center of the deep street canyons, which induces a large difference in the NOX and O3 dispersion patterns in the street canyons. NOX concentrations are high near the street bottom and decreases with height. The O3 concentrations are low at high NO concentrations near the street bottom because of NO titration. At a low VOC-NOX ratio, the NO concentrations are sufficiently high to destroy large amount of O3 by titration, resulting in an O3 concentration in the street canyon much lower than the background concentration. At high VOC-NOX ratios, a small amount of O3 is destroyed by NO titration in the lower layer of the street canyons. However, in the upper layer, O3 is formed through the photolysis of NO2 by VOC degradation reactions. As the aspect ratio increases, NOX (O3) concentrations averaged over the street canyons decrease (increase) in the shallow street canyons. This is because outward flow becomes strong and NOX flux toward the outsides of the street canyons increases

  16. ‘The screaming streets’: Voice and the Spaces of Gossip in Tales of Mean Streets (1894 and Liza of Lambeth (1897

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliza Cubitt

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In the proliferation of periodical literature in the 1890s, gossip columns carried positive, masculine connotations and worked across male class boundaries. Oral gossip in this period was defined as negative and female, and had a critical role in regulating behaviour. This article discusses late-Victorian narratives which represent urban places defined and managed by gossip. These sites use the power of gossip to assert their communality and their separation from the world of the printed word. Arthur Morrison’s 'Tales of Mean Streets' (1894 and W. Somerset Maugham’s 'Liza of Lambeth' (1897 are set in London streets characterized by homogeneity and monotony. Their inhabitants exist in ‘the nightmare of a world that is all streets’. Gossip plays an essential role in these spaces. Residents demonstrate anxiety about living at the borders of slum spaces, and manage their separation from slums by using gossip to attack those who threaten the narrowly defined boundaries of these places. In these works, gossip is not idle chatter but a formidable mode of speech which has serious effects. In representing sites governed by this ostensibly everyday form of speech, Maugham and Morrison simultaneously disenchanted previous romanticized visions of the working-class streets, and represented them as 'other' places, with a lack of written culture. In their representations of the determination of place by gossiping voices, Maugham and Morrison concomitantly convey the impossibility of the absorption of such places into mainstream culture, and assert the privileged position of the late-Victorian realist who can access the otherwise inaccessible.

  17. Tool and ideological knowledge in Street Outreach Office working process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Maria Terumi Maruyama; Larocca, Liliana Muller; Chaves, Maria Marta Nolasco; Piosiadlo, Laura Christina Macedo; Albuquerque, Guilherme Souza

    2016-01-01

    To identify ideological knowledge and tool knowledgethat provide support to the Street Outreach Office working process. Qualitative and exploratory research. TwentyStreet Outreach Office professionals and six users collected the data, applying different semi-structured interview schedules for each category of participants. The resulting categories were analyzed in light of tool and ideological knowledge presented in the working process. From the participant discourses the following ideological knowledge emerged: public policies and the needs of the person ina street situation and tool knowledge, as well as devices and tools for the care of people in street situations and a weekly schedule. The focus on the working process discourse, supported by ideological knowledge, was verified. The structural dimension of the objective reality of the population in street situations was perceptible in the social determination of being situating on the street. When daily situations were revealed, the limitations to be overcome in the working process context were noticed. Identificar os saberes ideológicos e instrumentais que subsidiam o processo de trabalho do Consultório na Rua. Pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória. A coleta de dados foi realizada junto a 20 profissionais e seis usuários do Consultório na Rua de um município do sul do Brasil, por meio de entrevistas com roteiros semiestruturados distintos para cada categoria de participantes. As classes resultantes foram analisadas à luz dos saberes ideológicos e instrumentais presentes no processo de trabalho. Dos discursos dos participantes emergiram os saberes ideológicos: políticas públicas e necessidades da pessoa em situação de rua e os saberes instrumentais: dispositivos e instrumentos no cuidado à pessoa em situação de rua e agenda semanal. Constatou-se a centralidade dos discursos no processo de trabalho, sustentado pelos saberes ideológicos. A dimensão estrutural da realidade objetiva da população em

  18. Are the birch trees in Southern England a source of Betula pollen for North London?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skjøth, C. A.; Smith, M.; Brandt, J.; Emberlin, J.

    2009-01-01

    Birch pollen is highly allergenic. Knowledge of daily variations, atmospheric transport and source areas of birch pollen is important for exposure studies and for warnings to the public, especially for large cities such as London. Our results show that broad-leaved forests with high birch tree densities are located to the south and west of London. Bi-hourly Betula pollen concentrations for all the days included in the study, and for all available days with high birch pollen counts (daily average birch pollen counts >80 grains/m3), show that, on average, there is a peak between 1400 hours and 1600 hours. Back-trajectory analysis showed that, on days with high birch pollen counts ( n = 60), 80% of air masses arriving at the time of peak diurnal birch pollen count approached North London from the south in a 180 degree arc from due east to due west. Detailed investigations of three Betula pollen episodes, with distinctly different diurnal patterns compared to the mean daily cycle, were used to illustrate how night-time maxima (2200-0400 hours) in Betula pollen counts could be the result of transport from distant sources or long transport times caused by slow moving air masses. We conclude that the Betula pollen recorded in North London could originate from sources found to the west and south of the city and not just trees within London itself. Possible sources outside the city include Continental Europe and the Betula trees within the broad-leaved forests of Southern England.

  19. VOC emission rates over London and South East England obtained by airborne eddy covariance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Shaw, Marvin D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Vieno, Massimo; Davison, Brian; Karl, Thomas G; Carpenter, Lucy J; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas

    2017-08-24

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) originate from a variety of sources, and play an intrinsic role in influencing air quality. Some VOCs, including benzene, are carcinogens and so directly affect human health, while others, such as isoprene, are very reactive in the atmosphere and play an important role in the formation of secondary pollutants such as ozone and particles. Here we report spatially-resolved measurements of the surface-to-atmosphere fluxes of VOCs across London and SE England made in 2013 and 2014. High-frequency 3-D wind velocities and VOC volume mixing ratios (made by proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometry) were obtained from a low-flying aircraft and used to calculate fluxes using the technique of eddy covariance. A footprint model was then used to quantify the flux contribution from the ground surface at spatial resolution of 100 m, averaged to 1 km. Measured fluxes of benzene over Greater London showed positive agreement with the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, with the highest fluxes originating from central London. Comparison of MTBE and toluene fluxes suggest that petroleum evaporation is an important emission source of toluene in central London. Outside London, increased isoprene emissions were observed over wooded areas, at rates greater than those predicted by a UK regional application of the European Monitoring and Evaluation Programme model (EMEP4UK). This work demonstrates the applicability of the airborne eddy covariance method to the determination of anthropogenic and biogenic VOC fluxes and the possibility of validating emission inventories through measurements.

  20. Radiation poisoning with Po-210 in London: The medical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    Full text: The death of Alexander Litvinenko on 23 November 2006 has elevated the prospect of a deliberate radiation poisoning from a theoretical possibility to a reality. This was an unprecedented event in the UK. Poison that was certainly not the work of an amateur assassin was found, and it is possible that there have been previous killings of this nature outside the UK. Po-210 is a highly toxic radioactive heavy metal with a half-life of 138 days that decays, giving off 5.3MeV alpha particles having a range of 40-50mm in tissue. The poison was probably administered in a small volume of liquid or as a solid powder added to food or drink. Dispersal of the material resulted in widespread contamination that was detected across London and on British Airways' flights to the east. Following the event, the main task of the UK Health Protection Agency was of contamination monitoring and reassurance of the general public. With many researchers now investigating the use of targeted alpha therapy, this incident has highlighted the possible effects from the uptake of alpha emitters into the sensitive normal tissues. On reaching the bloodstream, Po- 210 is rapidly deposited in major organs and tissues including the liver, kidneys and bone marrow. The intense alpha radiation within these tissues would result in massive destruction of cells, leading to a rapid decline in health. It has been concluded that ingestion of 1-3 GBq or greater of Po-210 is likely to result in death within a few weeks, assuming there is 10% absorption to blood. Anyone receiving such doses would show symptoms of acute radiation sickness syndrome, with death resulting from multiple organ failure. Remedial medical treatment strategies would be unsuccessful within a few hours of ingestion, once significant amounts of Po-210 had entered the blood stream and deposited in tissues. The surreptitious nature of this act almost escaped detection. The fact that the nature of the poison was not known until the

  1. Solar radiation and street temperature as function of street orientation. An analysis of the status quo and simulation of future scenarios towards sustainability in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Joao Pinelo

    2017-01-01

    A countrywide analysis shows that E-W orientation accounts for the highest overall street length with 37%. The second most frequent orientation is N-S (29%, the best performer. NW-SE and NE-SW both have frequencies of only 17%. Preference for a street grid with N-S, NW-SE, and NE-SW orientation would improve the thermal performance of streets and provide a continuous network of a comfortable pedestrian environment. We simulate two future scenarios based on avoiding new E-W streets, or not. We measure their potential reduction in thermal gain and conclude that a simple policy could reduce solar exposition in 40%.

  2. Weathering of radiocaesium contamination on urban streets, walls and roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Fogh, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent investigations in Russia have emphasised the significance of dose contributions from contamination on urban streets and roof pavings, and, typically to a lesser extent, walls in the urban environment. The crucial factor determining the magnitude of these contributions is the retention of the contamination by the different types of urban surface. Since the Chernobyl accident, a series of long-term field studies has been carried out on urban streets, walls and roofs, to examine the weathering processes of 137 Cs on the various surface types. The derived time-functions are applied to estimate resultant long-term doses to inhabitants of an urban centre. The paper highlights the effect on caesium retention of surface material characteristics

  3. How to integrate street-level bureaucracies into public management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter; Pedersen, John Storm

    the professionals in the public sector at the street-level such as social-workers, teachers, doctors, and other professionals have maintained autonomy regarding the provision, production and delivery of the specific core welfare services to the citizens as end users. By definition hard budget constraint...... and professionals´ autonomy do not fit well. To explore both theoretically and empirically the conflicts between hard budget constraint and professionals´ autonomy, the professionals´ provision, production and delivery of the services to the citizens with disability and socially disadvantaged people and the public...... management of the public spending on the services in Denmark is used as a case. Surprisingly, we find that the managers have been able to resolve the conflicts between the hard budget constraint and the professionals´ autonomy to a rather high degree. The managers have integrated the street...

  4. Indicators of benzene emissions and exposure in Bangkok street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, S.T.; Laortanakul, Preecha

    2003-01-01

    Ambient benzene measurements were conducted for the first time at four air monitoring sites in the Bangkok metropolitan region (BMR), from January to December 2001. Analytical results show that the mean benzene concentrations range from 42.4 μg/m 3 at the Din Daeng urban site to 15.1 μg/m 3 at the Chaeng Wattana suburban site. The monitoring results show that at a larger distance from the roadside or a higher level from the street surface, the level of benzene decreases. Analysis of the ambient benzene concentrations was carried out with reference to meteorological influences and traffic density. In traffic analysis, the combined effects of street topography and traffic flows established high impact on the overall benzene concentration in Bangkok. Statistical analysis shows good correlations of blood benzene levels and trans, trans-muconic acid with ambient benzene and demonstrated substantial exposure from traffic

  5. Street floods in Metro Manila and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar; Mendoza, Jerico; Cipriano, Fatima; Delmendo, Patricia Anne; Lacsamana, Micah Nieves; Moises, Marc Anthony; Pellejera, Nicanor; Punay, Kenneth Niño; Sabio, Glenn; Santos, Laurize; Serrano, Jonathan; Taniza, Herbert James; Tingin, Neil Eneri

    2017-09-01

    Urban floods from thunderstorms cause severe problems in Metro Manila due to road traffic. Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived topography, flood simulations and anecdotal reports, the root of surface flood problems in Metro Manila is identified. Majority of flood-prone areas are along the intersection of creeks and streets located in topographic lows. When creeks overflow or when rapidly accumulated street flood does not drain fast enough to the nearest stream channel, the intersecting road also gets flooded. Possible solutions include the elevation of roads or construction of well-designed drainage structures leading to the creeks. Proposed solutions to the flood problem of Metro Manila may avoid paralyzing traffic problems due to short-lived rain events, which according to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) cost the Philippine economy 2.4billionpesos/day. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The Tragedy of V.S. Naipaul's Miguel Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanyar Kareem Abdul

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad (V.S. Naipaul was born in Trinidad in 1932. His works have been an enduring focus between rich and poor, colonizer and colonized. In The New York Review of Books, Naipaul has been called '”a master of English prose,” which indicates his weight in modern literature, especially in post colonialism. The paper depicts a dark area and tragedy in Miguel Street throughout the characters and their dialogues. Naipaul is famous for his sad-given-tonic moment in his novels. The paper also provides examples and explanations behind the tragedy of the novel and what the characters suffer from: misunderstanding, poverty, or losing humanity that no more communication works out. Miguel Street is a place where all the tragic moments happen in the novel. Each section of the story ends with sadness and disappointment.

  7. STREET KETAMINE-ASSOCIATED BLADDER DYSFUNCTION: AN EMERGING HEALTH PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEH GC

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ketamine is frequently abused nowadays as a recreational drug. Case reports are emerging since 2007 to describe a new clinical entity of severe bladder dysfunction associated with chronic abuse of street ketamine. Clinical presentation: Severe lower urinary tract symptoms of urinary frequency and urgency which are refractory to conventional treatment. Quality of life is adversely affected as a consequence. Chronic kidney disease will develop in advanced cases. Investigation findings: The urine is sterile on culture. Ultrasound will show reduced bladder capacity with thickened bladder wall. In advanced stage, hydronephrosis and renal impairment will develop. Treatment: Patients should be advised to stop street ketamine use immediately. Anticholinergic medication could be tried to alleviate the symptoms. Refractory cases with dilatation of the upper urinary tract might need urinary diversion. Conclusion: Awareness of this new condition is essential in diagnosis. Early intervention offers better treatment outcome.

  8. Droughts and Dragons: Geography, Rainfall, and Eighteenth-Century London's Water Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Lieshout, Carry

    By the end of the eighteenth century the majority of households in London received a piped water supply. This article examines the geographical, technological, and environmental challenges that London's private water companies faced as they created and expanded the large technological networks necessary to provide the growing city's water supply. It identifies geography and drought as the main drivers of innovation in London's water supply neworks, and argues that the main impediment to expansion for the majority of the water companies was overcoming the differences in elevation between their intake points and customer bases, with major improvements often made as a result of water shortages. The timing and the success or failure of a company's technological improvements proved pivotal in the subsequent development of the water market.

  9. Using GIS to Understand and Prioritise Worker Movements during the 2012 London Olympics

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, I. M.

    2013-05-01

    The performance of the transport network and the associated movement of people was one of the most critical elements to London's successful delivery of the 2012 Olympic Games. During the planning stages Transport for London asked the London Borough of Newham to mitigate the impact of the authority's 13 500 employees on transport infrastructure close to the Olympic Park. To achieve this, the authority needed to understand the geographic distribution of its workforce and the demand it placed on roads and local transport hubs. The authority's Geospatial Team led the research based on four cross-referenced data sources, and spatial analysis was used to determine priorities for special absence arrangements and a commissioned coach service. The research was used to support a targeted information campaign but also presented considerations on large-scale data collection, the use of Human Resources data, and the degree to which the movement of people can be measured and managed.

  10. To Moscow with love: partial reconstruction of Vygotsky's trip to London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Veer, René; Zavershneva, Ekaterina

    2011-12-01

    The Russian psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934) left the Soviet Union only once to attend a conference on the education of the deaf in London. So far almost nothing was known about this trip, which took place in a period when Vygotsky was still completely unknown as a psychologist, both inside his own country and abroad. Making use of a newly discovered notebook, it proved possible to partially reconstruct Vygotsky's journey and stay in London. Vygotsky's very personal remarks show him to have been a very sensitive and spirited man, who was prey to strong emotions during the conference and afterwards. Rather surprisingly, Vygotsky's own paper about the education of the deaf was never presented during the conference and the stay in London appears to have had a limited value for his own scientific development.

  11. An analysis of population and social change in London wards in the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, P

    1989-01-01

    "This paper discusses the estimation and projection of small area populations in London, [England] and considers trends in intercensal social and demographic indices which can be calculated using these estimates. Information available annually on vital statistics and electorates is combined with detailed data from the Census Small Area Statistics to derive demographic component based population estimates for London's electoral wards over five year periods. The availability of age disaggregated population estimates permits derivation of small area social indicators for intercensal years, for example, of unemployment and mortality. Trends in spatial inequality of such indicators during the 1980s are analysed and point to continuing wide differentials. A typology of population and social indicators gives an indication of the small area distribution of the recent population turnaround in inner London, and of its association with other social processes such as gentrification and ethnic concentration." excerpt

  12. Cross-cultural adaptation in urban ethnobotany: the Colombian folk pharmacopoeia in London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceuterick, Melissa; Vandebroek, Ina; Torry, Bren; Pieroni, Andrea

    2008-12-08

    To investigate traditional health care practices and changes in medicinal plant use among the growing Colombian community in London. Ethnobotanical fieldwork consisted of qualitative, in-depth, semi-structured interviews with 23 Colombians living in London and botanical identification of 46 plant species actively used as herbal remedies. Subsequently, research data were compared with literature on ethnobotany and traditional herbal medicine in the home country, using a framework on cross-cultural adaptation, adjusted for the purpose of this study. Similarities and discrepancies between data and literature are interpreted as potential indicators of continuity and loss (or deculturation) of traditional remedies, respectively. Remedies used in London that are not corroborated by the literature suggest possible newly acquired uses. Cross-cultural adaptation related to health care practices is a multifaceted process. Persistence, loss and incorporation of remedies into the Colombian folk pharmacopoeia after migration are influenced by practical adaptation strategies as well as by symbolic-cultural motives of ethnic identity.

  13. The Network Analysis of Urban Streets: A Dual Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, Sergio; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito

    2004-01-01

    The application of the network approach to the urban case poses several questions in terms of how to deal with metric distances, what kind of graph representation to use, what kind of measures to investigate, how to deepen the correlation between measures of the structure of the network and measures of the dynamics on the network, what are the possible contributions from the GIS community. In this paper, the authors addresses a study of six cases of urban street networks characterised by diff...

  14. City of San Francisco, California street tree resource analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; P.J. Peper; Q. Xiao

    2004-01-01

    Street trees in San Francisco are comprised of two distinct populations, those managed by the city’s Department of Public Works (DPW) and those managed by private property owners with or without the help of San Francisco’s urban forestry nonprofit, Friends of the Urban Forest (FUF). These two entities believe that the public’s investment in stewardship of San Francisco...

  15. LEAD: THE SILENT KILLER IN OUR FAVOURITE STREET FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Street vended foods are a very common consumable commodity across age and income groups. It covers a wide range of a variety of food items to suit every need, and are hugely popular all over the country. They can, however, contain toxic heavy metals, like lead, which can pose serious health hazards, including neuropathy, cardiovascular, renal as well as bone diseases. Source of lead can be various artificial food colorants used to increase the palatability of such food, and also automobile emission exhaust smoke that pollutes the street atmosphere, the very place where such food is prepared or kept ready to consume. Contamination with heavy metals is a serious threat because of their toxicity, bioaccumulation and bio magnifications in the food chain. This source of lead toxicity, however, is one aspect of the health hazards that has not been widely explored. The aim of this study is to increase awareness among general population, both consumers and vendors, regarding a very common but often overlooked source of heavy metal contamination. METHODOLOGY Lead was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry after digestion of food with 98% Nitric acid. RESULTS This present study measures the level of lead in various commonly consumed street vended food items across the streets of Kolkata, India, and shows that the range of its level is much higher than the WHO recommended level of lead in food materials. The level also has close association with the food colorant used. In conclusion, the gross lack of awareness among the general population, both at the vendor and the consumer level, regarding this particular health hazard related to the food they consume on a regular basis, needs to be addressed as a serious issue, and personal safety measures should be undertaken.

  16. A simple model for calculating air pollution within street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Laura E.; Mazzeo, Nicolás A.; Dezzutti, Mariana C.

    2014-04-01

    This paper introduces the Semi-Empirical Urban Street (SEUS) model. SEUS is a simple mathematical model based on the scaling of air pollution concentration inside street canyons employing the emission rate, the width of the canyon, the dispersive velocity scale and the background concentration. Dispersive velocity scale depends on turbulent motions related to wind and traffic. The parameterisations of these turbulent motions include two dimensionless empirical parameters. Functional forms of these parameters have been obtained from full scale data measured in street canyons at four European cities. The sensitivity of SEUS model is studied analytically. Results show that relative errors in the evaluation of the two dimensionless empirical parameters have less influence on model uncertainties than uncertainties in other input variables. The model estimates NO2 concentrations using a simple photochemistry scheme. SEUS is applied to estimate NOx and NO2 hourly concentrations in an irregular and busy street canyon in the city of Buenos Aires. The statistical evaluation of results shows that there is a good agreement between estimated and observed hourly concentrations (e.g. fractional bias are -10.3% for NOx and +7.8% for NO2). The agreement between the estimated and observed values has also been analysed in terms of its dependence on wind speed and direction. The model shows a better performance for wind speeds >2 m s-1 than for lower wind speeds and for leeward situations than for others. No significant discrepancies have been found between the results of the proposed model and that of a widely used operational dispersion model (OSPM), both using the same input information.

  17. Masculinity in Majma: An Ethnography of Street Healing in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Anam, Mujibul

    2010-01-01

    Based on empirical research in peri-urban areas in Dhaka, this thesis took the form of an anthropological enquiry into the forms of sexuality popularized by street-canvassers and their advertisement and sale of male potency medicines in Bangladesh. The field study raises as well as explores questions regarding male sexuality and sexual health problems. This study has demonstrated, using ethnographic data, one of the multiple ways in which males’ sexual health problems are being understood and...

  18. Ventilation Processes in a Three-Dimensional Street Canyon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, L.; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 2 (2016), s. 259-284 ISSN 0006-8314 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1554; GA ČR GA15-18964S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : Coherent structures * line source * pollution flux measurements * street canyon * wind tunnel Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.573, year: 2016

  19. LES of flow in the street canyon

    OpenAIRE

    Brechler Josef; Fuka Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Results of computer simulation of flow over a series of street canyons are presented in this paper. The setup is adapted from an experimental study by [4] with two different shapes of buildings. The problem is simulated by an LES model CLMM (Charles University Large Eddy Microscale Model) and results are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. The results in the channel (layout from the experiment) are compared with results with a free top boundary.

  20. LES of flow in the street canyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brechler Josef

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of computer simulation of flow over a series of street canyons are presented in this paper. The setup is adapted from an experimental study by [4] with two different shapes of buildings. The problem is simulated by an LES model CLMM (Charles University Large Eddy Microscale Model and results are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. The results in the channel (layout from the experiment are compared with results with a free top boundary.

  1. Street Hawking: Oppressing the Girl Child or Family Economic Supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Fatima M.

    2009-01-01

    Street hawking in its simplest form is the selling of things along the roads and from one place to the other. In Nigeria this is done almost all the time by young children both males and females. The girl hawkers come to the cities in groups and then go in different directions of the city to hawk their goods. They remain in the city from the early…

  2. Facility to evaluate street lightning solutionsin a realistic urban setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Munkgaard; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new large scale outdoor testing facility for street lighting solutions, that has been establish in Denmark for both research and demonstration purposes. The facility is fitted with lamp posts with an array of sensors and connections to allow for monitoring and control...... of lighting solutions under test. Initial data suggests a 75% reduction in energy usage from use of LED luminaries combined with traffic monitoring systems could be achievable....

  3. Architecture and Art Regulations for Karl Marx Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Mironenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The architecture and art regulations for Karl Marx Street and adjoining territories have been worked out for the Committee for town planning of the Irkutsk city administration. Basic provisions: facades of buildings and structures, outdoor advertising and information facilities, artistic illumination of buildings, elements of land improvements. The main principle is to preserve historical appearance and to create a contemporary and comfortable environment.

  4. Benefits and costs of street trees in Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.L. Soares; F.C. Rego; E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; P.J. Peper; Q. Xiao

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that urban trees produce various types of benefits and costs. The computer tool i-Tree STRATUM helps quantify tree structure and function, as well as the value of some of these tree services in different municipalities. This study describes one of the first applications of STRATUM outside the U.S. Lisbon’s street trees are dominated by Celtis australis...

  5. Suicide and history of childhood trauma among street youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadland, Scott E; Marshall, Brandon D L; Kerr, Thomas; Qi, Jiezhi; Montaner, Julio S; Wood, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Street youth represent a marginalized population marked by early mortality and elevated risk for suicide. It is not known to what extent childhood abuse and neglect predispose to suicide in this difficult-to-study population. This study is among the first to examine the relationship between childhood trauma and subsequent attempted suicide during adolescence and young adulthood among street youth. From October 2005 to November 2007, data were collected for the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a cohort of 495 street-recruited youth aged 14-26 in Vancouver, Canada. Self-reported attempted suicide in the preceding six months was examined in relation to childhood abuse and neglect, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), using logistic regression. Overall, 46 (9.3%) youth reported a suicide attempt during the preceding six months. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were highly prevalent, with 201 (40.6%) and 131 (26.5%) of youth reporting history of each, respectively. Increasing CTQ score was related to risk for suicide attempt despite adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.45 per standard deviation increase in score; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.91). Use of snowball sampling may not have produced a truly random sample, and reliance on self-report may have resulted in underreporting of risk behaviors among participants. Moreover, use of cross-sectional data limits the degree to which temporality can be concluded from the results of this study alone. There exists a strong and graded association between childhood trauma and subsequent attempted suicide among street youth, an otherwise 'hidden' population. There is a need for effective interventions that not only prevent maltreatment of children but also aid youth at increased risk for suicide given prior history of trauma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Determining the Suitability of Materials for Disposal at Sea under the London Convention 1972 and London Protocol 1996: A Radiological Assessment Procedure. 2015 Edition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2015-01-01

    This publication provides guidance on performing specific assessments of candidate materials for dumping at sea, to determine whether the materials are de minimis in the meaning of the Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter 1972 (the London Convention 1972) and the related Protocol 1996 (the London Protocol 1996). It presents a detailed radiological procedure to assess doses to workers and members of the public and doses to marine flora and fauna related to the dumping of materials at sea. The procedures in this publication follow the requirements to protect the environment in the IAEA Safety Standards and in the recommendations by the International Commission of Radiological Protection. It is expected to be used by national regulatory authorities responsible for authorizing disposal at sea of candidate materials as well as by those companies and individuals applying to obtain permission to dispose these materials at sea

  7. OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Eric B.; Matthews, Greg D.; McNinch, Kevin; Poore, Barbara S.

    2011-01-01

    Phase One of the OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype (OSMCP) attempts to determine if the open source software developed for the OpenStreetMap (OSM, http://www.openstreetmap.org) can be used for data contributions and improvements that meet or exceed the requirements for integration into The National Map (http://www.nationalmap.gov). OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype Phase One focused on road data aggregated at the state level by the Kansas Data Access and Support Center (DASC). Road data from the DASC were loaded into a system hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) in Rolla, Missouri. U.S. Geological Survey editing specifications were developed by NGTOC personnel (J. Walters and G. Matthews, USGS, unpub. report, 2010). Interstate and U.S. Highways in the dataset were edited to the specifications by NGTOC personnel while State roads were edited by DASC personnel. Resulting data were successfully improved to meet standards for The National Map once the system and specifications were in place. The OSM software proved effective in providing a usable platform for collaborative data editing

  8. Affordance-based individuation of junctions in Open Street Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Scheider

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an algorithm that can be used to identify automatically the subset of street segments of a road network map that corresponds to a junction. The main idea is to use turn-compliant locomotion affordances, i.e., restricted patterns of supported movement, in order to specify junctions independently of their data representation, and in order to motivate tractable individuation and classification strategies. We argue that common approaches based solely on geometry or topology of the street segment graph are useful but insufficient proxies. They miss certain turn restrictions essential to junctions. From a computational viewpoint, the main challenge of affordance-based individuation of junctions lies in its complex recursive definition. In this paper, we show how Open Street Map data can be interpreted into locomotion affordances, and how the recursive junction definition can be translated into a deterministic algorithm. We evaluate this algorithm by applying it to small map excerpts in order to delineate the contained junctions.

  9. Street dance: form of expressing identity in adolescents and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Petracovschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to foreground the counterculture phenomenon that is provides the basis for street dance and the reasons why young people practise it, as well as to analyse the styles of dance developed within this type of dance. The study was made between February and May 2010 in Timişoara on a number of 149 people practising street dance, 46 girls and 103 boys. The results of the research emphasise that the dancers mainly come from an inferior social background (49.66% or from a middle-class background (46.03% and have been regularly practising breakdance (83.89% for more than five years (32.88%. The effects of practising it can be observed on an overall basis as concerns physical condition, artistic sense, self knowledge, discipline but also culture and way of life. Conclusions show that people practise street dance due to its nonconformist and all alive style that continuously makes use of new moves, new trends but also due to it being a way of socialising within a group.

  10. Formation and interference of two pairs of vortex streets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamemoto, Kyoji

    1976-01-01

    A series of theoretical analysis were made on the mechanism of the formation and interference of two pairs of vortex streets appearing behind a pair of two long bars placed perpendicularly to uniform flow. In the first part, the flow model used for this study is explained. It was assumed that two pairs of vortex sheets having the same interval (h) were placed at the distance of g in non-viscous flow. Then small disturbance was given to the flow, and the behavior of the vortex sheets in course of time was analyzed by solving a set of linear simultaneous differential equations. Eight fundamental modes of small displacement were obtained as the independent solutions of the equations. The fundamental modes and the associated parameters are presented. In the second part, a set of non-linear differential equations were derived by substituting the vortex sheets with vortex streets with finite intensity. The set of equations were solved numerically. The results of numerical solutions for various conditions are presented. Main conclusions drawn from this study are that the condition of the existence of two pairs of vortex sheets is g/h >= 1, and that the mutual interference between two pairs of vortex streets becomes conspicuous for g/h <= 2. Some discussions made by other researchers and the author are also presented at the end of this paper. (Aoki, K.)

  11. Attitudes of business people to proposed smokefree shopping streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimal; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the attitudes of business people toward a possible smokefree policy along a route of major shopping streets, the "Golden Mile" (GM) in central Wellington, New Zealand. Businesses on the GM (n = 303) were visited in June-July 2011. Either the owner or manager from each business was surveyed. A response rate of 65.6% (n = 198) was achieved, with 13.3% declining to participate, and further contact not being productive for 21.2%. Support for making the GM smokefree was 43.4% (95% CI = 36.7%-50.4%), with the remainder opposed. There was significantly higher support among business people who were nonsmokers versus smokers (relative risk = 2.95; 95% CI = 1.48-5.89). Overall, 83.3% (95% CI = 77.0%-88.0%) of respondents stated that a smokefree GM would have either a positive or negligible impact on their business (nonconcern), compared with a negative impact (at 16.7%). Nonconcern about the business impact of a smokefree GM was significantly greater for nonfood businesses (89.9%) versus food businesses (64.0%; p business people may reflect the negligible promotion of the idea in this setting. Nevertheless, the likely business impact of a smokefree streets policy was not a concern for the large majority of these business people, so this may not be a significant barrier to policy development. This type of study can contribute to the process for developing smokefree streets and other outdoor areas, by gauging sector support.

  12. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  13. HIV in East London: ethnicity, gender and risk. Design and methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bukutu Cecilia

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While men who have sex with men remain the group at greatest risk of acquiring HIV infection in the UK, the number of new diagnoses among heterosexuals has risen steadily over the last five years. In the UK, three-quarters of heterosexual men and women diagnosed with HIV in 2004 probably acquired their infection in Africa. This changing epidemiological pattern is particularly pronounced in East London because of its ethnically diverse population. Design and methods The objective of the study was to examine the social, economic and behavioural characteristics of patients with HIV infection currently receiving treatment and care in hospitals in East London. The research focused on ethnicity, gender, sexuality, education, employment, housing, HIV treatment, stigma, discrimination, religion, migration and sexual risk behaviour. People diagnosed with HIV infection attending outpatient treatment clinics at St Bartholomew's, the Royal London, Whipp's Cross, Homerton, Newham and Barking hospitals (all in East London over a 4–6 month period were invited to participate in the study in 2004–2005. Those who agreed to participate completed a confidential, self-administered pen-and-paper questionnaire. During the study period, 2680 patients with HIV attended the outpatient clinics in the six participating hospitals, of whom 2299 were eligible for the study and 1687 completed a questionnaire. The response rate was 73% of eligible patients and 63% of all patients attending the clinics during the survey period. Discussion A clinic-based study has allowed us to survey nearly 1700 patients with HIV from diverse backgrounds receiving treatment and care in East London. The data collected in this study will provide valuable information for the planning and delivery of appropriate clinical care, social support and health promotion for people living with HIV not only in East London but in other parts of the capital as well as elsewhere in the UK.

  14. Seasonal influenza vaccination delivery through community pharmacists in England: evaluation of the London pilot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Katherine; van Hoek, Albert Jan; Watson, Conall; Baguelin, Marc; Choga, Lethiwe; Patel, Anika; Raj, Thara; Jit, Mark; Griffiths, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness and cost of the pan-London pharmacy initiative, a programme that allows administration of seasonal influenza vaccination to eligible patients at pharmacies. Design We analysed 2013–2015 data on vaccination uptake in pharmacies via the Sonar reporting system, and the total vaccination uptake via 2011–2015 ImmForm general practitioner (GP) reporting system data. We conducted an online survey of London pharmacists who participate in the programme to assess time use data, vaccine choice, investment costs and opinions about the programme. We conducted an online survey of London GPs to assess vaccine choice of vaccine and opinions about the pharmacy vaccine delivery programme. Setting All London boroughs. Participants London-based GPs, and pharmacies that currently offer seasonal flu vaccination. Interventions Not applicable. Main outcome measures Comparison of annual vaccine uptake in London across risk groups from years before pharmacy vaccination introduction to after pharmacy vaccination introduction. Completeness of vaccine uptake reporting data. Cost to the National Health Service (NHS) of flu vaccine delivery at pharmacies with that at GPs. Cost to pharmacists of flu delivery. Opinions of pharmacists and GPs regarding the flu vaccine pharmacy initiative. Results No significant change in the uptake of seasonal vaccination in any of the risk groups as a result of the pharmacy initiative. While on average a pharmacy-administered flu vaccine dose costs the NHS up to £2.35 less than a dose administered at a GP, a comparison of the 2 recording systems suggests there is substantial loss of data. Conclusions Flu vaccine delivery through pharmacies shows potential for improving convenience for vaccine recipients. However, there is no evidence that vaccination uptake increases and the use of 2 separate recording systems leads to time-consuming data entry and missing vaccine record data. PMID:26883237

  15. Spatially resolved flux measurements of NOx from London suggest significantly higher emissions than predicted by inventories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Adam R; Lee, James D; Misztal, Pawel K; Metzger, Stefan; Shaw, Marvin D; Lewis, Alastair C; Purvis, Ruth M; Carslaw, David C; Goldstein, Allen H; Hewitt, C Nicholas; Davison, Brian; Beevers, Sean D; Karl, Thomas G

    2016-07-18

    To date, direct validation of city-wide emissions inventories for air pollutants has been difficult or impossible. However, recent technological innovations now allow direct measurement of pollutant fluxes from cities, for comparison with emissions inventories, which are themselves commonly used for prediction of current and future air quality and to help guide abatement strategies. Fluxes of NOx were measured using the eddy-covariance technique from an aircraft flying at low altitude over London. The highest fluxes were observed over central London, with lower fluxes measured in suburban areas. A footprint model was used to estimate the spatial area from which the measured emissions occurred. This allowed comparison of the flux measurements to the UK's National Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (NAEI) for NOx, with scaling factors used to account for the actual time of day, day of week and month of year of the measurement. The comparison suggests significant underestimation of NOx emissions in London by the NAEI, mainly due to its under-representation of real world road traffic emissions. A comparison was also carried out with an enhanced version of the inventory using real world driving emission factors and road measurement data taken from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory (LAEI). The measurement to inventory agreement was substantially improved using the enhanced version, showing the importance of fully accounting for road traffic, which is the dominant NOx emission source in London. In central London there was still an underestimation by the inventory of 30-40% compared with flux measurements, suggesting significant improvements are still required in the NOx emissions inventory.

  16. Individuals with severely impaired vision can learn useful orientation and mobility skills in virtual streets and can use them to improve real street safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Ellen Lambert; Liu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Virtual reality has great potential in training road safety skills to individuals with low vision but the feasibility of such training has not been demonstrated. We tested the hypotheses that low vision individuals could learn useful skills in virtual streets and could apply them to improve real street safety. Twelve participants, whose vision was too poor to use the pedestrian signals were taught by a certified orientation and mobility specialist to determine the safest time to cross the street using the visual and auditory signals made by the start of previously stopped cars at a traffic-light controlled street intersection. Four participants were trained in real streets and eight in virtual streets presented on 3 projection screens. The crossing timing of all participants was evaluated in real streets before and after training. The participants were instructed to say "GO" at the time when they felt the safest to cross the street. A safety score was derived to quantify the GO calls based on its occurrence in the pedestrian phase (when the pedestrian sign did not show DON'T WALK). Before training, > 50% of the GO calls from all participants fell in the DON'T WALK phase of the traffic cycle and thus were totally unsafe. 20% of the GO calls fell in the latter half of the pedestrian phase. These calls were unsafe because one initiated crossing this late might not have sufficient time to walk across the street. After training, 90% of the GO calls fell in the early half of the pedestrian phase. These calls were safer because one initiated crossing in the pedestrian phase and had at least half of the pedestrian phase for walking across. Similar safety changes occurred in both virtual street and real street trained participants. An ANOVA showed a significant increase of the safety scores after training and there was no difference in this safety improvement between the virtual street and real street trained participants. This study demonstrated that virtual reality

  17. Multiconfigurational self-consistent field calculations of nuclear shieldings using London atomic orbitals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruud, Kenneth; Helgaker, Trygve; Kobayashi, Rika

    1994-01-01

    to corresponding individual gauges for localized orbitals (IGLO) results. The London results show better basis set convergence than IGLO, especially for heavier atoms. It is shown that the choice of active space is crucial for determination of accurate nuclear shielding constants.......Nuclear shielding calculations are presented for multiconfigurational self-consistent field wave functions using London atomic orbitals (gauge invariant atomic orbitals). Calculations of nuclear shieldings for eight molecules (H2O, H2S, CH4, N2, CO, HF, F2, and SO2) are presented and compared...

  18. The Sindhi Hindus of London − Language Maintenance or Language Shift?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maya Khemlani David

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available The linguistic situation of the Sindhi language in London is examined with a view to determining whether the community is maintaining the use of its ethnic language. The Sindhi Hindus of London are a language community, which have never been researched. The language choice of the community in different domains and for a range of language functions is discussed. Both external and internal factors of language shift have weakened the linguistic and communicative competence of Sindhi speakers in the language contact situation of the United Kingdom.

  19. In vitro transfer of multiple resistance observed in vivo during a Salmonella london epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lantos, J; Marjai, E

    1980-01-01

    Between 1976 and 1978, waves of Salmonella london infections conveyed by raw meat and meat products were observed. The strains isolated during the epidemic were first susceptible then developed multiple antibiotic resistance. The identical antibiotic resistance patterns of the strain and their more frequent occurrence in hospital environments indicated plasmid-mediated resistance. R-plasmid transfer, minimum inhibition concentration and resistance elimination were studied in representative strains. The resistant S. london strain and transconjugants of Escherichia coli rendered resistant were compared. The results proved that multiple resistance was plasmid-mediated.

  20. Space, Emotions and the Everyday: The Affective Ecology of 1980s London.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    This article explores the relationship between emotions, space and politics in 1980s London, using the Greater London Council, childcare, and racial harassment as particular foci. It brings together political history, the history of emotions, and geography to offer a new way of thinking about political culture, as well as contributing to the history of the 1980s. It is based upon archival sources. © The Author [2016]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.