Sample records for street light ing

  1. Modeling LED street lighting.

    Moreno, Ivan; Avendaño-Alejo, Maximino; Saucedo-A, Tonatiuh; Bugarin, Alejandra


    LED luminaires may deliver precise illumination patterns to control light pollution, comfort, visibility, and light utilization efficiency. Here, we provide simple equations to determine how the light distributes in the streets. In particular, we model the illuminance spatial distribution as a function of Cartesian coordinates on a floor, road, or street. The equations show explicit dependence on the luminary position (pole height and arm length), luminary angle (fixture tilt), and the angular intensity profile (radiation pattern) of the LED luminary. To achieve this, we propose two mathematical representations to model the sophisticated intensity profiles of LED luminaries. Furthermore, we model the light utilization efficiency, illumination uniformity, and veiling luminance of glare due to one or several LED streetlamps.

  2. LIGHT-ing Up Prostate Cancer for Immunotherapy


    States and 258,000 deaths expected annually worldwide (1). While treatments for primary prostate cancer patients exist, many lead to devastating...2013.08.019. PubMed PMID: 24007711. 3. Ratcliff CG, Cohen L, Pettaway CA, Parker PA. Treatment regret and quality of life following radical prostatectomy...Award Number: W81XWH-15-1-0491 TITLE: LIGHT-ing up prostate cancer for immunotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: W. Martin Kast, Ph.D

  3. PLC based Smart Street Lighting Control

    D.V.Pushpa Latha


    Full Text Available Conventional street lighting systems in most of the areas are Online at regular intervals of time irrespective of the seasonal variations. The street lights are simply switched on at afternoon and turned off in the morning. The consequence is that a large amount of Power is wasted meaninglessly. As energy consumption is an issue of increasing interest, possible energy savings in public street lighting systems are recently discussed from different viewpoints. The purpose of this work is to describe the Smart Street Lighting system, an approach to accomplish the demand for flexible public lighting systems using a Programmable Logic controller (PLC. The main difference from other computers is that PLCs are armoured for severe conditions such as dust, moisture, heat, cold etc., and have the facility for extensive input/output (I/O arrangements. In the proposed paper, street lights are controlled using millennium 3 PLC taking the seasonal variations into consideration.

  4. Into a Mapping of Copenhagen Street Lighting 2014

    Bülow, Katja; Asp, Claus; Kongshaug, Jesper


    LED lighting is a new lighting component in urban Spaces. How does LED lighting change the visual experience of a street, how did it use to be and how will it become? The book presents a mapping method in which an overview map of light sources in the Copenhagen streets is combined with a video...... recording and a series of photos from a route, whick goes through different city parts and types of streets. The mapping is done in the crucial changing fase, in which the street lighting in Copenhagen is a mix of previously used light sources and LED....

  5. A Solution for Street Lighting in Smart Cities

    M. Popa


    Full Text Available Smart Cities is a domain of great interest in the modern society. The aim of a smart urban environment is to increase citizens’ comfort and quality of life with minimum resources and power consumption and without affecting the natural environment. Street lighting is one of the main interests in such a smart environment. This thesis focuses on implementing a lighting control system that makes street lighting to be an autonomous and efficient part of the urban environment. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed using an OMNET++ network simulation. The results lead to the conclusion that the smart control system improves some drawbacks of a classic street lighting system.

  6. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    Kinzey, Bruce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The City of Detroit is in the midst of a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing HPS sources to LED. This report provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far — and contains useful information about issues that arise during large-scale LED street lighting projects.

  7. Glare as a criterion for quality in street lighting.

    Boer, J.B. & Schreuder, D.A.


    A simple method is given for determining the degree of discomfort glare in street lighting installations. This method is derived from results obtained partly from new investigations and partly from previous tests. Results arrived at by this method are compared with the glare produced in existing

  8. Glare as a criterion for quality in street lighting.

    Boer, J.B. & Schreuder, D.A.


    A simple method is given for determining the degree of discomfort glare in street lighting installations. This method is derived from results obtained partly from new investigations and partly from previous tests. Results arrived at by this method are compared with the glare produced in existing lig

  9. The effect of information and values on acceptability of reduced street lighting

    Boomsma, Christine; Steg, Linda


    This research examined whether provision of information on the environmental impact of street lighting affects the acceptability and perceived social safety of reduced street lighting levels. We argued that such information should particularly affect acceptability and safety judgements of individual

  10. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    Kinzey, Bruce R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The City of Detroit is undertaking a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing high-pressure sodium (HPS) sources to light-emitting diode (LED). Detroit’s well-publicized financial troubles over the last several years have added many hurdles and constraints to this process. Strategies to overcome these issues have largely been successful, but have also brought some mixed results. This document provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far.

  11. Self-organizing traffic lights at multiple-street intersections

    Gershenson, Carlos


    Summary: Traffic light coordination is a complex problem. In this paper, we extend previous work on an abstract model of city traffic to allow for multiple street intersections. We test a self-organizing method in our model, showing that it is close to theoretical optima and superior to a traditional method of traffic light coordination. Abstract: The elementary cellular automaton following rule 184 can mimic particles flowing in one direction at a constant speed. This automaton can therefore model highway traffic. In a recent paper, we have incorporated intersections regulated by traffic lights to this model using exclusively elementary cellular automata. In such a paper, however, we only explored a rectangular grid. We now extend our model to more complex scenarios employing an hexagonal grid. This extension shows first that our model can readily incorporate multiple-way intersections and hence simulate complex scenarios. In addition, the current extension allows us to study and evaluate the behavior of two...

  12. A Traffic Prediction Algorithm for Street Lighting Control Efficiency

    POPA Valentin


    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a traffic prediction algorithm that can be integrated in a street lighting monitoring and control system. The prediction algorithm must enable the reduction of energy costs and improve energy efficiency by decreasing the light intensity depending on the traffic level. The algorithm analyses and processes the information received at the command center based on the traffic level at different moments. The data is collected by means of the Doppler vehicle detection sensors integrated within the system. Thus, two methods are used for the implementation of the algorithm: a neural network and a k-NN (k-Nearest Neighbor prediction algorithm. For 500 training cycles, the mean square error of the neural network is 9.766 and for 500.000 training cycles the error amounts to 0.877. In case of the k-NN algorithm the error increases from 8.24 for k=5 to 12.27 for a number of 50 neighbors. In terms of a root means square error parameter, the use of a neural network ensures the highest performance level and can be integrated in a street lighting control system.

  13. Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Street Lighting Host Site: Lija Loop, Portland, Oregon

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Myer, Michael


    This report describes the process and results of a demonstration of solid-state lighting (SSL) technology in a residential street lighting application, under the U.S. Department of Energy GATEWAY Solid-State Lighting Technology Demonstration Program. In this project, eight 100W (nominal) high-pressure sodium cobra head fixtures were replaced with a like number of LED street light luminaires manufactured by Leotek, Inc. The Leotek product achieved an estimated payback in the Lija Loop installation of about 20 years for replacement scenarios and a much shorter 7.6 years for new installations. Much of the associated energy savings (55%) supporting these payback periods, however, were achieved by reducing average horizontal photopic illuminance a similar amount (53%). Examined from a different perspective, the measured performance suggests that the Leotek product is at approximate parity with the HPS cobra head in terms of average delivered photopic illumination for a given power consumption. HPS comprises the second most efficacious street lighting technology available, exceeded only by low pressure sodium (LPS). LPS technology is not considered suitable for most street lighting applications due to its monochromatic spectral output and poor color rendering ability; therefore, this LED product is performing at an efficiency level comparable to its primary competition in this application.

  14. Demonstration of LED Street Lighting in Kansas City, MO

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Royer, Michael P.; Hadjian, M.; Kauffman, Rick


    Nine different streetlighting products were installed on various streets in Kansas City, Missouri during February, 2011, to evaluate their performance relative to the incumbent high-pressure sodium (HPS) lighting. The applications investigated included 100 W, 150 W, 250 W, and 400 W HPS installations. Initial measurements and comparisons included power, illuminance, and luminance; sample illuminance readings have continued at each of the nine locations at roughly 1,000-hour operating intervals since then. All of the LED products consumed less power than their HPS counterparts—with a mean difference of 39% and a range of 31% to 51%—but they also emitted 31% fewer lumens, on average. The net result is just a 15% increase in mean efficacy. Applying the city’s stringent light loss factors to the initial measured data meant that five of the LED products (and two of the HPS luminaires) were predicted to eventually fail to meet the specified mean illuminance over their lifetimes; however, the specified light loss levels are not expected to be reached by the LED products until some distant future date (between 12 and 30 years after installation according to manufacturer specification sheet estimates). The practical value of designing streetlighting systems to meet illumination requirements more than 15 years in the future is questioned. Numerous sources of variation in field measurements are noted throughout the report, particularly seasonal influences such as ambient temperature and foliage that are evident in the time-series illuminance data.

  15. The Municipal Solid-State Street Lighting Consortium Public Outdoor Lighting Inventory: Phase I: Survey Results

    Kinzey, Bruce R.; Smalley, Edward; Haefer, R.


    This document presents the results of a voluntary web-based inventory survey of public street and area lighting across the U.S. undertaken during the latter half of 2013.This survey attempts to access information about the national inventory in a “bottoms-up” manner, going directly to owners and operators. Adding to previous “top down” estimates, it is intended to improve understanding of the role of public outdoor lighting in national energy use.

  16. The Switch from Low-Pressure Sodium to Light Emitting Diodes Does Not Affect Bat Activity at Street Lights.

    Elizabeth G Rowse

    Full Text Available We used a before-after-control-impact paired design to examine the effects of a switch from low-pressure sodium (LPS to light emitting diode (LED street lights on bat activity at twelve sites across southern England. LED lights produce broad spectrum 'white' light compared to LPS street lights that emit narrow spectrum, orange light. These spectral differences could influence the abundance of insects at street lights and thereby the activity of the bats that prey on them. Most of the bats flying around the LPS lights were aerial-hawking species, and the species composition of bats remained the same after the switch-over to LED. We found that the switch-over from LPS to LED street lights did not affect the activity (number of bat passes, or the proportion of passes containing feeding buzzes, of those bat species typically found in close proximity to street lights in suburban environments in Britain. This is encouraging from a conservation perspective as many existing street lights are being, or have been, switched to LED before the ecological consequences have been assessed. However, lighting of all spectra studied to date generally has a negative impact on several slow-flying bat species, and LED lights are rarely frequented by these 'light-intolerant' bat species.

  17. Light-emitting diode street lights reduce last-ditch evasive manoeuvres by moths to bat echolocation calls.

    Wakefield, Andrew; Stone, Emma L; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen


    The light-emitting diode (LED) street light market is expanding globally, and it is important to understand how LED lights affect wildlife populations. We compared evasive flight responses of moths to bat echolocation calls experimentally under LED-lit and -unlit conditions. Significantly, fewer moths performed 'powerdive' flight manoeuvres in response to bat calls (feeding buzz sequences from Nyctalus spp.) under an LED street light than in the dark. LED street lights reduce the anti-predator behaviour of moths, shifting the balance in favour of their predators, aerial hawking bats.

  18. Light-emitting diode street lights reduce last-ditch evasive manoeuvres by moths to bat echolocation calls

    Wakefield, Andrew; Stone, Emma L.; Jones, Gareth; Harris, Stephen


    The light-emitting diode (LED) street light market is expanding globally, and it is important to understand how LED lights affect wildlife populations. We compared evasive flight responses of moths to bat echolocation calls experimentally under LED-lit and -unlit conditions. Significantly, fewer moths performed ‘powerdive’ flight manoeuvres in response to bat calls (feeding buzz sequences from Nyctalus spp.) under an LED street light than in the dark. LED street lights reduce the anti-predator behaviour of moths, shifting the balance in favour of their predators, aerial hawking bats. PMID:26361558

  19. A modification of the method for the appraisal of glare in street lighting.

    Adrian, W. & D.A. Schreuder


    Description of a modification of a method to appraise glare in street lighting. The alteration concerns the assessment of discomfort and disability glare if the photometrical and geometrical data the lantern and the installation are provided.

  20. Assessing the Economic and Environmental Impacts Associated with Current Street Lighting Technologies


    lamps are a relatively new lighting technology for street lighting, the principles behind the technology date to the 1890s when Nikolas Tesla ...demonstrated the transfer of power to electrodeless incandescent and fluorescent bulbs (Roberts, 2009). Tesla was granted patent 454,622 to cover an early

  1. Investing in Their Future: Portland’s Purchase and Conversion of an LED Street Lighting System

    Kinzey, B. R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosinbum, T. [Portland Bureau of Transportation, Portland, OR (United States)


    During the ongoing process of converting its streetlights from high-pressure sodium to LED, the city of Portland, Oregon, purchased a large portion of its street lighting system and encountered a range of issues among the stakeholders. This report identifies some of the challenges involved and discusses how they were addressed, in order to help inform and facilitate future lighting transitions elsewhere.

  2. A Study of Saving Electrical Energy in the State of Kuwait by Reducing Power Consumption in the Street Lighting Networks

    Adnan B. Alharees


    Full Text Available This paper intends to briefly demonstrate the saving of electrical energy in the street lighting networks in the State of Kuwait. This has been done through various steps and phases, such as changing the mercury lamps with high pressure sodium lamps, installing of Program Logic Controller (PLC system in some roads, and finally applying the reduction power system using Street Lights Dual Power Dimming type in the street lighting networks. Ministry of Electricity and Water (MEW is responsible of the street lighting networks; therefore we will introduce some data brought from MEW to support our study as a case study.

  3. Analysis of Topological Impact on Wireless Channel Performance on Intelligent Street Lighting System

    L. Azpilicueta


    Full Text Available In this work, an analysis of the physical radio channel propagation for the deployment of a wireless sensor network for intelligent street lighting is presented based on an in house implemented 3D ray launching code. Simulation as well as measurement results from a deployed wireless sensor network for an intelligent street light control system confirm the topological and morphological dependence of the considered scenario. The results can be applied to the optimal radioplanning of the wireless systems prior to deployment phase, in order to achieve maximum system performance while minimizing power consumption.

  4. The Netherlands traffic route : street lighting in The Netherlands.

    Schreuder, D.A.


    The general trends which were evident five years ago have continued, which implies that the tremendous increase in road traffic has been met by improvements in the overall quality of road lighting systems. Outside built-up areas, lighting is generally confined to junctions, roundabouts, and along st

  5. Evaluation of energy efficiency in street lighting: model proposition considering climate variability

    Amaury Caruzzo


    Full Text Available This paper assesses the impacts of climate variability on efficient electricity consumption in street lighting in Brazil. The Climate Demand Method (CDM was applied, and the energy savings achieved by Brazil’s National Efficient Street Lighting Program (ReLuz in 2005 were calculated, considering the monthly climatology of sunshine duration, disaggregated by county in Brazil. The total energy savings in street lighting in 2005 were estimated at 63 GWh/year or 1.39% higher than the value determined by ReLuz/Eletrobrás and there was a 15 MW reduction in demand in Brazil, considering the nearly 393,000 points in ReLuz served in 2005. The results indicate that, besides the difference in latitude, climate variability in different county increases the daily usage of street lighting up to 19%. Furthermore, Brazil’s large size means that seasonality patterns in energy savings are not homogeneous, and there is a correlation between the monthly variability in sunshine duration and the latitude of mesoregions. The CDM was also shown to be suitable for ranking mesoregions with the highest levels of energy saving lighting.

  6. Artificial Lighting Protection of Mauna Kea Observatories: An Experiment to Replace LPS Street Lighting With LEDs in Waikoloa Village, HI

    Craine, Eric R.; Craine, Brian L.


    Segments of the astronomical community have long lobbied in support of the use of Low Pressure Sodium (LPS) street lights as a method of minimizing impacts of sky glow on neighboring observatories. There has been vociferous objection to the replacement of LPS by Light Emitting Diode (LED) street lights. Such replacement is being precipitated by advances in lighting technologies, high economic efficiencies of LEDs, and plummeting interest in manufacturing LPS fixtures. Waikoloa Village, HI, located on the western slopes of Mauna Kea, home to major northern hemisphere observatories, has for many years been almost exclusively illuminated by LPS lighting. During the winter of 2015-2016 the County of Hawai’i Department of Public Works, Traffic Division replaced the approximately 550 LPS street lights in the community with Filtered LED (FLED) fixtures on a one-for-one basis. About 100 other LPS lights on private properties in the community were similarly replaced by the lighting manufacturer. This retrofit offered an excellent opportunity to make measurements of lighting parameters in the community before and after the retrofit process. Measurements were made using satellite, airborne, and ground based observations, and included photometric, photographic, and spectroscopic measurements. Data analyzed included integrated brightness of the community, zenith angle function brightness distributions, and spectral energy distributions. We present the results of these observations and discuss their implications for future protection of astronomical observatory sites.

  7. A simple method for the appraisal of glare in street lighting.

    Adrian, W. & D.A. Schreuder


    A graphical method for the quantitative assessment of discomfort and disability glare in street lighting is described. The method is based on two groups of experiments which were carried out independently of each other. The results, which show good agreement, reveal the relationship between discomfo

  8. Public street lights increase house infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma dimidiata.

    Pacheco-Tucuch, Freddy Santiago; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Gourbière, Sébastien; Dumonteil, Eric


    Triatoma dimidiata is one of the primary vectors of Chagas disease. We previously documented the spatio-temporal infestation of houses by this species in the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico, and found that non-domiciliated triatomines were specifically attracted to houses. However, the factors mediating this attraction remained unclear. Artificial light has been known for a long time to attract many insect species, and therefore may contribute to the spread of different vector-borne diseases. Also, based on the collection of different species of triatomines with light traps, several authors have suggested that light might attract triatomines to houses, but the role of artificial light in house infestation has never been clearly demonstrated and quantified. Here we performed a spatial analysis of house infestation pattern by T. dimidiata in relation to the distribution of artificial light sources in three different villages from the Yucatan peninsula, Mexico. In all three villages, infested houses were significantly closer to public street light sources than non-infested houses (18.0 ± 0.6 vs 22.6 ± 0.4 m), and street lights rather than domestic lights were associated with house infestation. Accordingly, houses closer to a public street lights were 1.64 times more likely to be infested than houses further away (OR, CI95% 1.23-2.18). Behavioral experiments using a dual-choice chamber further confirmed that adult male and females were attracted to white light during their nocturnal activity. Attraction was also dependent on light color and decreased with increasing wavelength. While public lighting is usually associated with increased development, these data clearly show that it also directly contributes to house infestation by non-domiciliated T. dimidiata.

  9. Reduced street lighting at night and health: A rapid appraisal of public views in England and Wales

    Green, J.; Perkins, C.; Steinbach, R; P. Edwards


    Financial and carbon reduction incentives have prompted many local authorities to reduce street lighting at night. Debate on the public health implications has centred on road accidents, fear of crime and putative health gains from reduced exposure to artificial light. However, little is known about public views of the relationship between reduced street lighting and health. We undertook a rapid appraisal in eight areas of England and Wales using ethnographic data, a household survey and docu...

  10. A Study to Improve the Quality of Street Lighting in Spain

    Alberto Gutierrez-Escolar


    Full Text Available Street lighting has a big impact on the energy consumption of Spanish municipalities. To decrease this consumption, the Spanish government has developed two different regulations to improve energy savings and efficiency, and consequently, reduce greenhouse-effect gas emissions. However, after these efforts, they have not obtained the expected results. To improve the effectiveness of these regulations and therefore to optimize energy consumption, a study has been done to analyze the different devices which influence energy consumption with the intention of better understanding their behavior and performance. The devices analyzed were lamps, ballasts, street lamp globes, control systems and dimmable lighting systems. To improve their performance, they have been analyzed from three points of view: changes in technology, use patterns and standards. Thanks to this study, some aspects have been found that could be taken into account if we really wanted to use energy efficiently.

  11. Design and Implementation of Automatic Street Light Control Using Sensors and Solar Panel Sharath Patil G.S1 , Rudresh S.M

    Sharath Patil G.S


    Full Text Available Solar Photovoltaic panel based street lighting systems are becoming more common these days. But the limitation with these ordinary street light systems is that it lacks intelligent performance. It is very essential to automate the system so that we can conserve energy as well as to maximize the efficiency of the system. In this paper a new method is suggested so as to maximize the efficiency of the street lighting system and to conserve the energy usage the LED lights sensors. Here automation of street lights is done by LDR sensor. Intensity of led street lights can be controlled by IR sensor and pulse width modulation. Kewords:

  12. Evolution of the energy consumed by street lighting in Spain estimated with DMSP-OLS data

    de Miguel, Alejandro Sánchez; Castaño, José Gómez; Pascual, Sergio


    We present the results of the analysis of satellite imagery to study light pollution in Spain. Both calibrated and non-calibrated DMSP-OLS images were used. We describe the method to scale the non-calibrated DMSP-OLS images which allows us to use differential photometry techniques in order to study the evolution of the light pollution. Population data and DMSP-OLS satellite calibrated images for the year 2006 were compared to test the reliability of official statistics in public lighting consumption. We found a relationship between the population and the energy consumption which is valid for several regions. Finally the true evolution of the electricity consumption for street lighting in Spain from 1992 to 2010 was derived, it have been doubled in the last 18 years in most of the provinces.

  13. Perception of Human Skin in Street Lighting under Five Types of Led Spectra

    Fontoynont, Marc; Bruyère, Lucie; Blanc-Gonnet, Joachim


    ), 23 % from the Asian one, 17% were from the Sub-Saharan type (dark skin). All subjects were also acting as observers. Correlated Colour temperature of sources was 2200K , 2700K, 3200K, 4000K, 4800K. This was obtained by mixing cool-white, warm-white and red LEDs (for the 2200 K and 2700 K sources only......A panel of observers has been invited to rate and compare the quality of 5 spectra of LED sources used for street lighting, on 30 subjects. Vertical illuminance on faces was 14 lx (+/- 3 lx) . All 30 subjects did not have the same type of skin. 60% were from the European Caucasian type (clear skin...

  14. CopenHybrid – Development of a CO2 Neutral Hybrid Street Lighting System for the Danish Municipalities’ Illumination Classes

    Poulsen, Peter Behrensdorff; Dam-Hansen, Carsten; Thorseth, Anders


    A mathematical model has been developed for the energy system of the hybrid street lighting making it possible to simulate a given configuration (solar panel performance data, size and orientation - wind turbine performance data, projected area and height - battery data) over a year in an urban...

  15. The rules of the new street-lighting policy; As regras da nova politica de iluminacao publica

    Souza, J.R.A. de


    This work presents the future regulation concerning street-lighting which will be adopted in Brazil in the near future. The new rules define who is responsible for what, which are discriminated in the work, and the tariffs to be applied, which are explained. 1 fig.

  16. 76 FR 53489 - Certain Wind and Solar-Powered Light Posts and Street Lamps; Notice of Commission Determination...


    ... investigation on September 27, 2010, based on a complaint filed by Duggal Dimensions LLC; Duggal Energy Solutions, LLC; and Duggal Visual Solutions, Inc., collectively of New York, New York. 75 FR 59291 (Sept. 27... COMMISSION Certain Wind and Solar-Powered Light Posts and Street Lamps; Notice of Commission...

  17. Reduced street lighting at night and health: A rapid appraisal of public views in England and Wales.

    Green, Judith; Perkins, Chloe; Steinbach, Rebecca; Edwards, Phil


    Financial and carbon reduction incentives have prompted many local authorities to reduce street lighting at night. Debate on the public health implications has centred on road accidents, fear of crime and putative health gains from reduced exposure to artificial light. However, little is known about public views of the relationship between reduced street lighting and health. We undertook a rapid appraisal in eight areas of England and Wales using ethnographic data, a household survey and documentary sources. Public concern focused on road safety, fear of crime, mobility and seeing the night sky but, for the majority in areas with interventions, reductions went unnoticed. However, more private concerns tapped into deep-seated anxieties about darkness, modernity 'going backwards', and local governance. Pathways linking lighting reductions and health are mediated by place, expectations of how localities should be lit, and trust in local authorities to act in the best interests of local communities.

  18. IoT and Public Weather Data Based Monitoring & Control Software Development for Variable Color Temperature LED Street Lights

    Gandeva Bayu Satrya


    Full Text Available Light Emitting Diode (LED is quickly becoming the latest technology in the application of lighting on streets. By combining the concept of Internet of Things (IoT and LED streetlight, this paper aims to apply the concept of microservices architecture so that the development process can be agile and scalable on demand. This paper also describes the integration between the hardware of LED and Application Program Interface (API SKPlanet, airkorea and OpenStreetMap then displays it to the user via a web browser on PC or on mobile via http access. Furthermore, we implemented the monitoring of a smart sensor interface with the Internet can be seen from the administrator or smartphone.

  19. Road and street smart lighting control systems as a new application area of the hot-potato protocol

    Kiedrowski, Piotr; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Boniewicz, Piotr


    This paper presents the new application area of the hot-potato routing protocol, which is a “last-mile” communication network for controlling systems of road and street lighting. Four variants of the hot-potato protocol are analyzed with use of the graph theory. For the assessment of the traffic ...... parameters the ETX parameter is used in relation to the length of the shortest path. Proposed methods are independent of the media type and can be implemented either in wireless or PLC....

  20. An Easy to Deploy Street Light Control System Based on Wireless Communication and LED Technology

    Jesús Villadangos


    Full Text Available This paper presents an intelligent streetlight management system based on LED lamps, designed to facilitate its deployment in existing facilities. The proposed approach, which is based on wireless communication technologies, will minimize the cost of investment of traditional wired systems, which always need civil engineering for burying of cable underground and consequently are more expensive than if the connection of the different nodes is made over the air. The deployed solution will be aware of their surrounding’s environmental conditions, a fact that will be approached for the system intelligence in order to learn, and later, apply dynamic rules. The knowledge of real time illumination needs, in terms of instant use of the street in which it is installed, will also feed our system, with the objective of providing tangible solutions to reduce energy consumption according to the contextual needs, an exact calculation of energy consumption and reliable mechanisms for preventive maintenance of facilities.

  1. ING proteins in cellular senescence.

    Menéndez, Camino; Abad, María; Gómez-Cabello, Daniel; Moreno, Alberto; Palmero, Ignacio


    Cellular senescence is an effective anti-tumor barrier that acts by restraining the uncontrolled proliferation of cells carrying potentially oncogenic alterations. ING proteins are putative tumor suppressor proteins functionally linked to the p53 pathway and to chromatin regulation. ING proteins exert their tumor-protective action through different types of responses. Here, we review the evidence on the participation of ING proteins, mainly ING1 and ING2, in the implementation of the senescent response. The currently available data support an important role of ING proteins as regulators of senescence, in connection with the p53 pathway and chromatin organization.

  2. Economic feasibility of replacing sodium vapor and high pressure mercury vapor bulbs with LEDs for street lighting

    Olusola Olorunfemi Bamisile


    Full Text Available The main aim of this article is to examine the feasibility of an energy audit program. LEDs are used to replace the sodium vapor lamps and high-pressured mercury vapor lamps that are currently used for the street lighting system in the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. 44% of the fossil fuels imported into the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is used for electricity generation, which makes the reduction in the consumption of electicity very important. This project will save as much as 36,880,410 kWh on site annually and 111,758,818 kWh from the source. The economic, environmental, and fossil fuels savings of this project are also evaluated.

  3. Ingénierie didactique

    Marty, Olivier


    Leçon 1 : introduction théoriqueLeçon 2 : concepts fondamentaux de l’ingénierie didactiqueLeçon 3 : construire une ingénierie pédagogiqueLa didactique professionnelle : autour d’un cas pratiqueLeçon 4 : gestion de l’ingénierie de formation; Master; Cours d'ingénierie didactique. Intervention du premier semestre 2015 dans le master Ingénierie de formation de l'université de Lille.Support progressivement mis à disposition des étudiants dans la plateforme d'enseignement à distance Accel (puis co...

  4. The relationship between the level of street lighting and the traffic safety : a preliminary study.

    Schreuder, D.A.


    This report is a full English translation from the Dutch of B 30405 (IRRD 833001). Road lighting represents only a relatively small part of expenditure, both regarding costs and energy. Nevertheless it involves considerable sums, and it is justifiable to use the money and the energy for road

  5. New rules of thumb maximizing energy efficiency in street lighting with discharge lamps: The general equations for lighting design

    Peña-García, A.; Gómez-Lorente, D.; Espín, A.; Rabaza, O.


    New relationships between energy efficiency, illuminance uniformity, spacing and mounting height in public lighting installations were derived from the analysis of a large sample of outputs generated with a widely used software application for lighting design. These new relationships greatly facilitate the calculation of basic lighting installation parameters. The results obtained are also based on maximal energy efficiency and illuminance uniformity as a premise, which are not included in more conventional methods. However, these factors are crucial since they ensure the sustainability of the installations. This research formulated, applied and analysed these new equations. The results of this study highlight their usefulness in rapid planning and urban planning in developing countries or areas affected by natural disasters where engineering facilities and computer applications for this purpose are often unavailable.

  6. Bi-Level Demand-Sensitive LED Street Lighting Systems (EW 201017) Project Outbrief


    0%1/𔄁%2<!L:63!)#a#’!$%;32!$#&#$! HPS vs LED Illumination Measurement (foot candle ) 4. Color Temperature Performance HPS LED @ 100...Average luminance >= 0.8 fc 1.40 fc @ 100% 0.86 fc @ 60% Color temperature performance Correlated color temperature (CCT in °K) Color ...quality - Survey and feedback - Color photographs Feedback from individuals, including level of comfort, light quality, retrofit ability; Color

  7. Urban streets

    Schönfeld, von Kim Carlotta; Bertolini, Luca


    Today's urban streets are usually planned for purposes of mobility: pedestrians, as well as a variety of vehicles such as cars, trucks, and sometimes bicycles, are usually factored into an urban street plan. However, urban streets are also increasingly recognized as public spaces, accommodating stre

  8. The Study for Saving Energy and Optimization of LED Street Light Heat Sink Design

    Chi-Chang Hsieh


    Full Text Available LED lamps are characterized by high energy efficiency, high luminance, and long lifespans. However, the heat radiation problem caused by the extra high power shortens the lifespan and reduces the luminous efficiency of such lamps. This study introduced the development of a novel cooling fin structure for LED lamps and compared its performance with those of commercially available products. The objective of the design was to reduce the maximum temperature and temperature difference on the fin, the amount of aluminum required for fin manufacturing, and CO2 emissions to save energy. The study employed the Taguchi method for experiment planning and used gray relational analysis and principal component analysis to determine the optimal parameter combination for cooling fins. The results showed that the maximum temperature on the fin surface dropped by 2.62°C in environments without forced convection, which indicated improved lighting efficiency. Furthermore, the amount of aluminum used per unit volume for fins was reduced by 15%, which effectively reduced CO2 emissions during the manufacturing process.

  9. RegulatING chromatin regulators

    Satpathy, Shankha; Nabbi, Arash; Riabowol, Karl


    The five human ING genes encode at least 15 splicing isoforms, most of which affect cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis through their ability to alter gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms. Since their discovery in 1996, ING proteins have been classified as type II tumour suppressors on...

  10. Grow-ING, Age-ING and Die-ING: ING proteins link cancer, senescence and apoptosis.

    Russell, Michael; Berardi, Philip; Gong, Wei; Riabowol, Karl


    The INhibitor of Growth (ING) family of plant homeodomain (PHD) proteins induce apoptosis and regulate gene expression through stress-inducible binding of phospholipids with subsequent nuclear and nucleolar localization. Relocalization occurs concomitantly with interaction with a subset of nuclear proteins, including PCNA, p53 and several regulators of acetylation such as the p300/CBP and PCAF histone acetyltransferases (HATs), as well as the histone deacetylases HDAC1 and hSir2. These interactions alter the localized state of chromatin compaction, subsequently affecting the expression of subsets of genes, including those associated with the stress response (Hsp70), apoptosis (Bax, MDM2) and cell cycle regulation (p21WAF1, cyclin B) in a cell- and tissue-specific manner. The expression levels and subcellular localization of ING proteins are altered in a significant number of human cancer types, while the expression of ING isoforms changes during cellular aging, suggesting that ING proteins may play a role in linking cellular transformation and replicative senescence. The variety of functions attributed to ING proteins suggest that this tumor suppressor serves to link the disparate processes of cell cycle regulation, cell suicide and cellular aging through epigenetic regulation of gene expression. This review examines recent findings in the ING field with a focus on the functions of protein-protein interactions involving ING family members and the mechanisms by which these interactions facilitate the various roles that ING proteins play in tumorigenesis, apoptosis and senescence.

  11. Street children

    Rončević Nevenka


    Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non­governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop­in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.

  12. Elusloom lennukiga puhkusele / Inge Parring

    Parring, Inge


    Ilmunud ka: Delovõje Vedomosti 1. okt. lk. 13. Air Cargo Estonia/ACE Logisticsi müügijuht Inge Parring tutvustab elusloomade transpordivõimalusi. Vt. samas: Loomade transportimiseks vajalikud dokumendid

  13. Optimal Design of the Solar LED Street Lamp Lighting System%探讨太阳能 LED 路灯照明系统优化设计



      太阳能 LED 路灯照明系统以光控为主、时控为辅。系统中路灯的光源、控制电路的设计、电池组件最佳倾角的确定、以及蓄电池容量等是太阳能 LED 路灯照明系统设计中最重要的部分,在设计过程中对以上因素的优化,既能保证系统的稳定可靠运行,又能降低整个项目的成本投入,还能提高太阳能的利用率和系统的使用寿命。%The solar LED street lamp lighting system is main-ly control ed by light-dependent, complementary by time con-trol. The light source system, road lamp design of control circ-uit, bat ery pack, and determine the best angle of the bat ery capacity is one of the most important design of solar LED stre-et lamp lighting system part, in the design process of the facto-rs above optimization, which can ensure the stability and relia-bility of system operation, but also can reduce the project cost, improve the service life of rate and system utilization of solar energy.

  14. 75 FR 59291 - In the Matter of: Certain Wind and Solar-Powered Light Posts and Street Lamps; Notice of...


    .... 1337, on behalf of Duggal Dimensions LLC of New York, New York; Duggal Energy Solutions, LLC of New York, New York; and Duggal Visual Solutions, Inc. of New York, New York. The complaint alleges...: Duggal Dimensions LLC, 10 West 24th Street, New York, NY 10010. Duggal Energy......

  15. City Streets

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  16. Street Politics

    Michael J. Shapiro


    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  17. 78 FR 39023 - ING Investments, LLC, et al.;


    ... COMMISSION ING Investments, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application June 24, 2013. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange..., 2002) (notice) and 25592 (May 24, 2002) (order). Applicants: ING Balanced Portfolio, Inc., ING Equity Trust, ING Funds Trust, ING Intermediate Bond Portfolio, ING Investors Trust, ING Mayflower Trust,...

  18. 基于GPRS的太阳能路灯智能监控系统%Solar street lights intelligent monitoring system based on GPRS



    For the maintenance and control problem of a large number of street lights, a solar street light intelligent monitoring system made up of monitoring center, management nodes and monitoring nodes was designed by three-level. The monitoring node was responsible for collecting the solar panel output voltage, output current, battery float and output voltage, capacity and other parameters, and sent all the data to adjacent node through 2.4 G wireless module nRF2401 until routing to the management node. The management nodes and the monitoring center was designed by C/S architecture to complete the centralized management, and to establish TCP/IP network connection with monitoring center through GPRS module to upload collected data from management nodes. Meanwhile, the monitoring center was responsible for receiving, processing, analyzing, display, storage and sending commands to each node. The experiment shows that the system can accurately obtain the operating parameters of each street light and provides a strong technical support for the operation and maintenance of the city light system that improves the intelligent management level of city lighting.%针对城市内大量路灯维护和控制难的问题,设计了太阳能路灯智能监控系统,系统采用监控中心、管理节点和路灯监控节点三级进行管理.监控节点负责对太阳电池板输出电压、工作电流、蓄电池的充放电压和容量等参数进行采集,并通过短距离2.4 G无线通信模块nRF2401将数据发送到相邻的节点单元,直至路由到管理节点;管理节点与监控中心采用C/S架构设计,完成对所属监路灯监控节点单元进行统一集中管理,与监控中心通过GPRS模块建立TCP/IP网络连接,将从各节点收集来的数据上传至远端服务器.监控中心通过管理软件对所有路灯运行状态进行接收、处理、分析、显示和存储,同时将监控中心的操作指令下达给每个节点.实验表明,该系统

  19. Violence in the Street, Violence of the Street

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    While in his early and general theory of interaction rituals Randall Collins emphasised that social situations are both ’symbolic’ and ’material’, the latter dimension is largely absent from Collins’ theory of violence(Collins 2004; 1993: 214). Compared with criminology’s more recent situational...... studies of violence, it is noticeable that the analytical success of these studies is closely linked with understanding street violence as a spatial-situational phenomenon (Clarke 1997; Eck & Weisburd 1995; Bragand & Weisburd; 2010; Wikström et al. 2012; Sampson et al. 1997). In light of evidence...... for the spatial concentration of street violence, this paper takes its point of departure in a large study of Street Violence among youth in Copenhagen, Denmark (combining quantitative data from filed police reports (N = 501), data from CCTV (N=100) and qualitative analysis of selected cases of street violence...

  20. Simple street tree sampling

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond


    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  1. Analysis and Design of Intelligent Solar Street Lighting System%智能太阳能路灯系统的分析与设计



    太阳能路灯近年在道路照明,交通发光指示标志等领域广泛使用,太阳能路灯节能环保,施工方便。即免除了架设市政用电的麻烦,还降低了用电成本。大部分路灯的实际使用照明时间在2-8小时之间,可提供的持续照明时间除了取决于蓄电池的容量外还取决于不同光照条件下的充电效率,所以夜间的工作时间也在发生变化。本系统通过对太阳能电池板的方向控制,让太阳能电池板能够随着光线强弱的变化转动,无论阴天还是晴天都能保持一个最佳的充电效率,以获得最好的充电效果,延长夜间照明的时间。  系统运用一个AVR单片机为主控制芯片,使用多个光敏传感器组成整列,传感器阵列获取光线强度数据后,单片机进行采样判断,然后控制随动系统调整太阳能板的位置,让太阳能电池板时刻保持正对光线最强的地方,获得更好的充电效率,收集更多电能,让路灯在夜间工作时间更长。  与传统路灯相比,引入单片机控制的智能路灯,提供了优异的智能性、可扩展性,为太阳能路灯提供了一种性能更佳,价格更为低廉的解决方案。%In recent years,solar street lighting in the road,the traffic signs light is widely used in are-as such as solar energy saving lamp,convenient construction . That exempts for the erection of municipal e-lectricity trouble,but also reduces the electricity costs. Most of the time the actual use of street lighting in between 2-8hours,lighting time can be provided in addition to depending on the battery capacity,and partly because different charging efficiency changes caused by weather conditions,so the night working time also taking place variety. The system by solar panels directional control,so that solar panels can be rotated with the light intensity changes,whether cloudy or sunny,maintains an optimum charging efficien

  2. Street Talk

    Avital Ronell


    Full Text Available This essay investigates the fragile intersection where rumor and a more "authentic" modality of language can be shown to cross over into one another. Treating the relationship of Benjamin, Heidegger and Rousseau to rumoro-logical paranoia, "Street-Talk" interprets the epistemological teetering between the knowing and not-knowing around which Fama articulates her power. All three of these thinkers are shown to be exemplarily afflicted by rumorous utterances and share a drive to create, in their works, a rumor control center. Often these controls take over the features which they attempt to disown; thus the greatest moment of truth-telling appropriates the form of inferential small-talk. The essay analyzes a temporality of writing disclosed by Rousseau's Promenades in terms of an après-ma-mort structure. Finally, guided by Blanchot's insights and Huet's notion of monsterized publicity, the essay addresses the rapport of rumor to oeuvre: Ecce Fama .

  3. A dual-Buck solar LED street lamp lighting s stem%双Buck太阳能LED路灯照明控制系统

    刘庆新; 程树英


    By using the new energy, and combining solar energy and LED lights, a dual-Buck solar LED street lamp lighting system based on STC12C5410AD MCU is developed. The former stage adopts synchronous Buck circuit based on IR2104 for maximum power point charge, the latter stage uses synchronous Buck to achieve LED light's constant current drive. The controller has strong driver capability, higher DC-DC conversion efficiency, the maximum power point tracking charging and float charging joint action. It can prevent overcharge and overdischarge, and it have thunder protection. In addition, the system can work without human being watching.%利用新型能源,把太阳能和高效节能的LED路灯有机地结合在一起,开发出一款基于STC12C5410AD单片机的双Buck太阳能LED路灯照明控制系统.前级基于IR2104的同步Buck电路实现最大功率充电,后级采用同步Buck实现LED灯恒流驱动.该控制器具有驱动能力强,DC-DC转换效率高,最大功率点跟踪充电和浮充充电共同作用,具有防过充、防过放、防雷等保护功能,同时可以实现无人值守工作.

  4. From enthusiasm to economy: precision optical design as a key to making LED luminaries cost-efficient in street lighting and architectural lighting

    Timinger, Andreas


    Technical luminaries have to compete on an economic basis. Optics design plays a key role for the development of efficient products, providing unique light distributions and minimizing the total costs of ownership.

  5. Notes on LED Installations in Street Illumination

    Elisabeta Spunei


    Full Text Available The paper presents a study made on choosing LED street lighting installations, such that the quality requirements for exterior artificial lighting are fulfilled. We analyze two types of LED street lighting installations from a technical point of view, together with lighting level and brightness values obtained during the measurements. Following on the field measurements, the lighting quality parameters are calculated, and, for the lighting installation with the best performance, optimal mounting suggestions are made. The optimal quality parameters are calculated by simulations using the Dialux software. The same software and the same light sources we also compute an optimal street lighting by determining the size of the installation that provides the best lighting parameter values.

  6. 太阳能路灯智能控制系统设计%Design of intelligent control system of solar street light

    李丽丽; 施伟


    为了更好地利用和推广“太阳能”这种绿色清洁能源,设计了太阳能路灯智能控制系统.详细描述了其硬件组成、软件设计及测试过程.首先利用光敏电阻实现太阳能板对太阳光的实时跟踪,保证阴雨天在短时间日照下充满蓄电池;其次使用了光控和时控结合的方法,避免了光控方法易受干扰、时控方法需频繁改变时间设置的麻烦;为了达到节电目的,在深夜行人较少时路灯根据设置的熄灯时间自动熄灭,早上行人多时根据设置的开灯时间亮灯.最后设计过充过放保护策略提高蓄电池使用寿命.实际测试证明该系统太阳光自动跟踪误差在2度以内,蓄电池充放电压严格控制在设定范围以内,具有一定的参考和推广价值.%In order to better use and promote solar as a kind of green clean energy, in this paper a solar street light intelligent control system was designed, describing its hardware components, software and test process in detail. At first, in order to guarantee the full charge of battery in a short time in rainy days, the photosensitive resistor was used to realize the real time track of sunlight. Secondly, the light control and time control were used together to avoid the susceptibility of light control method to interference and the frequent time sets of the time control method. To save energy, the light was turned off according to the time setting, when there were few passersby in deep night, and turned on in early morning when there were more passersby. Finally, the overcharge and overdischarge protection strategies was designed to improve battery life. The actual tests prove that the error of automatic sun tracking is within 2 degrees, and the battery charge and discharge voltage is controlled strictly within the range setting. The system has some reference and promotion value.

  7. RegulatING chromatin regulators: post-translational modification of the ING family of epigenetic regulators.

    Satpathy, Shankha; Nabbi, Arash; Riabowol, Karl


    The five human ING genes encode at least 15 splicing isoforms, most of which affect cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis through their ability to alter gene expression by epigenetic mechanisms. Since their discovery in 1996, ING proteins have been classified as type II tumour suppressors on the basis of reports describing their down-regulation and mislocalization in a variety of cancer types. In addition to their regulation by transcriptional mechanisms, understanding the range of PTMs (post-translational modifications) of INGs is important in understanding how ING functions are fine-tuned in the physiological setting and how they add to the repertoire of activities affected by the INGs. In the present paper we review the different PTMs that have been reported to occur on INGs. We discuss the PTMs that modulate ING function under normal conditions and in response to a variety of stresses. We also describe the ING PTMs that have been identified by several unbiased MS-based PTM enrichment techniques and subsequent proteomic analysis. Among the ING PTMs identified to date, a subset has been characterized for their biological significance and have been shown to affect processes including subcellular localization, interaction with enzymatic complexes and ING protein half-life. The present review aims to highlight the emerging role of PTMs in regulating ING function and to suggest additional pathways and functions where PTMs may effect ING function.

  8. 基于PLC的智能路灯系统设计%Design of intelligent street lighting system based on PLC



    In order to reduce energy waste in the city lighting system at night, a modification scheme which combines the wireless communication network with power line carrier is put forward in this paper. The system framework is divided into three layers: the background server controls the centralized controllers through the core network, each centralized controller controls the lamps through the access network, and street lamp nodes work as the terminal access points of IOT to control the on-off and brightness of lamps directly. The system combines the technologies of wireless communication, power line carrier, LED circuit constant current drive and PWM dimming. A Web software design program of control system is proposed also in this paper. The application results show that the system can reduce the electric energy consumption obviously, and runs stably and reliably.%为了降低城市照明系统夜晚工作中能源的浪费,提出了一种无线通信网络和电力载波相结合的改造方案.该系统架构分三层,后台服务器通过核心网控制集中控制器;每台集中控制器通过接入网控制路灯;路灯节点作为物联网的终端接入点,直接控制路灯亮灭和亮度.系统融合了无线通信、电力载波、LED电路恒流驱动、PWM调光等技术,并提出了控制系统的Web软件设计方案.应用结果表明,该系统节能效果明显、运行可靠稳定.

  9. The ING tumor suppressors in cellular senescence and chromatin.

    Ludwig, Susann; Klitzsch, Alexandra; Baniahmad, Aria


    The Inhibitor of Growth (ING) proteins represent a type II tumor suppressor family comprising five conserved genes, ING1 to ING5. While ING1, ING2 and ING3 proteins are stable components of the mSIN3a-HDAC complexes, the association of ING1, ING4 and ING5 with HAT protein complexes was also reported. Among these the ING1 and ING2 have been analyzed more deeply. Similar to other tumor suppressor factors the ING proteins are also involved in many cellular pathways linked to cancer and cell proliferation such as cell cycle regulation, cellular senescence, DNA repair, apoptosis, inhibition of angiogenesis and modulation of chromatin.A common structural feature of ING factors is the conserved plant homeodomain (PHD), which can bind directly to the histone mark trimethylated lysine of histone H3 (H3K4me3). PHD mutants lose the ability to undergo cellular senescence linking chromatin mark recognition with cellular senescence. ING1 and ING2 are localized in the cell nucleus and associated with chromatin modifying enzymes, linking tumor suppression directly to chromatin regulation. In line with this, the expression of ING1 in tumors is aberrant or identified point mutations are mostly localized in the PHD finger and affect histone binding. Interestingly, ING1 protein levels increase in replicative senescent cells, latter representing an efficient pathway to inhibit cancer proliferation. In association with this, suppression of p33ING1 expression prolongs replicative life span and is also sufficient to bypass oncogene-induced senescence. Recent analyses of ING1- and ING2-deficient mice confirm a tumor suppressive role of ING1 and ING2 and also indicate an essential role of ING2 in meiosis.Here we summarize the activity of ING1 and ING2 as tumor suppressors, chromatin factors and in development.

  10. 基于LED发光二极管太阳能路灯系统的设计研究%Application Research in the Solar Street Lamp Management Based on the LED Light-emitting Diodes



    Solar energy is a clean excellent renewable energy. This paper combines the solar photovoltaic technology, the technology is fully used in the LED street lamp system, this paper introduces the new LED street lamp system principle, given in detail the streetlight system circuit design and road lighting layout design, and the result proves that the design has a certain practical value.%太阳能是一种清洁的优秀的可再生能源.本文结合了太阳能光伏电技术,将该技术充分应用在了LED路灯系统中.本文首先介绍了一种新型的LED路灯系统的原理,详细给出了新型路灯系统的电路设计和LED路灯的散热设计.

  11. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary...

  12. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary Road,...

  13. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary Road,...

  14. Street typology in Kathmandu and street transformation

    Bijaya K. Shrestha


    Full Text Available The lively and pedestrian friendly streets of the Malla period and the unique streetscape of the Rana period, including streets in planned and haphazardly developed areas, are being rapidly transformed due to unmanaged urban growth, chaotic construction and a growing number of vehicles in Kathmandu. This has destroyed the physical form, reduced social activities, increased accidents and decreased pedestrian comfort on all types of streets. These negative consequences cannot be addressed through the existing legal and institutional frameworks of the urban development and traffic management authorities. Even recent street improvements have discouraged pedestrian movement, degraded the streetscape and replaced public spaces with traffic. This has further congested pedestrians and traffic in areas that were already crowded. To reverse this trend and to enhance the qualities of traditional streets of Kathmandu, a threefold urban design strategy is essential. This will decentralise business activities from urban centres, improve transitional spaces between streets (and sidewalks and ground floor activities of buildings on both sides of the streets, and strictly enforce traffic management, all supported by flexible design guidelines, incentives and consensus among various stakeholders.

  15. Multiple ING1 and ING2 genes in Xenopus laevis and evidence for differential association of thyroid hormone receptors and ING proteins to their promoters.

    Wagner, Mary J; Helbing, Caren C


    ING (INhibitor of Growth) tumor suppressor proteins are epigenetic factors involved in numerous cellular processes including apoptosis in species ranging from yeast to humans. We recently isolated ING1 and ING2 transcript variants in Xenopus laevis and showed that these transcripts were differentially regulated by thyroid hormone (TH) during postembryonic development. However, no information exists regarding ING gene structure and how it relates to these differential responses to TH. To further investigate the regulation of ING genes by TH, we isolated ING1 and ING2 gene sequences and demonstrated that there are at least duplicate genes for each. The relationship between transcript variants and their responsiveness to TH were examined through promoter sequence and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses on tail homogenates. Both TH receptors (TRs) differentially associated with ING1 and ING2 promoter regions with increased recruitment in the presence of TH. This occurred irrespective of gene transcript level response to this hormone. However, differential recruitment of RNA polymerase II corresponded well to transcript levels. ING proteins consistently associated with their own gene promoters except in the region generating the TH-inducible xING1b5 transcript. In this case, a substantial recruitment of TRbeta in the absence ING proteins occurred. These data establish the TH-dependent recruitment of transcription factors to ING promoter regions and suggest that differential TR recruitment in response to TH may not be a sufficient indicator for modulating the expression of ING in the tail.

  16. 75 FR 16456 - Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice Soliciting Scoping Comments March 26, 2010.... c. Date filed: July 22, 2009. d. Applicant: Inglis Hydropower, LLC. e. Name of Project: Inglis Hydropower Project. f. Location: The proposed project would be located at the existing Inglis Bypass Channel...

  17. Solar LED Street Light Charge Controller with the Perception of Weather Change%感知天气的太阳能 LED 路灯控制系统

    罗素芹; 李常青; 魏亚坤


    Solar LED street lights are widely used with high luminous efficiency , energy saving and environmental protection, which is not dependent on electricity.In this article, to solve the contradiction between fixed lighting requirements of solar LED street lights and full weather dependency , we designed the perception weather fuzzy controller , which can predict weather .It adopts the control strategies of that the brightness adjustment is based on weather condition and the priority is determined by lighting duration to extend lighting time during continuous raining .This paper presents blur weather and battery remaining capacity and the fuzzy control rules .Comparing with the simulation of real weather , lighting rate was increased significantly .%太阳能LED路灯具有发光效率高、环保节能及不依赖电力等优点,应用广泛。本文针对太阳能LED路灯固定的亮灯需求和电能完全依赖天气的矛盾,设计了感知天气的模糊控制器,采用根据天气情况调整亮度、亮灯时长优先的控制策略,达到延长连续阴雨天气的亮灯时间。文中给出了模糊量天气和蓄电池剩余电量及其模糊控制规则,并针对真实的天气进行仿真比较,亮灯率大幅提高。

  18. [Age(ing), ambivalence and mimicry].

    Küpper, Thomas


    This essay aims to show that the concept of ambivalence could prove especially productive for gerontology. It is known that age(ing) is a category that is characterized by difference and at the same time delineates a process. Ambivalence is eminently suitable for capturing this duality as it enables us to take into account the dynamics peculiar to age(ing) and move beyond those conventional rigid distinctions which fail to grasp key nuances. These theoretical considerations will be put to the test by looking at the so-called young-old and their ambivalent positioning as well as their own mimicry of the middle-agers.

  19. ING4 Loss in Prostate Cancer Progression


    transcription system (Promega). Synthesized cDNA was amplified for qRT-PCR using SYBR Green Master Mix (Roche) with gene-specific primers and an ABI 7500 RT...siMyc) or a scrambled sequence ( Scr ) on days 2, 4, and 6. D, ING4 andMyc expressionwere detected in undifferentiated (iPr) or in siRNA- treated...Myc or ING4 overexpressing cells were transfected with Bnip3 siRNA (siBnip3) or a scrambled sequence ( Scr ) and immunostained 72 hours later for

  20. Analysis list: ING2 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ING2 Digestive tract + hg19

  1. Analysis list: ING5 [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Full Text Available ING5 Digestive tract + hg19

  2. "文化-ing"的女人更美丽


    @@ "-ing"词缀源于英语现在进行时时态,表示正在进行的一种动作或状态. 我们倡导"文化-ing",就如同倡导"美丽-ing"、"快乐-ing"、 "幸福-ing"等美好的文字一样,要使得自己更加富有成就感和魅力.

  3. Design and Implementation of A Novel Solar Street Light System Controller%一种智能型太阳能路灯控制器的设计与实现

    吴昊; 李锐华


    以独立光伏发电系统——太阳能路灯系统为研究对象,采用了MPPT跟踪算法中的扰动法来进行对最大功率点的跟踪控制,设计了DC/DC电力变换电路,并基于PIC16C712单片机设计了一种智能型太阳能路灯的控制器.它集太阳能电池板最大功率点跟踪(MPPT)控制和蓄电池的充放电管理功能于一体,能对蓄电池起到有效过充电和过放电保护,延长蓄电池的使用寿命,提高太阳能路灯系统运行的可靠性.%This paper focuses on stand-alone photovoltaic system - the solar street lighting system, using the perturbation method for the maximum power point tracking control. It designs the DC / DC power conversion circuit, and a controller of the photovoltaic street lamp is designed based on the MCU of PIC16C712 in this paper. It achieves solar panel's MPPT control and storage battery's charging and discharging management, which can protect the storage battery from overcharging and over-discharging effectively. As a result, it can prolong the service life of the storage battery and improve the reliability of the photovoltaic street lighting system.

  4. Experimental and numerical investigations of radiation characteristics of Russian portable/compact pulsed neutron generators: ING-031, ING-07, ING-06 and ING-10-20-120

    Chernikova, D., E-mail: [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Nuclear Engineering, Fysikgården 4, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Romodanov, V.L.; Belevitin, A.G.; Afanas' ev, V.V.; Sakharov, V.K. [National Nuclear Research University/Moscow Engineering-Physics Institute (NIYaU MIFI), Moscow (Russian Federation); Bogolubov, E.P.; Ryzhkov, V.I.; Khasaev, T.O.; Sladkov, A.A.; Bitulev, A.A. [Dukhov All-Russia Research Institute of Automatics (VNIIA), Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The present paper discusses results of full-scale experimental and numerical investigations of influence of construction materials of portable pulsed neutron generators ING-031, ING-07, ING-06 and ING-10-20-120 (VNIIA, Russia) to their radiation characteristics formed during and after an operation (shutdown period). In particular, it is shown that an original monoenergetic isotropic angular distribution of neutrons emitted by TiT target changes into the significantly anisotropic angular distribution with a broad energy spectrum stretching to the thermal region. Along with the low-energetic neutron part, a significant amount of photons appears during the operation of generators. In the pulse mode of operation of neutron generator, a presence of the construction materials leads to the “tailing” of the original neutron pulse and the appearance of an accompanying photon pulse at ∼3ns after the instant neutron pulse. In addition to that, reactions of neutron capture and inelastic scattering lead to the creation of radioactive nuclides, such as {sup 58}Co, {sup 62}Cu, {sup 64}Cu and {sup 18}F, which form the so-called activation radiation. Thus, the selection of a portable neutron generator for a particular type of application has to be done considering radiation characteristics of the generator itself. This paper will be of interest to users of neutron generators, providing them with valuable information about limitations of a specific generator and with recommendations for improving the design and performance of the generator as a whole.




    InterContinental Financial Street Beijing opened its doors on May 1st, 2005, just days before the world's business leaders flooded into town for the Fortune Global Forum.The first international luxury hotel in the Chinese capital's new and rapidly growing Financial Street business center, the InterContinental Financial Street Beijing is the flagship property of FnterContinental Hotels and Resorts on the Chinese mainland, and as such a pioneer in Beijing's future,

  6. Direct-current LED Street lighting system With Wind-power complementing electronic-power%风光互补直流LED路灯照明系统的设计



    The system fully utilize wind-power, complemented with solar-power, direct-current electricity supply, and LED Street lighting. The system makes automatic power supply possible. It can save electricity , achieving environmental-friendly electricity supply and lighting.%该设计采用风光互补发电、直流系统供电、LED路灯照明和单片机组成的光控时空自动控制系统,实现局部范围的风光互补自动供电照明,节约了电能,实现了绿色供电绿色照明。

  7. 混合可再生能源路灯照明系统优化设计%Optimal Design of Stand-alone Hybrid Street Lighting System with Fuel Cells

    王剑楠; 潘文平; 何丽娜; 吴奈


    商业用的独立照明系统一般是基于传统光伏电池和蓄电池配置而成。然而在远离赤道的地区无法满足一整年的工作要求。为了提高传统照明系统的实用性、经济性以及环保性,设计了一种由光伏电池、蓄电池组件和燃料电池组成的混合可再生能源系统来为路灯供电。在保证系统稳定可靠运行的同时,减少系统规模并尽可能降低成本是系统设计中的一个关键问题。为了减小系统的规模和成本,从能量管理的角度提出了一种解决该问题的新方法。建立了整个照明系统的仿真模型,通过定量分析确定了基于遗传算法的随机优化算法对整个系统成本进行优化,找出合理配置。使用的方法和结论可以为其他独立照明系统的设计提供帮助。%The commercialized stand-alone street lighting system based on the classical configuration coupling photovoltaic cells(PV) and battery cannot work all the year round in regions that are far from the equator. To improve the practicability,economy and environmental protection of the traditional system, this paper designs a kind of hybrid renewable energy street lighting system consisting of PV battery, storage battery and fuel battery to supply electricity for street lighting. It is significant to ensure the stable and reliable running of the system and at the same time reduce the system scale and cost. Therefore, this paper proposes a study of this problem by modeling the system from the perspective of energy management, chooses a genetic algorithm to design the hy-brid system optimally and evaluates the validity of the design method. The proposed method can also help the design of other stand-alone lighting systems.

  8. Urban Street Gang Enforcement.

    Institute for Law and Justice, Inc., Alexandria, VA.

    Strategies to enhance prosecution of gang-related crimes are presented, with a focus on enforcement and prosecution targeting urban street gangs. The model programs introduced offer strategies largely based on the practical experiences of agencies that participated in a demonstration program, the Urban Street Gang Drug Trafficking Enforcement…

  9. Widening Sesame Street.

    Beck, T. Kay


    Traces the developmental history of Sesame Street from the initial efforts to obtain funding and set goals to present day importation of programs to other countries. It is recommended that Sesame Street producers incorporate Piagetian theories on cognitive development in order to realize learning gains. (Author)

  10. ING function in apoptosis in diverse model systems.

    Shah, Sitar; Smith, Heather; Feng, Xiaolan; Rancourt, Derrick E; Riabowol, Karl


    Genetic studies in model organisms have shown that programmed cell death (apoptosis) plays a significant role during development, where a deficiency in apoptosis results in severe and diverse diseases. Dysregulation of apoptosis also contributes to a variety of human diseases, such as cancer and autoimmune diseases. ING family proteins (ING1-ING5) are involved in many cellular processes, and appear to play a significant role in apoptosis. Loss or downregulation of ING protein function is frequently observed in different tumour types, many of which are resistant to apoptosis, thus warranting their classification as type II tumour suppressors. Several different in vitro and in vivo models have explored the role of ING proteins in regulating apoptosis. In this review, we discuss the progress that has been made in understanding ING protein function in apoptosis using in vitro studies and Mus musculus, Xenopus laevis, and Caenorhabditis elegans experimental models, with an emphasis on ING1 and ING3.

  11. An active work life after the age of 60 in the light of an »authentic vocation«: work(ing as a factor in an individual’s satisfaction with life

    Bernarda Potočnik


    Full Text Available The survey of active working life after the age of 60 based on a biographical research method, deals with the question of to what extent the (professional work of an individual or the way we experience this same work contributes to the quality of life of an individual and impacts the level of satisfaction and sense of happiness in his or her life. The findings of the research shed light on a question of whether there is, in practice, a so-called “authentic vocation”, which is supposedly aligned with the mission of an individual, with his or her values, motivations, interests, knowledge, and skills. People who perform an »authentic vocation« are supposed to experience their job as a source of energy and feel deep inside that what they do is meaningful. Essential is also the personal belief that they are doing their share for the environment in which they operate. The survey included respondents over the age of 60 who were already retired and still working, therefore, the survey also offers an insight into working life in the third age and reveals the positive effects of active involvement in work on aging.

  12. 应用创新方法TRIZ理论解决太阳能路灯蓄电池防盗问题%Application of TRIZ Innovative Approach to Solve the Problem of Solar Street Light Battery Theft



    Solar street light battery in the suburban and rural roads stolen often occurred.By the ways of 5why,fish bone diagram,AFD failure nine windows,functions,resources were analyzed to determine the root cause and the ideal solu-tion to the problem,after the issue of establishing the model diagram ,the application of innovative methods of TRIZ princi-ples of conflict resolution techniques and technical systems evolution law ,found a low cost ,easy to implement the ideal so-lution ,which is the basis of the battery and solar street lights do together,playsthe role of preventing the battery theft.%应用于城市郊区和农村道路上的太阳能路灯经常会发生蓄电池被盗的现象,通过5 why、鱼骨图、AFD失效、九窗口、功能和资源等分析方法进行分析,确定了问题的根原因和理想解,然后建立了问题模型图,应用创新方法TRIZ理论中的技术冲突解决原理和技术系统进化定律,找到了成本较低、容易实现、比较理想的解决方案,即把蓄电池和太阳能路灯基础结合在一起,起到蓄电池防盗的作用。

  13. Securing The Streets


    Chongqing takes back its streets from gangs six people were sentenced to death and another five received jail terms during trials in southwest China’s Chongqing Municipality on October 21 for their involvement in gang activity.

  14. Poole High Street study

    Kilburn, David


    A presentation given to key decision makers within Poole to improve the retail offer in Poole High Street and leverage the benefit of improved town planning and the introduction of quality retail companies.

  15. ING1 induces apoptosis through direct effects at the mitochondria

    Bose, P; Thakur, S; Thalappilly, S


    translocates to the mitochondria of primary fibroblasts and established epithelial cell lines in response to apoptosis inducing stimuli, independent of the cellular p53 status. The ability of ING1 to induce apoptosis in various breast cancer cell lines correlates well with its degree of translocation......The ING family of tumor suppressors acts as readers and writers of the histone epigenetic code, affecting DNA repair, chromatin remodeling, cellular senescence, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. The best characterized member of the ING family, ING1,interacts with the proliferating cell nuclear...... to the mitochondria after UV treatment. Endogenous ING1 protein specifically interacts with the pro-apoptotic BCL2 family member BAX, and colocalizes with BAX in a UV-inducible manner. Ectopic expression of a mitochondria-targeted ING1 construct is more proficient in inducing apoptosis than the wild type ING1 protein...

  16. The ING family tumor suppressors: from structure to function.

    Aguissa-Touré, Almass-Houd; Wong, Ronald P C; Li, Gang


    The Inhibitor of Growth (ING) proteins belong to a well-conserved family which presents in diverse organisms with several structural and functional domains for each protein. The ING family members are found in association with many cellular processes. Thus, the ING family proteins are involved in regulation of gene transcription, DNA repair, tumorigenesis, apoptosis, cellular senescence and cell cycle arrest. The ING proteins have multiple domains that are potentially capable of binding to many partners. It is conceivable, therefore, that such proteins could function similarly within protein complexes. In this case, within this family, each function could be attributed to a specific domain. However, the role of ING domains is not definitively clear. In this review, we summarize recent advances in structure-function relationships in ING proteins. For each domain, we describe the known biological functions and the approaches utilized to identify the functions associated with ING proteins.

  17. Preface of Comments on Shij ing and Paean to Shij ing%《诗说》序与《诗赞》


    The article is an excerpt from Comments on Shij ing (a classic book of poetry ), a posthumous manuscript by professor Pan Yuting,in which he interpreted the Shij ing in the light of I ching (Book of Changes ).The unfinished manuscript is clearly organized into four volumes.Volumes 1,2, and 3 interpret Airs , H ymns and Eulogies respectively, and volume 4 illuminates the underlying structure of Shij ing .This article includes preface and paean of the manuscript,and is published first time for those interested in exploring the connection between Shij ing and I Ching .%文章是潘雨廷先生(19251991)遗稿《诗说》的选刊。《诗说》是一部从《易经》的角度解说《诗经》的著作,没有最后完成,然而大体已见。全稿分四卷,前三卷分别解说《风》《雅》《颂》,第四卷阐明《诗经》的纲领。此处先行刊载其中的《序》和《赞》,供经学研究者参考。

  18. Pole-Like Street Furniture Decompostion in Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.


    Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i) acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii) pole extraction, (iii) components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  19. Street canyon ventilation and atmospheric turbulence

    Salizzoni, P.; Soulhac, L.; Mejean, P.

    Operational models for pollutant dispersion in urban areas require an estimate of the turbulent transfer between the street canyons and the overlying atmospheric flow. To date, the mechanisms that govern this process remain poorly understood. We have studied the mass exchange between a street canyon and the atmospheric flow above it by means of wind tunnel experiments. Fluid velocities were measured with a Particle Image Velocimetry system and passive scalar concentrations were measured using a Flame Ionisation Detector. The mass-transfer velocity between the canyon and the external flow has been estimated by measuring the cavity wash-out time. A two-box model, used to estimate the transfer velocity for varying dynamical conditions of the external flow, has been used to interpret the experimental data. This study sheds new light on the mechanisms which drive the ventilation of a street canyon and illustrates the influence of the external turbulence on the transfer process.

  20. A Street With History


    A mixture of old and new,entertainment and business,Beijing’s Xidan Street is a booming area that attracts scores of visitors About 2 km west of Tiananmen Square is Xidan Street,one of the most famous com- mercial areas in Beijing and once the home of temples and entertainment venues. Xidan was a burgeoning commercial area as early as the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644). At that time,businessmen,travelers and traders from southwest China used to stop in Xidan before heading for other parts of Beijing.They fuelled a boom in shops,markets,

  1. Benjamin Franklin Street Academy.

    Wohl, Seth F.

    In this evaluation report of the sixth year of operation of the Benjamin Franklin-Urban League Street Academy in New York City, it is recommended that the program be continued for the seventh year despite the poorer than expected student gains in all studied components and the sporadic student attendance pattern and high dropout rate. Students…

  2. Saving Mango Street

    Van Winkle, Katie


    The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza,…

  3. Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder

    Ekman, Susanne


    Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...

  4. Bars in the Barkor Street


    In daytime,the Barkor Street is bustling with tourists,pious pilgrims and merchants crowded together.Only when darkness falls does the street become tranquil.Nevertheless,the area surrounding the Barkor Street(from Tibetan Hospital compound extending to east Beijing Road)is then revived by various kinds of bars.

  5. Multiply-interacting Vortex Streets

    Oskouei, Babak G; Newton, Paul K


    We investigate the behavior of an infinite array of (reverse) von K'arm'an streets. Our primary motivation is to model the wake dynamics in large fish schools. We ignore the fish and focus on the dynamic interaction of multiple wakes where each wake is modeled as a reverse von K'arm'an street. There exist configurations where the infinite array of vortex streets is in relative equilibrium, that is, the streets move together with the same translational velocity. We examine the topology of the streamline patterns in a frame moving with the same translational velocity as the streets which lends insight into fluid transport through the mid-wake region. Fluid is advected along different paths depending on the distance separating two adjacent streets. Generally, when the distance between the streets is large enough, each street behaves as a single von K'arm'an street and fluid moves globally between two adjacent streets. When the streets get closer to each other, the number of streets that enter into partnership in...

  6. The ING tumor suppressor genes: status in human tumors.

    Guérillon, Claire; Bigot, Nicolas; Pedeux, Rémy


    ING genes (ING1-5) were identified has tumor suppressor genes. ING proteins are characterized as Type II TSGs since they are involved in the control of cell proliferation, apoptosis and senescence. They may also function as Type I TSGs since they are also involved in DNA replication and repair. Most studies have reported that they are frequently lost in human tumors and epigenetic mechanisms or misregulation of their transcription may be involved. Recently, studies have described that this loss may be caused by microRNA inhibition. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on ING functions, their involvement in tumor suppression and, in order to give a full assessment of the current knowledge, we review all the studies that have examined ING status in human cancers.

  7. Street level society

    Vinum, Christine; Nissen, Morten


    , and we discuss some of the most central dilemmas in today's social work with young drug users. Among other things, we identify pervasive marginalizing dynamics in the social system that result partly from the deep-rooted cultural dichotomy between stigma and taboo that organizes the drug issue......, and partly from the decentralizing and specializing efforts characteristic of the Danish welfare state and its institutions. We discuss a general turn towards street level interventions to address the problems of social exclusion, as well as different attempts to create what we term street level heterotopias...... - sites of alternate ordering - where issues of drug use and other social problems can be dealt with and objectified in more flexible ways and handled as part of ongoing social practices of everyday life....

  8. Occupy Wall Street

    Jensen, Michael J.; Bang, Henrik


    This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional oppositio......This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional...... oppositional social movement alongside a legitimizing countermovement, but also a new notion of political community as an ensemble of discursive practices that are endogenous to the constitution of political regimes from the “inside out.” These new political identities are bound by thin ties of political...

  9. Street level society

    Vinum, Christine; Nissen, Morten


    , and partly from the decentralizing and specializing efforts characteristic of the Danish welfare state and its institutions. We discuss a general turn towards street level interventions to address the problems of social exclusion, as well as different attempts to create what we term street level heterotopias......This paper aims to reflect on research findings from different empirical studies of social work with young drug users and socially excluded young people in Copenhagen. In the paper we account for historical changes in social policy and interventions into young people's drug taking in Copenhagen......, and we discuss some of the most central dilemmas in today's social work with young drug users. Among other things, we identify pervasive marginalizing dynamics in the social system that result partly from the deep-rooted cultural dichotomy between stigma and taboo that organizes the drug issue...

  10. Back Street Bounty



    @@ As soon as I stepped into the main street of the old city in Pingyao.Shanxi Province.I had a feeling I would not like the place.In fact.I basically made my mind up on the spot that I disliked it.It looked overly touristy.clichéd and lacking in the authenticity I was hoping for.My escape from Beijing's expat scene was looking shaky.

  11. ING Papers for SPIE's Astronomical Telescopes & Instrumentation Conference

    Talbot, G.


    Isaac Newton Group staff from both the astronomy and engineering groups had several papers accepted by SPIE (The International Society for Optical Engineering) for their conference 'Astronomical Telescopes and Instrumentation - The Industrial Revolution in Astronomy' held from 21 to 25 June 2004, at the Scottish Exhibition and Convention Centre in Glasgow. The range of topics reflected the range of development interests at ING, many of the papers being about various aspects of adaptive optics. The full list of papers featuring ING staff is below, all but one of them having ING staff as principal author. At the conference Chris Benn and Simon Tulloch gave oral presentations, while the remaining papers were poster presentations.

  12. Keep-ING balance: tumor suppression by epigenetic regulation.

    Tallen, Gesche; Riabowol, Karl


    Cancer cells accumulate genetic and epigenetic changes that alter gene expression to drive tumorigenesis. Epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor, cell cycle, differentiation and DNA repair genes contributes to neoplastic transformation. The ING (inhibitor of growth) proteins (ING1-ING5) have emerged as a versatile family of growth regulators, phospholipid effectors, histone mark sensors and core components of HDAC1/2 - and several HAT chromatin-modifying complexes. This review will describe the characteristic pathways by which ING family proteins differentially affect the Hallmarks of Cancer and highlight the various epigenetic mechanisms by which they regulate gene expression. Finally, we will discuss their potentials as biomarkers and therapeutic targets in epigenetic treatment strategies.

  13. How Inge Lehmann Discovered the Inner Core of the Earth

    Rousseau, Christiane


    The mathematics behind Inge Lehmann's discovery that the inner core of the Earth is solid is explained using data collected around the Earth on seismic waves and their travel time through the Earth.

  14. Self-Localization at Street Intersections.

    Fusco, Giovanni; Shen, Huiying; Coughlan, James M


    There is growing interest among smartphone users in the ability to determine their precise location in their environment for a variety of applications related to wayfinding, travel and shopping. While GPS provides valuable self-localization estimates, its accuracy is limited to approximately 10 meters in most urban locations. This paper focuses on the self-localization needs of blind or visually impaired travelers, who are faced with the challenge of negotiating street intersections. These travelers need more precise self-localization to help them align themselves properly to crosswalks, signal lights and other features such as walk light pushbuttons. We demonstrate a novel computer vision-based localization approach that is tailored to the street intersection domain. Unlike most work on computer vision-based localization techniques, which typically assume the presence of detailed, high-quality 3D models of urban environments, our technique harnesses the availability of simple, ubiquitous satellite imagery (e.g., Google Maps) to create simple maps of each intersection. Not only does this technique scale naturally to the great majority of street intersections in urban areas, but it has the added advantage of incorporating the specific metric information that blind or visually impaired travelers need, namely, the locations of intersection features such as crosswalks. Key to our approach is the integration of IMU (inertial measurement unit) information with geometric information obtained from image panorama stitchings. Finally, we evaluate the localization performance of our algorithm on a dataset of intersection panoramas, demonstrating the feasibility of our approach.

  15. 基于无线模块NRF905的节能路灯控制系统设计%Control system design of energy-saving street lights based on wireless module NRF905

    张江伟; 尹慧


    This article based on the wireless the module NRF905 the energy-saving street light control system hardware circuit and software design are discussed in detail. The system is designed according to the brightness changes of the environment, the dynamic movement of the object to the automatic control of the timing the opening and closing and fault alarm LED energy saving lamps. By NRF905 (wireless transceiver) in the control process: the total controller and unit circuit microcontroller instruction receiving and sending unit circuit system switch timing can also be a separate timing circuit unit can also be under the photoresistor night and day light sensor to control the switching of the system, automatic open, turn off the lights. In the cell circuit, the LM358 integrated op amp to form a constant current source to control the LED light changes. Photoresistor sensor detected the LED lights off when the unit circuit fault lamp is off, send the appropriate commands to the host controller to the fault alarm. When late at night is low, the use of infrared sensors, photoelectric switches to determine the driving range of objects to achieve the control of the LED switch status, to achieve energy saving.%对基于无线模块NRF905的节能路灯控制系统的硬件电路与软件设计进行了详细论述。本系统设计能够根据环境的明暗变化、物体的动态移动来实现对LED节能路灯的定时开、关及故障报警等自动控制。其控制过程:总控制器和支路电路单片机之间通过NRF905(无线收发器)进行指令的接收与发送,总控电路实现对系统开关的定时.也可对单元电路进行单独定时,还可以根据光敏电阻对白天黑夜光线的感应来控制系统的开关,实现自动开、关灯。在支路电路中,用LM358集成运放来构成恒流源控制LED灯光的变化。通过光敏电阻对IJED灯亮灭的感应检测.当支路电路发生故障灯灭时,发送相应的

  16. Signaling pathways of the ING proteins in apoptosis.

    Shah, Sitar; Riabowol, Karl


    Members of the ING family of type II tumor suppressors reside in different chromatin regulatory complexes and are stoichiometeric members of histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) complexes. It has been frequently observed that expressing ING proteins promotes apoptosis in both normal and transformed cells of different species. They have also been reported to either rely upon p53, or to add to its ability to promote programmed cell death (apoptosis) although whether ING proteins require p53 to induce apoptosis is now questionable based upon observations using knockout cell lines and animal models. Genetic studies in model organisms, and particularly in Caenorhabditis elegans, have identified different pathways involved in apoptosis during development, in the germ line and in response to various forms of stress including DNA damage. In this review we summarize structural features of the INGs and recent observations made in knockout models of Mus musculus and Caenorhabditis elegans that have helped to further clarify the functions of the ING proteins in biochemical pathways leading to apoptosis. Based upon these observations we propose a model for how ING proteins may act both independently and in concert with p53 to promote apoptosis.

  17. The Traffic Light Challenge

    Roman, Harry T.


    Traffic lights are an important part of the transportation infrastructure, regulating traffic flow and maintaining safety when crossing busy streets. When they go awry or become nonfunctional, a great deal of havoc and danger can be present. During power outages, the street lights go out all over the affected area. It would be good to be able to…

  18. SUMOylation of the ING1b tumor suppressor regulates gene transcription

    Satpathy, Shankha; Guérillon, Claire; Kim, Tae-Sun;


    The INhibitor of Growth (ING) proteins are encoded as multiple isoforms in five ING genes (ING1 -5) and act as type II tumor suppressors. They are growth inhibitory when overexpressed and are frequently mislocalized or downregulated in several forms of cancer. ING1 and ING2 are stoichiometric mem......1b E195A), we further demonstrate that ING1b SUMOylation regulates the binding of ING1b to the ISG15 and DGCR8 promoters, consequently regulating ISG15 and DGCR8 transcription. These results suggest a role for ING1b SUMOylation in the regulation of gene transcription....

  19. Sesame Street: Socialization by Surrogate.

    Felsenthal, Norman A.

    This paper reviews some of the controversy surrounding "Sesame Street's" treatment of the socialization progress of preschool television viewers. Examined in detail are those portions of "Sesame Street" programs which contribute to children's learning of socially acceptable attitudes and behaviors. Some comparisons are made…

  20. The Regulation of Street Foods

    Forkour, John Boulard; Samuelsen, Helle; Yeboah, Eric Henry


    the challenges and negotiating strategies of regulators of street-vended foods in Ghana and analyses the implication for their relationship with street food vendors. The paper reveals that regulators operate in a context of limited resources, leading to a general feeling of neglect. In coping, regulators adopt...

  1. Structural insight into histone recognition by the ING PHD fingers.

    Champagne, Karen S; Kutateladze, Tatiana G


    The Inhibitor of Growth (ING) tumor suppressors are implicated in oncogenesis, control of DNA damage repair, cellular senescence and apoptosis. All members of the ING family contain unique amino-terminal regions and a carboxy-terminal plant homeodomain (PHD) finger. While the amino-terminal domains associate with a number of protein effectors including distinct components of histone deacetylase (HDAC) and histone acetyltransferase (HAT) complexes, the PHD finger binds strongly and specifically to histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3). In this review we describe the molecular mechanism of H3K4me3 recognition by the ING1-5 PHD fingers, analyze the determinants of the histone specificity and compare the biological activities and structures within subsets of PHD fingers. The atomic-resolution structures of the ING PHD fingers in complex with a H3K4me3 peptide reveal that the histone tail is bound in a large and deep binding site encompassing nearly one-third of the protein surface. An extensive network of intermolecular hydrogen bonds, hydrophobic and cation-pi contacts, and complementary surface interactions coordinate the first six residues of the H3K4me3 peptide. The trimethylated Lys4 occupies an elongated groove, formed by the highly conserved aromatic and hydrophobic residues of the PHD finger, whereas the adjacent groove accommodates Arg2. The two grooves are connected by a narrow channel, the small size of which defines the PHD finger's specificity, excluding interactions with other modified histone peptides. Binding of the ING PHD fingers to H3K4me3 plays a critical role in regulating chromatin acetylation. The ING proteins function as tethering molecules that physically link the HDAC and HAT enzymatic complexes to chromatin. In this review we also highlight progress recently made in understanding the molecular basis underlying biological and tumorigenic activities of the ING tumor suppressors.

  2. Lighting

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  3. LACEwING: A New Moving Group Analysis Code

    Riedel, Adric R.; Blunt, Sarah C.; Lambrides, Erini L.; Rice, Emily L.; Cruz, Kelle L.; Faherty, Jacqueline K.


    We present a new nearby young moving group (NYMG) kinematic membership analysis code, LocAting Constituent mEmbers In Nearby Groups (LACEwING), a new Catalog of Suspected Nearby Young Stars, a new list of bona fide members of moving groups, and a kinematic traceback code. LACEwING is a convergence-style algorithm with carefully vetted membership statistics based on a large numerical simulation of the Solar Neighborhood. Given spatial and kinematic information on stars, LACEwING calculates membership probabilities in 13 NYMGs and three open clusters within 100 pc. In addition to describing the inputs, methods, and products of the code, we provide comparisons of LACEwING to other popular kinematic moving group membership identification codes. As a proof of concept, we use LACEwING to reconsider the membership of 930 stellar systems in the Solar Neighborhood (within 100 pc) that have reported measurable lithium equivalent widths. We quantify the evidence in support of a population of young stars not attached to any NYMGs, which is a possible sign of new as-yet-undiscovered groups or of a field population of young stars.

  4. Light

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.


    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  5. 77 FR 74245 - ING Investments, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application


    ... COMMISSION ING Investments, LLC, et al.; Notice of Application December 6, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and...''). Applicants: ING Investments, LLC (``IIL''), Directed Services LLC (``DSL'') and ING Investment Management Co. LLC (``IIM'') (each, an ``Adviser,'' and collectively, the ``Advisers'') and ING Balanced...

  6. Young boys and street gangs

    Bruselius-Jensen, Maria; Pless, Mette

    of joining street gangs, this presentation demonstrates that, to the young boys, street gangs represent alternative societies that seems much more accessible than school and work communities. Street gangs seemingly gives access to social recognition and networks, economic opportunities and material status...... to the police sta- tion and a short police internship, show that the boys are very attracted to the police profession and find that it offers many of the same opportunities; network, recognition and thrills. Thus, indicating that, for the 40 boys, the line between civic and anti-civic participation can...

  7. Inge Lehmann’s work materials and seismological epistolary archive

    Erik Hjortenberg


    Full Text Available


    The Inge Lehmann archive contains thousands of seismological work documents from Inge Lehmann’s private home. For a long time the author thought that the main concern was to keep the documents for posterity. There is now a renewed interest in Inge Lehmann, and some documents were presented in a poster at ESC Potsdam 2004, and the collection of documents were scanned and catalogued 2005-2006 at Storia Geofisica Ambiente in Bologna. Inge Lehmann (1888-1993 is famous for her discovery in 1936 of the earth’s inner core and for work on the upper mantle. A short biography is given. After her retirement in 1953 she worked at home in Denmark, and abroad in USA and in Canada. She took part in the creation of the European Seismological Commission in 1951, and in the creation of the International Seismological Centre in 1964. Inge Lehmann received many awards. Some letters from her early correspondence with Harold Jeffreys are discussed, they show how the inner core was discussed already in 1932. A few of the author’s reminiscences of Inge Lehmann are given.

  8. Censura e street creativity

    Edwige Comoy Fusaro


    Full Text Available Scopo di questo contributo è osservare la funzione seminale della censura nella street creativity e gli spostamenti dei confini tra lecito e illecito nei complessi rapporti tra censorship e creatività nell’ambiente urbano. Sono prese in considerazione tutte le produzioni iconografiche eseguite nello spazio pubblico, commissionate e non commissionate, qualunque siano i supporti prescelti e le tecniche di esecuzione, e  prescindendo da ogni giudizio estetico e artistico. Lo studio è basato su pezzi osservati in varie città d’Italia, Francia, Germania e Inghilterra nel 2014. Si prendono in considerazione la loro precisa collocazione, i motivi raffigurati e/o espressi e le motivazioni dei loro autori, quando sono note. Vari tipi di censura spingono i doers a esprimersi per strada: anzitutto la regolamentazione dell’occupazione visiva dell’ambiente urbano, le ingiunzioni e i divieti che emanano dai media autorizzati a occupare tale ambiente. I doers denunziano inoltre le menzogne delle autorità politiche, tramite rappresentazione delle verità censurate o azioni di artivism. All’origine del gesto espressivo di strada si trovano inoltre l’impulso trasgressivo, la volontà di comunicare con la gente e, soggiacente, la consapevolezza della caducità della vita.

  9. Sesame Street: Magic or Malevolence?

    Ratliff, Anne R.; Ratliff, Richard G.


    Despite its unusual potential, both educational and social, it seems that Sesame Street may be exposing children to unnecessary aggression...(which) often goes unpunished and, occasionally, is actively rewarded." (Author)

  10. 联盟标准CSA 016《LED照明应用接口要求:控制装置分离式、自带散热LED模组的路灯/隧道灯》解读%CSA 016-2013,Interface requirements for application of LED lighting:Street/tunnel light consisting of LED module with heatsink and separated control gear

    周详; 郑成龙; 赵璐冰


    With the advantages of long lifetime, high lighting effect and non-pollution, LED lighting has taken a leading role in the lighting sector. LED street and tunnel lights have no unified product interface, so the products of different enterprises cannot interchange with each other, restraining the development of the whole industry due to the large-scale production problem. The alliance standard CSA 016-2013 has been approved as a national standard project, paving the way for the orderly development of LED industry. Interpreting the CSA 016 standard, the paper expounds on the technical requirements for interchangeable interface in the optical, mechanical, electrical and thermal aspects.

  11. Green(ing) English: Voices Howling in the Wilderness?

    Bruce, Heather E.


    The relatively new fields of ecocriticism in literary studies and ecocomposition in rhetoric and composition studies provide a usable foundation for those interested in green(ing) English. Nevertheless, even suggesting that interest in the environment within English studies is a relatively new concern is somewhat misleading. Contemplation of…

  12. The Pragmatics of Ethnography and Intervention: Street Children in Mexico

    Long, N.E.


    This article weaves together two interconnected issues. The first concerns how anthropological research throws light on the complexities of implementing development policies aimed at ameliorating what are described as 'social problems' - in this case the plight of street children. The second arises

  13. Facility to evaluate street lightning solutionsin a realistic urban setting

    Andersen, Jakob Munkgaard; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten


    This paper describes a new large scale outdoor testing facility for street lighting solutions, that has been establish in Denmark for both research and demonstration purposes. The facility is fitted with lamp posts with an array of sensors and connections to allow for monitoring and control of li...

  14. The (Street) Art of Resistance

    Awad, Sarah H.; Wagoner, Brady; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre


    This chapter focuses on the interrelation between resistance, novelty and social change We will consider resistance as both a social and individual phenomenon, a constructive process that articulates continuity and change and as an act oriented towards an imagined future of different communities....... In this account, resistance is thus a creative act having its own dynamic and, most of all, aesthetic dimension. In fact, it is one such visibly artistic form of resistance that will be considered here, the case of street art as a tool of social protest and revolution in Egypt. Street art is commonly defined...... in sharp contrast with high or fine art because of its collective nature and anonymity, its different kind of aesthetics, and most of all its disruptive, ‘anti-social’ outcomes. With the use of illustrations, we will argue here that street art is prototypical of a creative form of resistance, situated...

  15. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  16. 移动工单监控系统在城市路灯设备管理中的应用研究%Applied Research of Movable Work Order Monitoring System for City Street Light Equipment Control



    分析和探讨了城市路灯管理人员和一线维护人员在路灯设备运行维护管理过程中遇到的部分实际问题,并结合城市路灯集中监控系统提出相应的解决办法,即在管理模式上从当今的集中监控模式扩展到移动监控模式。移动工单监控系统是该模式下的应用产物。通过对该系统各个核心功能及其应用的详细说明,证明了该系统能给城市路灯设备运行监控和维护工作带来极大的便利,也为城市各种设施监控管理提出了新的解决方案。%This paper analyzes and discusses some issues which are raised by the street lamp management manager and maintainer during their daily work of management and maintenance of street lamp devices, also provides relevant solution that is the management mode extend to the mobile monitoring mode from the centralized monitoring mode. Mobile monitoring work order system is the production of the application when the street lamp management mode extending to the mobile monitoring mode from the centralized monitoring mode. The key functions and the advantages of mobile monitoring work order system are explained in detail. Mobile monitoring work order system also brings new solutions for other city public devices monitoring management.

  17. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koltai, R. N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGowan, T. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The GATEWAY program followed two pedestrian-scale lighting projects that required multiple mockups – one at Stanford University in California and the other at Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. The report provides insight into pedestrian lighting criteria, how they differ from street and area lighting criteria, and how solid-state lighting can be better applied in pedestrian applications.

  18. Light

    Robertson, William C


    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...


    Stojadinović, Aleksandra; Batrnek Antonić, Daliborka; Perinović, Marija; Rončević, Nevenka


    Street children and youth are at risk of getting engaged in different behaviors including risky sexual behavior, which adversely affects their development and health. The aim of this study was to examine sexual behavior of street children and youth, and the risks and consequences associated with sexual behavior. A pilot study was conducted on a sample of 50 users of the Drop-in Centre for Street Children in Novi Sad, from 10 to 19 years of age. The study was conducted by a psychologist through structured interviews, with prior consent of the adolescent and parent. Among the respondents who were sexually active, 41.2% had had the first sexual intercourse by the age of 12, their median age at that time being 14 years, while the age at the time of the first sexual intercourse is 16 years in the general population of Serbia. The majority of sexually active adolescents had several partners, one male adolescent had sex with a person of the same sex, and one was paid for sex. Very few respondents used a condom. Among 15 male sexually active respondents, three (ages 11, 12 and 14) were forced to have unwanted sexual intercourse, and a quarter of adolescents (three boys and one girl) were forced to do something unwanted during sex. Despite a small and unrepresentative sample, the results of this study indicate serious problems and significant risks associated with sexual behavior of children and young people who live and work in streets. This pilot study suggests that it is necessary to conduct new research on sexual behavior of street children and youth on a representative sample and with appropriate methodology. The results of a new study should be used to plan and carry out appropriate preventive measures regarding sexual behavior of street children.

  20. Street Papers, Work, and Begging

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph


    Street papers are publications produced specifically for sale by the homeless and other vulnerable people in many countries around the world. Their social status is, however, often conspicuously unstable: ‘Get a job!’ has been reported as a common insult addressed to vendors, and street paper...... organisations have responded with their own rhetoric and strategies that aim at disrupting any analogy with begging. The present analysis frames these rhetorical confrontations as a struggle over economic legitimacy, highlighting some of the ways in which social actors build and sever the normatively...

  1. 75 FR 10230 - Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Accepted for Filing and Soliciting Motions To...


    ... existing Inglis Bypass Channel and Spillway on the Withlacoochee River, west of Lake Rousseau and Inglis... surface elevation of Lake Rousseau at 27.5 feet mean sea level. Flow releases would be determined by the...

  2. The inhibitor of growth (ING) gene family: potential role in cancer therapy.

    Gunduz, Mehmet; Gunduz, Esra; Rivera, Rosario S; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi


    The discovery of ING1 gene paved the way to the identification of other ING members (ING2-5) and their isoforms associated with cell cycle, apoptosis and senescence. The ING family has been an emerging putative tumor suppressor gene (TSG) in which the major mechanism is through interaction with the determinants of chromatin function and gene-specific transcription factors. The regulatory mechanism highly involves the conserved plant homeodomain (PHD), which binds to histones in a methylation-sensitive manner, suggesting that ING proteins may contribute to the maintenance of the epigenetic code. Furthermore, ING family members contain nuclear localization signals and N-terminal sequences important in the interaction with histone acetyltransferase (HAT) and histone deacetyltransferase (HDAC) that regulate gene promoter activity within chromatin. Although ING proteins have the same PHD motif, the variation in the N-terminal dictates the differences in tumor the suppressive ability of ING in various tumors. Inactivation of the normal function is achieved through allelic loss of genomic regions containing the ING gene, alteration in the ING promoter region, variation of mRNA splicing efficacy or reduced mRNA stability. It is most probably the apparent combination of these aberrant mechanisms that resulted in reduced availability of functional ING protein. In cancer cells, ING transcript levels are often suppressed but the genes are rarely mutated. The mechanism of suppression of ING expression may have to do with the abnormally high methylation levels of the ING gene promoter, which have been correlated with low transcript levels. Emerging evidence on the function of ING and related regulatory mechanisms strongly points to ING as a candidate TSG and therefore a potential target in the molecular therapy of some types of tumor.

  3. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    Jacobson, Linda


    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  4. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    Jacobson, Linda


    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  5. Youth and the City Streets.

    Husby, Lynn; Brendtro, Larry


    This "Voices of Pioneers" section of the journal highlights the work of Jane Addams, who founded the settlement house movement in America with the establishment of Hull House in Chicago in 1899. Presents excerpts from Addams' book "The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909)" to illustrate her views on guns, stealing, rebellion, and drugs. (NB)

  6. Youth and the City Streets.

    Husby, Lynn; Brendtro, Larry


    This "Voices of Pioneers" section of the journal highlights the work of Jane Addams, who founded the settlement house movement in America with the establishment of Hull House in Chicago in 1899. Presents excerpts from Addams' book "The Spirit of Youth and the City Streets (1909)" to illustrate her views on guns, stealing,…

  7. Street Rhymes around the World.

    Yolen, Jane, Ed.

    Based on the idea that although children of every nation speak different languages the language of play is international, this collection of 32 street rhymes from 17 nations and republics offers each rhyme in its native language (Portuguese, Tamil, Hebrew, Japanese, Russian, Chinese, Spanish, Greek, German, Bantu (Mambwe), Danish, Cheyenne,…

  8. Street photography as social interaction

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti


    Full Text Available Street photographers know quite well that taking a picture is a form of social interaction. The birth of this genre of photography, they have been discussing at length about the ethical problems involved in taking pictures of personal strangers in public places without asking permission.

  9. Red lantern Streets- Chinese Style



    WHEN speaking of ""red lantern streets,""what's the first thing that comes to mind?Sordid alleys, haunted by ladies of the night? While ""red lantern districts"" both in the East and the West have something in common, pleasures here in China are purely gastronomical in nature.


    Balamber, Burcak


    ... to street based artists such as Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat entering to the galleries, and transformed into an artistic manner of expression having aesthetic concerns by adopting a more inclusive definition ‘street art...

  11. Co-Story-ing: Collaborative Story Writing with Children Who Fear

    Pehrsson, Dale-Elizabeth


    This article offers a guide for using collaborative story writing (co-story-ing), an assessment technique as well as a therapeutic intervention for children who demonstrate fears, extreme shyness and difficulty in establishing relationships. Co-story-ing draws from Gardner's Mutual Story Telling Technique. Co-story-ing guides clients as they…

  12. Light

    Ditchburn, R W


    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  13. Public and vehicle lighting in residential areas.

    Schreuder, D.A.


    Requirements for the lighting of various types of roads and streets in residential areas are discussed. Emphasis in placed on the "woonerf" concept. The lighting of motor vehicles is discussed. The interaction between the two lighting modes is briefly indicated.

  14. "Moving On": Learning to Cross Streets Independently.

    Pattavina, Sylvia; And Others


    A 12-year-old boy with severe disabilities was taught street-crossing skills through the use of photographs with verbal rehearsal of appropriate street crossing, followed by community-based instruction. The skills were acquired, maintained at follow up, and generalized to new streets. (JDD)

  15. Street art - vandalismus nebo umění?

    Grabmüllerová, Eva


    The diploma thesis ‚Street Art - Vandalism or Art?' deals with a world-wide phenomenon of contemporary art. The thesis focuses on the characterization of street art and history of street art (its origin and development) and analyzes the difference between street art and graffiti. The thesis presents street art techniques as well as notable street artists. The thesis also observes street art scene in the Czech Republic and depicts features that street art has in common with other art movements...

  16. The influence of English on Spanish fashion terminology: -ing forms

    Balteiro Fernández, Isabel


    As has been the case with other European languages, Spanish has welcomed the arrival of English words, in spite of all purist efforts to the contrary. Moreover, it has not only adopted and adapted true Anglicisms but it has also created other forms based on English patterns, such mechanisms particularly visible in the fashion jargon in Spanish. In this paper we focus on -ing forms in the Spanish language of fashion, which may at times be genuine Anglicisms (formal or semantic ones) or false A...


    Burcak Balamber


    Full Text Available Graffiti movement, born as a result of an effort of the youth, who felt themselves socially excluded and alone, to show their existence and identities during the 1960s, expanded its scope owing to street based artists such as Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat entering to the galleries, and transformed into an artistic manner of expression having aesthetic concerns by adopting a more inclusive definition ‘street art’. During this transformation of street art,street artists experimented with various methods from many different disciplines and hence created works in a wide range of varieties in terms of plastic and artistic values. Among these disciplines, printmakinghastaken its own place in street artas a discipline thatdeeply influenced street artists.Printmaking has fascinated street artists and become a part of their production process, not only with its philosophy sharing common grounds with street art and advantages in terms of its tecnical practices but also its unique plastic and linear values.Thanks to the opportunities of printmaking, street art has succeeded creating a tremendous impression worldwide, and even positioned itself into today’s greatest museums/gallery halls. This article aims to show how and in what way printmaking has influenced street art being in a transformation since the 1960s, and to put an emphasis on theimportance of printmaking on today’s street art.


    Mohammad Adib Adhi Prabowo


    Full Text Available Abstrak Seiring dengan perkembangan sistem operasi android, telah banyak aplikasi yang memanfaatkan fasilitas GPS dan Google Map, seperti untuk mencari rute, mendapatkan peta, mencari lokasi tertentu pada sebuah tempat. Akan tetapi seringkali pengguna perangkat bergerak kesulitan ketika ingin mengetahui beberapa tempat dan lokasi tertentu karena belum ada fasilitas yang menyediakan informasi lokasi suatu tempat. Walaupun ada informasi lokasi pada peta biasanya informasi yang diberikan lokasi tempat berskala besar, misalnya lokasi tempat wisata atau stasiun kereta api. Pengembangan aplikasi untuk skala kecil ini akan memberikan informasi yang dipresentasikan pada google map. Selama ini belum ada yang memberikan sebuah informasi lokasi tempat penting yang berskala kecil. Misalnya informasi lokasi  tambal ban, lokasi warung makan, lokasi laundry, dan lokasi bengkel motor. Oleh karena itu kami mencoba untuk mengembangkan aplikasi additional street berbasis android via App Inventor dengan bantuan google maps. Aplikasi additional street ini dapat memberikan informasi letak objek pada peta serta memberikan informasi jalan menuju lokasi tersebut dan detail informasi lokasi tersebut serta lokasi dari pengguna aplikasi tersebut. Kata Kunci: additional street, android, google maps, app inventor, GPS

  19. Radioprotection et ingénierie nucléaire


    Le développement de l'énergie nucléaire repose sur deux piliers essentiels : la sûreté nucléaire, qui concerne la machine, et la radioprotection, qui se préoccupe des hommes. Construit de manière fiable, un réacteur nucléaire se doit d'irradier le moins possible ses opérateurs et conduire à un impact très faible pour les populations avoisinantes. Tout cela est soumis à des règles strictes, élaborées au niveau international, et qui ne tolèrent aucun écart. Les ingénieurs qui ont à concevoir, construire et conduire ces machines doivent maîtriser les règles de protection : cet ouvrage leur est destiné. La radioprotection, si elle se fonde principalement sur des bases scientifiques, intègre également une dimension sociétale exigeante. Ces activités sont en effet sous le regard critique et permanent de nos concitoyens, qui exigent des acteurs de cette industrie une maîtrise totale de la radioprotection ; un ingénieur qui ne connaîtrait pas la genèse de la radioprotection, ses règle...

  20. Renaming Zagreb Streets and Squares

    Jelena Stanić


    Full Text Available The paper deals with changes in street names in the city of Zagreb. Taking the Lower Town (Donji grad city area as an example, the first part of the paper analyses diachronic street name changes commencing from the systematic naming of streets in 1878. Analysis of official changes in street names throughout Zagreb’s history resulted in categorisation of five periods of ideologically motivated naming/name-changing: 1. the Croatia modernisation period, when the first official naming was put into effect, with a marked tendency towards politicisation and nationalisation of the urban landscape; 2. the period of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians/Yugoslavia, when symbols of the new monarchy, the idea of the fellowship of the Southern Slavs, Slavenophilism and the pro-Slavic geopolitical orientation were incorporated into the street names, and when the national idea was highly evident and remained so in that process; 3. the period of the NDH, the Independent State of Croatia, with decanonisation of the tokens of the Yugoslavian monarchy and the Southern Slavic orientation, and reference to the Ustashi and the German Nazi and Italian Fascist movement; 4. the period of Socialism, embedding the ideals and heroes of the workers’ movement and the War of National Liberation into the canonical system; and, 5. the period following the democratic changes in 1990, when almost all the signs of Socialism and the Communist/Antifascist struggle were erased, with the prominent presence of a process of installing new references to early national culture and historical tradition. The closing part of the paper deals with public discussions connected with the selection of a location for a square to bear the name of the first president of independent Croatia, Franjo Tuđman. Analysis of these public polemics shows two opposing discourses: the right-wing political option, which supports a central position for the square and considers the chosen area to

  1. ING3基因与肿瘤关系的研究进展%The role of ING3 gene in human tumor research



    The inhibitors of growth (ING) family( INGI-5), which are considered as type 2 tumor suppressors, are involved in the regulation of various processes ranging from cell growth, proliferation, cell cycle and cellular senescence to apoptosis.The ING3 gene, a novel number of the lNG family, mapped to 7q31.3, is widely expressed in normal human tissues.However, loss or down regulation of ING3 expression is observed in most cancers, such as human colorectal cancer, head and neck cancer or skin malignant melanoma.The phenomenon demonstrates that the loss of ING3 activity by multiple mechanisms may facilitate tumorigenesis.In this review, we have summarized the progress that has been made in understanding the role of ING3 protein in different types of tumors.%ING基因家族(ING1-5)被认为是2型肿瘤抑制基因,参与细胞生长、增殖、细胞周期调控和细胞衰老等不同的生物学过程.新近发现的ING3基因,定位于染色体7q31.3,广泛表达于正常人体组织.但在多种类型肿瘤中ING3的表达下调或缺失,例如大肠癌、头颈癌以及皮肤恶性黑色素瘤等.该现象表明,多种机制导致的ING3失活可能促进了肿瘤的发生.本文对ING3基因与不同类型肿瘤关系的研究进展作一综述.

  2. Matematisk forståing: Kva legg eleven i omgrepet matematisk forståing, og korleis jobbar eleven for å tileigna seg forståing i matematikk?


    Formålet bak forskings og utviklingsarbeidet mitt var å danna eit bilete av kva faktorar som bidreg til læring i matematikkfaget hos elevane. Eg valde dette fokusområdet for undersøkinga slik at eg som framtidig matematikklærar kan vera rusta til å rettleia elevane mot å utvikle forståing i matematikk. Difor lydar problemstillinga som følgjar: «Kva legg eleven i omgrepet matematisk forståing, og korleis jobbar eleven for å tileigna seg forståing i matematikk?» I teorikapittelet presenterer eg...

  3. Advancement of Study between ING4 Gene and Tumor%ING4基因与肿瘤的研究进展

    兰会华(综述); 黄华艺(审校)


    Inhibitor of growth(ING) family is considered to be a candidate tumor suppressor gene,and ING4 gene is a new member of the family .ING4 was significantly downregulated in several tumors:gastric cancer,colorectal cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer,prostate cancer,bladder cancer,glioma,and melanoma.ING4 is not only involved in the development and prognosis of tumors,but also enhances the sensitivity of tumor cells to chemotherapeutic drugs .%生长抑制因子( ING)家族是候选的抑癌基因,ING4基因是该家族的新成员。 ING4基因在正常组织中表达丰富,在胃癌、结直肠癌、肝细胞癌、胰腺癌、肺癌、乳腺癌、卵巢癌、前列腺癌、膀胱癌、神经胶质瘤、黑色素瘤等多种恶性肿瘤组织中表达明显下调。 ING4基因不仅参与了肿瘤的发生、发展及预后,还能增强肿瘤细胞对化疗药物的敏感性。

  4. Structural value of Yerevan streets

    Avetisyan Arsen Grantovich


    Full Text Available The absence of the methods of urban analysis in the process of urban development of Yerevan is the reason of urban planning activities that tend to decrease the urban value of Yerevan territories. Meanwhile the studies in the sphere of urban planning and urban analysis prove the dependence of the life in the city on its structure and distribution of the functions. The mentioned issue highlights the importance of urban analysis. The paper discusses space syntax, which is one of the initial methods of urban analysis. The basic concept of Space syntax is based on the assumption that urban fabric can be presented and studied as a power graph. The method provides the measures that evaluate the land use, traffic and pedestrian movement, land value and even carbon emissions. The paper discusses also recent attempts of integration of space syntax method into GIS environment. GIS databases provide researchers with vast amount of urban data. Analyses presented in the current paper were performed on the basis of the open street map, which was imported from the GIS environment. With the application of space syntax methods analysis of connectivity, integration choice (betweenness and depth from the city center were performed to evaluate the structural value of Yerevan streets. Municipal regions of Yerevan were classified by the level of their accessibility and by their distances from the city center on the base of the results of depth measures from the city center. Evaluation of the street network aims to define the most integrated and centrally positioned parts of the city. These areas can be locations for the organization of sub centers of Yerevan in the municipal regions.

  5. Parading memory and re-member-ing conflict

    McQuaid, Sara Dybris

    Parading memory and re-member-ing conflict: Collective memory in transition in Northern Ireland This paper leverages an understanding of collective memory to examine the politico-cultural practice of parading in Northern Ireland and so extends our knowledge of the role of memory and commemoration...... understandings of the role of history and memory as conflict dynamics, as well as strategies for studying these as both critical events and as critical continuities. In Northern Ireland, parades provide a unique case for this approach as they draw on and reframe collective memories through partly ritualised...... these ways, they are vernaculars that can unsettle received or official narratives attempting to smooth over differences and anxieties in transitory times. The emotive use of collective memory to charge processes of identity formation often form part of protracted and sectarian conflict (Horowitz [1985] 2000...

  6. Forum-ing: Signature practice for public theological discourse

    Edward P. Wimberly


    Full Text Available This article introduces a unique model for public theological conversation and discourse, which was developed by the Concerned Black Clergy of Atlanta (CBC. It was a model developed in response to the problems of poverty, homelessness, and the ‘missing and murdered children’ victimised in Atlanta, Georgia in the United States of America in the early 1980s. It was originally organised to respond to the economic, financial, spiritual, emotional, employment, housing and resource needs of the underserved poor. This unique practice is called forum-ing. The forum meets every Monday morning, except when there is a national holiday. It has operated 30 consecutive years. The forum has a series of presentations, including the opening prayer, self-introductions of each person, a report of the executive director, special presentations from selected community groups, reports, and then questions and answers. The end result is that those attending engage in a process of discourse that enables them to internalise new ideas, approaches, and activities for addressing poverty and injustice in the community. Key to forum-ing for the 21st century is that it is a form of public practical theology rooted and grounded in non-violence growing out of the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s in the United States. The overall purpose of this article is to contribute to the effort of the Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria (South Africa to identify those variables that will assist religious leaders in South Africa to develop public conversational spaces to enhance democratic participation. This article presents one model from the African American community in Atlanta, Georgia. The hope is to lift up key variables that might assist in the practical and pastoral theological conversation taking place in South Africa at present.

  7. Analysis of clinical efficacy of light-cured composite resin and GC FUJI Ⅸglass ionomer in dental caries fill- ing%光固化复合树脂和 GC FUJI Ⅸ玻璃离子充填龋齿临床疗效分析



    Objective To observe the clinical curative effect of light cured composite resin and GC FUJI Ⅸglass ionomer in filling dental caries .Methods One hundred and eight patients with 326 caries teeth were randomly divided into light cured resin group (54 cases, 150 teeth) and GC FUJI Ⅸ group(54 cases, 176 teeth) and were treated respectively by light cured composite resin and GC FUJI Ⅸglass ionomer for restorations of dental caries .One year after filling , the clinical efficacy was compared between the two groups .Results The restoration success rate of GC FUJIⅨgroup(97.2%) was higher than that of light cured resin group (87.3%)(P<0.01).Conclusion The efficacy of deep caries filling of GC FUJI Ⅸglass ionomer is better than that of light cured composite resin .%目的:观察光固化复合树脂和GC FUJIⅨ玻璃离子两种材料充填龋齿的临床疗效。方法将108例(326颗患牙)随机分为光固化树脂组(54例150颗)和GC FUJI Ⅸ组(54例176颗),光固化树脂组采用光固化复合树脂材料充填修复,GC FUJIⅨ组采用GC FUJIⅨ玻璃离子材料充填修复,随访观察一年,比较两组的临床疗效。结果采用GC FUJI Ⅸ玻璃离子材料充填修复成功率(97.2%)高于光固化复合树脂组(87.3%)(P<0.01)。结论 GC FUJI Ⅸ玻璃离子充填深龋疗效优于光固化复合树脂。

  8. Development and implementation of ultra-thin concrete road technology for suburban streets in South Africa

    Louw, MR


    Full Text Available . The technology was developed for suburban streets and roads carrying less than 2500 vehicles per day and is constructed with labour using light plant. The UTRCP consists of a 50 mm thick 30 MPa concrete layer, lightly reinforced, generally constructed on shaped...

  9. Allelic loss of the ING gene family loci is a frequent event in ameloblastoma.

    Borkosky, Silvia S; Gunduz, Mehmet; Beder, Levent; Tsujigiwa, Hidetsugu; Tamamura, Ryo; Gunduz, Esra; Katase, Naoki; Rodriguez, Andrea P; Sasaki, Akira; Nagai, Noriyuki; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi


    Ameloblastoma is the most frequently encountered odontogenic tumor, characterized by a locally invasive behavior, frequent recurrences, and, although rare, metastatic capacity. Loss or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) allows cells to acquire neoplastic growth. The ING family proteins are tumor suppressors that physically and functionally interact with p53 to perform important roles in apoptosis, DNA repair, cell cycle regulation, and senescence. TP53 genetic alterations were reported to infrequently occur in ameloblastoma. Considering that other TSGs related to TP53 could be altered in this tumor, we focused our study on the ING family genes. We analyzed the loss of heterozygosity (LOH) status of the ING family (ING1-ING5) chromosomal loci in a group of ameloblastomas by microsatellite analysis, and correlated the ING LOH status with clinicopathological characteristics. By using specific microsatellite markers, high frequency of LOH was found at the loci of each ING gene family member (33.3-72.2%). A significant relationship was shown between LOH of D2S 140 (ING5 locus) and solid tumor type (p = 0.02). LOH of ING3MS (ING3 locus) was also high in solid type tumors, showing a near significant association. In addition, a notable tendency toward higher LOH for half of the markers was observed in recurrent cases. LOH of ING family genes appears as a common genetic alteration in solid ameloblastoma. The current study provides interesting novel information regarding the potential prognostic significance of the allelic loss of the ING gene family loci in ameloblastoma tumorigenesis.

  10. Georges Charpak street sign unveiled

    Paola Catapano


    While it might not be the only French street named in honour of the late Georges Charpak, who passed away in September 2010 at the age of 87, the street chosen by the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly is certainly the only one located directly opposite the CERN "campus". The road overlooks buildings on the CERN Meyrin site, where Georges Charpak spent most of his career as a physicist, conducting the research that won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1992.   From left to right: Sigurd Lettow, Dominique Charpak and the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly. The unveiling took place on 17 October and was organised by the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly. George Charpak’s wife, Dominique, and Sigurd Lettow, CERN Director of Administration and General Infrastructure, attended what was an intimate and touching ceremony. The mayor’s speech at the event praised Georges’ commitment to scientific education. The highlight of the event, however, was a witty and humorous ...

  11. Negative regulation of NF-κB by the ING4 tumor suppressor in breast cancer.

    Sara A Byron

    Full Text Available Nuclear Factor kappa B (NF-κB is a key mediator of normal immune response but contributes to aggressive cancer cell phenotypes when aberrantly activated. Here we present evidence that the Inhibitor of Growth 4 (ING4 tumor suppressor negatively regulates NF-κB in breast cancer. We surveyed primary breast tumor samples for ING4 protein expression using tissue microarrays and a newly generated antibody. We found that 34% of tumors expressed undetectable to low levels of the ING4 protein (n = 227. Tumors with low ING4 expression were frequently large in size, high grade, and lymph node positive, suggesting that down-regulation of ING4 may contribute to breast cancer progression. In the same tumor set, we found that low ING4 expression correlated with high levels of nuclear phosphorylated p65/RelA (p-p65, an activated form of NF-κB (p = 0.018. Fifty seven percent of ING4-low/p-p65-high tumors were lymph node-positive, indicating a high metastatic tendency of these tumors. Conversely, ectopic expression of ING4 inhibited p65/RelA phosphorylation in T47D and MCF7 breast cancer cells. In addition, ING4 suppressed PMA-induced cell invasion and NF-κB-target gene expression in T47D cells, indicating that ING4 inhibited NF-κB activity in breast cancer cells. Supportive of the ING4 function in the regulation of NF-κB-target gene expression, we found that ING4 expression levels inversely correlated with the expression of NF-κB-target genes in primary breast tumors by analyzing public gene expression datasets. Moreover, low ING4 expression or high expression of the gene signature composed of a subset of ING4-repressed NF-κB-target genes was associated with reduced disease-free survival in breast cancer patients. Taken together, we conclude that ING4 negatively regulates NF-κB in breast cancer. Consequently, down-regulation of ING4 leads to activation of NF-κB, contributing to tumor progression and reduced disease-free patient survival in

  12. Modulators of inhibitor of growth (ING) family expression in development and disease.

    Maher, Stacey K; Helbing, Caren C


    The inhibitor of growth (ING) gene family proteins regulate many critical cellular processes such as cell proliferation and growth, apoptosis, DNA repair, senescence, angiogenesis, and drug resistance. Their transcripts and proteins are differentially expressed in health and disease and there is evidence for developmental regulation. The vast majority of studies have characterized ING levels in the context of cancer. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the expression of ING family members in other contexts. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal model systems that provide insight into the factors influencing the expression of these important proteins. We examine the influence of cell cycle and aging as well as genotoxic stress on ING expression levels and evaluate several emerging areas of inquiry demonstrating that ING gene activity may be modulated by factors such as the p53 tumor suppressor, DNA methylation, and ING proteins themselves with external factors such as hormones, reactive oxygen species, TGFbeta signalling, and other proteins of pathological significance also influencing ING levels. We then briefly discuss the influence of post-translational modification and changes in subcellular localization as it pertains to modulation of ING expression. Understanding how ING expression is modulated represents a vital aspect of effective drug targeting strategies.

  13. Design of White LED Energy-saving Street Lamp

    CHEN Huan-jie; FENG Jin-yuan


    An energy-saving light-emitting-diode(LED) street lamp was conducted. Based on the simulation by optical software TracePro, a physical street lamp system including 600 white LEDs was achieved. This system was operated under a constant current of 20mA for each unit, and the electric power consumption of the whole lamp was only 42W. Experimental results demonstrated that the total average illuminance reached 8.8lx and the overall uniformity was 0.370 for a 30-m-long and 10-m-wide test area at a height of 8m, which is fully acceptable for the current standard for sub-main road.

  14. Street floods in Metro Manila and possible solutions.

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar; Mendoza, Jerico; Cipriano, Fatima; Delmendo, Patricia Anne; Lacsamana, Micah Nieves; Moises, Marc Anthony; Pellejera, Nicanor; Punay, Kenneth Niño; Sabio, Glenn; Santos, Laurize; Serrano, Jonathan; Taniza, Herbert James; Tingin, Neil Eneri


    Urban floods from thunderstorms cause severe problems in Metro Manila due to road traffic. Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived topography, flood simulations and anecdotal reports, the root of surface flood problems in Metro Manila is identified. Majority of flood-prone areas are along the intersection of creeks and streets located in topographic lows. When creeks overflow or when rapidly accumulated street flood does not drain fast enough to the nearest stream channel, the intersecting road also gets flooded. Possible solutions include the elevation of roads or construction of well-designed drainage structures leading to the creeks. Proposed solutions to the flood problem of Metro Manila may avoid paralyzing traffic problems due to short-lived rain events, which according to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) cost the Philippine economy 2.4billionpesos/day. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. School Me, School Me Not, Street Me, Street Me Not…

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk


    of 2014, we conducted an ethnographic fieldwork (Atkinson & Hammersley 2007; Hastrup 2010; Spradley 1980) among urban youth in a mid-sized Danish provincial town. Different groupings of youth attended the skater and parkour facilities at the central squares, all of them with each their strategies....... Obviously, the skaters attend the site to skate. But also other, more vulnerable groupings, use the site to socialize, meet peers and perhaps escape an unreliable and risky family arena. One particular group, the self-named Thugz, primarily formed around a number of young boys with non-Danish ethnic...... the vulnerable urban youth cope with the obvious challenges related to the dissimilar imperatives of the street, the family and the school?...

  16. Assessing canopy cover over streets and sidewalks in street tree populations

    S.E. Maco; E.G. McPherson


    Total canopy cover and canopy cover over street and sidewalk surfaces were estimated for street trees in Davis, California, U.S. Calculations were made using simple trigonometric equations based on the results of a sample inventory. Canopy cover from public trees over streets and sidewalks varied between 4% and 46% by city zone, averaging 14% citywide. Consideration of...

  17. Relationships between the Sociodemographic and Family Characteristics, Street Life Experiences and the Hopelessness of Street Children

    Duyan, Veli


    Throughout its history, street children have been a major concern of Turkish society and have lately been uppermost on social workers agenda. This study examines the relationships between sociodemographic and family characteristics, family relations, street life experiences and the hopelessness of street children. The study focuses on a population…

  18. Adolescent Hopefulness in Tanzania: Street Youth, Former Street Youth, and School Youth

    Nalkur, Priya G.


    This study compares hope in street youth, former street youth, and school youth (aged 12-18) in Tanzania. Responding to Snyder's hope theory, the author argues that not only personal agency but also the stability of living context (street, shelter, home) shapes hopefulness. Employing qualitative and quantitative analyses, the author presents a…


    Stewart, Eric A; Simons, Ronald L


    The study outlined in this article drew on Elijah Anderson's (1999) code of the street perspective to examine the impact of neighborhood street culture on violent delinquency. Using data from more than 700 African American adolescents, we examined 1) whether neighborhood street culture predicts adolescent violence above and beyond an adolescent's own street code values and 2) whether neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on adolescent violence. Consistent with Anderson's hypotheses, neighborhood street culture significantly predicts violent delinquency independent of individual-level street code effects. Additionally, neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on violence in neighborhoods where the street culture is widespread. In particular, the effect of street code values on violence is enhanced in neighborhoods where the street culture is endorsed widely.

  20. A Research on Permeability Concept at an Urban Pedestrian Shopping Street: A Case of Trabzon Kunduracilar Street

    Aysel Yavuz


    Full Text Available This research in which components of permeability concept is tried to be set forth, presents the results of a field study conducted on a pedestrian-shopping street in Trabzon, a coastal city in the eastern Black Sea Region. The criteria affecting permeability are dealt with in physical, functional and perceptual properties. Accordingly, three hypotheses are proposed in this article. The study was a two-stage survey. The first survey is prepared to determine user preferences. With the second survey prepared in the light of the data obtained from the first one, characteristics defining the permeability concept were sought for. As a result, permeability level of a street is found to be closely related with the physical, functional and perceptual properties providing such permeability and, permeability is determined to be best provided by considering all the three properties together, and new perspective to the concept of permeability is brought with this model.

  1. The Street Children Development in Open House

    Didin Saripudin


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The street children handling through open house has been developed in Indonesia since 1998. One of street children handling steps in open house is resocialization. This study is conducted to evaluate the effect of resocialization program implemention in open house on the street children and to determine how far such program reached its goal. Approach: The design of this study was program evaluation using quantitative approach. This study used Context, Input, Process and Product (CIPP evaluation model by focusing on three of four components of CIPP evaluation model such as input, process and product. The population and sample of the study were administrator, facilitator and street children chosen from 16 open houses in Bandung City, West Java Province, Indonesia. Results: The perception of administrator, facilitator and street children on input relevance was positive in avarage level. The perception of administrator, facilitator and street children on process was positive in avarage and high level. This study also presents input and process variables contribute significantly toward the product variable. Conclusion/Recommendations: The street children resocialization program in open house in Bandung, from input, process and product components, is generally in average level, there are still some weaknesses that can be handled. In order to reach the goal of street children resocialization in open house, corrective action can be taken comprehensively and synergically by the responsible ones.

  2. Psychological Characteristics of South African Street Children.

    le Roux, Johann; Smith, Cheryl Sylvia


    Attempts to identify the psychological characteristics that predispose certain children to run away and to survive, often for long periods, on the streets of South Africa. Examines vulnerability and resilience as well as social conditions that mediate the psychological predisposition to become a street child. (Author/GCP)

  3. MAPCERN links to Google Street View

    Matilda Heron


    CERN’s online maps, MAPCERN, now have the added bonus of Google Street View, thanks to the new release of images of many CERN sites captured by Google.   New Street View images of CERN sites have been added to MAPCERN, see bottom-right-hand image in the screenshot above.   Google Street View, an integrated service of Google Maps introduced in 2007, links 360-degree panoramic photos into a virtual tour. CERN and Google began collaborating on this Street View project in 2010 and now these Street View images have been embedded into MAPCERN, accessible by clicking the “Street View” tab in MAPCERN’s bottom-right-hand window. If you need to locate a building at CERN, or plan an operation on some equipment, you can save time by using the Street View images to check out the area in advance. The CERN Meyrin site has been fully mapped, as well as the surfaces of the eight LHC points, BA2 and BA3. New Street View images of CERN, including the Pr...

  4. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah


    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the streets.…

  5. Street Photography from the Subject's Viewpoint.

    Nottingham, Emily

    To investigate the reaction of the public to being photographed on the street, a study was devised whereby seven photojournalists approached people on the street, photographed them, and requested identification for a questionnaire follow up. Of 102 people approached, 87% cooperated fully with the photographers and 81% of that group returned the…

  6. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah


    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the streets.…

  7. A Study of English Listening Teaching Mode in Light of Schema Theory—Taking Unit Five in Viewing Listening Speak-ing Book 2 as the Example%基于图式理论的大学英语听力教学模式研究——以《视听说》第二册第五单元为例



    Listening is a language skill that is most frequently used in daily life and it is also the most important teaching knowl-edge that people acquire during foreign language learning. However, the traditional teaching mode is not so effective. Therefore, based on the current English learning situation of the students in our university, the paper analyzes English listening teaching mode in light of Schema Theory via a teaching experiment, in which class activities should be arranged according to the three differ-ent stages in order to improve the students'English listening ability effectively.%听力作为日常交际与二语习得的重要能力,其重要性不言而喻.然而传统的大学英语听力课不能有效促进学生的听力水平的提高.因此,作者根据该校学生大学英语学习现状,将图式理论应用到大学英语听力教学中,按照听前、听中、听后三个阶段设计教学活动,帮助学生提高听力理解能力.

  8. 75 FR 65620 - Inglis Hydropower, LLC; Notice of Application Ready for Environmental Analysis and Soliciting...


    ... spillway on the Withlacoochee River, west of Lake Rousseau and Inglis Dam, within the town of Inglis and... flows released by the Southwest Water Management District from Lake Rousseau which is typically operated to maintain the water surface elevation of Lake Rousseau at 27.5 feet mean sea level. The proposed...

  9. 78 FR 18634 - ING Life Insurance and Annuity Company, et al; Notice of Application


    ... investment adviser and an indirect wholly owned subsidiary of ING Groep, N.V.\\1\\ The Replacement Fund is sub... announced that ING and its U.S. insurance affiliates, including the Companies, are preparing for a base case... affiliates, including DSL. 6. The Contracts are individual variable annuity contracts. Each of the...

  10. 76 FR 45303 - ING Asia Pacific High Dividend Equity Income Fund, et al.; Notice of Application


    ... Advantage and Premium Opportunity Fund (``IGA''); ING Global Equity Dividend and Premium Opportunity Fund..., each applicant was able to rely on the exemptive order granted in the Matter of ING Clarion Real Estate... (since as a practical matter excess gains must be distributed and accordingly would not be available...

  11. Potential usage of ING family members in cancer diagnostics and molecular therapy.

    Gunduz, Mehmet; Demircan, Kadir; Gunduz, Esra; Katase, Naoki; Tamamura, Ryo; Nagatsuka, Hitoshi


    The Inhibitor of Growth (ING) gene family is an emerging putative type II tumor suppressor gene (TSG). Proteins of INGs (ING1-5), critical modulator of the histone code via PHD fingers, are able to suppress cell growth and proliferation, induce apoptosis, and modulate cell cycle progression. ING proteins are involved in transcriptional regulation of genes, such as the p53-inducible gene p21. ING proteins also serve as shuttling proteins between nucleus and cytoplasm, and dysregulation of this nucleocytoplasmic traffic has been shown in some cancer cells. In cancer cells, ING mRNA levels are often lost or suppressed but the genes are rarely mutated. Recently the potential roles of ING proteins as prognostic biomarkers, detection of aggressive behavior of the tumor as well as prediction of chemo-radiotherapy response have also emerged. In this review, we summarize the up-to-date knowledge on functions of the ING proteins, the protein status in human tumors and discuss as a potential target in the molecular diagnostics and therapy of cancer.

  12. Regulation of p53 by ING family members in suppression of tumor initiation and progression.

    Jafarnejad, Seyed Mehdi; Li, Gang


    The INhibitor of Growth (ING) family is an evolutionarily conserved set of proteins, implicated in suppression of initiation and progression of cancers in various tissues. They promote cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence and apoptosis, participate in stress responses, regulate DNA replication and DNA damage responses, and inhibit cancer cell migration, invasion, and angiogenesis of the tumors. At the molecular level, ING proteins are believed to participate in chromatin remodeling and transcriptional regulation of their target genes. However, the best known function of ING proteins is their cooperation with p53 tumor suppressor protein in tumor suppression. All major isoforms of ING family members can promote the transactivition of p53 and the majority of them are shown to directly interact with p53. In addition, ING proteins are thought to interact with and modulate the function of auxiliary members of p53 pathway, such as MDM2, ARF , p300, and p21, indicating their widespread involvement in the regulation and function of this prominent tumor suppressor pathway. It seems that p53 pathway is the main mechanism by which ING proteins exert their functions. Nevertheless, regulation of other pathways which are not relevant to p53, yet important for tumorigenesis such as TGF-β and NF-κB, by ING proteins is also observed. This review summarizes the current understanding of the mutual interactions and cooperation between different members of ING family with p53 pathway and implications of this cooperation in the suppression of cancer initiation and progression.

  13. Light Rhythms in Architecture

    Bülow, Katja


    On one hand, urban lighting expresses itself in a complex visual environment made by the interplay by between many separate lighting schemes, as street lighting, shop lighting, luminous commercials etc. On the other, a noticeable order of patterns occurs, when lighting is observed as luminous...... formation and rhythm. When integrated into an architectural concept, electrical lighting non-intended for poetic composition has the ability to contribute to place, time, and function-telling aspects of places in urban contexts. Urban environments are information wise challenging to pre-historic human...... instincts, but they can be met by careful selection and adjustment of existing light situations....

  14. Light Rhythms in Architecture

    Bülow, Katja


    On one hand, urban lighting expresses itself in a complex visual environment made by the interplay by between many separate lighting schemes, as street lighting, shop lighting, luminous commercials etc. On the other, a noticeable order of patterns occurs, when lighting is observed as luminous...... formation and rhythm. When integrated into an architectural concept, electrical lighting non-intended for poetic composition has the ability to contribute to place, time, and function-telling aspects of places in urban contexts. Urban environments are information wise challenging to pre-historic human...... instincts, but they can be met by careful selection and adjustment of existing light situations....

  15. The ING gene family in the regulation of cell growth and tumorigenesis.

    Coles, Andrew H; Jones, Stephen N


    The five members of the inhibitor of growth (ING) gene family have garnered significant interest due to their putative roles as tumor suppressors. However, the precise role(s) of these ING proteins in regulating cell growth and tumorigenesis remains uncertain. Biochemical and molecular biological analysis has revealed that all ING members encode a PHD finger motif proposed to bind methylated histones and phosphoinosital, and all ING proteins have been found as components of large chromatin remodeling complexes that also include histone acetyl transferase (HAT) and histone deacetylase (HDAC) enzymes, suggesting a role for ING proteins in regulating gene transcription. Additionally, the results of forced overexpression studies performed in tissue culture have indicated that several of the ING proteins can interact with the p53 tumor suppressor protein and/or the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) protein complex. As these ING-associated proteins play well-established roles in numerous cell processes, including DNA repair, cell growth and survival, inflammation, and tumor suppression, several models have been proposed that ING proteins act as key regulators of cell growth not only through their ability to modify gene transcription but also through their ability to alter p53 and NF-kappaB activity. However, these models have yet to be substantiated by in vivo experimentation. This review summarizes what is currently known about the biological functions of the five ING genes based upon in vitro experiments and recent mouse modeling efforts, and will highlight the potential impact of INGs on the development of cancer.

  16. Tool and ideological knowledge in Street Outreach Office working process.

    Kami, Maria Terumi Maruyama; Larocca, Liliana Muller; Chaves, Maria Marta Nolasco; Piosiadlo, Laura Christina Macedo; Albuquerque, Guilherme Souza


    To identify ideological knowledge and tool knowledgethat provide support to the Street Outreach Office working process. Qualitative and exploratory research. TwentyStreet Outreach Office professionals and six users collected the data, applying different semi-structured interview schedules for each category of participants. The resulting categories were analyzed in light of tool and ideological knowledge presented in the working process. From the participant discourses the following ideological knowledge emerged: public policies and the needs of the person ina street situation and tool knowledge, as well as devices and tools for the care of people in street situations and a weekly schedule. The focus on the working process discourse, supported by ideological knowledge, was verified. The structural dimension of the objective reality of the population in street situations was perceptible in the social determination of being situating on the street. When daily situations were revealed, the limitations to be overcome in the working process context were noticed. Identificar os saberes ideológicos e instrumentais que subsidiam o processo de trabalho do Consultório na Rua. Pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória. A coleta de dados foi realizada junto a 20 profissionais e seis usuários do Consultório na Rua de um município do sul do Brasil, por meio de entrevistas com roteiros semiestruturados distintos para cada categoria de participantes. As classes resultantes foram analisadas à luz dos saberes ideológicos e instrumentais presentes no processo de trabalho. Dos discursos dos participantes emergiram os saberes ideológicos: políticas públicas e necessidades da pessoa em situação de rua e os saberes instrumentais: dispositivos e instrumentos no cuidado à pessoa em situação de rua e agenda semanal. Constatou-se a centralidade dos discursos no processo de trabalho, sustentado pelos saberes ideológicos. A dimensão estrutural da realidade objetiva da população em


    Stewart, Eric A.; Simons, Ronald L.


    The study outlined in this article drew on Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street perspective to examine the impact of neighborhood street culture on violent delinquency. Using data from more than 700 African American adolescents, we examined 1) whether neighborhood street culture predicts adolescent violence above and beyond an adolescent’s own street code values and 2) whether neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on adolescent violence. Consistent w...

  18. The ING observatory in the 2015-2025 decade

    Balcells, M.


    The Isaac Newton Group, after nearly 30 years of productive operation of the William Herschel, Isaac Newton and Jacobus Kapteyn telescopes, is reviewing its science focus. The central goal is to respond to the changes in the astronomical landscapes in UK, the Netherlands, and especially in Spain, now a mature world-player community with access to 10-m class telescopes on La Palma and Paranal. The current model, which exploits scientific and instrumentation diversity, will continue to be offered until 2017. In the meantime, an ING-led consortium is building WEAVE, a next-generation spectroscopic facility for the WHT. WEAVE is a multi-fibre system capable of deploying either 1000 single-fibre probes, 25 mini-IFUs or a single large IFU, to feed a two-arm bench spectrograph which delivers resolving powers of either 5000 or 20,000. WEAVE will exploit a new field corrector at the WHT that enlarges the prime-focus FOV diameter from the current 40 arcmin to 2 degrees. WEAVE will be used to carry out massive surveys that exploit Gaia data in topics of Milky Way astronomy and stellar evolution; surveys that carry out galaxy evolution studies linked to various multi-wavelength surveys, including the LOFAR radio telescope; and redshift surveys of distant galaxies for cosmology. Community fibres will be available. The expectation is that these surveys will use 70% of the WHT time until at least 2022. The rest of the time will be available via normal TAC allocations, for use of facility instrumentation. Plans for the INT include involving external institutions in the provision of new instrumentation and/or telescope upgrades in exchange for significant fractions of telescope time.

  19. 用于太阳能LED路灯系统的新型双向变换器%New Bi-directional DC/DC Converter for Solar Street Lamp Lighting System

    张超; 赵德安; 何湘宁


    在已有的太阳能路灯系统中,通常没有考虑发光二极管(Light Emitting Diode,简称LED)工作时蓄电池的工作状态,从而导致LED器件的使用寿命缩短,影响了整个系统的正常工作.现提出一种新型DC/DC电路,用于控制蓄电池的充放电,从而实现LED的恒流工作,保证了太阳能LED路灯系统的可靠工作.此外,它能用于光伏电池的最大功率点跟踪(Maximum Power Point Tracker,简称MPPT)控制,从而充分发挥光伏器件的效能.实验结果验证了所提方法的有效性.

  20. A Laboratory Model for the Flow in Urban Street Canyons Induced by Bottom Heating

    刘辉志; 梁彬; 朱凤荣; 张伯寅; 桑建国


    Water tank experiments are carried out to investigate the convection flow induced by bottom heating and the effects of the ambient wind on the flow in non-symmetrical urban street canyons based on the PIV (Particle Image Visualization) technique. Fluid experiments show that with calm ambient wind,the flows in the street canyon are completely driven by thermal force, and the convection can reach the upper atmosphere of the street canyon. Horizontal and vertical motions also appear above the roofs of the buildings. These are the conditions which favor the exchange of momentum and air mass between the street canyon and its environment. More than two vortices are induced by the convection, and the complex circulation pattern will vary with time in a wider street canyon. However, in a narrow street canyon, just one vortex appears. With a light ambient wind, the bottom heating and the associated convection result in just one main vortex. As the ambient wind speed increases, the vortex becomes more organized and its center shifts closer to the leeward building.

  1. ING Genes Work as Tumor Suppressor Genes in the Carcinogenesis of Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Li, Xiaohan; Kikuchi, Keiji; Takano, Yasuo


    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common cancer in the world. The evolution and progression of HNSCC are considered to result from multiple stepwise alterations of cellular and molecular pathways in squamous epithelium. Recently, inhibitor of growth gene (ING) family consisting of five genes, ING1 to ING5, was identified as a new tumor suppressor gene family that was implicated in the downregulation of cell cycle and chromatin remodeling. In contrast, it has been shown that ING1 and ING2 play an oncogenic role in some cancers, this situation being similar to TGF-β. In HNSCC, the ING family has been reported to be downregulated, and ING translocation from the nucleus to the cytoplasm may be a critical event for carcinogenesis. In this paper, we describe our recent results and briefly summarize current knowledge regarding the biologic functions of ING in HNSCC.

  2. Pühendusega isadele - Baker Street


    Üritusest 7. novembril Kuressaares Arensburg lounge-restoranis Muusa toimuvast isadepäevahõngulisest üritusest, esinevad Virgo Veldi & Band kavaga "Baker Street", erikülalisena Villu Veski. Saksofonistist Virgo Veldist

  3. Marking Streets to Improve Parking Density

    Xu, Chao


    Street parking spots for automobiles are a scarce commodity in most urban environments. The heterogeneity of car sizes makes it inefficient to rigidly define fixed-sized spots. Instead, unmarked streets in cities like New York leave placement decisions to individual drivers, who have no direct incentive to maximize street utilization. In this paper, we explore the effectiveness of two different behavioral interventions designed to encourage better parking, namely (1) educational campaigns to encourage parkers to "kiss the bumper" and reduce the distance between themselves and their neighbors, or (2) painting appropriately-spaced markings on the street and urging drivers to "hit the line". Through analysis and simulation, we establish that the greatest densities are achieved when lines are painted to create spots roughly twice the length of average-sized cars. Kiss-the-bumper campaigns are in principle more effective than hit-the-line for equal degrees of compliance, although we believe that the visual cues of...

  4. Pühendusega isadele - Baker Street


    Üritusest 7. novembril Kuressaares Arensburg lounge-restoranis Muusa toimuvast isadepäevahõngulisest üritusest, esinevad Virgo Veldi & Band kavaga "Baker Street", erikülalisena Villu Veski. Saksofonistist Virgo Veldist

  5. Hiding in Plain Sight: Street artists online

    Kim Barbour


    Full Text Available Identity and privacy concerns related to social media are the subject of widespread academic enquiry and mass media reporting. Although in most circumstances academic research tends to present identity play and online self­presentation as positive, media reporting in Australia makes much of the risks of identity theft, privacy breaches and online predators. This research explores the phenomenological experience of creating an online persona, focusing particularly on street artists. For street artists, the threat of unwanted exposure has to be balanced with the positive implications of sharing their creative work outside its geographical and temporal constraints. I argue that street artists use complex persona­creation strategies in order to both protect and promote themselves. The two street artists discussed in this article experience their engagement with social media and digital networks in ways that offer new insight into the opportunities and problems associated with the presentation of a persona online.

  6. F&G Street Marsh Contaminants Investigation

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — F&G Street Marsh, located in San Diego Bay National Wildlife Refuge, Chula Vista, San Diego, California, is a tidally influenced wetland providing habitat for...


    XIE Xiao-min; WANG Jia-song; HUANG Zhen


    Spatial distributions of traffic-related pollutants in street canyons were investigated by field measurements and Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD).Two typical street canyons were selected for field monitoring,and a three-dimensional numerical model was built based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations equipped with the standard k-ε turbulence models for CFD simulations.The study shows that the pollutant concentrations of vehicle emission correlate well with the traffic volume variation,wind direction and wind speed.The wind direction and speed at the roof level determine overwhellmingly the flow field and the distributions of pollutant concentrations in the street canyon.When the wind speed is equal to zero,the pollutant concentrations on the breath height of the both sides of the street canyon are almost the same.When the wind direction is perpendicular to the street,one main vortex is formed with a shape depending on the building structure on both sides of the street,the pollutant is accumulated on the leeward side,and the pollutant concentrations at the breath height on the leeward side are 2 to 3 times as those at the breath height on the windward side.If the wind direction makes some angles with the street canyon,the pollutant concentration will be higher on the leeward side because one main vortex will also be formed in the vertical section of the canyon by the perpendicular component of the wind.But pollutant concentrations decrease in the canyon because pollutants are dispersed along the axis of the street.Pollutants at different heights of the vertical section decrease with height,i.e.there are concentration gradients in the vertical section,and the pollutant concentrations on the leeward side of the upstream building are much higher than those on the windward side of the downstream building.

  8. Explaining temporal patterns in street robbery

    Tompson, L. A.


    This thesis is concerned with explaining spatio-temporal patterns in street robbery through the lens of environmental criminology. The research question ‘what makes a place criminogenic for street robbery at some times and not others?’ is used to frame seven hypotheses. These centre on some of the features of the natural and built environment that can be considered criminogenic (i.e. crime producing). Specifically, the hypotheses test the time-varying influence of darkness, weather conditions...

  9. OpenStreetMap over WMS

    Přemysl Vohnout


    Full Text Available This paper discuss the issues which we faced, while preparing WMS server with OpenStreetMap data of whole Europe. This article is divided into three sections. First is about mandatory applications which are required for working WMS service with OpenStreetMap data. Second is focused on tuning up PostgreSQL. Third is focused on rendering time improvement of layers.

  10. Simulation of a security function based on vehicle-to-X communication and automotive lighting

    Knapik, Peter; Schoch, Elmar; Kargl, Frank


    Crime and feeling of security are pervasive occurrences and can be influenced by lighting conditions. However, lighting improvements are generally concentrated on street lighting. Meanwhile, a vast variety of new technologies, including innovative lighting systems and connected mobility, are enterin

  11. Child work in Bogotá streets

    Ángela María Pinzón, MD, MPH


    Full Text Available Title: Child Labor in the Streets of Bogotá.There are many children working in the streetsof Bogotá. The exact number is unknown andthere is very little information available aboutthis group. Methodology: Descriptive study.Children working in certain streets of Bogotáwere surveyed on Saturday July 19th 2003.Results: A total of 162 children were surveyed,52.5% boys and 47.5% girls; 38.5% youngerthen 5 years and 64.2% older; 61.1% were bythemselves and the rest with an adult; 49.4% werechildren of displaced families and the others werechildren of families from Bogotá. A 33.3% rateof school desertion and a rate of 38.9% lack ofsocial security affiliation were found. The lack ofsocial security affiliation is higher in desplaced families and within this group it is higher in thefamilies that have been living a short period oftime in Bogotá. Discusion: Data suggest a strongrelationship between child labor in the street andthe problem of displaced families; a serious impacton school desertion, and long working hoursexposed to various security, phisical, chemical,ergonomic, and psicosocial risk factors. There arethree groups of children working in the streets ofBogotá: Children of displaced families; childrenthat work in the streets, and children that live inthe streets. Conclusions: Child labor in thestreets of Bogotá is a serious problem, whichrequires attention based on knowledge of causesand the pursuit of effective measures for itseradication.

  12. Street Cries and the urban ritornelle

    Jacob Kreutzfeldt


    Full Text Available Street cries, though rarely heard in Northern European cities today, testify to ways in which audible practices shape and structure urban spaces. Paradigmatic for what Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari call ‘the refrain’, the ritualised and stylised practice of street cries may point at the dynamics of space-making, through which the social and territorial construction of urban space is performed. The article draws on historical material, documenting and describing street cries, particularly in Copenhagen in the years 1929 to 1935. Most notably, the composer Vang Holmboe and the architect Steen Eiler Rasmussen have investigated Danish street cries as a musical and a spatial phenomenon, respectably. Such studies – from their individual perspectives – can be said to explore the aesthetics of urban environments, since street calls are developed and heard specifically in the context of the city. Investigating the different methods employed in the two studies and presenting Deleuze and Guattari’s theory of the refrain as a framework for further studies in the field, this article seeks to outline a fertile area of study for sound studies: the investigation of everyday refrains and the environmental relations they express and perform. Today changed sensibilities and technologies have rendered street crying obsolete in Northern Europe, but new urban ritornells may have taken their place.

  13. 76 FR 54770 - Public Meeting: Notification by Capital One Financial Corporation, McLean, VA, To Acquire ING...


    ... Public Meeting: Notification by Capital One Financial Corporation, McLean, VA, To Acquire ING Bank, FSB, Wilmington, DE, and Indirectly To Acquire Shares of Sharebuilder Advisors, LLC and ING Direct Investing, Inc... Financial Corporation, McLean, Virginia, to acquire ING Bank, FSB, Wilmington, Delaware, and indirectly...

  14. Inges Kindlustus kukkus kahjumisse. Kindlustushindade alandamata jätmine viis miinusesse / Kadrin Karner

    Karner, Kadrin


    Inges Kindlustuse kahjumi põhjustas kõrgema hinnataseme säilitamine ning juhatuse liikmele välja makstud märkimisväärne tasu. Konkurentide RSA Kindlustus, Ergo Kindlustuse AS ja IF Kindlustus majandustulemused

  15. Public Reactions to New Street Tree Planting

    Ruth A. Rae


    Full Text Available MillionTreesNYC, which has the goal of planting one million trees in New York City by 2017, is intended to make New York City a greener, more sustainable city and is part of the Mayor’s comprehensive long term strategic plan, PlaNYC. Through planting a tree at every suitable sidewalk location in the city, the City of New York is transforming blocks and communities, and providing a variety of environmental, social and aesthetic benefits. This article examines the large scale municipal planting of new street trees and the reaction by some of the pubic to this planting.Trees offer benefits to the city overall, but the public may not understand these benefits or the street tree planting process. Between 2007 and 2009, the Department of Parks & Recreation planted 53,235 new street trees, and received 4,108 items of correspondence from the public. The majority of this correspondence consisted of public comments about the City’s new street tree planting policies and processes including placement objections, maintenance concerns, reports of resultant damage from tree planting operations, requests for new street trees and reports of tree conditions.This study describes the operational policies that guide New York City's municipal street tree planting, and results of content and spatial analysis of the correspondence. Qualitative analysis of the correspondence revealed the public perceptions and concerns related to the MillionTreesNYC program. Spatial analysis explored the relationship between the planting locations of new street trees and the locations of the citizen correspondence.Public reactions to this large scale municipal planting are related to the dual public and private nature of the sidewalk, issues of territoriality, responsibility, aesthetics and place attachment. Correspondence volume was associated with the scale of the new street tree block planting program, and the effectiveness of NYC’s 311 Customer Service Center. The discussion

  16. Temperature and human thermal comfort effects of street trees across three contrasting street canyon environments

    Coutts, Andrew M.; White, Emma C.; Tapper, Nigel J.; Beringer, Jason; Livesley, Stephen J.


    Urban street trees provide many environmental, social, and economic benefits for our cities. This research explored the role of street trees in Melbourne, Australia, in cooling the urban microclimate and improving human thermal comfort (HTC). Three east-west (E-W) oriented streets were studied in two contrasting street canyon forms (deep and shallow) and between contrasting tree canopy covers (high and low). These streets were instrumented with multiple microclimate monitoring stations to continuously measure air temperature, humidity, solar radiation, wind speed and mean radiant temperature so as to calculate the Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) from May 2011 to June 2013, focusing on summertime conditions and heat events. Street trees supported average daytime cooling during heat events in the shallow canyon by around 0.2 to 0.6 °C and up to 0.9 °C during mid-morning (9:00-10:00). Maximum daytime cooling reached 1.5 °C in the shallow canyon. The influence of street tree canopies in the deep canyon was masked by the shading effect of the tall buildings. Trees were very effective at reducing daytime UTCI in summer largely through a reduction in mean radiant temperature from shade, lowering thermal stress from very strong (UTCI > 38 °C) down to strong (UTCI > 32 °C). The influence of street trees on canyon air temperature and HTC was highly localized and variable, depending on tree cover, geometry, and prevailing meteorological conditions. The cooling benefit of street tree canopies increases as street canyon geometry shallows and broadens. This should be recognized in the strategic placement, density of planting, and species selection of street trees.

  17. Playing with the city: street art and videogames/Jugando con la ciudad: street art y videojuegos

    Israel Márquez; Susana Tosca


    ... culture. Keywords: Street art; graffiti; videogames; play; city. [es] Jugando con la ciudad: street art y videojuegos Resumen. En este artículo se presenta y describe el fenómeno del street art inspirado en videojuegos como un tipo específico de street art. Se considera su materialidad e importancia, y se conceptualiza a partir de una doble mani...

  18. From the street to the store. The formalization of street vendors in Quito, Ecuador

    S. Ferragut (Sergio); G.M. Gómez (Georgina)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ With the support of local and international organisations, the municipality of Quito, Ecuador, relocated approximately 6000 street vendors from the streets to eleven Popular Commercial Centres. The research examines the extent to which formalisation has al-tered their

  19. Road and Street Centerlines - COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN: Street Centerlines Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Line Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN is a line shapefile that contains street centerlines maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  20. Road and Street Centerlines - COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN: Street Centerlines Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Line Shapefile)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN is a line feature class that contains street centerlines maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  1. Road and Street Centerlines - COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN: Street Centerlines Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Line Shapefile)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN is a line feature class that contains street centerlines maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  2. [Street children and AIDS in Haiti].

    Bernier, M; Ascensio, P


    This study is a qualitative inquiry KAP about sexuality, and adoption and preservation of safe sexual behaviors, among the children of the street in Port-au-Prince, Haiti. Three groups of participating children of the street were observed in Port-au-Prince for three months, during June through August 1991. The information was collected with the use of pre-tested charts for each theme chosen. Then, individual interviews were conducted with leaders identified among the educators and children of the street. One of the main goals of Aids educational programs of street children should be to make them believe in the existence of the disease, and the real risk it poses for death. The strategies that we will use to convince them should deal with the different social, psychological, economical, and environmental factors that characterized the children as follows: 1) their adherence to a peer group and the relationship of power between the older and younger children; 2) the fundamental importance of money in their life, and that all relationships that they have are based on the capacity of people to give them something, such as money; 3) the role of their social appearance and their need to behave like other children for even one day; 4) their low self-esteem; 5) their feeling of powerlessness and resignation related to their living conditions; 6) the influence of the street culture; and 7) their understanding of sexuality as an immediate pleasure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. The assessment of glare in street-lighting.

    Adrian, W. & Schreuder, D.A.


    Quantitative measures for glare restriction can be introduced only if a- both disability glare and discomfort glare are included; b- the glare of a full installation not of one single lantern only-can be assessed at the design stage; and c- the system under considerations allows simple and fast calc

  4. Turbulent ventilation of a street canyon

    Nielsen, Morten


    A selection of turbulence data corresponding to 185 days of field measurements has een analysed. The non-ideal building geometry influenced the circulation patterns in the street canyon and the largest average vertical velocities were observed in the wake of an unbroken line of buildings. The sta......A selection of turbulence data corresponding to 185 days of field measurements has een analysed. The non-ideal building geometry influenced the circulation patterns in the street canyon and the largest average vertical velocities were observed in the wake of an unbroken line of buildings...... small, and this suggests that most of the velocity fluctuations were fairly local and not caused by unsteady street vortices. The observed velocities scaled with the ambient wind speed except under low-wind conditions....

  5. ING1 and 5-azacytidine act synergistically to block breast cancer cell growth.

    Satbir Thakur

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Inhibitor of Growth (ING proteins are epigenetic "readers" that recognize trimethylated lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4Me3 and target histone acetyl transferase (HAT and histone deacetylase (HDAC complexes to chromatin. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we asked whether dysregulating two epigenetic pathways with chemical inhibitors showed synergistic effects on breast cancer cell line killing. We also tested whether ING1 could synergize better with chemotherapeutics that target the same epigenetic mechanism such as the HDAC inhibitor LBH589 (Panobinostat or a different epigenetic mechanism such as 5-azacytidine (5azaC, which inhibits DNA methyl transferases. Simultaneous treatment of breast cancer cell lines with LBH589 and 5azaC did not show significant synergy in killing cells. However, combination treatment of ING1 with either LBH589 or 5azaC did show synergy. The combination of ING1b with 5azaC, which targets two distinct epigenetic mechanisms, was more effective at lower doses and enhanced apoptosis as determined by Annexin V staining and cleavage of caspase 3 and poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. ING1b plus 5azaC also acted synergistically to increase γH2AX staining indicating significant levels of DNA damage were induced. Adenoviral delivery of ING1b with 5azaC also inhibited cancer cell growth in a murine xenograft model and led to tumor regression when viral concentration was optimized in vivo. CONCLUSIONS: These data show that targeting distinct epigenetic pathways can be more effective in blocking cancer cell line growth than targeting the same pathway with multiple agents, and that using viral delivery of epigenetic regulators can be more effective in synergizing with a chemical agent than using two chemotherapeutic agents. This study also indicates that the ING1 epigenetic regulator may have additional activities in the cell when expressed at high levels.

  6. Street Cries and the urban refrain

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob


    Street cries, though rarely heard in North European cities today, testify to ways in which audible practices shape and structure urban space. As paradigmatic for what Gilles Deleuze and Felix Guattari call the refrain, the ritualized and stylized practice of street cries may point at the dynamics...... the different methods employed in the two studies and presenting Deleuze and Guattaris theory about the refrain as a framework for further studies in the field, this article seeks to outline a fertile area of study for sound studies: the investigation of everyday refrains and the environmental relations...

  7. Street art, spaces and visual rhetoric

    Marco Mondino


    Full Text Available Street-art is a widespread urban phenomenon characterised by several different styles and concepts. This essay will introduce few artistic works, analysing the rhetoric strategies used. Artists create unpredictable narratives catching the audiences’ attention through various regimes of visibility and some figures of speech, such as hyperbole, apostrophe, and camouflage. Therefore, the relationship between street artworks and the audience can trigger a discourse of challenge, conflict or complicity showed by the practice of rewriting or deleting of urban art that we will study.

  8. Street-Level Bureaucrats as Individual Policymakers:

    Baviskar, Siddhartha; Winter, Søren


    Lipsky (1980) pointed out that street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) are important policymakers due to the discretion they exercise and argued from a structural perspective that these workers manifest relatively similar coping behaviors owing to their shared working conditions, characterized by chronic......Lipsky (1980) pointed out that street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) are important policymakers due to the discretion they exercise and argued from a structural perspective that these workers manifest relatively similar coping behaviors owing to their shared working conditions, characterized...... and local political inefficacy, and their conceptual modification of job contents are all related to their use of coping....

  9. Welcome to my Chimney street



    Welcome tomyChimneystreetWelcome tomyChimneystreet(二)出去了还在。我们是在7月搬进烟囱街的,我还记得当时的情景……yes.Should we bringeverything with us?我们样样东西都带走吗?Bathtub?No.浴缸也带走?How aboutcentralheating pipe?No.暖气管呢?Yes,we willofcourse,because theybelong tous.Then wewon’tbringlights?那电灯一定不带走了?英语木屋You see,they forgot to takelights’switch away,well,incase one switch does notwork,we have one in store.瞧,他们忘记把电灯开关拿走了,那好,万一有个开关坏了,我们便有备用的。What?你说什么?You see!You have said we shouldbring lights with us.Lights and switches oftengo hand in hand.你看吧...

  10. ING5 inhibits cancer aggressiveness via preventing EMT and is a potential prognostic biomarker for lung cancer.

    Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Xutao; Meng, Jin; Zhao, Yong; Liu, Xinli; Liu, Yanxia; Wang, Yukun; Li, Yuhua; Sun, Yang; Wang, Zhipeng; Mei, Qibing; Zhang, Tao


    The proteins of the Inhibitor of Growth (ING) candidate tumor suppressor family are involved in multiple cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and chromatin remodeling. ING5 is the new member of the family whose actual role in tumor suppression is not known. Here we show that ING5 overexpression in lung cancer A549 cells inhibited cell proliferation and invasiveness, while ING5 knockdown in lung cancer H1299 cells promoted cell aggressiveness. ING5 overexpression also abrogated tumor growth and invasive abilities of lung cancer cells in mouse xenograft models. Further study showed that ING5 overexpression inhibited EMT indicated by increase of E-cadherin and decrease of N-cadherin, Snail and slug at mRNA and protein levels, which was accompanied with morphological changes. cDNA microarray and subsequent qRT-PCR validation revealed that ING5 significantly downregulated expression of EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition)-inducing genes including CEACAM6, BMP2 and CDH11. Clinical study by tissue microarray showed that nuclear ING5 negatively correlated with clinical stages and lymph node metastasis of lung cancer. Furthermore, high level of nuclear ING5 was associated with a better prognosis. Taken together, these findings uncover an important role for ING5 as a potent tumor suppressor in lung cancer growth and metastasis.

  11. Electric generator overhaul of the Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa hydroelectric. Central project conclusions; Rehabilitacion de los generadores de la central hidroelectrica Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa. Conclusiones del proyecto

    Campuzano Martinez, Ignacio Roberto; Gonzalez Vazquez, Alejandro Esteban; Robles Pimentel, Edgar Guillermo; Esparza Saucedo, Marcos; Garcia Martinez, Javier; Sanchez Flores, Ernesto; Martinez Romero, Jose Luis [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)


    The Hydroelectric Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa Power Central has three 200 MW electric generators. The Central initiated its commercial operation in 1985. The electric generators had design problems that were properly corrected in an overhaul program that was initiated in 1996, with Unit 2 electric generator and completed in 1998 with Unit 1 electric generator. This paper presents the relevant aspects of the experience accumulated in the project. [Espanol] La central hidroelectrica Ing. Carlos Ramirez Ulloa cuenta con tres generadores de 200 MW cada uno. La central inicio su operacion comercial en 1985. Los generadores tenian problemas de diseno que fueron debidamente corregidos en un programa de rehabilitacion que inicio en 1996, con el generador de la unidad 2, y culmino en 1998 con el generador de la unidad 1. En este articulo se presentan los aspectos relevantes de la experiencia acumulada en el proyecto.

  12. Physical Experiments to Investigate the Effects of Street Bottom Heating and Inflow Turbulence on Urban Street-Canyon Flow

    Jae-Jin KIM; Jong-Jin BAIK


    The effects of street bottom heating and inflow turbulence on urban street-canyon flow are experimentally investigated using a circulating water channel. Three experiments are carried out for a street canyon with a street aspect ratio of 1. Results from each experiment with bottom heating or inflow turbulence are compared with those without bottom heating and appreciable inflow turbulence. It is demonstrated that street bottom heating or inflow turbulence increases the intensity of the canyon vortex. A possible explanation on how street bottom heating or inflow turbulence intensifies the canyon vortex is given from a fluid dynamical viewpoint.

  13. Implementation Regimes and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    Winter, Søren; T. Dinesen, Peter; J. May, Peter

    -government regimes foster greater policy commitment, attention to rules, and adherence among frontline workers than is the case for a local-government implementation regime. These lead to actions of street-level bureaucrats in central-government regimes that are more in line with national policies than those...

  14. Strolling Along Barkor Street(Ⅰ)


    Barkor Street has witnessed enormous changes over the past few decades.But the Monument to theTang-Tubo Alliance,willow trees of the Tang Dynasty and large sutra pole, existing in front of JokhangMonastery, retains their original demeanor.

  15. [Agnosia for streets and defective root finding].

    Takahashi, Nobuyoshi


    Topographical disorientation is identified as a condition in which patients are unable to find their way in familiar surroundings, such as their home neighborhood or the admitting hospital after the onset of illness. I proposed to classify topographical disorientation into two categories: agnosia for streets (landmark agnosia) and defective root finding (heading disorientation). Patients with agnosia for streets are unable to identify familiar buildings and landscapes. They can, however, morphologically perceive them and remember their way around familiar areas. The lesions are located in the right posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus, anterior half of the lingual gyrus and adjacent fusiform gyrus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions play a crucial role in the interaction between the visual information of streets and memories of them, which are thought to be retained in the right anterior part of the temporal lobe. In particular, the posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus is critical for the acquisition of novel information. On the other hand, patients with defective root finding can identify familiar streets, but cannot remember their own location or positional relation between two points within a comparatively wide range not surveyable at one time. The lesions are located in the right retrosplenial cortex (Areas 29, 30), posterior cingulate cortex (Areas 23, 31) and precuneus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions are involved in the orientation function for navigating in wide spaces. In particular, the retrosplenial cortex is critical for encoding novel information.

  16. Trauma among Street-Involved Youth

    Bender, Kimberly A.; Thompson, Sanna J.; Ferguson, Kristin M.; Yoder, Jamie R.; Kern, Leah


    Previous research documents that street-involved youth experience rates of trauma and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) that are significantly higher than their housed counterparts. Trauma and PTSD are of particular concern for homeless youth as they can negatively affect youths' ability to function adaptively and to transition off the…

  17. Vortex Cloud Street during AMTEX 75

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Agee, E. M.


    Strong northerly flow across Cheju Island, Korea, during the 1975 Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX 75) resulted in a pronounced vortex cloud street to the lee of the island on February 17 1975. This pattern has been studied and explained in terms of classical von Karman eddies shed...

  18. The Earl Lee Street Art Campaign



    This article describes a catchy phrase with more to its meaning than first view. A slogan "All the girls love Earl Lee," appears in street art around the world. Earl Lee is a lovable, handsome man who owns the fictitious Earl Lube industries. Originally intended to bring a smile to people's faces at a time when there wasn't much to smile…

  19. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren


    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage ...

  20. Sesame Street Viewing Volunteer Training Manual.

    Filep, Robert T.; And Others

    This guide was prepared to aid volunteers working with preschool children who view the television program, "Sesame Street". The suggestions in this booklet grew out of a study called the "Sesame Mother Pilot Project," conducted in 1970-71 by the Institute for Educational Development. This guide is divided into nine main parts:…

  1. Taking health promotion on to the streets.

    Filgueiras, A


    In Brazil, until 1990, the authorities could legally arrest a child found alone in the streets, and put them in prison-like institutions. Their crime? To be poor, usually black and living on the streets. The Brazilian Center for the Defense of the Rights of Children and Adolescents (SOS Crianca) was set up a few years ago with the aim of changing this legislation. Together with other nongovernment organizations, SOS Crianca drew up new legislation, lobbied politicians and policymakers, and publicized the issue at a new Child and Adolescent Statute, based on the International Declaration of Children's Rights, was made law. Lawyers volunteered their services to SOS Crianca, making sure that young people had access to legal support, so that the new law could be put into practiced. AIDS has added to the difficulties of young people living on the streets. In 1988, using a strategy similar to the one above, SOS Crianca started to work with key organizations and the children themselves, to draw up an HIV prevention strategy for street children. As well as being threatened with violence and police arrest, these children lack a basic human right--access to health care. Public health services in Brazil do not reach the 40% of the population who live in absolute poverty, which includes young people on the streets. Preventing AIDS is seen by SOS Crianca to be just a part of promoting better health and providing overall healthcare. Educational activities will not work if children do not have access to treatment, or to basic needs like food and shelter. SOS Crianca does not employ doctors because it is not the role of nongovernment organizations to take over the state's responsibility to provide basic health care. But how can the public clinics, staffed with underpaid professionals and lacking basic equipment meet the needs of street children? Meetings were organized with different health professionals, involving those most sensitive to the problem in setting up a referral

  2. Food safety knowledge and practices of street foodvendors in Atbara ...

    Food safety knowledge and practices of street foodvendors in Atbara City (Naher Elneel State Sudan) ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The study was conducted to evaluate the food safety knowledge and practices of street food vendors ...

  3. Microbiological assessment of ethnic street foods of the Himalayas

    Niki Kharel


    Conclusion: The risks associated with street foods may be controlled by educating vendors about hygienic conditions. In conclusion, street foods are important ethnic foods sold in popular tourist spots in India for marginal local vendors.

  4. Microbiological Safety of Street Vended Foods in Jigjiga City ...


    RESULTS: The majority of the street food vendors were women, 120(90.9%), with the average age group of ... street food and fast foods are commonly consumed .... from each tube was seeded on appropriate media ... Time (h) Temperat ure.

  5. Street Littering in Nigerian Towns: towards a Framework for ...

    Nekky Umera

    riders, and all those practicing their trades along the streets. Respondents ... indicators (contents of our questionnaire) which helped to assess patterns of behaviour ... Litter levels were very high along the streets contiguous to very big markets.

  6. Greening the streets of CERN


    This week, CERN took delivery of bi-fuel cars for the first time. Designed to run on petrol or natural gas, these vehicles represent a cost effective way to reduce our emissions immediately. With widely distributed sites and considerable personal transport needs, this is an important step forward and another clear indication of CERN’s green credentials.   CERN’s internal public transport service, if I can put it that way, consists of some 500 bicycles, an on-site shuttle service that has transported over 40000 people in the last 12 months, and a sizeable fleet of light vehicles numbering 866 in total. As vehicle contracts come to an end, we are constantly on the lookout for greener solutions to our transport needs. Today, natural gas is the ideal solution, being less polluting than either petrol or diesel. Although the vehicles cost slightly more than their petrol equivalents, the difference is partially subsidised by the Swiss natural gas industry, and we consider the emissio...

  7. Vulnerability to violence of girls of the street in Mauritania

    Ballet, Jérôme; Sirven, N.; Bhukuth, A.; Rousseau, S.


    This article is concerned with an empirical study of girls of the street in Mauritania. This study is original for three main reasons. First, it investigates Mauritania, a country where there have been very few studies of the phenomenon of children of the street. Secondly, it seems to us that though the academic literature on street children sometimes provides comparisons between girls and boys, very few studies focus specifically on girls of the street. Thirdly, the literature focusing on ch...

  8. Off-street commercial sex : an exploratory study

    O'Doherty, Tamara Carrine


    This thesis explores women’s experiences working in off-street prostitution venues in Vancouver, BC. The victimization experienced by street-based sex workers has led many people to conclude that prostitution is inherently dangerous. However, street-based workers form the minority of sex workers in Canada. The question remains, can their experiences be generalized to other types of prostitution? Consequently, this thesis examines whether female off-street sex workers face the same degree of v...

  9. LACEwING: LocAting Constituent mEmbers In Nearby Groups

    Riedel, Adric R.


    LACEwING (LocAting Constituent mEmbers In Nearby Groups) uses the kinematics (positions and motions) of stars to determine if they are members of one of 10 nearby young moving groups or 4 nearby open clusters within 100 parsecs. It is written for Python 2.7 and depends upon Numpy, Scipy, and Astropy (ascl:1304.002) modules. LACEwING can be used as a stand-alone code or as a module in other code. Additional python programs are present in the repository for the purpose of recalibrating the code and producing other analyses, including a traceback analysis.

  10. POLICY EVALUATION OF RESTRUCTURING STREET VENDORS IN SURAKARTA CITY (Study of Street Vendors in Monument Park Banjarsari and Street Vendors in Manahan Stadium

    Frahlevi Prajasari


    Full Text Available This study examined the policy evaluation of restructuring street vendors in Surakarta city. Street vendors represent the economic actors in the informal sector of urban economic activity. The government of City/District usually removes these street vendors by disguising this activity behind the reason of structuring, . The study used descriptive research with a qualitative approach. The relocation of street vendors in Surakarta City is orderly and smooth without violence which may impact badly on physic and material because the government of Surakarta City, especially Surakarta Mayor, uses persuasive approach. Notoharjo Market is a relocation place for street vendors at Banjarsari Monument Park. In the beginning, Notoharjo Market is crowded with buyers but current days, street vendors who occupy Notoharjo Market complain about lack of buyers. The lack of buyers at Notoharjo Market is because the facilities previously provided by the government of Surakarta City are not well maintained. The government of Surakarta City must listening all complains of street vendors for the smoothness and orderliness of trading activity of street vendors. Not only listening, but the government of Surakarta City also gives appropriate and best solution to street vendors such that street vendors feel comfort in selling and their income is better than before.

  11. An Art of Resistance: From the Street to the Classroom

    Chung, Sheng Kuan


    Rooted in graffiti culture and its attitude toward the world, street art is regarded as a postgraffiti movement. Street art encompasses a wide array of media and techniques, such as traditional spray-painted tags, stickers, stencils, posters, photocopies, murals, paper cutouts, mosaics, street installations, performances, and video projections…

  12. Street language. A multilingual youth register in the Netherlands

    Schoonen, R.; Appel, R.


    This paper reports on an empirical study of street language, a multilingual youth register in the Netherlands. Nearly 300 secondary school students completed a questionnaire on their acquaintance with and use of street language. A subsample of students was also interviewed. Use of street language wi

  13. What Research Indicates about the Educational Effects of "Sesame Street."

    Children's Television Workshop, New York, NY.

    This paper reviews the results of several studies that examined the educational effects of Sesame Street. Three studies by the Educational Testing Service on Sesame Street's first two seasons determined that among children who watched Sesame Street, those who watched the most scored highest on an achievement measure; frequent viewers made more…

  14. Social and structural barriers to housing among street-involved youth who use illicit drugs.

    Krüsi, Andrea; Fast, Danya; Small, Will; Wood, Evan; Kerr, Thomas


    In Canada, approximately 150,000 youth live on the street. Street-involvement and homelessness have been associated with various health risks, including increased substance use, blood-borne infections and sexually transmitted diseases. We undertook a qualitative study to better understand the social and structural barriers street-involved youth who use illicit drugs encounter when seeking housing. We conducted 38 semi-structured interviews with street-involved youth in Vancouver, Canada from May to October 2008. Interviewees were recruited from the At-risk Youth Study (ARYS) cohort, which follows youth aged 14 to 26 who have experience with illicit drug use. All interviews were thematically analyzed, with particular emphasis on participants' perspectives regarding their housing situation and their experiences seeking housing. Many street-involved youth reported feeling unsupported in their efforts to find housing. For the majority of youth, existing abstinence-focused shelters did not constitute a viable option and, as a result, many felt excluded from these facilities. Many youth identified inflexible shelter rules and a lack of privacy as outweighing the benefits of sleeping indoors. Single-room occupancy hotels (SROs) were reported to be the only affordable housing options, as many landlords would not rent to youth on welfare. Many youth reported resisting moving to SROs as they viewed them as unsafe and as giving up hope for a return to mainstream society. The findings of the present study shed light on the social and structural barriers street-involved youth face in attaining housing and challenge the popular view of youth homelessness constituting a lifestyle choice. Our findings point to the need for housing strategies that include safe, low threshold, harm reduction focused housing options for youth who engage in illicit substance use.

  15. Discurso del Ing. Rolando Carrión Muñoz

    Carrión Muñoz, Rolando; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos


    Discurso del Ing. Rolando Carrión Muñoz, con motivo del reconocimiento de la calidad académica otorgada por el Consejo Nacional de Acreditación Universitaria, a la EAP de Ingeniería Industrial de la UNMSM (24 de abril de 2014)

  16. Queer(y)ing and Recrafting Agency: Moving Away from a Model of Coercion versus Escape

    Gowlett, Christina


    This paper applies a Butlerian-inspired "queer(y)ing" methodology to disrupt the utility of agency being framed within the binary of escape and coercion. In particular, it uses Butler's concept of performative resignification to analyse how Simon, a 16-year-old white male student, maneouvres his way through the social conventions of…

  17. Discurso del Ing. Rolando Carrión Muñoz

    Carrión Muñoz, Rolando; Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos


    Discurso del Ing. Rolando Carrión Muñoz, con motivo del reconocimiento de la calidad académica otorgada por el Consejo Nacional de Acreditación Universitaria, a la EAP de Ingeniería Industrial de la UNMSM (24 de abril de 2014)

  18. Analýza společenské odpovědnosti firmy ING

    Marvanová, Zuzana


    Thesis contains basic informations and definitions of CSR, its history, contemporary activities and main advantages as well as disadvantages. Except that are described possibilities of implementation, measurement and evaluation of it in a company. The second part is concerned with the attitude of ING to corporate social responsibility globally as well as in Czech republic. At the end is a short questionnaire.

  19. Queer(y)ing and Recrafting Agency: Moving Away from a Model of Coercion versus Escape

    Gowlett, Christina


    This paper applies a Butlerian-inspired "queer(y)ing" methodology to disrupt the utility of agency being framed within the binary of escape and coercion. In particular, it uses Butler's concept of performative resignification to analyse how Simon, a 16-year-old white male student, maneouvres his way through the social conventions of…

  20. Queer(y)ing Religion and Spirituality: Reflections from Difficult Dialogues Exploring Religion, Spirituality, and Homosexuality

    LePeau, Lucy


    This article describes a student affairs practitioner's experience with co-instructing a course entitled, "Queer(y)ing Religion and Spirituality". The ways practitioners can facilitate difficult dialogues with students about the intersection of spirituality and GLBT issues are explored.

  1. De-Pake-ing transform analysis of fully deuterated malonic acid.

    Elliott, Douglas W; Niemczura, Walter P; Kumashiro, Kristin K


    The analysis of deuterium wideline NMR spectra has been an essential step in characterizing the dynamics of molecules in the solid-state. Although clearly important, the identification of quadrupolar coupling constants (QCCs) from the powder patterns is often complicated by poor sensitivity and/or spectral overlap. Previously, others have demonstrated the utility of "de-Pake-ing", a mathematical transform that yields the QCCs in a straightforward manner for symmetric (eta=0) sites. In this short paper, we describe our analysis of a powder sample of perdeutero-malonic acid, a molecule with two distinct deuteron environments and asymmetries. The methylene sites are immediately amenable to the standard de-Pake-ing transform analysis due to their low asymmetry. However, the de-Pake-ing methodology for the acid deuterons, for which the asymmetry deviates significantly from zero, requires more analysis to extract their QCCs. The impact of this work on the future application of de-Pake-ing to a wider range of samples is also discussed.

  2. BE-ing @Work: Wearables and Presence of Mind in the Workplace

    Forbes Oste, Heidi


    Expectations and demands in the changing contemporary workplace are driven by emergent technologies. Ubiquitous in nature, they are designed to enhance human and organization potential. These technologies provide access to information and connection at all times. They are increasingly reliant on human relationships and connection. BE-ing one's…

  3. Strategies to ensure the welfare of street children

    Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava


    Full Text Available Street children refer to a vulnerable section of children who lives on the street in the absence of any guidance of a responsible person, to ensure their own or their family′s survival. Multiple determinants have been ascertained in the causation of the menace of street children. In order to address the challenges faced by street children, there is an indispensable need to develop a comprehensive strategy by involving all the concerned stakeholders. To conclude, to counter the menace of street children, there is a definite need to understand the role of heterogeneous determinants that push children towards street life, so that the welfare needs of street children can be safeguarded and the problem can be addressed at the grass root level.

  4. Expression of HIF-1A/VEGF/ING-4 Axis in Pulmonary Sarcoidosis.

    Piotrowski, W J; Kiszałkiewicz, J; Pastuszak-Lewandoska, D; Górski, P; Antczak, A; Migdalska-Sęk, M; Górski, W; Czarnecka, K H; Domańska, D; Nawrot, E; Brzeziańska-Lasota, E


    Angiogenesis/angiostasis regulated by hypoxia inducible factor-1A (HIF-1A)/vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)/inhibitor of growth protein 4 (ING-4) axis may be crucial for the course and outcome of sarcoidosis. Overexpression of angiogenic factors (activation of VEGF through HIF-1A) may predispose to chronic course and lung fibrosis, whereas immunoangiostasis (related to an overexpression of inhibitory ING-4) may be involved in granuloma formation in early sarcoid inflammation, or sustained or recurrent formation of granulomas. In this work we investigated gene expression of HIF-1A, VEGF and ING-4 in bronchoalveolar fluid (BALF) cells and in peripheral blood (PB) lymphocytes of sarcoidosis patients (n=94), to better understand mechanisms of the disease and to search for its biomarkers. The relative gene expression level (RQ value) was analyzed by qPCR. The results were evaluated according to the presence of lung parenchymal involvement (radiological stage I vs. II-IV), acute vs. insidious onset, lung function tests, calcium metabolism parameters, percentage of lymphocytes (BALL%) and BAL CD4+/CD8+ in BALF, age, and gender. In BALF cells, the ING-4 and VEGF RQ values were increased, while HIF-1A expression was decreased. In PB lymphocytes all studied genes were overexpressed. Higher expression of HIF-1A in PB lymphocytes of patients with abnormal spirometry, and in BALF cells of patients with lung volume restriction was found. VEGF gene expression in BALF cells was also higher in patients with abnormal spirometry. These findings were in line with previous data on the role of HIF-1A/VEGF/ING-4 axis in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. Up-regulated HIF-1A and VEGF genes are linked to acknowledged negative prognostics.

  5. Tumor suppressor gene ING3 induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy via inhibition of AMPK and activation of p38 MAPK signaling.

    Wang, Jiaojiao; Liu, Zhiping; Feng, Xiaojun; Gao, Si; Xu, Suowen; Liu, Peiqing


    Cardiac hypertrophy, an adaptive growth process that occurs in response to various pathophysiological stimuli, constitutes an important risk factor for the development of heart failure. However, the molecular mechanisms that regulate this cardiac growth response are not completely understood. Here we revealed that ING3 (inhibitor of growth family, member 3), a type II tumor suppressor, plays a critical role in the regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. ING3 expression was present in relatively high abundance in the heart, and was prominently upregulated in hypertrophic agonists angiotensin II (Ang II), phenylephrine (PE), or isoproterenol (ISO)-stimulated cardiomyocytes and in hearts of rat undergoing abdominal aortic constriction (AAC) surgery. In cardiomyocytes, overexpression of ING3 caused an increase in ANP, BNP and β-MHC mRNA levels and cell surface area, while depletion of ING3 attenuated PE-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. Mechanistically, we have demonstrated that overexpression of ING3 could inactivate the AMPK and activate the canonical p38 MAPK signaling. Remarkably, AMPK agonist AICAR or p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 abrogated ING3-induced hypertrophic response in cardiomyocytes. In summary, our data disclose a novel role of ING3 as an inducer of pathological cardiac hypertrophy, suggesting that silencing of ING3 may be explored as a potential therapeutic target in preventing cardiac hypertrophy.

  6. Hundreds of Area Residents Visit the National Lab Booth at the Annual In The Street Festival | Poster

    Light-up yo-yos, brightly colored portion plates, and a fast spinner game lured hundreds of area residents to the Frederick National Lab booth at this year’s In The Street festival, where they also heard a message from the lab: Stay healthy through healthy habits.

  7. Household and family characteristics of street children in Aracaju, Brazil.

    Abdelgalil, S; Gurgel, R G; Theobald, S; Cuevas, L E


    To describe the family background of street children in Aracaju, Brazil, their parents' perception of street life, and the reasons for the high prevalence of males observed among street children. Cross sectional study using semi-structured interviews and qualitative focus group discussions with parents of purposively selected index street children. Fifty eight families were enrolled. Most participants were single parent, female headed families living in slums or low cost housing, with high levels of illiteracy, drug use, unemployment, and a history of migration. Most parents reported receiving financial support from their children and were aware of the dangers of the street. Many parents had lived in the street, worked from an early age, and had been adolescent parents themselves. Parents perceived that the street was more dangerous for girls than for boys. Besides economic reasons, parents highlighted the role of peers and drug use in pulling their children to the street. A total of 187 siblings were identified. Siblings had poor school performance with high school drop out rates. Twenty per cent of the adolescent girl siblings were not living at home. Gender determined the type of work undertaken by children and adolescents. Males worked in the streets and females worked as housemaids, shop assistants, and in restaurants and bars. Family disintegration, poverty, drug use, adolescent pregnancy, peer pressure, and socially constructed gender roles determine the characteristics of children in the street. There is an urgent need for increased social support in this area.

  8. Modelling Aerosol Dispersion in Urban Street Canyons

    Tay, B. K.; Jones, D. P.; Gallagher, M. W.; McFiggans, G. B.; Watkins, A. P.


    Flow patterns within an urban street canyon are influenced by various micrometeorological factors. It also represents an environment where pollutants such as aerosols accumulate to high levels due to high volumes of traffic. As adverse health effects are being attributed to exposure to aerosols, an investigation of the dispersion of aerosols within such environments is of growing importance. In particular, one is concerned with the vertical structure of the aerosol concentration, the ventilation characteristics of the street canyon and the influence of aerosol microphysical processes. Due to the inherent heterogeneity of the aerosol concentrations within the street canyon and the lack of spatial resolution of measurement campaigns, these issues are an on-going debate. Therefore, a modelling tool is required to represent aerosol dispersion patterns to provide insights to results of past measurement campaigns. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models are able to predict detailed airflow patterns within urban geometries. This capability may be further extended to include aerosol dispersion, by an Euler-Euler multiphase approach. To facilitate the investigation, a two-dimensional, multiphase CFD tool coupled with the k-epsilon turbulence model and with the capability of modelling mixed convection flow regimes arising from both wind driven flows and buoyancy effects from heated walls was developed. Assuming wind blowing perpendicularly to the canyon axis and treating aerosols as a passive scalar, an attempt will be made to assess the sensitivities of aerosol vertical structure and ventilation characteristics to the various flow conditions. Numerical studies were performed using an idealized 10m by 10m canyon to represent a regular canyon and 10m by 5m to represent a deep one. An aerosol emission source was assigned on the centerline of the canyon to represent exhaust emissions. The vertical structure of the aerosols would inform future directives regarding the

  9. DNA profiling from heroin street dose packages.

    Zamir, Ashira; Cohen, Yaron; Azoury, Myriam


    A large amount of heroin street doses are seized and examined for drug content by the Israel police. These are generally wrapped in heat-sealed plastic. Occasionally it is possible to visualize latent fingerprints on the plastic wrap itself, but the small size of the plastic item and the sealing process makes the success rate very low. In this study, the possibility of extracting and profiling DNA from the burnt edge of the plastic wrap was investigated. The idea was based on the assumption that epithelial cells might be trapped during the sealing process. The results show that there are sufficient quantities of DNA deposited at the "amorphic" burnt edges of sealed street doses for DNA profiling to be carried out. A controlled experiment using a known donor was performed. This subject carried out sealing of "street drug" packages and consequent DNA extractions were performed to show that known DNA profiles could be recovered from such packages, as a result of handling by the "packer." "Square-like" burnt edges did not yield DNA profiles, probably because of differences in the sealing process. It was also shown that DNA could be recovered from the plastic wrap itself and not only from the amorphic burnt edges. As heroin dealers and drug users are often involved in other crimes and run-ins with the law, the effective extraction and addition of their DNA profiles from such items of evidence to the newly established DNA database in Israel provides new avenues in the continued fight against crime and drug traffickers.

  10. Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11

    Sorenson, Jason R.


    Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as




    The issue represents the analysis of the fundamentals and world-wide best practices of controlling street dog population in Moscow and other global cities. Actions proposed to improve the strategy of managing free-ranging dogs in Moscow.Some reasons of increase in number of stray dogs and “pet overpopulation” ware studied. There are ecological types of stray dogs characterized the types of running wild of dogs and foraging (food procurement) strategy of animals.The analysis of the basic princ...

  12. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren


    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage...... of caseworkers emphasizing actions that are consistent with thenational employment reform goal of getting clients into jobs quickly. The influence of politicians and managers in bringing this about is relatively limited in comparison to the influences of caseworkers’ understanding of policy goals...

  13. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren


    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage...... of caseworkers emphasizing actions that are consistent with the national employment reform goal of getting clients into jobs quickly. The influence of politicians and managers in bringing this about is relatively limited in comparison to the influences of caseworkers’ understanding of policy goals...

  14. Graffiti e street art em Portugal

    Simões, Marta Correia


    Tese de mestrado, Arte, Património e Teoria do Restauro, Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Letras, 2014 O seguinte trabalho tem como principal objectivo introduzir o estudo do graffiti e da street art no seio da história da arte em Portugal, como uma forma de arte contemporânea. O graffiti tem vindo a acompanhar a humanidade ao longo da história. De uma forma inconstante, este teve as mais diversas utilizações e é hoje considerado como um movimento artístico. Partindo de um estudo da...

  15. A social work study on family patterns and street children

    Mohammad Reza Iravani


    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between various family characteristics and street children in rural area as well as city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 150 street children, 75 from city and 75 from rural area, and using some statistical tests verifies the effects of three factors including family income, place of residency and family size on street children. The results indicate that the city residence had more street children than rural residence did. In addition, there was a meaningful difference between the number of street children in low-income families and high-income families. Finally, the survey results indicate that big size families more likely suffered from street children than low size families did.

  16. [Street social education: historical, political and pedagogical bases].

    de Oliveira, Walter Ferreira


    This work is about street social education as a pedagogical system that started in Latin America in the late 1970s, as the street population formed mostly by children and adolescents called for attention. The first street social educators were 'pastoral' agents working at the praça da Sé a place with large numbers of street children in São Paulo. Based on the Liberation Theology and on the pedagogies developed by Paulo Freire, Celestine Freinet, Anton Makarenko, and Emília Ferreiro, the street educators developed a conceptual field and participated in the promulgation of the 1988 Federal Constitution, particularly by writing and introducing the 'Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente' (the 'Child and Adolescent Statute'). Street social education is currently latent and suffering the consequences of program discontinuity caused by successive changes of government. It is, therefore important to know the conceptual proposals.

  17. The initiation of homeless youth into the street economy.

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S


    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based organizations. All participated in structured interviews and 25% participated in qualitative interviews. Almost all HY had participated in the street (81%) and formal economies (69%). Five main factors simultaneously influenced initiation into the street economy: social control/bonds, barriers to the formal economy (e.g., homelessness, educational deficits, mental health problems, incarceration, stigma), tangible and social/emotional benefits of the street economy, severe economic need, and the active recruitment of HY into the street economy by others. Qualitative and quantitative data sources were congruent. Intervention efforts are needed at multiple levels of influence to promote HY's success in the formal economy.

  18. [Addictive behavior of street children: interculturation and resilience].

    Kommegne, T; Denoux, P; Bernoussi, A; Njiengwe, E F


    This research belongs to a more comprehensive study on the care of street children in Cameroon. The idea is to develop an analysis of the street pathology where symptoms such as addictive behavior and drug addiction can be found. Beside HIV AIDS, addictive behaviors are the main risk factors that many professionals have to face with while dealing with the street problems today. Through an intercultural approach, we examined the practices of addictive typology, their initiatory role and their function in the integration of the street system. We also analysed their importance in the survival strategies. After an overview of theoretical controversies that feed the debate on addictions, we questioned the impact of these practices on the street career through the prism of general theory of addictions, particularly the hedonic management model. Addiction helps to resist adversity, it helps to desist and then to begin a harmonious neo development despite the horrors of the street experience. We undertook a quantitative and qualitative study on a sample of 148 street children. We proposed to 128 of them a questionnaire focused on addictive behaviors and survival strategies in the street context. We notably evaluated the street career of 24 of them, using interviews and standardized tests to assess self-esteem (Coopersmith's SEI) frustration tolerance (Rosenweig's P-F) and self-efficacy (Sherer's SE Scale) in order to measure the impact of addictive behaviors on the resilience process. We found that the street career is essentially traumatic, and that addictive behaviors involving various integration strategies are strongly linked to the interculturation process through the identity strategies and the intercultural competences. Addiction itself is not significantly related to self-esteem issues but strongly impacts on self-efficacy and the ability to tolerate frustration. They allow the street children to withstand the street adversity but are a real obstacle to their

  19. Urban road design according to NACTO Urban Street Design Guide

    Velkavrh, Lara


    Urban road design according to NACTO follows the vision of traffic calming with visual elements. Gradual restoration of urban traffic areas will be presented according to american guidelines of NACTO Association, which published a book in 2013 called Urban Street Design Guide. Each type of existing roads in the urban area (the main street, the road in the neighborhood, residential shared street) can be, step by step, reconstructed with individual structural elements to ensure greater safety f...

  20. "Hitting the Streets": Youth Street Involvement as Adaptive Well-Being

    Brown, Tara A.


    Youth involved in illegal street activities such as drug trafficking and violence are at high risk for school failure and other negative outcomes. Research often seeks to identify what is "wrong" with them, what makes them different from "normal" youth, but relatively few studies focus on variations in how youth engage in and…

  1. The Ballet of the Streets: Teaching about Cities at Street Level

    McGuire, Patrick A.; Spates, James L.


    The urban scholar Jane Jacobs once described city life as "the ballet of the streets." In more than a quarter century of joint teaching, the authors have used Jacobs' metaphor to help their students understand that cities are living organisms created and maintained, for good or ill, by the people who live and work in them. At heart their…

  2. "Hitting the Streets": Youth Street Involvement as Adaptive Well-Being

    Brown, Tara A.


    Youth involved in illegal street activities such as drug trafficking and violence are at high risk for school failure and other negative outcomes. Research often seeks to identify what is "wrong" with them, what makes them different from "normal" youth, but relatively few studies focus on variations in how youth engage in and…

  3. The 'Techniques de l'ingénieur' available online at CERN!


    Those already familiar with 'Techniques de l'ingénieur' will be delighted. This engineering technology database widely known among French-speaking engineers and technicians can now be consulted online from the CERN Intranet until the end of the summer. To access this database of reference articles in French, all you need to do is go to the CERN Library's Web pages ( and click on the 'Techniques de l'ingénieur' link under the 'News' heading. The Library will be monitoring the use of the database for a couple of months, at the end of which an access licence may be negotiated. Don't hesitate to use it because the decision whether or not to purchase it will depend on the extent to which it is used. The Library is seeking partners within the Laboratory to finance the purchase if it is decided to go ahead with it. Contributions from the CERN community are therefore welcome. For those who are not yet familiar with it, the 'Techniques de l'ingénieur' database ...

  4. Excel pour l'ingénieur bases, graphiques, calculs, macros, VBA

    Bellan, Philippe


    Excel, utilisé par tout possesseur d'un ordinateur personnel pour effectuer des manipulations élémentaires de tableaux et de chiffres, est en réalité un outil beaucoup plus puissant, aux potentialités souvent ignorées. A tous ceux, étudiants scientifiques, élèves-ingénieurs ou ingénieurs en exercice qui pensaient le calcul numérique seulement possible à travers des logiciels lourds et coûteux, ce livre montrera qu'un grand nombre de problèmes mathématiques courants de l'ingénieur peuvent être résolus numériquement en utilisant les outils de calcul et la capacité graphique d'Excel. A cet effet, après avoir introduit les notions de base, l'ouvrage décrit les fonctions disponibles avec Excel, puis quelques méthodes numériques simples permettant de calculer des intégrales, de résoudre des équations différentielles, d'obtenir les solutions de systèmes linéaires ou non, de traiter des problèmes d'optimisation... Les méthodes numériques présentées, qui sont très simples, peuvent...

  5. Loss of inhibitor of growth (ING-4) is implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of human astrocytomas.

    Klironomos, George; Bravou, Vasiliki; Papachristou, Dionysios J; Gatzounis, George; Varakis, John; Parassi, Ekaterini; Repanti, Maria; Papadaki, Helen


    Inhibitor of growth 4 (ING-4) is a tumor suppressor gene that interacts with nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and represses its transcriptional activity. Several lines of evidence suggest that the tumor suppressor gene ING-4, the transcription factor NF-kappaB and its target genes matrix metalloproteases MMP-2, MMP-9 and urokinase plasminogen activator (u-PA) are critically involved in tumor invasion. The aim of the present study was to investigate immunohistochemically the expression pattern of ING-4, NF-kappaB and the NF-kappaB downstream targets MMP-2, MMP-9 and u-PA in human astrocytomas from 101 patients. We found that ING-4 expression was significantly decreased in astrocytomas, and ING-4 loss was associated with tumor grade progression. Expression of p65, a NF-kappaB subunit, was significantly higher in grade IV than in grade III and grade I/II tumors, and a statistical significant negative correlation between expression of ING-4 and expression of nuclear p65 was noticed. MMP-9, MMP-2 and u-PA were overexpressed in human astrocytomas. Of note, astrocytomas of advanced histologic grades (grade III, IV) displayed significantly higher expression levels of these proteins compared to tumors of lower grades (grade I, II). Collectively, our data suggest an essential role for ING-4 in human astrocytoma development and progression possibly through regulation of the NF-kappaB-dependent expression of genes involved in tumor invasion.

  6. Different Ways of Thinking about Street Networks and Spatial Analysis

    Jiang, Bin


    Street networks, as one of the oldest infrastructures of transport in the world, play a significant role in modernization, sustainable development, and human daily activities in both ancient and modern times. Although street networks have been well studied in a variety of engineering and scientific disciplines, including for instance transport, geography, urban planning, economics, and even physics, our understanding of street networks in terms of their structure and dynamics remains limited, especially when dealing with such real-world problems as traffic jams, pollution, and human evacuations for disaster management. One goal of this special issue is to promote different ways of thinking about understanding street networks, and of conducting spatial analysis.

  7. Discerning urban spiritualities: Tahrir Square, Occupy Wall Street and the idols of global market capitalism

    Calvyn C. du Toit


    Full Text Available Discernment might be said to be a process of searching for meaning in the light of an (un articulated Absolute. This search takes place in the tension between the private and public spheres of life, mostly mitigated by a community. Intermediate communities, such as churches or social movements, construct symbolic spirituality systems for its adherers to search for meaning in the light of an (unarticulated Absolute. The urban events of Occupy Wall Street and Tahrir Square also step into the tension between the public and private spheres of life, creating a (temporary symbolic spirituality system for its adherers. These events were attempts to construct alternatives to the meta-narrative of global market capitalism. As events attempting to symbolise an urban spirituality, Tahrir Square and Occupy Wall Street dissipated rapidly, effecting rather little change at the heart of global market capitalism. This article theorises a possible reason for these urban spiritualities� dissipation, namely an overlap with global market capitalism�s idols of instant gratification and technology.Interdisciplinary Implications: Viewing Occupy Walls Street and Tahrir Square as symbolic systems of spirituality further strengthens theological urban discourse whilst adding weight to viewing mass movements as spiritualities attempting discernment.

  8. Multicity HIV seroprevalence in street youth, Ukraine.

    Robbins, C L; Zapata, L; Kissin, D M; Shevchenko, N; Yorick, R; Skipalska, H; Finnerty, E; Ornstein, T; Marchbanks, P A; Jamieson, D J; Hillis, S D


    We conducted the first systematic, community-based, multicity assessment outside the USA of HIV seroprevalence, risk factors and linkage into clinical services among 929 street youth. After city-wide mapping, we used time-location sampling and randomly selected 74 venues in Odesa, Kyiv and Donetsk, Ukraine. Rapid HIV testing with post-test counselling was offered to all eligible youths aged 15-24 years. Overall, 18.4% (95% confidence interval 16.2-20.2) were HIV positive and 85% had previously unknown status. Rates were identical by sex. Subgroups with highest rates included orphans (26%), youths with histories of exchanging sex (35%), sexually transmitted infections (STIs) (37%), injection drug use (IDU) (42%) and needle sharing (49%). Independent predictors, similar across age groups and city, included being orphaned, time on the street, history of anal sex, STIs, exchanging sex, any drug use, IDU and needle sharing. Two-thirds (68%) of HIV-positive youths were linked to services. This high-risk population has many immediate needs.

  9. Green Streets: Urban Green and Birth Outcomes.

    Abelt, Kathryn; McLafferty, Sara


    Recent scholarship points to a protective association between green space and birth outcomes as well a positive relationship between blue space and wellbeing. We add to this body of literature by exploring the relationship between expectant mothers' exposure to green and blue spaces and adverse birth outcomes in New York City. The Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), the NYC Street Tree Census, and access to major green spaces served as measures of greenness, while proximity to waterfront areas represented access to blue space. Associations between these factors and adverse birth outcomes, including preterm birth, term birthweight, term low birthweight, and small for gestational age, were evaluated via mixed-effects linear and logistic regression models. The analyses were conducted separately for women living in deprived neighborhoods to test for differential effects on mothers in these areas. The results indicate that women in deprived neighborhoods suffer from higher rates adverse birth outcomes and lower levels of residential greenness. In adjusted models, a significant inverse association between nearby street trees and the odds of preterm birth was found for all women. However, we did not identify a consistent significant relationship between adverse birth outcomes and NDVI, access to major green spaces, or waterfront access when individual covariates were taken into account.

  10. Data and life on the street

    Alex S Taylor


    Full Text Available What does the abundance of data and proliferation of data-making methods mean for the ordinary person, the person on the street? And, what could they come to mean? In this paper, we present an overview of a year-long project to examine just such questions and complicate, in some ways, what it is to ask them. The project is a collective exercise in which we – a mixture of social scientists, designers and makers – and those living and working on one street in Cambridge (UK, Tenison Road, are working to think through how data might be materialised and come to matter. The project aims to better understand the specificities and contingencies that arise when data is produced and used in place. Mid-way through the project, we use this commentary to give some background to the work and detail one or two of the troubles we have encountered in putting locally relevant data to work. We also touch on a methodological standpoint we are working our way into and through, one that we hope complicates the separations between subject and object in data-making and opens up possibilities for a generative refiguring of the manifold relations.

  11. 人骨髓间质干细胞ING4基因的克隆及其慢病毒表达载体构建%Cloning of human ING4 drived from MSC and construction of PNL-ING4 Lentiviral vector

    张蕾蕾; 许文荣; 乔纯; 钱晖; 朱伟; 李继刚; 周洪兴; 司煜安; 周宗海; 阴晴


    目的:克隆人骨髓间质干细胞ING4(inhibitor of growth famility,member4)基因,构建其慢病毒表达载体PNL-ING4.方法:提取人骨髓间质干细胞(hMSCs)总RNA,经RT-PCR扩增出ING4cDNA,克隆至PMD19-T载体,选择阳性克隆进行酶切鉴定和测序,构建慢病毒表达载体PNL-ING4,用双酶切、基因测序进行鉴定.结果:RT-PCR产物为750 bp的条带,双酶切和基因测序正确.结论:成功从hMSCs克隆了ING4基因并成功构建其慢病毒表达载体PNL-ING4,为进一步研究ING4基因的作用与抗肿瘤机制奠定了基础.

  12. Simulating the impacts of on-street vehicle parking on traffic operations on urban streets using cellular automation

    Chen, Jingxu; Li, Zhibin; Jiang, Hang; Zhu, Senlai; Wang, Wei


    In recent years, many bicycle lanes on urban streets are replaced with vehicle parking places. Spaces for bicycle riding are reduced, resulting in changes in bicycle and vehicle operational features. The objective of this study is to estimate the impacts of on-street parking on heterogeneous traffic operation on urban streets. A cellular automaton (CA) model is developed and calibrated to simulate bicycle lane-changing on streets with on-street parking. Two types of street segments with different bicycle lane width are considered. From the simulation, two types of conflicts between bicycles and vehicles are identified which are frictional conflicts and blocking conflicts. Factors affecting the frequency of conflicts are also identified. Based on the results, vehicle delay is estimated for various traffic situations considering the range of occupancy levels for on-street parking. Later, a numerical network example is analyzed to estimate the network impact of on-street parking on traffic assignment and operation. Findings of the study are helpful to policies and design regarding on-street vehicle parking to improve the efficiency of traffic operations.

  13. Violence and the code of the street: a study of social dynamics among street children in Makeevka, East Ukraine.

    Naterer, Andrej


    This article explores violence among street children in Makeevka, Ukraine. Drawing on qualitative and quantitative data gathered during longitudinal field research, extra-, intra-, and inter-group violence is analyzed with an emphasis on the child's situational interpretation and adoption of the code of the street through subsequent code/identity switching and subcultural reactions. The main findings suggest that street children subculture has developed a unique code based on the need to survive and on solidarity and reciprocity; violent acts emerging among them must be understood within this context. The influence of violence on the children's lives and street careers is considered, and alternative explanations of violence are discussed.

  14. 75 FR 71744 - Fifth Street Finance Corp., et al.; Notice of Application


    ... COMMISSION Fifth Street Finance Corp., et al.; Notice of Application November 18, 2010. AGENCY: Securities... Finance Corp. (``Fifth Street''), Fifth Street Management LLC, Fifth Street Mezzanine Partners IV, L.P... regulated as a business development company (``BDC'') under the Act. Fifth Street is a specialty finance...

  15. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Ko Kawada


    Full Text Available In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation. The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive and CARS (negative. Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive.

  16. DMPD: RIG-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self and non-self RNA. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Full Text Available 17307033 RIG-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self and non-self RNA. Bowie AG, Fi...-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self and non-self RNA. PubmedID 17307033 Title RIG-I: tri-ing to discriminate between self... and non-self RNA. Authors Bowie AG, Fitzgerald KA. Publication

  17. A Modelling Approach on Fine Particle Spatial Distribution for Street Canyons in Asian Residential Community

    Ling, Hong; Lung, Shih-Chun Candice; Uhrner, Ulrich


    Rapidly increasing urban pollution poses severe health risks.Especially fine particles pollution is considered to be closely related to respiratory and cardiovascular disease. In this work, ambient fine particles are studied in street canyons of a typical Asian residential community using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) dispersion modelling approach. The community is characterised by an artery road with a busy traffic flow of about 4000 light vehicles (mainly cars and motorcycles) per hour at rush hours, three streets with hundreds light vehicles per hour at rush hours and several small lanes with less traffic. The objective is to study the spatial distribution of the ambient fine particle concentrations within micro-environments, in order to assess fine particle exposure of the people living in the community. The GRAL modelling system is used to simulate and assess the emission and dispersion of the traffic-related fine particles within the community. Traffic emission factors and traffic situation is assigned using both field observation and local emissions inventory data. High resolution digital elevation data (DEM) and building height data are used to resolve the topographical features. Air quality monitoring and mobile monitoring within the community is used to validate the simulation results. By using this modelling approach, the dispersion of fine particles in street canyons is simulated; the impact of wind condition and street orientation are investigated; the contributions of car and motorcycle emissions are quantified respectively; the residents' exposure level of fine particles is assessed. The study is funded by "Taiwan Megacity Environmental Research (II)-chemistry and environmental impacts of boundary layer aerosols (Year 2-3) (103-2111-M-001-001-); Spatial variability and organic markers of aerosols (Year 3)(104-2111-M-001 -005 -)"

  18. Sobre o interesse sentimental para o ingênuo em Schiller a partir de uma nota sobre Kant

    Giorgia Cecchinato


    Full Text Available O presente artigo tem como objetivo aprofundar a compreensão do conceito de “ingênuo” em Schiller. Mais precisamente pretende-se enfocar o significado e a importância da arte ingênua em relação ao papel formador da arte em geral. Para fazer isso confrontou-se o conceito de ingênuo com a complexa noção kantiana de interesse, retomada de modo indireto no escrito “Sobre a poesia ingênua e sentimental” e apontou-se á importância da teoria dos impulsos de Fichte no desenvolvimento da estética de Schiller.

  19. An Assessment of the Emerging Networks of Support for Street ...

    Nekky Umera

    by the homeless adults on the street is most preferred (μ=3.26) while the government .... Researchers over the years have explored how the problem of street children .... crisis you will be the first target because they will think that you have so.

  20. Formation of Periodic Vortex Streets Driven by the Lorents Force

    池端, 義人; 本地, 弘之; 杉原, 裕司


    Quasi-2D periodic vortex streets, driven by the Lorentz force due to the interaction of a localized magnetic field with an electrolytic current, have been investigated experimentally using a shallow water tank with a movable bottom floor. The vortex street formation has also been investigated numerically and some simulated flow patterns are presented.

  1. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt


    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  2. Road dust emission sources and assessment of street washing effect

    Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Linares, C.; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.


    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust

  3. Politely Disregarded: Street Fiction, Mass Incarceration, and Critical Praxis

    Van Orman, Karin; Lyiscott, Jamila


    Due to prevailing attitudes about the prison industrial complex and African American and Latino/Latina communities, the literary production of urban street fiction has been politely disregarded by our society. Through the use of critical praxis, utilizing urban street fiction in the classroom is a necessary and urgent act of social justice. Street…

  4. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.


    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  5. A Semiotic Reading and Discourse Analysis of Postmodern Street Performance

    Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Chung, Sheng Kuan


    Postmodern street art operates under a set of references that requires art educators and researchers to adopt alternative analytical frameworks in order to understand its meanings. In this article, we describe social semiotics, critical discourse analysis, and postmodern street performance as well as the relevance of the former two in interpreting…

  6. Political Education--Occupy Wall Street's First Year

    Jackie DiSalvo


    Full Text Available While Occupy Wall Street (OWS is easily identified with direct action in the streets, equal recognition should be given to the vast amount of political education that took place. This article will give an overview of that and briefly assess its emphases and absences.

  7. A Semiotic Reading and Discourse Analysis of Postmodern Street Performance

    Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Chung, Sheng Kuan


    Postmodern street art operates under a set of references that requires art educators and researchers to adopt alternative analytical frameworks in order to understand its meanings. In this article, we describe social semiotics, critical discourse analysis, and postmodern street performance as well as the relevance of the former two in interpreting…

  8. Street mirrors, surveillance, and urban communities in early modern Finland

    Ylimaunu, T.; Symonds, J.; Mullins, P.R.; Salmi, A.-K.; Nurmi, R.; Kallio-Seppä, T.; Kuokkanen, T.; Tranberg, A.


    This article discusses street mirrors or ‘gossip mirrors’, in terms of urban social relations and surveillance. Street mirrors were introduced to coastal towns in Sweden and Finland in the 18th and early 19th centuries and may still be found in well-preserved towns with historic wooden centres. The

  9. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.


    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  10. INTRODUCTION The term street children has many definitions in ...

    supervision and street influence on them. These children also form a .... area of Nigeria: Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 2003; 00: 1-8. 6. A Civil ... Neighborhood: Street Children and the Public. Space.” Childhood ... for adolescents. Journal of ...

  11. Investigation of inhibition of adenovims mediated gene ING4 and PTEN to hepatocarcinoma cells%重组腺病毒Ad-ING4和Ad-PTEN抑制肝癌细胞增殖

    姚雷; 曹婧媛; 吴鹏飞; 黄玉洪; 王金志; 杨吉成; 缪竞诚


    Objective We use recombinant Ad-ING4 and Ad-PTEN to infect human hepatocarcinoma cell line SMMC-7721 in vitro to test and compare the effects of gene expression of the cells. Methods We use recombinant Ad-ING4 and Ad-PTEN and control virus to infect QBI-293A cells for viral propagation and viral titration. The infective effects of Ad-ING4, Ad-PTEN and control virus were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. Use Ad-ING4 and Ad-PTEN to infect SMMC-7721 cells and confirm their effects by their apoptotic rate and the results of MTT.Results The apoptotic rate of control virus group is 3.4% ± 1.3%, the Ad-ING4 group is 49. 7% ±4. 8% (P < 0. 01 )and the Ad-PTEN group is 11.4% ± 3.2% (P < 0. 01 ). The cell proliferation of group Ad-ING4 and AdPTEN obviously decreased from 48h to 96h( P <0.05 ). Conclusion The data analysis showed Ad-ING4 and AdPTEN had an inhibitory effect to SMMC-7721 cells especially that of Ad-ING4.%目的 用构建好的重组腺病毒Ad-ING4和Ad-PTEN感染人肝癌SMMC-7721细胞,检验其对细胞的作用.方法 用构建好的重组腺病毒Ad-ING4和Ad-PTEN感染QBI-293A细胞,对病毒进行扩增并测定其效价,荧光显微镜下观察感染效果.用扩增得到的Ad-ING4和Ad-PTEN感染SMMC-7721细胞,流式细胞术及MTT检测作用效果.结果 空腺病毒组的凋亡率为3.4%±1.3%,Ad-ING4组和Ad-PTEN组分别为49.7%±4.8%和11.4%4±3.2%,均显著高于空腺病毒组(P<0.01);Ad-ING4组和Ad-PTEN组的细胞增殖在48~96 h时较正常组明显下降(P<0.05).结论 Ad-ING4和Ad-PTEN对SMMC-7721细胞均有显著抑制作用,尤其是Ad-ING4.

  12. Simulation of Pedestrians Crossing a Street

    Boenisch, Cornelia


    The simulation of vehicular traffic as well as pedestrian dynamics meanwhile both have a decades long history. The success of this conference series, PED and others show that the interest in these topics is still strongly increasing. This contribution deals with a combination of both systems: pedestrians crossing a street. In a VISSIM simulation for varying demand jam sizes of vehicles as well as pedestrians and the travel times of the pedestrians are measured and compared. The study is considered as a study of VISSIM's con ict area functionality as such, as there is no empirical data available to use for calibration issues. Above a vehicle demand threshold the results show a non-monotonic dependence of pedestrians' travel time on pedestrian demand.

  13. The digital evolution of occupy wall street.

    Conover, Michael D; Ferrara, Emilio; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro


    We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation from a set of highly interconnected users with pre-existing interests in domestic politics and foreign social movements. These users, while highly vocal in the months immediately following the birth of the movement, appear to have lost interest in Occupy related communication over the remainder of the study period.


    Rôssi Alves Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Rio de Janeiro is going through a sort of unique organization of the public environment, the rising of the social segments and culture antinarrative that, somehow, suffer from marginalization and exclusion. As means of rhymes, rappers (“MCs” are building a literary field, which creates tension on places of communication, culture, territorial appropriation, the city. It is a poetic production that requires reflection based on plural and distinct canonical tools that confronts its own concept of literature. The performance and the entire set which characterize such production are the starting point to comprehend the street rhymes aesthetically and politically. The aim of this article is to reflect upon urban literature, taking into account theorists like Homi Bhabha, Da Matta, Paul Zumthor, Stuart Hall.

  15. The Digital Evolution of Occupy Wall Street

    Conover, Michael D; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro


    We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation from a set of highly interconnected users with pre-existing interests in domestic politics and foreign social movements. These users, while highly vocal in the months immediately following the birth of the movement, appear to have lost interest in Occupy related communication over the remainder of the study period.

  16. Workshop Murska Sobota, North of Lendavska Street

    Mitja Zorc


    Full Text Available The urban design workshop "North of Lendavska Street" addressed the extensive area north of downtown Murska Sobota. The area is undergoing intensive transformation. Service and commercial programmes are occupying abandoned industrial and military facilities and filling the empty spaces between. Due to its location near the city centre and its proximity to natural surroundings across the Ledava stream, the area is also attractive for housing and recreation. The existing residential neighbourhood to the south has poor living conditions due to inadequate open space and a badly organised traffic system. The workshop, organised by the Municipality of Murska Sobota, involved groups of students from three Slovene faculties and two groups of practicing architects. The groups proposed designs and strategies for possible future urban development and formed a joint professional platform to prepare spatial planning documents.

  17. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt


    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city centre...... street canyon environments in Aarhus, Denmark, and London, UK, during the grass pollen seasons of 2010 and 2011 respectively. For the period mid-day to late evening, street level concentrations in both cities tended to be lower than roof-level concentrations, though this difference was found...... source distribution. In the London study, an increase in relative humidity was linked to a significant decrease in street/roof level concentration ratio, and a possible causative mechanism involving moisture mediated pollen grain buoyancy is proposed. Relationships with the other weather variables were...

  18. Occupational Profile and Perceptions of Street Children in Surat City

    Patel NB, Desai Toral, Bansal RK, Girish Thakar


    Full Text Available Street children constitute a highly vulnerable, most deprived and marginalized section of the society, whose rights are constantly violated with impunity. This study attempts to explore the occupational profile of the street children in the city of Surat and pertinent aspects thereof. This cross-sectional study was conducted by interviewing 326 street children in Surat city. The study revealed that majority of the street children (79.8% start earning money as beggars. They soon switch over to other petty jobs/ activities. The street children select their occupation according to their choice of work, availability of an opportunity and the amount of money available to them. Their occupational profile changes according to their age; the period of stay in Surat; and, the money available with them. The earnings of these children fluctuate with the season. Leading five occupation adopted by street children includes Working in eatables and tea stalls (11.7%; Begging and or sweeping (11.3%; Selling newspapers, magazines and books (11.3%; Shoe shining (9.8% and Selling drinking water bottles & pouches & cold drinks (9.5%. Shoe shining is mostly carried out by the boys aged more than 12 years. Commercial sex work by girls is considered as inevitable by street girls. Illicit alcohol transport and selling is most lucrative and is often attract street children in to this occupation. Some street children become pick pockets under the guidance of an older pick pocket. Usually children who are very young, have recently come into the streets and their original families are often the most disadvantaged are more likely to engage in Picking up rags work as this requires no capital, no contacts and very less labour.

  19. [Comment on “Seismology in the days of old” by Inge Lehmann] The Lehmann discontinuity

    Anderson, D. L.; Bolt, B. A.; Morse, S. A.

    Recent reflections by Inge Lehmann on her discovery of the inner core (Eos, January 20, 1987, p. 33; see also Bolt [1987, 1982]) remind us that this outstanding Earth scientist is now in her 100th year. The inner core boundary (ICB) is one of the three great seismic-compositional discontinuities that divide Earth into crust, mantle, core, and inner core. The other two discontinuities are well known by names honoring their discoverers, Andrija Mohorovicic and Beno Gutenberg. In this tradition, it is fitting that the ICB be called the Lehmann Discontinuity in honor of its discoverer.

  20. Professionnalisation en master d'ingénierie, un dispositif pédagogique innovant

    Couturier, Catherine; Zaid, Abdelkarim


    International audience; Ce travail rend compte d'un dispositif pédagogique professionnalisant en master d'ingénierie, développant l'autonomie et la reconnaissance du professionnel en formation par rapport à une tâche spécifique. Nous décrivons les origines et caractéristiques d'un dispositif structuré par un apprentissage par problème dans une situation ludique. Le compte rendu de ce dispositif met en évidence un bilan positif pour les étudiants et les enseignants et en esquisse des pistes d'...

  1. The inhibitor of growth protein 5 (ING5 depends on INCA1 as a co-factor for its antiproliferative effects.

    Feng Zhang

    Full Text Available The proteins of the Inhibitor of Growth (ING family are involved in multiple cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation, apoptosis, and chromatin remodeling. For ING5, its actual role in growth suppression and the necessary partners are not known. In a yeast-two-hybrid approach with human bone marrow derived cDNA, we identified ING5 as well as several other proteins as interaction partners of Inhibitor of cyclin A1 (INCA1 that we previously characterized as a novel interaction partner of cyclin A1/CDK2. ING5 expression in leukemic AML blasts was severely reduced compared to normal bone marrow. In line, ING5 inhibited bone marrow colony formation upon retroviral transduction. However, Inca1(-/- bone marrow colony formation was not suppressed by ING5. In murine embryonic fibroblast (MEF cells from Inca1(+/+ and Inca1(-/- mice, overexpression of ING5 suppressed cell proliferation only in the presence of INCA1, while ING5 had no effect in Inca1(-/- MEFs. ING5 overexpression induced a delay in S-phase progression, which required INCA1. Finally, ING5 overexpression enhanced Fas-induced apoptosis in Inca1(+/+ MEFs, while Inca1(-/- MEFs were protected from Fas antibody-induced apoptosis. Taken together, these results indicate that ING5 is a growth suppressor with suppressed expression in AML whose functions depend on its interaction with INCA1.

  2. The Caenorhabditis elegans ing-3 gene regulates ionizing radiation-induced germ-cell apoptosis in a p53-associated pathway.

    Luo, Jingjing; Shah, Sitar; Riabowol, Karl; Mains, Paul E


    The inhibitor of growth (ING) family of type II tumor suppressors are encoded by five genes in mammals and by three genes in Caenorhabditis elegans. All ING proteins contain a highly conserved plant homeodomain (PHD) zinc finger. ING proteins are activated by stresses, including ionizing radiation, leading to the activation of p53. ING proteins in mammals and yeast have recently been shown to read the histone code in a methylation-sensitive manner to regulate gene expression. Here we identify and characterize ing-3, the C. elegans gene with the highest sequence identity to the human ING3 gene. ING-3 colocalizes with chromatin in embryos, the germline, and somatic cells. The ing-3 gene is part of an operon but is also transcribed from its own promoter. Both ing-3(RNAi) and ing-3 mutant strains demonstrate that the gene likely functions in concert with the C. elegans p53 homolog, cep-1, to induce germ-cell apoptosis in response to ionizing radiation. Somatically, the ing-3 mutant has a weak kinker uncoordinated (kinker Unc) phenotype, indicating a possible neuronal function.

  3. Issues of Rural Light Pollution

    Osborn, W. H.; Hammer, R. L.; Hammer, A.


    Light pollution is generally considered mostly an urban problem. Common sources of light pollution are poorly designed lighting of streets, parking lots, businesses and advertizing signs and for security. These sources, and the amount of light pollution generated, increase with population density. Nevertheless, light pollution can also be significant in rural areas. Rural light pollution differs from that in urban settings, both in the types of pollution and in the means that must be employed to control it. In the country the offending sources are often isolated lights such as from farm barns, vacation cottages, radio and cell phone towers, and road intersections. A culture of strong property rights and privacy rights affects attempts to control rural light pollution. We describe how some of these issues may be addressed based on the results from an Eagle Scout project carried out in central Michigan.

  4. Smoking Behaviors of Street Children in Makassar 2013

    Ridwan Amiruddin


    Full Text Available Street children are vulnerable groups of risky behavior like smoking behavior. This study aims to describe smoking and relation with education, living with parents, family, peer influence, and religiosity. Study design was cross sectional study. The population was 990 street children with the sample of 277 street children. Sample selection in accidental sampling with criteria of respondents aged 10-19 years and Muslims. Data were analyzed with chi square test with confidence interval of 95% (α=0.05. Results show that 48% of street children have ever smoked and 37.2% of street children were still smoking in the last 30 days. Then, there is a relationship between living with parents (p=0.002 and levels of religiosity (p=0.023. However, there was no relationship with school status (p=0613, family history (p=0.874, and peer influence (p=0.157 with the smoking behavior of street children. This research suggests to give education about the dangers of smoking, provide religious values for them and involve them in religious social activities, family empowerment approach to parents to guide their children not to smoke, and optimize function of NGOs or shelters for street children.

  5. Resuspension of particulate matter and PAHs from street dust

    Martuzevicius, D.; Kliucininkas, L.; Prasauskas, T.; Krugly, E.; Kauneliene, V.; Strandberg, B.


    Winter street sanding activities in northern countries are often associated with elevated pollution by particulate matter. There are indications that street dust may act as a source of particle-bound PAHs. However, very few studies have addressed the resuspension potential of PAHs from street dust. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively assess emissions of particulate matter and PAHs from street dust by laboratory-scale simulation of particle resuspension. Increases in air velocity caused proportional increases in air-borne PM 2.5, PM 10 and PM total concentrations, while the concentrations of PAHs associated with resuspended particles did not show clear statistically significant dependence on air velocity. A substantial difference in particle and PAH resuspension was observed between dust from the city center street and dust from the connecting street. The data obtained in the present study indicate that street dust may be a significant source not only of PMs but also of particle-bound PAHs in ambient air.

  6. LoopIng: a template-based tool for predicting the structure of protein loops.

    Messih, Mario Abdel


    Predicting the structure of protein loops is very challenging, mainly because they are not necessarily subject to strong evolutionary pressure. This implies that, unlike the rest of the protein, standard homology modeling techniques are not very effective in modeling their structure. However, loops are often involved in protein function, hence inferring their structure is important for predicting protein structure as well as function.We describe a method, LoopIng, based on the Random Forest automated learning technique, which, given a target loop, selects a structural template for it from a database of loop candidates. Compared to the most recently available methods, LoopIng is able to achieve similar accuracy for short loops (4-10 residues) and significant enhancements for long loops (11-20 residues). The quality of the predictions is robust to errors that unavoidably affect the stem regions when these are modeled. The method returns a confidence score for the predicted template loops and has the advantage of being very fast (on average: 1 min/loop) data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  7. Associations between street connectivity and active transportation

    Pickle Linda W


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past studies of associations between measures of the built environment, particularly street connectivity, and active transportation (AT or leisure walking/bicycling have largely failed to account for spatial autocorrelation of connectivity variables and have seldom examined both the propensity for AT and its duration in a coherent fashion. Such efforts could improve our understanding of the spatial and behavioral aspects of AT. We analyzed spatially identified data from Los Angeles and San Diego Counties collected as part of the 2001 California Health Interview Survey. Results Principal components analysis indicated that ~85% of the variance in nine measures of street connectivity are accounted for by two components representing buffers with short blocks and dense nodes (PRIN1 or buffers with longer blocks that still maintain a grid like structure (PRIN2. PRIN1 and PRIN2 were positively associated with active transportation (AT after adjustment for diverse demographic and health related variables. Propensity and duration of AT were correlated in both Los Angeles (r = 0.14 and San Diego (r = 0.49 at the zip code level. Multivariate analysis could account for the correlation between the two outcomes. After controlling for demography, measures of the built environment and other factors, no spatial autocorrelation remained for propensity to report AT (i.e., report of AT appeared to be independent among neighborhood residents. However, very localized correlation was evident in duration of AT, particularly in San Diego, where the variance of duration, after accounting for spatial autocorrelation, was 5% smaller within small neighborhoods (~0.01 square latitude/longitude degrees = 0.6 mile diameter compared to within larger zip code areas. Thus a finer spatial scale of analysis seems to be more appropriate for explaining variation in connectivity and AT. Conclusions Joint analysis of the propensity and duration of AT behavior and an

  8. For patients with age -related hearing loss of hearing aid fit ing method is analyzed%对于老年性听力损失患者助听器的验配方法进行分析



    objective:focus for senile patients with hearing loss of hearing aid fit ing method and ef ect.Methods:to select the research object is early January to the end of December 2013,2012 during accept hearing -aid with 60 cases of senile patients with hearing loss,al patients were accepted hearing -aid,and strengthen the rehabilitation training.Results:the fit ing ef ect for only 1 case with poor fit ing ef ect for a total of 9 cases,good fit ing ef ect for a total of 50 cases,was as high as 98.33%.Conclusion:the light of the specific conditions of the patients with hearing loss,for patients to choose the appropriate hearing AIDS fit ing,and strengthen the rehabilitation training,to improve success rate of hearing aid fit ing.%目的:重点探索老年性听力损失患者助听器的验配方法及效果。方法:选取的研究对象是2012年1月初至2013年12月底期间接受助听器验配的60例老年性听力损失患者,所有患者均接受助听器验配,并加强康复训练。结果:验配效果为差的仅有1例,验配效果为良的总共有9例,验配效果为优的总共有50例,优良率高达98.33%。结论:结合听力损失患者的具体情况,为患者选择合适的助听器进行验配,并加强康复训练,有利于提高助听器验配成功率。

  9. Wind tunnel simulation of pollutant dispersion inside street canyons with galle- ries and multi-level flat roofs

    黄远东; 曾宁斌; 刘泽宇; 宋也; 许璇


    In this study, the pollutant dispersion within street canyons is studied by experiments conducted in an environmental wind tunnel. The vehicular exhaust emissions are modeled using a line source. The pollutant (smoke) concentrations inside the canyons are measured based on a light scattering technique. The pollutant concentrations within the four different street canyons containing the galleries and the three-level flat-roofs under both the isolated and urban environments are obtained and discussed. For each of the four canyon configurations investigated, it is found that there is an obvious discrepancy between the pollutant dispersion patterns under the isolated environment and the urban environment. The three-level flat roof is found to significantly influence the pollutant distribution pattern in a street canyon. In order to clarify the impacts of the wedge-shaped roofs on the pollutant dispersion inside an urban street canyon of an aspect ratio of 1.0, the pollutant distributions inside urban street canyons of three different wedge-shaped roof combinations are measured and analyzed. It is revealed that the pollutant distribution pattern inside the urban street canyon of an aspect ratio of 1.0 is influenced greatly by the wedge-shaped roof,especially, when an upward wedge-shaped roof is placed on the upstream building of the canyon. Images from this study may be utilized for a rough evaluation of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and for helping architects and urban planners to select the canyon configurations with a minimum negative impact on the local air quality.

  10. 非小细胞肺癌中ING1基因的突变分析%Mutation of ING1 Gene in Non-small Cell Lung Cancer

    马华玲; 杨为贵; 朱润庆


    目的 探讨生长抑制(inhibitor of growth1,ING1)基因是否在非小细胞肺癌(non-small celllung cancer,NSCLC)中存在突变,以确定该基因在NSCLC发病过程中的作用.方法 选择突变率较高的ING1外显子2,应用聚合酶链反应一单链构象多态性分析(Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strandc Conformation Polymorphism,PCR-SSCP)检测73例NSCLC和13例非癌肺组织中ING1的突变情况.结果 未发现所扩增的片段有泳动速率的改变,没有发现额外迁移带.结论 在NSCLC中ING1基因突变很少见,ING1表达产物降低可能发生于转录或转录后水平.

  11. Energy efficiency of lighting installations: Software application and experimental validation

    J.A. Lobão


    Full Text Available The rational use of energy and energy-efficient environmental public street lighting is an important topic. In the design of new public lighting installations, national regulations containing energy-efficient guidelines are already used. Nevertheless, either in new installations or in reconstructions of existing lighting, designers do not generally consider all the available means to save energy. In installations of street lighting, energy consumption can be reduced by reducing the losses in the conductors, associated with the efficiency of the equipment, allowing better use of the available energy. The losses in the conductors must be analysed in conjunction with all the loads that contribute to the current in the sections of the installed street lighting. When opting for more efficient lamps and luminaires or lighting control systems, the current decreases in the sections covered with the most significant power loss due to proportionality with the square of the current. This decrease, often forgotten, is considered in this work in the investment analysis of efficiency and sustainable street lighting via simulation and experimental results. This analysis, combined with the features and operating parameters of the electrical installation, accounts for all the gains that can make a difference in the choice of efficient street lighting.

  12. Building a reliable measure for unobtrusive observations of street-connecting pedestrian walkways.

    Wilson, Nick; Brander, Bill; Mansoor, Osman D; Pearson, Amber L


    There is evidence that good urban design, including street connectivity, facilitates walking for transport. We, therefore, piloted a short survey on 118 such walkways in nine suburbs in Wellington, New Zealand's capital. The instrument appeared feasible to use and performed well in terms of inter-rater reliability (median Kappa score for 15 items: 0.88). The study identified both favorable features (e.g., railings by steps), but also problematic ones (e.g., concerning graffiti, litter, and insufficient lighting and signage). There is scope for routinising the monitoring of walkway quality so that citizens and government agencies can work together to enhance urban walkability.

  13. Street canyon ventilation control by proper planning and development

    Balakin Vladimir Vasil'evich


    Full Text Available The objective of street canyon ventilation control in major streets is a tool of air pollution prevention in them, protection of housing areas from excessive wind or preservation and intensification of existing wind speed in case of insufficient ventilation. The maximum permissible concentration of car exhaust pollutants with wind speed within comfortable and permissible values by physiological and hygienic criteria, are ensured as from 40 to 70 % of thoroughfares in major cities. The dependence of air pollution level on wind speed is comparable to its dependence on traffic intensity and ratio of buildings height (H to street width. But one has to take into account that, if the wind blows across the street, vortices form within the street canyon, which results in higher concentration of car exhaust pollutants near the downwind buildings. The objective of this work is to find the functional dependences of wind speed in a major street on its width and density of buildings, and also to find out which street configurations are favorable for formation of closed air circulation within it, resulting in insufficient aeration. The experimental research was done on a site for large-scale modeling of built-up urban territory, using cup anemometers. The coefficients of dependence of wind speed within a street on the types of buildings and on the street width were obtained. Characteristics of street layouts for control of aeration were determined. Building density rates for maximizing or optimizing the wind speed were determined. Street layouts are considered where stable vortices form between the buildings. For example, vortices within the street canyon’s cross-section appear when buildings squarish in ground plan situated far apart are replaced by oblong ones with the minimum allowed intervals of 15 meters between them (for 5-storeyed buildings; or intervals equal to the buildings’ height, or where the buildings are long and close together. With

  14. The fission yeast inhibitor of growth (ING) protein Png1p functions in response to DNA damage.

    Chen, Jian-Qiang; Li, Yang; Pan, Xian; Lei, Bing-Kun; Chang, Cheng; Liu, Zheng-Xun; Lu, Hong


    In budding yeast and human cells, ING (inhibitor of growth) tumor suppressor proteins play important roles in response to DNA damage by modulating chromatin structure through collaborating with histone acetyltransferase or histone deacetylase complexes. However, the biological functions of ING family proteins in fission yeast are poorly defined. Here, we report that Png1p, a fission yeast ING homolog protein, is required for cell growth under normal and DNA-damaged conditions. Png1p was further confirmed to regulate histone H4 acetylation through collaboration with the MYST family histone acetyltransferase 1 (Mst1). Additionally, both fission yeast PNG1 and MST1 can functionally complement their budding yeast correspondence homologs YNG2 and ESA1, respectively. These results suggest that ING proteins in fission yeast might also conserve function, similar to ING proteins in budding yeast and human cells. We also showed that decreased acetylation in Deltapng1 cells resulted in genome-wide down-regulation of 756 open reading frames, including the central DNA repair gene RAD22. Overexpression of RAD22 partially rescued the png1 mutant phenotype under both normal and DNA-damaged conditions. Furthermore, decreased expression of RAD22 in Deltapng1 cells was confirmed to be caused by decreased H4 acetylation at its promoter. Altogether, these results indicate that Png1p is required for histone H4 acetylation and functions upstream of RAD22 in the DNA damage response pathway.

  15. An Assessment of the Emerging Networks of Support for Street ...

    An Assessment of the Emerging Networks of Support for Street Children in Nigeria. ... which these support networks are fulfilling their mission mandates is not yet known. Hence, this paper attempts to bridge ... Article Metrics. Metrics Loading .

  16. Analysis of Carol's Paradoxical Characters in Main Street

    赵红璐; 高冰


    @@ 1. Introduction to Sinclair Lewis and Main Street Sinclair Lewis (1885-1951) is regarded as one of the foremost American satirists in the early twentieth century. He cared for books more than sports and felt limited by his rural hometown. In 1925, he rejected the Pulitzer Prize for Arrowsmith because he felt that he deserved the prize for Main Street. In 1930, he became the first American who won the Nobel Prize for Literature. Lewis was a novelist who was interested in many different aspects of American society, from business and medicine to small town life. His works were famous for insightful and critical views of the society and capitalist values. Lewis' s Main Street is considered to be his first success and his favorite work which is written in a dark tone. Main Street was published in 1920, which became a runaway bestseller.

  17. 'Unrecognized victims': Sexual abuse against male street children in ...

    Bernt Lindtjorn

    causes and effects of sexual abuse against male children and to what extent ... The second set of instruments consists of structured .... On the other hand, 37% explained that they do ..... most of the street boys chew khat, smoke cigarettes and.

  18. Reproductive health behaviour of street youth and associated ...


    More than half of the world's population is ... reproductive health consequences. ... assess reproductive health behaviour and needs of street youth in Gondar ..... decision. The participants in the two focus group discussions reported that the ...

  19. The vortex street as a statistical-mechanical phenomenon

    Montgomery, D.


    An explanation of the Karman vortex street is presented on the basis of the two-temperature canonical distribution for inviscid two-dimensional flows in Navier-Stokes fluids or guiding-center plasmas.

  20. On Creativity and Humor: An Analysis of EASY STREET

    Behrens, Roy R.


    Author attempted to present a reasonable description of the film, Easy Street, with major antics numbered, then analyzed those in terms of Duncker and Koestler, thereby extending the latter's theory of bisociation. (Author/RK)

  1. Doing Street Art in Backyards and Vacant Sites

    Emma Paulsson


    Full Text Available When working illegally, graffiti writers and street artists are often working during nights and early mornings. During those hours, most people are inside, asleep, and the darkness also makes it easier for the artists to remain unseen.

  2. High-street fashion brand communication amongst female adolescents

    Methanuntakul, Kanwipa


    This thesis was submitted for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy and awarded by Brunel University. The nature of high-street fashion brands amongst female adolescents is a combined set of fast fashion movements and early adopter demands within a compressed timeframe. This research has investigated the need for a communication plan to appropriately deliver the brand message for this sector. There are a number of information barriers for high-street fashion brands to build customer value and...

  3. The Eldridge Street Synagogue, a Site of American Jewish Memory

    Galith Touati


    (Special thanks to Jonathan Matz for the translation) Located at Eldridge Street 12, in Lower Manhattan, the Eldridge Street Synagogue (ESS) stands boldly amidst the brouhaha of what is today Chinatown as cars entering the Brooklyn Bridge whith by. This vast building is unique for several reasons. Its Moorish facade dominates the neighbouring tenements, and the building’s majesty is all the more powerful considering the nearly total disappearance of the quarter’s former Jewish identity. The s...

  4. Techniques de l’ingénieur, a long-awaited resource

    GS Department


    Since 1 August 2009, a new online resource Les techniques de l’Ingénieur has been available at CERN: and its corpus of over 4,000 articles covering 11 disciplines is now accessible from your computer. This multidisciplinary database covers many subjects ranging from mechanics to the environment. The articles are written by scientific experts recognized in their fields. Online access includes the archives since 1946; it also serves to monitor the latest trends and innovations, and new industry products. This database is therefore both a valuable resource in past and present scientific and technological information and a tool to observe future developments. Anyone can create a free account on this resource. This account is needed to configure your personal alerts and download pdf files of the documents you are interested in. More information on the Library website. Direct access to the database

  5. Storying the street: transition narratives of homeless youth.

    Ottaway, N; King, K; Erickson, P G


    Toronto Youth Street Stories is an innovative, web-based storytelling project that was conducted with homeless youths in Toronto. As a collaborative knowledge dissemination initiative, the project engaged youthful participants, authors, community mentors, youth service agencies and university-based researchers. Over 50 youths were encouraged to express their personal perspectives through author-led, creative writing workshops, resulting in youth-created stories, poems and pictures about a wide array of feelings and experiences. Across the dozens of pieces of writing, there is evidence of a chronology of street life, or an "arc of experience", that ranges from living with abuse and despair, leaving home, living on the street, experiencing a crisis or turning point, accessing services and gradually moving away from street life toward self-sustaining independence and security. This arc of experience includes the stories of youth who have transitioned away from the street as well as those still facing homelessness. This paper describes this arc of experience and illustrates it with the subjective material generated by the youths' stories about their lives on the streets of Toronto. We conclude that this project provided an important, creative outlet for the youths, and increased understanding of the challenges, stigma and resilience of homeless youth.

  6. Drug use among street children and adolescents: what helps?

    Yone Gonçalves de Moura

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated to frequent and heavy drug use among street children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. A sample of 2,807 street children and adolescents from the 27 Brazilian state capital cities was analyzed. A World Health Organization questionnaire for non-students was adapted for use in Brazil. Data analysis was performed using logistic regression and decision tree models. Factors inversely associated with frequent and heavy drug use were: being age nine to 11 years (OR = 0.1; school attendance (OR = 0.3; daily time (one to five hours spent on the streets (OR = 0.3 and 0.4; not sleeping on the streets (OR = 0.4; being on the streets for less than one year (OR = 0.4; maintenance of some family bonds (OR = 0.5; presence on the streets of a family member (OR = 0.6; not suffering domestic violence (OR = 0.6; being female (OR = 0.8. All of these variables were significant at the p < 0.05 level. The findings suggest that being younger, having family bonds and engagement in school are important protective factors that affect drug use among this population and should be considered in the formulation of public policies.

  7. Urban street structure and traffic safety.

    Mohan, Dinesh; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Villaveces, Andres


    This paper reports the influence of road type and junction density on road traffic fatality rates in U.S. cities. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) files were used to obtain fatality rates for all cities for the years 2005-2010. A stratified random sample of 16 U.S. cities was taken, and cities with high and low road traffic fatality rates were compared on their road layout details (TIGER maps were used). Statistical analysis was done to determine the effect of junction density and road type on road traffic fatality rates. The analysis of road network and road traffic crash fatality rates in these randomly selected U.S. cities shows that, (a) higher number of junctions per road length was significantly associated with a lower motor- vehicle crash and pedestrian mortality rates, and, (b) increased number of kilometers of roads of any kind was associated with higher fatality rates, but an additional kilometer of main arterial road was associated with a significantly higher increase in total fatalities. When compared to non-arterial roads, the higher the ratio of highways and main arterial roads, there was an association with higher fatality rates. These results have important implications for road safety professionals. They suggest that once the road and street structure is put in place, that will influence whether a city has low or high traffic fatality rates. A city with higher proportion of wider roads and large city blocks will tend to have higher traffic fatality rates, and therefore in turn require much more efforts in police enforcement and other road safety measures. Urban planners need to know that smaller block size with relatively less wide roads will result in lower traffic fatality rates and this needs to be incorporated at the planning stage. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Road and Street Centerlines, streets, Published in 2004, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Jasper County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of 2004. It is described as 'streets'. Data by this publisher...

  9. Road and Street Centerlines, Streets mm, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Streets mm'. Data by this publisher are...

  10. Road and Street Centerlines, Streets mm2, Published in 2008, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Washington County.

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2008. It is described as 'Streets mm2'. Data by this publisher...

  11. Rare earth elements in street dust and associated health risk in a municipal industrial base of central China.

    Sun, Guangyi; Li, Zhonggen; Liu, Ting; Chen, Ji; Wu, Tingting; Feng, Xinbin


    The content levels, distribution characteristics, and health risks associated with 15 rare earth elements (REEs) in urban street dust from an industrial city, Zhuzhou, in central China were investigated. The total REE content (∑REE) ranged from 66.1 to 237.4 mg kg(-1), with an average of 115.9 mg kg(-1), which is lower than that of Chinese background soil and Yangtze river sediment. Average content of the individual REE in street dust decreased in the order Ce > La > Nd > Y > Pr > Sm > Gd > Dy > Er > Yb > Eu > Ho > Tb > Tm > Lu. The chondrite-normalized REE pattern indicated light REE (LREE) enrichment, a relatively steep LREE trend, heavy REE (HREE) depletion, a flat HREE trend, a Eu-negative anomaly and a Ce-positive anomaly. Foremost heavy local soil and to less degree anthropogenic pollution are the main sources of REE present in street dust. Health risk associated with the exposure of REE in street dust was assessed based on the carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effect and lifetime average daily dose. The obtained cancer and non-cancer risk values prompt for no augmented health hazard. However, children had greater health risks than that of adults.

  12. Competition for the Elements of the City Environment for Irkutsk’s Public Spaces: Street Furniture, Street Design

    Tatyana Danilova


    Full Text Available The article reviews the contest «Street furniture. Street design», which was held this summer by manufacturing company «PalpNord», International research laboratory of study and design of the urban environment «Urban Planning School» and the Union of Architects of Russia. The winners and their projects are also listed in the article.

  13. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung


    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were che...

  14. Role of childhood aerobic fitness in successful street crossing.

    Chaddock, Laura; Neider, Mark B; Lutz, Aubrey; Hillman, Charles H; Kramer, Arthur F


    Increased aerobic fitness is associated with improved cognition, brain health, and academic achievement during preadolescence. In this study, we extended these findings by examining the relationship between aerobic fitness and an everyday real-world task: street crossing. Because street crossing can be a dangerous multitask challenge and is a leading cause of injury in children, it is important to find ways to improve pedestrian safety. A street intersection was modeled in a virtual environment, and higher-fit (n = 13, 7 boys) and lower-fit (n = 13, 5 boys) 8- to 10-yr-old children, as determined by V˙O(2max) testing, navigated trafficked roads by walking on a treadmill that was integrated with an immersive virtual world. Child pedestrians crossed the street while undistracted, listening to music, or conversing on a hands-free cellular phone. Cell phones impaired street crossing success rates compared with the undistracted or music conditions for all participants (P = 0.004), a result that supports previous research. However, individual differences in aerobic fitness influenced these patterns (fitness × condition interaction, P = 0.003). Higher-fit children maintained street crossing success rates across all three conditions (paired t-tests, all P > 0.4), whereas lower-fit children showed decreased success rates when on the phone, relative to the undistracted (P = 0.018) and music (P = 0.019) conditions. The results suggest that higher levels of childhood aerobic fitness may attenuate the impairment typically associated with multitasking during street crossing. It is possible that superior cognitive abilities of higher-fit children play a role in the performance differences during complex real-world tasks.

  15. Cooperative home light: assessment of a security function for the automotive field

    Knapik, Peter; Petit, Jonathan; Kargl, Frank; Schoch, Elmar


    Crime and feeling of security are omnipresent and can be influenced by lighting conditions. However, lighting improvements are generally concentrated on street lighting. Meanwhile, a vast variety of new technologies, including innovative lighting systems and connected mobility, are entering into the

  16. Pecan Street Grid Demonstration Program. Final technology performance report

    None, None


    This document represents the final Regional Demonstration Project Technical Performance Report (TPR) for Pecan Street Inc.’s (Pecan Street) Smart Grid Demonstration Program, DE-OE-0000219. Pecan Street is a 501(c)(3) smart grid/clean energy research and development organization headquartered at The University of Texas at Austin (UT). Pecan Street worked in collaboration with Austin Energy, UT, Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), the City of Austin, the Austin Chamber of Commerce and selected consultants, contractors, and vendors to take a more detailed look at the energy load of residential and small commercial properties while the power industry is undergoing modernization. The Pecan Street Smart Grid Demonstration Program signed-up over 1,000 participants who are sharing their home or businesses’s electricity consumption data with the project via green button protocols, smart meters, and/or a home energy monitoring system (HEMS). Pecan Street completed the installation of HEMS in 750 homes and 25 commercial properties. The program provided incentives to increase the installed base of roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, plug-in electric vehicles with Level 2 charging, and smart appliances. Over 200 participants within a one square mile area took advantage of Austin Energy and Pecan Street’s joint PV incentive program and installed roof-top PV as part of this project. Of these homes, 69 purchased or leased an electric vehicle through Pecan Street’s PV rebate program and received a Level 2 charger from Pecan Street. Pecan Street studied the impacts of these technologies along with a variety of consumer behavior interventions, including pricing models, real-time feedback on energy use, incentive programs, and messaging, as well as the corresponding impacts on Austin Energy’s distribution assets.The primary demonstration site was the Mueller community in Austin, Texas. The Mueller development, located less than three miles from the Texas State Capitol

  17. Linguistic Variation, Context, and Meaning: A Case of "-ing/in'" Variation in North American Workers' Speech.

    Huspek, Michael R.


    Suggests an alternative approach to the variable rule method of accounting for linguistic variability. This alternative approach, which is sensitive to social context and the relevance of meaning, is used to support an analysis of "-ing/in'" variability in some North American industrial workers' speech. (SED)

  18. Algõpetuse peajoon ja harupedagoogikad / Sirje Piht, Elve Voltein, Anne Uusen, Inge Timoštšuk


    Intervjuu Sirje Pihti ja Anne Uuseniga Tallinna Ülikooli algõpetuse osakonnast, Elve Volteiniga Tartu Ülikooli haridusteaduste instituudi õpetajate seminarist ja Inge Timoštšukiga Tallinna Ülikooli kasvatusteaduste instituudi pedagoogilise praktika keskusest

  19. Algõpetuse peajoon ja harupedagoogikad / Sirje Piht, Elve Voltein, Anne Uusen, Inge Timoštšuk


    Intervjuu Sirje Pihti ja Anne Uuseniga Tallinna Ülikooli algõpetuse osakonnast, Elve Volteiniga Tartu Ülikooli haridusteaduste instituudi õpetajate seminarist ja Inge Timoštšukiga Tallinna Ülikooli kasvatusteaduste instituudi pedagoogilise praktika keskusest

  20. La sauvegarde des grandes oeuvres de l'ingénierie du XXème siècle

    Graf, Franz


    Consacré à la sauvegarde des grandes oeuvres de l’ingénierie du XXe siècle, ce premier numéro des Cahiers du TSAM explore le devenir de certaines des plus remarquables et emblématiques structures en béton du siècle passé. A travers les fi gures d’héroïques constructeurs, il interroge l’héritage construit des ingénieurs, convoquant les plus audacieux d’entre eux (Freyssinet, Isler, Maillart, Nervi, Vierendeel, etc.). Alors que la sauvegarde de l’architecture du XXe siècle s’est récemment constituée en discipline à part entière, la préservation des ouvrages de l’ingénierie de cette période est encore balbutiante. Considérés trop souvent sous le seul point de vue de la sécurité ou de la maintenance, ces ouvrages s’avèrent parfois de véritables chefs-d’oeuvre, jalons d’un «art de l’ingénieur» à la frontière entre performance technique et beauté plastique. Ces cahiers sont donc l’occasion d’initier, à l’appui d’exemples et de projets de sauvegarde con...

  1. Queer(y)ing New Schooling Accountabilities through "My School": Using Butlerian Tools to Think Differently about Policy Performativity

    Gowlett, Christina


    This article takes the role of provocateur to "queer(y)" the rules of intelligibility surrounding new schooling accountabilities. Butler's work is seldom used outside the arena of gender and sexualities research. A "queer(y)ing" methodology is subsequently applied in a context very different to where it is frequently…

  2. Reflections on the Grammatical Category of "Before" "After" and "Since" Introducing Non-Finite "-ing" Clauses: A Corpus Approach

    He, Qingshun


    English language learners may be confused in identifying the grammatical category of such conjunctive expressions as "before," "after" and "since" introducing non-finite "-ing" clauses. In this article, we will conduct a corpus-based investigation of hypotactic conjunctions and conjunctive prepositions…

  3. Suggestions for improving vehicle front lighting.

    Schreuder, D.A.


    Some conclusions: -In lit streets, low-beam headlights contribute little to the visibility of objects, cause glare and can obscure direction indicators. -Presently, it is feasible to adapt the existing vehicle lighting such that it will be characterised by a minimum of about 100 cd in a direction st

  4. A qualitative enquiry into OpenStreetMap making

    Lin, Yu-Wei


    Based on a case study on the OpenStreetMap community, this paper provides a contextual and embodied understanding of the user-led, user-participatory and user-generated produsage phenomenon. It employs Grounded Theory, Social Worlds Theory, and qualitative methods to illuminate and explores the produsage processes of OpenStreetMap making, and how knowledge artefacts such as maps can be collectively and collaboratively produced by a community of people, who are situated in different places around the world but engaged with the same repertoire of mapping practices. The empirical data illustrate that OpenStreetMap itself acts as a boundary object that enables actors from different social worlds to co-produce the Map through interacting with each other and negotiating the meanings of mapping, the mapping data and the Map itself. The discourses also show that unlike traditional maps that black-box cartographic knowledge and offer a single dominant perspective of cities or places, OpenStreetMap is an embodied epistemic object that embraces different world views. The paper also explores how contributors build their identities as an OpenStreetMaper alongside some other identities they have. Understanding the identity-building process helps to understand mapping as an embodied activity with emotional, cognitive and social repertoires.

  5. Ionospheric current system accompanied by auroral vortex streets

    Hiraki, Yasutaka


    High resolution optical measurements have revealed that a sudden brightening of aurora and its deformation from an arc-like to a vortex street structure appear just at the onset of substorm. The instability of Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves reflected from the ionosphere has been studied by means of magnetohydrodynamic simulations in order to comprehend the formation of auroral vortex streets. Our previous work reported that an initially placed arc intensifies, splits, and deforms into a vortex street during a couple of minutes, and the prime key is an enhancement of the convection electric field. This study elaborated physics of the ionospheric horizontal currents related to the vortex street in the context of so-called Cowling polarization. One component is due to the perturbed electric field by Alfv$\\acute{\\rm e}$n waves, and the other is due to the perturbed electron density (or polarization) in the ionosphere. It was found that, when a vortex street develops, upward/downward pair currents in its leading/trail...

  6. Energy and street foods (Bangladesh and Sri Lanka)



    Energy used by street food vendors is effectively replacing fuel consumption in the household, as studies have shown that street foods are often cheaper to buy than to prepare at home. Rapid urbanisation has led to a proliferation of these very small food outlets, particularly in the Asian subcontinent. Street foods provide employment and income to millions of people around the world, and provide low cost, affordable food to low income people. The project pilot tested improved biomass stoves with a selection of street food vendors. In Sri Lanka, laboratory tests were undertaken with the following three stoves: improved rice-husk burner, biomass gasifier, and double-mouth chimney stoves. From the pilot testing in Sri Lanka the key findings are that the efficient gasifier stove is not suitable for street food vendors, but there were some promising results from larger biomass stoves. In Bangladesh, the project piloted four types of biomass stove: single mouth, double mouth, bucket-type and institutional stove. As these were more established, the pilot focused on a method for reaching a larger number of beneficiaries, people were trained to make stoves in their own and in others' houses. Five workshops were held and over 540 stoves were built. Impact assessment exercises were undertaken in both countries. (author)

  7. The effects of city streets on an urban disease vector.

    Barbu, Corentin M; Hong, Andrew; Manne, Jennifer M; Small, Dylan S; Quintanilla Calderón, Javier E; Sethuraman, Karthik; Quispe-Machaca, Víctor; Ancca-Juárez, Jenny; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan G; Málaga Chavez, Fernando S; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z


    With increasing urbanization vector-borne diseases are quickly developing in cities, and urban control strategies are needed. If streets are shown to be barriers to disease vectors, city blocks could be used as a convenient and relevant spatial unit of study and control. Unfortunately, existing spatial analysis tools do not allow for assessment of the impact of an urban grid on the presence of disease agents. Here, we first propose a method to test for the significance of the impact of streets on vector infestation based on a decomposition of Moran's spatial autocorrelation index; and second, develop a Gaussian Field Latent Class model to finely describe the effect of streets while controlling for cofactors and imperfect detection of vectors. We apply these methods to cross-sectional data of infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in the city of Arequipa, Peru. Our Moran's decomposition test reveals that the distribution of T. infestans in this urban environment is significantly constrained by streets (p<0.05). With the Gaussian Field Latent Class model we confirm that streets provide a barrier against infestation and further show that greater than 90% of the spatial component of the probability of vector presence is explained by the correlation among houses within city blocks. The city block is thus likely to be an appropriate spatial unit to describe and control T. infestans in an urban context. Characteristics of the urban grid can influence the spatial dynamics of vector borne disease and should be considered when designing public health policies.

  8. Trees and Streets as Drivers of Urban Stormwater Nutrient Pollution.

    Janke, Benjamin D; Finlay, Jacques C; Hobbie, Sarah E


    Expansion of tree cover is a major management goal in cities because of the substantial benefits provided to people, and potentially to water quality through reduction of stormwater volume by interception. However, few studies have addressed the full range of potential impacts of trees on urban runoff, which includes deposition of nutrient-rich leaf litter onto streets connected to storm drains. We analyzed the influence of trees on stormwater nitrogen and phosphorus export across 19 urban watersheds in Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, U.S.A., and at the scale of individual streets within one residential watershed. Stormwater nutrient concentrations were highly variable across watersheds and strongly related to tree canopy over streets, especially for phosphorus. Stormwater nutrient loads were primarily related to road density, the dominant control over runoff volume. Street canopy exerted opposing effects on loading, where elevated nutrient concentrations from trees near roads outweighed the weak influence of trees on runoff reduction. These results demonstrate that vegetation near streets contributes substantially to stormwater nutrient pollution, and therefore to eutrophication of urban surface waters. Urban landscape design and management that account for trees as nutrient pollution sources could improve water quality outcomes, while allowing cities to enjoy the myriad benefits of urban forests.

  9. Between the streets and the shelter: everyday reorganization

    Flávia Barbosa de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The street situation population has been shown as a growing urban phenomenon, becoming an object of interest to public managers and academics. This paper presents the results of a research aimed at understanding the context of street situation residents, under current provisory institutional shelter care, analyzing why the streets have become the home for some people; how the process of development and adaptation of daily activities in this new reality occurred; when and why they decided to leave the streets and how this process of production of a new daily life occurred since the institutional care; and how they organize and plan their departure from the host service. To this end, open interviews and production of narratives of life stories were conducted with seven residents of an institutional shelter care, along with participant observation for one year in the same service, where staff, residents and institutional dynamics were systematically observed. The results show that the users of this service have gone through different paths in life, with a trace in common: the growing weakening of bonds and purchasing power. The service seems to contribute to the movement of departure from the streets and provides immediate host, welcoming and functional autonomy. However, the departure movement from the shelter - that would provide other autonomies, development of social supports and integrated assistance - appears in the life stories as a difficult process with little institutional support. This work highlights the need to build debates and proposals on the homelessness process.

  10. Neighborhood sampling: how many streets must an auditor walk?

    Medina Ashley V


    Full Text Available Abstract This study tested the representativeness of four street segment sampling protocols using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan (PEDS in eleven neighborhoods surrounding public housing developments in Houston, TX. The following four street segment sampling protocols were used (1 all segments, both residential and arterial, contained within the 400 meter radius buffer from the center point of the housing development (the core were compared with all segments contained between the 400 meter radius buffer and the 800 meter radius buffer (the ring; all residential segments in the core were compared with (2 75% (3 50% and (4 25% samples of randomly selected residential street segments in the core. Analyses were conducted on five key variables: sidewalk presence; ratings of attractiveness and safety for walking; connectivity; and number of traffic lanes. Some differences were found when comparing all street segments, both residential and arterial, in the core to the ring. Findings suggested that sampling 25% of residential street segments within the 400 m radius of a residence sufficiently represents the pedestrian built environment. Conclusions support more cost effective environmental data collection for physical activity research.

  11. Pollution-free road lighting

    Schreuder, Duco A.

    They relate to reducing road accidents and some forms of crime but also enhance the social safety of residents and pedestrians and the amenity for residents. Road traffic in developing countries is much more hazardous than in industrialized countries. Accident rates in 'low' income countries may be as much as 35 times higher than in 'high' income countries. Thus, it might be much more cost-effective to light roads in the developing world than in the industrialized world. Fighting light pollution is more pressing in developing countries as most of the major high-class astronomical observatories are there. Astronomical observations are disturbed by light from outdoor lighting installations, part of which is scattered in the atmosphere to form 'sky glow'. The International Lighting Commission CIE has published a Technical Report giving general guidance for lighting designers and policy makers on the reduction of the sky glow. Lighting improves visibility, essential for almost all human activity. However, light that hits the road contributes to visibility only if it is reflected. In poorly designed lighting equipment much of the lumen output of the lamps is sent directly upwards. This can be avoided by properly defined light fittings. The light output of fittings is determined by their optical quality and by the installation maintenance factor. Open fittings are to be preferred. If mounted horizontally, they make street lighting with the least light pollution.

  12. OSMnx: New Methods for Acquiring, Constructing, Analyzing, and Visualizing Complex Street Networks

    Boeing, Geoff


    Scholars have studied street networks in many ways. However, there are some limitations to the current urban planning/street network analysis literature. To address these challenges, this study presents a new tool to make the collection of data and creation and analysis of street networks simple, consistent, and automatable. OSMnx is a new Python package that downloads administrative boundary shapes and street networks from OpenStreetMap. OSMnx contributes five significant new capabilities for researchers and city planners: first, the automatic downloading of administrative place boundaries and shapefiles; second, the tailored and automated downloading and constructing of street networks from OpenStreetMap (including driving, walking, biking, etc.); third, the automated correction and simplification of network topology; fourth, the ability to save street networks to disk as shapefiles, GraphML, or SVG files; and fifth, the ability to analyze street networks, calculate routes, project and visualize the network...

  13. A review of variables of urban street connectivity for spatial connection

    Mohamad, W. S. N. W.; Said, I.


    Several studies on street connectivity in cities and towns have been modeled on topology, morphology, technology and psychology of people living in the urban environment. Street connectivity means the connection of streets that offers people alternative routes. However, there emerge difficulties to determine the suitable variables and analysis to be chosen in defining the accurate result for studies street connectivity. The aim of this paper is to identify variables of street connectivity by applying GIS and Space Syntax. This paper reviews the variables of street connectivity from 15 past articles done in 1990s to early 2000s from journals of nine disciplines on Environment and Behavior, Planning and Design, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information, Environment and Planning, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Environmental Psychology, Social Science and Medicine and Building and Environment. From the review, there are four variables found for street connectivity: link (streets-streets, street-nodes or node-streets, nodes-nodes), accessibility, least-angle, and centrality. Space syntax and GIS are suitable tools to analyze the four variables relating to systematic street systems for pedestrians. This review implies that planners of the street systems, in the aspect of street connectivity in cities and towns, should consider these four variables.

  14. Ergonomics and design: traffic sign and street name sign.

    Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti


    This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture.

  15. Automatic Adjustment of Wide-Base Google Street View Panoramas

    Boussias-Alexakis, E.; Tsironisa, V.; Petsa, E.; Karras, G.


    This paper focuses on the issue of sparse matching in cases of extremely wide-base panoramic images such as those acquired by Google Street View in narrow urban streets. In order to effectively use affine point operators for bundle adjustment, panoramas must be suitably rectified to simulate affinity. To this end, a custom piecewise planar projection (triangular prism projection) is applied. On the assumption that the image baselines run parallel to the street façades, the estimated locations of the vanishing lines of the façade plane allow effectively removing projectivity and applying the ASIFT point operator on panorama pairs. Results from comparisons with multi-panorama adjustment, based on manually measured image points, and ground truth indicate that such an approach, if further elaborated, may well provide a realistic answer to the matching problem in the case of demanding panorama configurations.

  16. [A case of agnosia for streets without visual memory disturbance].

    Aoki, Kazuko; Hiroki, Masahiko; Bando, Mitsuaki; Miyamoto, Kazuhito; Hirai, Shunsaku


    A 70-year-old, right-handed man was admitted to our hospital for his sudden-onset topographical disorientation. He failed to find his way to familiar places, but he knew distance and direction to the places. Neurological examination revealed homonymous left-upper quadrantanopsia on Goldmann perimeter and hypoesthesia over the left side of his body. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an abnormal intensity area at the right medial temporo-occipital region, due to the infarct of the right posterior cerebral arterial territory. The neuropsychological examination revealed agnosia for streets, and prosopagnosia without any other disturbance of visual perception. Both visual and topographical memories were intact. It is suggested that, in this case, the agnosia for streets was caused by impairment of recognizing familiar streets and houses or disconnection between their recognition and memory.

  17. OpenStreetMap e la prima conferenza OSMit

    Luca Dellucchi


    Full Text Available OpenStreetMap and the first OSMit conferenceThis month’s article features a brief presentation of the OpenStreetMap project, initiated by a single user in 2004 with the aim of creating a free map of the world, editable following wiki-like rules, and evolved in a few years in a system involving over 100,000 users contributing data from all over the world. The interest in presenting this topic is related also to the recent occurrence of the first meeting of the Italian OpenStreetMap Community. The meeting took place in Trento in early June 2009, organized by the Fondazione Bruno Kessler, and demonstrated the liveliness of this community, showcasing experience conducted over the past year, and highlighting developments for the future.

  18. Enzymatic biosensors based on ingá-cipó peroxidase immobilised on sepiolite for TBHQ quantification.

    Regina de Oliveira, Tássia; Grawe, Gregory Ferreira; Moccelini, Sally Katiuce; Terezo, Ailton J; Castilho, Marilza


    Sepiolite clay mineral was used as a support for the immobilisation of the peroxidase enzyme from ingá-cipó (Inga edulis Mart.) and was used with graphite powder, multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs), mineral oil, and nafion 0.5% (v/v) in the development of a new biosensor for the determination of the antioxidant tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ) by square-wave voltammetry (SWV). For the optimisation and application of the biosensor, several parameters were investigated to determine the optimum experimental conditions using SWV. The best performance was obtained using a 0.1 mol L(-1) phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.0), 4.0 × 10(-4) mol L(-1) hydrogen peroxide, a frequency of 50 Hz, a pulse amplitude of 60 mV, and a scan increment of 6 mV. The biosensor showed good repeatability and reproducibility and remained stable for a period of 20 weeks. The analytical curve revealed a linear response range of 1.65 to 9.82 mg L(-1) (r = 0.994) with detection and quantification limits of 0.41 and 1.25 mg L(-1). A recovery study of TBHQ in salad dressing samples yielded values from 99.6-104.8%. The proposed biosensor was successfully used for the determination of TBHQ in commercial salad dressing samples, giving a relative error of 5.4% in relation to the comparative method (chromatographic).

  19. The plays of Lillian Hellman, Clifford Odets and William Inge on Slovene stages

    Mateja Slunjski


    Full Text Available After the Second World War, Slovene theatres started to include in their repertoires more and more American authors and their plays. Their choice were varied, from serious dramas by Eugene O'Neill, Tennessee Williams and Arthur Miller, to comedies by Norman Krasna and John Van Druten dependant mostly on the availability of the texts. In the immediate postwar years the theatres liked to present playwrights with progressive ideas in their plays, such as Lillian Hellman and her "The Little Foxes", which was successfully produced at three Slovene theatres, while her "The Children's Hour" received negative reviews. In the fifties, three theatres chose two plays by Clifford Odets, "Golden Boy" and "Country Girl", mainly because of his socially critical ideas and his admiration of humanity. His plays were rather well received; however, the critics doubted his literary genius. William Inge and his plays, "Come Back, Little Sheba", "Picnic" and "Bus Stop", chosen mainly because of the warmth with which the author depicted the tragedy and the beauty of life, were produced at three Slovene theatres. The author received rather wide-ranging opinions from the critics. Some thought him to be an unoriginal depicter of dull American life, while others praised his lyricism and new dramatic techniques.



    Last night,I dreamed I visited of the old compound where my family once lived-the Trijam Labrang.Entering the compound,I felt something magical was carrying me as if my sleepy body was walking on air.It was such a wonderful sight and peaceful moment.I smelled the air and tasted the water from the well located in the compound.Through the windows I heard people reciting scriptures.Cooking smoke was emerging, rolling upward and dispersing into the sky.My wandering heart became light

  1. [Street food among children: a study in north Tunisia].

    Neffati, Larbi; Ridha, Hamza; Kolsteren, Patrick; Hilderbrand, Katherine


    As urbanization increases in Tunisia, eating meals outside the home is becoming more frequent. Children are prime consumers for the fast food sold in the streets. Neither their nor their parents' attitude towards street food is well documented as yet. This study was conducted in the city of Bizerte in February 1998. Its aim was to gather information about street food and parents' and children's attitudes towards it to help organize educational sessions with the children, parents, teachers, and vendors. The study interviewed 421 primary school children, ranging in age from 6 to 15 years (mean age: 10 years), from 24 schools. Half received pocket money, a percentage that did not differ by sex. Three quarters of the children used more than 75% of their pocket money to buy street food. The items bought most frequently were candy (27.2%), sandwiches (23.9%), pastries (23.9%), sunflower seeds and peanuts (21%), and either pizza, chocolate, or cheese (20.3%); the largest proportion of money was spent on sandwiches. In more than half the cases (55.7% of the children), the main motivation for buying street food was either to replace or fill out a meal at home, with sandwiches or pastries. The parents' monthly income did not influence the children's purchasing behavior, but the rhythm of receiving pocket money did. Most children were satisfied with the nutritional and hygienic quality of the food available, but their opinion of this quality as well as the reasons for buying the food and the prices spent on it differed considerably from that of their parents. This study highlights the important role of street foods in the daily diet of schoolchildren and the need for appropriate nutrition education in primary schools.

  2. Exploring the World using Street View 360 Images

    Bailey, J.


    The phrase "A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words" is an idiom of unknown 20th century origin. There is some belief that the modern use of the phrase stems from an article in a 1921 issue of a popular trade journal, that used "One Look is Worth A Thousand Words" to promote the use of images in advertisements on the sides of streetcars. There is a certain irony to this as nearly a century later the camera technologies on "Street View cars" are collecting images that look everywhere at once. However, while it can be to fun drive along the World's streets, it was the development of Street View imaging systems that could be mounted on other modes of transport or capture platforms (Street View Special Collects) that opened the door for these 360 images to become a tool for exploration and storytelling. Using Special Collect imagery captured in "off-road" and extreme locations, scientists are now using Street View images to assess changes to species habitats, show the impact of natural disasters and even perform "armchair" geology. A powerful example is the imagery captured before and after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan. However, it is use of the immersive nature of 360 images that truly allows them to create wonder and awe, especially when combined with Virtual Reality (VR) viewers. Combined with the Street View App or Google Expeditions, VR provides insight into what it is like to swim with sealions in the Galapagos or climb El Capitan in Yosemite National Park. While these image could never replace experiencing these locations in real-life, they can inspire the viewer to explore and learn more about the many wonders of our planet.

  3. ING-1(heMAb, a Monoclonal Antibody to Epithelial Cell Adhesion Molecule, Inhibits Tumor Metastases in a Murine Cancer Model

    Harry H. Ruan


    Full Text Available ING-1(heMAb, a human-engineered monoclonal antibody (MAb that specifically targets the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (Ep-CAM, kills adenocarcinoma cells in vitro and inhibits tumor growth in vivo. In the current study, we evaluated the efficacy of ING-1(heMAb in a murine model of cancer metastases. Mice received intravenous dosing of 1 mg/kg ING-1(heMAb, twice a week, starting on day 2 or day 5. A negative control group received 1 mg/kg human immunoglobulin G with the same dose frequency starting on day 2. A positive control group received weekly 100 mg/kg 54lurouracil/leucovorin starting on day 2. ING-1(heMAb/day 2 treatment significantly reduced both the number of visible tumor nodules in body cavities (P < .01 and the number of metastases on lung surfaces (P < .005. The treatment also resulted in a 91% reduction of micrometastases in lung tissues (P <.0001. Delaying ING-1(heMAb treatment until day 5 caused 54% reduction in micrometastases (P <.005. Our results indicate that a number of parameters, including treatment starting day, dose level, and dose frequency, are critical in achieving the optimal efficacy of ING-1(heMAb. We conclude that ING-1(heMAb effectively reduced tumor metastases in a murine cancer model. Immunotherapy with ING-1(heMAb may be beneficial in treating human metastatic diseases.

  4. Visualization and modal decomposition of vortex street behind circular cylinder

    Čížek J.


    Full Text Available Time resolved particle image velocimetry measurement of vortex street behind circular cylinder was carried out. Vorex street was measured for Reynolds numbers up to few thousands. Obtained results were processed by visualizations of moving particles and by standard evaluation of vector fields from the set of images. Modal decomposition of measured flow field was done using propper orthogonal decomposition where the structure of energetically most important modes was identified for several Reynolds numbers. The values of Strouhal number was analyzed from temporal evolution of dominant modes obtained using proper orthogonal decomposition.

  5. Street navigation using visual information on mobile phones

    Nguyen, Phuong Giang; Andersen, Hans Jørgen; Høilund, Carsten


    Applications with street navigation have been recently introduced on mobile phone devices. A major part of existing systems use integrated GPS as input for indicating the location. However, these systems often fail or make abrupt shifts in urban environment due to occlusion of satellites. Further......Applications with street navigation have been recently introduced on mobile phone devices. A major part of existing systems use integrated GPS as input for indicating the location. However, these systems often fail or make abrupt shifts in urban environment due to occlusion of satellites...

  6. 抑癌基因ING1在胃癌组织中的表达及其意义

    徐刚; 贺修桃; 聂长庆; 贺修胜; 苏坚; 李艳兰; 容映晖


    目的 探索ING1在胃癌组织中的表达及其意义。方法 采用免疫组化法检测51例胃癌组织及15例正常胃粘膜中p33ING1b的表达情况。结果 p33ING1b在胃癌组织中的表达率为41.2%(21/51)。远低于在正常胃粘膜中的表达率100%(15/15)。结论 ING1是抑癌基因,其蛋白产物p33ING1b在胃癌组织中低表达,对胃癌的发生、发展可能起重要作用。

  7. Asessing the air pollution distribution in busy street of Copenhagen in the further development of a street pollution model

    Hertel, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Poulsen, Maria B.

    The EU Air Quality Directive requires Member States to perform Air Quality Monitoring in order to assess ambient air quality for compliance checking with air quality limit values ( This monitoring needs to include...... a detailed dataset for the spatial air pollution distribution in a very busy street, H.C. Andersens Boulevard in Copenhagen; a street where a monitoring site has already been in place for many years. The dataset will be established for the further development of the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM...... will be carefully compared with high quality data obtained from the existing monitoring station (which is also operated by AU). References...

  8. Social and economic characteristics of street youth by gender and level of street involvement in Eldoret, Kenya.

    Rebecca Sorber

    Full Text Available Street-connected youth are a neglected and vulnerable population, particularly in resource-constrained settings. The development of interventions and supports for this population requires insight into how they live. This study describes the social and economic characteristics of a convenience sample of street youth (SY in Eldoret, Kenya.Participants were eligible if they were aged 12-21, living in Eldoret, spending days only (part-time, or nights and days on the street (full-time and able and willing to consent or assent. Data were collected using a standardized interview conducted in English or Kiswahili. Binary dependent variables were having been arrested and/or jailed, and first priority for spending money (food vs. other. Nominal categorical dependent variables included major source of support, and major reason for being street-involved. Multivariable analysis used logistic regression models to examine the association of gender and level of street-involvement with social and economic factors of interest adjusting for age and length of time on the street. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3.Of the 200 SY enrolled, 41% were female, mean age of 16.3 years; 71% were on the street full-time, and 29% part-time. Compared with part-time SY, full-time SY were more likely to have been arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.33, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]:1.01-5.35, name food as their first spending priority (AOR: 2.57, 95%CI:1.03-6.45, have left home due to violence (AOR: 5.54, 95%CI: 1.67-18.34, and more likely to report friends on the street as a major source of support (AOR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.01-12.82. Compared with females, males were more likely to have ever been arrested (AOR: 2.66, 95%CI:1.14-6.18, and to have ever been jailed (AOR: 3.22, 95%CI:1.47-7.02.These results suggest a high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability among SY in this setting. There is an urgent need for interventions taking into consideration these characteristics.

  9. Grating light modulator for projection display

    Jiyong Sun; Shanglian Huang; Jie Zhang; Zhihai Zhang; Yong Zhu


    A novel grating light modulator for projection display is introduced. It consists of an upper moveable grat-ing, a bottom mirror, and four supporting posts between them. The moveable grating and the bottom mir-ror compose a phase grating whose phase difference is controlled by the actuating voltage. When the phase difference is 2kπ, the grating light modulator will switch the incident light to zero-order diffraction; when the phase difference is (2k - 1)π, the grating light modulator will diffract light to first-order diffraction. A 16 × 16 modulator array is fabricated by the surface micromachining technology. The device works well when it is actuated by a voltage with 1-kHz frequency and 10-V amplitude. The fabricated grating light modulator can show blackness and brightness when controlled by the voltage. This modulator has potential applications in projection display system.

  10. Feeling Safe in the Dark : Examining the Effect of Entrapment, Lighting Levels, and Gender on Feelings of Safety and Lighting Policy Acceptability

    Boomsma, Christine; Steg, LInda


    This research examined to what extent physical factors, notably lighting and entrapment (blocked escape), and individual factors, notably gender, affect feelings of safety and the acceptability of reduced lighting levels. The authors reasoned that acceptability of reduced street lighting depends on

  11. Numerical simulation of diurnally varying thermal environment in a street canyon under haze-fog conditions

    Tan, Zijing; Dong, Jingliang; Xiao, Yimin; Tu, Jiyuan


    The impact of haze-fog on surface temperature, flow pattern, pollutant dispersion and pedestrian thermal comfort are investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach based on a three-dimensional street canyon model under different haze-fog conditions. In this study, light extinction coefficient (Kex) is adopted to represent haze-fog pollution level. Numerical simulations are performed for different Kex values at four representative time events (1000 LST, 1300 LST, 1600 LST and 2000 LST). The numerical results suggest that the surface temperature is strongly affected by the haze-fog condition. Surface heating induced by the solar radiation is enhanced by haze-fog, as higher surface temperature is observed under thicker haze-fog condition. Moreover, the temperature difference between sunlit and shadow surfaces is reduced, while that for the two shadow surfaces is slightly increased. Therefore, the surface temperature among street canyon facets becomes more evenly distributed under heavy haze-fog conditions. In addition, flow patterns are considerably altered by different haze-fog conditions, especially for the afternoon (1600 LST) case, in which thermal-driven flow has opposite direction as that of the wind-driven flow direction. Consequently, pollutants such as vehicular emissions will accumulate at pedestrian level, and pedestrian thermal comfort may lower under thicker haze-fog condition.

  12. Brilliant the evolution of artificial light

    Brox, Jane


    Tracing the fascinating history of human light, from stone lamps to the lightbulb, the story of light is also the story of evolving humanity. The class, social and environmental implications of providing light has shaped historical eras: crude lamps and tallow candles constricted waking hours and drove the crazed hunting of whales for their oil towards environmental disaster. Gaslight helped to create leisure hours in the evening and allowed the emergence of vibrant street life in cities while incandescent light changed the ways we live and sleep. Jane Brox asks the reader to consider

  13. Evaluating clinical abdominal scoring system in predict- ing the necessity of laparotomy in blunt abdominal trauma

    Erfantalab-Avini Peyman


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objectives: Trauma is among the lead- ing causes of death. Medical management of blunt abdomi- nal trauma (BAT relies on judging patients for whom lap- arotomy is mandatory. This study aimed to determine BAT patients’ signs, as well as paraclinical data, and to clarify the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value of clinical abdominal scoring system (CASS, a new scoring system based on clinical signs, in predicting whether a BAT patient needs laparotomy or not. Methods: Totally 400 patients suspected of BAT that arrived at the emergency department of two university hos- pitals in Tehran from March 20, 2007 to March 19, 2009 were included in this study. They were evaluated for age, sex, type of trauma, systolic blood pressure, Glasgow coma scale (GCS, pulse rate, time of presentation after trauma, abdomi- nal clinical findings, respiratory rate, temperature, hemoglo- bin (Hb concentration, focused abdominal sonography in trauma (FAST and CASS. Results: Our measurements showed that CASS had an accuracy of 94%, sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 88%, positive predictive value of 90% and negative predictive value of 100% in determining the necessity of laparotomy in BAT patients. Moreover, in our analysis, systolic blood pressure, GCS, pulse rate, Hb concentration, time of presen- tation after trauma, abdominal clinical findings and FAST were also shown to be helpful in confirming the need for laparotomy (P<0.05. Conclusion: CASS is a promising scoring system in rapid detection of the need for laparotomy as well as in minimizing auxiliary expense for further evaluation in BAT patients, thus to promote the cost-benefit ratio and accu- racy of diagnosis. Key words: Abdominal injuries; Laparotomy; Patients; Wounds, nonpenetrating

  14. 'HESPERIA' HORIZON 2020 project: High Energy Solar Particle Events foRecastIng and Analysis

    Malandraki, Olga; Klein, Karl-Ludwig; Vainio, Rami; Agueda, Neus; Nunez, Marlon; Heber, Bernd; Buetikofer, Rolf; Sarlanis, Christos; Crosby, Norma; Bindi, Veronica; Murphy, Ronald; Tyka, Allan J.; Rodriguez, Juan


    Solar energetic particles (SEPs) are of prime interest for fundamental astrophysics. However, due to their high energies they are a space weather concern for technology in space as well as human space exploration calling for reliable tools with predictive capabilities. The two-year EU HORIZON 2020 project HESPERIA (High Energy Solar Particle Events foRecastIng and Analysis, will produce two novel operational SEP forecasting tools based upon proven concepts (UMASEP, REleASE). At the same time the project will advance our understanding of the physical mechanisms that result into high-energy SEP events through the systematic exploitation of the high-energy gamma-ray observations of the FERMI mission and other novel published datasets (PAMELA, AMS), together with in situ SEP measurements near 1 AU. By using multi-frequency observations and performing simulations, the project will address the chain of processes from particle acceleration in the corona, particle transport in the magnetically complex corona and interplanetary space to their detection near 1 AU. Furthermore, HESPERIA will explore the possibility of incorporating the derived results into future innovative space weather services. Publicly available software to invert neutron monitor observations of relativistic SEPs to physical parameters, giving information on the high-energy processes occurring at or near the Sun during solar eruptions, will be provided for the first time. The results of this inversion software will complement the space-borne measurements at adjacent higher energies. In order to achieve these goals HESPERIA will exploit already existing large datasets that are stored into databases built under EU FP7 projects NMDB and SEPServer. The structure of the HESPERIA project, its main objectives and forecasting operational tools, as well as the added value to SEP research will be presented and discussed. Acknowledgement: This project has received funding from the


    *F. Nejadkoorki, E. Yousefi, F. Naseri


    Full Text Available A model is demonstrated that describes street traffic-induced noise pollution in 2008 in Yazd, Iran. Sound levels were measured using a Bruel and Kjaer-2260 sound level meter on 10 streets across the city over this period during the morning rush hour and different vehicle types were counted simultaneously at various sampling points. Geographical Information System was used to generate, store and retrieve the spatial data and map the sound levels using an interpolation technique. The minimum and maximum sound levels appeared to be 70.9 dBA and 80.7 dBA, respectively and these values were above the national legislated norm. Cars and motorcycles were the most commonly used vehicle type in the city, comprising 61.2% and 23.7 % of the total traffic volume, respectively. These data were followed by trucks, buses and bicycles. A number of parameters which were assumed to impact on noise pollution were collected and considered, including geographical position, elevation, the distance to the nearest intersection, street geometry and the numbers of vehicles according to class. The modelling demonstrated that there is a significant relationship between the average sound level and traffic flow (R2 = 0.5. The results showed that although street traffichas increased between 2002 and 2008, the sound levels in the city decreased slightly and this has been attributed to advances in vehicle design.

  16. Street-level bureaucrats help clients, even in difficult circumstances

    Tummers, L.G.


    This policy brief presents the main findings of the Marie Curie Project “COPING: Policy implementation in stressful times: Analyzing coping strategies of civil servants”. The project combines insights from public administration and psychology to study how street-level bureaucrats (also termed

  17. Suicide and Prostitution among Street Youth: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.


    Presents results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants. Additionally it was found that prostitution was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high…

  18. 97 Orchard Street: The Biography of a Tenement.

    Shenton, James


    Recommends using U.S. Bureau of the Census data as historical research resource and illustrates how to use data through analysis of tenement residents in New York City, at 97 Orchard Street. Census records provide information that allow an analysis of the changing social demographics of occupancy in large city tenements. Includes primary documents…

  19. Playing With the City: Street Art and Videogames

    Vazques Marquez, Israel; Pajares Tosca, Susana


    that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectators, who are invited to play in symbolic ways that actualize nostalgic memories of gaming and can be related...... to a more general "play turn" in our culture....

  20. Urban Walking and the Pedagogies of the Street

    Bairner, Alan


    Drawing upon the extensive literature on urban walking and also on almost 60 years' experience of walking the streets, this article argues that there is a pressing need to re-assert the educational value of going for a walk. After a brief discussion of the social significance of the "flaneur," the historic pioneer of urban walking, the article…

  1. Modeling Initiation into Drug Injection among Street Youth

    Roy, Elise; Godin, Gaston; Boudreau, Jean-Francois; Cote, Philippe-Benoit; Denis, Veronique; Haley, Nancy; Leclerc, Pascale; Boivin, Jean-Francois


    This study aimed at examining the predictors of initiation into drug injection among street youth using social cognitive theory framework. A prospective cohort study based on semi-annual interviews was carried out. Psychosocial determinants referred to avoidance of initiation. Other potential predictors were: sociodemographic characteristics,…

  2. Using "The Wall Street Journal" To Stimulate Critical Thinking.

    Roever, Carol


    Describes an assignment in a business-communication class in which student teams construct portfolios with articles from "The Wall Street Journal," explaining and clearly expressing how these articles relate to class concepts. Argues that the assignment encourages critical-thinking skills, focuses on writing skills, and develops an…

  3. Estimation of air quality improvement at road and street intersections

    Hoeglund, P.G. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Traffic and Transport Planning


    There has always been a very great problem to quantify the detrimental exhaust air pollution related to the traffic flow, especially at road and street intersections. Until now model calculations have been developed mainly for the links between the intersections. In an attempt to remedy this situation the author has developed a method of estimating emissions on the micro level from motor vehicles at intersections as a help for infrastructural design related to improved environmental conditions. Very parsimonious knowledge exists regarding the deceleration and acceleration patterns at road- and street intersections. Not many surveys are done neither in Sweden nor within other countries. Evidently, the need for knowledge regarding deceleration and acceleration behaviour on the micro level has until now not been given priority. In traffic safety related research studies have been done describing the drivers` deceleration and acceleration behaviour and the vehicles` braking performance. Those results give deceleration data for extreme situations and are not useful for describing normal decelerations and accelerations at road- and street intersections. Environment related problems within the traffic flow analysis are now accentuating the need for the studying of special deceleration and acceleration behaviours in combination with an alternative design of the road and street infrastructure. There is a big difference in different vehicles` amount of emitted exhaust pollutions during the passing of intersections depending on the vehicles` speed levels related to their deceleration and acceleration levels. (author)

  4. Land Use Correlates of Street Children in Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    a peculiar type of street children known as “area boys and girls” has been anecdotally attributed to ... the soil, terrain, surface hydrology, the near-surface climate, sediments and associated ..... “Incidence and Determinants of Child Labour in.

  5. Integrating the Wall Street Journal into AIS Courses

    Kohlmeyer, James M., III


    While it is important for accounting information systems (AIS) students to understand computer technology, internal controls and business processes, such knowledge is of little use without reference to appropriate contexts. Integrating Wall Street Journal (WSJ) readings and discussions into AIS classes can enrich learning by stimulating…

  6. Using "The Wall Street Journal" To Stimulate Critical Thinking.

    Roever, Carol


    Describes an assignment in a business-communication class in which student teams construct portfolios with articles from "The Wall Street Journal," explaining and clearly expressing how these articles relate to class concepts. Argues that the assignment encourages critical-thinking skills, focuses on writing skills, and develops an…

  7. HIV and Young Male Street Prostitutes: A Brief Report.

    Simon, Patricia M.; And Others


    Examined human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence data for young male street prostitutes. Examined sociodemographic characteristics, substance use patterns, HIV-related risk behaviors, and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome knowledge as potential correlates to HIV status. Findings suggest that adolescent male prostitutes are exposed to…

  8. Structural properties of planar graphs of urban street patterns

    Cardillo, Alessio; Scellato, Salvatore; Latora, Vito; Porta, Sergio


    Recent theoretical and empirical studies have focused on the structural properties of complex relational networks in social, biological, and technological systems. Here we study the basic properties of twenty 1-square-mile samples of street patterns of different world cities. Samples are turned into spatial valued graphs. In such graphs, the nodes are embedded in the two-dimensional plane and represent street intersections, the edges represent streets, and the edge values are equal to the street lengths. We evaluate the local properties of the graphs by measuring the meshedness coefficient and counting short cycles (of three, four, and five edges), and the global properties by measuring global efficiency and cost. We also consider, as extreme cases, minimal spanning trees (MST) and greedy triangulations (GT) induced by the same spatial distribution of nodes. The measures found in the real and the artificial networks are then compared. Surprisingly, cities of the same class, e.g., grid-iron or medieval, exhibit roughly similar properties. The correlation between a priori known classes and statistical properties is illustrated in a plot of relative efficiency vs cost.

  9. The Rehabilitation Paradox: Street-Working Children in Afghanistan

    Williams, Christopher; Yazdani, Farzaneh


    International humanitarian intervention in Afghanistan reflects a policy discourse of "rehabilitation," which is very evident in relation to nongovernmental organization (NGO) projects for street-working children. Through analysing national and international policy, professional perceptions of the children, and field visits to see how…

  10. Rap Music: An Education with a Beat from the Street.

    Powell, Catherine Tabb


    Examines rap music's origins as street music and poetry in the early 1970s and as an expression of Black youth experience. Discusses rap groups, women and Whites in rap, Christian rap, copyright disputes, and distribution difficulties. Rap is an informal educational medium that affects adolescents' values and attitudes. (JB)

  11. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya



    Jun 28, 2010 ... second day after heating produced in beef suya 3.3 x 103/g. Shigella ... However, consumers of street vended meat are little aware of ... Growth in peptone water was used for .... vendor to re-heat the suya before purchasing.

  12. HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents ...



    Oct 17, 2011 ... emergency state turns some of them into streets, whose numbers are increasing in ..... rehabilitation settings and the determination of other sexual parameters must ... Osborn CY, Paasche-Orlow MK, Davis TC, Wolf MS. ... Saharan Africa, the Centre for Development and Population Activities [CEDPA]; 1996.

  13. The Rehabilitation of the Spinal Cord-Injured Street Person.

    Coven, Arnold B.; Glazeroff, Herbert


    The spinal cord-injured street person is especially resistant to rehabilitation. His life style is characterized by the use of physical power and mobility to survive and gain respect. He loses this main form of control and attempts to manipulate the treatment environment to care for him while he avoids confronting his disability. (Author)

  14. Street Crossing: Observational Research and Developing Health Communication Strategies

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Wyeth, Ben


    Students in communication, and particularly in advertising, are encouraged to value creativity. However, even in programs that value creativity, it can be difficult to encourage creativity in the process of research that guides communication efforts. The project described in this paper--"Street Crossing"--is used in upper-division and…

  15. Street-level bureaucrats help clients, even in difficult circumstances

    Tummers, L.G.


    This policy brief presents the main findings of the Marie Curie Project “COPING: Policy implementation in stressful times: Analyzing coping strategies of civil servants”. The project combines insights from public administration and psychology to study how street-level bureaucrats (also termed frontl

  16. Street-level bureaucrats help clients, even in difficult circumstances

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)


    textabstractThis policy brief presents the main findings of the Marie Curie Project “COPING: Policy implementation in stressful times: Analyzing coping strategies of civil servants”. The project combines insights from public administration and psychology to study how street-level bureaucrats (also t

  17. The Interactive Relationship among Adolescent Violence, Street Violence, and Depression

    Latzman, Robert D.; Swisher, Raymond R.


    Previous research has shown community violence to be detrimental to adolescent well-being, yet relatively little is known about how adolescents respond to violence in their community. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study examines the interactive associations among exposure to street violence, adolescent…

  18. Resistance and Its Consequences: The Street Culture of Punks.

    Baron, Stephen W.


    Explores the street life of an adolescent subculture through field study of the Canadian West Coast punk rock subculture. Demonstrates through observation of the members, their behavior and attitudes, and the reactions of others to them, that their activities both represent, and are consequences of, resistance to the dominant order. (Author/JS)

  19. The Impact of Hybrid Vehicles on Street Crossings

    Wiener, William; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Salisbury, Brad; Rozema, Randall


    The authors had three purposes: (a) to compare the sound output of a Toyota Corolla, a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE) with that of a hybrid vehicle (Prius) under conditions of acceleration and approach in relation to the potential decision of a pedestrian who is visually impaired to begin to cross the street, (b) to…

  20. Invisible Culture: Taking Art Education to the Streets

    Darts, David


    Art educators and administrators allowed a project to evolve based on the "street life" experiences of ordinarily invisible people. The goal was to create a space or number of spaces for celebrating the human spirit through art, music, dance, poetry, theater, and story while also providing a forum for exploring some of the social issues affecting…

  1. Main Street as Art Museum: Metaphor and Teaching Strategies

    Vallance, Elizabeth


    A walk down Main Street can be very much like a stroll through a museum gallery--visually rich, inviting unexpected choices, aesthetically rewarding. This article explores the concept of shop windows as visually ordered compositions, much like paintings and other art objects, and suggests some approaches to applying this concept in teaching a…

  2. Suicide and Prostitution among Street Youth: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.


    Presents results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants. Additionally it was found that prostitution was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high…

  3. Street Crossing: Observational Research and Developing Health Communication Strategies

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Wyeth, Ben


    Students in communication, and particularly in advertising, are encouraged to value creativity. However, even in programs that value creativity, it can be difficult to encourage creativity in the process of research that guides communication efforts. The project described in this paper--"Street Crossing"--is used in upper-division and…

  4. What information do Karman streets offer to flow sensing?

    Akanyeti, Otar; Venturelli, Roberto; Visentin, Francesco; Fiorini, Paolo [Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, 37134 Verona (Italy); Chambers, Lily; Megill, William M, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)


    In this work, we focus on biomimetic lateral line sensing in Karman vortex streets. After generating a Karman street in a controlled environment, we examine the hydrodynamic images obtained with digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). On the grounds that positioning in the flow and interaction with the vortices govern bio-inspired underwater locomotion, we inspect the fluid in the swimming robot frame of reference. We spatially subsample the flow field obtained using DPIV to emulate the local flow around the body. In particular, we look at various sensor configurations in order to reliably identify the vortex shedding frequency, wake wavelength and downstream flow speed. Moreover, we propose methods that differentiate between being in and out of the Karman street with >70% accuracy, distinguish right from left with respect to Karman vortex street centreline (>80%) and highlight when the sensor system enters the vortex formation zone (>75%). Finally, we present a method that estimates the relative position of a sensor array with respect to the vortex formation point within 15% error margin.

  5. The Impact of "Sesame Street" on Primary Pupils in Vancouver.

    Ellis, E. N.; And Others

    The extent to which pupils at the primary level view Sesame Street and The Electric Company television programs and their impact on learning were studied. Questionnaires were directed to parents of children in eight kindergartens and to principals of the 34 elementary schools in Vancouver. At their homes, 95% of the kindergarten pupils had watched…

  6. Toward seamless multiview scene analysis from satellite to street level

    Lefevre, Sebastien; Tuia, Devis; Wegner, Jan Dirk; Produit, Timothee; Nassar, Ahmed Samy


    In this paper, we discuss and review how combined multiview imagery from satellite to street level can benefit scene analysis. Numerous works exist that merge information from remote sensing and images acquired from the ground for tasks such as object detection, robots guidance, or scene

  7. Integrating the Wall Street Journal into AIS Courses

    Kohlmeyer, James M., III


    While it is important for accounting information systems (AIS) students to understand computer technology, internal controls and business processes, such knowledge is of little use without reference to appropriate contexts. Integrating Wall Street Journal (WSJ) readings and discussions into AIS classes can enrich learning by stimulating…

  8. Streets Apart: Does Social Capital Vary with Neighbourhood Design?

    Lisa Wood


    Full Text Available While neighbourhood differences in social capital have been mapped, few empirical studies have considered the nexus between specific physical characteristics of communities and social capital. In this study we hypothesised that social capital would be positively associated with a more walkable street network design, but inversely associated with negative experiences and perceptions of neighbourhood environments. Data was gathered through a random cross-sectional telephone survey of adults (n=339 from three suburbs with differing street network design. Although there was some relationship between street network layout and social capital, this was not always as hypothesised by previous studies. Perceived incivilities, lower levels of trust and support were among factors that may have countered some of the positive influences of a walkable street network design on social capital. Overall, our findings suggest that the built environment may influence neighbourhood social capital at both a real and perceived level. While the actual presence and type of facilities, neighbourhood design and walkability may impact on social capital formation and maintenance, so too can perceptions of the physical and social environment. Understanding the complex intertwining of physical neighbourhood features, perceptions and social dynamics is relevant to growing public policy interest in strengthening social capital for enhanced community wellbeing.

  9. Effects of electric vehicles on air quality in street canyons

    Tilmann Schöllnhammer


    Full Text Available Road traffic is one of the main causes of poor air quality in European cities. Electric vehicles (EV are often presented as climate friendly and as a solution for air quality problems in cities. The aim of this study is to investigate how much of this claim is true and to find out the necessary shares of electric vehicles of different types needed to solve air quality problems in street canyons. For example, the German government has formulated the ambitious goal of increasing the amount of electric vehicles in Germany to 1 million in 2020 and 6 million in 2030. Will this improve the air quality significantly? The focus of the present study is the air quality in street canyons, with a focus on PM10 and NO2 concentrations. We concentrate our investigation on road traffic, taking the fleet composition into account. A sensitivity study with a dispersion model was carried out for two street canyons in North Rhine-Westphalia, typical for moderately polluted street canyons in European cities. It is shown that the reduction potential is larger for NO2 than for PM10. The necessary share of electric vehicles to comply with the limit values lies at about 40 % for NO2 and 100 % for PM10, respectively. Thus, the share of electric vehicles needed to comply with the limit values is far above the goal of the German government.

  10. Development and evaluation of thermoplastic street maintenance material

    Siemens, W. D.


    An all-weather permanent street patching material was investigated for flexible and rigid pavements. The economic, operational, and material requirements are discussed along with the results of field tests with various mixtures of EVA resins and asphalt. Cost analyses for thermoplastic patching methods are included.

  11. Démarche d'Ingénierie Système pour les systèmes de management

    Bron, Jean-Yves; Salzemann, Bruno


    International audience; Le pôle AIP-PRIMECA Lorraine est un centre de ressources de l'Université de Lorraine, il met à disposition des filières de formation des plateformes à caractères industriels. Dans cette publication, nous proposons une démarche d'ingénierie d'un processus de son système de management. L'originalité de notre contribution repose principalement sur l'usage de méthodologies issues de l'Ingénierie des Systèmes Complexes pour la conception d'un processus d'un système de manag...

  12. Ingénierie des compétences et scénarisation pédagogique

    Violaine Page-Lamarche; Josianne Basque; Richard Hotte; Diane Ruelland


    [Français] Cet article décrit un processus d’ingénierie éducative orienté compétences d’une activité d’autoévaluation et son intégration à un scénario pédagogique de cours à distance. Cette description est documentée par deux cas d’application dans un contexte de formation universitaire à distance. Le travail d’ingénierie utilise une approche en autogestion des compétences pour concevoir l’activité d’autoévaluation et l’instrumentaliser avec l’outil logiciel web d’autodiagnostic des compétenc...

  13. Street children turn to sex-work to survive.


    The Kenyan government currently deports tourists who are caught with child prostitutes and charges the children with prostitution. A harder treatment of foreigners caught with child prostitutes may soon emerge. The Undugu Society in Kenya, an organization working with street children, welcomes such changes. It teaches children practical skills, e.g., tailoring and carpentry. The Society has four schools and sponsors 1000 children to attend school or workshops. It sends social workers into the slums to counsel and gain the trust of street children as well as to encourage them to attend workshops. The Society has workshops on HIV transmission and emphasizes behavior change rather than condom use. Kenyan law prohibits adults from having sex with a child less than 18 years old. Juvenile courts deal with children caught engaging in solicitation of customers and/or prostitution. Children found guilty go to children's homes for rehabilitation into mainstream society. More and more countries of sex-tourists are punishing tourists who engage in sexual intercourse with minors in Kenya. Fear that high-profile cases will harm the multi-million-dollar tourist industry as well as lack of state resources makes Kenya reluctant to prosecute tourists. In 1994, most of Nairobi's 40,000 street children were engaged in prostitution. The leading centers of child prostitution are all tourist areas: Nairobi, Mombasa, Malindi, Lamu, and Diani. 80% of pornographic material in Kenya features children. Kenyan taxi drivers, tour guides, and hotel workers serve as middlemen in child prostitution. Urban poverty forces many children on to the streets. Rural children sent to urban areas to work as maids or servants in a rich house are often sexually abused. They then escape to the streets. Many child prostitutes come from poor families and have low literacy and no practical skills. AIDS orphans also become prostitutes to survive.

  14. The effects of city streets on an urban disease vector.

    Corentin M Barbu

    Full Text Available With increasing urbanization vector-borne diseases are quickly developing in cities, and urban control strategies are needed. If streets are shown to be barriers to disease vectors, city blocks could be used as a convenient and relevant spatial unit of study and control. Unfortunately, existing spatial analysis tools do not allow for assessment of the impact of an urban grid on the presence of disease agents. Here, we first propose a method to test for the significance of the impact of streets on vector infestation based on a decomposition of Moran's spatial autocorrelation index; and second, develop a Gaussian Field Latent Class model to finely describe the effect of streets while controlling for cofactors and imperfect detection of vectors. We apply these methods to cross-sectional data of infestation by the Chagas disease vector Triatoma infestans in the city of Arequipa, Peru. Our Moran's decomposition test reveals that the distribution of T. infestans in this urban environment is significantly constrained by streets (p<0.05. With the Gaussian Field Latent Class model we confirm that streets provide a barrier against infestation and further show that greater than 90% of the spatial component of the probability of vector presence is explained by the correlation among houses within city blocks. The city block is thus likely to be an appropriate spatial unit to describe and control T. infestans in an urban context. Characteristics of the urban grid can influence the spatial dynamics of vector borne disease and should be considered when designing public health policies.

  15. An Analysis of the Street-Children Phenomenon in the City of Isfahan

    Seyed Alireza Afshani; Abbas Askari-Nodoushan; Mohammad Heydari; Mohammad Noorian Najafabadi


    Introduction   In nearly all big cities around the world, the phenomenon of street children is one of the contemporary social issues. During past several decades, there is an increase in the volume of street children phenomenon around the world. The rising number of street children has many pathological and consequential negative impacts for children, youth, families, and the society at the whole . According to 2000 UN report, the number of street children is estimated between 100 to140 milli...

  16. Experiences of street harassment and associations with perceptions of social cohesion among women in Mexico City

    Campos,Paola A.; Falb, Kathryn L; Sara Hernández; Claudia Díaz-Olavarrieta; Jhumka Gupta


    Objective. To document the frequency and forms of street harassment and examine the association between street harassment experiences and perceptions of social cohesion. Materials and methods. Baseline survey data collected among women seeking care in public health clinics in Mexico City were used for analysis. Results. Nearly two-thirds (62.8%) of women reported experiencing some form of street harassment in the prior month; women with street harassment experiences reported significantly low...

  17. Corpus linguistics and naive discriminative learning A linguística de corpus e a aprendizagem discriminativa ingênua

    R. Harald Baayen


    Full Text Available Three classifiers from machine learning (the generalized linear mixed model, memory based learning, and support vector machines are compared with a naive discriminative learning classifier, derived from basic principles of error-driven learning characterizing animal and human learning. Tested on the dative alternation in English, using the Switchboard data from (BRESNAN; CUENI; NIKITINA; BAAYEN, 2007, naive discriminative learning emerges with stateof-the-art predictive accuracy. Naive discriminative learning offers a united framework for understanding the learning of probabilistic distributional patterns, for classification, and for a cognitive grounding of distinctive collexeme analysis.Três classificadores de aprendizagem de máquina (modelos mistos lineares generalizados, aprendizagem baseada na memória e máquinas de apoio a vetores são comparados com o classificador da aprendizagem discriminativa ingênua, derivada de princípios básicos da aprendizagem guiada por erros de humanos e animais. Testada na alternância dativa do inglês, usando os dados do Switchboard (BRESNAN; CUENI; NIKITINA; BAAYEN, 2007, a aprendizagem discriminativa ingênua emerge com uma acurácia predicativa no estado da arte. A aprendizagem discriminativa ingênua oferece um arcabouço unificado para a compreensão da aprendizagem de padrões distribucionais probabilísticos, para a classificação, e para um embasamento cognitivo para a análise de colexemas distintivos.

  18. Ingénierie des compétences et scénarisation pédagogique

    Josianne Basque


    Full Text Available Cet article décrit un processus d’ingénierie éducative orienté compétences d’une activité d’autoévaluation et son intégration à un scénario pédagogique de cours à distance. Cette description est documentée par deux cas d’application dans un contexte de formation universitaire à distance. Le travail d’ingénierie utilise une approche en autogestion des compétences pour concevoir l’activité d’autoévaluation et l’instrumentaliser avec l’outil logiciel web d’autodiagnostic des compétences, appelé Compétences+. Cet acte d’ingénierie pédagogique porte l’attention de l’enseignant-concepteur sur une démarche centrée sur l’apprentissage dans une perspective d’autogestion des connaissances et de sa validation dans un usage en contexte isomorphe à une situation professionnelle réelle.


    Peter JONES


    People-based planning is central to this approach, and the paper concludes by illustrating a hands-on public consultation exercise that used Link and Place principles to redesign an urban high street to meet the needs of local residents and businesses, using both physical and computer-based design tools.

  20. Voluntarias De Sesame Street: Manual Para Conducir Las Sesiones "Sesame Street" Con Ninos De Edad Pre-Escolar.

    Filep, Robert T.; And Others

    This guide was prepared to aid Spanish-speaking volunteers working with preschool children before, during, and after viewing the television program, "Sesame Street". The text is written in Spanish. Suggestions in this booklet grew out of a study called the Sesame Mother Pilot Project conducted in 1970-71 by the Institute for Educational…

  1. Sesame Street Viewing Volunteer's Guide: A Guide to be Used for Conducting Viewing Sessions of Sesame Street with Preschoolers.

    Filep, Robert T.; Gillette, Pearl T.

    This guide was prepared to aid volunteers working with preschool children before, during, and after viewing the television program, "Sesame Street". Suggestions in this booklet grew out of a study called the Sesame Mother Pilot Project conducted in 1970-71 by the Institute for Educational Development. This guide is divided into nine main…

  2. SCF(JFK) is a bona fide E3 ligase for ING4 and a potent promoter of the angiogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer.

    Yan, Ruorong; He, Lin; Li, Zhongwu; Han, Xiao; Liang, Jing; Si, Wenzhe; Chen, Zhe; Li, Lei; Xie, Guojia; Li, Wanjin; Wang, Peiyan; Lei, Liandi; Zhang, Hongquan; Pei, Fei; Cao, Dengfeng; Sun, Luyang; Shang, Yongfeng


    Loss of function/dysregulation of inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) and hyperactivation of NF-κB are frequent events in many types of human malignancies. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these remarkable aberrations are not understood. Here, we report that ING4 is physically associated with JFK. We demonstrated that JFK targets ING4 for ubiquitination and degradation through assembly of an Skp1-Cul1-F-box (SCF) complex. We showed that JFK-mediated ING4 destabilization leads to the hyperactivation of the canonical NF-κB pathway and promotes angiogenesis and metastasis of breast cancer. Significantly, the expression of JFK is markedly up-regulated in breast cancer, and the level of JFK is negatively correlated with that of ING4 and positively correlated with an aggressive clinical behavior of breast carcinomas. Our study identified SCF(JFK) as a bona fide E3 ligase for ING4 and unraveled the JFK-ING4-NF-κB axis as an important player in the development and progression of breast cancer, supporting the pursuit of JFK as a potential target for breast cancer intervention.

  3. Contextualizing Black Boys' Use of a Street Identity in High School

    Payne, Yasser Arafat; Starks, Brian Chad; Gibson, LaMar Rashad


    This participatory action research project worked with four street-life-oriented black men to document how a community sample of street-life-oriented black adolescents between the ages of sixteen and nineteen frame street life as a site of resiliency inside schools based on 156 surveys, 10 individual interviews, and 1 group interview. Data…

  4. Incidence, Type and Intensity of Abuse in Street Children in India

    Mathur, Meena; Rathore, Prachi; Mathur, Monika


    Objective: The aims of this cross-sectional survey were to examine the prevalence, type and intensity of abuse in street children in Jaipur city, India. Method: Based on purposive random sampling, 200 street children, inclusive of equal number of boys and girls, were selected from the streets of Jaipur city, India, and administered an in-depth…

  5. Biological, social, and urban design factors affecting young street tree mortality in New York City

    Jacqueline W.T. Lu; Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell; Jennifer Greenfeld; Jessie Braden; Kristen King; Nancy. Falxa-Raymond


    In dense metropolitan areas, there are many factors including traffic congestion, building development and social organizations that may impact the health of street trees. The focus of this study is to better understand how social, biological and urban design factors affect the mortality rates of newly planted street trees. Prior analyses of street trees planted by the...

  6. Addiction Treatment Experience among a Cohort of Street-Involved Youths and Young Adults

    Wong, Jellena; Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Kerr, Thomas; Lai, Calvin; Wood, Evan


    Very little is known about the accessibility and potential barriers to addiction treatment among street youths and young adults. We sought to examine the prevalence and correlates of enrollment in addiction treatment among a cohort of street-involved youths and young adults in Vancouver, Canada. Street-involved youths and young adults who use…

  7. 75 FR 11153 - Main Mill Street Investments, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...


    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Main Mill Street Investments, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application.... On November 16, Main Mill Street Investments, LLC (Main Mill Street Investments) filed an application... feasibility of the Imperial Mill Dam Hydroelectric Project No. 13631, to be located at the existing...

  8. Inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4) is up-regulated by a low K intake and suppresses renal outer medullary K channels (ROMK) by MAPK stimulation.

    Zhang, Xin; Lin, Dao-Hong; Jin, Yan; Wang, Ke-Sheng; Zhang, Yan; Babilonia, Elisa; Wang, Zhijian; Wang, Zhiqin; Giebisch, Gerhard; Han, Ze-Guang; Wang, Wen-Hui


    Dietary K intake plays an important role in the regulation of renal K secretion: a high K intake stimulates whereas low K intake suppresses renal K secretion. Our previous studies demonstrated that the Src family protein-tyrosine kinase and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) are involved in mediating the effect of low K intake on renal K channels and K secretion. However, the molecular mechanism by which low K intake stimulates MAPK is not completely understood. Here we show that inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4), a protein with a highly conserved plant homeodomain finger motif, is involved in mediating the effect of low K intake on MAPK. K restriction stimulates the expression of ING4 in the kidney and superoxide anions, and its related products are involved in mediating the effect of low K intake on ING4 expression. We used HEK293 cells to express ING4 and observed that expression of ING4 increased the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK MAPK, whereas down-regulation of ING4 with small interfering RNA decreased the phosphorylation of p38 and ERK. Immunocytochemistry showed that ING4 was expressed in the renal outer medullary potassium (ROMK)-positive tubules. Moreover, ING4 decreased K currents in Xenopus oocytes injected with ROMK channel cRNA. This inhibitory effect was reversed by blocking p38 and ERK MAPK. These data provide evidence for the role of ING4 in mediating the effect of low K intake on ROMK channel activity by stimulation of p38 and ERK MAPK.

  9. Coquetting Females versus Males of Manners: Critical Discourse Analysis of Egyptian Street Songs

    Mai Samir El-Falaky


    Full Text Available The study explores gender differences and the role of the ideological background in portraying the roles of the males and the females. Socio-economic statuses affect the description of gender differences and this is proclaimed within the analysis of a recent phenomenon of poor quality street songs. The study represents a detailed description of male and female relationship, so as to spot the light on the literary and societal implications of this newly propagated genre. The study analyses two common songs spreading among commoners distorting the woman’s image predefined in the Egyptian culture. Negative cultural and societal conceptions are explicitly mentioned about the relation between males and females. Keywords: gender, media representation, discourse analysis

  10. Exploration towards the modeling of gable-roofed buildings using a combination of aerial and street-level imagery

    Creusen, Ivo; Hazelhoff, Lykele; de With, Peter H. N.


    Extraction of residential building properties is helpful for numerous applications, such as computer-guided feasibility analysis for solar panel placement, determination of real-estate taxes and assessment of real-estate insurance policies. Therefore, this work explores the automated modeling of buildings with a gable roof (the most common roof type within Western Europe), based on a combination of aerial imagery and street-level panoramic images. This is a challenging task, since buildings show large variations in shape, dimensions and building extensions, and may additionally be captured under non-ideal lighting conditions. The aerial images feature a coarse overview of the building due to the large capturing distance. The building footprint and an initial estimate of the building height is extracted based on the analysis of stereo aerial images. The estimated model is then refined using street-level images, which feature higher resolution and enable more accurate measurements, however, displaying a single building side only. Initial experiments indicate that the footprint dimensions of the main building can be accurately extracted from aerial images, while the building height is extracted with slightly less accuracy. By combining aerial and street-level images, we have found that the accuracies of these height measurements are significantly increased, thereby improving the overall quality of the extracted building model, and resulting in an average inaccuracy of the estimated volume below 10%.

  11. Microbiological quality of selected street food items vended by school-based street food vendors in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    Al Mamun, Mohammad; Rahman, Shah Mahfuzur; Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury


    A cross sectional study was conducted to assess the microbiological quality of local food items vended by the school-based street food vendors in Dhaka City. A total of 80 schools from 19 school-zones of Dhaka City and its outskirts were chosen for the study. A total of 110 food samples, one each from 110 school-based street food vendors, were collected for laboratory analysis. Face to face interviews were conducted with the food vendors using a pre-tested questionnaire. The food samples were analyzed for coliform counts in the Public Health Laboratory, Institute of Public Health, Dhaka, which is a national level central food testing laboratory in Bangladesh. Microbiological criteria recommended by the International Commission on Microbiological Specifications for Foods (ICMSF) were considered to classify food samples as 'satisfactory' (total coliforms food vendors with the presence of unsatisfactory levels of coliforms in their food items. Of the 110 school-based street food samples analyzed in the laboratory, 44% were unsatisfactory. Among different items of street vended foods, 54% of sliced fruits samples, 59% of jhalmuri samples, 29% of chotpotis samples, 53% of vajavuji samples, and all (100%) sharbat samples were unsatisfactory, while all samples from achar (100%) and ice cream (100%) were found to be satisfactory. Logistic regression models showed that the food samples collected from the vendors belonging to the age group '15-24 years' and the vendors possessing an educational status higher than primary level were less likely to be unsatisfactory, while the food samples collected from the vendors having a daily income of more than 200 Bangladeshi Taka (equivalent to 3.00 USD) were more likely to be unsatisfactory. Our study findings reflected poor microbiological quality for a considerable proportion of the school-based street vended foods indicating a health threat to the school children of Dhaka City.

  12. Lighting: Green Light.

    Maniccia, Dorine


    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  13. Damaging Economies and Ecosystems: Light Pollution in Logan City

    Nydegger, Rachel K.; Larson, Shane L.


    Though the view of city lights is considered a modern beauty, indicative of the strength of the human intellect, it is the cause of an assortment of negative effects. Most street lights emit light radially, sending large portions of the light into the sky, leaving the ground dim. The excess light- light pollution- directed at the atmosphere destroys our ability to view beauty of the night sky and represents a loss of energy and money. Damage is also done to nocturnal and migratory animals as...

  14. The Network Analysis of Urban Streets: A Primal Approach

    Porta, S; Latora, V; Porta, Sergio; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito


    The network metaphor in the analysis of urban and territorial cases has a long tradition especially in transportation/land-use planning and economic geography. More recently, urban design has brought its contribution by means of the "space syntax" methodology. All these approaches, though under different terms like accessibility, proximity, integration,connectivity, cost or effort, focus on the idea that some places (or streets) are more important than others because they are more central. The study of centrality in complex systems,however, originated in other scientific areas, namely in structural sociology, well before its use in urban studies; moreover, as a structural property of the system, centrality has never been extensively investigated metrically in geographic networks as it has been topologically in a wide range of other relational networks like social, biological or technological. After two previous works on some structural properties of the dual and primal graph representations of urban street ne...

  15. How to integrate street-level bureaucracies into public management?

    Aagaard, Peter; Pedersen, John Storm

    the professionals in the public sector at the street-level such as social-workers, teachers, doctors, and other professionals have maintained autonomy regarding the provision, production and delivery of the specific core welfare services to the citizens as end users. By definition hard budget constraint...... and professionals´ autonomy do not fit well. To explore both theoretically and empirically the conflicts between hard budget constraint and professionals´ autonomy, the professionals´ provision, production and delivery of the services to the citizens with disability and socially disadvantaged people and the public...... management of the public spending on the services in Denmark is used as a case. Surprisingly, we find that the managers have been able to resolve the conflicts between the hard budget constraint and the professionals´ autonomy to a rather high degree. The managers have integrated the street...

  16. Performance assessment of a street-drainage bioretention system.

    Chapman, Cameron; Horner, Richard R


    Event-based, flow-paced composite sampling was carried out at the inlet and outlet of a street-side bioretention facility in Seattle, Washington, to assess its ability to reduce street runoff quantity and pollutants. Over 2.5 years, 48 to 74% of the incoming runoff was lost to infiltration and evaporation. Outlet pollutant concentrations were significantly lower than those at the inlet for nearly all monitored constituents. In terms of mass, the system retained most of the incoming pollutants. Besides soluble reactive phosphorus (the mass of which possibly increased), dissolved copper was the least effectively retained; at least 58% of dissolved copper (and potentially as much as 79%) was captured by the system. Motor oil was removed most effectively, with 92 to 96% of the incoming motor oil not leaving the system. The results indicate that bioretention systems can achieve a high level of runoff retention and treatment in real-weather conditions.

  17. The Tragedy of V.S. Naipaul's Miguel Street

    Zanyar Kareem Abdul


    Full Text Available Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad (V.S. Naipaul was born in Trinidad in 1932. His works have been an enduring focus between rich and poor, colonizer and colonized. In The New York Review of Books, Naipaul has been called '”a master of English prose,” which indicates his weight in modern literature, especially in post colonialism. The paper depicts a dark area and tragedy in Miguel Street throughout the characters and their dialogues. Naipaul is famous for his sad-given-tonic moment in his novels. The paper also provides examples and explanations behind the tragedy of the novel and what the characters suffer from: misunderstanding, poverty, or losing humanity that no more communication works out. Miguel Street is a place where all the tragic moments happen in the novel. Each section of the story ends with sadness and disappointment.   Keywords: Tragic moment, Tragic novel, Trinidad society

  18. Impact of chronically street homeless tenants in congregate supportive housing.

    Levitt, A J; Jost, J J; Mergl, K A; Hannigan, A; Degenova, J; Chung, S Y


    New initiatives to house chronically street homeless (CSH) adults have led to increasing proportions of this population living in congregate supportive housing, but little is known about the impact of this shift on supportive housing programs. The present multisite, mixed-methods study examined service utilization and lease compliance among 52 chronically street homeless and 46 long-term shelter stayer (LTSS) adults during their first 12 months in congregate supportive housing. Quantitative analysis of administrative data revealed that CSH tenants used significantly more service resources than LTSS tenants, including more advocacy, escorting, and psychiatric treatment and more assistance with financial, housing, and mental and physical health issues. The 2 groups did not differ significantly on measures of lease compliance. Qualitative focus groups with CSH tenants, service provider staff, and property management staff all indicated that existing supportive housing services are suitable for this population, although some adjustments, additional resources, or both, may be indicated.

  19. Predicting water suppy and actual evapotranspiration of street trees

    Wessolek, Gerd; Heiner, Moreen; Trinks, Steffen


    It's well known that street trees cool air temperature in summer-time by transpiration and shading and also reduce runoff. However, it's difficult to analyse if trees have water shortage or not. This contribution focus on predicting water supply, actual evapotranspiration, and runoff by using easily available climate data (precipiation, potential evapotranspiration) and site characteristics (water retention, space, sealing degree, groundwater depth). These parameter were used as input data for Hydro-Pedotransfer-Functions (HPTFs) allowing the estimation of the annual water budget. Results give statements on water supply of trees, drought stress, and additional water demand by irrigation. Procedure also analyse, to which extent the surrounding partly sealed surfaces deliver water to the trees. Four representative street canyons of Berlin City were analysed and evaluated within in training program for M.A. students of „Urban Eco-system Science" at the Technische Universität Berlin.

  20. Street smarts. Guidelines to safety for home care aides.

    Myers, H W


    Home care aides--perhaps more than professionals--have to take a number of precautions to stay safe on the job. Part of the responsibility for keeping them safe falls to the agency that employs them. But a good deal of the responsibility is up to the individuals themselves. There's a lot the street smart home care aide can do to ensure his or her own safety on the job.

  1. Architecture and Art Regulations for Karl Marx Street

    Alla Mironenko


    Full Text Available The architecture and art regulations for Karl Marx Street and adjoining territories have been worked out for the Committee for town planning of the Irkutsk city administration. Basic provisions: facades of buildings and structures, outdoor advertising and information facilities, artistic illumination of buildings, elements of land improvements. The main principle is to preserve historical appearance and to create a contemporary and comfortable environment.

  2. Evaluating Wall Street Journal survey forecasters: a multivariate approach

    Eisenbeis, Robert; Waggoner, Daniel; Zha, Tao


    This paper proposes a methodology for assessing the joint performance of multivariate forecasts of economic variables. The methodology is illustrated by comparing the rankings of forecasters by the Wall Street Journal with the authors’ alternative rankings. The results show that the methodology can provide useful insights as to the certainty of forecasts as well as the extent to which various forecasts are similar or different.

  3. Spatial variability of fine particles in Parisian streets

    Duché, Sarah; Beltrando, Gérard


    International audience; To study the spatial variability of airborne particles and to evaluate the personal and tourist exposure to fine particles in Paris, measurements of fine particles (PM2.5) concentrations have been made in Parisian streets in different mode of transport (bus, bike and walking), using a portable sensor. We use also meteorological parameters sensor (temperature,humidity and wind speed), a camera to view traffic and a GPS to compare with particles levels. PM2.5 levels are ...

  4. Evaluating Wall Street Journal survey forecasters: a multivariate approach

    Eisenbeis, Robert; Waggoner, Daniel; Zha, Tao


    This paper proposes a methodology for assessing the joint performance of multivariate forecasts of economic variables. The methodology is illustrated by comparing the rankings of forecasters by the Wall Street Journal with the authors’ alternative rankings. The results show that the methodology can provide useful insights as to the certainty of forecasts as well as the extent to which various forecasts are similar or different.

  5. Street Hawking: Oppressing the Girl Child or Family Economic Supplement?

    Umar, Fatima M.


    Street hawking in its simplest form is the selling of things along the roads and from one place to the other. In Nigeria this is done almost all the time by young children both males and females. The girl hawkers come to the cities in groups and then go in different directions of the city to hawk their goods. They remain in the city from the early…

  6. Symbolism of Street Art. Interview to La Fille Bertha

    Melania Garau


    Full Text Available Interview to the illustrator La Fille Bertha. She started her artistic career in her childhood, when she first used sketchbooks and pencils. Through her magical symbolism she has now reached European Street Art, and also in the world of Fashion and Design. Her creatures come from a dreamlike-magical dimension, producing a colourful oasis in the noisy urban greyness. She also took part in the XXI Triennale di Milano.

  7. A Stroll Down Tunxi’s Old Street



    BEFORE I went to Tunxi in Huangshan City, Anhui Province, a friend said to me "You can’t not go to the Old Street. Take a walk through it and you’ll get a marvelous feeling." But he didn’t tell me how wonderful it was. In my imagination, Tunxi was a small sleepy town nestled among verdant mountains, quiet and idyllic.

  8. 实时RT-PCR与半定量RT-PCR检测胃腺癌中ING4表达的比较研究

    刘丹; 李明; 傅松滨


    目的 探讨Real-time RT-PCR和半定量RT-PCR在检测胃腺癌中ING4 mRNA表达的特异性、敏感性和灵敏度的差别.方法 本实验采用半定量RT-PCR法和Real-time RT-PCR法分别检测13例胃腺癌及癌旁组织ING4 mRNA的表达.结果 两种PCR法均可验证胃腺癌组织ING4 mRNA表达量低于癌旁组织,有统计学意义.结论 Real-time RT-PCR检测ING4 mRNA在胃腺癌中表达的结果更为可靠、更为灵敏.

  9. A Study for Semantic Evaluation of Street Trees

    Banu Çiçek Kurdoğlu


    Full Text Available The decline of green areas due to rapid urbanization has brought many problems to our cities. In order to overcome these problems, some systems enabling green continuity in cities are being studied. In these studies, ideas are carried out, concepts are discussed and projects and applications are put into practice to produce some approaches including greenways, urban forests, urban parks, considered as parts of these systems. Street trees occupy an important place within this green-area scenario. In this study, the contribution of street trees to city, citizens and open green-area system is investigated. For this purpose, students from the Department of Landscape Architecture and the Department of Forest Engineering (15 students from each department have evaluated some pictures of the city. Some analyses have been done on the data obtained through this assessment. Results showed that street trees create images that are interesting, full, continuous, effective and with identity and according to the result of non parametric correlation analysis performed on the data of implementation study, significant relationships has been identified between these parameters.

  10. Hydraulic Capacity of an ADA Compliant Street Drain Grate

    Lottes, Steven A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Bojanowski, Cezary [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)


    Resurfacing of urban roads with concurrent repairs and replacement of sections of curb and sidewalk may require pedestrian ramps that are compliant with the American Disabilities Act (ADA), and when street drains are in close proximity to the walkway, ADA compliant street grates may also be required. The Minnesota Department of Transportation ADA Operations Unit identified a foundry with an available grate that meets ADA requirements. Argonne National Laboratory’s Transportation Research and Analysis Computing Center used full scale three dimensional computational fluid dynamics to determine the performance of the ADA compliant grate and compared it to that of a standard vane grate. Analysis of a parametric set of cases was carried out, including variation in longitudinal, gutter, and cross street slopes and the water spread from the curb. The performance of the grates was characterized by the fraction of the total volume flow approaching the grate from the upstream that was captured by the grate and diverted into the catch basin. The fraction of the total flow entering over the grate from the side and the fraction of flow directly over a grate diverted into the catch basin were also quantities of interest that aid in understanding the differences in performance of the grates. The ADA compliant grate performance lagged that of the vane grate, increasingly so as upstream Reynolds number increased. The major factor leading to the performance difference between the two grates was the fraction of flow directly over the grates that is captured by the grates.

  11. Quantification of Methane Emissions From Street Level Data

    Prasad, K.; Cambaliza, M. L.; Lavoie, T. N.; Salmon, O. E.; Shepson, P. B.; Lauvaux, T.; Davis, K. J.; Whetstone, J. R.


    The problem of identifying, attributing, and quantifying methane emissions from urban sources such as landfills, waste-water treatment facilities and natural gas distribution systems is an active area of research. This interest is fueled, in part, by recent measurements indicating that urban emissions are a significant source of methane (CH4, a potent greenhouse gas) and in fact may be substantially higher than current inventory estimates. As a result, developing methods for locating and quantifying emissions from urban methane sources is of great interest to industries such as landfill owners, and governmental agencies. In an attempt to identify major methane source locations and emissions in the city of Indianapolis, systematic measurements of CH4 concentrations and meteorology data were made at street level using multiple vehicles equipped with cavity ring-down spectrometers. A number of discrete sources were detected at methane molar ratios in excess of 15 times background levels. The street level data is analyzed with plume inversion models including Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) software, Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) and backward Lagrangian Simulations (bLS) to identify source location and emission rates. The methodology for analyzing the street level data and our estimates of CH4 emissions from various sources in the city of Indianapolis will be presented.

  12. Street dance: form of expressing identity in adolescents and youth

    Simona Petracovschi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to foreground the counterculture phenomenon that is provides the basis for street dance and the reasons why young people practise it, as well as to analyse the styles of dance developed within this type of dance. The study was made between February and May 2010 in Timişoara on a number of 149 people practising street dance, 46 girls and 103 boys. The results of the research emphasise that the dancers mainly come from an inferior social background (49.66% or from a middle-class background (46.03% and have been regularly practising breakdance (83.89% for more than five years (32.88%. The effects of practising it can be observed on an overall basis as concerns physical condition, artistic sense, self knowledge, discipline but also culture and way of life. Conclusions show that people practise street dance due to its nonconformist and all alive style that continuously makes use of new moves, new trends but also due to it being a way of socialising within a group.


    Petracovschi S.


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze the Street dance as a phenomenon, together with other sportive activities such as street ball, roller, BMX or skateboarding, is now being practiced also by Romanian teenagers. Its main trait is the lack of institutionalisation when organised, wholly depending on the free will of those practicing it, but which gains a sportive character through the training process and the competitions organised between teams. The purpose of this research is to analyse the influence of sports on the street dance phenomenon, seen as a subculture of sports and the way in which dancers identify themselves with the sport with the aim of integrating it as a branch of sports for all. Observation and the survey questionnaire were the research methods used. A demographic questionnaire was developed and the Athletic Identity Measurement Scale was applied to 150 dancers (male and female from Timisoara. The results indicate the fact that the dancers identify themselves with athletes to a significant extent.

  14. Affordance-based individuation of junctions in Open Street Map

    Simon Scheider


    Full Text Available We propose an algorithm that can be used to identify automatically the subset of street segments of a road network map that corresponds to a junction. The main idea is to use turn-compliant locomotion affordances, i.e., restricted patterns of supported movement, in order to specify junctions independently of their data representation, and in order to motivate tractable individuation and classification strategies. We argue that common approaches based solely on geometry or topology of the street segment graph are useful but insufficient proxies. They miss certain turn restrictions essential to junctions. From a computational viewpoint, the main challenge of affordance-based individuation of junctions lies in its complex recursive definition. In this paper, we show how Open Street Map data can be interpreted into locomotion affordances, and how the recursive junction definition can be translated into a deterministic algorithm. We evaluate this algorithm by applying it to small map excerpts in order to delineate the contained junctions.

  15. From the Borrowing Bound Morpheme -ing to Chinese Typology%由ing想到的汉语形态的变化



    当代汉语里出现了英语粘着语素ing,主要流行于网络世界的写作。 ing比较独特,因为汉语稀有外来虚词和屈折语素。 ing为汉语带来一个新的语言现象,它是低于单词层面上的迁移,是个屈折粘着后缀语素,是个系统语素,具有表达语法意义的功能。在未来,ing可能会与“正在”形成弱互补关系,这种互补关系在其他语言里也存在。由ing想到汉语的形态,由于汉语粘着语素在不断增加,汉语出现了朝粘着语方向发展的苗头。 ing值得从描述语言学角度加以研究。%The English bound morpheme-ing appears in contemporary Chinese though its use is mainly confined to the computer-medi-ated communication. -ing is unique in that Chinese has very few foreign function words and inflectional morphemes. As a sub-word transfer from English,-ing brings a new linguistic phenomenon to Chinese because it is an inflectional suffix and a system morpheme which expresses a grammatical meaning. In the future, -ing will probably enter into weak complementarity with “zhengzai” (正在) which can be found in other languages. -ing provides food for thought about Chinese typology.-ing can be regarded kind of a herald of a new development in Chinese toward agglutinative language. Besides, the number of bound morphemes in Chinese is on the increase. Linguistically,-ing deserves a descriptive study.

  16. Implementing Electronic Patient Record and VIPS in medical hospital wards: Evaluating change in quantity and quality of nursing documentation by using the audit instrument Cat-ch-Ing

    Rykkje, Linda


    Aim: The study examines the effectiveness of implementation of electronic nursing documentation and the nursing documentation system VIPS at the Department of Medicine, and also aims to improve our understanding of content and quality in nursing documentation. Background: After introducing Electronic Patient Record (EPR) and VIPS to medical wards, change in the quantity and quality of nursing documentation was evaluated by using the audit instrument Cat-ch-Ing. Method: Cat-ch-Ing ...

  17. OBITUARY: Eur.Ing. Professor David Dew-Hughes in memoriam

    Campbell, Archie; Dew-Hughes, Denise; Donaldson, Gordon; Palmer, Richard


    We regret to announce the death of David Dew-Hughes, the second Honorary Editor of Superconductor Science and Technology, in Autumn 2006. He was born in Manchester, the eldest of three children, attended Manchester Grammar School and took his first degree in metallurgy at Birmingham, before undertaking a Doctorate of Engineering at Yale University. After initial work for IBM on semiconductors, he returned to England as a lecturer in metallurgy at Cambridge University. There he devoted his career to superconductivity long before it became fashionable, starting a group on the properties of what we now know as type II materials, with his students Jan Evetts, Archie Campbell and Anant Narlikar. Between them they paved the way to our understanding of the magnetic vortex properties of these materials, and thus to the development of modern practical materials for superconducting magnets. Eur.Ing. Professor David Dew-Hughes 1932-2006 In 1965 he became a founding Senior Lecturer in physics at Lancaster University, moving to Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1974. His final academic post was in engineering science at Oxford University where he also held a University College Tutorial Fellowship. As long ago as 1971 David wrote an authoritative review for Reports on Progress in Physics on 'The metallurgical enhancement of type II superconductors'. Following the discovery of high-Tc superconductivity, IOP Publishing launched Superconductor Science and Technology in 1988 and he was a founder member of its Editorial Board. When Jan Evetts retired as Honorary Editor in 1992, David was the natural choice as his successor. He served a five year term and remained on the Board as Deputy Editor until the end of 2000. To mark the 10th anniversary of high-temperature superconductivity in 1997, David edited a special issue of Superconductor Science and Technology in which past and present members of the Editorial Board contributed reviews of their specialities. He noted that at that time

  18. Pouvoirs urbains et ingénieurs de l’État

    Sébastien Gardon


    Full Text Available Dans cet article, notre intérêt porte sur la conception et la réalisation des grands programmes d’aménagement routier pour comprendre les évolutions du système de décision local et les relations centre - périphérie. L’objectif est de dépasser les visions stato-centrées, qui envisagent la construction des grandes infrastructures routières sous l’angle d’un État central équipant et modernisant la France à partir de Paris. La description des évolutions historiques, que nous avons esquissée, montre trois configurations d’acteurs différentes au niveau de l’aménagement routier de la région lyonnaise. Une première période, l’entre-deux guerres, est marquée par le dynamisme local, symbolisé par l’indépendance technique et financière des collectivités locales à travers la figure des ingénieurs en chef des services techniques municipaux et du service vicinal. Puis s’ouvre une phase de rapatriement de ces problématiques dans le giron de l’État dès la fin des années 1930, confirmée après la seconde guerre mondiale, avec une expertise monopolisée par les Ponts et Chaussées. Enfin à partir des années 1980, les enjeux sont de nouveau focalisés au niveau local, mais avec une échelle territoriale et politique différente de celle connue pendant l’entre-deux guerres.The paper deals with the conception and realization of road building plans as a lens to understand changes in local decision-making and the relations between municipalities and the state. My purpose is to go beyond the usual studies of road constructions as a central state decision to equip and modernize France from the capital. The analysis of historical events shows three main actors for road construction in Lyon. The interwar period relates to a period of municipal dynamism with the financial and technical autonomy of local authorities through the figure of the local engineer. Then, another period begins with the late of the 1930s and

  19. An investigation on the effect of street morphology to ambient air quality using six real-world cases

    Shen, Jialei; Gao, Zhi; Ding, Wowo; Yu, Ying


    Street canyons are vulnerable to air pollution mainly caused by vehicle emissions, which are therefore closely related to pedestrians' health. Previous studies have showed that air quality in street canyons is associated with street morphology, though the majority of them have focused on idealized street models. This paper attempts to investigate the relationship of street morphology to air quality for 6 irregular real-world cases selected from America, Europe, and China, i.e. Manhattan, Paris, Barcelona, Berlin, London and Nanjing. Each street is analyzed as a set of slices to propose a couple of morphology indices for quantitatively assessing the actual street morphology. Pollutant transport rate of mean flows and turbulent diffusion, net escape velocity and age of air are obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to assess the ventilations and pollutant dispersion within street canyons with a parallel approaching wind. The results show that the street morphology characteristics, including the street width, lateral openings and intersections, are closely related to the air flows in street canyons. The air quality improves with a decreasing aspect ratio of central street owing to a larger vertical exchange through the street roof, which suggests an open central street is of better air quality. The lateral openings and intersections of streets have important effects on the air flows in street canyons, and the effects are particularly pronounced when the street widths are similar. The street continuity ratio indicates street continuity. It relates to the openings and the symmetry of a street and impacts on the air flows and pollutant dispersion through the lateral openings of the central street. The street spatial closure ratio is determined by the street continuity ratio and the aspect ratio of the central street. When the aspect ratio of central street is not excessively high, higher values of street continuity ratio and spatial closure ratio

  20. Many metals make the cut: quaternary rare-earth germanides RE4M2InGe4 (M = Fe, Co, Ni, Ru, Rh, Ir) and RE4RhInGe4 derived from excision of slabs in RE2InGe2.

    Oliynyk, Anton O; Stoyko, Stanislav S; Mar, Arthur


    The formation of quaternary rare-earth (RE) germanides containing transition metals (M's) from groups 6 to 10 was investigated through arc-melting and annealing reactions at 800 °C; about 50 new compounds were obtained. These include several new series of quaternary germanides RE4M2InGe4 (M = Fe, Co, Ru, Rh, Ir), previously known only for M = Mn and Ni; additional members of RE4Ni2InGe4 extended to other RE substituents; and a different but closely related series RE4RhInGe4. Detailed crystal structures were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies for 20 compounds. Monoclinic structures in space group C2/m are adopted by RE4M2InGe4 (Ho4Ni2InGe4-type, a = 15.1-16.5 Å, b = 4.1-4.4 Å, c = 6.9-7.3 Å, β = 106.2-108.6°) and RE4RhInGe4 (own type, a = 20.0-20.2 Å, b = 4.2-4.3 Å, c = 10.1-10.2 Å, β = 105.0-105.3°). Both structures contain frameworks built from MGe4 tetrahedra, InGe4 square planes, and Ge2 dimers, delimiting tunnels occupied by RE atoms. These structures can also be derived by cutting slabs along different directions from the more symmetrical RE2InGe2 structure. Although the Ge2 dimers are relatively invariant, the InGe4 square planes can undergo distortion to form two sets of short versus long In-Ge distances. This distortion results from a competition between M-Ge bonding in the MGe4 tetrahedra and In-Ge bonding in the InGe4 square planes.

  1. The relationship between the availability of the supporting elements of pedestrian with pedestrian crossing facility usage based on user preferences (Case Study corridor of Sumbersari Street, Gajayana Street, MT. Haryono Street, Malang City)

    Soetrisno, D. P.


    Pedestrian crossing facilities are effective enough to avoid pedestrians with vehicles, but its utilization is still quite low. It indicated that safety is not the only factor that influences a person to utilize the pedestrian crossing facilities. In addition, the availability of supporting elements of the pedestrian is still not quite attention, which is also became a factor that causes the pedestrians doesn’t utilize the pedestrian crossing facilities. Therefore, this research was structured to examine the relationship between the availability of the supporting elements of the pedestrian with pedestrian crossing facility usage based on user preferences. Data collection method used is primary survey consist of observation and the questionnaire. Sampling techniques used is purposive sampling with the number of respondents as many as 211 respondents by using questionnaire with ordinal scales to identify respondents’ consideration level of supporting elements pedestrian and crossing facility utilization factors. The survey is done on 15 crossing facilities area in 3 different locations with the same characteristics of land use in the form of higher education area (university area) and trades and services activities area. The analysis technique used is frequency distribution analysis in order to identify preference pedestrian on the availability of supporting elements of pedestrian and pedestrian crossing facility utilization factors, and chi square analysis is used to analyze the relationship between the availability of the supporting elements of the pedestrian with pedestrian crossing facility utilization. Based on the chi square analysis results with significance 5 % obtained the result that there are six supporting elements of pedestrian having correlation to the factors of pedestrian crossing facility utilization consist of the availability of sidewalk, pedestrian lights, Street Lighting Lamps, Pedestrian Crossing Markings Facilities, Sign Crossings


    李慧娥; 冷雪芹; 宋光明


    目的:研究食管癌病人中p33/ING1和PTEN蛋白的表达及其与食管癌病理特征的关系,探讨食管癌的发病机制,以寻求预防、诊断和治疗食管癌的新方法.方法:采用免疫组织化学技术联合检测PTEN基因、凋亡促进因子p33/ING1在食管鳞癌组织、癌旁不典型增生组织及其相应的正常食管黏膜组织中的表达.结果:p33/ING1和PTEN蛋白从正常黏膜-不典型增生-浸润癌渐进性表达减低(P<0.05),与食管癌分化程度、浸润深度、淋巴结转移有关(P<0.05).PTEN蛋白在食管癌中的低表达与p33/ING1蛋白在其中的表达呈正相关.结论:p33/ING1和PTEN基因的失活(或缺失)及蛋白表达的下降在食管鳞癌的发生、分化及浸润转移过程中起重要作用.两者有可能为临床上食管癌早期诊断、相关治疗及预后研究提供新的手段.%Objective: To study p33/INGl and PTEN protein expression and pathological features of esophageal cancer, and to explore the pathogenesis of esophageal cancer in order to seek prevention, diagnosis and treatment of esophageal cancer in new ways. Method: With immunohistochemical detection of PTEN gene, apoptosis - promoting factor p33/INGl in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, a-typical hyperplasia adjacent and corresponding normal esophageal mucosa tissue. Results; p33/INGl and PTEN protein in normal mucosa — dysplasia - carcinoma expression of progressive reduction (P<0.05), and esophageal cancer differentiation, depth of invasion, lymph node metastasis (P <0.05 ). PTEN protein expression in esophageal cancer and p33/INGl low expression of protein in which a positive correlation. Conclusion; p33/INGl and PTEN gene inactivation ( or loss) and decreased protein expression in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, differentiation, invasion and metastasis play an important role. Possible to provide new means for both the clinical diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of esophageal cancer.

  3. Differences of Street Connectivity Between Old And New Zones In Malaysian Small Town

    Ismail Said


    Full Text Available From the period before Malaysia’s independence until now, there are two significant characteristics of the town formed in small town. Pedestrian behavior in the streets is affected by the connectivity existed from the pattern of the street network of a town. Thus, the existing of characteristics of new and old zone require pedestrian to travel differently in those environments. By considering a small town consists of the old and new zone and population between 30,000 to 100,000, street network of Bandar Teluk Intan, Perak was selected. Three sets of data were produced from the land use map and Google Map image, then analyzed it using UCL Depthmap 10. Firstly, solid and void data was used in Visibility graph analysis to measure street connectivity from pedestrian visualization. Second data which convex space data used in Convex space graph analysis to measure street connectivity of spaces in street network that offer pedestrian interaction. Axial-line data is the third data was used in Axial-line graph analysis to measure street connectivity from pedestrian movement in street network. Finding shows that in old zone, junctions act as a connector to other streets when pedestrian visualize during travel, space in square and market chosen as meeting place, and main road as a guide when pedestrian move. In new zone, main road is a connecting feature for pedestrian because it's easy to find, connect with most streets, and the possible space to meet people during travel.

  4. Yishui snow mountain Rainbow Valley business street space environment planning design and research



    Yishui snow mountain Rainbow Valley is a tourist area of Linyi in Yishui, because Yishui beautiful scenery, a variety of tourism resources, tourism and commercial street is an important breakthrough in its development, to create a local cultural tourism based on the set of economic, culture, leisure, entertainment, which integrates comprehensive commercial street. This topic design follow the “taking culture made the street, taking history made the street, to the situation raises the street”. In the area of history culture as the foundation, the extraction of excellent design element is applied to the design of this project, join the history context elements, inheriting excellent historical culture, the rainbow door, snow capped mountains seventy-two king into the landscape design, reflect the local cultural characteristics of Yishui. The commercial street full of human feelings, the commercial street built with Yishui local characteristics and street full of personality. In the process of construction of commercial street, commercial street, the endowment of regional cultural resources, highlighting its cultural positioning, highlight the small town of Yishui regional culture, build a rich with Yishui town of local cultural characteristics and style commercial street.

  5. 肿瘤抑制因子P33ING1b的研究进展

    贺琪; 陈兴平


    生长抑制因子(inhibitor of growth.ING)家族是学者在筛选生长抑制基因的过程中检测到其成员之一的INGl而偶然发现的一个新家族,已被归入肿瘤抑制基因家族这个正在不断发展的群体。该群体的成员含有一系列与转录调控相关的结构序列。能编码相应的蛋白因子。其中,P33INGIb是ING1的蛋白产物之一,具有多种生物学功能。本文收集近年相关资料,就P33ING1b的基因定位、基因结构、功能、故障原因及其与某些皮肤病的关系综述如下.为相关研究及临床应用开拓新思路。

  6. Effect of asymmetrical street canyons on pedestrian thermal comfort in warm-humid climate of Cuba

    Rodríguez-Algeciras, José; Tablada, Abel; Matzarakis, Andreas


    Walkability and livability in cities can be enhanced by creating comfortable environments in the streets. The profile of an urban street canyon has a substantial impact on outdoor thermal conditions at pedestrian level. This paper deals with the effect of asymmetrical street canyon profiles, common in the historical centre of Camagüey, Cuba, on outdoor thermal comfort. Temporal-spatial analyses are conducted using the Heliodon2 and the RayMan model, which enable the generation of accurate predictions about solar radiation and thermal conditions of urban spaces, respectively. On these models, urban settings are represented by asymmetrical street canyons with five different height-to-width ratios and four street axis orientations (N-S, NE-SW, E-W, SE-NW). Results are evaluated for daytime hours across the street canyon, by means of the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET index) which allows the evaluation of the bioclimatic conditions of outdoor environments. Our findings revealed that high profiles (façades) located on the east-facing side of N-S streets, on the southeast-facing side of NE-SW streets, on the south-facing side of E-W street, and on the southwest-facing side of SE-NW streets, are recommended to reduce the total number of hours under thermal stress. E-W street canyons are the most thermally stressed ones, with extreme PET values around 36 °C. Deviating from this orientation ameliorates the heat stress with reductions of up to 4 h in summer. For all analysed E-W orientations, only about one fifth of the street can be comfortable, especially for high aspect ratios (H/W > 3). Optimal subzones in the street are next to the north side of the E-W street, northwest side of the NE-SW street, and southwest side of the SE-NW street. Besides, when the highest profile is located on the east side of N-S streets, then the subzone next to the east-facing façade is recommendable for pedestrians. The proposed urban guidelines enable urban planners to create

  7. Adenovirus-mediated p53 and ING4 gene co-transfer elicits synergistic antitumor effects through enhancement of p53 acetylation in breast cancer.

    Wu, Jie; Zhu, Yanbo; Xu, Chun; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Xiumin; Yang, Jicheng; Xie, Yufeng; Tao, Min


    Multigene-based combination therapy may be an effective practice in cancer gene therapy. Substantial studies have demonstrated that tumor suppressor p53 acetylation is indispensable for p53 activation. Inhibitor of growth 4 (ING4), as a novel tumor suppressor, is capable of remarkably enhancing p53 acetylation and its transcriptional activity. Hence, we assumed that combined treatment of p53 and ING4 double tumor suppressors would exhibit enhanced antitumor effects. The combined therapeutic efficacy of p53 and ING4 for human cancers has not been previously reported. We thus generated multiple promoter expression cassette-based recombinant adenovirus-co-expressing ING4 and p53 double tumor suppressor genes (AdVING4/p53), evaluated the combined effects of AdVING4/p53 on breast cancer using the MDA-MB-231 (mutant p53) human breast cancer cell line, and also elucidated its underlying molecular mechanisms. We demonstrated that AdVING4/p53-mediated p53 and ING4 co-expression induced synergistic growth inhibition and apoptosis as well as enhanced effects on upregulation of acetylated p53, P21, Bax, PUMA, Noxa, cleaved caspase-9, cleaved caspase-3 and cleaved PARP, and downregulation of Bcl-2, CD31 and microvessel density (MVD) in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer in vitro and/or in vivo subcutaneous (s.c.) xenografted tumors. The synergistic antitumor activity elicited by AdVING4/p53 was closely associated with the enhanced activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway and synergistic inhibition of tumor angiogenesis, very possibly via ING4-mediated enhancement of p53 acetylation and activity. Thus, our results indicate that cancer gene therapy combining two or more tumor suppressors such as p53 and ING4 may constitute a novel and effective therapeutic modality for human breast cancer and other cancers.

  8. OGLE-ing the Magellanic System: Photometric Metallicity from Fundamental Mode RR Lyrae Stars

    Skowron, D M; Udalski, A; Szymański, M K; Pietrukowicz, P; Poleski, R; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Ulaczyk, K; Kozłowski, S; Skowron, J; Mróz, P; Pawlak, M


    In an era of extensive photometric observations, the catalogs of RR Lyrae type variable stars number tens of thousands of objects. The relation between the iron abundance [Fe/H] and the Fourier parameters of the stars light curve allows us to investigate mean metallicities and metallicity gradients in various stellar environments, independently of time-consuming spectroscopic observations. In this paper we use almost 15000 V- and I-band light curves of fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars from the OGLE-IV survey to provide a precise relation between the V- and I-band phase parameter phi_31 used to estimate [Fe/H]. We apply this relation to metallicity formulae developed for the Johnson V- and the Kepler Kp-band to obtain the relation between [Fe/H] and phi_31 for the I-band photometry. Last, we apply the new relation of Nemec et al. (2013) to the OGLE-IV fundamental mode RR Lyrae stars data and construct a metallicity map of the Magellanic Clouds. Median [Fe/H] is -1.39 +- 0.44 dex for the LMC and -1.77 +- 0.48 de...

  9. America Saves! Energizing Main Street's Small Businesses

    Lindberg, James [National Trust for Historic Preservation, Washington, DC (United States)


    The America Saves! Energizing Main Street Small Businesses project engaged the 1,200-member National Main Street Center (NMSC) network of downtown organizations and other local, regional, and national partners to test a methodology for sharing customized energy efficiency information with owners of commercial buildings smaller than 50,000 square feet. Led by the National Trust for Historic Preservation’s Preservation Green Lab, the project marshalled local staff and volunteers to gather voluntarily-disclosed energy use information from participating businesses. This information was analyzed using a remote auditing tool (validated by the National Renewable Energy Lab) to assess energy savings opportunities and design retrofit strategies targeting seven building types (food service and sales, attached mixed-use, strip mall, retail, office, lodging, and schools). The original project design contemplated extensive leveraging of the Green Button protocol for sharing annualized utility data at a district scale. Due the lack of adoption of Green Button, the project partners developed customized approaches to data collection in each of twelve pilot communities. The project team encountered considerable challenges in gathering standardized annual utility data from local partners. After overcoming these issues, the data was uploaded to a data storehouse. Over 450 properties were benchmarked and the remote auditing tool was tested using full building profiles and utility records for more than 100 commercial properties in three of the pilot communities. The audit tool demonstrated potential for quickly capturing, analyzing, and communicating energy efficiency opportunities in small commercial buildings. However, the project team found that the unique physical characteristics and use patterns (partial vacancy, periodic intensive uses) of small commercial buildings required more trouble-shooting and data correction than was anticipated. In addition, the project revealed that

  10. Never innocent victims: street sex workers in Canadian print media.

    Strega, Susan; Janzen, Caitlin; Morgan, Jeannie; Brown, Leslie; Thomas, Robina; Carriére, Jeannine


    Over the past decade, street sex workers and their families garnered considerable media attention through extensive coverage of disappeared and murdered women in Western Canada. The research presented here examines whether recent media accounts differ from past coverage given that families and friends of disappeared and unaccounted for women inserted themselves into media discussions and circulated alternative readings of their stories. We found that coverage was dominated by two discourses: Vermin-victim discourse demonstrates the tensions between historically dominant conceptualizations and more recent ideas promulgated by families; and risky lifestyle discourse is related to neo-liberal ideologies about personal choice and responsibility.

  11. Streets Projecting in the Implementation Planning. Sustainability Perspectives in Landscape

    Luigi Guastamacchia


    Full Text Available In the last years Puglia Region supported the theme of sustainability with programs and planning instruments and this led to think about the contemporary project at urban scale and about the order elements of all transformations: organizing solutions, building and aggregation types, halfpublic and public areas, streets. This work shows how the regional service of territorial structure tried to find a projecting system in terms of environement/ landscape sustainability to be proposed to the people engaged in the definition of all executive plans. This would ensure control and quality of the relationship between road pattern, open spaces and buildings.

  12. Street youth in Colombia: lifestyle, attitudes and knowledge.

    Ruiz, J


    Gamines in Bogota, Colombia, are youths who live on the streets sometimes keeping loose family ties. They belong to informal gangs, use drugs, and survive by doing itinerant informal sector work, begging, and stealing. The New Life Program (NLP) of the Corporacion SOS Aldea de Ninos worked with three other agencies to investigate the lifestyle, attitudes, and knowledge of gamines about HIV/STDs for the purpose of designing AIDS/STD educational activities for the population. Focus group discussions and educational activities were conducted with 12 girls and 18 boys aged 14-25 years who had started living in NLP's shelter while working on the streets. Participants had spent an average of 7 years on the street typically from age 10. Concentrating primarily upon daily survival, these youths act on the basis of intuition and emotions. Verbal communication is essential to gain and maintain their trust. Although their sexual lives are influenced by the family of origin, institutions in which they have resided, and peers, and their daily lifestyles have much influence. Steady partners are sought for affection and romance, while sexual intercourse is had for pleasure and to satisfy biological need. Some homosexuality and prostitution are tolerated. Gangs also gang-rape and expel members thought to be traitors. The idea of birth control exists among the girls, but the boys overwhelmingly reject condom use. The boys got information on sex from prostitutes, erotic magazines, and adults, but girls rarely talk about sex. Many have had STDs and are generally aware about AIDS, but misinformed about transmission modes, symptoms, and treatment. The boys were especially negative about meeting a person with AIDS. Overall, the youths did not perceive themselves as being at risk for HIV infection. Participants also strongly distrusted the health system because many had been turned away for being dirty or received only callous treatment. The author concludes that we must acknowledge that

  13. The Joyride -from stables to streets : Moderni ratsastusvaatemallisto urbaanille harrastajalle

    Toivanen, Anna-Maria


    Opinnäytetyön aiheena oli modernin ratsastusvaatemalliston suunnitteleminen kaupunkilaiselle harrastajalle. Tavoitteena oli myös luoda mallisto, jonka tuotteet sopisivat casual- ja street –käyttöön. Ekologiset ja eettiset arvot ovat työn tekijälle tärkeitä ja ne on otettu huomioon malliston suunnittelussa. Mallisto on suunniteltu tekijän omalle, kuvitteelliselle tuotemerkille. Tekijä on harrastanut ratsastusta yli kaksikymmentä vuotta. Oman harrastuspohjansa lisäksi hän hankki tietoa mal...

  14. The Social Supply Chain and the Future High Street

    Fletcher, Gordon; Greenhill, Anita; Griffiths, Marie; McLean, Rachel; Fletcher, G


    Purpose: The paper offers a perspective on the operations of retail businesses in the high street as they adapt to the rising influence of the digital economy. We reveal some of the new challenges being posed by the changing growth and consumption patterns in cities that are coupled with shifting macro-supply chain trends. Design: The study is conducted through the analytical lens of what we describe as the social supply chain. To achieve this a case study approach is employed to explore...

  15. Transfer processes in a simulated urban street canyon

    Solazzo, E.; Britter, R. E.


    The transfer processes within and above a simulated urban street canyon were investigated in a generic manner. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to aid understanding and to produce some simple operational parameterisations. In this study we addressed specifically the commonly met situation where buoyancy effects arising from elevated surface temperatures are not important, i.e. when mechanical forces outweigh buoyancy forces. In a geophysical context this requires that some suitably defined Richardson number is small. From an engineering perspective this is interpreted as the important case when heat transfer within and above urban street canyons is by forced convection. Surprisingly, this particular scenario (for which the heat transfer coefficient between buildings and the flow is largest), has been less well studied than the situation where buoyancy effects are important. The CFD technique was compared against wind-tunnel experiments to provide model evaluation. The height-to-width ratio of the canyon was varied through the range 0.5 5 and the flow was normal to the canyon axis. By setting the canyon’s facets to have the same or different temperatures or to have a partial temperature distribution, simulations were carried out to investigate: (a) the influence of geometry on the flow and mixing within the canyon and (b) the exchange processes within the canyon and across the canyon top interface. Results showed that the vortex-type circulation and turbulence developed within the canyon produced a temperature distribution that was, essentially, spatially uniform (apart from a relatively thin near-wall thermal boundary layer) This allowed the temperatures within the street canyon to be specified by just one value T can , the canyon temperature. The variation of T can with wind speed, surface temperatures and geometry was extensively studied. Finally, the exchange velocity u E across the interface between the canyon and the flow above was calculated

  16. Graffiti, street art and the specifics of the subculture

    Popová, Sylva


    TITLE: Graffiti, Street art and specifics of subculture AUTOR: Sylva Popová DEPARTMENT: Department of Art Education SUPERVISOR: Mgr. Erika Grendelová ABSTRACT: The work is devoted to graffiti and its subculture in Prague. The work is focused on the old part of the town, where many monuments, buildings, walls, columns are marked by this art. The work presents graffiti in all its forms, both legal and illegal and tries to figure out where is the border between vandalism and art, then investigat...


    Takashi OGUCHI


    The handling of transport demands, especially in urban areas with traffic congestion, is important because the prediction of demand is very difficult under such conditions the true demand possibly becoming a potentiality caused by traffic congestion. One of the solutions of this difficulty is also proposed. The junction treatments, including traffic signal control, dominate over the LOS of the road transport system network in urban streets and avenues. The process of design, control, and operation of junctions at critical intersections is proposed. A tentative evaluation method for highway LOS is also discussed.

  18. Traffic Sign Inventory from Google Street View Images

    Tsai, Victor J. D.; Chen, Jyun-Han; Huang, Hsun-Sheng


    Traffic sign detection and recognition (TSDR) has drawn considerable attention on developing intelligent transportation systems (ITS) and autonomous vehicle driving systems (AVDS) since 1980's. Unlikely to the general TSDR systems that deal with real-time images captured by the in-vehicle cameras, this research aims on developing techniques for detecting, extracting, and positioning of traffic signs from Google Street View (GSV) images along user-selected routes for low-cost, volumetric and quick establishment of the traffic sign infrastructural database that may be associated with Google Maps. The framework and techniques employed in the proposed system are described.

  19. Topological Structure of Urban Street Networks from the Perspective of Degree Correlations

    Jiang, Bin; Lu, Feng; Yang, Tinghong; Zhao, Jing


    Many complex networks demonstrate a phenomenon of striking degree correlations, i.e., a node tends to link to other nodes with similar (or dissimilar) degrees. From the perspective of degree correlations, this paper attempts to characterize topological structures of urban street networks. We adopted six urban street networks (three European and three North American), and converted them into network topologies in which nodes and edges respectively represent individual streets and street intersections, and compared the network topologies to three reference network topologies (biological, technological, and social). The urban street network topologies (with the exception of Manhattan) showed a consistent pattern that distinctly differs from the three reference networks. The topologies of urban street networks lack striking degree correlations in general. Through reshuffling the network topologies towards for example maximum or minimum degree correlations while retaining the initial degree distributions, we found...

  20. Measuring Urban Sprawl Based on Massive Street Nodes and Natural Cities

    Jia, Tao


    Urban sprawl devours large amount of open space each year and subsequently leads to many environmental issues. To curb urban sprawl with proper policies, a major problem is how to effectively measure it. Existing studies heavily rely on population data and legally or administratively determined urban boundaries for the measurement, although satellite imagery has been used to automatically detect urban boundaries. In this paper, we develop a novel approach to measuring urban sprawl based on street nodes and naturally defined urban boundaries. The street nodes refer to street intersections and ends, while naturally defined urban boundaries constitute what we call natural cities. We find that the street nodes are significantly correlated with population of cities. Based on this finding, we set street nodes as a proxy of population to measure urban sprawl. We further find that street nodes have a linear relationship with city sizes, with a correlation coefficient up to 0.97. In the plot with the x axis representi...