WorldWideScience

Sample records for street literature memoir

  1. The Power of Life Histories: Moving Readers to Greater Acts of Empathy through Literature and Memoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Valarie G.; Madden, Marjorie E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper argues that narratives, specifically literature and memoir, offer a way to build empathy and understanding by moving readers to deeper levels of text interpretation and critique. The paper examines a new literacy framework, Life Histories, that uses talk, collaboration, writing, and performance to understand the complex relationships…

  2. Food Memoirs: What They Are, Why They Are Popular, and Why They Belong in the Literature Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waxman, Barbara Frey

    2008-01-01

    This essay examines the kind of culinary memoir that chronicles the growth and development of the memoirist through the lens of food memories, in narratives that either begin with childhood or that interpose frequent flashbacks to earliest formative experiences. The author examines some of the key elements of this subgenre of the memoir, this…

  3. Memoirs 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    Titles of the memoirs are: Wheal Hearle, St Just: History and Archaeology; Dabbling in Eskdale Iron Mining; The Meal Mill at Ballygrant; The Grades Coal and Steel Works, Oldbury, Staffordshire; Does Familiarity Breed Contempt? - Age and Accident Frequency in Cornish Non-Ferrous Metal Mining, 1881-1901; Explosives in the Mines of the Alston Block during the 18th and 19th centuries; The Inghams and the Thornhill Collieries Near Dewsbury; A Dispute Over Mining Royalities in the Bolton Area, 1836-1842. 40 figs., 18 photos.

  4. About the conjunction between literature, religion and existential knowledge in the “Memoirs from Beyond the Grave” of Chateaubriand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Kamińska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the relationship between literature, religion and existential knowledge in the memorial work of François-René de Chateaubriand. The first main problem is the transmission of universal values represented by Christianity. The second problem are narrator’s tragic experiences that become a source of precious knowledge communicated to the reader. These narrative stakes, reinforced by rhetorical persuasion, are crucial to ensure immortality of the author through the pertinence of his voice addressed to posterity.

  5. The health profile of street children in Africa: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Nambile Cumber

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Children’s Fund has labeled street children as children in difficult circumstances, which represent a minority population that has been under-represented for too long in health research. This is a concern because street children are at risk of carrying a greater disease burden. Their homeless lifestyle makes them more vulnerable to health risks and problems than children who live at home; as they roam the streets begging for food and money to obtain basic needs and are found sleeping in half-destroyed houses, abandoned basements, under bridges and in the open air. This paper presents health results from a systematic review of literature from 17 databases and including 16 countries in Africa. The review revealed that there are more boys than girls living on the street in their adolescence and who mainly have left home due to poverty and abuse. These children in these countries are vulnerable to poor health due to factors such as homelessness, risky sexual behavior, substance abuse and violence. Among the health problems identified are growth and nutritional disorders, physical injuries, violence, sexual abuse, communicable diseases including diarrheal diseases, malaria, respiratory diseases, neglected tropical diseases, mental health issues, substance abuse, reproductive health disorders, mortality, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. Primary interventions that could prevent poor health and improve the health status of street children include provision of safe shelter, proper nutrition, access to health care, health education, and sexual reproductive health, protection from any form of abuse, violence and substance abuse. Enforcing state policies and laws in all African countries is required to protect street children from neglect, abuse and to increase their access to education. More research on the health risks and health status of street children is still required, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, which carries

  6. The health profile of street children in Africa: a literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Nambile Cumber

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Children’s Fund has labeled street children as children in difficult circumstances, which represent a minority population that has been under-represented for too long in health research. This is a concern because street children are at risk of carrying a greater disease burden. Their homeless lifestyle makes them more vulnerable to health risks and problems than children who live at home; as they roam the streets begging for food and money to obtain basic needs and are found sleeping in half-destroyed houses, abandoned basements, under bridges and in the open air. This paper presents health results from a systematic review of literature from 17 databases and including 16 countries in Africa. The review revealed that there are more boys than girls living on the street in their adolescence and who mainly have left home due to poverty and abuse. These children in these countries are vulnerable to poor health due to factors such as homelessness, risky sexual behavior, substance abuse and violence. Among the health problems identified are growth and nutritional disorders, physical injuries, violence, sexual abuse, communicable diseases including diarrheal diseases, malaria, respiratory diseases, neglected tropical diseases, mental health issues, substance abuse, reproductive health disorders, mortality, sexually transmitted diseases and HIV/AIDS. Primary interventions that could prevent poor health and improve the health status of street children include provision of safe shelter, proper nutrition, access to health care, health education, and sexual reproductive health, protection from any form of abuse, violence and substance abuse. Enforcing state policies and laws in all African countries is required to protect street children from neglect, abuse and to increase their access to education. More research on the health risks and health status of street children is still required, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa, which carries

  7. Childhood trauma in the graphic memoir

    OpenAIRE

    Beskow, Sara H.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis I examine why the graphic memoir has become such a popular platform for authors to explore their childhood, and how these authors use graphic memoirs in an attempt to understand any trauma that they experienced during their formative years. Graphic memoirs in this context allow for a dual outlet to express these complex traumatic events, both through vivid illustrations and descriptive text. To illustrate how graphic memoirs are used as an outlet for traumatic experiences I hav...

  8. Memoirs as Cultural Phenomenon and Historical Source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Георгиевна Георгиева

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the role of memoirs as the native culture phenomenon, process and means of introducing memoirs to the social and scientific and educational practice. The author considers the Russian historians' views development on theoretical and methodological problems of memoirs studies. There are shown the offered variants and achieved results of development of defining «memoirs», studies of their specific peculiarities, principles and schemes of memoirs systematization as well as the criteria of defining their scientific and educational value as historical sources.

  9. Various chapter styles for the memoir class

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lars

    2008-01-01

    Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded.......Document showcasing various chapter title page designs either included in the LaTeX memoir class or is easily manually coded....

  10. Memoirs of incontestable documentary and artistic value

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manea Mihail

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The presentation of the Memoirs, "Labyrinth of Destiny", signed by the first President of the Republic of Moldova, Mircea SNEGUR, Doctor Honoris Causa of the Academy of Public Administration, took place at the Academy.

  11. Memoirs of a CERN pioneer

    CERN Document Server

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2014-01-01

    François de Rose, the last surviving founding father of CERN, publishes his memoirs during the year of CERN’s 60th anniversary.   François de Rose in the ATLAS cavern during his visit to CERN in 2013. Sixty years ago, a handful of European scientists saw their dream of cooperation come true. Thanks to their efforts, nations which had been torn apart during the war came together to create the first European scientific organisation. Having lived through bombing, destruction, death and genocide, they regarded European integration as vital to the survival of their respective nations. Their goal was for their domain to participate in the general efforts towards reconstruction and peace.  They successfully rose to the challenge and CERN became one of the world’s most prestigious research laboratories. Among these early activists was a diplomat, François de Rose. At the ripe old age of 103, the former French ambassador is the last surviv...

  12. Education of a college president: a memoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killian, J.R. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The reviewer finds Killian's book, The Education of a College President: A Memoir, to be an interesting counterpoint to Kamen's memoir of the political side of the nuclear age. Killian describes his World War II experiences at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, where a concentration of research scientists worked in harmony in contrast to the situation in California. Killian focuses on the institutional side of cooperation between the university, industry, and the military. The reviewer, who faults Kamen for his claustrophobic approach, expresses disappointment with Killian's impersonal approach

  13. Truth and (self) censorship in military memoirs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinreesink, E.; Soeters, J.M.M.L.

    2016-01-01

    It can be difficult for researchers from outside the military to gain access to the field. However, there is a rich source on the military that is readily available for every researcher: military memoirs. This source does provide some methodological challenges with regard to truth and (self)

  14. Urban streets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönfeld, von Kim Carlotta; Bertolini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Today's urban streets are usually planned for purposes of mobility: pedestrians, as well as a variety of vehicles such as cars, trucks, and sometimes bicycles, are usually factored into an urban street plan. However, urban streets are also increasingly recognized as public spaces, accommodating

  15. Growing up in Wartime England—A Selection from "The Rachel Chronicles: A Kind of Memoir"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian R. Furst

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The following contribution is an excerpt from the unpublished memoirs of Austrian Jewish émigrée, Lilian Renée Furst (1931–2009, a pioneer in the field of comparative literature. This journal issue grew out of an April 2011 conference in her memory, held at the National Humanities Center, on “Jewish emigres and the Shaping of Postwar Culture.” The nexus between her innovative intellectual contributions and her experience as a Jewish émigré reflects one of the conference's central concerns: How, why, and in what fashion did the émigrés' dislocations shape innovative intellectual paths and cosmopolitan visions of Europe and European culture. Born in Austria and educated in England, Furst pursued an intellectual career in the United States, hoping it would allow her to break out of narrow national boundaries. The excerpt of her memoir here illuminates how her life's work as a pioneer in the field of comparative literary studies grew out of her experience with language as a German-speaking refugee in wartime England. Her memoir written in the third person about “Rachel” also reflects her dual identity as Jew and European. Part I by Dr. Anabel Aliaga-Buchenau, the literary executor of the memoir and a former graduate student of Furst, places “The Rachel Chronicles: A Kind of Memoir” in relation to Furst's other autobiographical writing. Part II includes Furst's own introduction to “The Rachel Chronicles,” followed by her chapter on “Growing up in wartime England.” (The whole of her unpublished memoir is available to researchers in the "Personal Papers of Lilian R. Furst," Girton College Archives, Cambridge University (http://janus.lib.cam.ac.uk/db/node.xsp?id=EAD%2FGBR%2F0271%2FGCPP%20Furst. Part III is a bibliography of Furst's writings.

  16. Peter Lax, mathematician an illustrated memoir

    CERN Document Server

    Hersh, Reuben

    2015-01-01

    Hersh's memoir of Peter Lax is a revealing glimpse into the life, times, and work of one of the giants of mathematics. The story, told through reminiscences and interviews with Lax himself, his family, and his close friends, is the story of mathematics and its relationships to science and society from the Second World War to the end of the century. -Charlie Epstein, University of Pennsylvania This book is a biography of one of the most famous and influential living mathematicians, Peter Lax. He is virtually unique as a preeminent leader in both pure and applied mathematics, fields which are o

  17. Street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non­governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop­in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.

  18. THE REPRESENTATION INDIGENOUS GUARANI MEMOIR IN BOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Hermínio Maldonado

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The works of authors memoir, researched this, depict the lifestyles Guarani and conflicts involving territorial disputes between the eighteenth and mid-twentieth century. They report experiences and seek their opinion about the relationship between indigenous people and migrants, as the authors themselves, who came to southern Ontario then on business and looking for productive land. From these works it is understood as the Indians managed to hide the regional history and justify their judgments about this population without considering the culture and without social organization. The research is to understand the phenomenon of invisibility to which they are subject, not only the Guarani, but the other indigenous peoples today the state of Mato Grosso do Sul.

  19. Street outreach with no streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Bruce; Peters, Heather

    2005-01-01

    A street nurse position in the rural and small-town interior of British Columbia has been addressing the needs of street-involved or otherwise marginalized client populations by bringing healthcare services to wherever those clients are, rather than waiting for the clients to seek care. The primary reason for a street outreach approach is that marginalized populations face a variety of barriers to accessing traditional healthcare services--barriers such as homelessness, mental health problems, criminal involvement, lack of transportation, lack of ability to pay for prescriptions, lack of specialized or knowledgeable providers and provider discrimination. In the rural street nurse program, the target population includes the usual street nurse populations of illegal drug users and sex trade workers, which are more hidden in small communities than in larger urban centres, creating the community denial that is a barrier to healthcare access. Yet another barrier is the co-locaton of services common in small communities, where public health clinics might share a building with police services, making marginalized clients reluctant to attend clinics. The rural street nurse collaborates with public health nurses and other care providers (mental health workers, social workers, etc) with collegial advice and support, making and receiving referrals, and generally assisting one another--the street nurse through his rapport with the marginalized individuals and the others with their specialized knowledge. Rural street services are delivered whereverthe clientsfeel comfortable: a school, a drop-in centre, a mall, a youth centre or simplythe street. Services provided include sexually transmitted infection testing, chlamydia treatments, pregnancy testing emergency contraception pills and assistance with filling out forms for financial support. Accordingly, the street nurse's truck is equipped as a mobile treatment centre and office, with a cellphone and a stock of testing and

  20. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  1. Models of kulture in Nabokov's memoirs and translation memoirs in Serbian and Croatian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Razdobudko-Čović Larisa I.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents an analysis of two Serbian translations of V. Nabokov's memoirs, that is the translation of the novel 'Drugie berega' ('The Other Shores' published in Russian as an authorized translation from the original English version 'Conclusive Evidence', and the translation of Nabokov's authorized translation from Russian to English entitled 'Speak, Memory'. Creolization of three models of culture in translation from the two originals - Russian and English - Is presented. Specific features of the two Serbian translations are analyzed, and a survey of characteristic mistakes caused by some specific characteristics of the source language is given. Also, Nabokov's very original approach to translation which is quite interpretative is highlighted.

  2. Street Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shapiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  3. Every Word Is on Trial: Six-Word Memoirs in the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Jane M.; Smith, Emily E.

    2014-01-01

    Six-word memoirs are readily available through books, magazine articles, and on the Internet. This teaching tip explores how to use six-word memoirs to guide students through the writing process steps from developing and revising a concise memoir, to employing technology and imagery, to publishing final versions of their work online. Included in…

  4. Radiant science, dark politics: a memoir of the nuclear age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamen, M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The reviewer describes Radiant Science, Dark Politics: A Memoir of the Nuclear Age in contrast to a memoir by James R. Killian, Jr., a contemporary of Kamen. Kamen, co-discoverer of carbon-14 and a valued member of the Berkeley Radiation Laboratory, was fired in 1944 and blackballed as a security risk. Rehabilitated by the end of the war, his continued fight against political injustice through the McCarthy era colors the book and, for the reviewer, makes it self-serving. Kamen's later scientific work reflected his desire to work alone rather than in collaboration

  5. Using Six-Word Memoirs to Increase Cultural Identity Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Nathaniel; Chen, Yea-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Guided by cultural identity theory (CIT), the authors offer the six-word memoir (6WM) as a storytelling vehicle to engage students in critical, reflexive (re)considerations of their cultural identities and positions. This activity's impetus is threefold. First, it recognizes the practical challenges of teaching and learning the important, yet…

  6. Analysing Memoir Topic Trends in the Social and Political Sciences ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the issue of plagiarism was not specifically addressed by this study, it is possible that the N-map trends portrayed by this research emerge in part because some students have used past memoirs as templates, possibly including indirect or direct copying. For this reason, the research concluded that while the majority ...

  7. Poverty in Independent India : a History and Family Memoirs | CRDI ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Poverty in Independent India : a History and Family Memoirs. India's Dalits have historically been subjected to devastating social and economic discrimination. The economic growth experienced by the country since 1990 has seen Dalit incomes more than double. Nevertheless, 300 million Indians still live below the poverty ...

  8. Imagining the nation: Autobiography, memoir, history or fiction in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In examining Peter Godwin's two memoirs – Mukiwa and When a crocodile eats the sun – this study insists on the elusiveness of mediated identity relative to the privileges, authority and systems of power articulated by the nation state. In narrating a genealogical self and inscribing its position relative to social, power and ...

  9. Literariness and Racial Consciousness in Paule Marshall’s Memoir Triangular Road and Gloria Naylor’s Fictionalized Memoir 1996

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łobodziec Agnieszka

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Black American women writers were side-lined by the literary canon as recently as the 1980s. Today, as a result of their agency, a distinct literary tradition that bears witness to black women’s particular expressiveness is recognized. Bernard Bell observes that the defining features common to most literary works by black American women are a focus on racist oppression, black female protagonists, the pursuit of demarginalization, women’s bonding, women’s relationship with the community, the power of emotions, and black female language. Although these elements refer predominantly to novels, they are also present in Paule Marshall’s memoir Triangular Road (2009 and Gloria Naylor’s fictionalized memoir 1996 (2005. Moreover, the two works are fitting examples of racial art, the point of departure of which, according to Black Arts Movement advocates, should be the black experience. Actually, since through memoirs the authors offer significant insights into themselves, the genre seems closer to this objective of racial art than novels. At the same time, taking into consideration the intricate plot structures, vivid images, and emotional intensity, their memoirs evidence the quality of literariness i.e., in formalist terms, the set of features that distinguish texts from non-literary ones, for instance, reports, articles, text books, and encyclopaedic biographical entries. Moreover, Marshall and Naylor utilize creative imagination incorporating fabulation, stories within stories, and people or events they have never personally encountered, which dramatizes and intensifies the experiences they relate. In Marshall’s memoir, the fictitious elements are discernable when she imagines the historical past. Naylor demarks imagined narrative passages with separate sections that intertwine with those based upon her actual life experience.

  10. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  11. 46th Street pilot street lighting project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Street lighting improvements provide an opportunity for governments to save money and to reduce their : environmental footprint. New energy-efficient technologies are being perfected that are more efficient than : standard high-pressure sodium street...

  12. Capturing the benefits of complete streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotal information indicates that private investment and property value increases are associated : with featured Complete Streets projects. However, to date, little research has been done to confirm : these benefits. Much of the relevant literatur...

  13. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  14. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary Road,...

  15. A different voice: Mary Hays's the Memoirs of Emma Courtney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, A

    2001-01-01

    Mary Hays wrote in the decade of the 1790s, a period of intense creative flowering in England. Writing in a period enshrined to the works of the canonical Wordsworth and Coleridge, Hays explored through her Jacobinical novel, The Memoirs of Emma Courtney, the contentious relationship between self and society. Like other Jacobin women writers - Elizabeth Inchbald, Charlotte Smith and Mary Wollstonecraft - Mary Hays too used her novel to explode the insidious connection between education and gender construction. Emma Courtney is a landmark novel that wrestles with the paradigm of decorum and propriety which disallows women from voicing their aspirations. In the process, Hays merges the plots of the domestic novel of courtship and love with the novel of ideas to create a searing portrait of women's intellectual confinement and psychic dissonance in a society that only projects them in terms of their gender construction. Memoirs of Emma Courtney is a remarkable novel in its depiction of the emotional imbalance created by thwarted desire: intellectual and sexual.

  16. Australian Aboriginal Memoir and Memory: A Stolen Generations Trauma Narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine Seran

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a re-reading of Aboriginal author Sally Morgan’s Stolen Generations narrative My Place (1987 in post-Apology Australia (2008–present. The novel tells the story of Morgan’s discovery of her maternal Aboriginal origins through the life-stories of her mother and grandmother; the object of a quest for the past that is both relational and matrilineal; incorporating elements of autobiography and as-told-to memoirs to create a form of choral autoethnography. Morgan’s text explores the intergenerational consequences of child removal in the Aboriginal context and is representative of Indigenous-authored narratives in its suggestion that the children and grand-children of victims of colonial policies and practices can work through the trauma of their ancestors. I examine the literary processes of decolonization of the Indigenous writing/written self and community; as well as strategies for individual survival and cultural survivance in the Australian settler colonial context; especially visible through the interactions between traumatic memories and literary memoirs, a genre neglected by trauma theory’s concern with narrative fragmentation and the proliferation of “themed” life-writing centered on a traumatic event. This article calls for a revision of trauma theory’s Eurocentrism through scholarly engagement with Indigenous experiences such as Morgan’s and her family in order to broaden definitions and take into account collective, historical, and inherited trauma.

  17. A history of accelerator radiation protection - personal and professional memoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, H.W.; Thomas, R.H.

    1994-01-01

    This book is a result of many influences not the least of which was the realisation of their own mortality by the Editors. Over the eighty or so joint years of experiences in accelerator laboratories they found many fine colleagues and friends. Most of their older contemporaries of the World War II Manhattan Project era have retired or will soon do so. Knowing that, collectively, these people have a tale to tell that is well worth telling, full of both scientific and human interest, and believing that it is particularly important to capture the memories of the more senior of these before they become irretrievable, they persuaded 30 or so friends and colleagues from many countries of the world to record their personal and professional memoirs for the education and entertainment of both scientists and scientific historians. (author)

  18. The laser inventor memoirs of Theodore H. Maiman

    CERN Document Server

    Maiman, Theodore H

    2018-01-01

    In these engaging memoirs of a maverick, Theodore H. Maiman describes the life events leading to his invention of the laser in 1960. Maiman succeeded using his expertise in physics and engineering along with an ingenious and elegant design not anticipated by others. His pink ruby laser produced mankind’s first-ever coherent light and has provided transformational technology for commerce, industry, telecom, the Internet, medicine, and all the sciences. Maiman also chronicles the resistance from his employer and the ongoing intrigue by competing researchers in industry and academia seeking to diminish his contribution in inventing the first laser. This work will appeal to a wide readership, from physicists and engineers through science enthusiasts to general readers. The volume includes extensive photos and documentary materials related to Maiman’s life and accomplishments never before published. "No one beat Maiman to the laser. How important is the laser? How important are all lasers? That is how import...

  19. Universal design characteristic on themed streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsritanto, Bangun IR; Indriastjario; Wijayanti

    2017-12-01

    People around the world can access the streets to fulfil their daily activities regardless of their gender, age, and abilities. The streetscape is an urban public space which is built to facilitate the basic needs of people as social being. The themed street is an urban streetscape designed and built in detail with a theme or special purpose in an of urban development process. Universal design facilitates the full range of human diversity as physical appearance, perception, cognitive abilities, sizes, and shapes. By designing for the diversity, the specialized streets become more functional and user-friendly. The purpose of this study is to examine several design characteristics of themed streets in several countries from three different continents using universal design principles for giving proper directions to develop more user-friendly streets. Literature review and case study were used as research methods. The literature review was extracted and compiled from manuscripts, streetscape design books, and from universal design principles. Furthermore, the constructed theory were used to examine the case studies of themed streets. The findings indicated that themed streets’ character design were strongly influenced by local cultural aspect even though the basic guidelines were universal design principles; the resumed design direction can be suggested universal along with the richness of local aspects.

  20. Scrivere al tornio, modellare il testo: Edmund de Waal tra istallazione e memoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Cuojati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Hare with Amber Eyes (2010 by Edmund de Waal is a memoir written by “a very textual potter”. Thanks to the inheritance of a collection of tiny Japanese carvings, de Waal leaves on a journey to Paris, Vienna, Odessa, back to his Jewish roots in nineteenth century aesthtecisism and in the tragedy of the Shoah. Drawing parallels between his writing, collecting and the plastic arts of pottery, the author explores the affinities between artefact and word, installation and proposition, collection and archive. The Hare can be read in the context of what R. Wendorf has defined a “literature of collecting,” including critical theory as well as narratives dealing with its practices. Rich in intertextual excursions, de Waal’s autobiographical writing develops a fruitful conversation with W. Benjamin’s 1931 paradigmatic text “Unpacking my Library”. Also P. Levi’s La chiave a stella riverberates in the writer’s awareness of the importance of precision in practices like creating an installation and writing about the past, involving both aesthetic and moral responsabilities. De Waal’s stance about the transitivity between art and writing finally emerges from the very rhetorics of his work which abounds in circular structures like the red alluminium ring which sustains his installation at the V&A Ceramics Galleries and the figure of the chiasmus which organizes his prose writing, linking him yet again to his Jewish cultural origins.

  1. Intelligent street lighting clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, R.; Jovanovic, N.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The advances in dynamic street lighting introduce new functionality for control and maintenance of the street lighting infrastructure. Vital elements in this infrastructure are the powerful controlling devices that control separate groups of light poles and collect information from the system. For

  2. A LONG WAY GONE – MEMOIRS OF A BOY SOLDIER

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abel

    “This is how wars are fought now: by children, traumatized, hopped-up on drugs and wielding AK-47s. Children ... existence perceived as endless oppressive reigns of varied proportions (World War. II, Apartheid, the Berlin Wall ... UK, and what is the currency of a child soldier “a long way gone” in the streets of. South Africa?

  3. Relationships as determinants of substance use amongst street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unrestrained exposure to street life often makes the street child vulnerable to psychoactive substances. In other settings, the social relationships of the substance user with those around him or her and family norms of parenting have been docu-mented to modulate use. However, there is a dearth of literature on ...

  4. Whose Bay Street? Competing Narratives of Nassau's City Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nona Patara Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bay Street has always been at the centre of commercial, cultural and political life in the Bahama Islands. It also acts as a gateway for millions of tourists who come to Nassau, the Bahamian capital, via cruise ships every year. Not surprisingly, Bahamians and non-Bahamians have widely divergent impressions of Bay Street. The need to accommodate the tourists who are critical to the Bahamian economy has meant that Bay Street, despite its deep social significance for Bahamians, has increasingly become a tourist space. With reference to the ‘sense of place’ and place attachment literature, this paper traces the transformation of Bay Street and attempts to tease out the most obvious tensions between the Bay Street that Bahamians experience and Bay Street as a port of call.

  5. Aesthetics of Being: The Unfinished Memoirs of Virginia Woolf and Jean Rhys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia Moran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This essay reads the unfinished memoirs of Virginia Woolf and Jean Rhys through the lens of relational psychoanalysis, particularly that of Christopher Bollas. Building upon the latter's theorisation of a maternal aesthetic based on her handling of the infant, what Bollas terms the mother's "idiom of care", the essay traces both positive and negative registers of such an aesthetic. Both memoirs open with self-identified "first memories", and both go on to connect the act of writing with these first memories. Woolf's memoir foregrounds moments of containment in a uterine, preoedipal surround, "colour-and-sound" experiences shattered by the mother's sudden death: Woolf goes on to characterise her writing as a practice that allows her to rebuild the shattered world. Rhys, by contrast, connects her writing to experiences of disharmony, alienation, and estrangement, an aesthetic she traces back to her mother's insistence on a surface conformity, at odds with the daughter's inner turmoil.

  6. From Diagnosis to Gnosis: writing, knowledge, and repair in breast cancer and BRCA memoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boesky, Amy

    2015-01-01

    This essay explores the reparative work of diagnostic retellings in breast cancer and BRCA memoirs (memoirs written by women who learn they carry a mutation predisposing them to develop breast or ovarian cancers). It considers four memoirists (Felicia Knaul, Melanie Norton, Masha Gessen, and Sarah Gabriel) as they illuminate initial moments of "finding out"--learning they have cancer or have tested positive for a BRCA mutation. These memoirists invite readers to appreciate the complexity of cancer as a lived experience. Writing about breast cancer and the risk of its development helps writers and readers alike to understand illness in greater depth, challenging some aspects of care and championing others.

  7. Use of charge storage tube in the building of a buffer memory; Application des tubes a memoire a la realisation d'une memoire tampon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcovici, C [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1964-07-01

    The apparatus manufactured is a buffer memory to be located between a detector and a multichannel pulse height analyser which received the pulses at regular times. The buffer memory and the detector have the same order of dead time, then the whole is equivalent to a detector plus an analyser without dead time, but that is true only if the mean time between two consecutive pulses from the detector is greater than the analyser time resolution. The apparatus used two electrostatic barrier grid tubes; the first one stores temporarily the data from the detector during the time necessary to analyse the data recorded on the other one. At the end of the analysis, the roles of the two tubes are permuted. The advantage on similar other apparatus is the uninterrupted recording of the pulse height informations from the detector and the uninterrupted analysis. In addition, the transistorization is interesting for reliability and maintainability. The document presents principles and data on the barrier grid storage tube, considers its conventional uses in nuclear electronics studies statistically the reduction of counting losses. It describes the test equipment and the tests which permits the screening of the best cathode ray storage tube for this application. Finally, it describes the item and gives the wave shapes in various points of the buffer memory. (author) [French] Le dispositif realise est une memoire tampon destinee a etre placee entre un detecteur et un selecteur d'amplitude multicanaux. Elle permet a ce dernier de recevoir et analyser les impulsions a intervalles de temps reguliers. Son temps de resolution est comparable a celui du detecteurs, l'ensemble est donc equivalent a un systeme constitue d'un detecteur suivi d'un selecteur sans temps mort, mais ceci n'est valable que tant que l'intervalle de temps moyen entre deux impulsions issues du detecteur est superieur au temps d'analyse necessite par le selecteur. Ce dispositif est constitue de deux tubes a memoire

  8. What Good Is World Literature?: World Literature Pedagogy and the Rhetoric of Moral Crisis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Karen R.

    2011-01-01

    The past decade has seen a resurgence of scholarship on world literature. The best-selling successes of "Great Books" arguments contained in Azar Nafisi's memoir "Reading Lolita in Tehran" and in Dai Sijie's novel "Balzac and the Little Chinese Seamstress" seem to mirror, on the popular front, this scholarly return to the question of world…

  9. Street-art

    OpenAIRE

    Rybnikářová, Klára

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the street-art and graffiti phenomenon. The theoretical research is focused on presenting the essence and character of this art style, while also watching it from socio-cultural point of view and observing it in context of art history. The theoretical study is followed by the didactical part of thesis, where I present possibilities of using the street-art theme in art education programs in the school setting. My thesis is concluded with a discussion of a practica...

  10. Street level society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinum, Christine; Nissen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to reflect on research findings from different empirical studies of social work with young drug users and socially excluded young people in Copenhagen. In the paper we account for historical changes in social policy and interventions into young people's drug taking in Copenhagen......, and partly from the decentralizing and specializing efforts characteristic of the Danish welfare state and its institutions. We discuss a general turn towards street level interventions to address the problems of social exclusion, as well as different attempts to create what we term street level heterotopias...

  11. Street Children and Employment Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enos, H.N.; Njoka, M.

    1999-01-01

    Although there is a general realization that there are 'people' in the streets, we often take the phenomenon for granted probably because we wake up and go home only to come to the streets the following morning and still find the people. This situation is however changing with the emergence of 'birth' and increase of street children as we begin to take into consideration the category of people to be routinely found on the streets. The phrase 'street children' refer to the children below the statutory adult age living on or found on the streets. These children derive their livelihood from the streets. While the children on the streets may have a 'home' to go to, the latter are an integral part of the street having nowhere to retire to at the end of the day. The street children live in abject poverty and are exposed to many risks. They suffer from malnutrition and deficiency diseases due to low and poor nutrition intake. The street girls get trapped in teenage prostitution quite early in life. Of concern are the issues related to the working street children. Many street children engage in collecting and selling waste paper, bottles and plastics. They are referred to as 'chokora' because of their work of turning garbage upside down as they look for something useful. Unfortunately they have to sell these wastes to powerful forces including people who underpay and harrass them

  12. Christina Isajiw. Negotiating Human Rights: In Defence of Dissidents during the Soviet Era. A Memoir.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Martin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Christina Isajiw. Negotiating Human Rights: In Defence of Dissidents during the Soviet Era. A Memoir. Edmonton and Toronto: Canadian Institute of Ukrainian Studies Press, 2014. xxx, 407 pp. Foreword by Bohdan Nahaylo. Introduction. Illustrations. Appendices on separate CD-Rom. Index. Paper.

  13. Going to Ground(s: The War Correspondent’s Memoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher P. Wilson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This essay considers two memoirs by leading American war correspondents: Stephen Crane’s memoir of the Spanish-American War, “War Memories” (1899, and Dexter Filkins’s account of the US occupation of Iraq, The Forever War (2003. But it also considers the archive of news dispatches behind both books: the news reports that come to “ground” and authorize the memoir in the first place. By “going to ground,” in addition, this essay examines both the interpretive and discursive networks that often migrate from news writing to retrospective chronicle, and the particular situation of returning to the home front that reframes those accounts. Thanks to the work of William Appleman Williams, Amy Kaplan, Elizabeth Samet, Robert Westbrook, and others, we’ve often tried to think about the reciprocity of the imperial and domestic fronts—to recognize, for instance, that reports of war often work in concert with home front ideas about national sovereignty, “foreign influence,” or citizens’ political obligation and socialization. This essay explores what it is about domestic fronts that contains and often silences the news the correspondent brings home. Moreover, it considers how war correspondents’ memoirs reconfigure these home fronts in transnational and intranational terms.

  14. Associative memories in nuclear physics; Les memoires associatives en physique nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanca, E; Carriere, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1967-07-01

    Experiments in nuclear physics involve the use of large size 'memories'. After showing the difficulties arising from the use of such memories, the authors give the principles of the various programming methods which make it possible to operate the memories associatively thus benefiting from a reduction in size and better operational conditions. They attempt to estimate the shape and dimensions of an associative memory with cable connections which could be designed specially for nuclear research, contrary to those actually in service. (authors) [French] Les experiences de physique nucleaire necessitent l'emploi de 'memoires' de grandes dimensions. Apres avoir montre les inconvenients que presente l'utilisation de telles memoires, les auteurs exposent les principes des diverses methodes de programmation qui permettent d'assurer un fonctionnement des memoires sur le mode associatif donc une reduction de leurs dimensions et un meilleur usage. Ils tentent d'evaluer le format d'une memoire associative cablee qui, contrairement a celles qui existent actuellement, serait prevue specialement pour l'experimentation nucleaire. (auteurs)

  15. its absence) in both his paintings and in his prison memoir, The True ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-04-08

    Apr 8, 2016 ... its absence) in both his paintings and in his prison memoir, The True Confessions of an Albino Terrorist (1984). While Saayman makes a promis- ing case for an oeuvre-wide reading of. Breytenbach's creative output, her own reading lacks depth and insight. Whereas the book argues that different genres ...

  16. Femifesta? Reflections on Writing a Feminist Memoir and a Feminist Manifesto

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Miriam E.

    2017-01-01

    This is a reflective account of the publication of two books in the same year (2016): "Reclaiming Feminism: Challenging Everyday Misogyny" and "Feminist Manifesto for Education." The former is a popular but scholarly memoir, and the latter is an academic text for sociology and education. It was never my intention to publish…

  17. Teacher-Writer Memoirs as Lens for Writing Emotionally in a Primary Teacher Education Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deegan, James G.

    2008-01-01

    This article examines student teachers' experiences of writing emotionally through the lens of teacher-writer memoirs. The participants were 99 postgraduate student teachers on a sociology of teaching module in an initial primary teacher education programme in the Republic of Ireland. Analysis of journal responses indicated how student teachers…

  18. The City Street

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. van der Wouden

    1999-01-01

    Original title: De stad op straat. The city street; the public space in perspective (De stad op straat; de openbare ruimte in perspectief) by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP is intended to contribute to the formation of new ideas about the public space and the future of

  19. Occupy Wall Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael J.; Bang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional...

  20. Saving Mango Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza,…

  1. Street Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Streets for the United States. The Streets layer contains all roads plus all Road Network attributes such as direction of travel, lanes, dividers, speed...

  2. Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...

  3. The Man of feeling as dupe of desire: John Cleland’s Memoirs of a Coxcomb (1751)

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Rebecca Anne

    2017-01-01

    This essay analyses John Cleland’s Memoirs of a Coxcomb (1751), his idiosyncratic sequel to the more famous Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure (1749). As Kathleen Lubey has recently shown, sensuality was part of literature’s repertoire of moral refinement. Indeed, Lubey has argued that erotica acts as ‘a continuous unfolding of epistemology from the details of amorous scenes’, providing a key means of understanding the self and its relation to the world. Yet despite its amorous plot, Memoirs of a...

  4. Bodily Pain, Combat, and the Politics of Memoirs: Between the American Civil War and the War in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Joanna

    2013-05-01

    This article analyses the languages of wartime pain as seen in British and American memoirs from the American Civil War to the present. How did the rhetoric of wounding in these war memoirs change over time? One of the central shifts lies in the way that wounded men presented themselves as stoic in spite of severe wounding. From 1939, and in an even more dramatic fashion by the war in Vietnam, physical suffering remained a test of manliness, but the tone was defiant and aggressive rather than stoic or resigned. The article also looks at the role of individual publishers and the introduction of psychological dimensions of wounding in latter memoirs.

  5. Smart street lighting management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuti, S.; Annunziato, M. [Energy New Technologies and Sustainable Economic Development Agency ENEA, Rome (Italy); Moretti, F. [Automation and Computer Science Department, University & #x27; Roma Tre& #x27; , Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    In this work, we propose a new street lighting energy management system in order to reduce energy consumption. The key idea we want to accomplish is that of 'energy on demand' meaning that energy, in this case light, is provided only when needed. In order to achieve this goal, it is critical to have a reliable demand model, which in the case of street lighting turns out to be a traffic flow rate forecasting model. In order to achieve this goal, several methods on the 1-h prediction have been compared and the one providing the best results is based on artificial neural networks. Moreover, several control strategies have been tested and the one which gave the best energy savings is the adaptive one we carried out. Experimentation has been carried out on real data and the study shows that with the proposed approach, it is possible to save up to 50 % of energy compared to no regulation systems.

  6. The relationship between high street footfall, attraction and conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, CD

    2016-01-01

    The three critical measures of retail performance are often suggested to be “location, location, location”. However this generalisation, like many others in the literature, is of little practical use without underpinning empirical evidence. At a time when high streets find themselves under pressure from emerging omni-channel shopping behaviours, now more than ever retail managers need reliable performance benchmarks and comparators. We report findings from a mass observation of high street sh...

  7. Street as Public Space - Measuring Street Life of Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Normah; Ayu Abdullah, Yusfida; Hamdan, Hazlina

    2017-10-01

    Kuala Lumpur has envisioning in becoming World Class City by the year 2020. Essential elements of form and function of the urban environment are streets. Streets showcase the community and connect people. It’s one of the most comfortable social environment that provides aesthetical and interaction pleasure for everyone. Classified as main shopping streets in the local Kuala Lumpur urban design guidelines, Jalan Masjid India (JMI) has its uniqueness of shopping experience and social interaction. This conceptual paper will study the physical and cultural characteristics of the street that will generate the street character by mapping its original characters. The findings will focus on strengthening the methodology applied to promote improvements in evaluating it as a great public space. Results will also contribute to understanding the overall site context, the street connectivity, and urban dynamics. This paper is part of a larger study that addresses on transforming the sociability of public space.

  8. ‘Uitgesprokenheid’ en ‘stilswye’ in die memoirs van Petronella van Heerden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lizelle Smit

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Petronella van Heerden’s memoirs have received little academic attention. This article aims to contribute to the limited archive of research on her work to highlight women’s involvement in South African and Afrikaner (de/colonial politics. It will also explore her manipulation of the autobiographical genre to impart what she considered as important to the Afrikaner youth. My investigation considers Van Heerden’s paradoxical shifts between ‘speaking’ and ‘silence’ regarding feminist issues and her lesbian sexual identity. The article illustrates Van Heerden’s employment of certain writing strategies to critique gender inequality implicit within hegemonic and patriarchal discourses - a central issue of her young life that arguably formed her dissident identity. An examination of the ‘opacity’ pertaining to her portrayal of a lesbian identity in the memoirs is also considered.

  9. Memoirs of a socialist childhood in China: socialism, nationalism and getting ahead

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Chen

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this memoir, I accounted several episodes of my childhood of a middle class family in early 1990s in a Chinese urban city. Two major discourses permeated my account: the nationalism and socialism discourse and the upward social mobility discourse. While my family and I cherish the comfort and joy of everyday life enjoyed in the era of “socialism with Chinese characteristics”, the suffering past is like a ghost, peeking out behind the curtain.

  10. Diffusion of Complete Streets policies Across US communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Eyler, Amy; Barbero, Colleen; Hipp, J Aaron; Walsh, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Complete Streets policies guide planning in communities by making the transportation system accommodating to all users including vehicle drivers, pedestrians, and bicyclists, as well as those using public transportation. While the number of Complete Streets policies has increased over the past decade, no research has explored the factors attributing to the widespread diffusion of these policies. The purpose of this study was to apply concepts of the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to data related to Complete Streets policies in order to identify potential patterns and correlates. The main outcome of this study was policy adoption. Using the Diffusion of Innovation Theory and results from previous literature, we identified several factors that had the potential to affect the rate of Complete Streets policy diffusion: rural/urban status, state obesity rate, state funding for transportation, state obesity prevention funding, percentage of people who walk or bike to work in the state, presence of a state Complete Streets policy, and the number of bordering communities with Complete Streets policy. We used event history analysis as the main analysis method. Data from 49 community-level policies were analyzed, with a "community" defined as a city, a county, or a regional/Metropolitan Planning Organization. Three variables were significant predictors of Complete Streets policy adoption: state obesity rate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.465; confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-1.96) percentage of people who bike or walk to work in the state (OR = 1.726; CI = 1.069-2.79), and presence of a border community with a Complete Streets policy (OR = 3.859; CI = 1.084-13.742). Communities with Complete Streets policies varied in geographic and sociodemographic factors. Information about communities that are more likely to adopt a policy can be a tool for advocates and policy makers interested in this topic. Because adoption does not imply implementation, further research is needed to study

  11. Dave Eggers's a heartbreaking work of staggering genius: memoir as a "pain-relief device".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elise

    2011-10-01

    Dave Eggers's memoir is an important addition to the tradition of autobiography in America, and offers significant contributions to our understanding of creativity, sublimation, and the psychology of the memoir-writing process. A Heartbreaking Work of Staggering Genius is really two books--an autobiographical narrative about unbearable suffering, and a book of psychoanalytic commentary on the challenges of writing a memoir about catastrophic loss and trauma. The main narrative suggests the psychological resilience it takes to contain unbearable suffering. The metanarrative renders transparent the mind of someone who is both remembering his losses and constantly reflecting upon the process of writing about them. Eggers's identification with authorship, rather than bereavement or traumatization, may have played an important role in containing his affect and his sense of self when the heartbreaking events were originally unfolding. But a price is paid when a son uses his art to construct a new identity as an author--unconscious conflicts, primitive affect, anxieties about failing, as well as guilt about succeeding--consequences often missed by readers. Heartbreaking is a palimpsest, a story about story-telling superimposed on tales of death and survival, but its messages will be missed unless all its parts are preserved when being read or studied.

  12. When the personal becomes collective: A study of an activist’s memoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba Sharobeem

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the posthumous memoir of a notable Egyptian woman, Inji Aflatoun (1924-1989, a nationally and internationally recognised painter, a feminist and a political activist, who lived during a time of turbulence and change in the history of modern Egypt. The paper takes advantage of the liberty and skepticism offered by the school of New Historicism to present an alternative reading of rich and debatable periods in Egypt’s modern history by critically examining Aflatoun’s documentation of her role in the political and artistic life of Egypt and the Egyptian feminist movement. Thus it presents a reading of her memoir as a sub-text that highlights and at times deconstructs the official discourse regarding certain known, unknown or ignored events and characters. In examining Aflatoun’s memoir, the focus is on three interrelated and parallel parts: her political activism through her role in the national resistance and the Marxist underworld, her social activism through her involvement in the feminist movement, and finally her art as a form of both social and political resistance.

  13. Street Prostitution Zones and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bisschop, Paul; Kastoryano, Stephen; van der Klaauw, Bas

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of introducing legal street prostitution zones on both registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where legal street prostitution zones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. We provide evidence that the opening of these zones was not in response to changes in crime. Our difference-in-difference analysis using data on the largest 25 Dutch cities between 1994 and 2011 shows that opening a legal street pr...

  14. Street Papers, Work, and Begging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Street papers are publications produced specifically for sale by the homeless and other vulnerable people in many countries around the world. Their social status is, however, often conspicuously unstable: ‘Get a job!’ has been reported as a common insult addressed to vendors, and street paper...

  15. The Regulation of Street Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forkour, John Boulard; Samuelsen, Helle; Yeboah, Eric Henry

    2017-01-01

    the challenges and negotiating strategies of regulators of street-vended foods in Ghana and analyses the implication for their relationship with street food vendors. The paper reveals that regulators operate in a context of limited resources, leading to a general feeling of neglect. In coping, regulators adopt...

  16. Violence in the Street, Violence of the Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    While in his early and general theory of interaction rituals Randall Collins emphasised that social situations are both ’symbolic’ and ’material’, the latter dimension is largely absent from Collins’ theory of violence(Collins 2004; 1993: 214). Compared with criminology’s more recent situational...... studies of violence, it is noticeable that the analytical success of these studies is closely linked with understanding street violence as a spatial-situational phenomenon (Clarke 1997; Eck & Weisburd 1995; Bragand & Weisburd; 2010; Wikström et al. 2012; Sampson et al. 1997). In light of evidence...... for the spatial concentration of street violence, this paper takes its point of departure in a large study of Street Violence among youth in Copenhagen, Denmark (combining quantitative data from filed police reports (N = 501), data from CCTV (N=100) and qualitative analysis of selected cases of street violence...

  17. Rich sensitivities: an analysis of conflict among women in feminist memoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Judith

    2009-05-01

    While the North American women's movement is most known for its efforts to transform social relations between women and men, its adherents have also focused on remaking relations among women. Using an innovative data source, social movement memoir, this paper indicates the depth of disappointment feminists cause one another. Memoirists dispute notions found in the movement and mainstream that women are socially capable. The paper offers the concept "relational ideation" to describe the way feminist memoirists critically examine taken for granted understandings of women's sociality and amplify their desires for a new social ethic among them.

  18. 'Gushing Out Blood': Defloration and Menstruation in Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, Sara

    2018-06-01

    John Cleland's 1740s pornographic novel, Memoirs of a Woman of Pleasure repeatedly depicts and eroticises the act of defloration. As such it is a revealing illustration of what Ivan Bloch termed the 'defloration mania' of the eighteenth century. This article maps narrative events on to contemporary medical depictions of first intercourse to show the ways that the theories and ideas presented in medical and pseudo-medical texts transferred into erotic fiction and demonstrates how in some instances the bloody defloration scenes can be read as being sex during menstruation, an act which was culturally forbidden at this time.

  19. INTERTEXTUALITY AND LITERARY MEMOIRS: READING AS MEMOIRS’ PRAXIS IN RUI KNOPFLI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otavio Henrique Meloni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Reading and writing practices are inseparable, quite intimate and revealing a deep memory exercise. For most people it is such an exercise, and always shares the memory associated intimate fragments with social and cultural aspects. So when we think of memory that is built through the readings of an individual, we have various spheres of thought and reflection on the same reality, even transformed by his gaze reader. This paper discusses the role of literary memoirs in building the poetic universe of Mozambican Rui Knopfli, taking into account their condition “deterritorialized” and the  need to assert a place of belonging (reading as bound reference. This site security is strengthened at the junction memory literary with intertextu­ality that it causes. We thus believe that the literary memoirs assume the role of place belongs to the poetical subject of Mozambique, softening their fractures of naturalness, stating and justifying the existence of the subject through their reading experience.

  20. The Self Lost, the Self Adjusted: Forming a New Identity in Bereavement Memoirs by American Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małecka Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Most Western cultures place a great value on autonomy. American society in particular has always stressed the need to succeed via self-reliance, a characteristic which, in recent decades, has additionally manifested itself in an increasing inclination for self-examination reflected in the deluge of autobiographical writing, especially memoirs. This analysis focuses on memoirs of spousal loss, a specific subgenre of life writing in which, due to the loss of a loved one, the narrating self realizes how unstable a sense of autonomy is. In their bereavement narratives, Joan Didion, Anne Roiphe, and Joyce Carol Oates admit that after losing a life partner their world crumbled and so did their sense of self. The article examines the following aspects of the grieving self: 1. how grief tests one’s self-sufficiency; 2. how various grief reactions contribute to self-disintegration; 3. the widow as a new and undesirable identity; and 4. writing as a way of regaining one’s sense of self.

  1. Safety of street: The role of street design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Suhaila Abdul; Wahab, Mohammad Hussaini; Rani, Wan Nurul Mardiah Wan Mohd.; Ismail, Syuhaida

    2017-10-01

    Living in the cities poses many challenges for the vulnerable group of user especially women where they are exposed to many issues related to safety. With the changing of lifestyle and demands, women are expected to play multiple roles in the society and working is one of the tasks. When women are expected to be working as men do, they are no longer occupied at one place. Women nowadays travel on a daily basis and being in the streets is one of the important activities. With the influx of diverse group of people into the country, our streets are dominated by different types of people from different background. Due to these factors, there are possibilities of challenges and threats for users especially women. Therefore, city spaces especially the street become an important public realm for women. The design of the street should be able to make women feel safe as these are the public space where they spend time getting to and from work. The way women perceived their environment might be different from men especially when they fear of crime. Perception of safety will affect the quality of life where fear is an important psychological factor in human life. Living in fear will restrict human's freedom. Therefore, this study aimed to explore women's perception of safety in the streets of Kuala Lumpur. The study adopted a mixed-method approach of qualitative and quantitative in order to understand the safety perception among women that will later establish the relationship between built environment and human psychology. 120 respondents were selected randomly around Jalan Benteng, Jalan Tun Perak, Jalan Melaka and Jalan Melayu. Questionnaire survey forms were distributed and structured observation was conducted at interval period at these streets to examined and assess women's behavior. Finding shows that fear does affect women's perception and physical design of the streets are important in affecting their behavior.

  2. The Code of the Street and Violent Versus Property Crime Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeeley, Susan; Wilcox, Pamela

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that individuals who adopt values in line with the code of the street are more likely to experience violent victimization (e.g., Stewart, Schreck, & Simons, 2006). This study extends this literature by examining the relationship between the street code and multiple types of violent and property victimization. This research investigates the relationship between street code-related values and 4 types of victimization (assault, breaking and entering, theft, and vandalism) using Poisson-based multilevel regression models. Belief in the street code was associated with higher risk of experiencing assault, breaking and entering, and vandalism, whereas theft victimization was not related to the street code. The results suggest that the code of the street influences victimization broadly--beyond violence--by increasing behavior that provokes retaliation from others in various forms.

  3. Fostering the Memoir Writing Skills as a Creative Non-Fiction Genre Using a WebQuest Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sayed, Rania Kamal Muhammad; Abdel-Haq, Eman Muhammad; El-Deeb, Mervat Abou-Bakr; Ali, Mahsoub Abdel-Sadeq

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed at developing the memoir writing skills as a creative non-fiction genre of second year distinguished governmental language preparatory school pupils using the a WebQuest model. Fifty participants from second year at Hassan Abu-Bakr Distinguished Governmental Language School at Al-Qanater Al-Khairia(Qalubia Governorate) were…

  4. "I Could Teach You How to Choose Right": Using Holocaust Memoir to Teach Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, Annemarie Koning

    2011-01-01

    The article examines the problems of teaching William Shakespeare's "The Merchant of Venice" after the Holocaust, arguing that even though the play is anti-Semitic, it can become a valuable teaching tool when placed in the context of the Holocaust memoirs "Dry Tears" by Nechama Tec and "The Nazi Officer's Wife" by…

  5. Memoir as a Form of Auto-Ethnographic Research for Exploring the Practice of Transnational Higher Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Joy Denise

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, I argue that memoir, as a form of auto-ethnographic research, is an appropriate method for exploring the complexities and singularities in the practice of western educational practitioners who are immersed in the social reality of offshore higher education institutions, such as those in Mainland China. I illustrate this proposition…

  6. Caracterisation pratique des systemes quantiques et memoires quantiques auto-correctrices 2D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon-Cardinal, Olivier

    approche, dite de tomographie variationnelle, propose de reconstruire l'etat en restreignant l'espace de recherche a une classe variationnelle plutot qu'a l'immense espace des etats possibles. Un etat variationnel etant decrit par un petit nombre de parametres, un petit nombre d'experiences peut suffire a identifier les parametres variationnels de l'etat experimental. Nous montrons que c'est le cas pour deux classes variationnelles tres utilisees, les etats a produits matriciels (MPS) et l'ansatz pour intrication multi-echelle (MERA). Memoires quantiques auto-correctrices 2D. Une memoire quantique auto-correctrice est un systeme physique preservant de l'information quantique durant une duree de temps macroscopique. Il serait done l'equivalent quantique d'un disque dur ou d'une memoire flash equipant les ordinateurs actuels. Disposer d'un tel dispositif serait d'un grand interet pour l'informatique quantique. Une memoire quantique auto-correctrice est initialisee en preparant un etat fondamental, c'est-a-dire un etat stationnaire de plus basse energie. Afin de stocker de l'information quantique, il faut plusieurs etats fondamentaux distincts, chacun correspondant a une valeur differente de la memoire. Plus precisement, l'espace fondamental doit etre degenere. Dans cette these, on s'interesse a des systemes de particules disposees sur un reseau bidimensionnel (2D), telles les pieces sur un echiquier, qui sont plus faciles a realiser que les systemes 3D. Nous identifions deux criteres pour l'auto-correction: - La memoire quantique doit etre stable face aux perturbations provenant de l'environnement, par exemple l'application d'un champ magnetique externe. Ceci nous amene a considerer les systemes topologiques 2D dont les degres de liberte sont intrinsequement robustes aux perturbations locales de l'environnement. - La memoire quantique doit etre robuste face a un environnement thermique. Il faut s'assurer que les excitations thermiques n'amenent pas deux etats fondamentaux

  7. Not Silent, Invisible: Literature's Chance Encounters with Deaf Heroes and Heroines

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Donna M.

    2010-01-01

    Literatures is both a rich resource and a blunt instrument in conveying the complexities of identity, in particular, the elusive "deaf identity". The rarity of the fully realized deaf person in memoir and fiction shapes the way readers regard deaf people and throws up fresh challenges in redesigning stories of deafness free of the taint of…

  8. Ergonomics and design: traffic sign and street name sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture.

  9. Modelling traffic pollution in streets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowicz, R.; Hertel, O. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Larsen, S.E.; Soerensen, N.N.; Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Meteorology and Wind Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This report concerns mainly the subject related to modelling air pollution from traffic in urban streets. A short overview is presented over the theoretical aspects and examples of most commonly used methods and models are given. Flow and dispersion conditions in street canyons are discussed and the presentation is substantiated with the analysis of the experimental data. The main emphasis is on the modelling methods that are suitable for routine applications and a more detailed presentation is given of the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM), which was developed by the National Environmental Research Institute. The model is used for surveillance of air pollution from traffic in Danish cities and also for special air pollution studies. (au) 76 refs.

  10. The (Street) Art of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.; Wagoner, Brady; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the interrelation between resistance, novelty and social change We will consider resistance as both a social and individual phenomenon, a constructive process that articulates continuity and change and as an act oriented towards an imagined future of different communities....... In this account, resistance is thus a creative act having its own dynamic and, most of all, aesthetic dimension. In fact, it is one such visibly artistic form of resistance that will be considered here, the case of street art as a tool of social protest and revolution in Egypt. Street art is commonly defined...... in sharp contrast with high or fine art because of its collective nature and anonymity, its different kind of aesthetics, and most of all its disruptive, ‘anti-social’ outcomes. With the use of illustrations, we will argue here that street art is prototypical of a creative form of resistance, situated...

  11. Mean Streets: An analysis on street level pollution in NYC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G.

    2017-12-01

    The overarching objective of this study is to quantify the spatial and temporal variability in particulatematter concentration (PM 2.5) along crowded streets in New York City. Due to their fine size and lowdensity PM 2.5 stays longer in the atmosphere and could bypass human nose and throat and penetratedeep in to the lungs and even enter the circulatory system. PM 2.5 is a by-product of automobilecombustion and is a primary cause of respiratory malfunction in NYC. The study would monitor streetlevel concentration of PM2.5 across three different routes that witness significant pedestrian traffic;observations will be conducted along these three routes at different time periods. The study will use theAirBeam community air quality monitor. The monitor tracks PM 2.5 concentration along with GPS, airtemperature and relative humidity. The surface level concentration monitored by AirBeam will becompared with atmospheric concentration of PM 2.5 that are monitored at the NOAA CREST facility onCCNY campus. The lower atmospheric values will be correlated with street level values to assess thevalidity of using of lower atmospheric values to predict street level concentrations. The street levelconcentration will be compared to the air quality forecasted by the New York Department ofEnvironment Conservation to estimate its accuracy and applicability.

  12. Echoes of Bedford: a 20-year social psychology memoir on participatory action research hatched behind bars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine, Michelle

    2013-11-01

    Responding to Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1968 address at the American Psychological Association calling for a psychology that would educate Whites about racial injustice, this article challenges the widening epistemological gap between those who suffer from inequality and those who conduct social policy research on inequality. In this 20-year memoir on the echoes of a single piece of participatory policy research, Changing Minds: The Impact of College in a Maximum-Security Prison (Fine et al., 2001), readers are invited to explore how deep critical participation by a collaborative team of university and prisoner researchers has facilitated theoretical and methodological complexity, enhanced contextual and construct validity, thickened commitments to ethics and action, and fueled the political sustainability and generalizability of the findings over time and space.

  13. Seeking Austen, from Abroad: Lori Smith’s Memoir 'A Walk with Jane Austen' (2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliette Wells

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available One outcome of Jane Austen’s popularity with present-day readers is their creation of books derived from and inspired by her own. This article examines a recent contribution to this increasingly crowded field: Lori Smith’s 2007 'A Walk with Jane Austen: A Journey into Adventure, Love & Faith', which depicts a thirtysomething American woman’s travel to England in the hopes of better understanding both Austen and herself. I consider this memoir in relation to other works created by Austen fans, including those who, like Smith, aim primarily at a Christian readership; I address as well this book’s significance as an account of literary pilgrimage and of personally transformative reading.

  14. Philippe Pinel's "Memoir on Madness" of December 11, 1794: a fundamental text of modern psychiatry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiner, D B

    1992-06-01

    Philippe Pinel's "Memoir on Madness" can now be precisely dated. It was read to the Society for Natural History in Paris on Dec. 11, 1794, soon after the fall of the Jacobin dictatorship. It is thus a political document, an appeal to the Revolutionary government to build asylums where the mentally ill could be decently treated. It is translated here for the first time. Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) served as "physician of the infirmaries" at Bicêtre, the public hospice for men near Paris, from 1793 to 1795. In the "Memoir on Madness" he explains his "psychologic treatment," the principles of the humane method that made him the founder of psychiatry in France. Pinel states that mental illness is often curable. To arrive at a diagnosis, the physician must carefully observe a patient's behavior, interview him, listen carefully, and take notes. He must understand the natural history of the disease and the precipitating event and write an accurate case history. Diagnosis and prognosis can then be made. Periodic patterns of mental illness can be helpful for therapy. Usually only one faculty is affected. Patients with delusions may be malicious or murderous. They may have to be restrained; it was Pinel's assistant, Jean Baptiste Pussin, who removed the chains from the insane men at Bicêtre Hospice in 1797 and replaced them with strait-jackets. Pinel followed suit at the Salpêtrière, the public hospice for women, 3 years later. Pinel here states that one must "dominate agitated madmen while respecting human rights."

  15. Between the „novel” of writing and „the imaginary of existence”: Constantin Ţoiu and his Delayed Memoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Crihană

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extending, in some cases, the dissident counter-mythology fictionally projected in the subversive literature of the 70s and 80s – as a reaction against the mytho-political scenarios of power – the identitary mythology configured in the Romanian post-totalitarian life stories does not only represent an instrument of symbolic legitimization or an effect of the “propensity for self celebration” (S. Hubier, 2005: 34. In a more or less witting manner, the return to myth takes up the meaning of revenge on oblivion/death, and also on History which imposes limitations on the individual, especially in totalitarian contexts. The autobiographical anamnesis whose stake is the search for a meaning—both of one’s own existential trajectory and the world—means “recovering” by writing the mythical scenarios organised around a “mytho-history” “truer than reality itself” (G. Gusdorf, 1991: 480. It is the case of the Delayed Memoirs (2009 of Constantin Ţoiu,, who illustrates, just like his novels published under the dictatorship, the “resistance” of literature brought to the rank of myth in front of the “abuses of oblivion” (Paul Ricoeur, 2000: 98.

  16. Street photography as social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Street photographers know quite well that taking a picture is a form of social interaction. The birth of this genre of photography, they have been discussing at length about the ethical problems involved in taking pictures of personal strangers in public places without asking permission.

  17. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  18. Street prostitution zones and crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P.; Kastoryano, S.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of legal street prostitution zones on registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where these tippelzones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. Our difference-in-difference analysis of 25 Dutch cities between

  19. Street Pastors : on security, care and faith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steden, R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a study of Street Pastors in Cardiff, the capital city of Wales. Street Pastors are Christian volunteers who look after vulnerable people in the night-time economy. In this manner, they provide ‘securitas’ through empathy and care. The motives of Street Pastors for engaging with

  20. School Me, School Me Not, Street Me, Street Me Not…

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    School Me, School Me Not, Street Me, Street Me Not… (1099) David Thore Gravesen, Peter Hornbæk Frostholm ECER 2016, 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research, Session: 14 SES 10 A When picking leaves of a marguerite, whilst doing the “she loves me, she loves me not” game, you....... Obviously, the skaters attend the site to skate. But also other, more vulnerable groupings, use the site to socialize, meet peers and perhaps escape an unreliable and risky family arena. One particular group, the self-named Thugz, primarily formed around a number of young boys with non-Danish ethnic...... milieu. With a criminal gang-like behavior (Hoeben & Weerman 2013; Hviid 2007; Rasmussen 2012) involving petty crime and violence, one would think the group members would be indifferent towards their schooling and future careers. This was not the case. The informants proved to be very aware...

  1. Street children: “Running from” or “running to”?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. le Roux

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available The street child phenomenon presents a complex issue resulting from a diversity of integrated factors. The problem should therefore preferably be explained and addressed holistically. A search of available literature on street children clearly indicates that street children per se are not the primary problem. The phenomenon o f street children is merely a symptom of a problem underlying the intolerable situation of these children's family and community lives. In this article it is explained that the street child phenomenon is thus symptomatic of contemporary twentieth century conditions. "Running from " and “running to " are in fact intereffective tendencies or reactions to a complicated polarised society: two sides of a common coin.

  2. Street art - vandalismus nebo umění?

    OpenAIRE

    Grabmüllerová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis ‚Street Art - Vandalism or Art?' deals with a world-wide phenomenon of contemporary art. The thesis focuses on the characterization of street art and history of street art (its origin and development) and analyzes the difference between street art and graffiti. The thesis presents street art techniques as well as notable street artists. The thesis also observes street art scene in the Czech Republic and depicts features that street art has in common with other art movements...

  3. COMMON GROUNDS BETWEEN PRINTMAKING AND STREET ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Balamber

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Graffiti movement, born as a result of an effort of the youth, who felt themselves socially excluded and alone, to show their existence and identities during the 1960s, expanded its scope owing to street based artists such as Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat entering to the galleries, and transformed into an artistic manner of expression having aesthetic concerns by adopting a more inclusive definition ‘street art’. During this transformation of street art,street artists experimented with various methods from many different disciplines and hence created works in a wide range of varieties in terms of plastic and artistic values. Among these disciplines, printmakinghastaken its own place in street artas a discipline thatdeeply influenced street artists.Printmaking has fascinated street artists and become a part of their production process, not only with its philosophy sharing common grounds with street art and advantages in terms of its tecnical practices but also its unique plastic and linear values.Thanks to the opportunities of printmaking, street art has succeeded creating a tremendous impression worldwide, and even positioned itself into today’s greatest museums/gallery halls. This article aims to show how and in what way printmaking has influenced street art being in a transformation since the 1960s, and to put an emphasis on theimportance of printmaking on today’s street art.

  4. Negative constructions in memoir texts by A.Konchalovsky as indices of speech characteristics and author’s personality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena A. Bolotova

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the article is to examine the relevant problem of negation in linguistics, as well as the possible ways of use by the author the memoirs texts by A. Konchalovsky («Low truths» and «Exalts deception» the negative constructions, their pragmatic orientation. It becomes clear how and what certain fiction-figurative and expressive means, based on the use of linguistic resources at various levels, it is possible to characterize the individual memoirist using negative semantic proposals. We consider the specifics of the use of various methods of influence by the author of memoirs on the reader by the means of representation categories of negopositivism. It reveals that any information that is submitted by the author in the text of memoirs, refers to the identity of the author, memoirist, and entering into a dialogue with their readers, the author establishes contacts with them. In the course of this dialogue there is the exchange of information about people, about oneself, about different events and facts in the different periods of the life of the author and the country.

  5. Non-Fiction Memoirs in the Neuroscience Classroom: A Window into the Minds of Those Affected by Addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Alexia E

    2015-01-01

    When I first developed an Addiction course for the Honors College at UMass-Boston in 2006, it focused exclusively on the acute and long-term effects of psychoactive substances on the brain. However, I soon realized that a strictly biological perspective failed to capture how this complex disorder affected the whole person. Students had no insight into addicts' thoughts, feelings, behaviors or how their addiction affected others. To remedy this, students read two non-fiction memoirs: Tweak (Nic Sheff, young adult addict) and Beautiful Boy (David Sheff, Nic's father) along with learning underlying neurobiology and pharmacology. Reading memoirs students saw firsthand the impact of addiction on individuals. Inspired by the diary structure of Tweak, one assignment asked students to collect data about themselves in order to determine their daily patterns/rituals and to contemplate the impact of removing these activities - like the addict after rehabilitation. Other assignments asked students to do close reading by selecting passages from Tweak and explaining how they related to different facets of addiction (biological, environmental, effect on individual), and to perform a comparative analysis between Beautiful Boy and Tweak to find points of intersection and divergence. Most recently, students used the text of Tweak to create interactive performances for a visiting high school class. Memoirs provided students with detailed, honest accounts of lives affected by addiction. The assignments and class discussions facilitated students understanding of the impact of addiction on individuals and their families, which was a powerful adjunct to learning about its underlying neurobiology and pharmacology.

  6. [Civil engineering education at the Imperial College of Engineering in Tokyo: an analysis based on Ayahiko Ishibashi's memoirs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Masanori

    2014-01-01

    The Imperial College of Engineering (ICE or Kobu-Daigakko) in Tokyo, founded in 1873 under the auspices of the Ministry of Public Works, was one of the most prominent modern institutions of engineering education in early Meiji Japan. Previous studies have revealed that the ICE offered large scale practical training programs at enterprises of the Ministry, which sometimes lasted several months, and praised their ideal combination of theory and practice. In reality, it has been difficult to evaluate the quality of education at the ICE mainly because of scarcity of sources. ICE students published a collection of memoirs for alumni members, commemorating the fiftieth-year of the history of the Tokyo Imperial University. Drawing on the previously neglected collection of students' memoires, this paper appraises the education of civil engineering offered by the ICE. The paper also compares this collection with other official records of the college, and confirms it as a reliable source, even though it contains some minor errors. The author particularly uses the memoirs by Ayahiko Ishibashi, one of the first graduates from its civil engineering course, who left sufficient reminiscences on education that he received. This paper, as a result, illustrates that the main practical training for the students of civil engineering was limited to designing process, including surveying. Furthermore, practical training that Ishibashi received at those enterprises often lacked a plan, and its effectiveness was questionable.

  7. Renaming Zagreb Streets and Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stanić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with changes in street names in the city of Zagreb. Taking the Lower Town (Donji grad city area as an example, the first part of the paper analyses diachronic street name changes commencing from the systematic naming of streets in 1878. Analysis of official changes in street names throughout Zagreb’s history resulted in categorisation of five periods of ideologically motivated naming/name-changing: 1. the Croatia modernisation period, when the first official naming was put into effect, with a marked tendency towards politicisation and nationalisation of the urban landscape; 2. the period of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians/Yugoslavia, when symbols of the new monarchy, the idea of the fellowship of the Southern Slavs, Slavenophilism and the pro-Slavic geopolitical orientation were incorporated into the street names, and when the national idea was highly evident and remained so in that process; 3. the period of the NDH, the Independent State of Croatia, with decanonisation of the tokens of the Yugoslavian monarchy and the Southern Slavic orientation, and reference to the Ustashi and the German Nazi and Italian Fascist movement; 4. the period of Socialism, embedding the ideals and heroes of the workers’ movement and the War of National Liberation into the canonical system; and, 5. the period following the democratic changes in 1990, when almost all the signs of Socialism and the Communist/Antifascist struggle were erased, with the prominent presence of a process of installing new references to early national culture and historical tradition. The closing part of the paper deals with public discussions connected with the selection of a location for a square to bear the name of the first president of independent Croatia, Franjo Tuđman. Analysis of these public polemics shows two opposing discourses: the right-wing political option, which supports a central position for the square and considers the chosen area to

  8. The Beats as Cultural Others/Exotics in Recent Memoirs by Exile Poets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent

    Poets who have come to the USA during the 1950s and 60s as expatriates or exiles from central European countries dominated by Communist regimes have often looked to Beat Generation writers as role models and inspirational figures. This is no doubt due to the spirit of individuality, non-conformis......Poets who have come to the USA during the 1950s and 60s as expatriates or exiles from central European countries dominated by Communist regimes have often looked to Beat Generation writers as role models and inspirational figures. This is no doubt due to the spirit of individuality, non......-conformism and jubilant celebration of difference and otherness which permeates the writings of poets such as Allen Ginsberg, and which resonated with dissident poets often oppressed by totalitarian regimes. Authors such as Andrei Codrescu and Charles Simic have published memoirs and poems detailing their fascination...... with figures associated with the Beat Generation. This paper examines the representation of Beat writers such as Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac in Codrescu and Simic's texts, and argues that the exile poets overlay the well-known figures of the Beat writers with yet another dimension of otherness and exoticism...

  9. EVERYDAY LIFE IN CAMPS FOR DISPLACED PERSONS IN GERMANY (ON PERSONAL MEMOIRS OF THEIR INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Александровна Котова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the research of the article is to reveal the main lines of everyday life in camps for displaced persons on the example of such camps as Fyussen, Kempten and Shlayskhaym, located in Germany. The author reveals thepeculiarities of the structure of the camps, household, cultural and spiritual life. The article is written on the basis of memoirs of contemporaries of that time, inhabitants of camps DPs I. N. Koren, V. Gashurova, O. Bezradetskaya-Astromova, I. Hrapunov, I. Savostina and others. The author concludes that in the camps for displaced persons there was active life, but not without difficulties. Despite various problems, in DP camps there was cultural life, various sporting and game events; inhabitants of camps spent leisure time by participating in theatrical and scout circles, ballet troupes. An important role in people’sadaptation to difficult conditions of accommodation in camps was played by publishing activities and the Church which helped people to survive financially and spiritually.

  10. Do you see what I see ? memoirs of a blind biker

    CERN Document Server

    Targ, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Now in paperback, the droll memoir by a world-class physicist that includes recollections of his involvement with pioneering laser research, encounters with many of the most recognizable literary, cultural, and entertainment figures of the 20th century, and his role in teaching ESP techniques to the CIA--a real-life X-Files saga. Russll Targ is a Zelig-like character. His story is an idiosyncratic journey through the highways and byways of American intellectual, scientific, and cultural life in 20th century. His father (the long-time editor-in-chief at Putnam) acquired The Godfather on the basis of an outline scribbled on the back of a napkin. His mother was the first press agent of the fan dancer Sally Rand. His step-mother is the legendary literary agent Rosalind Targ. He was married for thirty years to the sister of the infamous chess master Bobby Fischer. He briefly dated Henny Youngman's cousin. He attended college with Alan Alda's wife, Arlene. He was part of Ayn Rand's study group in the 1950s--along...

  11. MEMOIRS OF A GIRLHOOD AMONG GHOSTS WRITTEN BY MAXINE HONG KINGSTON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Khrisdiyanti

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Every generation brings their own voice, no matter how rigorous the elderly retain the cultural values of their ancestors. A novel written by Maxine Hong Kingston –a Chinese American descent- entitled The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood among Ghosts, portraits her struggle to get her own identity between her Chinese and her American identity. A descriptive library research was conducted to reveal the reasons that the Chinese American descents struggled to survive in between both lives. Interdisciplinary approaches are employed to analyze the data in order to obtain comprehensive analysis, among others: psychological, sociological, and literary approaches. Psychological approach is to expound the emotional perspectives of the character shifts. Sociological approach is applied to discuss the socialization process and its connection to the character shift. Likewise, literary approach is to uncover the structure of the work which was the result of Kingston‘s experience and reflection of the phenomena in her real life. The research concludes that the personality change of the Chinese American descents is due to their historical, social, economical, and educational experience. Furthermore, the descents tend to transform their traits closer to the white‘s, which have been their counterpart in the new land, than to their ancestries‘.

  12. Toward a Theoretical Framework for Ethical Decision Making of Street-Level Bureaucracy : Existing Models Reconsidered

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loyens, Kim|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/370525086; Maesschalck, Jeroen

    Much research has been done on the way in which individuals in organizations deal with their discretion. This article focuses on the literature on street-level bureaucracy and the literature on ethical decision making. Despite their shared attempt to explain individual behavior and decision making,

  13. Pollutant Dilution and Diffusion in Urban Street Canyon Neighboring Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Fu, Zh. M.

    2011-09-01

    In the present study we investigated the airflow patterns and air quality of a series of typical street canyon combinations, developed a mass balance model to determine the local pollutant dilution rate, and discuss the impact of upstream canyon on the air quality of downstream canyon. The results indicated that the geometrical size of upstream and downstream buildings have significant impacts on the ambient airflow patterns. The pollution distribution within the canyons varies with different building combinations and flow patterns. Within the upstream canyon, pollution always accumulates to the low building side for non-symmetrical canyon, and for symmetrical canyon high level of pollution occurs at the leeward side. The height of the middle and downstream buildings can evidently change the pollutant dispersion direction during the transport process. Within the polluted canyon, the pollutant dilution rate (PDR) also varies with different street canyon combinations. The highest PDR is observed when the upstream buildings are both low buildings no matter the height of downstream building. However, the two cases are likely to contribution pollution to the downstream canyon. The H-L-H combination is mostly against local pollution remove, while the L-H-L case is considered the best optimistic building combination with both the ability of diluting local pollution and not remarkably decreasing air quality of downstream canyon. The current work is expected instructive for city designers to optimize traffic patterns under typical existing geometry or in the development of urban geometry modification for air quality control.

  14. Structural value of Yerevan streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avetisyan Arsen Grantovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The absence of the methods of urban analysis in the process of urban development of Yerevan is the reason of urban planning activities that tend to decrease the urban value of Yerevan territories. Meanwhile the studies in the sphere of urban planning and urban analysis prove the dependence of the life in the city on its structure and distribution of the functions. The mentioned issue highlights the importance of urban analysis. The paper discusses space syntax, which is one of the initial methods of urban analysis. The basic concept of Space syntax is based on the assumption that urban fabric can be presented and studied as a power graph. The method provides the measures that evaluate the land use, traffic and pedestrian movement, land value and even carbon emissions. The paper discusses also recent attempts of integration of space syntax method into GIS environment. GIS databases provide researchers with vast amount of urban data. Analyses presented in the current paper were performed on the basis of the open street map, which was imported from the GIS environment. With the application of space syntax methods analysis of connectivity, integration choice (betweenness and depth from the city center were performed to evaluate the structural value of Yerevan streets. Municipal regions of Yerevan were classified by the level of their accessibility and by their distances from the city center on the base of the results of depth measures from the city center. Evaluation of the street network aims to define the most integrated and centrally positioned parts of the city. These areas can be locations for the organization of sub centers of Yerevan in the municipal regions.

  15. PLC based Smart Street Lighting Control

    OpenAIRE

    D.V.Pushpa Latha; K.R.Sudha; Swati Devabhaktuni

    2013-01-01

    Conventional street lighting systems in most of the areas are Online at regular intervals of time irrespective of the seasonal variations. The street lights are simply switched on at afternoon and turned off in the morning. The consequence is that a large amount of Power is wasted meaninglessly. As energy consumption is an issue of increasing interest, possible energy savings in public street lighting systems are recently discussed from different viewpoints. The purpose of this work is to des...

  16. [Street prostitution and drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishøy, Torben; Ishøy, Pelle Lau; Olsen, Lis Raabaek

    2005-09-26

    Street-based prostitution accounts for 10% of the prostitution activity in Denmark, mainly involving female drug addicts. We studied a group of women with a common history of substance abuse and their comparative psychosocial characteristics, correlated with whether they had previously been a prostitute or not. Their psychic symptoms were evaluated and compared with those of controls. 27 females receiving maintenance treatment for substance abuse completed a questionnaire dealing with their social background, substance abuse profile, and history of sexual abuse and prostitution, as well as their current health status, including SCL-90. The scores were compared to those of a control group of an age- and gender-matched Danish standard population. Neglect in childhood and adulthood corresponded to international findings. 14 of the women had previous sex-trading experience, and early use of heroin and cocaine was a predictor for starting a career in prostitution. The SCL-90 scores for the dimensions of somatization and depression were significantly higher for drug-abusing women in general than in the control group. The scores of drug-abusing former prostitutes were similarly significantly higher on most of the dimensions except the hostility dimension when compared to those of drug-abusing women who had never been involved in prostitution. Rape and domestic violence were characteristic phenomena among drug-abusing prostitutes (p prostitution. Various psychosocial stress factors among street-based prostitutes indicate the need for broader psychiatric approaches in Danish drug addiction maintenance programmes.

  17. Georges Charpak street sign unveiled

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    2011-01-01

    While it might not be the only French street named in honour of the late Georges Charpak, who passed away in September 2010 at the age of 87, the street chosen by the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly is certainly the only one located directly opposite the CERN "campus". The road overlooks buildings on the CERN Meyrin site, where Georges Charpak spent most of his career as a physicist, conducting the research that won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1992.   From left to right: Sigurd Lettow, Dominique Charpak and the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly. The unveiling took place on 17 October and was organised by the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly. George Charpak’s wife, Dominique, and Sigurd Lettow, CERN Director of Administration and General Infrastructure, attended what was an intimate and touching ceremony. The mayor’s speech at the event praised Georges’ commitment to scientific education. The highlight of the event, however, was a witty and humorous ...

  18. The Tragedy of V.S. Naipaul's Miguel Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanyar Kareem Abdul

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad (V.S. Naipaul was born in Trinidad in 1932. His works have been an enduring focus between rich and poor, colonizer and colonized. In The New York Review of Books, Naipaul has been called '”a master of English prose,” which indicates his weight in modern literature, especially in post colonialism. The paper depicts a dark area and tragedy in Miguel Street throughout the characters and their dialogues. Naipaul is famous for his sad-given-tonic moment in his novels. The paper also provides examples and explanations behind the tragedy of the novel and what the characters suffer from: misunderstanding, poverty, or losing humanity that no more communication works out. Miguel Street is a place where all the tragic moments happen in the novel. Each section of the story ends with sadness and disappointment.

  19. From charity to caring: Nightingale's experience at Harley Street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanders, Louise C; Lake, Karen; Crane, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    Florence Nightingale has been the subject of numerous biographies and topical studies since she became a public figure during the Crimean War of 1854-1856. However, both the biographical and the topical literature have given little emphasis to the fourteen months of Nightingale's superintendency at The Establishment for Gentlewomen During Illness located on Harley Street, London. Thematic analysis of primary documents including Nightingale's Quarterly Reports to the Governors of her Nursing Home and the recently identified found Minutes of the Ladies' Committee of the Establishment of Gentlewomen During Illness were utilized to identify specific themes considered essential to Nightingale's professional and philosophical development. Harley Street proved to be the catalyst of opportunity that later launched her into the public view as a visionary through which she was to develop nursing as a profession and promote nursing as a legitimate route for women's education and employment.

  20. Moving Beyond Routines in Teaching and Learning: Releasing the Educative Potential of Published Eating Disorder Memoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee Brien, Donna; McAllister, Margaret

    2017-05-01

    Learning from the lived experience of disordered eating is vital for contemporary mental health practitioners. While mental health practitioners need to understand the psycho-biological issues that impact the person and family with an eating disorder, there is much about this complex condition that eludes and escapes a bio-medical perspective. Use of an aesthetic lens on the issue can illuminate various challenges, tensions and insights that people with disordered eating experience along the journey of their ill-health and on to their recovery, but which often remain unstated in the clinical context. Scholars within the creative arts discipline are experts in making judgements about the quality of artworks they encounter and have highly developed aesthetic knowing. Yet, the central skills and knowledges embodied in creative arts activity are not widely utilized outside that sphere. This article reports on how aesthetics can be applied to sensitize mental health practitioners to appreciate the lived experience of a mental health challenge such as an eating disorder. Such mental health practitioners play an important role in the health service, yet the widespread diffusion of the bio-medical model into mental health, once characterized for its equal emphasis on the psycho-social-cultural, has led to criticisms of an over-focus on illness identification, at the expense of accommodating the meanings of subjective and unique experiences of mental health, struggle and recovery. Using Kate Grenville's typology of the elements of effective creative writing, we show how these elements contribute to the aesthetic power and impact of particular eating disorder memoirs.

  1. Intermediate arithmetic memory; Memoire arithmetique intermediaire; Promezhutochnoe arifmeticheskoe zapominayushchee ustrojstvo; Memoria aritmetica intermediaria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amram, Y; Guillon, H; Tandardini, D [Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay (France)

    1962-04-15

    This memory is designed to smooth the random flow of previously coded information, in preparation for recording on magnetic tape. It is made up of ten registers with 16 binary digits and two ten-position switches, one controlling writing and the other reading; auxiliary circuits ensure the correct position of each of the switches with respect to the other. As a result of the very small capacity and low persistence required, the memory elements selected are condensers insulated by silicon diodes. The main characteristics are as follows: access time less than 10{mu}s; output rate: 0.25, 0.5, 1 or 2 ms. Only the switch circuits are fitted with standard electronic tubes and trochotrons. The logical transistor circuits and the memory elements are mounted on printed cards 10 by 10 cm. The instrument appears as a rack of five units, 50 cm deep. (author) [French] Cette memoire est destinee a regulariser l'arrivee d'informations prealablement codees, en vue de les enregistrer sur bande magnetique. Elle comporte dix registres a seize chiffres binaires et deux commutateurs a dix positions, l'un commandant l'ecriture, l'autre la lecture; des circuits auxiliaires assurent l'avancement correct de chacun des commutateurs par rapport a l'autre. En raison de la capacite minime demandee et de la faible persistance necessaire, les elements de memoire choisis sont des condensateurs isoles par des diodes au silicium. Les principales caracteristiques sont les suivantes: temps d'acces inferieur a 10 {mu}s; cadence de sortie: 0,25 - 0,5 - 1 ou 2 ms. Seuls les circuits de commutation sont equipes de tubes electroniques classiques et de trochotrons. Les circuits logiques a transistors et les elements de memoire sont montes sur des cartes imprimees de 10 x 10 cm. L'appareil se presente sous la forme d'un rack de cinq unites d'une profondeur de 50 cm. (author) [Spanish] La ''memoria'' que describen los autores sirve para regularizar la recepcion de informaciones previamente codificadas, a fin

  2. Adolescent Hopefulness in Tanzania: Street Youth, Former Street Youth, and School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalkur, Priya G.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares hope in street youth, former street youth, and school youth (aged 12-18) in Tanzania. Responding to Snyder's hope theory, the author argues that not only personal agency but also the stability of living context (street, shelter, home) shapes hopefulness. Employing qualitative and quantitative analyses, the author presents a…

  3. Personal and Familial Properties of Street Children--"Street Children: The Forgotten or Not Remembered Ones"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbas, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    With this research it is aimed to determine the personal traits of Street Children depending on them and also the socio-economic variables of Street Children resulting from their families. For this main aim in the research process, it is provided to have communication directly with the parents of Street Children using one-to-one and face-to-face…

  4. AUTOBIOGRAPHY VS PHOTOGRAPHY AND MEMOIR VS CARICATURE AS FORMS OF PRESERVING THE AUTHOR’S MEMORY (DMITRY S. MEREZHKOVSKY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Аlexey А. Kholikov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The essay focuses on visual images as one of the means of the writer’s reception on the example of such forms of preserving memory about Dmitry S. Merezhkovsky as autobiography and photography, on the one hand, and memoir and caricature, on the other. Photographic image comes close to autobiography in the following aspects. First, there is a functional affinity between these two forms, a verbal one and a visual one: both share the desire for authenticity. At the same time, photography as autobiography has not just documentary potential: photographic image is equally capable of reproducing and of reducing or distorting reality. Finally, photography (and this is its another affinity with a documentary genre presents not only individual and personal but also cultural and historical interest. Between caricature and memoir — another pair of media preserving verbal and visual memory about the writer — there are overlaps as well. These “spaces” of memory have bigger potential for interpretation of the image than photography or autobiography. I prove this point by analyzing specific details that were emphasized by caricatures and memoirs of Merezhkovsky. At the same time, I argue that caricature as a visual “space” of memory is not self-sustained the same way photography and portrait are. The other aspect the essay is concerned with the elements of the memory about the writer that remain untranslatable into visual language. Methodologically, the essay relies on the works by N.I. Zhinkin, Y.N. Tyanyanov, Y.M. Lotman, R. Barthes, and S. Sontag.

  5. RACE, CODE OF THE STREET, AND VIOLENT DELINQUENCY: A MULTILEVEL INVESTIGATION OF NEIGHBORHOOD STREET CULTURE AND INDIVIDUAL NORMS OF VIOLENCE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric A.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    The study outlined in this article drew on Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street perspective to examine the impact of neighborhood street culture on violent delinquency. Using data from more than 700 African American adolescents, we examined 1) whether neighborhood street culture predicts adolescent violence above and beyond an adolescent’s own street code values and 2) whether neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on adolescent violence. Consistent with Anderson’s hypotheses, neighborhood street culture significantly predicts violent delinquency independent of individual-level street code effects. Additionally, neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on violence in neighborhoods where the street culture is widespread. In particular, the effect of street code values on violence is enhanced in neighborhoods where the street culture is endorsed widely. PMID:21666759

  6. MAPCERN links to Google Street View

    CERN Multimedia

    Matilda Heron

    2015-01-01

    CERN’s online maps, MAPCERN, now have the added bonus of Google Street View, thanks to the new release of images of many CERN sites captured by Google.   New Street View images of CERN sites have been added to MAPCERN, see bottom-right-hand image in the screenshot above.   Google Street View, an integrated service of Google Maps introduced in 2007, links 360-degree panoramic photos into a virtual tour. CERN and Google began collaborating on this Street View project in 2010 and now these Street View images have been embedded into MAPCERN, accessible by clicking the “Street View” tab in MAPCERN’s bottom-right-hand window. If you need to locate a building at CERN, or plan an operation on some equipment, you can save time by using the Street View images to check out the area in advance. The CERN Meyrin site has been fully mapped, as well as the surfaces of the eight LHC points, BA2 and BA3. New Street View images of CERN, including the Pr...

  7. Street as Sustainable City Structural Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyzerova, A. V.; Bagina, E. J.

    2017-11-01

    Sustainability in architecture is nowadays of particular significance in the course of globalization and information density. The technospehere spontaneous development poses a threat to the sustainability of traditional urban forms where a street is one of the essential forming elements in the urban structure. The article proposes to consider formally compositional street features in relation to one of the traditional streets in the historic center of Ekaterinburg. The study examines the street-planning structure, the development of its skeleton elements, silhouette and fabric elevation characteristics as well as the scale characteristics and visual complexity of objects. The study provided architectural and artistic aspects of street sustainability, and limits of the appropriate scale and composition consistency under which the compatibility of alternative compositional forms existing at different times is possible.

  8. Cleaning up the Streets of Denver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegen, R.L.; Wood, T.R.; Hackett, J.R.; Sogue, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1913 and 1924, several Denver area facilities extracted radium from carnotite ore mined from the Paradox basin region of Colorado. Tailings or abandoned ores from these facilities were apparently incorporated into asphalt used to pave approximately 7.2 kilometers (4.5 miles) of streets in Denver. A majority of the streets are located in residential areas. The radionuclides are bound within the asphalt matrix and pose minimal risk unless they are disturbed. The City and County of Denver (CCoD) is responsible for controlling repairs and maintenance on these impacted streets. Since 2002, the CCoD has embarked on a significant capital improvement project to remove the impacted asphalt for secure disposal followed by street reconstruction. To date, Parsons has removed approximately 55 percent of the impacted asphalt. This paper discusses the history of the Denver Radium Streets and summarizes on-going project efforts. (authors)

  9. Thermal Comfort Assessment in The Open Space in Bandung Case Study Dago Street and Riau Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugangga, M.; Janesonia, K. I.; Illiyin, D. F.; Donny Koerniawan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Bandung’s temperature has been higher since last years. This phenomenon affects the level of thermal comfort in open space. One indicator that determines the thermal comfort level is the type of activity performed by the open space user. Riau Street and Dago Street are corridors that are often used by the people for strolling, jogging, shopping. Dago Street has special event every Sunday namely car free day. Both corridors have different orientation; Dago Street is North to South corridor while Riau Street’s is West to East. The goal of the study is to compare people’s perception of thermal comfort in both corridors. This research uses two methods, namely qualitative method and quantitative method. Based on the results of qualitative analysis found that the thermal conditions in Dago Street more comfortable than the Riau Street. The result of quantitative analysis found that the average PET (thermal comfort indices) value of Dago Street was at 27.5 °C PET and Riau Street 28.6 °C PET. Dago Street is considered more convenient because it has a lower PET value than Riau Street. The people perception of thermal comfort is very important to start the steps for designing the orientation of street in urban design.

  10. Face off: searching for truth and beauty in the clinical encounter. Based on the memoir, autobiography of a face by Lucy Grealy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Mary T

    2012-08-01

    Based on Lucy Grealy's memoir, Autobiography of a Face, this article explores the relationship between gender and illness in our culture, as well as the paradox of "intimacy without intimacy" in the clinical encounter. Included is a brief review of how authenticity, vulnerability, and mutual recognition of suffering can foster the kind of empathic doctor-patient relationship that Lucy Grealy sorely needed, but never received. As she says at the end of her memoir, "All those years I'd handed my ugliness over to people, and seen only the different ways it was reflected back to me."

  11. Road and Street Centerlines, Street-The data set is a line feature consisting of 13948 line segments representing streets. It was created to maintain the location of city and county based streets., Published in 1989, Davis County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road and Street Centerlines dataset current as of 1989. Street-The data set is a line feature consisting of 13948 line segments representing streets. It was created...

  12. No Memory, No Future: Memoirs of Sephardic Women Published in the Past Twenty Years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romeu Ferré, Pilar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the 20th century, as well as in these early years of the 21th, several memoirs, autobiographical novels and orally-transmitted testimonies by Sephardic Jews have been published. These people knew the traditional community lifestyle of the Ottoman Empire before living through the social, cultural and political changes around the turn of the 20th century which brought about the decomposition of their Sephardic communities. Later they recreate —often in the new countries where they settled— this world that disappeared. The author analyzes here more than a dozen of such works, published by Sephardic women between 1987 and 2006. She calls attention to the way these women reconstruct their past and their identity in evoking the lifestyle, manners and customs of their original communities. Their testimonies differ significantly from those of the men, especially with regard to subjects such as family and social relationships.A lo largo del siglo XX y en lo que va del XXI se han publicado muchos libros de memorias, novelas autobiográficas y testimonios de historia oral de judíos sefardíes. Son gentes que conocieron la vida tradicional de las comunidades del antiguo imperio otomano, experimentaron los cambios sociales, culturales y políticos del paso de los siglos XIX al XX y la descomposición de las comunidades. Hoy recrean —la mayor parte de las veces, desde los nuevos países de emigración— ese mundo ya desaparecido. En este artículo la autora analiza una docena larga de este tipo de obras, publicadas por mujeres sefardíes entre 1987 y 2006. Enfatiza cómo estas mujeres reconstruyen su pasado y su identidad, evocando la vida, los usos y las costumbres de sus comunidades. Sus descripciones difieren sustancialmente de las de los hombres, en especial en lo que atañe a las relaciones familiares y sociales.

  13. Narrative empathy and illness memoirs: Arthur Frank's At the Will of the Body and Kathlyn Conway's Ordinary Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baena, Rosalia

    2017-09-01

    This article analyses the concept of narrative empathy in illness memoirs. These texts negotiate the narrative identity of an autobiographer as he or she recounts the disruptive experience of illness, an experience in which physical and emotional traces dramatically and definitively shape our sense of self. While narrative emotions are certainly deployed in these autobiographies in order to connect with the readers and promote social change, this empathic connection is not so much aimed at arousing compassion but rather more positive emotions on the experience of illness. I will explore the emotional representations of cancer in Arthur Frank's At the Will of the Body (1991) and Kathlyn Conway's Ordinary Life: A Memoir of Illness (1997), focusing on the identity strategies these authors use in order to become affirmative models of disability and illness, showing the damaging effects not of disease or impairment but, rather, of the cultural mythologies that interpret those conditions in reductive or disparaging ways. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Street children and political violence: a socio-demographic analysis of street children in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Angela; Donà, Giorgia

    2003-03-01

    The aims were: (1) to examine the profile of African street children and to assess the link between street children in Africa and political violence; (2) to undertake a systematic examination of causal factors of street children in postgenocide Rwanda; and (3) to situate this analysis in the context of the socio-cultural and political impact of the genocide on Rwandan communities. Observational mapping examined the profile and activities of Rwandan street children. Structured interviews were carried out with 290 children in four regional towns to obtain information on socio-demographic, familial, educational background, causal factors surrounding street life involvement, psychological well-being, and relationship to the street. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews examined the relationship between street children and the broader Rwandan society. Street children in Rwanda were predominantly adolescent boys, almost half of whom were homeless (42%), with a high proportion of orphaned children or children who had lost at least one parent. Two variables predicted homelessness: child's guardian and reason for being in street. Qualitative accounts of children conveyed the impact of death of family members, repatriation, imprisonment of parents, and poverty on their lives. The analysis highlighted the need for community based support for children in alternative guardianship care and for policies to support the reintegration of male youths in postconflict welfare strategies as prevention strategies for street migration.

  15. Bound by Water : Inquiry, Trauma, and Genre in Vietnamese American Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Hidle, Jade Tiffany

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation treats contemporary Vietnamese American literature as responses to common inquiries about history and identity stemming from U.S.-centric, myopic, and racialized narratives about the U.S.-Viet Nam War that serve to assuage lingering American guilt and eclipse Vietnamese American perspectives. These inquiries include "Where are you from?" and "What was the war like?" The works studied here represent various literary genres-- comic books, cookbooks, memoirs, and novels--that o...

  16. ‘This place isn't worth the left boot of one of our boys’: Geopolitics, militarism and memoirs of the Afghanistan war

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Rachel; Jenkings, K. Neil

    2012-01-01

    This paper argues for the continued significance of the text as a source and focus in critical geopolitical inquiry. It establishes the utility of the military memoir in explorations of popular contemporary geopolitical imaginaries, and considers the memoir as a vector of militarism. The paper examines the memoirs written by military personnel about service in Afghanistan with the British armed forces, specifically about deployments to Helmand province between 2006 and 2012. The paper explores how Afghanistan is scripted through these texts, focussing on the explanations for deployment articulated by their authors, on the representations they contain and promote about other combatants and about civilian non-combatants, and the constitution and expression of danger in the spaces and places of military action which these texts construct and convey. The paper then turns to consider how a reading of the military memoir with reference to the genre of testimonio might extend and inform our understanding and use of these texts as a source for exploring popular geopolitics and militarism. PMID:23805031

  17. Hygiene practices among street food vendors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    giene regulations to keep street food save for consumers. Journal of Medical ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294 ... authorities to enforce food safety regulations, unlike .... (50%) school food vendors sampled in Konongo.

  18. Pühendusega isadele - Baker Street

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Üritusest 7. novembril Kuressaares Arensburg lounge-restoranis Muusa toimuvast isadepäevahõngulisest üritusest, esinevad Virgo Veldi & Band kavaga "Baker Street", erikülalisena Villu Veski. Saksofonistist Virgo Veldist

  19. Hiding in Plain Sight: Street artists online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Barbour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Identity and privacy concerns related to social media are the subject of widespread academic enquiry and mass media reporting. Although in most circumstances academic research tends to present identity play and online self­presentation as positive, media reporting in Australia makes much of the risks of identity theft, privacy breaches and online predators. This research explores the phenomenological experience of creating an online persona, focusing particularly on street artists. For street artists, the threat of unwanted exposure has to be balanced with the positive implications of sharing their creative work outside its geographical and temporal constraints. I argue that street artists use complex persona­creation strategies in order to both protect and promote themselves. The two street artists discussed in this article experience their engagement with social media and digital networks in ways that offer new insight into the opportunities and problems associated with the presentation of a persona online.

  20. Modelling Pollutant Dispersion in a Street Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, N. Ben; Garbero, V.; Salizzoni, P.; Lamaison, G.; Soulhac, L.

    2015-04-01

    This study constitutes a further step in the analysis of the performances of a street network model to simulate atmospheric pollutant dispersion in urban areas. The model, named SIRANE, is based on the decomposition of the urban atmosphere into two sub-domains: the urban boundary layer, whose dynamics is assumed to be well established, and the urban canopy, represented as a series of interconnected boxes. Parametric laws govern the mass exchanges between the boxes under the assumption that the pollutant dispersion within the canopy can be fully simulated by modelling three main bulk transfer phenomena: channelling along street axes, transfers at street intersections, and vertical exchange between street canyons and the overlying atmosphere. Here, we aim to evaluate the reliability of the parametrizations adopted to simulate these phenomena, by focusing on their possible dependence on the external wind direction. To this end, we test the model against concentration measurements within an idealized urban district whose geometrical layout closely matches the street network represented in SIRANE. The analysis is performed for an urban array with a fixed geometry and a varying wind incidence angle. The results show that the model provides generally good results with the reference parametrizations adopted in SIRANE and that its performances are quite robust for a wide range of the model parameters. This proves the reliability of the street network approach in simulating pollutant dispersion in densely built city districts. The results also show that the model performances may be improved by considering a dependence of the wind fluctuations at street intersections and of the vertical exchange velocity on the direction of the incident wind. This opens the way for further investigations to clarify the dependence of these parameters on wind direction and street aspect ratios.

  1. Street-Level Bureaucrats as Individual Policymakers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baviskar, Siddhartha; Winter, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Lipsky (1980) pointed out that street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) are important policymakers due to the discretion they exercise and argued from a structural perspective that these workers manifest relatively similar coping behaviors owing to their shared working conditions, characterized by chronic......Lipsky (1980) pointed out that street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) are important policymakers due to the discretion they exercise and argued from a structural perspective that these workers manifest relatively similar coping behaviors owing to their shared working conditions, characterized...

  2. Solar charge controller in solar street light

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, with the rapid development of scientific technology, the conventional energy cannot meet the requirement of human beings. People are looking for the utilization of renew energy. Solar en-ergy as a new clean energy has attract the eyes of people. The applications of solar energy are popular to human society. Solar street light is a good example. This thesis will focus on a deeper research of the popular and ubiquitous solar street light in China. However, solar charge controll...

  3. OpenStreetMap over WMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Přemysl Vohnout

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss the issues which we faced, while preparing WMS server with OpenStreetMap data of whole Europe. This article is divided into three sections. First is about mandatory applications which are required for working WMS service with OpenStreetMap data. Second is focused on tuning up PostgreSQL. Third is focused on rendering time improvement of layers.

  4. MAINTENANCE OF THE CARPARK AND STREET LIGHTING

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-FM Group

    2002-01-01

    The ST Division informs you that the control and maintenance of the carpark and street lighting will be carried out during the next few weeks. These lightings work normally by photocells but during these tests they will be turned on zone by zone during the day. So we ask the users not to be surprised to see the street lighting on during the day and thank them for their comprehension. ST-FM Group

  5. [Sharing and distrusting: street merchants' view of children in street situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Suárez, Diana M; Giraldo-Puerta, Alexandra; Giraldo-Pineda, Álvaro; Forero-Pulido, Constanza

    2016-06-01

    Objective To understand the meanings, through the description of experiences that street merchants have of their interactions with children in a street situation in downtown of Medellin in 2013. Methodology Qualitative investigation with ethnographic approach. Observations were made in the zone at different times of the day. Twelve interviews with street merchants were held in their work places. Records were kept in a field journal. Results The street merchants and children in street situations share the same space. Both groups try to survive and their relationship is mediated by the trust-distrust that is established between them. The coexistence generates ambivalent feelings. For the street merchants, children in street situations are the result of abandonment by the family, the state and society. They live in a hard world in which they are exposed to a series of risks that they must face. Conclusion The interaction between street merchants and children in street situations is good to the extent that conflicts are avoided, establishing norms of coexistence. The element that determines this relationship is trust-distrust. In trust, strong affective ties are generated, considering each other family. Distrust generates a preventative attitude.

  6. Designing safe and inclusive streets in India | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 nov. 2016 ... Safe streets play a crucial role in enabling livelihoods, mobility, and access to services. In fast-growing Indian cities such as Ahmedabad, streets are also the site of conflict. With incomes and vehicle ownership on the rise, traffic has replaced people as the central point of street design. Vehicle-focused street ...

  7. StreetMekka - Ledelse af Københavns nye streetkulturhus

    OpenAIRE

    Gjelstrup, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    Street culture is spreading out through the streets of Denmark and in the summer of 2009 the City of Copenhagen will open up an indoor street culture facility called StreetMekka. Moving street culture from its natural concrete habitat to a communal facility presents challenges. The City of Copenhagen has made official guideline for the StreetMekka facility to follow, but the free and self organized street culture is not an easy thing to keep within guidelines. This master thesis discusses fro...

  8. Public Reactions to New Street Tree Planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Rae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MillionTreesNYC, which has the goal of planting one million trees in New York City by 2017, is intended to make New York City a greener, more sustainable city and is part of the Mayor’s comprehensive long term strategic plan, PlaNYC. Through planting a tree at every suitable sidewalk location in the city, the City of New York is transforming blocks and communities, and providing a variety of environmental, social and aesthetic benefits. This article examines the large scale municipal planting of new street trees and the reaction by some of the pubic to this planting.Trees offer benefits to the city overall, but the public may not understand these benefits or the street tree planting process. Between 2007 and 2009, the Department of Parks & Recreation planted 53,235 new street trees, and received 4,108 items of correspondence from the public. The majority of this correspondence consisted of public comments about the City’s new street tree planting policies and processes including placement objections, maintenance concerns, reports of resultant damage from tree planting operations, requests for new street trees and reports of tree conditions.This study describes the operational policies that guide New York City's municipal street tree planting, and results of content and spatial analysis of the correspondence. Qualitative analysis of the correspondence revealed the public perceptions and concerns related to the MillionTreesNYC program. Spatial analysis explored the relationship between the planting locations of new street trees and the locations of the citizen correspondence.Public reactions to this large scale municipal planting are related to the dual public and private nature of the sidewalk, issues of territoriality, responsibility, aesthetics and place attachment. Correspondence volume was associated with the scale of the new street tree block planting program, and the effectiveness of NYC’s 311 Customer Service Center. The discussion

  9. A Lacanian Reading of the Two Novels The Scarlet Letter And Private Memoirs And Confessions of A Justified Sinner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjan Yazdanpanahi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses two novels The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner and The Scarlet Letter written by James Hogg and Nathaniel Hawthorn from the perspective of Jacques Lacan theories: the mirror stage, the-name-of-the-father and desire. The mirror stage refers to historical value and an essential libidinal relationship with the body-image. The-name-of-the-father is defined as the prohibitive role of the father as the one who lays down the incest taboo in the Oedipus complex. Meanwhile, desire is neither the appetite for satisfaction, nor the demand for love, but the difference that results from the subtraction of the first from the second.

  10. Verbal Dreamscapes. Dorothea Tanning’s Visual Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glăvan Gabriela

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A Surrealist painter whose artistic vision is equally visible in her literary works, Dorothea Tanning established a solid dialogue between literature and the plastic arts. The corpus of her literary oeuvre is rather small, consisting of a novel, a volume of poetry and her memoir, Between Lives. This paper argues that Tanning can be regarded as an exemplary author of a creative transfer between verbal and plastic imagination. It also explores the tension between the two means of expression, most visible in her novel Chasm: A Weekend. Here, the imagery and enigmatic symbolism of her painting come to life in the story of a strange little girl called Destina Meridian.

  11. A Study on Evaluation for Street Space using AHP Method

    OpenAIRE

    小塚, みすず; 許, 彦; 川本, 義海; 本多, 義明

    2004-01-01

    Street space is an important public area which forms the framework of city space. In addition, from the view of the traffic functions, street space also plays a role to support people's activities performed in city. This paper examines the evaluations of street space among the cities of Fukui (Japan), Toyota (Japan) and Suzhou (China). Therefore, a questionnaire has been carried out and actual conditions of street space are grasped. In addition street functions were evaluated with the AHP met...

  12. Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) - a review of performed validation studies, and future prospects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kakosimos K.E., Konstantinos E.; Hertel, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    in this context is the fast and easy to apply Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM). For almost 20 years, OSPM has been routinely used in many countries for studying traffic pollution, performing analyses of field campaign measurements, studying efficiency of pollution abatement strategies, carrying out...... exposure assessments and as reference in comparisons to other models. OSPM is generally considered as state-of-the-art in applied street pollution modelling. This paper outlines the most important findings in OSPM validation and application studies in literature. At the end of the paper, future research...... needs are outlined for traffic air pollution modelling in general but with outset in the research performed with OSPM....

  13. Road and Street Centerlines - COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN: Street Centerlines Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN is a line feature class that contains street centerlines maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  14. The social world of street children : street children's peer friendship, group life and subculture in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Fikre, Kaleab

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to explore the street children’s social world, focusing on their peer friendship, group life, and street subculture in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study shows how street children’s peer friendship, street group, and subculture are part and parcel of children’s quest for survival in the street in the absence of guardians conventionally considered as responsible for the provision and protection of children. The main perspective of the study is grounded in the p...

  15. Street Children as M arginal People: The Relationship between Life History and Social Networks on the Street

    OpenAIRE

    SUCHARITKUL, Juthathip

    2007-01-01

    This paper assumes that street children are victims of socioeconomic development policy. As a consequence of the street life experience, children are labeled as street children by society and their way of their life is different from ordinary children, thus pushing them to become marginalized people. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Street Children phenomenon, and especially to study the relationship between their life history and personal networks on the street. The focus is to...

  16. Generative Street Addresses from Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlke Demir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe our automatic generative algorithm to create street addresses from satellite images by learning and labeling roads, regions, and address cells. Currently, 75% of the world’s roads lack adequate street addressing systems. Recent geocoding initiatives tend to convert pure latitude and longitude information into a memorable form for unknown areas. However, settlements are identified by streets, and such addressing schemes are not coherent with the road topology. Instead, we propose a generative address design that maps the globe in accordance with streets. Our algorithm starts with extracting roads from satellite imagery by utilizing deep learning. Then, it uniquely labels the regions, roads, and structures using some graph- and proximity-based algorithms. We also extend our addressing scheme to (i cover inaccessible areas following similar design principles; (ii be inclusive and flexible for changes on the ground; and (iii lead as a pioneer for a unified street-based global geodatabase. We present our results on an example of a developed city and multiple undeveloped cities. We also compare productivity on the basis of current ad hoc and new complete addresses. We conclude by contrasting our generative addresses to current industrial and open solutions.

  17. People living on the street from the health point of view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hino, Paula; Santos, Jaqueline de Oliveira; Rosa, Anderson da Silva

    2018-01-01

    To know the Brazilian scientific production of the last ten years (2007 to 2016) about people who experience street situations under the health gaze. Integrative literature review using the descriptors: street people, health policy and public health. We analyzed 21 articles available in the Virtual Health Library. Four categories of analysis emerged. There was an increase in the frequency of published work on the subject, showing that the experience of living on the street makes people vulnerable to various diseases and health problems and, in addition, increases the difficulties of access to health services. There was an increase in the discussion of this topic due to the increase in the number of published studies. Despite the existence of public health policies directed to this social group, much still needs to be done to guarantee the health of this population.

  18. The influence of street level bureaucracy on the implementation of Strategic Environmental Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kørnøv, Lone; Zhang, Jasmine; Christensen, Per

    2015-01-01

    A number of factors are critical to the implementation of measures identified through Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) processes. This paper addresses the challenge of implementation from a street level perspective and studies the role of planners and their use of discretion in the SEA...... implementation process: in which way might planners hinder or facilitate the implementation of SEA? Which coping mechanisms and discretions are deliberately or unconsciously developed and used by the planners? The paper reviews the literature on street level bureaucracy (SLB) in order to identify both factors...... influencing the implementation behaviour of street level bureaucrats and their coping mechanism when confronted with these factors. Based upon the SLB theory, a case study explores the SLB behaviour involved in the implementation of the SEA of the Copenhagen spatial plan. The analysis shows a surprisingly...

  19. Notes on LED Installations in Street Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Spunei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study made on choosing LED street lighting installations, such that the quality requirements for exterior artificial lighting are fulfilled. We analyze two types of LED street lighting installations from a technical point of view, together with lighting level and brightness values obtained during the measurements. Following on the field measurements, the lighting quality parameters are calculated, and, for the lighting installation with the best performance, optimal mounting suggestions are made. The optimal quality parameters are calculated by simulations using the Dialux software. The same software and the same light sources we also compute an optimal street lighting by determining the size of the installation that provides the best lighting parameter values.

  20. Lead in Glasgow street dirt and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J G [Univ. of Glasgow; Lyon, T D.B.

    1977-07-01

    The levels of lead in city street dirt and in soil from various locations in Glasgow were investigated during spring 1976. Lead concentrations in street dirt ranged from 150 to 2300 ppM, mean 960 ppM, and were significantly elevated with respect to the observed ''natural'' level of 78 ppM. Lead derived from anti-knock compounds in petrol and introduced to the environment via automobile exhausts was clearly implicated as the main source of lead pollution in a series of soil lead measurements at the centre and periphery of eight Glasgow parks. Various chemical leaching techniques were employed and compared. Less than 5 percent of street dirt and soil lead was found to be associated with the organic phase.

  1. Risk behaviour of street children in Colombo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratna, B C V; Wijewardana, B V N

    2012-09-01

    Sri Lankan street children live in insecure and disadvantaged environments and have disrupted and poorly functioning families resulting in their poor socialisation. In this backdrop they are at high risk of adopting delinquent and antisocial behaviour and becoming victims of abuse. Despite recognition of this as a social problem, an in-depth exploration of their behaviour and its correlates has not been attempted. To describe risk behaviour among street children in Colombo city and the determinants of such behaviour. A cross sectional qualitative study in Colombo Fort, Pettah, Slave Island, and Maradana areas was conducted using focus group discussions (FGDs) with street children and semi-structured interviews (SSIs) with street children and key informants in their environment. Data generated were used to profile 283 children identified through referral sampling. An observation study was conducted to validate data generated through FGDs and SSIs. Semi-structured questionnaires, a moderator guide, an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and an observational checklist were used for SSIs, FGDs, profiling, and observational study, respectively. Majority of street children were boys and were aged 14 years or less. Nearly 18% lived alone without a guardian. Two thirds had never enrolled in a school. Many children were used for begging, neglecting their health vulnerabilities. Occupational risk behaviour included heavy manual labour, transportation and sale of illicit alcohol and narcotics, robbing/pick-pocketing, commercial sex work, and pimping. Recreational risk behaviour included abuse of alcohol/narcotics, smoking, sexual promiscuity, and patronising commercial sex workers. Increased awareness and strategies are required to minimise threats to street children and society.

  2. Street children of India -- a glimpse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S

    1994-01-01

    In India, 90% of street children are working children with regular family ties who live with their families, but are on the streets due to poverty and their parents' unemployment. The remaining 10% are either working children with few family ties who view the streets as their homes or abandoned and neglected children with no family ties. The National Policy for Children established in 1974 emphasizes the provision of equal opportunities for the development to all children during their growing years. Policy stresses programs to maintain, educate, and train destitute children and orphans. Policy is also to protect children against neglect, cruelty, and exploitation, but this is only on paper. An UNICEF study found that almost 40,000 children die every day in developing countries, 25% of whom are in India. Studies in some major cities indicate that the street children in India are of moderate health status, suffering from various chronic diseases and undernourishment. They are deprived of all health programs, but seem to prefer government hospitals in case of dire need. Street children often have to pay for water. Almost 97% in Calcutta, 99% in Bangalore, and 90% in Madras reported having no access to toilet and bathing facilities; 83% in Kanpur, however, had access to such facilities. Nothing has been heard in recent years of the National Children's Board established in 1975. Apparently the board has gradually waned. Various schemes were planned in 1992 by the Union Welfare Ministry in association with UNICEF. Extending extra health facilities, establishing nutrition programs, providing vocational training, protecting children from abuse, distributing dry-food polypacks, providing night shelters, providing ration cards, and creating bathing and toilet facilities would go far in improving the quality of life and the future of street children in India.

  3. Street Cries and the urban refrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Rasmussen have investigated Danish street cries as respectably a musical and a spatial phenomenon. Such studies – from each their perspectives – can be said to explore the aesthetics of urban environments, since street calls are specifically developed and heard in the context of the city. Investigating...... the different methods employed in the two studies and presenting Deleuze and Guattaris theory about the refrain as a framework for further studies in the field, this article seeks to outline a fertile area of study for sound studies: the investigation of everyday refrains and the environmental relations...

  4. People’s Preferences of Urban Design Qualities for Walking on a Commercial Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernawati, J.; Surjono; Sudarmo, B. S.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to explore people’s preferences of urban design qualities for walking on a commercial street, with Kawi Street located in a commercial neighborhood in the town of Malang Indonesia as the case study. Based on a literature review, this study used eight urban design qualities, i.e., enclosure, legibility, human scale, transparency, complexity, coherence, linkage, and imageability. This study applied a survey research method using a self-administered paper-pencil questionnaire applying two measurement techniques: Likert scale was used to explore people’s evaluations of urban design qualities of the street, while multiple-rating scales were used to measure people’s preference for walking on the street. One hundred and ten people randomly selected as respondents. Regression analysis was employed to explore the influence of urban design qualities on people preference for walking. Results indicated four urban design qualities that affect people’s choice for walking on a commercial street, i.e., transparency, coherence, linkage, and imageability. Implications of the findings will be discussed in the paper.

  5. Citygml and the Streets of New York - a Proposal for Detailed Street Space Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, C.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional semantic city models are increasingly used for the analysis of large urban areas. Until now the focus has mostly been on buildings. Nonetheless many applications could also benefit from detailed models of public street space for further analysis. However, there are only few guidelines for representing roads within city models. Therefore, related standards dealing with street modelling are examined and discussed. Nearly all street representations are based on linear abstractions. However, there are many use cases that require or would benefit from the detailed geometrical and semantic representation of street space. A variety of potential applications for detailed street space models are presented. Subsequently, based on related standards as well as on user requirements, a concept for a CityGML-compliant representation of street space in multiple levels of detail is developed. In the course of this process, the CityGML Transportation model of the currently valid OGC standard CityGML2.0 is examined to discover possibilities for further developments. Moreover, a number of improvements are presented. Finally, based on open data sources, the proposed concept is implemented within a semantic 3D city model of New York City generating a detailed 3D street space model for the entire city. As a result, 11 thematic classes, such as roadbeds, sidewalks or traffic islands are generated and enriched with a large number of thematic attributes.

  6. Kandó-Melocco, Ferenc. 2015. An Anti-Nazi at Hitler's Table: Political Memoirs of a Hungarian Nobleman Who Dared to Oppose Both Hitler and the Communists. (trans. and ed. Esther Kando Odescalchi. North Charleston, SC: CreateSpace. 162 pp., Illus.; Odescalchi, Esther Kando. 2016. My Escape: Memoirs of a Hungarian Teenage Freedom Fighter. North Charleston, SC: CreateSpace. Illus. 148 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth G. Biro

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Kandó-Melocco, Ferenc. 2015. An Anti-Nazi at Hitler's Table: Political Memoirs of a Hungarian Nobleman Who Dared to Oppose Both Hitler and the Communists. (trans. and ed. Esther Kando Odescalchi. North Charleston, SC: CreateSpace. 162 pp., Illus.; Odescalchi, Esther Kando. 2016. My Escape: Memoirs of a Hungarian Teenage Freedom Fighter. North Charleston, SC: CreateSpace. Illus. 148 pp.

  7. ‘A man of great feeling and sensibility’: The Memoirs of Joseph Grimaldi and the Tears of a Clown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Buckmaster

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In the ‘Concluding Chapter’ of his 'Memoirs of Joseph Grimaldi' (1838, Charles Dickens describes Grimaldi as ‘a man of great feeling and sensibility’, despite the fact that he thinks ‘many readers will ridicule the idea’ of a clown being capable of such emotional depth. But here Dickens is not merely a traditional biographer, summarizing the evidence and using it as the basis for an evaluation of his subject’s life. In fact, this is the carefully crafted conclusion of a narrative deliberately constructed to tell the life story of ‘a man of the kindest heart’.   The level of Dickens’s creative input in the 'Memoirs' has always been a matter for debate, but in a letter to Grimaldi’s doctor, Dickens explains how he directly shaped the way that Grimaldi’s emotional side was presented. Despite claiming his role as a mere editor, Dickens admits that ‘I was very much struck by the many traits of kindheartedness scattered through the book, and have given it that colouring throughout’, clearly signalling his focus on the sentimental side of Grimaldi’s character.   In the first section of this article, I demonstrate how Dickens provides that colouring through his shaping of the biographical material, and reconstructs Grimaldi as a real-life counterpart to Dickens’s extremely popular character of time, Mr Pickwick. Through his choice of incidents from Grimaldi’s life, and the way in which he presents the choices and actions Grimaldi takes, Dickens attempts to offer Grimaldi as an admirable model of feeling towards his fellow man.   However, in the second section of this article, I show how this biographical imperative to show Grimaldi as a man of feeling is counterposed by a contesting narrative. This second narrative is the work of the more creative writer within Dickens, and like his earlier essay ‘The Pantomime of Life’ (March 1837 it posits identity as being based on external performance and affect rather than

  8. Minds "and" Hearts: Using Jeannette Walls's Memoir, "The Glass Castle", to Teach Emotional Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvin, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    English teachers have those favorite characters in the literature they choose to study with their students, from the classics of Lennie and George in "Of Mice and Men" to more contemporary characters such as Arnold in "The Absolutely True Diary of a Part-Time Indian" who was "born with water on the brain" (Alexie 1). The author loves allowing…

  9. Time-series analysis to study the impact of an intersection on dispersion along a street canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richmond-Bryant, Jennifer; Eisner, Alfred D; Hahn, Intaek; Fortune, Christopher R; Drake-Richman, Zora E; Brixey, Laurie A; Talih, M; Wiener, Russell W; Ellenson, William D

    2009-12-01

    This paper presents data analysis from the Brooklyn Traffic Real-Time Ambient Pollutant Penetration and Environmental Dispersion (B-TRAPPED) study to assess the transport of ultrafine particulate matter (PM) across urban intersections. Experiments were performed in a street canyon perpendicular to a highway in Brooklyn, NY, USA. Real-time ultrafine PM samplers were positioned on either side of an intersection at multiple locations along a street to collect time-series number concentration data. Meteorology equipment was positioned within the street canyon and at an upstream background site to measure wind speed and direction. Time-series analysis was performed on the PM data to compute a transport velocity along the direction of the street for the cases where background winds were parallel and perpendicular to the street. The data were analyzed for sampler pairs located (1) on opposite sides of the intersection and (2) on the same block. The time-series analysis demonstrated along-street transport, including across the intersection when background winds were parallel to the street canyon and there was minimal transport and no communication across the intersection when background winds were perpendicular to the street canyon. Low but significant values of the cross-correlation function (CCF) underscore the turbulent nature of plume transport along the street canyon. The low correlations suggest that flow switching around corners or traffic-induced turbulence at the intersection may have aided dilution of the PM plume from the highway. This observation supports similar findings in the literature. Furthermore, the time-series analysis methodology applied in this study is introduced as a technique for studying spatiotemporal variation in the urban microscale environment.

  10. PATTERNS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG KENYAN STREET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sample of 50 (36 male and 14 female) street children currently in a remand home at Kabete in Nairobi, Kenya, were interviewed using a predesigned questionnaire in order to estimate prevalence rates for use of selected substances. The lifetime prevalence rates of the drugs most commonly used were volatile ...

  11. Wall Street sours on nuke plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Wall Street has been threatening to join the antinuclear campaign for years as construction lead times and costs grew and the financial condition of utilities building reactors deteriorated. With nuclear plant cancellations, licensing problems, quality-assurance breakdowns, and elevated costs, stock prices have dropped causing unrest among utility investors

  12. Smart street lights using power line communication

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Toit, P

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of automation has resulted in the development of “smart” systems for a variety of different applications. One such application is street lighting which still mostly uses very primitive methods of maintenance. The use...

  13. [Agnosia for streets and defective root finding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobuyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Topographical disorientation is identified as a condition in which patients are unable to find their way in familiar surroundings, such as their home neighborhood or the admitting hospital after the onset of illness. I proposed to classify topographical disorientation into two categories: agnosia for streets (landmark agnosia) and defective root finding (heading disorientation). Patients with agnosia for streets are unable to identify familiar buildings and landscapes. They can, however, morphologically perceive them and remember their way around familiar areas. The lesions are located in the right posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus, anterior half of the lingual gyrus and adjacent fusiform gyrus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions play a crucial role in the interaction between the visual information of streets and memories of them, which are thought to be retained in the right anterior part of the temporal lobe. In particular, the posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus is critical for the acquisition of novel information. On the other hand, patients with defective root finding can identify familiar streets, but cannot remember their own location or positional relation between two points within a comparatively wide range not surveyable at one time. The lesions are located in the right retrosplenial cortex (Areas 29, 30), posterior cingulate cortex (Areas 23, 31) and precuneus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions are involved in the orientation function for navigating in wide spaces. In particular, the retrosplenial cortex is critical for encoding novel information.

  14. Vortex Cloud Street during AMTEX 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Agee, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    Strong northerly flow across Cheju Island, Korea, during the 1975 Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX 75) resulted in a pronounced vortex cloud street to the lee of the island on February 17 1975. This pattern has been studied and explained in terms of classical von Karman eddies shed...

  15. CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF STREET FOOD CONSUMERS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    diet of people living in low- and middle-income countries ... market for SF consumers in Cape Town. However, most ... beverages prepared and/or sold by vendors and hawkers ... many street-food items sold are unhealthy ...... going children in lower-income groups, who may ... The dangers of regular consumption of sugar-.

  16. Opportunities and constraints facing informal street traders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A small income and the limited ability of the government and the formal business sector to provide sufficient employment opportunities to people in the economically active age categories are two of the main reasons for informal trading in South African cities. As a result, the informal street trading sector plays an important ...

  17. The Earl Lee Street Art Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubba

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a catchy phrase with more to its meaning than first view. A slogan "All the girls love Earl Lee," appears in street art around the world. Earl Lee is a lovable, handsome man who owns the fictitious Earl Lube industries. Originally intended to bring a smile to people's faces at a time when there wasn't much to smile…

  18. Social Sustainability of Shopping Streets in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge YALÇINER ERCOŞKUN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Shopping streets are integral parts of public spaces in traditional shopping areas of Central Business Districts (CBD. Furthermore, as modern shopping venues, shopping centers offer advantages for modern lifestyles with spacious shopping areas, variety of commercial and social activities, and economic value of their investments. These advantages act in favor of shopping centers and improve the level of shopping street social sustainability and its relevant concepts. The aim of this study is to analyze the main shopping streets of Ankara, using the concepts of social sustainability. In this study, these concepts, such as locality, identity, vitality, viability, sense of place, conviviality, meaning and local characteristics of the shopping streets are investigated. For the first time, the retail unit locations in Ankara, their brands and their business types, are illustrated on thematic land use maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS software. Next, population activities and consumer spatial behavior are observed and marked on maps that are also referred to as social sustainability maps. The results of the study can be useful in formulating strategies within the framework of social sustainability, which is a relatively new concept.

  19. Agnosia for streets and defective root finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Topographical disorientation is identified as a condition in which patients are unable to find their way in familiar surroundings, such as their home neighborhood or the admitting hospital after the onset of illness. I proposed to classify topographical disorientation into two categories: agnosia for streets (landmark agnosia) and defective root finding (heading disorientation). Patients with agnosia for streets are unable to identify familiar buildings and landscapes. They can, however, morphologically perceive them and remember their way around familiar areas. The lesions are located in the right posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus, anterior half of the lingual gyrus and adjacent fusiform gyrus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions play a crucial role in the interaction between the visual information of streets and memories of them, which are thought to be retained in the right anterior part of the temporal lobe. In particular, the posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus is critical for the acquisition of novel information. On the other hand, patients with defective root finding can identify familiar streets, but cannot remember their own location or positional relation between two points within a comparatively wide range not surveyable at one time. The lesions are located in the right retrosplenial cortex (Areas 29, 30), posterior cingulate cortex (Areas 23, 31) and precuneus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions are involved in the orientation function for navigating in wide spaces. In particular, the retrosplenial cortex is critical for encoding novel information. (author)

  20. Turbulent ventilation of a street canyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2000-01-01

    A selection of turbulence data corresponding to 185 days of field measurements has een analysed. The non-ideal building geometry influenced the circulation patterns in the street canyon and the largest average vertical velocities were observed in the wake of an unbroken line of buildings. The sta...

  1. Travel Time Estimation on Urban Street Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kajalić

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Level of service (LOS is used as the main indicator of transport quality on urban roads and it is estimated based on the travel speed. The main objective of this study is to determine which of the existing models for travel speed calculation is most suitable for local conditions. The study uses actual data gathered in travel time survey on urban streets, recorded by applying second by second GPS data. The survey is limited to traffic flow in saturated conditions. The RMSE method (Root Mean Square Error is used for research results comparison with relevant models: Akcelik, HCM (Highway Capacity Manual, Singapore model and modified BPR (the Bureau of Public Roads function (Dowling - Skabardonis. The lowest deviation in local conditions for urban streets with standardized intersection distance (400-500 m is demonstrated by Akcelik model. However, for streets with lower signal density (<1 signal/km the correlation between speed and degree of saturation is best presented by HCM and Singapore model. According to test results, Akcelik model was adopted for travel speed estimation which can be the basis for determining the level of service in urban streets with standardized intersection distance and coordinated signal timing under local conditions.

  2. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage ...

  3. Fitting the Pattern or being a dressmaker’s daughter: a memoir in pieces - Being Creatively Autobiographical in New Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Wilks

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Cutting through memories, pinning down facts, stitching up fabrications, unpicking the past - an interactive, animated memoir, created in Flash, exploring aspects of my relationship with my dressmaking mother and her complicated influence on me. Life’s mysteries are rarely uncovered by a logical, linear process of deduction. You arrive at answers, ideas, suspicions, intuitions… haphazardly in fragments. Over time you build the picture, piece by piece, shuffling and rearranging, until you start to see a pattern emerging. The structure of ‘Fitting the Pattern’ attempts to replicate this experience, hence it is a memoir in pieces that the reader can explore, to some extent, in a non-linear fashion. The visual design of the piece is based on the aesthetics of dressmaking patterns, specifically, imagery drawn from online open source sewing patterns (burdastyle.com. An affordance of such a design is that dressmaking patterns are instructional by nature so I was able to design an intuitive navigational system that provides signals and guidance to the user without breaking out of the narrative sphere and disrupting a potentially immersive experience. There are certain parallels between my motherʼs creative craft process and my own in new media. These similarities, as well as our differences, are embedded in the digital media and text, literally drawn out through animation and dramatised through interactivity. Custom cursors designed as digital dressmaking tools fuse the interactive process into the narrative world, so the reader becomes actively involved in constructing and/or unpicking the narrative. Like most of the interactive elements in ʻFitting the Patternʼ, these dressmaking tool symbols have multiple functions - they are navigation bar buttons; they are custom cursors; and they are active narrative elements, like animated characters, literally playing their part in the story whilst simultaneously activating the reading

  4. Streets? Where We're Going, We Don't Need Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.

    2017-12-01

    In 2007 Google Street View started as a project to provide 360-degree imagery along streets, but in the decade since has evolved into a platform through which to explore everywhere from the slope of everest, to the middle of the Amazon rainforest to under the ocean. As camera technology has evolved it has also become a tool for ground truthing maps, and provided scientific observations, storytelling and education. The Google Street View "special collects" team has undertaken increasingly more challenging projects across 80+ countries and every continent. All of which culminated in possibly the most ambitious collection yet, the capture of Street View on board the International Space Station. Learn about the preparation and obstacles behind this and other special collects. Explore these datasets through both Google Earth and Google Expeditions VR, an educational tool to take students on virtual field trips using 360 degree imagery.

  5. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The bulk of the smuggled cigarettes are sold by street vendors, many of them women and children, ... and its implications for government revenue;; identify the reasons why people sell on the streets; and, ... Agent(e) responsable du CRDI.

  6. Reproductive health behaviour of street youth and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-03-30

    Mar 30, 2014 ... street, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking and khat chewing. Among the .... Street youth: In this study, youth is defined as the people ... factors that influence sexual behaviours of ... means of preventing pregnancy. Condom ...

  7. POLICY EVALUATION OF RESTRUCTURING STREET VENDORS IN SURAKARTA CITY (Study of Street Vendors in Monument Park Banjarsari and Street Vendors in Manahan Stadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frahlevi Prajasari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the policy evaluation of restructuring street vendors in Surakarta city. Street vendors represent the economic actors in the informal sector of urban economic activity. The government of City/District usually removes these street vendors by disguising this activity behind the reason of structuring, . The study used descriptive research with a qualitative approach. The relocation of street vendors in Surakarta City is orderly and smooth without violence which may impact badly on physic and material because the government of Surakarta City, especially Surakarta Mayor, uses persuasive approach. Notoharjo Market is a relocation place for street vendors at Banjarsari Monument Park. In the beginning, Notoharjo Market is crowded with buyers but current days, street vendors who occupy Notoharjo Market complain about lack of buyers. The lack of buyers at Notoharjo Market is because the facilities previously provided by the government of Surakarta City are not well maintained. The government of Surakarta City must listening all complains of street vendors for the smoothness and orderliness of trading activity of street vendors. Not only listening, but the government of Surakarta City also gives appropriate and best solution to street vendors such that street vendors feel comfort in selling and their income is better than before.

  8. Socio - demographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Involvement of children in street trading is inimical, contrary to the Rights of the Child, and threatens holistic child development. Objective: To describe the sociodemographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi. Method: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of children selling wares on the streets of ...

  9. Street Food Consumption and its associated socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street Food Consumption and its associated socio-demographic factors in Oyo town, Nigeria. ... Abstract. Background: Contemporary life-styles have made street foods to be an important meal option in Nigeria. They contribute ... Nutrition education is suggested for people to make a better choice of nourishing street foods.

  10. Psychosocial profile of institutionalised street children in Alexandria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The phenomenon of street children in Egypt constitutes a public health concern. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of institutionalised street children in Alexandria, to compare the prevalence of substance abuse and conduct disorder between street children and school children, and to identify ...

  11. An Art of Resistance: From the Street to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Rooted in graffiti culture and its attitude toward the world, street art is regarded as a postgraffiti movement. Street art encompasses a wide array of media and techniques, such as traditional spray-painted tags, stickers, stencils, posters, photocopies, murals, paper cutouts, mosaics, street installations, performances, and video projections…

  12. Socio-demographic characteristics of street children in rural ... - Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15.0%), part-time driving (9.5%) and car washing (5.0%) were the commonest types of work. Of those still schooling, 41.6% had no form of part-time work on the streets. None of the street children lived on the street with 65% still living with parents.

  13. ‘None but Ourselves Can Free Our Minds’: Review of "A Community Life: Memoirs of Alfred M. Sears"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Victoria Dean

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Review of A Community Life: Memoirs of Alfred M. Sears: A Redemption Story from Reform School to Attorney General and Minister of Education of the Bahamas, Alfred M. Sears. I-EASE Publishack, 2017. ISBN 978-978-8201-14-4 This emotionally charged testimonial to life in the historical colonial and postcolonial Bahamas is a deeply politicized story of personal and political redemption built on Alfred Sears’ decades-long commitment to literacy and education, to the value of family and community and to the practice of speaking truth to power. Sears argues that both the health of Bahamian society and the sovereignty of the nation are dependent on its citizens being able to think for themselves and for that to happen, it is imperative to root out the legacies of colonialism. He makes recommendations for altering the Bahamian Constitution and thematically addresses concerns about government corruption, transparency, and accountability; partisan polarization; the Bahamian politic as a system of patronage and clientelism; the need for constitutional reform; political campaign finance reform; sustained economic development and participatory regionalism.

  14. Optimisation des proprietes fonctionnelles des alliages a memoire de forme suite a l'application de traitements thermomecaniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demers, Vincent

    L'objectif de ce projet est de determiner les conditions de laminage et la temperature de traitement thermique maximisant les proprietes fonctionnelles de l'alliage a memoire de forme Ti-Ni. Les specimens sont caracterises par des mesures de calorimetrie, de microscopie optique, de gene ration de contrainte, de deformation recuperable et des essais mecaniques. Pour un cycle unique, l'utilisation d'un taux d'ecrouissage e=1.5 obtenu avec l'application d'une force de tension FT = 0.1sigma y et d'une huile minerale resulte en un echantillon droit, sans microfissure et qui apres un recuit a 400°C, produit un materiau nanostructure manifestant des proprietes fonctionnelles deux fois plus grandes que le meme materiau ayant une structure polygonisee. Pour des cycles repetes, les memes conditions de laminage sont valables mais le niveau de deformation optimal est situe entre e=0.75-2, et depend particulierement du mode de sollicitation, du niveau de stabilisation et du nombre de cycles a la rupture requis par l'application.

  15. LES of flow in the street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, Vladimír; Brechler, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Results of computer simulation of flow over a series of street canyons are presented in this paper. The setup is adapted from an experimental study by [4] with two different shapes of buildings. The problem is simulated by an LES model CLMM (Charles University Large Eddy Microscale Model) and results are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. The results in the channel (layout from the experiment) are compared with results with a free top boundary.

  16. Finding Street Gang Members on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Balasuriya, Lakshika; Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Doran, Derek; Sheth, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Most street gang members use Twitter to intimidate others, to present outrageous images and statements to the world, and to share recent illegal activities. Their tweets may thus be useful to law enforcement agencies to discover clues about recent crimes or to anticipate ones that may occur. Finding these posts, however, requires a method to discover gang member Twitter profiles. This is a challenging task since gang members represent a very small population of the 320 million Twitter users. ...

  17. 75 FR 71744 - Fifth Street Finance Corp., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Street Finance Corp., et al.; Notice of Application November 18, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Street Finance Corp. (``Fifth Street''), Fifth Street Management LLC, Fifth Street Mezzanine Partners IV... regulated as a business development company (``BDC'') under the Act. Fifth Street is a specialty finance...

  18. Self-Localization at Street Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Giovanni; Shen, Huiying; Coughlan, James M

    2014-05-01

    There is growing interest among smartphone users in the ability to determine their precise location in their environment for a variety of applications related to wayfinding, travel and shopping. While GPS provides valuable self-localization estimates, its accuracy is limited to approximately 10 meters in most urban locations. This paper focuses on the self-localization needs of blind or visually impaired travelers, who are faced with the challenge of negotiating street intersections. These travelers need more precise self-localization to help them align themselves properly to crosswalks, signal lights and other features such as walk light pushbuttons. We demonstrate a novel computer vision-based localization approach that is tailored to the street intersection domain. Unlike most work on computer vision-based localization techniques, which typically assume the presence of detailed, high-quality 3D models of urban environments, our technique harnesses the availability of simple, ubiquitous satellite imagery (e.g., Google Maps) to create simple maps of each intersection. Not only does this technique scale naturally to the great majority of street intersections in urban areas, but it has the added advantage of incorporating the specific metric information that blind or visually impaired travelers need, namely, the locations of intersection features such as crosswalks. Key to our approach is the integration of IMU (inertial measurement unit) information with geometric information obtained from image panorama stitchings. Finally, we evaluate the localization performance of our algorithm on a dataset of intersection panoramas, demonstrating the feasibility of our approach.

  19. Social and Historical Approaches Regarding Street Children in Rio de Janeiro (Brazil) in the Context of the Transition to Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Gisalio Cerqueira; Neder, Gizlene

    2001-01-01

    This review examines the social literature on Brazilian street children to determine causal factors. Stressing the socioeconomic aspects of poverty and social exclusion, the analyses identify three basic themes: the family, high failure rates in school, and child/adolescent labor. The role of Brazil's economic crisis of the late 1970s and…

  20. Risk factors in street food practices in developing countries: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buliyaminu Adegbemiro Alimi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Street food trading solves major social and economic problems in developing countries through the provision of ready-made meals at relatively inexpensive prices and employment for teeming rural and urban populace along its value chain. However, due to informal nature of the enterprise, the activities of the practitioners are not regulated. This gives ample room for unwholesome practices. The results are the risks such activities pose to the health and safety of practitioners along the value chain. This review paper, a summary of literature reports on risk factors in street food trade in developing countries and recommended safety intervention, is written with the hope of providing global baseline for intervention to ensure safe food practices. Adoption of safety approaches that permeates the entire chain of street food business from good agricultural practices through hazard analysis critical control points strategy to good hygiene practices by farmers, vendors and consumers would significantly reduce risks in street food consumption. Above all, active collaboration of all stakeholders toward the strengthening and proper enforcement of public health policies to ensure safe practices and engender safer and healthier society is recommended.

  1. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M; Anderson, Andrew R; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F

    2017-12-01

    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Educational psychology in medical learning: a randomised controlled trial of two aide memoires for the recall of causes of electromechanical dissociation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyson, E; Voisey, S; Hughes, S; Higgins, B; McQuillan, P J

    2004-07-01

    Although mnemonics are commonly used in medical education there are few data on their effectiveness. A RCT was undertaken to test the hypothesis that a new aide memoire, "EMD-aide", would be superior to the conventional "4Hs+4Ts" mnemonic in facilitating recall of causes of electromechanical dissociation (EMD) among house officers. "EMD-aide", organises causes of EMD by frequency of occurrence and ease of reversibility: four groups organised by shape, colour, position, numbering, clockwise sequence, and use of arrows. Eight hospitals were randomised in a controlled trial and 149 house officers were then recruited by telephone. Baseline ability to recall causes of EMD was recorded at one minute and overall. House officers were then sent a copy of either "4Hs+4Ts" or "EMD-aide" according to randomisation group. Recall ability was retested at one month. 68 of 80 and 51 of 69 house officers completed the study in the "4Hs+4Ts" and "EMD-aide" groups respectively (NS) with similar baseline recall. After intervention median number of recalled causes was greater in the "EMD-aide" group, eight compared with seven at one minute (p = 0.034) and eight compared with seven overall, p = 0.067. Recall of all eight causes was more common in "EMD-aide" group, 54% compared with 35%, p = 0.054, and these house officers spent longer examining their aide memoire, pEducational psychology of medical learning and the use of aide memoires in general are worthy of further study.

  3. Vermeer's The Little Street: a precise location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Grijzenhout

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 2015, Frans Grijzenhout published his sensational findings regarding the likely location of Johannes Vermeer’s ‘little street’ (The Little Street. After consulting a variety of sources, including the ‘The Ledger of Dredging of the Canals in the Town of Delft’ from 1666–1667, he had reached the conclusion that the famous painting by Vermeer must have been based on the houses and two intervening passageways that in Vermeer’s day stood on Vlamingstraat, an unassuming canal in the eastern part of Delft, where numbers 40 and 42 stand today. He had also ascertained that one of Vermeer’s aunts, Ariaentgen Claes van der Minne, was the occupant of 42 Vlamingstraat at that time. Several authors have since produced material indicating that Vermeer painted the right-hand house in Little Street ‘from life’: the house was, it now appears, observed and reproduced in meticulous detail. The same can now be confirmed for other aspects, such as the colour used for the painted shutters and the recesses for wind hooks in the sill of the window of the righthand house. Philip Steadman has rightly pointed to an apparent discrepancy of four feet (c. 1.25 m. between the details in the aforementioned ‘Ledger of the Dredging of the Canals in the Town of Delft’ and the actual spatial situation at 40 Vlamingstraat. This difference can be traced back to the fact that the gateway provided access to both front and back houses. Accordingly, the owners of both front and back houses would have been taxed on the width (four feet of the passageway. Given what we know about the meticulous precision with which the Ledger was compiled in the case of 42 Vlamingstraat, it is inconceivable that the authors of the register for number 40 should have made a mistake. A spatial rendering based on an earlier perspective study of The Little Street, corresponds surprisingly well, and in some respects in detail, with the cadastral and other information we

  4. “Confusions about the place and the way in which I grew up”: Place and Knowledge in Joan Didion’s Memoir Where I Was From

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    This essay is a close reading of Joan Didion’s memoir Where I Was From (2003), and it is particularly focused on the spatial aspects of Didion’s narrative. I am arguing that the production of autobiographical knowledge in this text is closely linked to the places the narrator is referring to and in which she positions herself. Furthermore, this essay aims at illustrating that Didion’s narrative itself functions as a genre-specific site for the production of autobiographical knowledge.

  5. [Homeless on the streets of Copenhagen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, M

    1994-05-16

    A group of homeless people living in the streets is described with the purpose of gaining the knowledge necessary to prevent development of homelessness and establishing programmes for the homeless. Out-reach work in the streets and cooperation with private and religious organisations was conducted during a two-year period and 59 homeless persons were interviewed. Fifteen were women and 44 were men. Upbringing, social conditions, daily living, physical and mental health and contact with health services, social security and private organisations were highlighted in a structured and semistructured interview. Compared with the background population the homeless had much more frequently childhood experience of parents' divorce or death of one of the parents. The women were significantly older than the men and the majority of the women were suffering from schizophrenia and had very little contact with network and public services. The majority of the men were abusing alcohol or drugs, many had had a troublesome childhood with stays in institutions. Many had had many contacts with different social institutions and a criminal record. Among the homeless in the streets of Copenhagen, the prevalence of mental illness, especially schizophrenia, is high. It is recommended that homelessness among the mentally ill is prevented by a special effort directed towards the patient group at risk of becoming homeless and through establishing different housing facilities with varying degrees of professional support. Out-reach work towards the homeless mentally ill should be carried out with the purpose of establishing contact with psychiatric services and securing the possibility of compulsory admission.

  6. The Literary Criticism and Memoirs of Juan Ramón Jiménez

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allen W. Phillips

    1983-01-01

    according to the theories of Juan Ramón Jiménez, who always differentiated between poetry and literature, finding in great poetry emotive depth and spiritual authenticity.

  7. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage...... of caseworkers emphasizing actions that are consistent with the national employment reform goal of getting clients into jobs quickly. The influence of politicians and managers in bringing this about is relatively limited in comparison to the influences of caseworkers’ understanding of policy goals...

  8. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage...... of caseworkers emphasizing actions that are consistent with the national employment reform goal of getting clients into jobs quickly. The influence of politicians and managers in bringing this about is relatively limited in comparison to the influences of caseworkers’ understanding of policy goals...

  9. Philippines: street children, children at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantoco, F G

    1993-01-01

    Almost 2 million of Manila's 2.5 million children younger than 15 years old live on or below the poverty line. 75,000 of these children live on the streets after having run away from home or being abandoned. They beg, steal, scavenge for food, and sell newspapers, cigarettes, and leis. About 20,000 of the street children prostitute themselves. It is these latter children and adolescents who are at particular risk of HIV infection. Studies in the Philippines indicate that 91% of reported HIV infections are among individuals aged 15-44, the male/female infection ratio is one to one, the transmission rate is 45%, and the most common mode of transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The high incidence of child sexual abuse and child prostitution in the Philippines would suggest that there are a significant number of children and adolescents under age 15 who are infected with HIV. Caritas Manila has developed an information, education, and communication program for HIV/AIDS prevention focusing upon individuals who have direct influence upon and are in direct contact with people: clergy, religious and civic associations, educators, and social and health workers. Caritas has also to a limited extent reached out directly to populations at risk, while collaborating with human rights advocacy groups and networking with other children-oriented agencies in the interest of providing resources to street children. Efforts must be made to protect the rights of children and provide them with an environment conducive to their growth and development. The author notes how off-duty policemen in Manila help real estate developers forcibly eject the poor from their shelters to clear the way for the construction of new infrastructure without concern for the legal processes and requirements in the humane and peaceful relocation of the homeless poor. Many women and children are hurt and killed in the process. It has also been reported that off-duty policemen in Rio de Janeiro

  10. CONTROLLING STREET DOG POPULATION IN MOSCOW

    OpenAIRE

    ZHULENKO A.S.; POLYNOVA G.V.

    2016-01-01

    The issue represents the analysis of the fundamentals and world-wide best practices of controlling street dog population in Moscow and other global cities. Actions proposed to improve the strategy of managing free-ranging dogs in Moscow.Some reasons of increase in number of stray dogs and “pet overpopulation” ware studied. There are ecological types of stray dogs characterized the types of running wild of dogs and foraging (food procurement) strategy of animals.The analysis of the basic princ...

  11. Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as

  12. A social work study on family patterns and street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between various family characteristics and street children in rural area as well as city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 150 street children, 75 from city and 75 from rural area, and using some statistical tests verifies the effects of three factors including family income, place of residency and family size on street children. The results indicate that the city residence had more street children than rural residence did. In addition, there was a meaningful difference between the number of street children in low-income families and high-income families. Finally, the survey results indicate that big size families more likely suffered from street children than low size families did.

  13. Diversity of contexts in drug use among street adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves de Moura, Yone; van der Meer Sanchez, Zila; Noto, Ana Regina

    2010-09-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate through ethnographic methods the different contexts of drug use by street adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Participant observations and semistructured interviews were performed at 11 major points of adolescent concentration in the streets of the city and in 10 care institutions. The sample was composed of 17 adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age. Data showed diverse patterns of drug use distributed by geographic situation and street circumstances. Observations were grouped into three main contexts: (a) immersion: greater intensity of drug use associated with greater involvement in the street culture; (b) surface: less drug use associated with family closeness; and (c) alternative-migratory: greater involvement with drug trafficking and prostitution associated with less family closeness and street culture. The drug use patterns varied in accordance with the diversity of street situations. Therefore, the peculiarities of each context should be taken into consideration in the development of social/ health policies.

  14. [Street social education: historical, political and pedagogical bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Walter Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    This work is about street social education as a pedagogical system that started in Latin America in the late 1970s, as the street population formed mostly by children and adolescents called for attention. The first street social educators were 'pastoral' agents working at the praça da Sé a place with large numbers of street children in São Paulo. Based on the Liberation Theology and on the pedagogies developed by Paulo Freire, Celestine Freinet, Anton Makarenko, and Emília Ferreiro, the street educators developed a conceptual field and participated in the promulgation of the 1988 Federal Constitution, particularly by writing and introducing the 'Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente' (the 'Child and Adolescent Statute'). Street social education is currently latent and suffering the consequences of program discontinuity caused by successive changes of government. It is, therefore important to know the conceptual proposals.

  15. The on-street parking premium and car drivers' choice between street and garage parking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobus, M.B.W.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.; Rietveld, P.; van Ommeren, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a methodology to estimate the effect of parking prices on car drivers' choice between street and garage parking. Our key identifying assumption is that the marginal benefit of parking duration does not depend on this choice. The endogeneity of parking duration is acknowledged in the

  16. The Ballet of the Streets: Teaching about Cities at Street Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick A.; Spates, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The urban scholar Jane Jacobs once described city life as "the ballet of the streets." In more than a quarter century of joint teaching, the authors have used Jacobs' metaphor to help their students understand that cities are living organisms created and maintained, for good or ill, by the people who live and work in them. At heart their…

  17. [Addictive behavior of street children: interculturation and resilience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommegne, T; Denoux, P; Bernoussi, A; Njiengwe, E F

    2014-09-01

    This research belongs to a more comprehensive study on the care of street children in Cameroon. The idea is to develop an analysis of the street pathology where symptoms such as addictive behavior and drug addiction can be found. Beside HIV AIDS, addictive behaviors are the main risk factors that many professionals have to face with while dealing with the street problems today. Through an intercultural approach, we examined the practices of addictive typology, their initiatory role and their function in the integration of the street system. We also analysed their importance in the survival strategies. After an overview of theoretical controversies that feed the debate on addictions, we questioned the impact of these practices on the street career through the prism of general theory of addictions, particularly the hedonic management model. Addiction helps to resist adversity, it helps to desist and then to begin a harmonious neo development despite the horrors of the street experience. We undertook a quantitative and qualitative study on a sample of 148 street children. We proposed to 128 of them a questionnaire focused on addictive behaviors and survival strategies in the street context. We notably evaluated the street career of 24 of them, using interviews and standardized tests to assess self-esteem (Coopersmith's SEI) frustration tolerance (Rosenweig's P-F) and self-efficacy (Sherer's SE Scale) in order to measure the impact of addictive behaviors on the resilience process. We found that the street career is essentially traumatic, and that addictive behaviors involving various integration strategies are strongly linked to the interculturation process through the identity strategies and the intercultural competences. Addiction itself is not significantly related to self-esteem issues but strongly impacts on self-efficacy and the ability to tolerate frustration. They allow the street children to withstand the street adversity but are a real obstacle to their

  18. Trees in the city: valuing street trees in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.H. Donovan; D.T. Butry

    2010-01-01

    We use a hedonic price model to simultaneously estimate the effects of street trees on the sales price and the time-on-market (TOM) of houses in Portland. Oregon. On average, street trees add $8,870 to sales price and reduce TOM by 1.7 days. In addition, we found that the benefits of street trees spill over to neighboring houses. Because the provision and maintenance...

  19. Playing With the City: Street Art and Videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Vazques Marquez, Israel; Pajares Tosca, Susana

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectator...

  20. On the escape of pollutants from urban street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, J.J.; Kim, J.J. [Kwangju Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Pollutant transport from urban street canyons is numerically investigated using a two-dimensional flow and dispersion model. The ambient wind blows perpendicular to the street and passive pollutants are released at the street level. Results from the control experiment with a street aspect ratio of 1 show that at the roof level of the street canyon, the vertical turbulent flux of pollutants is upward everywhere and the vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow is upward or downward. The horizontally integrated vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow at the roof level of the street canyon is downward and its magnitude is much smaller than that by turbulent process. These results indicate that pollutants escape from the street canyon mainly by turbulent process and that the net effect of mean flow is to make some escaped pollutants reenter the street canyon. Further experiments with different inflow turbulence intensities, inflow wind speeds, and street aspect ratio confirm the findings from the control experiment. In the case of two isolated buildings, the horizontally integrated vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow is upward due to flow separation but the other main results are the same as those from the control experiment. (author)

  1. [Street Outreach Offices: visibility, invisibility, and enhanced visibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallais, Janaína Alves da Silveira; Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2015-07-01

    This article discusses care for street people from a socio-anthropological perspective, using participant observation conducted with a team from a street outreach project. Based on observations, street people are historically viewed as marginal and rarely obtain access to health services, thus making them invisible to the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Brazil's National Policy for the Homeless provides for their access to health care, but such care is not always guaranteed in practice, because health services and professionals have little experience in dealing with homeless persons. The study concludes that enhanced visibility is needed to ensure care for people living on the street, establishing a therapeutic bond that deconstructs stigmatizing practice.

  2. Into a Mapping of Copenhagen Street Lighting 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja; Asp, Claus; Kongshaug, Jesper

    LED lighting is a new lighting component in urban Spaces. How does LED lighting change the visual experience of a street, how did it use to be and how will it become? The book presents a mapping method in which an overview map of light sources in the Copenhagen streets is combined with a video...... recording and a series of photos from a route, whick goes through different city parts and types of streets. The mapping is done in the crucial changing fase, in which the street lighting in Copenhagen is a mix of previously used light sources and LED....

  3. Smart street lighting : The advantages of LED street lighting and a smart control system in Uppsala municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Inga; Gidén Hember, Amanda; Wallerström, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to examine how LED street lights and a smart street light control system can reduce the energy consumption, costs and in extension the CO2 equivalents in a geographically delimited area. In 2015 the municipality of Sala installed LED armatures connected to a smart control system in the whole municipality. The smart control system enables for instance adjustment of the light intensity at specific times during the day and a supervision of the street light ...

  4. “I Felt Like My Life Had Been Given to Me to Start Over”: Alice Kaplan’s Language Memoir, French Lessons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleonora Rao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Alice Kaplan’s memoir French Lessons (1993 is a story that deals as much with the issue of language learning as with that of cultural belonging(s. This “language memoir,” as it is typical of this sub-genre, is an intimate tale of the transition between languages and cultures. French Lessons recounts her evolving relationship with French language and culture in various phases of her life: starting from childhood, continuing through her graduate student years at Yale and finally as professor of French at Duke. Soon, however, in this unconventional Bildung, the second language turns out to be a verbal safe-house, an instant refuge when her first language and culture happen to be too uncomfortable. Ultimately, French provides a psychic space and a hiding place. Ultimately, however, as Derrida has shown, we are alienated from both the first and the second; we find ourselves to be more comfortable in one than in the other. This essay will analyze such processes with special attention to the part played by the body in Kaplan’s building as a student and eventually as a teacher. The analysis will be linked with the text’s peculiar narrative style: fast-paced, with simple, concise sentences, nevertheless extremely effective and moving.

  5. Simulating the impacts of on-street vehicle parking on traffic operations on urban streets using cellular automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingxu; Li, Zhibin; Jiang, Hang; Zhu, Senlai; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, many bicycle lanes on urban streets are replaced with vehicle parking places. Spaces for bicycle riding are reduced, resulting in changes in bicycle and vehicle operational features. The objective of this study is to estimate the impacts of on-street parking on heterogeneous traffic operation on urban streets. A cellular automaton (CA) model is developed and calibrated to simulate bicycle lane-changing on streets with on-street parking. Two types of street segments with different bicycle lane width are considered. From the simulation, two types of conflicts between bicycles and vehicles are identified which are frictional conflicts and blocking conflicts. Factors affecting the frequency of conflicts are also identified. Based on the results, vehicle delay is estimated for various traffic situations considering the range of occupancy levels for on-street parking. Later, a numerical network example is analyzed to estimate the network impact of on-street parking on traffic assignment and operation. Findings of the study are helpful to policies and design regarding on-street vehicle parking to improve the efficiency of traffic operations.

  6. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M.; Anderson, Andrew R.; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. - Highlights: • Green streets can be used for both stormwater and air quality management. • Design considerations must be made to minimize human exposure to air pollutants. • Urban vegetation can improve air quality with careful selection and placement.

  7. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Kawada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation. The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive and CARS (negative. Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive.

  8. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Ko; Yamada, Takashi; Kishimoto, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction) model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation). The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive) and CARS (negative). Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive). PMID:25379274

  9. Health policy making for street children: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Saeieh, Sara Esmaelzadeh; Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh

    2017-08-17

    Background The phenomenon of street children is a bio-psychological and social issue that not only harms children, but also endangers the health of a society. In line with the national programs for the development and promotion of street children's health in Iran, health policy making and essential strategies for this group of children will be presented in this paper. This paper will discuss the main issues and challenges of street children's health and, also, health policy and guidelines for this population. Methods In this review study, the keywords; street children, health, challenges, policy, and health policy making were searched through PubMed, SID, Iranmedex, World Health Organization (WHO), Emro, the Cochran Library, Medline and Google scholar to collect data. The search resulted in 84 related resources from which 48 cases that were more relevant to this research and covered the issue more comprehensively, were used. All data published during 2002-2015 have been included in this paper. Results Key concepts including street children and their health, health policy, strategies to improve the health of street children, health policy approaches for street children, the WHO's strategies, and social support program for street children must be considered in the health policy making processes for street children, as precise identification of the relevant information makes planning more effective in health policy making for this group of children. Conclusion The phenomenon of street children is a growing problem in the world and it has turned into a serious concern in many countries including Iran. The findings of this study can be used for identifying necessary measures in order to use research outcomes more effectively in policy making processes and reforming street children's health policies in Iran.

  10. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage...... of caseworkers emphasizing actions that are consistent with thenational employment reform goal of getting clients into jobs quickly. The influence of politicians and managers in bringing this about is relatively limited in comparison to the influences of caseworkers’ understanding of policy goals......, their professional knowledge, and their policy predispositions. Our main contribution is an unpacking of the political and managerial influences on caseworkers’ policy emphases. We find direct effects and, more notably, indirect effects that operate on the influence of caseworkers’ perceptions of policy goals...

  11. The digital evolution of occupy wall street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Michael D; Ferrara, Emilio; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation from a set of highly interconnected users with pre-existing interests in domestic politics and foreign social movements. These users, while highly vocal in the months immediately following the birth of the movement, appear to have lost interest in Occupy related communication over the remainder of the study period.

  12. Technology transfer, a two-way street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Technology transfer through the Pollution Prevention ampersand Control Conferences, which have been cosponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and by the professional societies of industry, greatly improved the environmental projects of the Department of Energy at Savannah River Site (SRS) in the mid-1980's. Those technologies, used in the liquid effluent treatment of the metal finishing liquid effluents from aluminum cleaning and nickel plating of fuel and targets for the nuclear production reactors, have been enhanced by the research and development of SRS engineers and scientists. The technology transfer has now become a two-way street to the benefit of our Nation's environment as these enhancements are being adopted in the metal finishing industry. These success stories are examples of the achievements anticipated in the 1990's as technology development in the federal facilities is shared with commercial industry

  13. The digital evolution of occupy wall street.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Conover

    Full Text Available We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation from a set of highly interconnected users with pre-existing interests in domestic politics and foreign social movements. These users, while highly vocal in the months immediately following the birth of the movement, appear to have lost interest in Occupy related communication over the remainder of the study period.

  14. Introduction. Street Art: Iconoclasm and Institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Bianchi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On the night of May 12, 2016 the street artist Blu, armed with a roller and some grey paint, set out to paint over all the works he had done in the city of Bologna. In this intent, the following day also, he was helped by activists from the community centers, his own collaborators and ordinary citizens united in an informal community that upheld his cause. Many others gathered either to celebrate this rite of destruction or to complain in disbelief, but in any case, to watch as it happened. Attention centered particularly on #OccupyMordor, a large mural that dominated the XM24 (an occupied social community center in the Bolognina district which had previously been a focus when citizens mobilized to protect it from new building projects that envisaged the destruction of the building (July 2013.

  15. Road dust emission sources and assessment of street washing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Linares, C.; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust

  16. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  17. INTRODUCTION The term street children has many definitions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this, the still schooling street children in this study may likely have gravitated to the streets due to the lack of recreational facilities to keep youths occupied after school hours in the rural areas. As at the time of study, no amusement parks, cinemas and other recreational places exists in the Local Government Area. It is known.

  18. Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine ...

  19. Adolescent Street Boy Urchins and Vocational Training in Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2009-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, over 80% of the unskilled and uneducated adolescent street boys, or "Almajiris", are from the ethnic Hausa-Fulani tribes. They depend on street begging and menial jobs for daily survival. In dealing with the situation, state vocational centers were established as the Millennium Hope Project (MHP) to provide the boys…

  20. Gender Differences in the Family Situation of Brazilian Street Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S. H.; Reppold, C.; Kuschick, M.; Krum, F.; Bandeira, D.; Simoes, C.

    The goal of this analysis was to examine gender differences in the experiences of children and adolescents found on city streets. It has been proposed that girls who leave home to seek their survival on city streets are from more disturbed families than boys, reflecting cultural factors that result in differential norms for male and female…

  1. Green Street in District of Columbia Curbs Harmful Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    The name of the block hasn’t been changed to “Oh!” Street, but a revamped section of O Street NW in the District of Columbia is turning heads with green features that are keeping stormwater pollution out of the Anacostia River.

  2. HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents in rehabilitation centres in Kinshasa; DRC: gender differences. ... Background: Street children, common in Africa, are increasingly vulnerable to alcohol and drugs of abuse and lack access to both healthcare and knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Hence, this ...

  3. Land Use Correlates of Street Children in Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There exist many locations in which street children are found: public spheres such as markets, bus stops, car parks, garages, street corners, and under the bridges .... attributes of space such as form, pattern and aspect and are descriptive in ...

  4. 77 FR 67689 - Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ...] Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.; Notice of Application November 6, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and... arrangements (``Prior Order'').\\1\\ \\1\\ Colchester Street Trust, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos... Trust, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos. 23787 (Apr. 15, 1999) (notice) and 23831 (May 11...

  5. A Semiotic Reading and Discourse Analysis of Postmodern Street Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Postmodern street art operates under a set of references that requires art educators and researchers to adopt alternative analytical frameworks in order to understand its meanings. In this article, we describe social semiotics, critical discourse analysis, and postmodern street performance as well as the relevance of the former two in interpreting…

  6. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  7. Hygiene practices among street food vendors in Tamale Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study noted that street food business in the Tamale Metropolis was women dominated (76%). Majority of vendors (78%) were aged 20-39 years. Public toilets (pit latrines) were accessible to all vending sites. Though high number of street food vendors had some form of formal education (66%) and knowledge of food ...

  8. Detecting Themed Streets Using a Location Based Service Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeongsuk Ji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Various themed streets have recently been developed by local governments in order to stimulate local economies and to establish the identity of the corresponding places. However, the motivations behind the development of some of these themed street projects has been based on profit, without full considerations of people’s perceptions of their local areas, resulting in marginal effects on the local economies concerned. In response to this issue, this study proposed a themed street clustering method to detect the themed streets of a specific region, focusing on the commercial themed street, which is more prevalent than other types of themed streets using location based service data. This study especially uses “the street segment” as a basic unit for analysis. The Sillim and Gangnam areas of Seoul, South Korea were chosen for the evaluation of the adequacy of the proposed method. By comparing trade areas that were sourced from a market analysis report by a reliable agent with the themed streets detected in this study, the experiment results showed high proficiency of the proposed method.

  9. An Assessment of the Emerging Networks of Support for Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria, being asignatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC, 1989) promulgated the Child Rights Act 2003, which aimed at ameliorating the condition of street children in Nigeria. In line with this, there are emerging networks of support for street children. The extent to which these support networks are ...

  10. Poverty alleviation from the perspective of street vendors in Lesoth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper was to examine from the perspective of street vendors how they are fighting poverty and the extent of winning this endemic cankerworm. The findings of this paper are informed by a study carried in 2007 on poverty and street vendors in Lesotho. Questionnaires and focus group discussions were used ...

  11. Designing safe and inclusive streets in India | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-17

    Nov 17, 2016 ... In fast-growing Indian cities such as Ahmedabad, streets are also the site of conflict. ... while instances of violence against women are partly linked to land ... by poor street design, and to develop people-centred alternatives.

  12. Health problems of street children and women in Awassa, Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The number of street children and women in major towns of Ethiopia is rapidly increasing. Yet their problems have not been fully studied. Objective: To assess health and related problems in street children and women. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted in Awassa town, women southern ...

  13. Quality Analysis of Open Street Map Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Li, Q.; Hu, Q.; Zhou, M.

    2013-05-01

    Crowd sourcing geographic data is an opensource geographic data which is contributed by lots of non-professionals and provided to the public. The typical crowd sourcing geographic data contains GPS track data like OpenStreetMap, collaborative map data like Wikimapia, social websites like Twitter and Facebook, POI signed by Jiepang user and so on. These data will provide canonical geographic information for pubic after treatment. As compared with conventional geographic data collection and update method, the crowd sourcing geographic data from the non-professional has characteristics or advantages of large data volume, high currency, abundance information and low cost and becomes a research hotspot of international geographic information science in the recent years. Large volume crowd sourcing geographic data with high currency provides a new solution for geospatial database updating while it need to solve the quality problem of crowd sourcing geographic data obtained from the non-professionals. In this paper, a quality analysis model for OpenStreetMap crowd sourcing geographic data is proposed. Firstly, a quality analysis framework is designed based on data characteristic analysis of OSM data. Secondly, a quality assessment model for OSM data by three different quality elements: completeness, thematic accuracy and positional accuracy is presented. Finally, take the OSM data of Wuhan for instance, the paper analyses and assesses the quality of OSM data with 2011 version of navigation map for reference. The result shows that the high-level roads and urban traffic network of OSM data has a high positional accuracy and completeness so that these OSM data can be used for updating of urban road network database.

  14. Street canyon aerosol pollutant transport measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, I D; Gallagher, M W; Dorsey, J R; Flynn, M; Bower, K N; Allan, J D

    2004-12-01

    Current understanding of dispersion in street canyons is largely derived from relatively simple dispersion models. Such models are increasingly used in planning and regulation capacities but are based upon a limited understanding of the transport of substances within a real canyon. In recent years, some efforts have been made to numerically model localised flow in idealised canyons (e.g., J. Appl. Meteorol. 38 (1999) 1576-89) and stepped canyons (Assimakopoulos V. Numerical modelling of dispersion of atmospheric pollution in and above urban canopies. PhD thesis, Imperial College, London, 2001) but field studies in real canyons are rare. To further such an understanding, a measurement campaign has been conducted in an asymmetric street canyon with busy one-way traffic in central Manchester in northern England. The eddy correlation method was used to determine fluxes of size-segregated accumulation mode aerosol. Measurements of aerosol at a static location were made concurrently with measurements on a platform lift giving vertical profiles. Size-segregated measurements of ultrafine and coarse particle concentrations were also made simultaneously at various heights. In addition, a small mobile system was used to make measurements of turbulence at various pavement locations within the canyon. From this data, various features of turbulent transport and dispersion in the canyon will be presented. The concentration and the ventilation fluxes of vehicle-related aerosol pollutants from the canyon will be related to controlling factors. The results will also be compared with citywide ventilation data from a separate measurement campaign conducted above the urban canopy.

  15. Street-level Bureaucracy and Social Policy in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nilson do Rosário

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the Brazilian central government bureaucracy and people with disabilities' access to the Continuous Cash Benefit (BPC). This access depends on the Ministry of Social Security bureaucracy's evaluation of the condition of vulnerability. We performed a literature review, analysis of secondary data from time series and cross-sectional data to describe street-level federal bureaucracy. Legal documents and indicators describe the expert evaluation regimen of the Ministry of Social Security (MPS). This paper shows the uneven growth of the number of career public servants of the central government in the last two decades. The Brazilian central government has adopted the international concept of person with disabilities in the evaluation of BPC applicants. Despite this decision, it is shown that the Brazilian central government expanded selectively the career bureaucracy to work in the social area. It was found that the result of the evaluation process was quite strict, favoring applicants in conditions of extreme biomedical vulnerability. Despite adopting the social model, BPC eligibility is tied to medical diagnosis.

  16. The Education Rights of Street-Involved Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Grover

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of certain key aspects of the practical and legal situation of street-involved children globally. The inadequate protection of these children under both domestic and international law is addressed. The diversity of the population of street-involved children is considered as is the fact that this group is composed of both legally stateless and de facto stateless children. The relationship of street involvement to child labor, various health risks and victimization is discussed. The educational needs of older street-involved children are addressed including their right to participate in decision-making regarding aspects of educational service design and delivery. The overall objective of this paper is to encourage those who are involved in, or could impact upon educational policy to include street-involved children in their educational planning implementation and advocacy efforts.

  17. Edward Teller Biographical Memoir

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libby, S B; Sessler, A M

    2009-07-27

    Edward Teller died on September 9, 2003 in Stanford, California at the age of 95. He was both one of the great theoretical physicists of the twentieth century and a leading figure in the development of nuclear weapons and broader defense advocacy. Teller's work in physics, spanning many decades of the twentieth century, includes some of the most fundamental insights in the quantum behaviors of molecules and their spectra, nuclei, surfaces, solid state and spin systems, and plasmas. In the defense arena, Teller is best known for his key insight that made thermonuclear weapons possible. Teller was both a great scientific collaborator and physics teacher at all levels, known for his openness, generosity, personal warmth, and powerful physical intuition. Many of his graduate students went on to illustrious careers.

  18. Memoirs of Eileen Richardson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Richardson, Eileen

    2010-01-01

    Bournemouthi Ülikooli professor Eileen Richardson projektist ”Inequalities in access to rural communities”, mis on mõeldud Kanada ja Euroopa tervishoiuerialade tudengitele ning mille eesmärgiks on edendada erinevate tervishoiuerialade tudengite vahetust, rajada õpetlaste ja töötavate tervishoiuspetsialistide võrgustik arendamaks välja ühised õppekavad ja juhendid. Projektiga ühines ka Tallinna Tervishoiu Kõrgkool

  19. Road and Street Centerlines, StreetLabels-The data set is a text feature consisting of 6329 label points representing street names. It was created to show the names of city and county based streets., Published in 1989, Davis County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road and Street Centerlines dataset current as of 1989. StreetLabels-The data set is a text feature consisting of 6329 label points representing street names. It was...

  20. Lung cancer risk assessment due to traffic-generated particles exposure in urban street canyons: A numerical modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scungio, M; Stabile, L; Rizza, V; Pacitto, A; Russi, A; Buonanno, G

    2018-08-01

    Combustion-generated nanoparticles are responsible for negative health effects due to their ability to penetrate in the lungs, carrying toxic compounds with them. In urban areas, the coexistence of nanoparticle sources and particular street-building configurations can lead to very high particle exposure levels. In the present paper, an innovative approach for the evaluation of lung cancer incidence in street canyon due to exposure to traffic-generated particles was proposed. To this end, the literature-available values of particulate matter, PAHs and heavy metals emitted from different kind of vehicles were used to calculate the Excess Lifetime Cancer Risk (ELCR) at the tailpipe. The estimated ELCR was then used as input data in a numerical CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) model that solves the mass, momentum, turbulence and species transport equations, in order to evaluate the cancer risk in every point of interest inside the street canyon. Thus, the influence of wind speed and street canyon geometry (H/W, height of building, H and width of the street, W) on the ELCR at street level was evaluated by means of a CFD simulation. It was found that the ELCR calculated on the leeward and windward sides of the street canyon at a breathable height of 1.5 m, for people exposed 15 min per day for 20 years, is equal to 1.5 × 10 -5 and 4.8 × 10 -6 , respectively, for wind speed of 1 m/s and H/W equal to 1. The ELCR at street level results higher on the leeward side for aspect ratios equal to 1 and 3, while for aspect ratio equal to 2 it is higher on the windward side. In addition, the simulations showed that with the increasing of wind speed the ELCR becomes lower everywhere in the street canyon, due to the increased in dispersion. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Childcare needs of female street vendors in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, P; Zetina, A; Tapia, M; Ortiz, C; Soto, I C

    1996-06-01

    This article reports on strategies developed by female street vendors (vendedoras ambulantes) in Mexico City to ensure the care of their young children in the absence of a specific and operational government policy to fulfil this need. The information concerning child care and health was gathered by a survey of 426 street traders selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling in four of the administrative districts (delegaciones politicas) of Mexico City during 1990. It was found that, as mothers of young children, street vendors most frequently looked after their children personally on the street or left them with other members of the family. Related factors were availability of alternative child care providers in the family, the age of the children and working conditions of the mother. Children who remained on the streets with their mothers suffered more frequently from gastro-intestinal diseases and accidents than the national average. The incidence of acute respiratory diseases, however, was similar in the cases of maternal care in the street and care by family members in another environment. Existing public health measures show a greater concern for the health of food consumers than that of workers in this area. Current public policy seeks to regulate street vending activities and to concentrate traders in ad hoc areas and facilities. Our research results document the need for actions that can contribute to an improvement in the care and health conditions of these young children.

  2. Using Latent Semantic Analysis to Identify Research Trends in OpenStreetMap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhjit Singh Sehra

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available OpenStreetMap (OSM, based on collaborative mapping, has become a subject of great interest to the academic community, resulting in a considerable body of literature produced by many researchers. In this paper, we use Latent Semantic Analysis (LSA to help identify the emerging research trends in OSM. An extensive corpus of 485 academic abstracts of papers published during the period 2007–2016 was used. Five core research areas and fifty research trends were identified in this study. In addition, potential future research directions have been provided to aid geospatial information scientists, technologists and researchers in undertaking future OSM research.

  3. Assessing Species Distribution Using Google Street View: A Pilot Study with the Pine Processionary Moth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekri, Anissa; Garcia, Jacques; Goussard, Francis; Vincent, Bruno; Denux, Olivier; Robinet, Christelle; Dorkeld, Franck; Roques, Alain; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Mapping species spatial distribution using spatial inference and prediction requires a lot of data. Occurrence data are generally not easily available from the literature and are very time-consuming to collect in the field. For that reason, we designed a survey to explore to which extent large-scale databases such as Google maps and Google street view could be used to derive valid occurrence data. We worked with the Pine Processionary Moth (PPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa because the larvae of that moth build silk nests that are easily visible. The presence of the species at one location can therefore be inferred from visual records derived from the panoramic views available from Google street view. We designed a standardized procedure allowing evaluating the presence of the PPM on a sampling grid covering the landscape under study. The outputs were compared to field data. We investigated two landscapes using grids of different extent and mesh size. Data derived from Google street view were highly similar to field data in the large-scale analysis based on a square grid with a mesh of 16 km (96% of matching records). Using a 2 km mesh size led to a strong divergence between field and Google-derived data (46% of matching records). We conclude that Google database might provide useful occurrence data for mapping the distribution of species which presence can be visually evaluated such as the PPM. However, the accuracy of the output strongly depends on the spatial scales considered and on the sampling grid used. Other factors such as the coverage of Google street view network with regards to sampling grid size and the spatial distribution of host trees with regards to road network may also be determinant. PMID:24130675

  4. Assessing species distribution using Google Street View: a pilot study with the Pine Processionary Moth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousselet, Jérôme; Imbert, Charles-Edouard; Dekri, Anissa; Garcia, Jacques; Goussard, Francis; Vincent, Bruno; Denux, Olivier; Robinet, Christelle; Dorkeld, Franck; Roques, Alain; Rossi, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Mapping species spatial distribution using spatial inference and prediction requires a lot of data. Occurrence data are generally not easily available from the literature and are very time-consuming to collect in the field. For that reason, we designed a survey to explore to which extent large-scale databases such as Google maps and Google Street View could be used to derive valid occurrence data. We worked with the Pine Processionary Moth (PPM) Thaumetopoea pityocampa because the larvae of that moth build silk nests that are easily visible. The presence of the species at one location can therefore be inferred from visual records derived from the panoramic views available from Google Street View. We designed a standardized procedure allowing evaluating the presence of the PPM on a sampling grid covering the landscape under study. The outputs were compared to field data. We investigated two landscapes using grids of different extent and mesh size. Data derived from Google Street View were highly similar to field data in the large-scale analysis based on a square grid with a mesh of 16 km (96% of matching records). Using a 2 km mesh size led to a strong divergence between field and Google-derived data (46% of matching records). We conclude that Google database might provide useful occurrence data for mapping the distribution of species which presence can be visually evaluated such as the PPM. However, the accuracy of the output strongly depends on the spatial scales considered and on the sampling grid used. Other factors such as the coverage of Google Street View network with regards to sampling grid size and the spatial distribution of host trees with regards to road network may also be determinant.

  5. A Solution for Street Lighting in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart Cities is a domain of great interest in the modern society. The aim of a smart urban environment is to increase citizens’ comfort and quality of life with minimum resources and power consumption and without affecting the natural environment. Street lighting is one of the main interests in such a smart environment. This thesis focuses on implementing a lighting control system that makes street lighting to be an autonomous and efficient part of the urban environment. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed using an OMNET++ network simulation. The results lead to the conclusion that the smart control system improves some drawbacks of a classic street lighting system.

  6. Playing With the City: Street Art and Videogames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazques Marquez, Israel; Pajares Tosca, Susana

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact...... that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectators, who are invited to play in symbolic ways that actualize nostalgic memories of gaming and can be related...

  7. Street vending and informal economy: Survey data from Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Lina M; Estrada, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    This data brief describes data collected in Cali, Colombia about the economic dynamic and socioeconomic conditions of street vendors in the city. The study was conducted between 2014 and 2016 in two populated sites in terms of formal and informal commerce in the city. We present the methodology followed in the study, location of street vending sites and type of data collected to approximate to the economic dimension of street vending. Data collected contains information about sociodemographic characteristics, life satisfaction, business operation and characteristics, income and expenses, official license for operation. This information is linked to the publication (Martinez et al., 2017) [1].

  8. Street canyon ventilation control by proper planning and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakin Vladimir Vasil'evich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of street canyon ventilation control in major streets is a tool of air pollution prevention in them, protection of housing areas from excessive wind or preservation and intensification of existing wind speed in case of insufficient ventilation. The maximum permissible concentration of car exhaust pollutants with wind speed within comfortable and permissible values by physiological and hygienic criteria, are ensured as from 40 to 70 % of thoroughfares in major cities. The dependence of air pollution level on wind speed is comparable to its dependence on traffic intensity and ratio of buildings height (H to street width. But one has to take into account that, if the wind blows across the street, vortices form within the street canyon, which results in higher concentration of car exhaust pollutants near the downwind buildings. The objective of this work is to find the functional dependences of wind speed in a major street on its width and density of buildings, and also to find out which street configurations are favorable for formation of closed air circulation within it, resulting in insufficient aeration. The experimental research was done on a site for large-scale modeling of built-up urban territory, using cup anemometers. The coefficients of dependence of wind speed within a street on the types of buildings and on the street width were obtained. Characteristics of street layouts for control of aeration were determined. Building density rates for maximizing or optimizing the wind speed were determined. Street layouts are considered where stable vortices form between the buildings. For example, vortices within the street canyon’s cross-section appear when buildings squarish in ground plan situated far apart are replaced by oblong ones with the minimum allowed intervals of 15 meters between them (for 5-storeyed buildings; or intervals equal to the buildings’ height, or where the buildings are long and close together. With

  9. The great problems are in the street : a phenomonology of men's stranger intrusions on women in public spaces

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Fiona Vera

    2014-01-01

    This thesis contributes new and unique evidence to the limited body of empirical literature on men’s stranger intrusion in public space, commonly termed ‘street harassment’, through a transdisciplinary study bringing a philosophical framework to the study of violence against women and girls (VAWG). Analysis of 50 women’s accounts given during a three stage research process is presented, alongside the development of a theoretical framework combining feminist approaches to VAWG with the gendere...

  10. 拆迁普店街:二十世纪末中国都市小说中摧毁和复兴主题的含混 (Bulldozing Pudian Street: Destruction or Renewal? Ambiguities in Big City Novels in Late 20th Century Chinese Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia Li

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is little doubt that the most cogent literary representation of the experience of modernity has been realised in big city fiction and cinematographic masterpieces such as Fritz Lang's Metropolis (1926. Despite the formal and aesthetic incompatability of early twentieth century (predominantly Western works of this literary genre and more recent ones, East and West, the underlying dialectic tension between progressive optimism and disorientation, existential up-rootedness, alienation and angst (Rilke's loss of soul as archetypal manifestation of mega-city reality and its social structure and organisation, constitutes a generic hallmark, regardless of time and place. Significantly, the relevance of this problem is reinforced, theoretically and practically, by the eminent scholar and architect Rem Koolhaas whose reflections have China as a principal reference point of the global "out-of-control process of modernisation". This paper focuses on the literary representation of the complexity and universality of the problem and the social implications of the blurred and ambiguous vision of urban reality with particular reference to contemporary Chinese literature.

  11. A bicycle safety index for evaluating urban street facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Shekari, Zohreh; Moeinaddini, Mehdi; Zaly Shah, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to conceptualize the Bicycle Safety Index (BSI) that considers all parts of the street and to propose a universal guideline with microscale details. A point system method comparing existing safety facilities to a defined standard is proposed to estimate the BSI. Two streets in Singapore and Malaysia are chosen to examine this model. The majority of previous measurements to evaluate street conditions for cyclists usually cannot cover all parts of streets, including segments and intersections. Previous models also did not consider all safety indicators and cycling facilities at a microlevel in particular. This study introduces a new concept of a practical BSI to complete previous studies using its practical, easy-to-follow, point system-based outputs. This practical model can be used in different urban settings to estimate the level of safety for cycling and suggest some improvements based on the standards.

  12. Street Littering in Nigerian Towns: towards a Framework for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    behaviour certainly affects everyone's quality of life, gives a visitor a bad first impression and .... sex, education level, occupation, effects of littering, etc.). Levels of .... creams, bananas, junk food, etc) along the streets than older people, as the.

  13. Relationships as determinants of substance use amongst street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stress, peer relationships and frequency of family meals.7,8,9,10 Amongst ... students with the fewest peer interaction problems.12 Furthermore, the ..... substance use among street children in a local government area of Nigeria: Drug and.

  14. Procedures for waste management from street sweeping and stormwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Street sweeping and storm water system cleaning activities are conducted regularly by ODOT to comply with NPDES permit requirements and to ensure roadway safety. Once collected, these materials are classified as solid waste and require cost-effective...

  15. demographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-05-14

    May 14, 2012 ... Teaching Hospital Nnewi,. Anambra State .... formed consent obtained before interview. A semi- structured .... obtaining a higher education if given the opportunity. Another 18 .... differences in Brazilian street youth's family ...

  16. Street Harassment in Cairo: A Symptom of Disintegrating Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... and contextualize street harassment as a social phenomenon and secondly ..... incidents, which were widely reported in the media, spurred many dis- ... impact on the general economic development of Egypt and on the tourist.

  17. Evaluation of complete streets policy implementation by metropolitan planning organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Over the last ten years, communities around the country have begun to implement comprehensive reforms : designed to ensure that roadway users of all ages and abilities can safely utilize the transportation system. : This complete streets policy frame...

  18. Drivers willingness to pay progressive rate for street parking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This study finds willingness to pay and price elasticity for on-street parking demand using stated : preference data obtained from 238 respondents. Descriptive, statistical and economic analyses including : regression, generalized linear model, and f...

  19. Implementing a Dynamic Street-Children's Program: Successes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dynamic street children's program in Mzuzu Malawi – using a developmental ... dynamics of parentchild, parent-parent and child-parent-environment; life-events; ... of child and adolescent development, and how they can influence the child's ...

  20. Characterization of Residuals Collected from Street Sweeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Street sweeping is a routine roadway maintenance activity conducted by the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT). It also provides an added benefit as a non-structural stormwater best management practice implemented by VDOT to meet total maxim...

  1. Analysis of local scale tree-atmosphere interaction on pollutant concentration in idealized street canyons and application to a real urban junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Salim, Salim Mohamed; Leo, Laura Sandra; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Chan, Andrew; Ielpo, Pierina; de Gennaro, Gianluigi; Gromke, Christof

    2011-03-01

    This paper first discusses the aerodynamic effects of trees on local scale flow and pollutant concentration in idealized street canyon configurations by means of laboratory experiments and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). These analyses are then used as a reference modelling study for the extension a the neighbourhood scale by investigating a real urban junction of a medium size city in southern Italy. A comparison with previous investigations shows that street-level concentrations crucially depend on the wind direction and street canyon aspect ratio W/H (with W and H the width and the height of buildings, respectively) rather than on tree crown porosity and stand density. It is usually assumed in the literature that larger concentrations are associated with perpendicular approaching wind. In this study, we demonstrate that while for tree-free street canyons under inclined wind directions the larger the aspect ratio the lower the street-level concentration, in presence of trees the expected reduction of street-level concentration with aspect ratio is less pronounced. Observations made for the idealized street canyons are re-interpreted in real case scenario focusing on the neighbourhood scale in proximity of a complex urban junction formed by street canyons of similar aspect ratios as those investigated in the laboratory. The aim is to show the combined influence of building morphology and vegetation on flow and dispersion and to assess the effect of vegetation on local concentration levels. To this aim, CFD simulations for two typical winter/spring days show that trees contribute to alter the local flow and act to trap pollutants. This preliminary study indicates that failing to account for the presence of vegetation, as typically practiced in most operational dispersion models, would result in non-negligible errors in the predictions.

  2. Impact of traffic volume and composition on the air quality and pedestrian exposure in urban street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakowska, Agata; Wong, Ka Chun; Townsend, Thomas; Chan, Ka Lok; Westerdahl, Dane; Ng, Simon; Močnik, Griša; Drinovec, Luka; Ning, Zhi

    2014-12-01

    Vehicle emissions are identified as a major source of air pollution in metropolitan areas. Emission control programs in many cities have been implemented as part of larger scale transport policy interventions to control traffic pollutants and reduce public health risks. These interventions include provision of traffic-free and low emission zones and congestion charging. Various studies have investigated the impact of urban street configurations, such as street canyon in urban centers, on pollutants dispersion and roadside air quality. However, there are few investigations in the literature to study the impact of change of fleet composition and street canyon effects on the on-road pollutants concentrations and associated roadside pedestrian exposure to the pollutants. This study presents an experimental investigation on the traffic related gas and particle pollutants in and near major streets in one of the most developed business districts in Hong Kong, known as Central. Both street canyon and open roadway configurations were included in the study design. Mobile measurement techniques were deployed to monitor both on-road and roadside pollutants concentrations at different times of the day and on different days of a week. Multiple traffic counting points were also established to concurrently collect data on traffic volume and fleet composition on individual streets. Street canyon effects were evident with elevated on-road pollutants concentrations. Diesel vehicles were found to be associated with observed pollutant levels. Roadside black carbon concentrations were found to correlate with their on-road levels but with reduced concentrations. However, ultrafine particles showed very high concentrations in roadside environment with almost unity of roadside/on-road ratios possibly due to the accumulation of primary emissions and secondary PM formation. The results from the study provide useful information for the effective urban transport design and bus route

  3. A street rubbish detection algorithm based on Sift and RCNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, XiPeng; Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Ting

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a street rubbish detection algorithm based on image registration with Sift feature and RCNN. Firstly, obtain the rubbish region proposal on the real-time street image and set up the CNN convolution neural network trained by the rubbish samples set consists of rubbish and non-rubbish images; Secondly, for every clean street image, obtain the Sift feature and do image registration with the real-time street image to obtain the differential image, the differential image filters a lot of background information, obtain the rubbish region proposal rect where the rubbish may appear on the differential image by the selective search algorithm. Then, the CNN model is used to detect the image pixel data in each of the region proposal on the real-time street image. According to the output vector of the CNN, it is judged whether the rubbish is in the region proposal or not. If it is rubbish, the region proposal on the real-time street image is marked. This algorithm avoids the large number of false detection caused by the detection on the whole image because the CNN is used to identify the image only in the region proposal on the real-time street image that may appear rubbish. Different from the traditional object detection algorithm based on the region proposal, the region proposal is obtained on the differential image not whole real-time street image, and the number of the invalid region proposal is greatly reduced. The algorithm has the high mean average precision (mAP).

  4. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The City of Detroit is in the midst of a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing HPS sources to LED. This report provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far — and contains useful information about issues that arise during large-scale LED street lighting projects.

  5. A Solution for Street Lighting in Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    M. Popa; A. Marcu

    2012-01-01

    Smart Cities is a domain of great interest in the modern society. The aim of a smart urban environment is to increase citizens’ comfort and quality of life with minimum resources and power consumption and without affecting the natural environment. Street lighting is one of the main interests in such a smart environment. This thesis focuses on implementing a lighting control system that makes street lighting to be an autonomous and efficient part of the urban environment. The performance of th...

  6. Structure, function and value of street trees in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Natalie van Doorn; John de Goede

    2016-01-01

    This study compiled recent inventory data from 929,823 street trees in 50 cities to determine trends in tree number and density, identify priority investments and create baseline data against which the efficacy of future practices can be evaluated. The number of street trees increased from 5.9 million in 1988 to 9.1 million in 2014, about one for every four residents....

  7. Street trees reduce the negative effects of urbanization on birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, João Carlos de Castro; Martello, Felipe; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Armitage, Richard A; Young, Robert J; Rodrigues, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    The effects of streets on biodiversity is an important aspect of urban ecology, but it has been neglected worldwide. Several vegetation attributes (e.g. street tree density and diversity) have important effects on biodiversity and ecological processes. In this study, we evaluated the influences of urban vegetation-represented by characteristics of street trees (canopy size, proportion of native tree species and tree species richness)-and characteristics of the landscape (distance to parks and vegetation quantity), and human impacts (human population size and exposure to noise) on taxonomic data and functional diversity indices of the bird community inhabiting streets. The study area was the southern region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil), a largely urbanized city in the understudied Neotropical region. Bird data were collected on 60 point count locations distributed across the streets of the landscape. We used a series of competing GLM models (using Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes) to assess the relative contribution of the different sets of variables to explain the observed patterns. Seventy-three bird species were observed exploiting the streets: native species were the most abundant and frequent throughout this landscape. The bird community's functional richness and Rao's Quadratic Entropy presented values lower than 0.5. Therefore, this landscape was favoring few functional traits. Exposure to noise was the most limiting factor for this bird community. However, the average size of arboreal patches and, especially the characteristics of street trees, were able to reduce the negative effects of noise on the bird community. These results show the importance of adequately planning the urban afforestation process: increasing tree species richness, preserving large trees and planting more native trees species in the streets are management practices that will increase bird species richness, abundance and community functional aspects and

  8. Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?

    OpenAIRE

    Mensah, Patience; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Owusu-Darko, Kwaku; Ablordey, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined...

  9. Urban street structure and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Villaveces, Andres

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports the influence of road type and junction density on road traffic fatality rates in U.S. cities. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) files were used to obtain fatality rates for all cities for the years 2005-2010. A stratified random sample of 16 U.S. cities was taken, and cities with high and low road traffic fatality rates were compared on their road layout details (TIGER maps were used). Statistical analysis was done to determine the effect of junction density and road type on road traffic fatality rates. The analysis of road network and road traffic crash fatality rates in these randomly selected U.S. cities shows that, (a) higher number of junctions per road length was significantly associated with a lower motor- vehicle crash and pedestrian mortality rates, and, (b) increased number of kilometers of roads of any kind was associated with higher fatality rates, but an additional kilometer of main arterial road was associated with a significantly higher increase in total fatalities. When compared to non-arterial roads, the higher the ratio of highways and main arterial roads, there was an association with higher fatality rates. These results have important implications for road safety professionals. They suggest that once the road and street structure is put in place, that will influence whether a city has low or high traffic fatality rates. A city with higher proportion of wider roads and large city blocks will tend to have higher traffic fatality rates, and therefore in turn require much more efforts in police enforcement and other road safety measures. Urban planners need to know that smaller block size with relatively less wide roads will result in lower traffic fatality rates and this needs to be incorporated at the planning stage. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. [Effect of greenbelt on pollutant dispersion in street canyon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Jia; Xing, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2012-02-01

    The effect feature of greenbelt on flow field and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyon was researched. The greenbelt was assumed as uniform porous media and its aerodynamics property defined by the pressure loss coefficient. Subsequently, the pollutant dispersion in the street canyon of which there was greenbelt in the middle was simulated with the steady-state standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model and species transport equation. The simulated results agreed well with the wind-tunnel data. Compared with the treeless case, it finds that the street canyon contain a clockwise vortex, the pollutant concentration of the leeward was several times than the windward and the growth rate of pollutant concentration was 46.0%. The further simulation for the impact of tree crown position on the airflow and pollutant dispersion finds that the height of major vortex center in the street canyon increases with the height of tree crown and gradually closes the top of windward building This causes that the average wind speed in the street canyon decreases. Especially when the top of tree crown over the roof and hinder the air flow above the street canyon, the average pollutant concentration increases with the height of tree crown rapidly.

  11. NUTRIENTS INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF STREET CHILDREN IN BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Patriasih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objectives of this research were to analyze food habits and nutrients intake, and health and nutritional status of street children. The research was carried out in the City of Bandung, West Java; Indonesia. A sample of 324 street children was selected randomly. The sample consisted of 232 boys and 92 girls. The data obtained from questionnaires. Means, standard deviation, frequency and proportion were calculated with a combination of software applications:  Microsoft Excel and Statistical Analysis System. The result showed the level of consumption adequacy did not meet the recommended dietary allowances i.e. with the shortage of 10-15%, this is an indication that the street children should be aware of their daily food consumption. The most common diseases suffered by the respondents were acute respiratory infections (ARI (47%. In addition, 22.7 % and 18.4 % of them suffered from diarrhoea and skin diseases, respectively. Blood haemoglobin status of street children shows that the incidence of anemia was 29.3%. Based on the classification of nutritional status, 42.7% and 80.4 % of street children were underweight and stunted, respectively. Key words: nutrients intake, nutritional status, street children

  12. Drug use among street children and adolescents: what helps?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yone Gonçalves de Moura

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated to frequent and heavy drug use among street children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. A sample of 2,807 street children and adolescents from the 27 Brazilian state capital cities was analyzed. A World Health Organization questionnaire for non-students was adapted for use in Brazil. Data analysis was performed using logistic regression and decision tree models. Factors inversely associated with frequent and heavy drug use were: being age nine to 11 years (OR = 0.1; school attendance (OR = 0.3; daily time (one to five hours spent on the streets (OR = 0.3 and 0.4; not sleeping on the streets (OR = 0.4; being on the streets for less than one year (OR = 0.4; maintenance of some family bonds (OR = 0.5; presence on the streets of a family member (OR = 0.6; not suffering domestic violence (OR = 0.6; being female (OR = 0.8. All of these variables were significant at the p < 0.05 level. The findings suggest that being younger, having family bonds and engagement in school are important protective factors that affect drug use among this population and should be considered in the formulation of public policies.

  13. Do suburban residents want to pay for wide streets? a survey on consumer preference and ability to afford towards wide street and on-street parking in American suburbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    All local governments in the U.S. set the street minimum width and cross-section design for local : neighborhood streets. Because local streets typically require no more than two traffic lanes (approx. 20 feet : wide), a minimum width of 26 feet or w...

  14. Competition for the Elements of the City Environment for Irkutsk’s Public Spaces: Street Furniture, Street Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Danilova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the contest «Street furniture. Street design», which was held this summer by manufacturing company «PalpNord», International research laboratory of study and design of the urban environment «Urban Planning School» and the Union of Architects of Russia. The winners and their projects are also listed in the article.

  15. Identification on the street: A field comparison of police street identifications and video line-ups in England

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Josh P.; Valentine, Tim; Memon, Amina; Roberts, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    A street identification or live show-up provides an eyewitness with an opportunity to identify a suspect shortly after a crime. In England, the majority of suspects identified are subsequently included in a video line-up for the same witness to view. In Study 1, robbery squad data from three English police forces recorded 696 crimes, the identification procedures employed and prosecution decisions. A street identification was the most frequent identification procedure, being attempted in 22.7...

  16. Different Languages, Different Emotions? Perspectives from Autobiographical Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besemeres, Mary

    2004-01-01

    Bilingual life writing offers a rare insight into the relationship between languages and emotions. This article explores ways in which some striking contemporary memoirs and novels of bilingual experience approach questions of cultural difference in emotion. The texts considered include memoirs by Eva Hoffman and Tim Parks, autobiographical…

  17. Linear capacity storage devices; Memoires lineaires a condensateurs; Linejnye kondensatornye nakopitel'nye ustrojstva; Dispositivos de almacenamiento de condensador, con caracteristicas lineales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brovchenko, V G [Ordena Lenina Institut Atomnoj Ehnergii Imeni I.V. Kurchatova AN, SSSR (Russian Federation)

    1962-04-15

    The linearity of information storage in capacitor storage circuits is discussed. The paper describes two storage circuits whose operation is linear over a wide range of output-signal amplitudes. In one of the circuits the error signal is measured by a differential amplifier and, thanks to the high amplification factor of the amplifier, good linearity is obtained. The second circuit was designed for work in the nanosecond pulse-width range. Input pulses of standard width cut off a pentode, in the anode of which there is a memory capacitor. Since the capacitor is charged from the anode supply through a current generator, the charging current remains almost constant during measurement of the capacitor voltage. The pentode has a large internal resistance so that after the end of the input pulse the magnitude of the current through the pentode is almost equal to its initial value, and the charge stored by the capacitor is remembered. The width of the information memory is limited by the output resistance of the current generator and the internal resistance (R{sub i}) of the pentode. To increase the memory width, a diode may be inserted before the capacitor. (author) [French] L'auteur examine les questions que pose la linearite du stockage des informations par des memoires a condensateurs. Il decrit deux circuits de memoires dont le fonctionntement est lineaire pour une vaste gamme d'amplitude des signaux de sortie. Dans l'un des circuits, le signal d'erreur est mesure par un amplificateur differentiel. Le coefficient d'amplification eleve permet d'obtenir une grande linearite dans le fonctionnement du dispositif. Le deuxieme circuit est construit pour des impulsions dont la duree est de l'ordre d'une nanoseconde. Les impulsions incidentes de duree normalisee bloquent la penthode, a l'anode de laquelle est dispose le condensateur de la memoire. Comme le condensateur est charge par' une alimentation anodique au moyen d'une generatrice electrique, le courant de chargement

  18. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were che...

  19. Street art a jeho vliv na současnou českou malbu

    OpenAIRE

    Grabmüllerová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Street Art and Its Influence on Contemporary Czech Painting Street art as a concept refers to an artistic expression, which is, however, not defined by one homogenous technique or subject. The only attribute that conjoins the diverse forms and subjects of street art is a very specific urban area utilization. Although street art encompasses many diverse forms and techniques, the most prevalent ones are sticker art, street posters art, stencil graffiti, murals, traditional graffiti artwork, art...

  20. POLE-LIKE STREET FURNITURE DECOMPOSTION IN MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A nove...

  1. Dispersion and photochemical evolution of reactive pollutants in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Baik, Jong-Jin; Lee, Kwang-Yeon

    2013-05-01

    Dispersion and photochemical evolution of reactive pollutants in street canyons with canyon aspect ratios of 1 and 2 are investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model coupled with the carbon bond mechanism IV (CBM-IV). Photochemical ages of NOx and VOC are expressed as a function of the NO2-to-NOx and toluene-to-xylene ratios, respectively. These are found to be useful for analyzing the O3 and OH oxidation processes in the street canyons. The OH oxidation process (O3 oxidation process) is more pronounced in the upper (lower) region of the street canyon with a canyon aspect ratio of 2, which is characterized by more (less) aged air. In the upper region of the street canyon, O3 is chemically produced as well as transported downward across the roof level, whereas O3 is chemically reduced in the lower region of the street canyon. The O3 chemical production is generally favorable when the normalized photochemical ages of NOx and VOC are larger than 0.55 and 0.28, respectively. The sensitivities of O3 chemical characteristics to NOx and VOC emission rates, photolysis rate, and ambient wind speed are examined for the lower and upper regions of the street canyon with a canyon aspect ratio of 2. The O3 concentration and the O3 chemical production rate divided by the O3 concentration increase as the NOx emission rate decreases and the VOC emission rate and photolysis rate increase. The O3 concentration is less sensitive to the ambient wind speed than to other factors considered. The relative importance of the OH oxidation process compared to the O3 oxidation process increases with increasing NOx emission rate and photolysis rate and decreasing VOC emission rate. In this study, both O3 and OH oxidation processes are found to be important in street-canyon scale chemistry. The methodology of estimating the photochemical ages can potentially be adopted to neighborhood scale chemistry.

  2. "Street Love": How Street Life Oriented U. S. Born African Men Frame Giving Back to One Another and the Local Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Yasser Arafat; Hamdi, Hanaa A.

    2009-01-01

    This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. born African men, to document how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. born African men between the ages of 16-65, frame and use "street life" as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; "Journal of Black Psychology" 34(1):3-31,…

  3. Pecan Street Grid Demonstration Program. Final technology performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-02-10

    This document represents the final Regional Demonstration Project Technical Performance Report (TPR) for Pecan Street Inc.’s (Pecan Street) Smart Grid Demonstration Program, DE-OE-0000219. Pecan Street is a 501(c)(3) smart grid/clean energy research and development organization headquartered at The University of Texas at Austin (UT). Pecan Street worked in collaboration with Austin Energy, UT, Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), the City of Austin, the Austin Chamber of Commerce and selected consultants, contractors, and vendors to take a more detailed look at the energy load of residential and small commercial properties while the power industry is undergoing modernization. The Pecan Street Smart Grid Demonstration Program signed-up over 1,000 participants who are sharing their home or businesses’s electricity consumption data with the project via green button protocols, smart meters, and/or a home energy monitoring system (HEMS). Pecan Street completed the installation of HEMS in 750 homes and 25 commercial properties. The program provided incentives to increase the installed base of roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, plug-in electric vehicles with Level 2 charging, and smart appliances. Over 200 participants within a one square mile area took advantage of Austin Energy and Pecan Street’s joint PV incentive program and installed roof-top PV as part of this project. Of these homes, 69 purchased or leased an electric vehicle through Pecan Street’s PV rebate program and received a Level 2 charger from Pecan Street. Pecan Street studied the impacts of these technologies along with a variety of consumer behavior interventions, including pricing models, real-time feedback on energy use, incentive programs, and messaging, as well as the corresponding impacts on Austin Energy’s distribution assets.The primary demonstration site was the Mueller community in Austin, Texas. The Mueller development, located less than three miles from the Texas State Capitol

  4. The use of street-level bureaucracy theory in health policy analysis in low- and middle-income countries: a meta-ethnographic synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Ermin

    2014-12-01

    This article presents a synthesis of studies that explicitly use the theory of street-level bureaucracy to illuminate health policy implementation in low- and middle-income countries. Street-level bureaucrats are frontline workers in bureaucracies, e.g. nurses, who regularly interact directly with citizens in discharging their policy implementation duties and who have some discretion over which services are offered, how services are offered and the benefits and sanctions allocated to citizens. This synthesis seeks to achieve the dual objectives of, first, reflecting on how street-level bureaucracy theory has been used in the literature and, second, providing an example of the application of the synthesis methodology of meta-ethnography to the health policy analysis literature. The article begins by outlining meta-ethnography and providing more information on the papers on which the synthesis is based. This is followed by a detailed account of how the synthesis was achieved and by an articulation of the synthesis. It then concludes with thoughts and questions on the value and relevance of the synthesis, the experience of conducting the synthesis and the partial way in which street-level bureaucracy theory has been used in the literature examined. Published by Oxford University Press in association with The London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine © The Author 2014; all rights reserved.

  5. Can activity support influence image of a street?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiami Fachrudin, Hilma

    2018-03-01

    Activity support may affect the formation of the image of a corridor and street. Form, place, and character of activity support in an area will have the function attraction and usefulness of its activities. The aim of this research is to analyze how the influence of activity support on the image of a street, in this case, Dr.Mansyur street which located in front of Universitas Sumatera Utara. Along the street, there are various activities that conducted from morning until evening. The method used is a quantitative method with observation and questionnaire techniques. A population of this study is visitors and students of architecture department from Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) with sample number is 100 respondents for visitors and 100 respondents for students. Independent variables are activity support factors that consist of the type of activity, form, color, dimension, material, position and lighting. The dependent variable is imageability by [1]. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that activity support influences image Dr. Mansyur street that has an image as a campus and culinary area and easy to identify.

  6. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STREET PATTERNS IN ISRAELI CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak OMER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Street patterns of Israeli cities were investigated by comparing three time periods of urban development: (I the late 19th century until the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948; (II 1948 until the 1980s; and (III the late 1980s until the present. These time periods are related respectively to the pre-modern, modern and late-modern urban planning approach. Representative urban street networks were examined in selected cities by means of morphological analysis of typical street pattern properties: curvature, fragmentation, connectivity, continuity and differentiation. The study results reveal significant differences between the street patterns of the three examined periods in the development of cities in Israel. The results show clearly the gradual trends in the intensification of curvature, fragmentation, complexity and hierarchical organization of street networks as well as the weakening of the network's internal and external connectivity. The implications of these changes on connectivity and spatial integration are discussed with respect to planning approaches.

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STREET PATTERNS IN ISRAELI CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak OMER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Street patterns of Israeli cities were investigated by comparing three time periods of urban development: (I the late 19th century until the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948; (II 1948 until the 1980s; and (III the late 1980s until the present. These time periods are related respectively to the pre-modern, modern and late-modern urban planning approach. Representative urban street networks were examined in selected cities by means of morphological analysis of typical street pattern properties: curvature, fragmentation, connectivity, continuity and differentiation. The study results reveal significant differences between the street patterns of the three examined periods in the development of cities in Israel. The results show clearly the gradual trends in the intensification of curvature, fragmentation, complexity and hierarchical organization of street networks as well as the weakening of the network's internal and external connectivity. The implications of these changes on connectivity and spatial integration are discussed with respect to planning approaches.

  8. Modelling the air flow in symmetric and asymmetric street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J.L.; Martin, F. [Research Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain). Fossil Fuels Dept., Numerical Simulation and Modelling Program

    2004-07-01

    In recent years a large amount of research has been conducted on urban scale and street canyon. Control of air quality inside cities is important for human health. To achieve this objective, street canyon modelling plays a significant role. Pollutant dispersion inside canyons are determined by wind flow around this complex geometry. Experimental investigations have been made by means of field measurements such as Vachon, G. et al. or wind tunnel experiences as Meroney, R.N. et al. or Kastner-Klein, P. and E.J. Plate. In many of these researches, they have used CFD models in several configurations, for instance Assimakopoulos, V.D. et al. or Sini, J.-F. et al. These models are based on a numerical resolution of Navier-Stokes equations with a turbulence closure. In this study, the aim is contribute to the understanding of air circulation inside street canyons. In order to achieve this purpose, several configurations of canyons are investigated. Two-dimensional sequences of real-scale street canyons (order to obstacles height is meters) with different features (symmetric canyons and asymmetric canyons forming step-up and step-down notch configurations) are simulated. These general configurations are modified to investigate some parameters such as aspect ratio, W/H, where W is the width of street and H is the height of buildings. Flows with high Reynolds numbers are modelling. FLUENT CFD software is used. (orig.)

  9. A qualitative enquiry into OpenStreetMap making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Wei

    2011-04-01

    Based on a case study on the OpenStreetMap community, this paper provides a contextual and embodied understanding of the user-led, user-participatory and user-generated produsage phenomenon. It employs Grounded Theory, Social Worlds Theory, and qualitative methods to illuminate and explores the produsage processes of OpenStreetMap making, and how knowledge artefacts such as maps can be collectively and collaboratively produced by a community of people, who are situated in different places around the world but engaged with the same repertoire of mapping practices. The empirical data illustrate that OpenStreetMap itself acts as a boundary object that enables actors from different social worlds to co-produce the Map through interacting with each other and negotiating the meanings of mapping, the mapping data and the Map itself. The discourses also show that unlike traditional maps that black-box cartographic knowledge and offer a single dominant perspective of cities or places, OpenStreetMap is an embodied epistemic object that embraces different world views. The paper also explores how contributors build their identities as an OpenStreetMaper alongside some other identities they have. Understanding the identity-building process helps to understand mapping as an embodied activity with emotional, cognitive and social repertoires.

  10. Trees and Streets as Drivers of Urban Stormwater Nutrient Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Benjamin D; Finlay, Jacques C; Hobbie, Sarah E

    2017-09-05

    Expansion of tree cover is a major management goal in cities because of the substantial benefits provided to people, and potentially to water quality through reduction of stormwater volume by interception. However, few studies have addressed the full range of potential impacts of trees on urban runoff, which includes deposition of nutrient-rich leaf litter onto streets connected to storm drains. We analyzed the influence of trees on stormwater nitrogen and phosphorus export across 19 urban watersheds in Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, U.S.A., and at the scale of individual streets within one residential watershed. Stormwater nutrient concentrations were highly variable across watersheds and strongly related to tree canopy over streets, especially for phosphorus. Stormwater nutrient loads were primarily related to road density, the dominant control over runoff volume. Street canopy exerted opposing effects on loading, where elevated nutrient concentrations from trees near roads outweighed the weak influence of trees on runoff reduction. These results demonstrate that vegetation near streets contributes substantially to stormwater nutrient pollution, and therefore to eutrophication of urban surface waters. Urban landscape design and management that account for trees as nutrient pollution sources could improve water quality outcomes, while allowing cities to enjoy the myriad benefits of urban forests.

  11. Neighborhood sampling: how many streets must an auditor walk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Tracy E; Cubbin, Catherine; Parmenter, Barbara; Medina, Ashley V; Lee, Rebecca E

    2010-03-12

    This study tested the representativeness of four street segment sampling protocols using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan (PEDS) in eleven neighborhoods surrounding public housing developments in Houston, TX. The following four street segment sampling protocols were used (1) all segments, both residential and arterial, contained within the 400 meter radius buffer from the center point of the housing development (the core) were compared with all segments contained between the 400 meter radius buffer and the 800 meter radius buffer (the ring); all residential segments in the core were compared with (2) 75% (3) 50% and (4) 25% samples of randomly selected residential street segments in the core. Analyses were conducted on five key variables: sidewalk presence; ratings of attractiveness and safety for walking; connectivity; and number of traffic lanes. Some differences were found when comparing all street segments, both residential and arterial, in the core to the ring. Findings suggested that sampling 25% of residential street segments within the 400 m radius of a residence sufficiently represents the pedestrian built environment. Conclusions support more cost effective environmental data collection for physical activity research.

  12. Alcohol in urban streetscapes: a comparison of the use of Google Street View and on-street observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clews, Chris; Brajkovich-Payne, Roza; Dwight, Emily; Ahmad Fauzul, Ayob; Burton, Madeleine; Carleton, Olivia; Cook, Julie; Deroles, Charlotte; Faulkner, Ruby; Furniss, Mary; Herewini, Anahera; Huband, Daymen; Jones, Nerissa; Kim, Cho Wool; Li, Alice; Lu, Jacky; Stanley, James; Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George

    2016-05-26

    Alcohol-related harm is a major global health issue, and controls on alcohol marketing are one intervention utilized by governments. This study investigated the use of Google Street View (GSV) as a novel research method for collecting alcohol-related data in the urban environment. The efficacy of GSV and on-street observation by observer teams was compared by surveying 400 m stretches of 12 streets in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. Data on alcohol sale, alcohol-related advertising, health promotion materials, regulatory information and visible alcohol consumption were collected. A total of 403 retailers with evidence of alcohol sales and 1161 items of alcohol-related communication were identified in on-street observation. Of the latter, 1028 items (89 %) were for alcohol marketing and 133 (11 %) were for alcohol-related health promotion and alcohol regulation. GSV was found to be a less sensitive tool than on-street observation with only 50 % of the alcohol venues identified and 52 % of the venue-associated brand marketing identified. A high degree of inter-observer reliability was generally found between pairs of observers e.g., for the detection of alcohol retail venues the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.78 to 0.98) for on-street observation and 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.49 to 0.96) for using GSV. GSV does not seem suitable for the comprehensive study of the influences on alcohol consumption in the urban streetscape. However, it may still have value for large, static objects in the environment and be more time efficient than traditional on-street observation measures, especially when used to collect data across a wide geographical area. Furthermore, GSV might become a more useful research tool in settings with better image quality (such as more 'footpath views') and with more regularly updated GSV imagery.

  13. Analyzing Thermal Characteristics of Urban Streets Using a Thermal Imaging Camera: A Case Study on Commercial Streets in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugie Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to continuing city growth and global warming over the past decades, urban heat island (UHI effects, referring to the phenomena wherein the ambient air temperatures in cities are higher than those in rural areas, have become a serious threat to urban populations. Impervious surfaces, buildings with low-albedo materials, and a lack of vegetated areas are the major causes of poor urban thermal environments, particularly during the summer. Previous research has focused primarily on the thermal characteristics of individual building units. Few studies consider the impact of the street-scale thermal environments on the surface temperature, which affects pedestrian thermal comfort. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal characteristics of various physical elements on urban streets using thermal imaging cameras, and present policy implications for improving pedestrian thermal comfort. This study examines street-scale thermal environments of three major commercial streets: Garosu road, Serosu road, and Narosu road, in Seoul, Korea. This study conducted field measurements both during the day and the night in June 2017 in order to investigate changes in the urban surface temperatures across time. The results show that street trees are the most effective mitigation element for reducing surface temperatures. With regard to building use types, the highest surface temperatures are typically measured near restaurant buildings. Building façades that are dark-colored or partially covered with a metal contribute to high surface temperatures. Similarly, the temperatures of artificial turf or wooden decks on urban streets are also significantly high during the daytime. The thermal characteristics of various urban street elements should be considered to reduce the surface temperature and mitigate the urban heat island effect.

  14. Vertical profiles of lung deposited surface area concentration of particulate matter measured with a drone in a street canyon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuuluvainen, Heino; Poikkimäki, Mikko; Järvinen, Anssi; Kuula, Joel; Irjala, Matti; Dal Maso, Miikka; Keskinen, Jorma; Timonen, Hilkka; Niemi, Jarkko V; Rönkkö, Topi

    2018-05-23

    The vertical profiles of lung deposited surface area (LDSA) concentration were measured in an urban street canyon in Helsinki, Finland, by using an unmanned aerial system (UAS) as a moving measurement platform. The street canyon can be classified as an avenue canyon with an aspect ratio of 0.45 and the UAS was a multirotor drone especially modified for emission measurements. In the experiments of this study, the drone was equipped with a small diffusion charge sensor capable of measuring the alveolar LDSA concentration of particles. The drone measurements were conducted during two days on the same spatial location at the kerbside of the street canyon by flying vertically from the ground level up to an altitude of 50 m clearly above the rooftop level (19 m) of the nearest buildings. The drone data were supported by simultaneous measurements and by a two-week period of measurements at nearby locations with various instruments. The results showed that the averaged LDSA concentrations decreased approximately from 60 μm 2 /cm 3 measured close to the ground level to 36-40 μm 2 /cm 3 measured close to the rooftop level of the street canyon, and further to 16-26 μm 2 /cm 3 measured at 50 m. The high-resolution measurement data enabled an accurate analysis of the functional form of vertical profiles both in the street canyon and above the rooftop level. In both of these regions, exponential fits were used and the parameters obtained from the fits were thoroughly compared to the values found in literature. The results of this study indicated that the role of turbulent mixing caused by traffic was emphasized compared to the street canyon vortex as a driving force of the dispersion. In addition, the vertical profiles above the rooftop level showed a similar exponential decay compared to the profiles measured inside the street canyon. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Spatial Character Analysis of Streets as Public Spaces: The Case of Izmit Hurriyet and Cumhuriyet Street, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbayraktar, Mehtap; Pekdemir, Merve; Mırzaliyeva, Gumru

    2017-10-01

    The word “public” was first used to refer to the theatre audience in France in the mid-17th century. In the 18th century, it turned into the meaning of “public space incorporating a large variety of people and composed of acquaintances and strangers”. The concepts of publicity, public space, and public realm have been studied and described by many researchers in the course of time. These descriptions show the development of public space as well. In the very general sense, public spaces are areas of personal and social happiness; collective living spaces of the society; areas of expression of natural and cultural variety; and key elements providing a ground for the establishment of an identity. In the United Nations’ report on public spaces, public space is addressed under six groups: 1. The spaces we intensely used in our daily life; 2. Green open public spaces; 3. Public activity spaces which users can go in without any difficulty, are open to public, and are under protection; 4. Public sector realm (social agreements in which the people are represented, contribute to collective goods, and trust in the administrators elected); 5. City as a public space; 6. Cyberspace. As cities grow, public spaces transform and diversify. Attempts are made to meet the changing needs through types of space developed. However, the character of the existing public spaces, the distribution of open spaces and parks and their inadequacy, the destruction of public space, and the things that are required to be done stand as important issues to be addressed. One of the public spaces going through transformation are streets which we intensely use in our daily life. In general, streets are defined as roads with buildings on both sides in settlements such as provinces and districts whose boundaries are determined by neighbouring buildings. Some researchers have defined streets based on their social functions. According to them, streets are meeting spaces; spaces to deal with

  16. POLE-LIKE STREET FURNITURE DECOMPOSTION IN MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii pole extraction, (iii components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  17. Pole-Like Street Furniture Decompostion in Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i) acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii) pole extraction, (iii) components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  18. AUTOMATIC ADJUSTMENT OF WIDE-BASE GOOGLE STREET VIEW PANORAMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boussias-Alexakis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issue of sparse matching in cases of extremely wide-base panoramic images such as those acquired by Google Street View in narrow urban streets. In order to effectively use affine point operators for bundle adjustment, panoramas must be suitably rectified to simulate affinity. To this end, a custom piecewise planar projection (triangular prism projection is applied. On the assumption that the image baselines run parallel to the street façades, the estimated locations of the vanishing lines of the façade plane allow effectively removing projectivity and applying the ASIFT point operator on panorama pairs. Results from comparisons with multi-panorama adjustment, based on manually measured image points, and ground truth indicate that such an approach, if further elaborated, may well provide a realistic answer to the matching problem in the case of demanding panorama configurations.

  19. Literature Reviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoades, Ellen A.

    2011-01-01

    The primary purpose of a literature review is to assist readers in understanding the whole body of available research on a topic, informing readers on the strengths and weaknesses of studies within that body. It is defined by its guiding concept or topical focus: an account of what was previously published on a specific topic. This prevents…

  20. A review of variables of urban street connectivity for spatial connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, W S N W; Said, I

    2014-01-01

    Several studies on street connectivity in cities and towns have been modeled on topology, morphology, technology and psychology of people living in the urban environment. Street connectivity means the connection of streets that offers people alternative routes. However, there emerge difficulties to determine the suitable variables and analysis to be chosen in defining the accurate result for studies street connectivity. The aim of this paper is to identify variables of street connectivity by applying GIS and Space Syntax. This paper reviews the variables of street connectivity from 15 past articles done in 1990s to early 2000s from journals of nine disciplines on Environment and Behavior, Planning and Design, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information, Environment and Planning, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Environmental Psychology, Social Science and Medicine and Building and Environment. From the review, there are four variables found for street connectivity: link (streets-streets, street-nodes or node-streets, nodes-nodes), accessibility, least-angle, and centrality. Space syntax and GIS are suitable tools to analyze the four variables relating to systematic street systems for pedestrians. This review implies that planners of the street systems, in the aspect of street connectivity in cities and towns, should consider these four variables

  1. A review of variables of urban street connectivity for spatial connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, W. S. N. W.; Said, I.

    2014-02-01

    Several studies on street connectivity in cities and towns have been modeled on topology, morphology, technology and psychology of people living in the urban environment. Street connectivity means the connection of streets that offers people alternative routes. However, there emerge difficulties to determine the suitable variables and analysis to be chosen in defining the accurate result for studies street connectivity. The aim of this paper is to identify variables of street connectivity by applying GIS and Space Syntax. This paper reviews the variables of street connectivity from 15 past articles done in 1990s to early 2000s from journals of nine disciplines on Environment and Behavior, Planning and Design, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information, Environment and Planning, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Environmental Psychology, Social Science and Medicine and Building and Environment. From the review, there are four variables found for street connectivity: link (streets-streets, street-nodes or node-streets, nodes-nodes), accessibility, least-angle, and centrality. Space syntax and GIS are suitable tools to analyze the four variables relating to systematic street systems for pedestrians. This review implies that planners of the street systems, in the aspect of street connectivity in cities and towns, should consider these four variables.

  2. Street Geometry Factors Influence Urban Microclimate in Tropical Coastal Cities: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafaghat Arezou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban climatologists have moved smoothly towards urban geometry meso-scales as obstruction between buildings, streets, and urban environment. Urban climatologists and designers have expressed that urban geometry parameters affect urban microclimate conditions. Improper functioning of the geometry factors, particularly air temperature and wind speed, can increase the harshness of climate change and Urban Heat Island (UHI defects, which are more critical in coastal cities of tropical regions. In this regard, the current study aimed to identify the impact of each street geometry factor on urban microclimate through a critical literature review. The research determined a total of twenty seven (27 factors within three clusters; 1 geometry factors, 2 meteorological factors, and 3 streetscape factors. The content analysis calculated the Depth of Citation (DoC which refers to the cumulative importance level of each factor. The content analysis resulted air temperature (Ta (DoC = 18 out of 28 is the most important street geometry factor that should be extensively considered in urban microclimate studies in coastal cities. In contrast, the factors (such as air pollution and traffic load have received a minimum Doc (1 out of 28. The research has also analyzed the importance level of clusters through an expert input study using Grounded Group Decision Making (GGDM method. The results show that meteorological cluster (92 %, streetscape cluster (86 %, and geometry cluster (85 % have to be respectively implemented in urban microclimate studies in coastal cities. The research states there are new approaches have not yet been touched by urban climatologist affecting urban microclimate; included; surface materials, sea-borne dust and sand, user’s satisfaction, user’s thermal adaptive behavior. These approaches can potentially exacerbate UHI effects in coastal cities, which need further research.

  3. Mapping Urban Land Use at Street Block Level Using OpenStreetMap, Remote Sensing Data, and Spatial Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taïs Grippa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Up-to-date and reliable land-use information is essential for a variety of applications such as planning or monitoring of the urban environment. This research presents a workflow for mapping urban land use at the street block level, with a focus on residential use, using very-high resolution satellite imagery and derived land-cover maps as input. We develop a processing chain for the automated creation of street block polygons from OpenStreetMap and ancillary data. Spatial metrics and other street block features are computed, followed by feature selection that reduces the initial datasets by more than 80%, providing a parsimonious, discriminative, and redundancy-free set of features. A random forest (RF classifier is used for the classification of street blocks, which results in accuracies of 84% and 79% for five and six land-use classes, respectively. We exploit the probabilistic output of RF to identify and relabel blocks that have a high degree of uncertainty. Finally, the thematic precision of the residential blocks is refined according to the proportion of the built-up area. The output data and processing chains are made freely available. The proposed framework is able to process large datasets, given that the cities in the case studies, Dakar and Ouagadougou, cover more than 1000 km2 in total, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 m.

  4. [Street food among children: a study in north Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffati, Larbi; Ridha, Hamza; Kolsteren, Patrick; Hilderbrand, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    As urbanization increases in Tunisia, eating meals outside the home is becoming more frequent. Children are prime consumers for the fast food sold in the streets. Neither their nor their parents' attitude towards street food is well documented as yet. This study was conducted in the city of Bizerte in February 1998. Its aim was to gather information about street food and parents' and children's attitudes towards it to help organize educational sessions with the children, parents, teachers, and vendors. The study interviewed 421 primary school children, ranging in age from 6 to 15 years (mean age: 10 years), from 24 schools. Half received pocket money, a percentage that did not differ by sex. Three quarters of the children used more than 75% of their pocket money to buy street food. The items bought most frequently were candy (27.2%), sandwiches (23.9%), pastries (23.9%), sunflower seeds and peanuts (21%), and either pizza, chocolate, or cheese (20.3%); the largest proportion of money was spent on sandwiches. In more than half the cases (55.7% of the children), the main motivation for buying street food was either to replace or fill out a meal at home, with sandwiches or pastries. The parents' monthly income did not influence the children's purchasing behavior, but the rhythm of receiving pocket money did. Most children were satisfied with the nutritional and hygienic quality of the food available, but their opinion of this quality as well as the reasons for buying the food and the prices spent on it differed considerably from that of their parents. This study highlights the important role of street foods in the daily diet of schoolchildren and the need for appropriate nutrition education in primary schools.

  5. Exploring the World using Street View 360 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.

    2016-12-01

    The phrase "A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words" is an idiom of unknown 20th century origin. There is some belief that the modern use of the phrase stems from an article in a 1921 issue of a popular trade journal, that used "One Look is Worth A Thousand Words" to promote the use of images in advertisements on the sides of streetcars. There is a certain irony to this as nearly a century later the camera technologies on "Street View cars" are collecting images that look everywhere at once. However, while it can be to fun drive along the World's streets, it was the development of Street View imaging systems that could be mounted on other modes of transport or capture platforms (Street View Special Collects) that opened the door for these 360 images to become a tool for exploration and storytelling. Using Special Collect imagery captured in "off-road" and extreme locations, scientists are now using Street View images to assess changes to species habitats, show the impact of natural disasters and even perform "armchair" geology. A powerful example is the imagery captured before and after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan. However, it is use of the immersive nature of 360 images that truly allows them to create wonder and awe, especially when combined with Virtual Reality (VR) viewers. Combined with the Street View App or Google Expeditions, VR provides insight into what it is like to swim with sealions in the Galapagos or climb El Capitan in Yosemite National Park. While these image could never replace experiencing these locations in real-life, they can inspire the viewer to explore and learn more about the many wonders of our planet. https://www.google.com/streetview/https://www.google.com/expeditions/

  6. Design of Automatic Intensity Varying Smart Street Lighting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Gupta, Shipra

    2017-08-01

    The paper is proposed with an aim of power conservation. In this era of development, it is essential to develop a streetlight that turns on and off automatically without human interference. To achieve this light sensor have been placed in each panel which turns the street light on and off automatically. For energy conservation cool-white LED’s have been used in street light panel and dimmer modules have been installed which changes the intensity of the streetlight depending on the darkness.

  7. Institutional Trajectories of Street Youth in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Litichever

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores citizenship formation in institutional settings. Based on life stories and participant observation, it studies how street youth in Buenos Aires experience State institutions in charge of children and youth at risk. It analyzes the level of involvement, the demands, the expression of needs and negotiations that take place within various public institutions and explores how these interactions shape the process of citizenship formation. Results suggest three different institutional trajectories amongst street youth that lead to different processes of citizenship formation.

  8. Wall Street: money never sleeps : Motion picture (2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Lucente, Gloria; Buhagiar, Celaine

    2011-01-01

    The Social Network : Harvard student Mark Zuckerberg creates the social networking site that would become known as Facebook, but is later sued by two brothers who claimed he stole their idea, and the cofounder who was later squeezed out of the business. Wall Street: money never sleeps : Now out of prison but still disgraced by his peers, Gordon Gekko works his future son-in-law, an idealistic stock broker, when he sees an opportunity to take down a Wall Street enemy and rebuild his empire.

  9. Uma dama argentina em terras yankees: os Recuerdos de viaje, de Eduarda Mansilla An argentinean lady in yankee land: the travel memoirs of Eduarda Mansilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Maris Scatena Franco

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste artigo analiso o relato de viagem da escritora argentina Eduarda Mansilla aos Estados Unidos, intitulado Recuerdos de viaje (1882. Integrante de uma camada social privilegiada e oriunda de uma família tradicional pertencente à elite política argentina, a autora expõe um ponto de vista particular sobre as condutas das norte-americanas com quem conviveu em sua viagem, mostrando com isso sua própria concepção sobre os papéis sociais femininos.In this article I analyze the account of a journey the Argentinean writer Eduarda Mansilla made to the United States, which she called Travel Memoirs (1882. Eduarda Mansilla was part of a privileged social class and came from a traditional family belonging to the political elite in Argentina, she exposed a particular point of view on the behavior of the North Americans who she lived with during her travel, unveiling her own conceptions on female social roles.

  10. The 2nd Generation Street Children (SGSC) in Accra: Developing Teaching Strategies to Enhance Positive Learning Outcomes in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyini, Alhassan Abdul-Razak; Abosi, Okechuwu

    2011-01-01

    Ghana is witnessing an increasing number of 2nd generation street children (SGSC) living in the street of Accra, the capital city as a result of many factors including teenage pregnancy among street girls, ethnic conflicts and rural-urban migration. Street presents enormous risks to street children; they are excluded from safe-family environment,…

  11. An index to quantify street cleanliness: the case of Granada (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevilla, Aitana; Rodríguez, Miguel Luis; García-Maraver, Angela; Zamorano, Montserrat

    2013-05-01

    Urban surfaces receive waste deposits from natural and human sources, which create a negative visual impact and are identified as potentially significant contributors to water and air pollution. Local councils are usually responsible for the sweep of roads and footpaths to keep the environment clean and free of litter. Quality controls are useful in order to check whether the services are being executed according to the quantity, quality and performance standards that are provided. In this sense, several factors might affect the efficiency of the management of cleaning and waste collection services; however, only a few contributions are available in the literature on the various aspects associated with the level of street cleanliness. In this paper, the suitability of a Cleanliness Index has been checked, for the case of Granada (South of Spain), in order to contribute to the proper management of public expenditure, improving the quality and cost of an essential service for any municipality. Results have concluded that the city exhibits a good level of cleanliness, although the standard of cleaning varied from one area of the city to another. The Cleaning Index fits well to the general situation of the different districts of Granada and thus, it could be considered a useful tool for measuring the level of cleanliness of the streets of the city and for evaluating the organization of the cleaning service, such that an outsourced company would not be responsible for controlling all the cleaning services. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Video-processing-based system for automated pedestrian data collection and analysis when crossing the street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansouri, Nabila; Watelain, Eric; Ben Jemaa, Yousra; Motamed, Cina

    2018-03-01

    Computer-vision techniques for pedestrian detection and tracking have progressed considerably and become widely used in several applications. However, a quick glance at the literature shows a minimal use of these techniques in pedestrian behavior and safety analysis, which might be due to the technical complexities facing the processing of pedestrian videos. To extract pedestrian trajectories from a video automatically, all road users must be detected and tracked during sequences, which is a challenging task, especially in a congested open-outdoor urban space. A multipedestrian tracker based on an interframe-detection-association process was proposed and evaluated. The tracker results are used to implement an automatic tool for pedestrians data collection when crossing the street based on video processing. The variations in the instantaneous speed allowed the detection of the street crossing phases (approach, waiting, and crossing). These were addressed for the first time in the pedestrian road security analysis to illustrate the causal relationship between pedestrian behaviors in the different phases. A comparison with a manual data collection method, by computing the root mean square error and the Pearson correlation coefficient, confirmed that the procedures proposed have significant potential to automate the data collection process.

  13. Social and economic characteristics of street youth by gender and level of street involvement in Eldoret, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Sorber

    Full Text Available Street-connected youth are a neglected and vulnerable population, particularly in resource-constrained settings. The development of interventions and supports for this population requires insight into how they live. This study describes the social and economic characteristics of a convenience sample of street youth (SY in Eldoret, Kenya.Participants were eligible if they were aged 12-21, living in Eldoret, spending days only (part-time, or nights and days on the street (full-time and able and willing to consent or assent. Data were collected using a standardized interview conducted in English or Kiswahili. Binary dependent variables were having been arrested and/or jailed, and first priority for spending money (food vs. other. Nominal categorical dependent variables included major source of support, and major reason for being street-involved. Multivariable analysis used logistic regression models to examine the association of gender and level of street-involvement with social and economic factors of interest adjusting for age and length of time on the street. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3.Of the 200 SY enrolled, 41% were female, mean age of 16.3 years; 71% were on the street full-time, and 29% part-time. Compared with part-time SY, full-time SY were more likely to have been arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.33, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]:1.01-5.35, name food as their first spending priority (AOR: 2.57, 95%CI:1.03-6.45, have left home due to violence (AOR: 5.54, 95%CI: 1.67-18.34, and more likely to report friends on the street as a major source of support (AOR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.01-12.82. Compared with females, males were more likely to have ever been arrested (AOR: 2.66, 95%CI:1.14-6.18, and to have ever been jailed (AOR: 3.22, 95%CI:1.47-7.02.These results suggest a high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability among SY in this setting. There is an urgent need for interventions taking into consideration these characteristics.

  14. Strategic guidelines for street canyon geometry to achieve sustainable street air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Andy T.; So, Ellen S.P.; Samad, Subash C. [Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the motion of air within the urban street canyon and is directed towards a deeper understanding of pollutant dispersion with respect to various simple canyon geometries and source positions. Taking into account the present days typical urban configurations, three principal flow regimes 'isolated roughness flow', 'skimming flow' and 'wake interference flow' (Boundary Layer Climates, 2nd edition, Methuen, London) and their corresponding pollutant dispersion characteristics are studied for various canopies aspect ratios, namely relative height (h{sub 2}/H{sub 1}), canyon height to width ratio (h/w) and canyon length to height ratio (l/h). A field-size canyon has been analysed through numerical simulations using the standard k-{sup {epsilon}} turbulence closure model. It is found that the pollutant transport and diffusion is strongly dependent upon the type of flow regime inside the canyon and exchange between canyon and the above roof air. Some rules of thumbs have been established to get urban canyon geometries for efficient dispersion of pollutants. (Author)

  15. Development and evaluation of thermoplastic street maintenance material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    An all-weather permanent street patching material was investigated for flexible and rigid pavements. The economic, operational, and material requirements are discussed along with the results of field tests with various mixtures of EVA resins and asphalt. Cost analyses for thermoplastic patching methods are included.

  16. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leftover, heated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, were collected from three locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial count at each stage of handling from the raw state to marketing and consumption. The plate count ...

  17. Estimation of air quality improvement at road and street intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, P.G. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Traffic and Transport Planning

    1995-12-31

    There has always been a very great problem to quantify the detrimental exhaust air pollution related to the traffic flow, especially at road and street intersections. Until now model calculations have been developed mainly for the links between the intersections. In an attempt to remedy this situation the author has developed a method of estimating emissions on the micro level from motor vehicles at intersections as a help for infrastructural design related to improved environmental conditions. Very parsimonious knowledge exists regarding the deceleration and acceleration patterns at road- and street intersections. Not many surveys are done neither in Sweden nor within other countries. Evidently, the need for knowledge regarding deceleration and acceleration behaviour on the micro level has until now not been given priority. In traffic safety related research studies have been done describing the drivers` deceleration and acceleration behaviour and the vehicles` braking performance. Those results give deceleration data for extreme situations and are not useful for describing normal decelerations and accelerations at road- and street intersections. Environment related problems within the traffic flow analysis are now accentuating the need for the studying of special deceleration and acceleration behaviours in combination with an alternative design of the road and street infrastructure. There is a big difference in different vehicles` amount of emitted exhaust pollutions during the passing of intersections depending on the vehicles` speed levels related to their deceleration and acceleration levels. (author)

  18. Single Parenthood Impact on Street Children in Ibadan Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal , Ethiopia. Vol. 4 (2) April ... free and compulsory education to children without family support and help the less ... Key words: Single Parenthood, Street Children, Anti-Social Behaviour,. Aggression ... foregoing, this study therefore sought to look at the impact of single parenthood on ...

  19. Selecting reference cities for i-Tree Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2010-01-01

    The i-Tree Streets (formerly STRATUM) computer program quantifies municipal forest structure, function, and value using tree growth and geographic data from sixteen U.S. reference cities, one for each of sixteen climate zones. Selecting the reference city that best matches a subject city is problematic when the subject city is outside the U.S., lays on the border...

  20. Effects of street tree shade on asphalt concrete pavement performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J. Muchnick

    2005-01-01

    Forty-eight street segments were paired into 24 high-and low-shade pairs in Modesto, California, U.S. Field data were collected to calculate a Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and Tree Shade Index (TSI) for each segment. Statistical analyses found that greater PCI was associated with greater TSI, indicating that tree shade was partially responsible for reduced pavement...

  1. INTRODUCTION The term street children has many definitions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The street child in rural communities differs from the urban ... higher risk of getting involved in hard drug use and/ or peddling8. ..... school hours in the rural areas. As at the ... their attention and energy while under supervision of.

  2. The Impact of Hybrid Vehicles on Street Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, William; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Salisbury, Brad; Rozema, Randall

    2006-01-01

    The authors had three purposes: (a) to compare the sound output of a Toyota Corolla, a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE) with that of a hybrid vehicle (Prius) under conditions of acceleration and approach in relation to the potential decision of a pedestrian who is visually impaired to begin to cross the street, (b) to…

  3. What information do Karman streets offer to flow sensing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akanyeti, Otar; Venturelli, Roberto; Visentin, Francesco; Fiorini, Paolo [Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, 37134 Verona (Italy); Chambers, Lily; Megill, William M, E-mail: otarakanyeti@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    In this work, we focus on biomimetic lateral line sensing in Karman vortex streets. After generating a Karman street in a controlled environment, we examine the hydrodynamic images obtained with digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). On the grounds that positioning in the flow and interaction with the vortices govern bio-inspired underwater locomotion, we inspect the fluid in the swimming robot frame of reference. We spatially subsample the flow field obtained using DPIV to emulate the local flow around the body. In particular, we look at various sensor configurations in order to reliably identify the vortex shedding frequency, wake wavelength and downstream flow speed. Moreover, we propose methods that differentiate between being in and out of the Karman street with >70% accuracy, distinguish right from left with respect to Karman vortex street centreline (>80%) and highlight when the sensor system enters the vortex formation zone (>75%). Finally, we present a method that estimates the relative position of a sensor array with respect to the vortex formation point within 15% error margin.

  4. Suicide and Prostitution among Street Youth: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants. Additionally it was found that prostitution was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high…

  5. Integrating the Wall Street Journal into AIS Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeyer, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    While it is important for accounting information systems (AIS) students to understand computer technology, internal controls and business processes, such knowledge is of little use without reference to appropriate contexts. Integrating Wall Street Journal (WSJ) readings and discussions into AIS classes can enrich learning by stimulating…

  6. Using "The Wall Street Journal" To Stimulate Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roever, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Describes an assignment in a business-communication class in which student teams construct portfolios with articles from "The Wall Street Journal," explaining and clearly expressing how these articles relate to class concepts. Argues that the assignment encourages critical-thinking skills, focuses on writing skills, and develops an…

  7. 75 FR 35478 - Funding Opportunity; Street Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... services will be carried out. D. Training: Grantees must provide initial and periodic training to staff... supervision by appropriately trained senior staff; and Back-up personnel for on-street staff. F. Positive... social contribution; (D) Independence and control over one's life; and (E) Closeness in interpersonal...

  8. Aerodynamic effects of trees on pollutant concentration in street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buccolieri, R.; Gromke, C.B.; Sabatino, Di S.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Several parameters affecting pedestrian level concentration are investigated, namely plant

  9. Implications of tree planting on pollutant dispersion in street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Traffic pollutant dispersion processes inside urban street canyons with avenue-like tree planting have been studied in wind tunnel experiments. Tree planting of different crown porosities and their effects on the pollutant concentrations at the canyon walls have been investigated for wind

  10. Ventilation Processes in a Three-Dimensional Street Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, Libor; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2016-05-01

    The ventilation processes in three different street canyons of variable roof geometry were investigated in a wind tunnel using a ground-level line source. All three street canyons were part of an urban-type array formed by courtyard-type buildings with pitched roofs. A constant roof height was used in the first case, while a variable roof height along the leeward or windward walls was simulated in the two other cases. All street-canyon models were exposed to a neutrally stratified flow with two approaching wind directions, perpendicular and oblique. The complexity of the flow and dispersion within the canyons of variable roof height was demonstrated for both wind directions. The relative pollutant removals and spatially-averaged concentrations within the canyons revealed that the model with constant roof height has higher re-emissions than models with variable roof heights. The nomenclature for the ventilation processes according to quadrant analysis of the pollutant flux was introduced. The venting of polluted air (positive fluctuations of both concentration and velocity) from the canyon increased when the wind direction changed from perpendicular to oblique, irrespective of the studied canyon model. Strong correlations (>0.5) between coherent structures and ventilation processes were found at roof level, irrespective of the canyon model and wind direction. This supports the idea that sweep and ejection events of momentum bring clean air in and detrain the polluted air from the street canyon, respectively.

  11. Robbed of Humanity: Lives of Guatemalan Street Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Nancy Leigh

    The situation for "street children" has degenerated over the past two decades following the economic and political transitions in much of Latin America. Drawing on scholarly materials, interviews with child rights advocates, and the words of the children themselves, this book explores the abuse, limited choices, despair, loyalty, and…

  12. Blossoms in the Dust: Street Children in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velis, Jean-Pierre

    For many African children today, the grim realities of everyday life are far removed from models of education based on traditional wisdom. Part of an attempt to draw the attention of a wide public to the situation of street children, this book focuses on the educational aspects of a problem from which no country is spared. The book focuses…

  13. Street Crossing: Observational Research and Developing Health Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Wyeth, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Students in communication, and particularly in advertising, are encouraged to value creativity. However, even in programs that value creativity, it can be difficult to encourage creativity in the process of research that guides communication efforts. The project described in this paper--"Street Crossing"--is used in upper-division and…

  14. Food safety knowledge and practices of street foodvendors in Atbara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the food safety knowledge and practices of street food vendors in Atbara city between March and April, 2008. The questionnaires respondents were 28% male and 72% were female, 48% of them had primary school education while 42% were illiterates. The most prevalent isolated ...

  15. Interactive green street enhancement using light dependent sensors and actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Ivo; Chen, W.; Oorschot, van B.; Smeenk, W.

    2008-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a design of an interactive green street facility using light dependent sensors and actuators for enhancing the social cohesion of people. We show that electronics and green design can have positive effect on social interaction in a neighbourhood by a design example, called

  16. The topoligical relations of corner buildings in the street fabric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the role of the corner and corner buildings in the architectural relations of the street. Referring to affordance, legibility and Weber´s (1995) psychological approach to perceived architectural space, the paper discusses the value of clearly articulated corner constructions...

  17. Demographic trends in Claremont California’s street tree population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalie S. van Doorn; E. Gregory McPherson

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify street tree population dynamics in the city of Claremont, CA. A repeated measures survey (2000 and 2014) based on a stratified random sampling approach across size classes and for the most abundant 21 species was analyzed to calculate removal, growth, and replacement planting rates. Demographic rates were estimated using a...

  18. Smart street lighting solution for remote rural areas of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Debdyut

    2017-09-01

    Though many smart street lighting solutions is available for urban areas, comparatively fewer solutions exist for rural areas. In the recent times, village streets have been illuminated with artificial lights as a part of rural development drive undertaken by the governments of respective countries. But, vehicle and pedestrian traffic is quite low through village roads. Hence, if light remains on all night long on such roads, then there is a huge wastage of energy. This calls for solutions to reduce this energy loss in an efficient manner. There are a lot of factors which must be kept in mind while designing solutions. Many villages lack the proper infrastructure to support new technologies. Communication facilities are limited, lack of local technically skilled labor, lack of security, etc. After evaluating these opportunities and challenges, an attempt has been made to devise a smart street lighting solution tailored for remote rural areas in India. One part of the solution discusses how intensity of the LED street lights can be varied according to the ambient lighting conditions using sensors and LED switching in LED matrix. An artificial intelligence (AI) has also been modelled to identify traffic conditions using PIR sensors and object identification through image processing and independently control the lights. It also tracks the performance and status of each light. It would send this data and necessary notifications to a distant control center for human evaluation. This solution is also applicable for other rural areas throughout the world.

  19. Dietary patterns and prevalence of wasting among street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cross-sectional study of 36 street children in Lilongwe, Malawi, dietary practices and the prevalence of wasting were assessed to provide information on the risk of poor dietary intake and malnutrition in this population. A food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine dietary practices, ...

  20. Book review : Street Architecture: Work by Hans van der Heijden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenniskens, D.P.H.

    The recently published book Street Architecture is the result of a collaboration between Karin Templin, currently pursuing a PhD in architecture at the University of Cambridge, and Hans van der Heijden, an Amsterdam-based architect of mainly urban renewal projects and residential architecture. The

  1. Theory, Method, and Triangulation in the Study of Street Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a comparative study of street children in Montevideo (Uruguay), Rio de Janeiro, and Mexico City contributes to a synergism between theory and method. Notes how theoretical approaches of symbolic interactionism, genetic structuralism, and habitus theory complement interview, participant observation, and content analysis methods;…

  2. Street-level bureaucrats help clients, even in difficult circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    This policy brief presents the main findings of the Marie Curie Project “COPING: Policy implementation in stressful times: Analyzing coping strategies of civil servants”. The project combines insights from public administration and psychology to study how street-level bureaucrats (also termed

  3. Street-level bureaucrats help clients, even in difficult circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis policy brief presents the main findings of the Marie Curie Project “COPING: Policy implementation in stressful times: Analyzing coping strategies of civil servants”. The project combines insights from public administration and psychology to study how street-level bureaucrats (also

  4. Invisible Culture: Taking Art Education to the Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darts, David

    2011-01-01

    Art educators and administrators allowed a project to evolve based on the "street life" experiences of ordinarily invisible people. The goal was to create a space or number of spaces for celebrating the human spirit through art, music, dance, poetry, theater, and story while also providing a forum for exploring some of the social issues affecting…

  5. Main Street as Art Museum: Metaphor and Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    A walk down Main Street can be very much like a stroll through a museum gallery--visually rich, inviting unexpected choices, aesthetically rewarding. This article explores the concept of shop windows as visually ordered compositions, much like paintings and other art objects, and suggests some approaches to applying this concept in teaching a…

  6. Street level bureaucracy and the dilemmas of private entities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given that they a pose threat to government's efforts, government sometimes moves to curtail their power of discretion and autonomy. Street-level bureaucrats are rational and activate mechanisms to escape government control. This study examines the coping mechanisms of the Ghana Private Road Transport Union ...

  7. Street foods contribute to nutrient intakes among children from rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of Street Foods (SF) to the energy and nutrient intakes of young children in rural African communities has been understudied. Under the Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project, a microcredit and nutrition education intervention with caregivers of children 2-to ...

  8. Seri Rama: converting a shadow play puppet to Street Fighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, D B A

    2012-01-01

    Shadow puppet plays, a traditional Malaysian theater art, is slowly losing its appeal to adolescents, who prefer computer games. To help reverse this decline, the authors incorporated the traditional Seri Rama character into the Street Fighter video game. Using modeling, texturing, and animation, they developed a 3D Seri Rama prototype. Users can control Seri Rama with a PlayStation game controller.

  9. Estimation of air quality improvement at road and street intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, P G [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Traffic and Transport Planning

    1996-12-31

    There has always been a very great problem to quantify the detrimental exhaust air pollution related to the traffic flow, especially at road and street intersections. Until now model calculations have been developed mainly for the links between the intersections. In an attempt to remedy this situation the author has developed a method of estimating emissions on the micro level from motor vehicles at intersections as a help for infrastructural design related to improved environmental conditions. Very parsimonious knowledge exists regarding the deceleration and acceleration patterns at road- and street intersections. Not many surveys are done neither in Sweden nor within other countries. Evidently, the need for knowledge regarding deceleration and acceleration behaviour on the micro level has until now not been given priority. In traffic safety related research studies have been done describing the drivers` deceleration and acceleration behaviour and the vehicles` braking performance. Those results give deceleration data for extreme situations and are not useful for describing normal decelerations and accelerations at road- and street intersections. Environment related problems within the traffic flow analysis are now accentuating the need for the studying of special deceleration and acceleration behaviours in combination with an alternative design of the road and street infrastructure. There is a big difference in different vehicles` amount of emitted exhaust pollutions during the passing of intersections depending on the vehicles` speed levels related to their deceleration and acceleration levels. (author)

  10. Anthropometric and motor development profiles of street children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With regard to the gross motor development, deficits were found with regard to running speed and agility, bilateral coordination and strength. Fine motor deficits were found in upper limb speed and dexterity, response speed and visual motor control. The neuromotor development of street children also showed deficits, ...

  11. Bacteria associated with street vended foods: implications to food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street vended foods were analysed for the bacterial load and the presence of pathogenic and/or potentially pathogenic bacteria. The foods were collected randomly from ambulatory and stationary vendors and analysed individually and then categorized as meats, salads and carbohydrates. The microbial analysis indicated ...

  12. Antigenic analysis of some Nigerian street rabies virus using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors studied 12 street rabies virus isolates from 3 states of Nigeria using both the anti-nucleocapsid and anti-glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies and cross-protection tests. It was observed that all the viruses were rabies having divergent antigenic presentation. Also noticed was an antigenic shift when the viruses ...

  13. Literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, Nina Konstantin; Holm, Lotte

    2015-01-01

    Improved understanding of how normal weight and moderately overweight people manage their body weight and shape could be used to inform initiatives to prevent and treat obesity. This literature review offers a thorough appraisal of existing research into perceptions and management of own body size...... among normal weight and moderately overweight people. The studies reported in the 47 publications reviewed here address various themes based on different conceptualizations. The studies point out that normal weight and moderately overweight people are much concerned about their body size, but huge...

  14. The propagation of sound in narrow street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iu, K. K.; Li, K. M.

    2002-08-01

    This paper addresses an important problem of predicting sound propagation in narrow street canyons with width less than 10 m, which are commonly found in a built-up urban district. Major noise sources are, for example, air conditioners installed on building facades and powered mechanical equipment for repair and construction work. Interference effects due to multiple reflections from building facades and ground surfaces are important contributions in these complex environments. Although the studies of sound transmission in urban areas can be traced back to as early as the 1960s, the resulting mathematical and numerical models are still unable to predict sound fields accurately in city streets. This is understandable because sound propagation in city streets involves many intriguing phenomena such as reflections and scattering at the building facades, diffusion effects due to recessions and protrusions of building surfaces, geometric spreading, and atmospheric absorption. This paper describes the development of a numerical model for the prediction of sound fields in city streets. To simplify the problem, a typical city street is represented by two parallel reflecting walls and a flat impedance ground. The numerical model is based on a simple ray theory that takes account of multiple reflections from the building facades. The sound fields due to the point source and its images are summed coherently such that mutual interference effects between contributing rays can be included in the analysis. Indoor experiments are conducted in an anechoic chamber. Experimental data are compared with theoretical predictions to establish the validity and usefulness of this simple model. Outdoor experimental measurements have also been conducted to further validate the model. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  15. Street children turn to sex-work to survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The Kenyan government currently deports tourists who are caught with child prostitutes and charges the children with prostitution. A harder treatment of foreigners caught with child prostitutes may soon emerge. The Undugu Society in Kenya, an organization working with street children, welcomes such changes. It teaches children practical skills, e.g., tailoring and carpentry. The Society has four schools and sponsors 1000 children to attend school or workshops. It sends social workers into the slums to counsel and gain the trust of street children as well as to encourage them to attend workshops. The Society has workshops on HIV transmission and emphasizes behavior change rather than condom use. Kenyan law prohibits adults from having sex with a child less than 18 years old. Juvenile courts deal with children caught engaging in solicitation of customers and/or prostitution. Children found guilty go to children's homes for rehabilitation into mainstream society. More and more countries of sex-tourists are punishing tourists who engage in sexual intercourse with minors in Kenya. Fear that high-profile cases will harm the multi-million-dollar tourist industry as well as lack of state resources makes Kenya reluctant to prosecute tourists. In 1994, most of Nairobi's 40,000 street children were engaged in prostitution. The leading centers of child prostitution are all tourist areas: Nairobi, Mombasa, Malindi, Lamu, and Diani. 80% of pornographic material in Kenya features children. Kenyan taxi drivers, tour guides, and hotel workers serve as middlemen in child prostitution. Urban poverty forces many children on to the streets. Rural children sent to urban areas to work as maids or servants in a rich house are often sexually abused. They then escape to the streets. Many child prostitutes come from poor families and have low literacy and no practical skills. AIDS orphans also become prostitutes to survive.

  16. [Who told you to grow old and live on the streets?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brêtas, Ana Cristina Passarella; Marcolan, João Fernando; Rosa, Anderson da Silva; Fernandes, Flávia Saraiva Leão; Raizer, Milena Veiga

    2010-06-01

    This qualitative case study is part of another study: Aging, health and work. The objective of this excerpt was to identify the meaning of aging on the streets for the elderly living on the street. The subjects' statements were analyzed under the light of the following themes: history of aging and history of life on the streets. It was understood that the streets are usually a hostile environment for the elderly. It does not guarantee the basic life conditions, affecting the mental health of people who are forced to live on the streets, particularly the elderly. The street does not offer any way out and, together with to the life conditions of the elderly living on the streets leads to the gradual loss of self-esteem, significantly affecting self-care. In addition to these issues, we found that compromised functional capacity puts the life/survival of the elderly living on the streets at risk.

  17. Redesigning Main Streets in Small Communities: The Viagra of Transportation Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-16

    The national Main Street movement is building momentum. Over 1,200 small : communities across America have rediscovered their Main Streets with impressive : investment in time, energy and money. The tangible measures of return include: : economic gro...

  18. One Street, Twenty Children and the Experience of a Changing Town: Year 7 Explore the Story of a London Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amy; De Silva, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Michael Wood and others have recently drawn attention to the ways in which big stories can be told through local histories. Hughes and De Silva report a teaching unit through which they aimed to help Year 7 pupils make history come alive by exploring the history of a local street and the people who lived in it using census materials, the physical…

  19. CODASC : a database for the validation of street canyon dispersion models

    OpenAIRE

    Gromke, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    CODASC stands for Concentration Data of Street Canyons (CODASC 2008, www.codasc.de). It is a database which provides traffic pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons obtained from wind-tunnel dispersion experiments. CODASC comprises concentration data of street canyons with different aspect ratios subjected to various wind directions and also for street canyons with tree-avenues. The database includes concentration data of tree-avenue configurations of different tree arrangement, tree...

  20. An Analysis of the Street-Children Phenomenon in the City of Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Alireza Afshani; Abbas Askari-Nodoushan; Mohammad Heydari; Mohammad Noorian Najafabadi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction   In nearly all big cities around the world, the phenomenon of street children is one of the contemporary social issues. During past several decades, there is an increase in the volume of street children phenomenon around the world. The rising number of street children has many pathological and consequential negative impacts for children, youth, families, and the society at the whole . According to 2000 UN report, the number of street children is estimated between 100 to140 milli...

  1. Alcohol in urban streetscapes: a comparison of the use of Google Street View and on-street observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Clews

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol-related harm is a major global health issue, and controls on alcohol marketing are one intervention utilized by governments. This study investigated the use of Google Street View (GSV as a novel research method for collecting alcohol-related data in the urban environment. Methods The efficacy of GSV and on-street observation by observer teams was compared by surveying 400 m stretches of 12 streets in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. Data on alcohol sale, alcohol-related advertising, health promotion materials, regulatory information and visible alcohol consumption were collected. Results A total of 403 retailers with evidence of alcohol sales and 1161 items of alcohol-related communication were identified in on-street observation. Of the latter, 1028 items (89 % were for alcohol marketing and 133 (11 % were for alcohol-related health promotion and alcohol regulation. GSV was found to be a less sensitive tool than on-street observation with only 50 % of the alcohol venues identified and 52 % of the venue-associated brand marketing identified. A high degree of inter-observer reliability was generally found between pairs of observers e.g., for the detection of alcohol retail venues the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.78 to 0.98 for on-street observation and 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.49 to 0.96 for using GSV. Conclusions GSV does not seem suitable for the comprehensive study of the influences on alcohol consumption in the urban streetscape. However, it may still have value for large, static objects in the environment and be more time efficient than traditional on-street observation measures, especially when used to collect data across a wide geographical area. Furthermore, GSV might become a more useful research tool in settings with better image quality (such as more ‘footpath views’ and with more regularly updated GSV imagery.

  2. Impact of trees on pollutant dispersion in street canyons: A numerical study of the annual average effects in Antwerp, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vranckx, Stijn; Vos, Peter; Maiheu, Bino; Janssen, Stijn

    2015-11-01

    Effects of vegetation on pollutant dispersion receive increased attention in attempts to reduce air pollutant concentration levels in the urban environment. In this study, we examine the influence of vegetation on the concentrations of traffic pollutants in urban street canyons using numerical simulations with the CFD code OpenFOAM. This CFD approach is validated against literature wind tunnel data of traffic pollutant dispersion in street canyons. The impact of trees is simulated for a variety of vegetation types and the full range of approaching wind directions at 15° interval. All these results are combined using meteo statistics, including effects of seasonal leaf loss, to determine the annual average effect of trees in street canyons. This analysis is performed for two pollutants, elemental carbon (EC) and PM10, using background concentrations and emission strengths for the city of Antwerp, Belgium. The results show that due to the presence of trees the annual average pollutant concentrations increase with about 8% (range of 1% to 13%) for EC and with about 1.4% (range of 0.2 to 2.6%) for PM10. The study indicates that this annual effect is considerably smaller than earlier estimates which are generally based on a specific set of governing conditions (1 wind direction, full leafed trees and peak hour traffic emissions). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Playing Sport In The Stormy Sea Of Street Life | Human | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, there are many street children in South Africa (SA). They have been robbed from the safe harbour of family life and on a daily basis experience the stormy sea of street life. Society has an obligation to intervene in the lives of these street children through, for example, quality education, basic health services and ...

  4. CODASC : a database for the validation of street canyon dispersion models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    CODASC stands for Concentration Data of Street Canyons (CODASC 2008, www.codasc.de). It is a database which provides traffic pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons obtained from wind-tunnel dispersion experiments. CODASC comprises concentration data of street canyons with different aspect

  5. Influence of local parameters on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants within street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Styliani; Malki-Epshtein, Liora; Martin Hyde Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    Ventilation within urban cities and street canyons and the associated air quality is a problem of increasing interest in the last decades. It is important for to minimise exposure of the population to traffic-related pollutants at street level. The residence time of pollutants within the street canyons depends on the meteorological conditions such as wind speed and direction, geometry layout and local parameters (position of traffic lane within the street). An experimental study was carried out to investigate the influence of traffic lane position on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants within different street canyons geometries: symmetrical (equal building heights on both sides of the street), non-symmetrical (uniform building heights but lower on one side of the street) and heterogeneous (non-uniform building heights on both sides of the street) under constant meteorological conditions. Laboratory experiments were carried out within a water channel and simultaneous measurements of velocity field and concentration scalar levels within and above the street canyons using PIV and PLIF techniques. Traffic -related emissions were simulated using a line emission source. Two positions were examined for all street geometries: line emission source was placed in the centre of the street canyon; line emission source was placed off the centre of the street. TSI Incorporated.

  6. Beyond discourse and competence : Science and subjugated knowledge in street children studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigengack, Roy

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that street children studies (SCS) has reduced its central concept to a discursive construct, and the young street people themselves to capable 'agents'. One consequence is that street children are not recognized as distinct intergenerational groupings in society. The traditional

  7. Beyond discourse and competence: Science and subjugated knowledge in street children studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigengack, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that street children studies (SCS) has reduced its central concept to a discursive construct, and the young street people themselves to capable ‘agents’. One consequence is that street children are not recognized as distinct intergenerational groupings in society. The traditional

  8. Street children in Mafikeng, North-West Province: A qualitative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general perception, on the part of South African society, is that street children are a major social menace. Yet the reality is that, street children are a vulnerable group that suffer both psychological and physical violence including sexual abuse. This qualitative study investigated the social experiences of street children in ...

  9. Bridging the "Widest Street in the World": Reflections on the History of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirel, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    For at least a half century, education reformers have quipped that 120th Street in New York City, the street that separates Teachers College from the rest of Columbia University, "is the widest street in the world." Underlying this quip is the belief that Columbia's liberal arts faculty members regularly dismiss the child-centered educational…

  10. 75 FR 11153 - Main Mill Street Investments, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13631-000] Main Mill Street..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications March 1, 2010. On November 16, Main Mill Street Investments, LLC (Main Mill Street Investments) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to...

  11. Socio-economic and hygiene features of street food vending in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study were firstly to determine the health risks associated with street food vending, secondly to determine the opinions of street food ... such as South Africa be allowed to earn their livelihood by means of an 'easy-to-enter' business such as street food vending when hygiene standards are acceptable.

  12. Attitudes of street children to the network of support for them in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study findings show that 'of' the street children are the major targets by the network of the support since children 'on' the street are still being supported by their families and the assistance received by these children of the street from their peers and homeless adults is preferred to assistance from other support providers.

  13. Space Livability of Street Vendors in Simpang Lima Public Space, Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjajanti, R.; Wahyono, H.

    2018-02-01

    Street vendors in Semarang have been growing rapidly and uncontrolled. They always use public space such as public roads, sidewalks, parks and fields as trading locations. The street vendors’ activities in the public space are considered as the cause of declining on environmental quality and aesthetics of the city. All these years, the government often evicted the street vendors than organized and provides adequate space for them. As one of the actual urban activities, the street vendors’ activities should be accommodated by the government and the location for them is managed in the urban spatial plan. Street vendors need spaces which livable and suitable to their activities’ requirements, has a relationship with users (street vendors’ doers and consumers) and the activities of street vendors themselves. Research on the aspect of space for street vendors is still less in quantity, whereas space for them is an urgent matter for the government in managing their activities. This study aims to identify the livability of space based on the street vendors’ behavior in their location. This research used descriptive quantitative method with questionnaires and GIS as the mapping tool for street vendors’ location. The result of the research shows that the livability of street vendor space is based on the activity of street vendors (type of merchandise, trading places’ size, trade place assessment, space dimension, trading time, duration and period) and space conditions (access, natural elements, safety and parking space).

  14. Characteristics of flow and reactive pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Minjoong J.; Park, Rokjin J.; Cheong, Hyeong-Bin

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the effects of aspect ratio defined as the ratio of building height to street width on the dispersion of reactive pollutants in street canyons were investigated using a coupled CFD-chemistry model. Flow characteristics for different aspect ratios were analyzed first. For each aspect ratio, six emission scenarios with different VOC-NOX ratios were considered. One vortex was generated when the aspect ratio was less than 1.6 (shallow street canyon). When the aspect ratio was greater than 1.6 (deep street canyon), two vortices were formed in the street canyons. Comparing to previous studies on two-dimensional street canyons, the vortex center is slanted toward the upwind building and reverse and downward flows are dominant in street canyons. Near the street bottom, there is a marked difference in flow pattern between in shallow and deep street canyons. Near the street bottom, reverse and downward flows are dominant in shallow street canyon and flow convergence exists near the center of the deep street canyons, which induces a large difference in the NOX and O3 dispersion patterns in the street canyons. NOX concentrations are high near the street bottom and decreases with height. The O3 concentrations are low at high NO concentrations near the street bottom because of NO titration. At a low VOC-NOX ratio, the NO concentrations are sufficiently high to destroy large amount of O3 by titration, resulting in an O3 concentration in the street canyon much lower than the background concentration. At high VOC-NOX ratios, a small amount of O3 is destroyed by NO titration in the lower layer of the street canyons. However, in the upper layer, O3 is formed through the photolysis of NO2 by VOC degradation reactions. As the aspect ratio increases, NOX (O3) concentrations averaged over the street canyons decrease (increase) in the shallow street canyons. This is because outward flow becomes strong and NOX flux toward the outsides of the street canyons increases

  15. Memory device sensitivity trends in aircraft's environment; Evolution de la sensibilite de composants memoires en altitude avion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchet, T.; Fourtine, S. [Aerospatiale-Matra Airbus, 31 - Toulouse (France); Calvet, M.C. [Aerospatiale-Matra Lanceur, 78 - Les Mureaux (France)

    1999-07-01

    The authors present the SEU (single event upset) sensitivity of 31 SRAM (static random access memory) and 8 DRAM (dynamic random access memory) according to their technologies. 2 methods have been used to compute the SEU rate: the NCS (neutron cross section) method and the BGR (burst generation rate) method, the physics data required by both methods have been either found in scientific literature or directly measured. The use of new technologies implies a quicker time response through a dramatic reduction of chip size and of the amount of energy representing 1 bit. The reduction of size makes less particles are likely to interact with the chip but the reduction of the critical charge implies that these interactions are more likely to damage the chip. The SEU sensitivity is then parted between these 2 opposed trends. Results show that for technologies beyond 0,18 {mu}m these 2 trends balance roughly. Nevertheless the feedback experience shows that the number of errors is increasing. This is due to the fact that avionics requires more and more memory to perform numerical functions, the number of bits is increasing so is the risk of errors. As far as SEU is concerned, RAM devices are less and less sensitive comparatively for 1 bit, and DRAM seem to be less sensitive than SRAM. (A.C.)

  16. Exploring the interpersonal relationships in street-based male sex work: results from an Australian qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leary, David; Minichiello, Victor

    2007-01-01

    While the literature on male sex work has increased significantly over the past decade, few studies examine the influence of relational dynamics in the lives of those engaged in male sex work. This qualitative study, conducted with a sample of male street sex workers in Sydney, Australia, explores how relationships color their involvement with sex work. The findings reveal the complexity of their relationships and how their interactions with others shape their engagement in sex work. The data also offer insight into how exit pathways are influenced by money and relationships that occur within this particular male sex work setting. Implications for health policy and intervention are considered.

  17. Tool and ideological knowledge in Street Outreach Office working process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Maria Terumi Maruyama; Larocca, Liliana Muller; Chaves, Maria Marta Nolasco; Piosiadlo, Laura Christina Macedo; Albuquerque, Guilherme Souza

    2016-01-01

    To identify ideological knowledge and tool knowledgethat provide support to the Street Outreach Office working process. Qualitative and exploratory research. TwentyStreet Outreach Office professionals and six users collected the data, applying different semi-structured interview schedules for each category of participants. The resulting categories were analyzed in light of tool and ideological knowledge presented in the working process. From the participant discourses the following ideological knowledge emerged: public policies and the needs of the person ina street situation and tool knowledge, as well as devices and tools for the care of people in street situations and a weekly schedule. The focus on the working process discourse, supported by ideological knowledge, was verified. The structural dimension of the objective reality of the population in street situations was perceptible in the social determination of being situating on the street. When daily situations were revealed, the limitations to be overcome in the working process context were noticed. Identificar os saberes ideológicos e instrumentais que subsidiam o processo de trabalho do Consultório na Rua. Pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória. A coleta de dados foi realizada junto a 20 profissionais e seis usuários do Consultório na Rua de um município do sul do Brasil, por meio de entrevistas com roteiros semiestruturados distintos para cada categoria de participantes. As classes resultantes foram analisadas à luz dos saberes ideológicos e instrumentais presentes no processo de trabalho. Dos discursos dos participantes emergiram os saberes ideológicos: políticas públicas e necessidades da pessoa em situação de rua e os saberes instrumentais: dispositivos e instrumentos no cuidado à pessoa em situação de rua e agenda semanal. Constatou-se a centralidade dos discursos no processo de trabalho, sustentado pelos saberes ideológicos. A dimensão estrutural da realidade objetiva da população em

  18. Application of chemical fractionation for monitoring some trace elements in street and industrial dust from Wadmedani, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed, Ibtihag El hassan

    2000-09-01

    This study monitors some trace elements concentration in street and industrial dust from Wad Medani city, Gezira State in central Sudan. A total of 20 samples of dust were collected from crowded and non-crowded streets, material processing workshop and a tannery. Samples were treated by sequential chemical extraction in five fractions, which termed as exchangeable fraction, carbonate fraction, Fe-Mn oxides fraction, organic matter fraction and residual fraction. The same samples were digested by wet method. The obtained solutions were analyzed for Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb content using Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (AAS) and for Na and K content using Flame Emission Spectrometer (FES). X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRF) was used to determine the total content of Na, K, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn and Pb in the bulk sample. Results of total content, which obtained by AAS, FES and XRF spectrometry, were compared with each other and with total content for the fractionated samples. Certified reference materials from IAEA were analyzed to make sure of the data obtained. The ranges of concentrations obtained are 113-3900 μg/g for Cr, 0.3-110.4 mg/g for Fe, 27-500 μg/g for Ni, 34.7-4390 μ/g for Cu, 62-1320 μg/g for Zn and 40-1250 μg/g for Pb dry weight. The obtained results were analyzed statistically using multivariate methods that include Correlation Matrices, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis. The concentrations of trace elements in street and industrial dust of Wad Medani were compared with those values in literature. It has been observed that the dust from street and industrial area of wad Medani is slightly affected by anthropogenic sources.(Author)

  19. Solar radiation and street temperature as function of street orientation. An analysis of the status quo and simulation of future scenarios towards sustainability in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Joao Pinelo

    2017-01-01

    A countrywide analysis shows that E-W orientation accounts for the highest overall street length with 37%. The second most frequent orientation is N-S (29%, the best performer. NW-SE and NE-SW both have frequencies of only 17%. Preference for a street grid with N-S, NW-SE, and NE-SW orientation would improve the thermal performance of streets and provide a continuous network of a comfortable pedestrian environment. We simulate two future scenarios based on avoiding new E-W streets, or not. We measure their potential reduction in thermal gain and conclude that a simple policy could reduce solar exposition in 40%.

  20. A method for reducing memory errors in the isotopic analyses of uranium hexafluoride by mass spectrometry; Methode de reduction des erreurs de memoire dans les analyses isotopiques de l'hexafluorure d'uranium par spectrometrie de masse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bir, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    One of the most serious causes of systematic error in isotopic analyses of uranium from UF{sub 6} is the tendency of this material to become fixed in various ways in the mass spectrometer. As a result the value indicated by the instrument is influenced by the isotopic composition of the substances previously analysed. The resulting error is called a memory error. Making use of an elementary mathematical theory, the various methods used to reduce memory errors are analysed and compared. A new method is then suggested, which reduces the memory errors to an extent where they become negligible over a wide range of {sup 235}U concentration. The method is given in full, together with examples of its application. (author) [French] Une des causes d'erreurs systematiques les plus graves dans les analyses isotopiques d'uranium a partir d'UF{sub 6} est l'aptitude de ce produit a se fixer de diverses manieres dans le spectrometre de masse. Il en resulte une influence de la composition isotopique des produits precedemment analyses sur la valeur indiquee par l'appareil. L'erreur resultante est appelee erreur de memoire. A partir d'une theorie mathematique elementaire, on analyse et on compare les differentes methodes utilisees pour reduire les erreurs de memoire. On suggere ensuite une nouvelle methode qui reduit les erreurs de memoire dans une proportion telle qu'elles deviennent negligeables dans un grand domaine de concentration en {sup 235}U. On donne le mode operatoire complet et des exemples d'application. (auteur)

  1. Weathering of radiocaesium contamination on urban streets, walls and roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Fogh, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent investigations in Russia have emphasised the significance of dose contributions from contamination on urban streets and roof pavings, and, typically to a lesser extent, walls in the urban environment. The crucial factor determining the magnitude of these contributions is the retention of the contamination by the different types of urban surface. Since the Chernobyl accident, a series of long-term field studies has been carried out on urban streets, walls and roofs, to examine the weathering processes of 137 Cs on the various surface types. The derived time-functions are applied to estimate resultant long-term doses to inhabitants of an urban centre. The paper highlights the effect on caesium retention of surface material characteristics

  2. How to integrate street-level bureaucracies into public management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter; Pedersen, John Storm

    the professionals in the public sector at the street-level such as social-workers, teachers, doctors, and other professionals have maintained autonomy regarding the provision, production and delivery of the specific core welfare services to the citizens as end users. By definition hard budget constraint...... and professionals´ autonomy do not fit well. To explore both theoretically and empirically the conflicts between hard budget constraint and professionals´ autonomy, the professionals´ provision, production and delivery of the services to the citizens with disability and socially disadvantaged people and the public...... management of the public spending on the services in Denmark is used as a case. Surprisingly, we find that the managers have been able to resolve the conflicts between the hard budget constraint and the professionals´ autonomy to a rather high degree. The managers have integrated the street...

  3. Indicators of benzene emissions and exposure in Bangkok street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, S.T.; Laortanakul, Preecha

    2003-01-01

    Ambient benzene measurements were conducted for the first time at four air monitoring sites in the Bangkok metropolitan region (BMR), from January to December 2001. Analytical results show that the mean benzene concentrations range from 42.4 μg/m 3 at the Din Daeng urban site to 15.1 μg/m 3 at the Chaeng Wattana suburban site. The monitoring results show that at a larger distance from the roadside or a higher level from the street surface, the level of benzene decreases. Analysis of the ambient benzene concentrations was carried out with reference to meteorological influences and traffic density. In traffic analysis, the combined effects of street topography and traffic flows established high impact on the overall benzene concentration in Bangkok. Statistical analysis shows good correlations of blood benzene levels and trans, trans-muconic acid with ambient benzene and demonstrated substantial exposure from traffic

  4. Street floods in Metro Manila and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar; Mendoza, Jerico; Cipriano, Fatima; Delmendo, Patricia Anne; Lacsamana, Micah Nieves; Moises, Marc Anthony; Pellejera, Nicanor; Punay, Kenneth Niño; Sabio, Glenn; Santos, Laurize; Serrano, Jonathan; Taniza, Herbert James; Tingin, Neil Eneri

    2017-09-01

    Urban floods from thunderstorms cause severe problems in Metro Manila due to road traffic. Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived topography, flood simulations and anecdotal reports, the root of surface flood problems in Metro Manila is identified. Majority of flood-prone areas are along the intersection of creeks and streets located in topographic lows. When creeks overflow or when rapidly accumulated street flood does not drain fast enough to the nearest stream channel, the intersecting road also gets flooded. Possible solutions include the elevation of roads or construction of well-designed drainage structures leading to the creeks. Proposed solutions to the flood problem of Metro Manila may avoid paralyzing traffic problems due to short-lived rain events, which according to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) cost the Philippine economy 2.4billionpesos/day. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. STREET KETAMINE-ASSOCIATED BLADDER DYSFUNCTION: AN EMERGING HEALTH PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEH GC

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ketamine is frequently abused nowadays as a recreational drug. Case reports are emerging since 2007 to describe a new clinical entity of severe bladder dysfunction associated with chronic abuse of street ketamine. Clinical presentation: Severe lower urinary tract symptoms of urinary frequency and urgency which are refractory to conventional treatment. Quality of life is adversely affected as a consequence. Chronic kidney disease will develop in advanced cases. Investigation findings: The urine is sterile on culture. Ultrasound will show reduced bladder capacity with thickened bladder wall. In advanced stage, hydronephrosis and renal impairment will develop. Treatment: Patients should be advised to stop street ketamine use immediately. Anticholinergic medication could be tried to alleviate the symptoms. Refractory cases with dilatation of the upper urinary tract might need urinary diversion. Conclusion: Awareness of this new condition is essential in diagnosis. Early intervention offers better treatment outcome.

  6. MASMA: a versatile multifunctional unit (gated window amplifier, analog memory, and height-to-time converter); Element multifonctionnel M.A.S.M.A. (module amplificateur a seuil, memoire analogique et convertisseur amplitude-temps)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goursky, V.; Thenes, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    This multipurpose unit is designed to accomplish one of the following functions: - gated window amplifier, - Analog memory and - Amplitude-to-time converter. The first function is mainly devoted to improve the poor resolution of pulse-height analyzers with a small number of channels. The analog memory, a new function in the standard range of plug-in modules, is capable of performing a number of operations: 1) fixed delay, or variable delay dependent on an external parameter (application to the analog processing of non-coincident pulses), 2) de-randomiser to increase the efficiency of the pulse height analysis in a spectrometry experiment, 3) linear multiplexer to allow an analyser to serve as many spectrometry devices as memory elements that it possesses. Associated with a coding scaler, this unit, if used as a amplitude-to-time converter, constitutes a Wilkinson A.D.C with a capability of 10 bits (or more) and with a 100 MHz clock frequency. (authors) [French] Le present element est concu pour etre utilise dans l'un des modes de fonctionnement suivants: - amplificateur a seuil avec porte, - memoire analogique, - convertisseur amplitude-temps. La fonction amplificateur a seuil est destinee principalement a remedier a la resolution insuffisante de certains analyseurs d'amplitude possedant un faible nombre de canaux. La fonction memoire analogique est une fonction qui n'existe pas encore dans la gamme d'elements standardises. Elle peut trouver de nombreuses applications; a titre d'exemple, citons: 1) element de retard fixe ou dependant d'un parametre externe (application au calcul analogique portant sur les impulsions), 2) memoire-tampon: placee devant un analyseur, elle augmente l'efficacite d'analyse d'une chaine de spectrometrie, 3) multiplexeur analogique, permettant a un seul analyseur de desservir autant de voies de spectrometrie qu'il possede de memoires. En fonction convertisseur amplitude-temps, ce tiroir

  7. Literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drury, J.S.; Michelson, D.; Ensminger, J.T.

    1982-01-01

    Literature was searched for methods of removing uranium from drinking water. No relevant papers were found, but approximately 1000 publications were identified in a less specific search for methods of removing uranium from water. Most of the latter publications dealt with the recovery of uranium from ores, industrial and analytical chemistry solutions, or seawater. The conditions under which these studies were performed were usually quite different from those normally occurring in municipal water treatment practice, but some potentially interesting systems of recovery were identified. A few papers addressed the problem of removing uranium from natural fresh waters and established the effectiveness of using adsorbents or coprecipitants, such as aluminum hydroxide, ferric hydroxide, activated carbon, and ion exchangers, under certain conditions. Also, many US manufacturers and users of water treatment equipment and products were contacted regarding recommended methods of removing uranium from potable water. Based on the results of these surveys, it is recommended that untreated, partially treated, and finished water samples from municipal water treatment facilities be analyzed to determine their extent of removal of uranium by presently used procedures. In addition, laboratory studies are suggested to determine what changes, if any, are needed to maximize the effectiveness of treatments that are already in use in existing water treatment plants

  8. The Network Analysis of Urban Streets: A Dual Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, Sergio; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito

    2004-01-01

    The application of the network approach to the urban case poses several questions in terms of how to deal with metric distances, what kind of graph representation to use, what kind of measures to investigate, how to deepen the correlation between measures of the structure of the network and measures of the dynamics on the network, what are the possible contributions from the GIS community. In this paper, the authors addresses a study of six cases of urban street networks characterised by diff...

  9. City of San Francisco, California street tree resource analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; P.J. Peper; Q. Xiao

    2004-01-01

    Street trees in San Francisco are comprised of two distinct populations, those managed by the city’s Department of Public Works (DPW) and those managed by private property owners with or without the help of San Francisco’s urban forestry nonprofit, Friends of the Urban Forest (FUF). These two entities believe that the public’s investment in stewardship of San Francisco...

  10. LEAD: THE SILENT KILLER IN OUR FAVOURITE STREET FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Street vended foods are a very common consumable commodity across age and income groups. It covers a wide range of a variety of food items to suit every need, and are hugely popular all over the country. They can, however, contain toxic heavy metals, like lead, which can pose serious health hazards, including neuropathy, cardiovascular, renal as well as bone diseases. Source of lead can be various artificial food colorants used to increase the palatability of such food, and also automobile emission exhaust smoke that pollutes the street atmosphere, the very place where such food is prepared or kept ready to consume. Contamination with heavy metals is a serious threat because of their toxicity, bioaccumulation and bio magnifications in the food chain. This source of lead toxicity, however, is one aspect of the health hazards that has not been widely explored. The aim of this study is to increase awareness among general population, both consumers and vendors, regarding a very common but often overlooked source of heavy metal contamination. METHODOLOGY Lead was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry after digestion of food with 98% Nitric acid. RESULTS This present study measures the level of lead in various commonly consumed street vended food items across the streets of Kolkata, India, and shows that the range of its level is much higher than the WHO recommended level of lead in food materials. The level also has close association with the food colorant used. In conclusion, the gross lack of awareness among the general population, both at the vendor and the consumer level, regarding this particular health hazard related to the food they consume on a regular basis, needs to be addressed as a serious issue, and personal safety measures should be undertaken.

  11. A simple model for calculating air pollution within street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Laura E.; Mazzeo, Nicolás A.; Dezzutti, Mariana C.

    2014-04-01

    This paper introduces the Semi-Empirical Urban Street (SEUS) model. SEUS is a simple mathematical model based on the scaling of air pollution concentration inside street canyons employing the emission rate, the width of the canyon, the dispersive velocity scale and the background concentration. Dispersive velocity scale depends on turbulent motions related to wind and traffic. The parameterisations of these turbulent motions include two dimensionless empirical parameters. Functional forms of these parameters have been obtained from full scale data measured in street canyons at four European cities. The sensitivity of SEUS model is studied analytically. Results show that relative errors in the evaluation of the two dimensionless empirical parameters have less influence on model uncertainties than uncertainties in other input variables. The model estimates NO2 concentrations using a simple photochemistry scheme. SEUS is applied to estimate NOx and NO2 hourly concentrations in an irregular and busy street canyon in the city of Buenos Aires. The statistical evaluation of results shows that there is a good agreement between estimated and observed hourly concentrations (e.g. fractional bias are -10.3% for NOx and +7.8% for NO2). The agreement between the estimated and observed values has also been analysed in terms of its dependence on wind speed and direction. The model shows a better performance for wind speeds >2 m s-1 than for lower wind speeds and for leeward situations than for others. No significant discrepancies have been found between the results of the proposed model and that of a widely used operational dispersion model (OSPM), both using the same input information.

  12. Masculinity in Majma: An Ethnography of Street Healing in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Anam, Mujibul

    2010-01-01

    Based on empirical research in peri-urban areas in Dhaka, this thesis took the form of an anthropological enquiry into the forms of sexuality popularized by street-canvassers and their advertisement and sale of male potency medicines in Bangladesh. The field study raises as well as explores questions regarding male sexuality and sexual health problems. This study has demonstrated, using ethnographic data, one of the multiple ways in which males’ sexual health problems are being understood and...

  13. Ventilation Processes in a Three-Dimensional Street Canyon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, L.; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 2 (2016), s. 259-284 ISSN 0006-8314 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1554; GA ČR GA15-18964S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : Coherent structures * line source * pollution flux measurements * street canyon * wind tunnel Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.573, year: 2016

  14. LES of flow in the street canyon

    OpenAIRE

    Brechler Josef; Fuka Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Results of computer simulation of flow over a series of street canyons are presented in this paper. The setup is adapted from an experimental study by [4] with two different shapes of buildings. The problem is simulated by an LES model CLMM (Charles University Large Eddy Microscale Model) and results are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. The results in the channel (layout from the experiment) are compared with results with a free top boundary.

  15. LES of flow in the street canyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brechler Josef

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of computer simulation of flow over a series of street canyons are presented in this paper. The setup is adapted from an experimental study by [4] with two different shapes of buildings. The problem is simulated by an LES model CLMM (Charles University Large Eddy Microscale Model and results are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. The results in the channel (layout from the experiment are compared with results with a free top boundary.

  16. Street Hawking: Oppressing the Girl Child or Family Economic Supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Fatima M.

    2009-01-01

    Street hawking in its simplest form is the selling of things along the roads and from one place to the other. In Nigeria this is done almost all the time by young children both males and females. The girl hawkers come to the cities in groups and then go in different directions of the city to hawk their goods. They remain in the city from the early…

  17. Facility to evaluate street lightning solutionsin a realistic urban setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Munkgaard; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new large scale outdoor testing facility for street lighting solutions, that has been establish in Denmark for both research and demonstration purposes. The facility is fitted with lamp posts with an array of sensors and connections to allow for monitoring and control...... of lighting solutions under test. Initial data suggests a 75% reduction in energy usage from use of LED luminaries combined with traffic monitoring systems could be achievable....

  18. Architecture and Art Regulations for Karl Marx Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Mironenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The architecture and art regulations for Karl Marx Street and adjoining territories have been worked out for the Committee for town planning of the Irkutsk city administration. Basic provisions: facades of buildings and structures, outdoor advertising and information facilities, artistic illumination of buildings, elements of land improvements. The main principle is to preserve historical appearance and to create a contemporary and comfortable environment.

  19. Benefits and costs of street trees in Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.L. Soares; F.C. Rego; E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; P.J. Peper; Q. Xiao

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that urban trees produce various types of benefits and costs. The computer tool i-Tree STRATUM helps quantify tree structure and function, as well as the value of some of these tree services in different municipalities. This study describes one of the first applications of STRATUM outside the U.S. Lisbon’s street trees are dominated by Celtis australis...

  20. Suicide and history of childhood trauma among street youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadland, Scott E; Marshall, Brandon D L; Kerr, Thomas; Qi, Jiezhi; Montaner, Julio S; Wood, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Street youth represent a marginalized population marked by early mortality and elevated risk for suicide. It is not known to what extent childhood abuse and neglect predispose to suicide in this difficult-to-study population. This study is among the first to examine the relationship between childhood trauma and subsequent attempted suicide during adolescence and young adulthood among street youth. From October 2005 to November 2007, data were collected for the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a cohort of 495 street-recruited youth aged 14-26 in Vancouver, Canada. Self-reported attempted suicide in the preceding six months was examined in relation to childhood abuse and neglect, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), using logistic regression. Overall, 46 (9.3%) youth reported a suicide attempt during the preceding six months. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were highly prevalent, with 201 (40.6%) and 131 (26.5%) of youth reporting history of each, respectively. Increasing CTQ score was related to risk for suicide attempt despite adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.45 per standard deviation increase in score; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.91). Use of snowball sampling may not have produced a truly random sample, and reliance on self-report may have resulted in underreporting of risk behaviors among participants. Moreover, use of cross-sectional data limits the degree to which temporality can be concluded from the results of this study alone. There exists a strong and graded association between childhood trauma and subsequent attempted suicide among street youth, an otherwise 'hidden' population. There is a need for effective interventions that not only prevent maltreatment of children but also aid youth at increased risk for suicide given prior history of trauma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Eric B.; Matthews, Greg D.; McNinch, Kevin; Poore, Barbara S.

    2011-01-01

    Phase One of the OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype (OSMCP) attempts to determine if the open source software developed for the OpenStreetMap (OSM, http://www.openstreetmap.org) can be used for data contributions and improvements that meet or exceed the requirements for integration into The National Map (http://www.nationalmap.gov). OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype Phase One focused on road data aggregated at the state level by the Kansas Data Access and Support Center (DASC). Road data from the DASC were loaded into a system hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) in Rolla, Missouri. U.S. Geological Survey editing specifications were developed by NGTOC personnel (J. Walters and G. Matthews, USGS, unpub. report, 2010). Interstate and U.S. Highways in the dataset were edited to the specifications by NGTOC personnel while State roads were edited by DASC personnel. Resulting data were successfully improved to meet standards for The National Map once the system and specifications were in place. The OSM software proved effective in providing a usable platform for collaborative data editing

  2. Affordance-based individuation of junctions in Open Street Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Scheider

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an algorithm that can be used to identify automatically the subset of street segments of a road network map that corresponds to a junction. The main idea is to use turn-compliant locomotion affordances, i.e., restricted patterns of supported movement, in order to specify junctions independently of their data representation, and in order to motivate tractable individuation and classification strategies. We argue that common approaches based solely on geometry or topology of the street segment graph are useful but insufficient proxies. They miss certain turn restrictions essential to junctions. From a computational viewpoint, the main challenge of affordance-based individuation of junctions lies in its complex recursive definition. In this paper, we show how Open Street Map data can be interpreted into locomotion affordances, and how the recursive junction definition can be translated into a deterministic algorithm. We evaluate this algorithm by applying it to small map excerpts in order to delineate the contained junctions.

  3. Street dance: form of expressing identity in adolescents and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Petracovschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to foreground the counterculture phenomenon that is provides the basis for street dance and the reasons why young people practise it, as well as to analyse the styles of dance developed within this type of dance. The study was made between February and May 2010 in Timişoara on a number of 149 people practising street dance, 46 girls and 103 boys. The results of the research emphasise that the dancers mainly come from an inferior social background (49.66% or from a middle-class background (46.03% and have been regularly practising breakdance (83.89% for more than five years (32.88%. The effects of practising it can be observed on an overall basis as concerns physical condition, artistic sense, self knowledge, discipline but also culture and way of life. Conclusions show that people practise street dance due to its nonconformist and all alive style that continuously makes use of new moves, new trends but also due to it being a way of socialising within a group.

  4. Formation and interference of two pairs of vortex streets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamemoto, Kyoji

    1976-01-01

    A series of theoretical analysis were made on the mechanism of the formation and interference of two pairs of vortex streets appearing behind a pair of two long bars placed perpendicularly to uniform flow. In the first part, the flow model used for this study is explained. It was assumed that two pairs of vortex sheets having the same interval (h) were placed at the distance of g in non-viscous flow. Then small disturbance was given to the flow, and the behavior of the vortex sheets in course of time was analyzed by solving a set of linear simultaneous differential equations. Eight fundamental modes of small displacement were obtained as the independent solutions of the equations. The fundamental modes and the associated parameters are presented. In the second part, a set of non-linear differential equations were derived by substituting the vortex sheets with vortex streets with finite intensity. The set of equations were solved numerically. The results of numerical solutions for various conditions are presented. Main conclusions drawn from this study are that the condition of the existence of two pairs of vortex sheets is g/h >= 1, and that the mutual interference between two pairs of vortex streets becomes conspicuous for g/h <= 2. Some discussions made by other researchers and the author are also presented at the end of this paper. (Aoki, K.)

  5. Attitudes of business people to proposed smokefree shopping streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimal; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the attitudes of business people toward a possible smokefree policy along a route of major shopping streets, the "Golden Mile" (GM) in central Wellington, New Zealand. Businesses on the GM (n = 303) were visited in June-July 2011. Either the owner or manager from each business was surveyed. A response rate of 65.6% (n = 198) was achieved, with 13.3% declining to participate, and further contact not being productive for 21.2%. Support for making the GM smokefree was 43.4% (95% CI = 36.7%-50.4%), with the remainder opposed. There was significantly higher support among business people who were nonsmokers versus smokers (relative risk = 2.95; 95% CI = 1.48-5.89). Overall, 83.3% (95% CI = 77.0%-88.0%) of respondents stated that a smokefree GM would have either a positive or negligible impact on their business (nonconcern), compared with a negative impact (at 16.7%). Nonconcern about the business impact of a smokefree GM was significantly greater for nonfood businesses (89.9%) versus food businesses (64.0%; p business people may reflect the negligible promotion of the idea in this setting. Nevertheless, the likely business impact of a smokefree streets policy was not a concern for the large majority of these business people, so this may not be a significant barrier to policy development. This type of study can contribute to the process for developing smokefree streets and other outdoor areas, by gauging sector support.

  6. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  7. Individuals with severely impaired vision can learn useful orientation and mobility skills in virtual streets and can use them to improve real street safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Ellen Lambert; Liu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Virtual reality has great potential in training road safety skills to individuals with low vision but the feasibility of such training has not been demonstrated. We tested the hypotheses that low vision individuals could learn useful skills in virtual streets and could apply them to improve real street safety. Twelve participants, whose vision was too poor to use the pedestrian signals were taught by a certified orientation and mobility specialist to determine the safest time to cross the street using the visual and auditory signals made by the start of previously stopped cars at a traffic-light controlled street intersection. Four participants were trained in real streets and eight in virtual streets presented on 3 projection screens. The crossing timing of all participants was evaluated in real streets before and after training. The participants were instructed to say "GO" at the time when they felt the safest to cross the street. A safety score was derived to quantify the GO calls based on its occurrence in the pedestrian phase (when the pedestrian sign did not show DON'T WALK). Before training, > 50% of the GO calls from all participants fell in the DON'T WALK phase of the traffic cycle and thus were totally unsafe. 20% of the GO calls fell in the latter half of the pedestrian phase. These calls were unsafe because one initiated crossing this late might not have sufficient time to walk across the street. After training, 90% of the GO calls fell in the early half of the pedestrian phase. These calls were safer because one initiated crossing in the pedestrian phase and had at least half of the pedestrian phase for walking across. Similar safety changes occurred in both virtual street and real street trained participants. An ANOVA showed a significant increase of the safety scores after training and there was no difference in this safety improvement between the virtual street and real street trained participants. This study demonstrated that virtual reality

  8. Trees as environmental modifier to improve street canyon for pedestrian activities in Muscat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudhayer, Wael A.; Shaaban, Awni K.; Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Street shading efficiency is a function of orientation and profile proportion of its height to width. Under high sun altitude conditions, minimization of solar irradiance within the urban environment may often be a significant criterion in urban design. This reduction in solar irradiance achieved when the obstruction angle is large (high H/W ratio, H=height, W=width). High H/W values often lessen the solar access to streets. The horizontal sprawl of Muscat region is an example of low H/W ratio represented the remarkable challenge that causes the lack of shading rates in the urban street. This characteristic proliferates the negative impact on the pedestrian activities in the urban street. This research aims to improve the morphology of the street to promote the pedestrian behavior. The amendment based on suggesting different configurations of trees to increase effective shading of the urban street in Muscat. The street canyon abstracted into a virtual elongated channel formed of floor and walls of equal heights on both sides. Four street orientations (E/W, N/S, NE/SW, NW/SE) and three H/W ratio (0.5,1 and 2) are considered sufficient representative of street typologies. A mathematical model developed for calculation of shading efficiency of each street canyon. The trees assumed in this study as canyon's modifier to adjust the low H/W ratio of a street canyon to a higher one. Local trees and other plants in Muscat were studied concerning their morphology. The analysis selected two case study in Muscat to investigate the shading performance of their street canyons subsequently propose the modifications to improve it. The research concluded that the suggested changes of the street canyon by using a particular type of trees could increase the H/W ratio of street canyon significantly.

  9. Asessing the air pollution distribution in busy street of Copenhagen in the further development of a street pollution model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Poulsen, Maria B.

    The EU Air Quality Directive requires Member States to perform Air Quality Monitoring in order to assess ambient air quality for compliance checking with air quality limit values (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:152:0001:0044:en:PDF). This monitoring needs to include......) developed at AU; the revised version OSPM includes new features like inhomogeneous distribution of the traffic on different lanes, slope of the street etc (see e.g. Ottosen et al. (2015)). An additional goal for the project is to explore the applicability of low-cost electrochemical sensors for describing...... to get more detailed information about the traffic flow and its diurnal pattern, manual traffic counts have been performed over 24 hours. In addition a video camera has been installed on the roof of a building next to the street during the monitoring campaign. Measurements are carried out using passive...

  10. Medizinhistorische Literatur [Medical history literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bauer, Bruno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available [english] The focus of the current issue 1-2/2012 of GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information is on medical history literature. In six articles special collections and recent projects of medical history libraries in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Vienna and Zurich are presented. The authors in this issue are Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (From Augusta to Klingsor, from Luise to Benjamin – past, present and future of the library of the Institute of the History of Medicine in Berlin, Alexandra Veith (Library of the Institute for History of Medicine and Ethics of Medicine, Heidelberg, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Historic collections of the Medical Library of the University of the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and their deacidification, Dagmar Geithner (Library of the Karl Sudhoff Institute for the History of Medicine and Science, Leipzig – a Historical Review, Harald Albrecht, Bruno Bauer & Walter Mentzel (The Josephinian Library and the medical-historic stock of the University Library of the Medical University of Vienna and Monika Huber & Ursula Reis (Library of the Institute and Museum of the History of Medicine Zurich.[german] Schwerpunktthema der aktuellen Ausgabe 1-2/2012von GMS Medizin – Bibliothek – Information ist medizinhistorische Literatur. In sechs Beiträgen werden Bestände und aktuelle Projekte medizinhistorischer Bibliotheken in Berlin, Hamburg, Heidelberg, Leipzig, Wien und Zürich vorgestellt. Verfasst wurden die Beiträge der Schwerpunktausgabe von Melanie Scholz & Vera Seehausen (Von August zu Klingsor, von Luise zu Benjamin – Vergangenheit, Gegenwart und Zukunft der Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte der Medizin in Berlin, Melanie Kintzel, Meike Knittel & Tanja Krutky (Medizinhistorische Buchbestände am Universitätsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf und ihre Entsäuerung, Ara Veith (Bibliothek des Instituts für Geschichte und Ethik der Medizin in Heidelberg, Dagmar Geithner

  11. Do changes to the local street environment alter behaviour and quality of life of older adults? The 'DIY Streets' intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Curl, Angela; Aspinall, Peter; Alves, Susana; Zuin, Affonso

    2014-07-01

    The burden of ill-health due to inactivity has recently been highlighted. Better studies on environments that support physical activity are called for, including longitudinal studies of environmental interventions. A programme of residential street improvements in the UK (Sustrans 'DIY Streets') allowed a rare opportunity for a prospective, longitudinal study of the effect of such changes on older adults' activities, health and quality of life. Pre-post, cross-sectional surveys were carried out in locations across England, Wales and Scotland; participants were aged 65+ living in intervention or comparison streets. A questionnaire covered health and quality of life, frequency of outdoor trips, time outdoors in different activities and a 38-item scale on neighbourhood open space. A cohort study explored changes in self-report activity and well-being postintervention. Activity levels were also measured by accelerometer and accompanying diary records. The cross-sectional surveys showed outdoor activity predicted by having a clean, nuisance-free local park, attractive, barrier-free routes to it and other natural environments nearby. Being able to park one's car outside the house also predicted time outdoors. The environmental changes had an impact on perceptions of street walkability and safety at night, but not on overall activity levels, health or quality of life. Participants' moderate-to-vigorous activity levels rarely met UK health recommendations. Our study contributes to methodology in a longitudinal, pre-post design and points to factors in the built environment that support active ageing. We include an example of knowledge exchange guidance on age-friendly built environments for policy-makers and planners. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. An investigation on the effect of street morphology to ambient air quality using six real-world cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jialei; Gao, Zhi; Ding, Wowo; Yu, Ying

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are vulnerable to air pollution mainly caused by vehicle emissions, which are therefore closely related to pedestrians' health. Previous studies have showed that air quality in street canyons is associated with street morphology, though the majority of them have focused on idealized street models. This paper attempts to investigate the relationship of street morphology to air quality for 6 irregular real-world cases selected from America, Europe, and China, i.e. Manhattan, Paris, Barcelona, Berlin, London and Nanjing. Each street is analyzed as a set of slices to propose a couple of morphology indices for quantitatively assessing the actual street morphology. Pollutant transport rate of mean flows and turbulent diffusion, net escape velocity and age of air are obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to assess the ventilations and pollutant dispersion within street canyons with a parallel approaching wind. The results show that the street morphology characteristics, including the street width, lateral openings and intersections, are closely related to the air flows in street canyons. The air quality improves with a decreasing aspect ratio of central street owing to a larger vertical exchange through the street roof, which suggests an open central street is of better air quality. The lateral openings and intersections of streets have important effects on the air flows in street canyons, and the effects are particularly pronounced when the street widths are similar. The street continuity ratio indicates street continuity. It relates to the openings and the symmetry of a street and impacts on the air flows and pollutant dispersion through the lateral openings of the central street. The street spatial closure ratio is determined by the street continuity ratio and the aspect ratio of the central street. When the aspect ratio of central street is not excessively high, higher values of street continuity ratio and spatial closure ratio

  13. Estonian literature / Janika Kronberg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kronberg, Janika, 1963-

    2003-01-01

    Sisu: Estonian literature - born on the margins of Europe ; Baltic German literature and its impact ; Seeking the contours of a 'truly' Estonian literature ; Literature and an independent Estonia ; Estonian literature in two cultural spheres ; The fifties and sixties ; Literature and congealed time ; A bold new Estonian literature

  14. Wind-induced single-sided natural ventilation in buildings near a long street canyon: CFD evaluation of street configuration and envelope design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Z.T.; Mak, C.M.

    2018-01-01

    an urban context, this study investigates the wind-induced single-sided natural ventilation in buildings near a long street canyon under a perpendicular wind direction using CFD method. Four aspect ratios (AR) of the street canyon, from 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 to 6.0, are investigated to examine the influence...

  15. The street school Srikandi as an empowerment model of humane education for the street girls of non halfway house in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, RRN; Yani, MT; Imron, A.

    2018-01-01

    The street children have not had a solid emotional mental, however they must deal into the life of street that harsh, competitive and tend to affect negatively for their personality development. Their where abouts on the street is not motivated by family economic factor only, but it is also influenced by the disharmony of role and function of family rules and social environment influences. The street children empowerment that had been conducted by the halfway house does not run effectively. This research was aimed to identify problems faced by the street girls, to describe the efforts to overcome the problems faced by the street girls, and also developing the empowerment model for the street girls in Surabaya who do not stay in the halfway house. This research used qualitative method. The problems are often experienced by the street girls, for instance violence. Besides, imitative behavior arises as a respond towards behavior that happened to them. The parents also play role in the process of social control. The empowerment model that is designed is the educational empowerment through revitalization of family rules. Moreover, life skills education has to be strengthened to improve the welfare standard of living.

  16. Characteristics Of Street Children In Cameroon: A Situational Analysis Of Demographic, Socio-Economic And Behavioural Profiles And Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N. Cumber

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: As children roam the streets in search of shelter, food and other basic needs, their future hangs in the balance. Understanding the plight of street children highlights the need for immediate design and implementation of intervention strategies to prevent children from living in the streets and assist those who have become street children.

  17. Causes of death among street-connected children and youth in Eldoret, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embleton, Lonnie; Ayuku, David; Makori, Dominic; Kamanda, Allan; Braitstein, Paula

    2018-05-15

    Street-connected young people carry a disproportionate burden of morbidities, and engage in a variety of practices that may heighten their risk of premature mortality, yet there are currently no reports in the literature on the rates or risk factors for mortality among them, nor on their causes of death. In low- and middle-income countries they are frequently in situations that violate their human rights, likely contributing to their increased burden of morbidities and vulnerability to mortality. We thus sought to describe the number of deaths annually, causes of death, and determine the number of deaths attributable to HIV among street-connected young people aged 0 to 30 years in Eldoret, Kenya. Eldoret, Kenya has approximately 1900 street-connected young people. We collected data on deaths occurring from October 2009 to December 2016 from Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital records, Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare HIV program records, and utilized verbal autopsies when no records were available. Descriptive analyses were conducted stratified by sex and age category, and frequencies and proportions were calculated to provide an overview of the decedents. We used logistic regression to assess the association between underlying cause of death and sex, while controlling for age and location of death. In total there were 100-recorded deaths, 66 among males and 34 among females; 37% of were among those aged ≤18 years. HIV/AIDS (37%) was the most common underlying cause of death, followed by assault (36%) and accidents (10%) for all decedents. Among males, the majority of deaths were attributable to assault (49%) and HIV/AIDS (26%), while females primarily died due to HIV/AIDS (59%). Our results demonstrate a high number of deaths due to assault among males and HIV/AIDS among males and females. Our findings demonstrate the need for studies of HIV prevalence and incidence among this population to characterize the burden of HIV, particularly among young

  18. Assesment of longwave radiation effects on air quality modelling in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucasse, L.; Buchan, A.; Pain, C.

    2016-12-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics is widely used as a predictive tool to evaluate people's exposure to pollutants in urban street canyons. However, in low-wind conditions, flow and pollutant dispersion in the canyons are driven by thermal effects and may be affected by longwave (infrared) radiation due to the absorption and emission of water vapor contained in the air. These effects are mostly ignored in the literature dedicated to air quality modelling at this scale. This study aims at quantifying the uncertainties due to neglecting thermal radiation in air quality models. The Large-Eddy-Simulation of air flow in a single 2D canyon with a heat source on the ground is considered for Rayleigh and Reynolds numbers in the range of [10e8-10e10] and [5.10e3-5.10e4] respectively. The dispersion of a tracer is monitored once the statistically steady regime is reached. Incoming radiation is computed for a mid-latitude summer atmosphere and canyon surfaces are assumed to be black. Water vapour is the only radiating molecule considered and a global model is used to treat the spectral dependancy of its absorption coefficient. Flow and radiation fields are solved in a coupled way using the finite element solvers Fluidity and Fetch which have the capability of adapting their space and angular resolution according to an estimate of the solution error. Results show significant effects of thermal radiation on flow patterns and tracer dispersion. When radiation is taken into account, the air is heated far from the heat source leading to a stronger natural convection flow. The tracer is then dispersed faster out of the canyon potentially decreasing people's exposure to pollution within the street canyon.

  19. Parametric laws to model urban pollutant dispersion with a street network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulhac, L.; Salizzoni, P.; Mejean, P.; Perkins, R. J.

    2013-03-01

    This study discusses the reliability of the street network approach for pollutant dispersion modelling in urban areas. This is essentially based on a box model, with parametric relations that explicitly model the main phenomena that contribute to the street canyon ventilation: the mass exchanges between the street and the atmosphere, the pollutant advection along the street axes and the pollutant transfer at street intersections. In the first part of the paper the focus is on the development of a model for the bulk transfer street/atmosphere, which represents the main ventilation mechanisms for wind direction that are almost perpendicular to the axis of the street. We then discuss the role of the advective transfer along the street axis on its ventilation, depending on the length of the street and the direction of the external wind. Finally we evaluate the performances of a box model integrating parametric exchange laws for these transfer phenomena. To that purpose we compare the prediction of the model to wind tunnel experiments of pollutant dispersion within a street canyon placed in an idealised urban district.

  20. A Numerical Simulation of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposures in Urban Street Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Fu, X.; Tao, S.

    2016-12-01

    Urban street canyons are usually associated with intensive vehicle emissions. However, the high buildings successively along both sides of a street block the dispersion of traffic-generated air pollutants, which enhances human exposure and adversely affects human health. In this study, an urban scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed with the consideration of street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. Vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows will first disperse inside a street canyon along the micro-scale wind field (generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model) and then leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing, China. We found that an increase of building height along the streets leads to higher pollution levels inside streets and lower pollution levels outside, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, street canyons with equal (or highly uneven) building heights on two sides of a street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry in consideration of traffic demand as well as local weather pattern may significantly reduce the chances of unhealthy air being inhaled by urban residents.

  1. Solar radiation and street temperature as function of street orientation. An analysis of the status quo and simulation of future scenarios towards sustainability in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joao Pinelo

    2017-11-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of street orientation towards the development of a comfortable microclimate for pedestrians in Bahrain. Increasing walkability is a global agenda to address issues such as a) transportation, b) energy consumption, c) health, and d) air pollution, all of which are topics of the sustainability agenda. Thermal comfort is one of the pre-requisites for walkability. In warm climates, this is a challenging goal. Street design is paramount for pedestrian comfort in warm climates. The roles of street orientation and aspect ratio are of particular importance as they determine the intake of solar radiation into the urban canyon. We investigate the state of affairs in Bahrain, by measuring the frequency with which the street orientations E-W, N-S, NE-SW, and NW-SE, currently occur. Research suggests that the street orientation E-W presents the lesser performance for mitigating the effects of heat gain. The ideal grid orientation would, therefore, be N-S, and NE-SW - NW-SE, avoiding street segments with E-W orientation. A countrywide analysis shows that E-W orientation accounts for the highest overall street length with 37%. The second most frequent orientation is N-S (29%), the best performer. NW-SE and NE-SW both have frequencies of only 17%. Preference for a street grid with N-S, NW-SE, and NE-SW orientation would improve the thermal performance of streets and provide a continuous network of a comfortable pedestrian environment. We simulate two future scenarios based on avoiding new E-W streets, or not. We measure their potential reduction in thermal gain and conclude that a simple policy could reduce solar exposition in 40%.

  2. Aerodynamic effects of trees on pollutant concentration in street canyons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Gromke, Christof; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Ruck, Bodo

    2009-09-15

    This paper deals with aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Several parameters affecting pedestrian level concentration are investigated, namely plant morphology, positioning and arrangement. We extend our previous work in this novel aspect of research to new configurations which comprise tree planting of different crown porosity and stand density, planted in two rows within a canyon of street width to building height ratio W/H=2 with perpendicular approaching wind. Sulfur hexafluoride was used as tracer gas to model the traffic emissions. Complementary to wind tunnel experiments, 3D numerical simulations were performed with the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT using a Reynolds Stress turbulence closure for flow and the advection-diffusion method for concentration calculations. In the presence of trees, both measurements and simulations showed considerable larger pollutant concentrations near the leeward wall and slightly lower concentrations near the windward wall in comparison with the tree-less case. Tree stand density and crown porosity were found to be of minor importance in affecting pollutant concentration. On the other hand, the analysis indicated that W/H is a more crucial parameter. The larger the value of W/H the smaller is the effect of trees on pedestrian level concentration regardless of tree morphology and arrangement. A preliminary analysis of approaching flow velocities showed that at low wind speed the effect of trees on concentrations is worst than at higher speed. The investigations carried out in this work allowed us to set up an appropriate CFD modelling methodology for the study of the aerodynamic effects of tree planting in street canyons. The results obtained can be used by city planners for the design of tree planting in the urban environment with regard to air quality issues.

  3. Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Patience; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Owusu-Darko, Kwaku; Ablordey, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or =3 stools per day) by 110 vendors (94.0%), but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9%) associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4%) were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%): 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%), 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9%) and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%). The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. CONCLUSION: Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene. PMID:12163918

  4. Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensah, Patience; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Owusu-Darko, Kwaku; Ablordey, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined as the passage of > or =3 stools per day) by 110 vendors (94.0%), but none associated diarrhoea with bloody stools; only 21 (17.9%) associated diarrhoea with germs. The surroundings of the vending sites were clean, but four sites (3.4%) were classified as very dirty. The cooking of food well in advance of consumption, exposure of food to flies, and working with food at ground level and by hand were likely risk factors for contamination. Examinations were made of 511 menu items, classified as breakfast/snack foods, main dishes, soups and sauces, and cold dishes. Mesophilic bacteria were detected in 356 foods (69.7%): 28 contained Bacillus cereus (5.5%), 163 contained Staphylococcus aureus (31.9%) and 172 contained Enterobacteriaceae (33.7%). The microbial quality of most of the foods was within the acceptable limits but samples of salads, macaroni, fufu, omo tuo and red pepper had unacceptable levels of contamination. Shigella sonnei and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli were isolated from macaroni, rice, and tomato stew, and Salmonella arizonae from light soup. Street foods can be sources of enteropathogens. Vendors should therefore receive education in food hygiene. Special attention should be given to the causes of diarrhoea, the transmission of diarrhoeal pathogens, the handling of equipment and cooked food, hand-washing practices and environmental hygiene.

  5. Effect of asymmetrical street canyons on pedestrian thermal comfort in warm-humid climate of Cuba

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Algeciras, José; Tablada, Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Walkability and livability in cities can be enhanced by creating comfortable environments in the streets. The profile of an urban street canyon has a substantial impact on outdoor thermal conditions at pedestrian level. This paper deals with the effect of asymmetrical street canyon profiles, common in the historical centre of Camagüey, Cuba, on outdoor thermal comfort. Temporal-spatial analyses are conducted using the Heliodon2 and the RayMan model, which enable the generation of accurate predictions about solar radiation and thermal conditions of urban spaces, respectively. On these models, urban settings are represented by asymmetrical street canyons with five different height-to-width ratios and four street axis orientations (N-S, NE-SW, E-W, SE-NW). Results are evaluated for daytime hours across the street canyon, by means of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET index) which allows the evaluation of the bioclimatic conditions of outdoor environments. Our findings revealed that high profiles (façades) located on the east-facing side of N-S streets, on the southeast-facing side of NE-SW streets, on the south-facing side of E-W street, and on the southwest-facing side of SE-NW streets, are recommended to reduce the total number of hours under thermal stress. E-W street canyons are the most thermally stressed ones, with extreme PET values around 36 °C. Deviating from this orientation ameliorates the heat stress with reductions of up to 4 h in summer. For all analysed E-W orientations, only about one fifth of the street can be comfortable, especially for high aspect ratios (H/W > 3). Optimal subzones in the street are next to the north side of the E-W street, northwest side of the NE-SW street, and southwest side of the SE-NW street. Besides, when the highest profile is located on the east side of N-S streets, then the subzone next to the east-facing façade is recommendable for pedestrians. The proposed urban guidelines enable urban planners to create

  6. STREET FIGHTER DE LAS CALLES A LOS ENFRENTAMIENTOS EN LINEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ángel Garfias Frías

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo se enfoca en las relaciones lúdicas que se dan a través del videojuego como mediador entre los usuarios. Específicamente se enfoca en la manera en que los videojugadores construyen rituales en torno a Street Fighter, una de las sagas de videojuegos de peleas cuerpo a cuerpo, más importantes de la industria. El punto central es ver cómo se manifiesta este fenómeno en entornos físicos como los locales de maquinitas y cómo se dio el cambio a los enfrentamientos en entornos virtuales.

  7. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-10-21

    The City of Detroit is undertaking a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) sources to light-emitting diode (LED). Detroit’s well-publicized financial troubles over the last several years have added many hurdles and constraints to this process. Strategies to overcome these issues have largely been successful, but have also brought some mixed results. This document provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far.

  8. Street youth in Colombia: lifestyle, attitudes and knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J

    1994-01-01

    Gamines in Bogota, Colombia, are youths who live on the streets sometimes keeping loose family ties. They belong to informal gangs, use drugs, and survive by doing itinerant informal sector work, begging, and stealing. The New Life Program (NLP) of the Corporacion SOS Aldea de Ninos worked with three other agencies to investigate the lifestyle, attitudes, and knowledge of gamines about HIV/STDs for the purpose of designing AIDS/STD educational activities for the population. Focus group discussions and educational activities were conducted with 12 girls and 18 boys aged 14-25 years who had started living in NLP's shelter while working on the streets. Participants had spent an average of 7 years on the street typically from age 10. Concentrating primarily upon daily survival, these youths act on the basis of intuition and emotions. Verbal communication is essential to gain and maintain their trust. Although their sexual lives are influenced by the family of origin, institutions in which they have resided, and peers, and their daily lifestyles have much influence. Steady partners are sought for affection and romance, while sexual intercourse is had for pleasure and to satisfy biological need. Some homosexuality and prostitution are tolerated. Gangs also gang-rape and expel members thought to be traitors. The idea of birth control exists among the girls, but the boys overwhelmingly reject condom use. The boys got information on sex from prostitutes, erotic magazines, and adults, but girls rarely talk about sex. Many have had STDs and are generally aware about AIDS, but misinformed about transmission modes, symptoms, and treatment. The boys were especially negative about meeting a person with AIDS. Overall, the youths did not perceive themselves as being at risk for HIV infection. Participants also strongly distrusted the health system because many had been turned away for being dirty or received only callous treatment. The author concludes that we must acknowledge that

  9. Street navigation using visual information on mobile phones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Giang; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Høilund, Carsten

    2010-01-01

    Applications with street navigation have been recently introduced on mobile phone devices. A major part of existing systems use integrated GPS as input for indicating the location. However, these systems often fail or make abrupt shifts in urban environment due to occlusion of satellites....... Furthermore, they only give the position of a person and not the object of his attention, which is just as important for localization based services. In this paper we introduce a system using mobile phones built-in cameras for navigation and localization using visual information in accordance with the way we...

  10. America Saves! Energizing Main Street's Small Businesses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindberg, James [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The America Saves! Energizing Main Street Small Businesses project engaged the 1,200-member National Main Street Center (NMSC) network of downtown organizations and other local, regional, and national partners to test a methodology for sharing customized energy efficiency information with owners of commercial buildings smaller than 50,000 square feet. Led by the National Trust for Historic Preservation’s Preservation Green Lab, the project marshalled local staff and volunteers to gather voluntarily-disclosed energy use information from participating businesses. This information was analyzed using a remote auditing tool (validated by the National Renewable Energy Lab) to assess energy savings opportunities and design retrofit strategies targeting seven building types (food service and sales, attached mixed-use, strip mall, retail, office, lodging, and schools). The original project design contemplated extensive leveraging of the Green Button protocol for sharing annualized utility data at a district scale. Due the lack of adoption of Green Button, the project partners developed customized approaches to data collection in each of twelve pilot communities. The project team encountered considerable challenges in gathering standardized annual utility data from local partners. After overcoming these issues, the data was uploaded to a data storehouse. Over 450 properties were benchmarked and the remote auditing tool was tested using full building profiles and utility records for more than 100 commercial properties in three of the pilot communities. The audit tool demonstrated potential for quickly capturing, analyzing, and communicating energy efficiency opportunities in small commercial buildings. However, the project team found that the unique physical characteristics and use patterns (partial vacancy, periodic intensive uses) of small commercial buildings required more trouble-shooting and data correction than was anticipated. In addition, the project revealed that

  11. The levels and patterns of resilience among male street children in Dhaka City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayem, Amir M; Kidd, Sean A

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This study was carried out to identify the factors affecting resilience among street children. The study used a convenience sample of 366 male street children aged 14-17 years in Dhaka City, Bangladesh. The levels of resilience among the street children were mostly moderately low-low (54.1%), followed by low (29.0%), and moderately high-high resilience (16.9%). Multinomial logistic regression analyses indicated that the pre-street factors of education, economic constraint in the family, as well as experiencing and witnessing domestic violence were associated with resilience, with associated street characteristics being drug abuse, experiencing and witnessing violence on street, access to prevention services, and political involvement.

  12. Study of line source characteristics for 2-D physical modelling of pollutant dispersion in street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meroney, Robert N. [Fluid Mechanics and Wind Engineering Program, Civil Engineering Department, Colorado State University Fort Collins, CO (United States); Pavageau, Michel; Rafailidis, Stilianos; Schatzmann, Michael [Meteorologisches Institut, Universitaet Hamburg, Hamburg (Germany)

    1996-08-01

    The University of Hamburg initiated a wind tunnel study of car exhaust dispersion from street canyons in an urban environment to investigate how pollution dispersion is affected by street geometry. Particular emphasis at the beginning of this work was put on the design of a line source to represent traffic exhaust. Pollution dispersion was studied in two dimensions (i.e., infinite-length streets were assumed). The case of an isolated street canyon in open country was examined first. The same street canyon geometry was subsequently studied in an urban environment, i.e., with additional canyons of similar geometry upstream and downstream of the test street. The dynamic and dispersion characteristics of the flow in the two cases were quite different. In the canyon amidst open country we observed better canyon ventilation than in the urban roughness case

  13. The ratio of effective building height to street width governs dispersion of local vehicle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulte, Nico; Tan, Si; Venkatram, Akula

    2015-07-01

    Analysis of data collected in street canyons located in Hanover, Germany and Los Angeles, USA, suggests that street-level concentrations of vehicle-related pollutants can be estimated with a model that assumes that vertical turbulent transport of emissions dominates the governing processes. The dispersion model relates surface concentrations to traffic flow rate, the effective aspect ratio of the street, and roof level turbulence. The dispersion model indicates that magnification of concentrations relative to those in the absence of buildings is most sensitive to the aspect ratio of the street, which is the ratio of the effective height of the buildings on the street to the width of the street. This result can be useful in the design of transit oriented developments that increase building density to reduce emissions from transportation.

  14. “Jones-ing” for a Solution: Commercial Street Surveillance and Privacy Torts in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Hargreaves, Stuart

    2014-01-01

    While street surveillance technologies such as Google Street View are deployed with no discriminatory intent, there is selective scrutiny applied to the published imagery by the anonymous crowd. Disproportionately directed at women and members of ethnic minority groups, this scrutiny means the social risks of street surveillance are not equal. This paper considers the possibility of invasion of privacy actions in tort brought against the commercial service provider as a possible solution. Ana...

  15. Trees in urban street canyons and their impact on the dispersion of automobile exhausts

    OpenAIRE

    Gromke, Christof; Ruck, Bodo

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the influence of trees on the dispersion of automobile exhausts in urban street canyons. For this purpose, measurements have been performed with a small scale wind tunnel model of an idealized, isolated street canyon with model trees placed along the canyon center axis. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) was released from a line source embedded in the street surface, simulating vehicle exhaust emissions. The influence of various tree planting arrangements on ...

  16. THE INFLUENCE OF BUOYANCY ON FLOW AND POLLUTANT DISPERSION IN STREET CANYONS

    OpenAIRE

    Buccolieri, Riccardo; Pulvirenti, Beatrice; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Britter, Rex

    2008-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper, the effect of buoyancy on flow and pollutant dispersion within street canyons is studied by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations. We consider a neutral boundary layer approaching a 3D street canyon assuming a wind direction perpendicular to the street canyon. The Boussinesq hypothesis for incompressible fluids is chosen for modelling buoyancy. We distinguish three cases: leeward, ground and windward wall heating. Thermal effects on both the flow ...

  17. Passive control potentials of trees and on-street parked cars in reduction of air pollution exposure in urban street canyons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abhijith, K.V.; Gokhale, Sharad

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the passive-control-potentials of trees and on-street parked cars on pedestrian exposure to air pollutants in a street canyon using three-dimensional CFD. Since, according to some studies trees deteriorate air quality and cars parked roadside improve it, the combine as well as separate effects of trees and on-street parked cars have been examined. For this, different tree canopy layouts and parking configurations have been developed and pedestrian exposure for each has been analysed. The results showed, for example, tree crown with high porosity and low-stand density in combination with parallel or perpendicular car parking reduced the pedestrian exposure considerably. - Highlights: • Trees and on-street parked cars can manipulate pollutant levels in street canyons. • Low stand density trees with 0° or 90° car parking reduce pedestrian exposure. • Trees with medium crown, high porosity, low stand density reduce pollutant levels. - This study investigated the combination of trees and on-street parked cars to manipulate pollutant levels in urban street canyons to reduce pedestrian exposure

  18. Colin Stephenson Pittendrigh: A Memoir

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spectives in the study of biological clocks", as well as experimental studies, such as his landmark ... At. the time he had written the book in 1943, Kahler's view .... Harvard University, Cambridge since 1966 and is one of the pioneers of modem.

  19. Memoirs of a Cea veteran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puill, A

    2001-07-01

    A brief account is given of the way in which nuclear energy has developed in France and elsewhere over the last fifty years: options developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), naval propulsion, development of pressurised water reactors, MOX and thorium fuels. Afterwards, the prospectives for the 21. century will be discussed. Considering that natural resources are depleting while releases of both greenhouse gases and world population are increasing, an active energy policy will have to be implemented with due consideration for social equity and solidarity. It is in this context that the developed countries will have to give preference, beyond savings, to renewable sources of energy, including of course, nuclear energy. Nuclear energy can continue to develop in the long term, provided fast breeder technology is developed at some point. As far as transport is concerned, hydrogen technology, which is clean and renewable, is promising, provided it is generated by nuclear energy. (author)

  20. Memoirs of a Cea veteran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puill, A.

    2001-01-01

    A brief account is given of the way in which nuclear energy has developed in France and elsewhere over the last fifty years: options developed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA), naval propulsion, development of pressurised water reactors, MOX and thorium fuels. Afterwards, the prospectives for the 21. century will be discussed. Considering that natural resources are depleting while releases of both greenhouse gases and world population are increasing, an active energy policy will have to be implemented with due consideration for social equity and solidarity. It is in this context that the developed countries will have to give preference, beyond savings, to renewable sources of energy, including of course, nuclear energy. Nuclear energy can continue to develop in the long term, provided fast breeder technology is developed at some point. As far as transport is concerned, hydrogen technology, which is clean and renewable, is promising, provided it is generated by nuclear energy. (author)

  1. Exploring the planets a memoir

    CERN Document Server

    Taylor, Fred

    2016-01-01

    This book is an informal, semi-autobiographical history, from the particular viewpoint of someone who was involved, of the exploration of the Solar System using spacecraft. The author is a Northumbrian, a Liverpudlian, a Californian, and an Oxford Don with half a century of experience of devising and deploying experiments to study the Earth and the planets, moons, and small bodies of the Solar System. Along with memories and anecdotes about his experiences as a participant in the space programme from its earliest days to the present, he describes in non-technical terms the science goals that drove the projects as well as the politics, pressures, and problems that had to be addressed and overcome on the way. The theme is the scientific intent of these ambitious voyages of discovery, and the joys and hardships of working to see them achieved. The narrative gives a first-hand account of things like how Earth satellites came to revolutionize weather forecasting, starting in the 1960s; how observations from space ...

  2. "Almost a Woman": A Look at Acculturation through Literature and Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Phillips, Eva

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex web of issues involved in Esmeralda Santiago's acculturation to US society after arriving from Puerto Rico as a girl. The article is based on examples from Santiago's second memoir, "Almost a Woman" (1998) and the 2001 film adaptation of this memoir; the observations of critics who have written about…

  3. Estimating city-level travel patterns using street imagery: A case study of using Google Street View in Britain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Goel

    Full Text Available Street imagery is a promising and growing big data source providing current and historical images in more than 100 countries. Studies have reported using this data to audit road infrastructure and other built environment features. Here we explore a novel application, using Google Street View (GSV to predict travel patterns at the city level.We sampled 34 cities in Great Britain. In each city, we accessed 2000 GSV images from 1000 random locations. We selected archived images from time periods overlapping with the 2011 Census and the 2011-2013 Active People Survey (APS. We manually annotated the images into seven categories of road users. We developed regression models with the counts of images of road users as predictors. The outcomes included Census-reported commute shares of four modes (combined walking plus public transport, cycling, motorcycle, and car, as well as APS-reported past-month participation in walking and cycling.We found high correlations between GSV counts of cyclists ('GSV-cyclists' and cycle commute mode share (r = 0.92/past-month cycling (r = 0.90. Likewise, GSV-pedestrians was moderately correlated with past-month walking for transport (r = 0.46, GSV-motorcycles was moderately correlated with commute share of motorcycles (r = 0.44, and GSV-buses was highly correlated with commute share of walking plus public transport (r = 0.81. GSV-car was not correlated with car commute mode share (r = -0.12. However, in multivariable regression models, all outcomes were predicted well, except past-month walking. The prediction performance was measured using cross-validation analyses. GSV-buses and GSV-cyclists are the strongest predictors for most outcomes.GSV images are a promising new big data source to predict urban mobility patterns. Predictive power was the greatest for those modes that varied the most (cycle and bus. With its ability to identify mode of travel and capture street activity often excluded in routinely carried out

  4. Neglected populations: safeguarding the health of street-involved children in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osei-Twum, Jo-Ann; Wasan, Kishor M

    2012-10-01

    Ensuring the health of street-involved children is a growing public health challenge. These children are vulnerable, neglected, and rarely a priority for basic service providers and governments. Sizable populations of street-involved children are present in major urban areas worldwide and current trends in urbanization suggest these populations will grow in the coming years. Although migration offers employment and training opportunities, the health and wellbeing of children is negatively impacted by their interactions with the streets. However, systemic barriers may also prevent these children from achieving an adequate health status. The situation of street-involved children in Ghana, West Africa will be discussed. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Numerical simulation on pollutant dispersion from vehicle exhaust in street configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassin, Mohamed F; Kellnerová, R; Janour, Z

    2009-09-01

    The impact of the street configurations on pollutants dispersion from vehicles exhausts within urban canyons was numerically investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Three-dimensional flow and dispersion of gaseous pollutants were modeled using standard kappa - epsilon turbulence model, which was numerically solved based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations by the commercial CFD code FLUENT. The concentration fields in the urban canyons were examined in three cases of street configurations: (1) a regular-shaped intersection, (2) a T-shaped intersection and (3) a Skew-shaped crossing intersection. Vehicle emissions were simulated as double line sources along the street. The numerical model was validated against wind tunnel results in order to optimize the turbulence model. Numerical predictions agreed reasonably well with wind tunnel results. The results obtained indicate that the mean horizontal velocity was very small in the center near the lower region of street canyon. The lowest turbulent kinetic energy was found at the separation and reattachment points associated with the corner of the down part of the upwind and downwind buildings in the street canyon. The pollutant concentration at the upwind side in the regular-shaped street intersection was higher than that in the T-shaped and Skew-shaped street intersections. Moreover, the results reveal that the street intersections are important factors to predict the flow patterns and pollutant dispersion in street canyon.

  6. Street Connectivity is Negatively Associated with Physical Activity in Canadian Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Janssen

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Street connectivity, defined as how well streets connect to one and other and the density of intersections, is positively associated with active transportation in adults. Our objective was to study the relation between street connectivity and physical activity in youth. Study participants consisted of 8,535 students in grades 6–10 from 180 schools across Canada who completed the 2006 Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC survey. Street connectivity was measured in a 5 km circular buffer around these schools using established geographic information system measures. Physical activity performed outside of school hours was assessed by questionnaire, and multi-level regression analyses were used to estimate associations with street connectivity after controlling for several covariates. Compared to students living in the highest street connectivity quartile, those in the second (relative risk = 1.22, 95% confidence interval = 1.10–1.35, third (1.25, 1.13–1.37, and fourth (1.21, 1.09–1.34 quartiles were more likely to be physically active outside of school. In conclusion, youth in neighbourhoods with the most highly connected streets reported less physical activity outside of school than youth from neighbourhoods with less connected streets. Relationships between street connectivity and physical activity reported in this national study are in the opposite direction to those previously observed for active transportation in adult populations.

  7. Influence of cetane improvers on the air quality in an urban street canyon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.; Akutsu, Y.; Arai, M.; Tamura, M.

    2000-01-01

    The concentration distributions of NO x , PM, HC and CO in an urban street canyon have been estimated using a two-dimensional air quality numerical model based on the k-e turbulent model and the atmospheric convection diffusion equation when various cetane improvers were used in diesel fuels. A wind vortex can be found within the street canyon, and the pollutants emitted from the bottom of the street canyon tend to follow the course of the wind field, moving circularly. The addition of cetane improvers can improve the air quality in a street canyon, all of the pollutants were found to decrease with increasing cetane number. (Author)

  8. Analyzing Street Art to Present the Heritage of George Town, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyedehelham Sadatiseyedmahalleh

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Street art comprises all kinds of art developed in public locations. This form of art has spread to all heritage streets in George Town, the capital of Penang Island, which is also a known UNESCO World Heritage Site. However, instead of its heritage, food, and interesting past life and structure, the rapid multiplication of street art in George Town has created a new and unusual art that attracts tourists. Street art has spread to small roads and heritage streets in the city. This art increases the awareness of spectators by introducing them to the rich history of these streets and inducing a lively concept in the inner city of George Town. Accordingly, the impact of iron rod sculptures and murals, which comprises approximately 90% of street art in George Town, were determined to explore and identify the effects of this street art on this world heritage site. The findings were obtained from 263 out of 306 questionnaires accomplished by tourists in George Town. The results confirm that tourists prefer murals over iron rod sculptures. Iron rod sculptures are designed to tell the history of the street, whereas murals are designed to create aesthetic value. The findings indicated that similar to iron rod sculptures, more control should be exercised on the subjects of murals.

  9. Multi-scale modeling of urban air pollution: development of a Street-in-Grid model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Youngseob; Wu, You; Seigneur, Christian; Roustan, Yelva

    2016-04-01

    A new multi-scale model of urban air pollution is presented. This model combines a chemical-transport model (CTM) that includes a comprehensive treatment of atmospheric chemistry and transport at spatial scales greater than 1 km and a street-network model that describes the atmospheric concentrations of pollutants in an urban street network. The street-network model is based on the general formulation of the SIRANE model and consists of two main components: a street-canyon component and a street-intersection component. The street-canyon component calculates the mass transfer velocity at the top of the street canyon (roof top) and the mean wind velocity within the street canyon. The estimation of the mass transfer velocity depends on the intensity of the standard deviation of the vertical velocity at roof top. The effect of various formulations of this mass transfer velocity on the pollutant transport at roof-top level is examined. The street-intersection component calculates the mass transfer from a given street to other streets across the intersection. These mass transfer rates among the streets are calculated using the mean wind velocity calculated for each street and are balanced so that the total incoming flow rate is equal to the total outgoing flow rate from the intersection including the flow between the intersection and the overlying atmosphere at roof top. In the default option, the Leighton photostationary cycle among ozone (O3) and nitrogen oxides (NO and NO2) is used to represent the chemical reactions within the street network. However, the influence of volatile organic compounds (VOC) on the pollutant concentrations increases when the nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentrations are low. To account for the possible VOC influence on street-canyon chemistry, the CB05 chemical kinetic mechanism, which includes 35 VOC model species, is implemented in this street-network model. A sensitivity study is conducted to assess the uncertainties associated with the use of

  10. LED Street Lighting Solutions: Flagstaff, Arizona as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Jeffrey C.

    2018-01-01

    Dark-sky protection in Flagstaff, Arizona extends back to 1958, with the first ordinance in the City banning advertising floodlights. The current ordinance, adopted in 1989, is comprehensive and has played a critical role in maintaining the quality of the night sky for astronomy, tourism, public enjoyment, and other purposes. Flagstaff, like many communities around the world, is now working on a transition from legacy bulb-based technology to LED for its outdoor lighting. The City, Lowell Observatory, the U. S. Naval Observatory, and the Flagstaff Dark Skies Coalition have been working intensively for two years to identify an LED-based street lighting solution that will preserve the City's dark skies while meeting municipal needs. We will soon be installing test fixtures for an innovative solution incorporating narrow-band amber LED and modest amounts of low-CCT white LED. In this talk, I will review the types of LEDs available for outdoor lighting and discuss the plans for Flagstaff's street lighting in the LED era, which we hope will be a model for communities worldwide.

  11. Vulnerability on the streets: female sex workers and HIV risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyett, P M; Warr, D J

    1997-10-01

    In-depth interviews were conducted with 24 purposively selected female sex workers who were perceived to be vulnerable to risks associated with their lifestyle and occupation. Brothel workers were found to be considerably less exposed to risk than the women working on the streets. Client resistance was the major obstacle to women maintaining safe sex practices. Physical threats and coercion from clients, the absence of legal protection for street workers, the workers' extreme social isolation and lack of community support added to the difficulties experienced by women in their attempts to insist on condoms for all sex services. Youth, homelessness and heavy drug use had contributed to women being at times even more vulnerable because they had less capacity to manage situations of potential violence or STD risk. Whether through sex work or in their private relationships, HIV remains a risk for some of these women. This study highlights the dangers associated with illegal sex work. While decriminalization of prostitution would reduce some of the dangers to which women were exposed and increase women's capacity to insist on safe sex practices, it is also important for community education programmes to address men's failure to accept responsibility for condom use when seeking the services of sex workers.

  12. HIV among the street dwellers of Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Agudelo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the prevalence of HIV among the street dwellers of the city of Medellin (Colombia as well as their socio-demographic characteristics in order to deepen the understanding of the problems faced by this vulnerable group. Methodology: a cross-sectional study was conducted in which HIV seroprevalence and risk behaviors were determined. Data was processed using the SPSS 8.0 software, and the bivariate analysis was conducted using statistical methods. Results: a survey was conducted on 230 street dwellers, 69.6% of which were men. The average age was 38 ± 10.9 years, and HIV prevalence was 7.8%. This prevalence was 10% for men and 2.9% for women. The rate of infected individuals was 12% for those aged 25 to 34, 11% for individuals aged 55, and 8% for those aged 18 to 24. Additionally, 41% of men and 30% of women had correct beliefs regarding HIV transmission. Discussion: the prevalence value of 7.8%, shows that HIV infections in Colombia are concentrated in populations in a state of exclusion, stigma, and discrimination. This value also shows a need for actions targeting vulnerable groups.

  13. Four rules for taking your message to Wall Street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, A

    2001-05-01

    Managers fail to communicate effectively with Wall Street for all sorts of reasons. But neglecting the investment community--particularly the analysts whose opinions shape the market and whose recommendations often make or break a company's share price--can knock the most carefully conceived and brilliantly executed strategy off course. The companies that struggle the most with providing good information to analysts are those in rapidly evolving industries, where the gap between traditional performance metrics and economic realities is at its widest. In these industries, a company's strategy and the variables that govern its performance can change radically in a short time. What's more, the metrics used to report performance often fail to capture the drivers of value in today's information economy. Few accounting measures are helpful when it comes to assessing the intangible assets--knowledge, skilled employees, and so forth--on which many of today's fastest-growing companies build their strategies. According to Amy Hutton, an associate professor at Harvard Business School, there are four basic rules for clear communications with Wall Street. First, make sure that your company's financial reporting reflects your strategy as closely as possible. Second, popularize the nonfinancial metrics that best predict--and flatter--the performance of your businesses. Third, appoint managers with recognized credibility to your strategic operations. Finally, cultivate the market experts who cover the industries in which you seek to compete. Hutton shows how AOL successfully followed these rules as it significantly changed its strategic direction and competitive arena.

  14. Hawadith Street Initiative: A unique Sudanese childhood charity experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Awad Mohamed; A-Rahman, Nada Hassan Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Due to escalating conflicts and resultant economic constraints, different social services in low income and low-middle income countries have witnessed a decline in its standards, and increase in the costs. This situation has led to emergence of large numbers of patients and their families who cannot afford the costs of health services provided by public hospitals. On this background, and the old heritage of the Sudanese to help the needy, the Hawadith Street Initiative (HSI) was established. Named after the street on which it was founded - which translates indirectly to "Accidents Lane", HSI was established in 2012 by a group of youths, most of them in their twenties of age, and recently graduated. The main activity of the initiative is helping the needy hospital patients, especially with regards to their treatment costs, in Khartoum and other cities in Sudan. Starting with recreational programs for cancer patients, and public campaigns for donation of blood, the initiative's youths changed their activities. Using the social media, Facebook, they adopted the strategy of communication with potential donors, after sending posts containing brief anonymous presentations and call of help for needy cases. Currently HSI includes more than 2000 volunteers in Khartoum and 17 other cities. The most important achievement of HSI is the establishment of an intensive care unit at a children hospital in Omdurman city costing 435,880 US dollars. HSI demonstrates the possibility of delivering great services with minimum resources, and constitutes a unique organization, worldwide, in a new wave of Internet-based initiatives.

  15. Microbial Hazards of Street-Vended Grilled Chicken Intestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma. Patricia Azanza

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Microbial hazards associated with street-vended grilled chicken intestine (isaw were studied. Grilling of isaw effected ≥89.00% decrease in the total microbial load of the sample. Cooked isaw contained about 105-106 cfu/g aerobic plate counts and 103-104 MPN/g coliform counts. Salmonella per 25 g sample was isolated from cooked isaw samples. Grilling eliminated Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes cells initially present in pre-cooked samples. Different sauces of isaw showed increasing numbers of total aerobic microorganisms and coliform during vending operations. The total plate counts and coliform counts of the sour sauce, which ranged from 103-105 cfu/g and 101 MPN/g, respectively, were observed to be lower than those found in the sweet sauce. Sources of microbial contaminants of grilled chicken isaw included the natural flora of the raw materials, contaminations from food-contact surfaces, bamboo skewers, and the hands of the food handlers. Among the critical control points identified in the street-vending operation of chicken isaw were the control of time and temperature during cooking and hold-on periods during vending operations.

  16. Work of grief over infancy in street adolescents in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amana Evelyne

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Adolescence is a period that is marked by an identity crisis which is itself a consequence of the balance-unsettling puberty transformations following the earlier resolution of the oedipal complex. Balance will be once again activated after the latency period. These transformations trigger others on the affective level (emotional, bonds to earlier objects. A crisis in the social bond can also be observed through this questioning of norms along with family and social values. These different crises contributing to identity construction are "developmental tasks" typical in subjects who actually go through this period; hence they constitute an important process of maturation. The subject can however face difficulties fulfilling those tasks. The article engages this challenge of grieving the passing infancy with its particular symbols as experienced by some adolescents in their responsibility to work out new symbols. In fact, every developmental crisis should, according to Wallon (1963, mediate the passing to the next stage. It is therefore manageable. In the special case of adolescents in the street, the persistence of the crisis characterized by anti-social behaviors specific to this population is nothing else but the difficulty in letting go of the symbols of infancy. This argument about the ‘grieving over infancy’ or mourning of infancy draws on works such as Nasio (2004; Delvenne Nicolis (2007; Marteaux (2008 and Franceschini (2012. The results collected through interviews and observations show the persistence in ‘street adolescents’ of behaviors unfavorable to the realization and reorganization of identity.

  17. A Traffic Prediction Algorithm for Street Lighting Control Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPA Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a traffic prediction algorithm that can be integrated in a street lighting monitoring and control system. The prediction algorithm must enable the reduction of energy costs and improve energy efficiency by decreasing the light intensity depending on the traffic level. The algorithm analyses and processes the information received at the command center based on the traffic level at different moments. The data is collected by means of the Doppler vehicle detection sensors integrated within the system. Thus, two methods are used for the implementation of the algorithm: a neural network and a k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbor prediction algorithm. For 500 training cycles, the mean square error of the neural network is 9.766 and for 500.000 training cycles the error amounts to 0.877. In case of the k-NN algorithm the error increases from 8.24 for k=5 to 12.27 for a number of 50 neighbors. In terms of a root means square error parameter, the use of a neural network ensures the highest performance level and can be integrated in a street lighting control system.

  18. Street-weary in Bogota. Voices of girls 3: Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, T

    1998-01-01

    In Colombia, people displaced by rural violence have crowded Bogota's slums, where inhabitants are plagued by alcoholism, drug dependency, and violence. Violence against children is epidemic in Colombia, and education, which is supposed to be free, is in reality so expensive that over a third of children fail to complete primary school. Street culture beckons children, and one agency has identified 7454 girl prostitutes in Bogota and believes there are another 1000 who have not yet been contacted. Most of these girls are from low-income families residing in inner-city slums, and many were sexually abused at an early age by a male relative. Almost all start using drugs, and more than 80% are infected with sexually transmitted diseases, including 15% who have HIV/AIDS. Even efforts to help these children can go astray, as some learn deviant behavior from fellow residents of children's homes. The biggest danger faced by girls and boys alike on the street is rape, and some children report being raped by policemen. The Renacer Foundation is working to rehabilitate children in its residential units and has achieved success in some cases. In other cases, success is slow to achieve and hard to maintain because it is difficult, if not impossible, for the children to recover from early abuse. Colombia lacks a nationwide needs assessment or primary intervention program to prevent early abuse and to help vulnerable girls. The only programs available to help the children already in trouble use outdated methods and are severely overcrowded.

  19. Evaluation on Living Public Spaces and Their Qualities - Case Study from Ankara Konur, Karanfil and Yüksel Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürer, Nilüfer; Imren Güzel, Burcu; Kavak, Ibrahim

    2017-10-01

    Public spaces constitute one of the main elements of the living cities. They stand out as places reflecting the social structure of the society and the past values. They appear as the places one can observe the changes and modernity of the society as well as socializing places. Following to private and semi-private spaces, public spaces such as streets, squares and parks provide people a chance to be together and contact with each other. In living and vibrant places with these random appointments they feel that they belong to social urban life. Therefore, well-designed living public spaces are important indicators of the quality of life and user satisfaction. In the scope of this paper the basic principles and design criteria that create living public spaces and their effects on user satisfaction are discussed. By analysing the spatial reflections of used design criteria it is aimed to relate the existing arrangements to user satisfaction. For these analysis, Yüksel Street located at Kızılay Square in Ankara centre and side streets of Karanfil and Konur (all car-free) were selected as case study area. This area is one of the most important and most densely used pedestrian zone of the capital with its green pattern, location and crossroads. At the beginning, basic design criteria and implementation methods are detailed with the literature survey. Then basic criteria and design principles are verified by using field studies including a survey with randomly asked 270 questionnaires. For defining the user satisfaction and bringing out the qualifications and failures in the case study area user surveys are analysed by field study observations and SPSS Statistics software. Finally, practical suggestions which are believed to be useful for this type of public places in developing and less developed countries are proposed

  20. Moving targets: Promoting physical activity in public spaces via open streets in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipp, J Aaron; Bird, Alyssa; van Bakergem, Margaret; Yarnall, Elizabeth

    2017-10-01

    Popularity of Open Streets, temporarily opening streets to communities and closing streets to vehicles, in the US has recently surged. As of January 2016, 122 cities have hosted an Open Streets program. Even with this great expansion, the sustainability of Open Streets remains a challenge in many cities and overall Open Streets in the US differ from their successful counterparts in Central and South America. Between summer 2015 and winter 2016, we reviewed the websites and social media of the 122 identified programs and interviewed 32 unique Open Streets programs. Websites and social media were reviewed for program initiation, number of Open Streets days, length of routes, duration of program, and reported participation. Interview questions focused on barriers and facilitators of expanding Open Streets and specific questioning regarding local evaluation activities. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and analyzed with constant comparative methodology. Over three-quarters of US Open Streets programs have been initiated since 2010, with median frequency of one time per year, 4h per date, and 5000-9999 participants. Seventy-seven percent of program routes are under 5km in length. Success of programs was measured by enthusiasm, attendance, social media, survey metrics, and sustainability. Thirteen of 32 program organizers expressed interest in expanding their programs to 12 dates per year, but noted consistent barriers to expansion including funding, permitting, and branding. Though many cities now host Open Streets programs, their ability to effect public health remains limited with few program dates per year. Coordinated efforts, especially around funding, permitting, and branding may assist in expanding program dates. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were checked. Respondents' importance and satisfaction of street food hygiene and selection attributes were also measured. In order to test for the difference between groups, χ2-test and t-test were performed. ISA was also performed to analyze importance and satisfaction. RESULTS Results showed that the importance of sanitation was significantly higher than satisfaction on all items in both Korea and Taiwan, and the satisfaction with sanitation was higher in Taiwan than in Korea. According to ISA results with street food sanitation, satisfaction was low while importance was high in both Korea and Taiwan. In terms of street food choice factor, importance scores were significantly higher than satisfaction scores on all items. In addition, satisfaction scores on all items except 'taste' were significantly higher in Taiwan than in Korea. CONCLUSIONS A manual on sanitation management of street foods should be developed to change the knowledge and attitude toward sanitation by putting into practice a regularly conducted education. Considering the popularity of street foods and its potential as a tourism resource to easily publicize our food culture, thorough management measures should be prepared on sanitation so that safe street food culture should be created. PMID:26060542

  2. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were checked. Respondents' importance and satisfaction of street food hygiene and selection attributes were also measured. In order to test for the difference between groups, χ(2)-test and t-test were performed. ISA was also performed to analyze importance and satisfaction. Results showed that the importance of sanitation was significantly higher than satisfaction on all items in both Korea and Taiwan, and the satisfaction with sanitation was higher in Taiwan than in Korea. According to ISA results with street food sanitation, satisfaction was low while importance was high in both Korea and Taiwan. In terms of street food choice factor, importance scores were significantly higher than satisfaction scores on all items. In addition, satisfaction scores on all items except 'taste' were significantly higher in Taiwan than in Korea. A manual on sanitation management of street foods should be developed to change the knowledge and attitude toward sanitation by putting into practice a regularly conducted education. Considering the popularity of street foods and its potential as a tourism resource to easily publicize our food culture, thorough management measures should be prepared on sanitation so that safe street food culture should be created.

  3. Developing an indicators plan and software for evaluating Street Cleanliness and Waste Collection Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iago López

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available An app to evaluate the Street Cleanliness and Waste Collection Service was developed. This app is based on a Plan of Indicators that can be used to evaluate the Street Cleanliness and Waste Collection Service of Santander municipality. Specific methodologies for calculating and evaluating 59 indicators have been developed to obtain information regarding the status of the different elements of the service. The Plan of Indicators has been applied to Santander city. The app was designed to address, but is not limited to, the following goals: i to obtain, store and calculate information regarding the above indicators and ii to disseminate the results of the status of the elements of the Service to the public sector. The app that was developed can provide a quick view of the results obtained for each indicator in each district, which is useful for making an appropriate diagnosis of the city’s cleanliness and is the first step in the decision making and Service optimisation processes. Detailed results for the Street Cleanliness Index are shown for each district of Santander city. The Street Cleanliness Index values are also related to the Frequency Street Cleanliness Services parameters. Pearson correlation coefficient results suggest that an inverse relationship between the Street Cleanliness Index values and the Frequency Street Cleanliness Services/population density ratio exists (R2 = −0.63. The results show that Street Cleanliness Index worst values exist for those districts that have a lower Frequency Street Cleanliness Services /population density parameter. The results are useful for designing and optimising the Street Cleanliness Service. For the decision making process, resources should be allocated where necessary, which seems to be those districts with lower Frequency Street Cleanliness Services /population density ratios.

  4. Virtual street-crossing performance in persons with multiple sclerosis: Feasibility and task performance characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton, M E; Pilutti, L A; Crowell, J A; Kaczmarski, H; Motl, R W

    2017-01-02

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disease that commonly results in physical and cognitive dysfunction. Accordingly, MS might impact the ability to safely cross the street. The purpose of this study was to examine the feasibility of a simulated street-crossing task in persons with MS and to determine differences in street-crossing performance between persons with MS and non-MS controls. 26 participants with MS (median Expanded Disability Status Scale [EDSS] score = 3.5) and 19 controls completed 40 trials of a virtual street-crossing task. There were 2 crossing conditions (i.e., no distraction and phone conversation), and participants performed 20 trials per condition. Participants were instructed that the goal of the task was to cross the street successfully (i.e., without being hit be a vehicle). The primary outcome was task feasibility, assessed as completion and adverse events. Secondary outcomes were measures of street-crossing performance. Overall, the simulated street-crossing task was feasible (i.e., 90% completion, no adverse events) in participants with MS. Participants with MS waited longer and were less attentive to traffic before entering the street compared with controls (all P .05). A virtual street-crossing task is feasible for studying street-crossing behavior in persons with mild MS and most individuals with moderate MS. Virtual street-crossing performance is impaired in persons with MS compared to controls; however, persons with MS do not appear to be more vulnerable to a distracting condition. The virtual reality environment presents a safe and useful setting for understanding pedestrian behavior in persons with MS.

  5. Structured Literature Review of digital disruption literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesti, Helle; Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss; Gertsen, Frank

    2018-01-01

    Digital disruption is a term/phenomenon frequently appearing in innovation management literature. However, no academic consensus exists as to what it entails; conceptual nor theoretical. We use the SLR-method (Structured Literature Review) to investigate digital disruption literature. A SLR......-study conducted in 2017 revealed some useful information on how disruption and digital disruption literature has developed over a specific period. However, this study was less representative of papers addressing digital disruption; which is the in-depth subject of this paper. To accommodate this, we intend...... to conduct a similar SLR-study assembling a body literature having digital disruption as the only common denominator...

  6. Literature Teaching in ELT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To show the importance of literature teaching in English language teaching (ELT),this paper explores the relations between language, culture and literature,examines the present problems in literature teaching and possible solutions are suggested as well.

  7. Improving urban visibility through fractal analysis of street edges: The case of John Evans Atta Mills High Street in Accra, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Oppong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Streets are a representation of cities, and the image of a city is a reflection of its home country. Although attempts to ensure harmonious spatial and environmental development in Ghanaian settlements date back to the colonial era, these efforts have minimal physical manifestation in the urban fabric of the city of Accra. The Independence Arch of Ghana, an important landmark in the urban fabric and history of Accra, lacks the striking vista and approach it deserves. This paper introduces the use of fractal analysis of street edges to understand the characteristics of the John Evans Atta Mills (JEAM High Street for developing recommendations to improve visibility along its stretch and the overall image of the city. The box-counting method with visual survey was used in research. The pertinent questions this paper seeks to address are as follows: What factors affect the visibility and imageability of JEAM High Street? What design aspects should be considered to improve urban visibility along JEAM High Street? What is the link of fractals to urban design and architecture? The paper recommends various design considerations and qualities to improve the urban visibility and imageability of JEAM High Street.

  8. Evaluation of the Street Pollution Model OSPM for Measurements at 12 Streets Stations Using a Newly Developed and Freely Available Evaluation Tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ketzel, Matthias; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Brandt, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    In the present work, the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) has been evaluated in comparison with continuous half-hourly measurements over a multi-year period for five permanent street monitor stations that constitute part of the Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme as well as with pass......In the present work, the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM) has been evaluated in comparison with continuous half-hourly measurements over a multi-year period for five permanent street monitor stations that constitute part of the Danish Air Quality Monitoring Programme as well...... the observations well, especially for the most recent years, while for NO2 the model over-predicts in two cases. The explanation for this over-prediction is believed to be uncertainties in the traffic or emission input data, but also in model parameters, and the representativeness of the urban background data may....... OSPM calculations for nine streets with passive sampler measurements were conducted as ‘blind test’ i.e. without knowing the measured values. OSPM calculations were in good agreement with the measurements for seven out of nine street sections. Refinements of the input data lead to a significant...

  9. Impacts of Street-Visible Greenery on Housing Prices: Evidence from a Hedonic Price Model and a Massive Street View Image Dataset in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Street greenery is a component of urban green infrastructure. By forming foundational green corridors in urban ecological systems, street greenery provides vital ecological, social, and cultural functions, and benefits the wellbeing of citizens. However, because of the difficulty of quantifying people’s visual perceptions, the impact of street-visible greenery on housing prices has not been fully studied. Using Beijing, which has a mature real estate market, as an example, this study evaluated 22,331 transactions in 2014 in 2370 private housing estates. We selected 25 variables that were classified into three categories—location, housing, and neighbourhood characteristics—and introduced an index called the horizontal green view index (HGVI into a hedonic pricing model to measure the value of the visual perception of street greenery in neighbouring residential developments. The results show that (1 Beijing’s homebuyers would like to reside in residential units with a higher HGVI; (2 Beijing’s homebuyers favour larger lakes; and (3 Beijing’s housing prices were impacted by the spatial development patterns of the city centre and multiple business centres. We used computer vision to quantify the street-visible greenery and estimated the economic benefits that the neighbouring visible greenery would have on residential developments in Beijing. This study provides a scientific basis and reference for policy makers and city planners in road greening, and a tool for formulating street greening policy, studying housing price characteristics, and evaluating real estate values.

  10. Exposure to maltreatment and urban violence in children working on the streets in São Paulo, Brazil: factors associated with street work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea F. Mello

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To quantitatively study the exposure to childhood maltreatment and urban violence in children from families with at least one child working on the streets and to investigate the relationship between these factors and street work. Methods: Families who participated in a nongovernmental organization (NGO program to eliminate child labor were included. Data concerning sociodemographic characteristics, punishment methods used in the family environment against the children, five types of abuse and neglect perpetrated by the caregivers, urban violence exposure and family functioning were collected. Results: The sample included 126 children who were working on the streets and 65 siblings who were not working on the streets. Caregivers reported high levels of severe physical punishment. The children reported high levels of abuse and neglect, and high levels of urban violence exposure. The families showed a predominance of dysfunctional and unsatisfactory relationships. A multiple logistic regression model showed that age older than 12 years and severe physical punishment at home were associated with street work. Conclusion: Interventions to decrease the risk of child street work should be family-focused and should aim to reduce violence in the family environment.

  11. Design of Solar Street Lamp Control System Based on MPPT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Fengying

    This paper proposes a new solar street lamp control system which is composed of photovoltaic cell, controller, battery and load. In this system controller as the key part applies the microchip to achieve many functions. According to the nonlinear output characteristics of solar cell and the influence of environment, it uses the perturbation and observation (P&O) method to realize the maximum power point tracking (MPPT) and promotes the efficiency. In order to prolong the battery life the pulse width modulation (PWM) charge mode is selected to control the battery capacity and provent the battery from the state of over-charge and over-discharge. Meanwhile the function of temperature compensation, charge and discharge protection are set to improve the running safety and stability.

  12. Occupy Wall Street: From Representation to Post-Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Tormey

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Trying to assess something as recent and dynamic as Occupy Wall Street (OWS presents problems for political analysts. There is always a danger that by the time one has written in judgement the event-movement will have morphed into something quite different. For this reason alone we need to be careful about offering too definitive a judgment on what it represents, about what we think is new in the phenomenon as well as what we think presents linkages to the past. On the one hand, OWS is still in the process of becoming-something . On the other hand, though, we can see the outline of more or less familiar characteristics that might help orientate us towards something that is being greeted as a new departure.

  13. The scholarly rebellion of the early Baker Street Irregulars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Mills

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This work provides and analyzes an early institutional history of the pioneering Sherlock Holmes American fan club, the Baker Street Irregulars (BSI. Using the publications and records of these devoted Sherlockians, I track the BSI's development from a speakeasy gathering in 1934 to a national organization by the mid-1940s. This growth was built on a foundation of Victorian nostalgia and playful humor. Yet at the same time the members of the Irregulars took their fandom seriously, producing Sherlockian scholarship and creating an infrastructure of journals, conferences, and credentialing that directly mimicked the academy. They positioned themselves in contrast to prevailing scholarly practices of the period, such as New Criticism. I trace both how their fan practices developed over time and how this conflict with the academy led to many of the BSI's defining characteristics.

  14. A Plea for a Child-Centered Approach in Research with Street Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beers, Henk

    1996-01-01

    Argues that street children's public image does not consider root causes of homelessness or children's perceptions. Notes that the relationship of children to urban life is seldom analyzed, and that references to street girls commonly link them to prostitution. Advocates a more child-centered, participatory approach to research and discusses…

  15. 75 FR 45011 - MainStreet Savings Bank, FSB, Hastings, MI; Notice of Appointment of Receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision MainStreet Savings Bank, FSB, Hastings, MI... section 5(d)(2) of the Home Owners' Loan Act, the Office of Thrift Supervision has duly appointed the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation as sole Receiver for MainStreet Savings Bank, Hastings, Michigan...

  16. Effects of trees on the dilution of vehicle exhaust emissions in urban street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    In order to investigate the natural ventilation and air quality of urban street canyons with trees, boundary layer wind tunnel studies at a small-scale model have been performed. Concentrations in street canyons with a tracer gas emitting line source at the ground level and one row of trees arranged

  17. quality and sustainability of urban street lighting: a study of warri

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The results of the model and the actual measurement of the Street light that was taken for some time ... telecommunication networks, electricity generation/ ... system is a valuable investment because it enhances .... performance of street lighting, [14], [15], [16] and ... on an assessment of the effectiveness of luminaire of.

  18. Effect of stable stratification on dispersion within urban street canyons: A large-eddy simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Xiang; Britter, Rex; Norford, Leslie K.

    2016-11-01

    This study employs a validated large-eddy simulation (LES) code with high tempo-spatial resolution to investigate the effect of a stably stratified roughness sublayer (RSL) on scalar transport within an urban street canyon. The major effect of stable stratification on the flow and turbulence inside the street canyon is that the flow slows down in both streamwise and vertical directions, a stagnant area near the street level emerges, and the vertical transport of momentum is weakened. Consequently, the transfer of heat between the street canyon and overlying atmosphere also gets weaker. The pollutant emitted from the street level 'pools' within the lower street canyon, and more pollutant accumulates within the street canyon with increasing stability. Under stable stratification, the dominant mechanism for pollutant transport within the street canyon has changed from ejections (flow carries high-concentration pollutant upward) to unorganized motions (flow carries high-concentration pollutant downward), which is responsible for the much lower dispersion efficiency under stable stratifications.

  19. Trees in urban street canyons and their impact on the dispersion of automobile exhausts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the influence of trees on the dispersion of automobile exhausts in urban street canyons. For this purpose, measurements have been performed with a small scale wind tunnel model of an idealized, isolated street canyon with model trees placed along the canyon

  20. In-depth analysis of the situation of working street children in St. Petersbourg 2000

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov, S

    2001-01-01

    Based on a survey of more than 1,000 street children conducted in August-September 2000 in Sankt-Peterburg, Russian Federation, analyses the working and social conditions of street children, the causes of child work and the role of regional government and nongovernmental organizations in protection of children's rights.