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Sample records for street alton il

  1. Becoming-evolutionary? : Animal Transformations in Kingsley’s Alton Locke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moore, B.P.

    2017-01-01

    Focusing on Chapter 36 of Charles Kingsley’s novel Alton Locke (1850), where the hero recounts a dream during which he undergoes a series of transformations into various animals, beginning at ‘the lowest point of created life’ as a madrepore or coral, and culminating with the early history of

  2. Alton Ochsner, MD (1896-1981): surgical pioneer and legacy linking smoking and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantino, Christina L; Winter, Jordan M; Yeo, Charles J; Cowan, Scott W

    2015-06-01

    Edward William Alton Ochsner kept a plain, metal card file in which he recorded close to 50 years worth of medical experiences, research, and insights. The most populated topics were filed as "Cancer, Lung" and "Cancer, Bronchogenic." These reflected his areas of greatest interest, for which he would go on to produce groundbreaking work. Of his many lifetime accomplishments, he is perhaps best known for being the first to report a link between cigarette smoking and lung cancer. This was just one of the many ways in which Ochsner worked to effect social change. The establishment of the Ochsner Health System in New Orleans was born from this similar passion. Ochsner went on to become one of the giants of his generation as a result of this tireless work as a leader, educator, and mentor.

  3. Dam failure analysis/calibration using NWS models on dam failure in Alton, New Hampshire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capone, E.J.

    1998-01-01

    The State of New Hampshire Water Resources Board, the United States Geological Service, and private concerns have compiled data on the cause of a catastrophic failure of the Bergeron Dam in Alton, New Hampshire in March of 1996. Data collected related to the cause of the breach, the breach parameters, the soil characteristics of the failed section, and the limits of downstream flooding. Dam break modeling software was used to calibrate and verify the simulated flood-wave caused by the Bergeron Dam breach. Several scenarios were modeled, using different degrees of detail concerning the topography/channel-geometry of the affected areas. A sensitivity analysis of the important output parameters was completed. The relative importance of model parameters on the results was assessed against the background of observed historical events

  4. Aktivitas Manusia dan Distribusi Banteng (Bos Javanicus D’alton 1832 di Taman Nasional Alas Purwo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ali Imron

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human Activities and Distribution of Banteng (Bos Javanicus D’alton 1832 in Alas Purwo National Park This study aims to comprehend whether human activities contribute to the presence of banteng (Bos sundaicus d’Alton 1836 in the Alas Purwo National Park (APNP. We laid continuous strip line transects from centre of human activities to the direction of core area of APNP. Three locations were selected: Sadengan grazing area, Giri Salaka Hinduism praying area, and Kutorejo village; representing low to high human disturbance respectively. We collected both direct and indirect presence of banteng as well as human activities within 20 metre strip lines with 10 metre width. Data were compiled each 100 metres and analyzed with means comparison to observe difference among locations. Correlation analyses were used to assess the relation between distance from centre of human activities, human activities and banteng presence. Regression analysis was used when  significant correlations found. Our non parametric test showed that human disturbances are significantly different among sites (Kruskal Wallis Test; df 2 = 6.220, p< 0.05. In similar tendency but different manner, it is showed that the different levels of human disturbance conveyed significant difference in number of banteng’s tracks (Kruskal Wallis Test; df 2 = 18.888, p< 0.05. The distance from centre of human activities is negatively related to number of human tracks (Spearman rho; r2= -0.307 N= 64, p<0.05* and also to number of banteng’s tracks (Spearman rho, r2= -0.728 N= 30, p<0.05**. The regression analysis showed that number of human tracks explained 18.6% of total variation on number of Banteng’s tracks, while distance from centre of human activities explained 59%.

  5. Urban streets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schönfeld, von Kim Carlotta; Bertolini, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Today's urban streets are usually planned for purposes of mobility: pedestrians, as well as a variety of vehicles such as cars, trucks, and sometimes bicycles, are usually factored into an urban street plan. However, urban streets are also increasingly recognized as public spaces, accommodating

  6. Map showing selected surface-water data for the Alton-Kolob coal-fields area, Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Don

    1982-01-01

    This is one of a series of maps that describe the geology and related natural resources of the Alton-Kolob coal-fields area, Utah. Streamflow records used to compile the map and the following table were collected by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Water Rights, and the Utah Department of Transportation. The principal runoff-producing areas were delineated form a work map (scale 1:250,000) compiled to estimate water yields in Utah (Bagley and others, 1964).

  7. Street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rončević Nevenka

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to UNICEF, street child is any child under the age of 18 for whom the street has become home and/or source of income and which is not adequately protected or supervised by adult, responsible person. It has been estimated that there are between 100 and 150 million street children worldwide. Life and work on the street have long term and far-reaching consequences for development and health of these children. By living and working in the street, these children face the highest level of risk. Street children more often suffer from the acute illness, injuries, infection, especially gastrointestinal, acute respiratory infections and sexually transmitted diseases, inadequate nutrition, mental disorders, and drug abuse. They are more often victims of abuse, sexual exploitation, trafficking; they have higher rate of adolescent pregnancy than their peers from poor families. Street children and youth have higher rates of hospitalization and longer hospital stay due to seriousness of illness and delayed health care. Street children/youth are reluctant to seek health care, and when they try, they face many barriers. Street children are invisible to the state and their number in Serbia is unknown. Recently, some non­governmental organizations from Belgrade, Novi Sad and Nis have recognized this problem and tried to offer some help to street children, by opening drop­in centers, but this is not enough. To solve this problem, an engagement of the state and the whole community is necessary, and primary responsibility lies in health, social and educational sector. The best interests of the child must serve as a basic guideline in all activities aimed at improving health, quality of life and rights of children involved in the life and work in the street.

  8. Street outreach with no streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Self, Bruce; Peters, Heather

    2005-01-01

    A street nurse position in the rural and small-town interior of British Columbia has been addressing the needs of street-involved or otherwise marginalized client populations by bringing healthcare services to wherever those clients are, rather than waiting for the clients to seek care. The primary reason for a street outreach approach is that marginalized populations face a variety of barriers to accessing traditional healthcare services--barriers such as homelessness, mental health problems, criminal involvement, lack of transportation, lack of ability to pay for prescriptions, lack of specialized or knowledgeable providers and provider discrimination. In the rural street nurse program, the target population includes the usual street nurse populations of illegal drug users and sex trade workers, which are more hidden in small communities than in larger urban centres, creating the community denial that is a barrier to healthcare access. Yet another barrier is the co-locaton of services common in small communities, where public health clinics might share a building with police services, making marginalized clients reluctant to attend clinics. The rural street nurse collaborates with public health nurses and other care providers (mental health workers, social workers, etc) with collegial advice and support, making and receiving referrals, and generally assisting one another--the street nurse through his rapport with the marginalized individuals and the others with their specialized knowledge. Rural street services are delivered whereverthe clientsfeel comfortable: a school, a drop-in centre, a mall, a youth centre or simplythe street. Services provided include sexually transmitted infection testing, chlamydia treatments, pregnancy testing emergency contraception pills and assistance with filling out forms for financial support. Accordingly, the street nurse's truck is equipped as a mobile treatment centre and office, with a cellphone and a stock of testing and

  9. City Streets

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This data set contains roadway centerlines for city streets found on the USGS 1:24,000 mapping series. In some areas, these roadways are current through the 2000...

  10. Street Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shapiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  11. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  12. 46th Street pilot street lighting project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Street lighting improvements provide an opportunity for governments to save money and to reduce their : environmental footprint. New energy-efficient technologies are being perfected that are more efficient than : standard high-pressure sodium street...

  13. Allegheny County Street Centerlines

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains the locations of the street centerlines for vehicular and foot traffic in Allegheny County. Street Centerlines are classified as Primary Road,...

  14. Il laser

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, William V

    1974-01-01

    Verso il 1960, il laser era ancora "una soluzione alla ricerca di un problema", ma fin dagli anni immediatamente successivi si è rivelato uno strumento insostituibile per le applicazioni più svariate.

  15. Intelligent street lighting clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, R.; Jovanovic, N.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The advances in dynamic street lighting introduce new functionality for control and maintenance of the street lighting infrastructure. Vital elements in this infrastructure are the powerful controlling devices that control separate groups of light poles and collect information from the system. For

  16. Quantitative assessment of Al-to-N bonding in dilute Al0.33Ga0.67As1-yNy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, J.; Geppert, T.; Koehler, K.; Ganser, P.; Maier, M.

    2003-01-01

    A quantitative assessment of the group III-nitrogen bonding in low N-content Al 0.33 Ga 0.67 As 1-y N y with y≤0.04 has been performed, using vibrational mode Raman spectroscopy for the quantitative analysis of local bond formation in combination with energy dispersive x-ray analysis and secondary ion mass spectrometry for chemical analysis. Clear evidence is obtained for the preferential bonding of nitrogen to Al with one nitrogen atom being coordinated to, at the average, 3.4 Al neighbors. This strong preference for Al-to-N bond formation can be understood in terms of the much larger cohesive energy of the Al-N bond compared to the Ga-N chemical bond. In spite of this phase-separation-like formation of local Al-N complexes, the fundamental band gap and the E 1 /E 1 +Δ 1 band gaps show a continuous low-energy and high-energy shift, respectively, upon the addition of nitrogen as already known from dilute GaAsN

  17. Street-art

    OpenAIRE

    Rybnikářová, Klára

    2009-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with the street-art and graffiti phenomenon. The theoretical research is focused on presenting the essence and character of this art style, while also watching it from socio-cultural point of view and observing it in context of art history. The theoretical study is followed by the didactical part of thesis, where I present possibilities of using the street-art theme in art education programs in the school setting. My thesis is concluded with a discussion of a practica...

  18. Street level society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinum, Christine; Nissen, Morten

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims to reflect on research findings from different empirical studies of social work with young drug users and socially excluded young people in Copenhagen. In the paper we account for historical changes in social policy and interventions into young people's drug taking in Copenhagen......, and partly from the decentralizing and specializing efforts characteristic of the Danish welfare state and its institutions. We discuss a general turn towards street level interventions to address the problems of social exclusion, as well as different attempts to create what we term street level heterotopias...

  19. Street Children and Employment Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enos, H.N.; Njoka, M.

    1999-01-01

    Although there is a general realization that there are 'people' in the streets, we often take the phenomenon for granted probably because we wake up and go home only to come to the streets the following morning and still find the people. This situation is however changing with the emergence of 'birth' and increase of street children as we begin to take into consideration the category of people to be routinely found on the streets. The phrase 'street children' refer to the children below the statutory adult age living on or found on the streets. These children derive their livelihood from the streets. While the children on the streets may have a 'home' to go to, the latter are an integral part of the street having nowhere to retire to at the end of the day. The street children live in abject poverty and are exposed to many risks. They suffer from malnutrition and deficiency diseases due to low and poor nutrition intake. The street girls get trapped in teenage prostitution quite early in life. Of concern are the issues related to the working street children. Many street children engage in collecting and selling waste paper, bottles and plastics. They are referred to as 'chokora' because of their work of turning garbage upside down as they look for something useful. Unfortunately they have to sell these wastes to powerful forces including people who underpay and harrass them

  20. Prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and street drugs consumption in adult Latin American immigrants Prevalencia de consumo de alcohol, tabaco y drogas ilícitas en inmigrantes latinoamericanos adultos Prevalência do consumo de álcool, tabaco e drogas ilícitas em adultos imigrantes latino-americanos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Rafael González-López

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To estimate the prevalence of alcohol, tobacco and illicit drug consumption (through the self-report in adult Latin-American immigrants of Seville, a cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out in a representative sample of 190 immigrants. The results showed that 61.4% of the participants had consumed alcohol in previous month before data collection, although 13.2% of them were at risk of alcoholism. Moreover, 30.0% were smokers. In addition, 5.3% of the interviewed people had consumed illicit psychoactive substances in the previous six months (Marihuana: 3.7%, hashish: 1.1% and cocaine: 0.5%. For all substances under analysis, the consumption prevalence was much higher in men from 25 to 39 years of age. In conclusion, prevalence levels of this consumption were high among the studied immigrants. Nurses could train the population in the prevention of these risk behaviors through preventive practices.Con el fin de estimar la prevalencia por autorreporte del consumo de alcohol, tabaco y drogas ilícitas en la población adulta de inmigrantes latinoamericanos en Sevilla, se realizó un estudio descriptivo de corte transversal en una muestra representativa de 190 inmigrantes. Los resultados mostraron que el 61,4% de los sujetos bebió alcohol en el mes anterior a la recolección de datos, y el 13,2% de los participantes mostró tener riesgo de alcoholismo. El 30,0% ya era fumador. El 5,3% de los encuestados ha consumido drogas ilícitas en los últimos seis meses (marihuana: 3,7%, el hachís, la cocaína un 1,1% y 0,5%. Para todas las sustancias investigadas, la prevalencia de consumo fue mayor en hombres de 25-39 años. Se concluye que los inmigrantes tienen una alta prevalencia de consumo de drogas. La enfermera puede prevenir estos comportamientos de riesgo mediante la implementación de prácticas educativas.Para estimar a prevalência de autorrelato de consumo de álcool, tabaco e drogas ilícitas da população adulta de latino

  1. The City Street

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.C. van der Wouden

    1999-01-01

    Original title: De stad op straat. The city street; the public space in perspective (De stad op straat; de openbare ruimte in perspectief) by the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP is intended to contribute to the formation of new ideas about the public space and the future of

  2. Occupy Wall Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael J.; Bang, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzes the political form of Occupy Wall Street on Twitter. Drawing on evidence contained within the profiles of over 50,000 Twitter users, political identities of participants are characterized using natural language processing. The results find evidence of a traditional...

  3. Saving Mango Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Winkle, Katie

    2012-01-01

    The author first learned about cultural diversity and racial justice in Mr. Sanderson's middle school English class. They read a book called "The House on Mango Street" by Sandra Cisneros and learned about a different culture, but also about a community with striking similarities to their own. The main character in the novel, Esperanza,…

  4. Street Lines, US, 2015, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NAVTEQ Streets for the United States. The Streets layer contains all roads plus all Road Network attributes such as direction of travel, lanes, dividers, speed...

  5. Wall Street som kreationistisk forkynder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekman, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong......Artiklen gennemgår Karen Hos etnografi om Wall Street: "Liquidated: An ethnography of Wall Street" set i lyset af den offentlige debat vedrørende Goldman Sachs opkøb af Dong...

  6. Il Gioco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Beronio

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Chi si occupa di teatro incontra il gioco innanzitutto come una categoria estetica insita nei processi che caratterizzano l’atto teatrale. Ma dall’approfondimento di tali meccanismi emerge anche la potenzialità conoscitiva del gioco, come condizione umana di profonda consapevolezza di sé. Attraverso un percorso che passa attraverso Breton, Platone, Huizinga, e Alessandro Fersen, viene qui proposta una lettura del gioco come carattere fondamentale dell’arte e della conoscenza.

  7. Smart street lighting management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pizzuti, S.; Annunziato, M. [Energy New Technologies and Sustainable Economic Development Agency ENEA, Rome (Italy); Moretti, F. [Automation and Computer Science Department, University & #x27; Roma Tre& #x27; , Rome (Italy)

    2013-08-15

    In this work, we propose a new street lighting energy management system in order to reduce energy consumption. The key idea we want to accomplish is that of 'energy on demand' meaning that energy, in this case light, is provided only when needed. In order to achieve this goal, it is critical to have a reliable demand model, which in the case of street lighting turns out to be a traffic flow rate forecasting model. In order to achieve this goal, several methods on the 1-h prediction have been compared and the one providing the best results is based on artificial neural networks. Moreover, several control strategies have been tested and the one which gave the best energy savings is the adaptive one we carried out. Experimentation has been carried out on real data and the study shows that with the proposed approach, it is possible to save up to 50 % of energy compared to no regulation systems.

  8. Street as Public Space - Measuring Street Life of Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Normah; Ayu Abdullah, Yusfida; Hamdan, Hazlina

    2017-10-01

    Kuala Lumpur has envisioning in becoming World Class City by the year 2020. Essential elements of form and function of the urban environment are streets. Streets showcase the community and connect people. It’s one of the most comfortable social environment that provides aesthetical and interaction pleasure for everyone. Classified as main shopping streets in the local Kuala Lumpur urban design guidelines, Jalan Masjid India (JMI) has its uniqueness of shopping experience and social interaction. This conceptual paper will study the physical and cultural characteristics of the street that will generate the street character by mapping its original characters. The findings will focus on strengthening the methodology applied to promote improvements in evaluating it as a great public space. Results will also contribute to understanding the overall site context, the street connectivity, and urban dynamics. This paper is part of a larger study that addresses on transforming the sociability of public space.

  9. Street Prostitution Zones and Crime

    OpenAIRE

    Bisschop, Paul; Kastoryano, Stephen; van der Klaauw, Bas

    2015-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of introducing legal street prostitution zones on both registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where legal street prostitution zones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. We provide evidence that the opening of these zones was not in response to changes in crime. Our difference-in-difference analysis using data on the largest 25 Dutch cities between 1994 and 2011 shows that opening a legal street pr...

  10. Genetic characterization of interleukins (IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18) with relevant biological roles in lagomorphs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Fabiana; Abrantes, Joana; Almeida, Tereza; de Matos, Ana Lemos; Costa, Paulo P

    2015-01-01

    ILs, as essential innate immune modulators, are involved in an array of biological processes. In the European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) IL-1α, IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12A, IL-12B, IL-15 and IL-18 have been implicated in inflammatory processes and in the immune response against rabbit hemorrhagic disease virus and myxoma virus infections. In this study we characterized these ILs in six Lagomorpha species (European rabbit, pygmy rabbit, two cottontail rabbit species, European brown hare and American pika). Overall, these ILs are conserved between lagomorphs, including in their exon/intron structure. Most differences were observed between leporids and American pika. Indeed, when comparing both, some relevant differences were observed in American pika, such as the location of the stop codon in IL-1α and IL-2, the existence of a different transcript in IL8 and the number of cysteine residues in IL-1β. Changes at N-glycosylation motifs were also detected in IL-1, IL-10, IL-12B and IL-15. IL-1α is the protein that presents the highest evolutionary distances, which is in contrast to IL-12A where the distances between lagomorphs are the lowest. For all these ILs, sequences of human and European rabbit are more closely related than between human and mouse or European rabbit and mouse. PMID:26395994

  11. Street Papers, Work, and Begging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cockburn, Patrick Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Street papers are publications produced specifically for sale by the homeless and other vulnerable people in many countries around the world. Their social status is, however, often conspicuously unstable: ‘Get a job!’ has been reported as a common insult addressed to vendors, and street paper...

  12. The Regulation of Street Foods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forkour, John Boulard; Samuelsen, Helle; Yeboah, Eric Henry

    2017-01-01

    the challenges and negotiating strategies of regulators of street-vended foods in Ghana and analyses the implication for their relationship with street food vendors. The paper reveals that regulators operate in a context of limited resources, leading to a general feeling of neglect. In coping, regulators adopt...

  13. Il mondo dentro il mondo

    CERN Document Server

    Barrow, John D

    1991-01-01

    Davvero esistono “lì fuori” leggi di natura, che stanno in attesa di essere scoperte, indipendenti dal nostro modo di pensare, o esse rappresentano soltanto la descrizione più conveniente di ciò che abbiamo visto? Come è nata l’idea stessa di “leggi di natura”? Queste costituiscono la realtà profonda o sono soltanto pezzi di un regolamento che ci siamo dati per organizzare meglio la nostra conoscenza del mondo? o semplici paletti che piantiamo e ci lasciamo alle spalle come segnali via via che procediamo nella giungla dell’esperienza? È possibile che non esistano affatto leggi di natura? Forse esse, e anche l’universo che da esse sembra regolato, sono del tutto creazioni della nostra mente: un’illusione che scompare appena cessiamo di pensarvi. Ma allora, che cosa accadrebbe, se non ci fossero osservatori dell’universo?». Interrogativi di questo genere, che incontriamo sulla soglia del Mondo dentro il mondo, sarebbero suonati eccentrici fino a qualche anno fa. Oggi, al contrario, circ...

  14. Violence in the Street, Violence of the Street

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    While in his early and general theory of interaction rituals Randall Collins emphasised that social situations are both ’symbolic’ and ’material’, the latter dimension is largely absent from Collins’ theory of violence(Collins 2004; 1993: 214). Compared with criminology’s more recent situational...... studies of violence, it is noticeable that the analytical success of these studies is closely linked with understanding street violence as a spatial-situational phenomenon (Clarke 1997; Eck & Weisburd 1995; Bragand & Weisburd; 2010; Wikström et al. 2012; Sampson et al. 1997). In light of evidence...... for the spatial concentration of street violence, this paper takes its point of departure in a large study of Street Violence among youth in Copenhagen, Denmark (combining quantitative data from filed police reports (N = 501), data from CCTV (N=100) and qualitative analysis of selected cases of street violence...

  15. Safety of street: The role of street design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, Suhaila Abdul; Wahab, Mohammad Hussaini; Rani, Wan Nurul Mardiah Wan Mohd.; Ismail, Syuhaida

    2017-10-01

    Living in the cities poses many challenges for the vulnerable group of user especially women where they are exposed to many issues related to safety. With the changing of lifestyle and demands, women are expected to play multiple roles in the society and working is one of the tasks. When women are expected to be working as men do, they are no longer occupied at one place. Women nowadays travel on a daily basis and being in the streets is one of the important activities. With the influx of diverse group of people into the country, our streets are dominated by different types of people from different background. Due to these factors, there are possibilities of challenges and threats for users especially women. Therefore, city spaces especially the street become an important public realm for women. The design of the street should be able to make women feel safe as these are the public space where they spend time getting to and from work. The way women perceived their environment might be different from men especially when they fear of crime. Perception of safety will affect the quality of life where fear is an important psychological factor in human life. Living in fear will restrict human's freedom. Therefore, this study aimed to explore women's perception of safety in the streets of Kuala Lumpur. The study adopted a mixed-method approach of qualitative and quantitative in order to understand the safety perception among women that will later establish the relationship between built environment and human psychology. 120 respondents were selected randomly around Jalan Benteng, Jalan Tun Perak, Jalan Melaka and Jalan Melayu. Questionnaire survey forms were distributed and structured observation was conducted at interval period at these streets to examined and assess women's behavior. Finding shows that fear does affect women's perception and physical design of the streets are important in affecting their behavior.

  16. Modelling traffic pollution in streets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkowicz, R.; Hertel, O. [National Environmental Research Inst., Dept. of Atmospheric Environment, Roskilde (Denmark); Larsen, S.E.; Soerensen, N.N.; Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Dept. of Meteorology and Wind Energy, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1997-01-01

    This report concerns mainly the subject related to modelling air pollution from traffic in urban streets. A short overview is presented over the theoretical aspects and examples of most commonly used methods and models are given. Flow and dispersion conditions in street canyons are discussed and the presentation is substantiated with the analysis of the experimental data. The main emphasis is on the modelling methods that are suitable for routine applications and a more detailed presentation is given of the Operational Street Pollution Model (OSPM), which was developed by the National Environmental Research Institute. The model is used for surveillance of air pollution from traffic in Danish cities and also for special air pollution studies. (au) 76 refs.

  17. The (Street) Art of Resistance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Awad, Sarah H.; Wagoner, Brady; Glaveanu, Vlad Petre

    2017-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the interrelation between resistance, novelty and social change We will consider resistance as both a social and individual phenomenon, a constructive process that articulates continuity and change and as an act oriented towards an imagined future of different communities....... In this account, resistance is thus a creative act having its own dynamic and, most of all, aesthetic dimension. In fact, it is one such visibly artistic form of resistance that will be considered here, the case of street art as a tool of social protest and revolution in Egypt. Street art is commonly defined...... in sharp contrast with high or fine art because of its collective nature and anonymity, its different kind of aesthetics, and most of all its disruptive, ‘anti-social’ outcomes. With the use of illustrations, we will argue here that street art is prototypical of a creative form of resistance, situated...

  18. Sensation Seeking in Street Violence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinskou, Marie Bruvik; Liebst, Lasse Suonperä

    Sensation seeking leads to violence—runs an influential hypothesis in the social scientific study of violent behavior. Although studies confirm that violence is sometimes structured by sensation-seeking motives, the literature seldom comments on the limits to this explanation of violence....... The present study examines the scale of violence motivated by sensation seeking and the degree to which there are several distinct forms of sensation seeking motives operative in violence, rather than a sensation-seeking motive in the singular. The study draws on a sample of situations from Copenhagen...... involving street violence, which are coded quantitatively and qualitatively. Our analysis shows that sensation seeking only seldom seems to play a role in the structuring of street violence. Moreover, the data indicate that sensation seeking finds expression in street violence situations in two different...

  19. Mean Streets: An analysis on street level pollution in NYC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G.

    2017-12-01

    The overarching objective of this study is to quantify the spatial and temporal variability in particulatematter concentration (PM 2.5) along crowded streets in New York City. Due to their fine size and lowdensity PM 2.5 stays longer in the atmosphere and could bypass human nose and throat and penetratedeep in to the lungs and even enter the circulatory system. PM 2.5 is a by-product of automobilecombustion and is a primary cause of respiratory malfunction in NYC. The study would monitor streetlevel concentration of PM2.5 across three different routes that witness significant pedestrian traffic;observations will be conducted along these three routes at different time periods. The study will use theAirBeam community air quality monitor. The monitor tracks PM 2.5 concentration along with GPS, airtemperature and relative humidity. The surface level concentration monitored by AirBeam will becompared with atmospheric concentration of PM 2.5 that are monitored at the NOAA CREST facility onCCNY campus. The lower atmospheric values will be correlated with street level values to assess thevalidity of using of lower atmospheric values to predict street level concentrations. The street levelconcentration will be compared to the air quality forecasted by the New York Department ofEnvironment Conservation to estimate its accuracy and applicability.

  20. Il secondo principio

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, Peter W

    1988-01-01

    L'asimmetria della Natura ; l'indicatore di una trasformazione ; scivolando verso il caos ; la quantificazione del caos ; la potenzialità del caos ; le trasformazioni del caos ; il dominio della temperatura ; caos costtrutivo ; le strutture del caos.

  1. Street photography as social interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mubi Brighenti

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Street photographers know quite well that taking a picture is a form of social interaction. The birth of this genre of photography, they have been discussing at length about the ethical problems involved in taking pictures of personal strangers in public places without asking permission.

  2. Wary Eyes Monitoring Wall Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    School business officials kept a close watch on the financial markets this week--and on district investment portfolios and teacher-retirement funds--as stock prices gyrated and once-sound institutions got government bailouts or crumbled into bankruptcy. While financial observers said it was too soon to predict how Wall Street's upheaval might…

  3. Street prostitution zones and crime

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bisschop, P.; Kastoryano, S.; van der Klaauw, B.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of legal street prostitution zones on registered and perceived crime. We exploit a unique setting in the Netherlands where these tippelzones were opened in nine cities under different regulation systems. Our difference-in-difference analysis of 25 Dutch cities between

  4. O papel das relações familiares na iniciação ao uso de drogas de abuso por jovens institucionalizados El papel de las relaciones familiares en la iniciación del abuso de drogas ilícitas por parte de jóvenes institucionalizados The role of family relationships in the initiation of street drug abuse by institutionalized youths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catia Campaner Ferrari Bernardy

    2010-03-01

    familiar, se mostraron como factores determinantes para la iniciación del abuso de drogas ilícitas.The objective of this study was to analyze the role of family relationships in the initiation of streetdrug abuse by youths, meeting social-educational measures, considering the severity of the problems that drug abuse brought to the youths and their families. This descriptive, cross-sectional study used a case series design and was developed in the cities of Rolândia and Cambé (Brazil, at the Vida Nova Halfway House, with institutionalized youths and their parents or responsible adults in March 2007. Data was collected from institutional records and the instruments used were two interview forms. Data comparison was performed for analysis, according to the content analysis technique. Eleven families were studied. Signs of negligence and abandonment, physical abuse, lack of family dialogue, and especially a culture of drug use in the family environment determined the initiation of street-drug abuse.

  5. Street Pastors : on security, care and faith

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Steden, R.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents a study of Street Pastors in Cardiff, the capital city of Wales. Street Pastors are Christian volunteers who look after vulnerable people in the night-time economy. In this manner, they provide ‘securitas’ through empathy and care. The motives of Street Pastors for engaging with

  6. School Me, School Me Not, Street Me, Street Me Not…

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, David Thore; Frostholm, Peter Hornbæk

    School Me, School Me Not, Street Me, Street Me Not… (1099) David Thore Gravesen, Peter Hornbæk Frostholm ECER 2016, 14. Communities, Families and Schooling in Educational Research, Session: 14 SES 10 A When picking leaves of a marguerite, whilst doing the “she loves me, she loves me not” game, you....... Obviously, the skaters attend the site to skate. But also other, more vulnerable groupings, use the site to socialize, meet peers and perhaps escape an unreliable and risky family arena. One particular group, the self-named Thugz, primarily formed around a number of young boys with non-Danish ethnic...... milieu. With a criminal gang-like behavior (Hoeben & Weerman 2013; Hviid 2007; Rasmussen 2012) involving petty crime and violence, one would think the group members would be indifferent towards their schooling and future careers. This was not the case. The informants proved to be very aware...

  7. Street art - vandalismus nebo umění?

    OpenAIRE

    Grabmüllerová, Eva

    2012-01-01

    The diploma thesis ‚Street Art - Vandalism or Art?' deals with a world-wide phenomenon of contemporary art. The thesis focuses on the characterization of street art and history of street art (its origin and development) and analyzes the difference between street art and graffiti. The thesis presents street art techniques as well as notable street artists. The thesis also observes street art scene in the Czech Republic and depicts features that street art has in common with other art movements...

  8. COMMON GROUNDS BETWEEN PRINTMAKING AND STREET ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcak Balamber

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Graffiti movement, born as a result of an effort of the youth, who felt themselves socially excluded and alone, to show their existence and identities during the 1960s, expanded its scope owing to street based artists such as Keith Haring and Jean-Michel Basquiat entering to the galleries, and transformed into an artistic manner of expression having aesthetic concerns by adopting a more inclusive definition ‘street art’. During this transformation of street art,street artists experimented with various methods from many different disciplines and hence created works in a wide range of varieties in terms of plastic and artistic values. Among these disciplines, printmakinghastaken its own place in street artas a discipline thatdeeply influenced street artists.Printmaking has fascinated street artists and become a part of their production process, not only with its philosophy sharing common grounds with street art and advantages in terms of its tecnical practices but also its unique plastic and linear values.Thanks to the opportunities of printmaking, street art has succeeded creating a tremendous impression worldwide, and even positioned itself into today’s greatest museums/gallery halls. This article aims to show how and in what way printmaking has influenced street art being in a transformation since the 1960s, and to put an emphasis on theimportance of printmaking on today’s street art.

  9. Renaming Zagreb Streets and Squares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Stanić

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with changes in street names in the city of Zagreb. Taking the Lower Town (Donji grad city area as an example, the first part of the paper analyses diachronic street name changes commencing from the systematic naming of streets in 1878. Analysis of official changes in street names throughout Zagreb’s history resulted in categorisation of five periods of ideologically motivated naming/name-changing: 1. the Croatia modernisation period, when the first official naming was put into effect, with a marked tendency towards politicisation and nationalisation of the urban landscape; 2. the period of the Kingdom of the Serbs, Croatians and Slovenians/Yugoslavia, when symbols of the new monarchy, the idea of the fellowship of the Southern Slavs, Slavenophilism and the pro-Slavic geopolitical orientation were incorporated into the street names, and when the national idea was highly evident and remained so in that process; 3. the period of the NDH, the Independent State of Croatia, with decanonisation of the tokens of the Yugoslavian monarchy and the Southern Slavic orientation, and reference to the Ustashi and the German Nazi and Italian Fascist movement; 4. the period of Socialism, embedding the ideals and heroes of the workers’ movement and the War of National Liberation into the canonical system; and, 5. the period following the democratic changes in 1990, when almost all the signs of Socialism and the Communist/Antifascist struggle were erased, with the prominent presence of a process of installing new references to early national culture and historical tradition. The closing part of the paper deals with public discussions connected with the selection of a location for a square to bear the name of the first president of independent Croatia, Franjo Tuđman. Analysis of these public polemics shows two opposing discourses: the right-wing political option, which supports a central position for the square and considers the chosen area to

  10. Viva il GIS Day!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Redazione

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Il GIS Day è sponsorizzato oltre che da ESRI, dalla National Geographic Society, dalla Association of American Geographers, dalla UCGIS (University Consortium for Geographic Information Science, dalla United States Geological Survey e dalla Library of Congress. Il tutto nasce nel corso della Geography Awareness Week, terza settimana di novembre che nel 1987 il Presidente degli Stati Uniti Ronald Reagan stabilì dovesse essere dedicata alla diffusione della cultura geografica.

  11. Il muro come galleria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duccio Dogheria

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Il muro, nel suo grigio rigore formale, nella sua fredda geometria, nel suo intento divisorio, nasconde spesso il cielo. Sovente il linguaggio dell’arte, ma non di meno quello della comunicazione, hanno interferito con le sue algide barriere. In molti casi, beninteso, non è che il potere in altre forme, che interferisce con se stesso: pensiamo ai bandi affissi agli angoli delle città, o le lettere d’indulgenza papali -spesso impreziosite da miniature al punto da poterle considerare antenate dal manifesto- che nel corso del medioevo venivano affisse sulle porte delle chiese.

  12. Pollutant Dilution and Diffusion in Urban Street Canyon Neighboring Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Fu, Zh. M.

    2011-09-01

    In the present study we investigated the airflow patterns and air quality of a series of typical street canyon combinations, developed a mass balance model to determine the local pollutant dilution rate, and discuss the impact of upstream canyon on the air quality of downstream canyon. The results indicated that the geometrical size of upstream and downstream buildings have significant impacts on the ambient airflow patterns. The pollution distribution within the canyons varies with different building combinations and flow patterns. Within the upstream canyon, pollution always accumulates to the low building side for non-symmetrical canyon, and for symmetrical canyon high level of pollution occurs at the leeward side. The height of the middle and downstream buildings can evidently change the pollutant dispersion direction during the transport process. Within the polluted canyon, the pollutant dilution rate (PDR) also varies with different street canyon combinations. The highest PDR is observed when the upstream buildings are both low buildings no matter the height of downstream building. However, the two cases are likely to contribution pollution to the downstream canyon. The H-L-H combination is mostly against local pollution remove, while the L-H-L case is considered the best optimistic building combination with both the ability of diluting local pollution and not remarkably decreasing air quality of downstream canyon. The current work is expected instructive for city designers to optimize traffic patterns under typical existing geometry or in the development of urban geometry modification for air quality control.

  13. Structural value of Yerevan streets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avetisyan Arsen Grantovich

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The absence of the methods of urban analysis in the process of urban development of Yerevan is the reason of urban planning activities that tend to decrease the urban value of Yerevan territories. Meanwhile the studies in the sphere of urban planning and urban analysis prove the dependence of the life in the city on its structure and distribution of the functions. The mentioned issue highlights the importance of urban analysis. The paper discusses space syntax, which is one of the initial methods of urban analysis. The basic concept of Space syntax is based on the assumption that urban fabric can be presented and studied as a power graph. The method provides the measures that evaluate the land use, traffic and pedestrian movement, land value and even carbon emissions. The paper discusses also recent attempts of integration of space syntax method into GIS environment. GIS databases provide researchers with vast amount of urban data. Analyses presented in the current paper were performed on the basis of the open street map, which was imported from the GIS environment. With the application of space syntax methods analysis of connectivity, integration choice (betweenness and depth from the city center were performed to evaluate the structural value of Yerevan streets. Municipal regions of Yerevan were classified by the level of their accessibility and by their distances from the city center on the base of the results of depth measures from the city center. Evaluation of the street network aims to define the most integrated and centrally positioned parts of the city. These areas can be locations for the organization of sub centers of Yerevan in the municipal regions.

  14. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  15. Raised IL-6 Levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Cardiovascular Associated Complications in HIV. Positive Zambians before ... compare plasma levels of IL-6 in HIV positive and. HIV negative .... cancer. Results from this study showed that IL-6 levels in. HIV positive ART naive individuals were significantly higher than in the HIV positive individuals on ART. Our findings ...

  16. IL-32 promotes angiogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nold-Petry, C.A.; Rudloff, I.; Baumer, Y.; Ruvo, M.; Marasco, D.; Botti, P.; Farkas, L.; Cho, S.X.; Zepp, J.A.; Azam, T.; Dinkel, H.; Palmer, B.E.; Boisvert, W.A.; Cool, C.D.; Taraseviciene-Stewart, L.; Heinhuis, B.; Joosten, L.A.; Dinarello, C.A.; Voelkel, N.F.; Nold, M.F.

    2014-01-01

    IL-32 is a multifaceted cytokine with a role in infections, autoimmune diseases, and cancer, and it exerts diverse functions, including aggravation of inflammation and inhibition of virus propagation. We previously identified IL-32 as a critical regulator of endothelial cell (EC) functions, and we

  17. Marketing; Il marketing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muscigna, M. [ENEA, Centro Ricerche Casaccia, S. Maria di Galeria, RM (Italy). Dipt. Innovazione

    1999-07-01

    The report discusses marketing strategies oriented to the organizations and analyzes its critical factors, which determine the success of the organization activity. [Italian] Il rapporto analizza i caratteri delle strategie del marketing orientato all'impresa. Vengono infine analizzati i fattori critici che determinano il successo o l'insuccesso delle scelte aziendali.

  18. Il Bosone di Higgs

    CERN Multimedia

    Hemmer, Sabine

    2018-01-01

    Poster di ATLAS sul bosone di Higgs indirizzato al pubblico generico, che spiega il meccanismo di Brout-Englert-Higgs e la sua importanza. Spiega anche il ruolo del Bosone di Higgs, come viene cercato, il percorso della sua scoperta e cosa viene dopo la scoperta. Disponibile anche in Francese (http://cds.cern.ch/record/1697501) e Inglese (http://cds.cern.ch/record/1697389). Non esitate a utilizzarlo nelle sedi dei vostri Istituti e negli eventi divulgativi! Il poster è in formato A0. Cliccate sull'immagine per scaricare il .pdf ad alta qualità e stamparlo dove preferite. Per qualisasi domanda o commento potete contattare atlas-outreach-coordination@cern.ch

  19. PLC based Smart Street Lighting Control

    OpenAIRE

    D.V.Pushpa Latha; K.R.Sudha; Swati Devabhaktuni

    2013-01-01

    Conventional street lighting systems in most of the areas are Online at regular intervals of time irrespective of the seasonal variations. The street lights are simply switched on at afternoon and turned off in the morning. The consequence is that a large amount of Power is wasted meaninglessly. As energy consumption is an issue of increasing interest, possible energy savings in public street lighting systems are recently discussed from different viewpoints. The purpose of this work is to des...

  20. [Street prostitution and drug addiction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishøy, Torben; Ishøy, Pelle Lau; Olsen, Lis Raabaek

    2005-09-26

    Street-based prostitution accounts for 10% of the prostitution activity in Denmark, mainly involving female drug addicts. We studied a group of women with a common history of substance abuse and their comparative psychosocial characteristics, correlated with whether they had previously been a prostitute or not. Their psychic symptoms were evaluated and compared with those of controls. 27 females receiving maintenance treatment for substance abuse completed a questionnaire dealing with their social background, substance abuse profile, and history of sexual abuse and prostitution, as well as their current health status, including SCL-90. The scores were compared to those of a control group of an age- and gender-matched Danish standard population. Neglect in childhood and adulthood corresponded to international findings. 14 of the women had previous sex-trading experience, and early use of heroin and cocaine was a predictor for starting a career in prostitution. The SCL-90 scores for the dimensions of somatization and depression were significantly higher for drug-abusing women in general than in the control group. The scores of drug-abusing former prostitutes were similarly significantly higher on most of the dimensions except the hostility dimension when compared to those of drug-abusing women who had never been involved in prostitution. Rape and domestic violence were characteristic phenomena among drug-abusing prostitutes (p prostitution. Various psychosocial stress factors among street-based prostitutes indicate the need for broader psychiatric approaches in Danish drug addiction maintenance programmes.

  1. Georges Charpak street sign unveiled

    CERN Multimedia

    Paola Catapano

    2011-01-01

    While it might not be the only French street named in honour of the late Georges Charpak, who passed away in September 2010 at the age of 87, the street chosen by the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly is certainly the only one located directly opposite the CERN "campus". The road overlooks buildings on the CERN Meyrin site, where Georges Charpak spent most of his career as a physicist, conducting the research that won him the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1992.   From left to right: Sigurd Lettow, Dominique Charpak and the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly. The unveiling took place on 17 October and was organised by the mayor of Saint-Genis-Pouilly. George Charpak’s wife, Dominique, and Sigurd Lettow, CERN Director of Administration and General Infrastructure, attended what was an intimate and touching ceremony. The mayor’s speech at the event praised Georges’ commitment to scientific education. The highlight of the event, however, was a witty and humorous ...

  2. Il colore delle cose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Vitiello

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Tema di questo saggio è l’operare della riflessione. Vitiello, dopo essersi soffermato sulla «frattura» tra la riflessione (il «vedersi» e il suo operare in Valéry, si concentra sul processo, descritto da Hegel nella Fenomenologia dello spirito, dell’esperienza della coscienza che s’eleva a coscienza dell’esperienza. La conclusione è fortemente critica: Hegel fallisce la mèta nel punto stesso in cui la raggiunge. Infatti nel sapere assoluto, nella visione compiuta, perfetta di sé, della luce che vede luce, viene meno proprio l’esperienza della coscienza, il suo divenire, la sua «imperfezione». La critica a Hegel, passando attraverso Nietzsche, si amplia a critica del linguaggio, in particolare del linguaggio dell’«essere» e  dell’«è», e delle tautologie heideggeriane quali «das Ereignis ereignet», «das Ding dingt», «die Welt weltet». Un importante passaggio del testo è quello sul linguaggio teatrale in cui la parola sembra riacquistare il legame originale tra la voce e il gesto, che tuttavia restano divisi, perché proprio il medio che li lega, il «colore» della parola, è «fuori» della parola e del gesto. Resta la parola dell’agire, dei pragmata, in cui il fare si espone nella sua modalità più propria: nell’immediatezza del patire: il grido di dolore; o nella mediatezza riflessiva dell’imperativo morale: Handle! I due opposti «colori» delle cose.

  3. Adolescent Hopefulness in Tanzania: Street Youth, Former Street Youth, and School Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalkur, Priya G.

    2009-01-01

    This study compares hope in street youth, former street youth, and school youth (aged 12-18) in Tanzania. Responding to Snyder's hope theory, the author argues that not only personal agency but also the stability of living context (street, shelter, home) shapes hopefulness. Employing qualitative and quantitative analyses, the author presents a…

  4. Personal and Familial Properties of Street Children--"Street Children: The Forgotten or Not Remembered Ones"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbas, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    With this research it is aimed to determine the personal traits of Street Children depending on them and also the socio-economic variables of Street Children resulting from their families. For this main aim in the research process, it is provided to have communication directly with the parents of Street Children using one-to-one and face-to-face…

  5. Il corpo narratore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivano Gamelli

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Sapere cosa provo attraverso il mio corpo di fronte all’altro mi permette non solo di capire cosa l'altro prova, soprattutto di generare naturalmente un’effettiva sintonizzazione, di evidenziare e nominare emozioni e sentimenti che in-formano la relazione con quel particolare bambino, adolescente o adulto che sia. Il rapporto con il linguaggio del corpo, prima ancora di divenire pratica psicopedagogica, è una 'pedagogia dell'esistenza'. Una pratica della nostra quotidianità che possiamo affinare oltre e prima che essa diventi pratica psicopedagogica.

  6. Il dono del racconto

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polito, Paola

    1998-01-01

    L'articolo indaga a vari livelli strutturali del romanzo "Il coraggio del pettirosso" (rete metaforica, dialogismo diegetico, dialogismo come fenomeno di voce, strategie discorsive messe in atto dalla voce narrante, stile colloquiale) la complessa realizzazione testuale del genere narrativo...

  7. Il Primo Dizionario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minne G. de Boer

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recensione e commento a: Il Primo Dizionario italiano-olandese/Het Eerste Woordenboek Nederlands-Italiaans, Amsterdam 1672/2014, a cura di Vincenzo Lo Cascio. Amstelveen: Fondazione

  8. RACE, CODE OF THE STREET, AND VIOLENT DELINQUENCY: A MULTILEVEL INVESTIGATION OF NEIGHBORHOOD STREET CULTURE AND INDIVIDUAL NORMS OF VIOLENCE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric A.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    The study outlined in this article drew on Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street perspective to examine the impact of neighborhood street culture on violent delinquency. Using data from more than 700 African American adolescents, we examined 1) whether neighborhood street culture predicts adolescent violence above and beyond an adolescent’s own street code values and 2) whether neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on adolescent violence. Consistent with Anderson’s hypotheses, neighborhood street culture significantly predicts violent delinquency independent of individual-level street code effects. Additionally, neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on violence in neighborhoods where the street culture is widespread. In particular, the effect of street code values on violence is enhanced in neighborhoods where the street culture is endorsed widely. PMID:21666759

  9. Il teatro degli spiriti.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Pussetti

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Questo saggio è dedicato a un culto di possessione, in cui tutte ledonne, investite dagli spiriti degli uomini morti prima dell’iniziazione, compiono un percorso iniziatico parallelo a quello maschile, consentendo a queste anime, potenzialmente pericolose, di completare il cammino che non hanno potuto percorrere da vivi e quindi di raggiungere serenamente il mondo dei morti, come antenati protettori del villaggio

  10. MAPCERN links to Google Street View

    CERN Multimedia

    Matilda Heron

    2015-01-01

    CERN’s online maps, MAPCERN, now have the added bonus of Google Street View, thanks to the new release of images of many CERN sites captured by Google.   New Street View images of CERN sites have been added to MAPCERN, see bottom-right-hand image in the screenshot above.   Google Street View, an integrated service of Google Maps introduced in 2007, links 360-degree panoramic photos into a virtual tour. CERN and Google began collaborating on this Street View project in 2010 and now these Street View images have been embedded into MAPCERN, accessible by clicking the “Street View” tab in MAPCERN’s bottom-right-hand window. If you need to locate a building at CERN, or plan an operation on some equipment, you can save time by using the Street View images to check out the area in advance. The CERN Meyrin site has been fully mapped, as well as the surfaces of the eight LHC points, BA2 and BA3. New Street View images of CERN, including the Pr...

  11. Cytokines (interleukin-9, IL-17, IL-22, IL-25 and IL-33 and asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahim Farahani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Asthma is a reversible airway obstruction that is characterized by constriction of airway smooth muscle, hyper secretion of mucus, edema and airway hyper responsiveness (AHR, mucus secretion and thickening of the basement membrane underlying the airway epithelium. During the process of airway inflammation, complex interactions of innate and adaptive immune cells as well as structural cells and their cytokines have many important roles. It was believed that airway inflammation is orchestrated by allergen specific T helper (Th 2 cells, which recruit and accumulate in the lungs and produce a range of different effector cytokines. However, more recent studies have revealed the potential collaboration of other helper T cells and their cytokines in this process. Th17 cell may have a role in severe asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Interleukin (IL-9-producing subset called Th9 cell, Th22 cells which primarily secrete IL-22, IL-13 and tumor necrosis factor-α and Th25 cells via producing IL-25 are believed to be important for initiating allergic reactions and developing airway inflammation. Cytokines are important in asthma and play a critical role in orchestrating the allergic inflammatory response, although the precise role of each cytokine remains to be determined. The aim of this review is to summarize the current knowledge about the possible roles of newly identified helper T cells derived cytokines (IL-9, 17, 22, 25 and IL-33 in asthma. The potential therapeutic applications emerging from the roles of these cytokines will be discussed as well.

  12. Street as Sustainable City Structural Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyzerova, A. V.; Bagina, E. J.

    2017-11-01

    Sustainability in architecture is nowadays of particular significance in the course of globalization and information density. The technospehere spontaneous development poses a threat to the sustainability of traditional urban forms where a street is one of the essential forming elements in the urban structure. The article proposes to consider formally compositional street features in relation to one of the traditional streets in the historic center of Ekaterinburg. The study examines the street-planning structure, the development of its skeleton elements, silhouette and fabric elevation characteristics as well as the scale characteristics and visual complexity of objects. The study provided architectural and artistic aspects of street sustainability, and limits of the appropriate scale and composition consistency under which the compatibility of alternative compositional forms existing at different times is possible.

  13. Cleaning up the Streets of Denver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stegen, R.L.; Wood, T.R.; Hackett, J.R.; Sogue, A.

    2006-01-01

    Between 1913 and 1924, several Denver area facilities extracted radium from carnotite ore mined from the Paradox basin region of Colorado. Tailings or abandoned ores from these facilities were apparently incorporated into asphalt used to pave approximately 7.2 kilometers (4.5 miles) of streets in Denver. A majority of the streets are located in residential areas. The radionuclides are bound within the asphalt matrix and pose minimal risk unless they are disturbed. The City and County of Denver (CCoD) is responsible for controlling repairs and maintenance on these impacted streets. Since 2002, the CCoD has embarked on a significant capital improvement project to remove the impacted asphalt for secure disposal followed by street reconstruction. To date, Parsons has removed approximately 55 percent of the impacted asphalt. This paper discusses the history of the Denver Radium Streets and summarizes on-going project efforts. (authors)

  14. Thermal Comfort Assessment in The Open Space in Bandung Case Study Dago Street and Riau Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugangga, M.; Janesonia, K. I.; Illiyin, D. F.; Donny Koerniawan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Bandung’s temperature has been higher since last years. This phenomenon affects the level of thermal comfort in open space. One indicator that determines the thermal comfort level is the type of activity performed by the open space user. Riau Street and Dago Street are corridors that are often used by the people for strolling, jogging, shopping. Dago Street has special event every Sunday namely car free day. Both corridors have different orientation; Dago Street is North to South corridor while Riau Street’s is West to East. The goal of the study is to compare people’s perception of thermal comfort in both corridors. This research uses two methods, namely qualitative method and quantitative method. Based on the results of qualitative analysis found that the thermal conditions in Dago Street more comfortable than the Riau Street. The result of quantitative analysis found that the average PET (thermal comfort indices) value of Dago Street was at 27.5 °C PET and Riau Street 28.6 °C PET. Dago Street is considered more convenient because it has a lower PET value than Riau Street. The people perception of thermal comfort is very important to start the steps for designing the orientation of street in urban design.

  15. Road and Street Centerlines, Street-The data set is a line feature consisting of 13948 line segments representing streets. It was created to maintain the location of city and county based streets., Published in 1989, Davis County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road and Street Centerlines dataset current as of 1989. Street-The data set is a line feature consisting of 13948 line segments representing streets. It was created...

  16. Relations Between Serum Essential Fatty Acids, Cytokines (IL-6 & IL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relations between free radical generation, interleukins (IL-6 & IL-8), apoptotic marker soluble Fas (sFas), and the level of ... IL-6, IL-8 and sFas whereas serum fatty acid revealed that Linoleicacid (LA) and alpha linolenic acid (ALA) were significantly decreased in the studied cases .

  17. 78 FR 21537 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Operation Regulations; Upper Mississippi River, Rock Island, IL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... operating schedule that governs the Rock Island Railroad and Highway Drawbridge across the Upper Mississippi River, mile 482.9, at Rock Island, Illinois. The deviation is necessary to allow the Front Street 5K Run...

  18. Il valore del territorio, non il prezzo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Cavallo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The value of the territory, not the price, as a place to live, including tools urban planning and landscape protection. A proposal, the guide / head-up plan, for the exploitation of a territory, about de-centering sew up. It should be noted that it is not used sata a disciplinary perspective “management” rather of Architecture and Regional Planning, these contaminated by a vision that seeks for some years now to borrow the thought of doing business within the design of the area in a contamination that is good, that can bring ideas to solve the problems of exploitation of territories that too often seek theoretical solutions for acting watertight compartments. The heritage of which we are heirs have all those variables that are the definition of Territory architect Alberto Magnaghi, definition often used by those who do Local Marketing, as a starting point. Find the streets active and operative where contamination between different disciplines and has the parallel exercise obiettio of this paper, whereas managementi urban architecture, planning economy, restoration, tend all have a common goal to preserve value and to promote the area to improve the quality of life of its inhabitants, who are permanent or occasional.

  19. Il corpo della strega

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georges Bertin

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Come già evidenziato a proposito di altre pratiche, il sabba, attività ludica profana, religiosa, conferiva a ciascuno la possibilità di giocare efficacemente con la dinamica di un mondo da cui emergeva una figura archetipica, la strega, principale attore di questa danza in tondo. Il sabba era, dunque, uno dei luoghi ove si cristallizzavano le figure del proibito, questo per il suo carattere sacro, per la violenza istituzionale che presiedeva alla formazione dei rapporti sociali, e conferiva anche, per le caratteristiche di protesta che rivela, un'immagine sempre esaltante della capacità delle società a resistere. Il problema della nostra epoca ove rifioriscono le streghe nelle più svariate forme è, forse, quello di riallacciarsi con la dimensione gruppale dei nostri svaghi, nelle loro differenti forme e, contemporaneamente, con perdita di energia, a quanto presiedeva ai sabba e alla loro risoluzione sacrificale. In contro-corrente ai modelli meccanici che assegnano dei limiti precisi e funzionali ai corpi asserviti ad un ideale di controllo, il corpo sabbatico con la sua enfasi sulle posizioni limite (ciò che si rimproverava d'altronde alle streghe, era veramente corpo mistico.

  20. IL-17 for therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurschus, Florian C; Moos, Sonja

    2017-09-01

    The cytokine IL-17 is now a target for an array of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies supposed to treat a variety of inflammatory diseases. The forerunner Secukinumab, an IL-17A neutralizing antibody, is meanwhile approved as first-line treatments for moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, and as second-line treatment for psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Ixekizumab and Brodalumab, both also targeting the IL-17 pathway, were also recently approved by the FDA for plaque psoriasis. Using mice overexpressing IL-17A in a tissue of choice, we showed that the ectopic expression of this cytokine in keratinocytes resulted in a spontaneous and very strong form of psoriasis-like dermatitis. Interestingly, this model showed some typical comorbidities found in humans with psoriasis. In this review, we will discuss why IL-17 is a good target especially in psoriasis and what we learned from mouse models about its functions in pathological situations. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society for Investigative Dermatology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Street children and political violence: a socio-demographic analysis of street children in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Angela; Donà, Giorgia

    2003-03-01

    The aims were: (1) to examine the profile of African street children and to assess the link between street children in Africa and political violence; (2) to undertake a systematic examination of causal factors of street children in postgenocide Rwanda; and (3) to situate this analysis in the context of the socio-cultural and political impact of the genocide on Rwandan communities. Observational mapping examined the profile and activities of Rwandan street children. Structured interviews were carried out with 290 children in four regional towns to obtain information on socio-demographic, familial, educational background, causal factors surrounding street life involvement, psychological well-being, and relationship to the street. Focus group discussions and key informant interviews examined the relationship between street children and the broader Rwandan society. Street children in Rwanda were predominantly adolescent boys, almost half of whom were homeless (42%), with a high proportion of orphaned children or children who had lost at least one parent. Two variables predicted homelessness: child's guardian and reason for being in street. Qualitative accounts of children conveyed the impact of death of family members, repatriation, imprisonment of parents, and poverty on their lives. The analysis highlighted the need for community based support for children in alternative guardianship care and for policies to support the reintegration of male youths in postconflict welfare strategies as prevention strategies for street migration.

  2. IL web tutorials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette; Lund, Haakon

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents the results from a study on information literacy in a higher education (HE) context based on a larger research project evaluating 3 Norwegian IL web tutorials at 6 universities and colleges in Norway. The aim was to evaluate how the 3 web tutorials served students’ information...... seeking and writing process in an study context and to identify barriers to the employment and use of the IL web tutorials, hence to the underlying information literacy intentions by the developer. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed. A clear mismatch was found between intention...... and use of the web tutorials. In addition, usability only played a minor role compared to relevance. It is concluded that the positive expectations of the IL web tutorials tend to be overrated by the developers. Suggestions for further research are presented....

  3. Dostoevskij e il sillogismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Peace

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Si presenta di seguito la prima traduzione italiana del saggio di Richard Peace Dostoevsky and the Syllogism, pubblicato in lingua originale nel volume IX (2005 della collana Dostoevsky Studies, New Series. Il saggio è dedicato alla rielaborazione del sillogismo aristotelico da parte dei personaggi dostoevskiani nell’ambito del dibattito fra le due principali correnti filosofiche della Russia ottocentesca: l’ «occidentalismo» e lo «slavofilismo». Peace evidenzia come Dostoevskij miri a dimostrare che il ragionamento sillogistico sia estraneo alla forma mentis russa attraverso i fallimenti argomentativi dei suoi «ideofori»

  4. Il segreto di Holmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silio Bozzi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The most famous of detectives, Sherlock Holmes, is not only a relentless solver of mysteries, but is also an enigma himself. Only another investigator may shed light on the hidden contradictions and mysteries of the universe and perhaps on Holmes’s most secret soul. Nothing short of the merciless analysis of another detective, with his or her scientific training, is able to disassemble and reassemble the theoretic and cognitive machinery of the famous tenant of the 221/b Baker Street and discover that some parts will not fall back into place and that nothing, perhaps, will ever be the same…

  5. Hygiene practices among street food vendors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    giene regulations to keep street food save for consumers. Journal of Medical ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294 ... authorities to enforce food safety regulations, unlike .... (50%) school food vendors sampled in Konongo.

  6. Capturing the benefits of complete streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Anecdotal information indicates that private investment and property value increases are associated : with featured Complete Streets projects. However, to date, little research has been done to confirm : these benefits. Much of the relevant literatur...

  7. Pühendusega isadele - Baker Street

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Üritusest 7. novembril Kuressaares Arensburg lounge-restoranis Muusa toimuvast isadepäevahõngulisest üritusest, esinevad Virgo Veldi & Band kavaga "Baker Street", erikülalisena Villu Veski. Saksofonistist Virgo Veldist

  8. Hiding in Plain Sight: Street artists online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Barbour

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Identity and privacy concerns related to social media are the subject of widespread academic enquiry and mass media reporting. Although in most circumstances academic research tends to present identity play and online self­presentation as positive, media reporting in Australia makes much of the risks of identity theft, privacy breaches and online predators. This research explores the phenomenological experience of creating an online persona, focusing particularly on street artists. For street artists, the threat of unwanted exposure has to be balanced with the positive implications of sharing their creative work outside its geographical and temporal constraints. I argue that street artists use complex persona­creation strategies in order to both protect and promote themselves. The two street artists discussed in this article experience their engagement with social media and digital networks in ways that offer new insight into the opportunities and problems associated with the presentation of a persona online.

  9. Th-17 regulatory cytokines IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 enhance neutrophil production of IL-17 cytokines during asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Rabih; Sultana, Asma; Vazquez-Tello, Alejandro; Jamhawi, Amer; Al-Masri, Abeer A; Al-Muhsen, Saleh

    2017-11-01

    In a subset of severe asthma patients, chronic airway inflammation is associated with infiltration of neutrophils, Th-17 cells and elevated expression of Th-17-derived cytokines (e.g., interleukin [IL]-17, IL-21, IL-22). Peripheral neutrophils from allergic asthmatics are known to express higher IL-17 cytokine levels than those from healthy subjects, but the regulatory mechanisms involved are not well understood. We hypothesize that Th-17 regulatory cytokines could modulate IL-17 expression in neutrophils. Peripheral blood neutrophils isolated from asthmatics were stimulated with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines and their ability to produce IL-17A and IL-17F was determined relative to healthy controls. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) phosphorylation levels were measured in stimulated neutrophil using flow cytometry. The requirement for STAT3 phosphorylation was determined by blocking its activation using a specific chemical inhibitor. Stimulating asthmatic neutrophils with IL-21, 23, and 6 enhanced the production of IL-17A and IL-17F at significantly higher levels comparatively to healthy controls. Stimulating neutrophils with IL-21, IL-23, and IL-6 cytokines enhanced STAT3 phosphorylation, in all cases. Interestingly, inhibiting STAT3 phosphorylation using a specific chemical inhibitor dramatically blocked the ability of neutrophils to produce IL-17, demonstrating that STAT3 activation is the major factor mediating IL-17 gene expression. These findings suggest that neutrophil infiltration in lungs of severe asthmatics may represent an important source of pro-inflammatory IL-17A and -F cytokines, a production enhanced by Th-17 regulatory cytokines, and thus providing a feedback mechanism that sustains inflammation. Our results suggest that STAT3 pathway could be a potential target for regulating neutrophilic inflammation during severe asthma.

  10. Il Raffrescamento per Ventilazione

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perino, Marco; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    termicamente e sempre più a tenuta d'aria. Tali misure hanno consentito indubbiamente di ridurre la domanda energetica per il riscaldamento invernale, ma hanno determinato delle crescenti problematiche di surriscaldamento dell'ambiente interno. Molti degli edifici ad alta efficienza energeti-ca di nuova...

  11. Helping You Buy ILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibbarelli, Pamela R.

    2010-01-01

    This article is the fourth in a series of articles published annually by "Computers in Libraries" surveying integrated library systems and services (ILSs). The purpose of the annual survey is to enable comparison of the ILSs that are available. ILS vendors are in constant pursuit of an ever-changing, consistently vague definition of what the…

  12. Il pericolo degli ebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available I libri stampati: si possono acquistare anonimamente in contanti; quindi se ne è proprietari: non dobbiamo firmare una licenza che ne restringe l’uso: il loro formato è noto e per leggerli non occorrono tecnologie proprietarie; si possono dare, prestare o...

  13. Il Simposio di Platone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Chiara Pievatolo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pensate che i testi antichi siano semplicemente vecchi? Che l’amore platonico non vada mai  al sodo? Leggere il Simposio di Platone confrontandosi direttamente col testo, com’è possibile fare grazie al Perseus Project, vi farà cambiare idea.

  14. Modelling Pollutant Dispersion in a Street Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salem, N. Ben; Garbero, V.; Salizzoni, P.; Lamaison, G.; Soulhac, L.

    2015-04-01

    This study constitutes a further step in the analysis of the performances of a street network model to simulate atmospheric pollutant dispersion in urban areas. The model, named SIRANE, is based on the decomposition of the urban atmosphere into two sub-domains: the urban boundary layer, whose dynamics is assumed to be well established, and the urban canopy, represented as a series of interconnected boxes. Parametric laws govern the mass exchanges between the boxes under the assumption that the pollutant dispersion within the canopy can be fully simulated by modelling three main bulk transfer phenomena: channelling along street axes, transfers at street intersections, and vertical exchange between street canyons and the overlying atmosphere. Here, we aim to evaluate the reliability of the parametrizations adopted to simulate these phenomena, by focusing on their possible dependence on the external wind direction. To this end, we test the model against concentration measurements within an idealized urban district whose geometrical layout closely matches the street network represented in SIRANE. The analysis is performed for an urban array with a fixed geometry and a varying wind incidence angle. The results show that the model provides generally good results with the reference parametrizations adopted in SIRANE and that its performances are quite robust for a wide range of the model parameters. This proves the reliability of the street network approach in simulating pollutant dispersion in densely built city districts. The results also show that the model performances may be improved by considering a dependence of the wind fluctuations at street intersections and of the vertical exchange velocity on the direction of the incident wind. This opens the way for further investigations to clarify the dependence of these parameters on wind direction and street aspect ratios.

  15. Street-Level Bureaucrats as Individual Policymakers:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baviskar, Siddhartha; Winter, Søren

    2016-01-01

    Lipsky (1980) pointed out that street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) are important policymakers due to the discretion they exercise and argued from a structural perspective that these workers manifest relatively similar coping behaviors owing to their shared working conditions, characterized by chronic......Lipsky (1980) pointed out that street-level bureaucrats (SLBs) are important policymakers due to the discretion they exercise and argued from a structural perspective that these workers manifest relatively similar coping behaviors owing to their shared working conditions, characterized...

  16. Solar charge controller in solar street light

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Haibo

    2014-01-01

    Recently, with the rapid development of scientific technology, the conventional energy cannot meet the requirement of human beings. People are looking for the utilization of renew energy. Solar en-ergy as a new clean energy has attract the eyes of people. The applications of solar energy are popular to human society. Solar street light is a good example. This thesis will focus on a deeper research of the popular and ubiquitous solar street light in China. However, solar charge controll...

  17. OpenStreetMap over WMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Přemysl Vohnout

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper discuss the issues which we faced, while preparing WMS server with OpenStreetMap data of whole Europe. This article is divided into three sections. First is about mandatory applications which are required for working WMS service with OpenStreetMap data. Second is focused on tuning up PostgreSQL. Third is focused on rendering time improvement of layers.

  18. MAINTENANCE OF THE CARPARK AND STREET LIGHTING

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-FM Group

    2002-01-01

    The ST Division informs you that the control and maintenance of the carpark and street lighting will be carried out during the next few weeks. These lightings work normally by photocells but during these tests they will be turned on zone by zone during the day. So we ask the users not to be surprised to see the street lighting on during the day and thank them for their comprehension. ST-FM Group

  19. [Sharing and distrusting: street merchants' view of children in street situations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Suárez, Diana M; Giraldo-Puerta, Alexandra; Giraldo-Pineda, Álvaro; Forero-Pulido, Constanza

    2016-06-01

    Objective To understand the meanings, through the description of experiences that street merchants have of their interactions with children in a street situation in downtown of Medellin in 2013. Methodology Qualitative investigation with ethnographic approach. Observations were made in the zone at different times of the day. Twelve interviews with street merchants were held in their work places. Records were kept in a field journal. Results The street merchants and children in street situations share the same space. Both groups try to survive and their relationship is mediated by the trust-distrust that is established between them. The coexistence generates ambivalent feelings. For the street merchants, children in street situations are the result of abandonment by the family, the state and society. They live in a hard world in which they are exposed to a series of risks that they must face. Conclusion The interaction between street merchants and children in street situations is good to the extent that conflicts are avoided, establishing norms of coexistence. The element that determines this relationship is trust-distrust. In trust, strong affective ties are generated, considering each other family. Distrust generates a preventative attitude.

  20. Universal design characteristic on themed streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsritanto, Bangun IR; Indriastjario; Wijayanti

    2017-12-01

    People around the world can access the streets to fulfil their daily activities regardless of their gender, age, and abilities. The streetscape is an urban public space which is built to facilitate the basic needs of people as social being. The themed street is an urban streetscape designed and built in detail with a theme or special purpose in an of urban development process. Universal design facilitates the full range of human diversity as physical appearance, perception, cognitive abilities, sizes, and shapes. By designing for the diversity, the specialized streets become more functional and user-friendly. The purpose of this study is to examine several design characteristics of themed streets in several countries from three different continents using universal design principles for giving proper directions to develop more user-friendly streets. Literature review and case study were used as research methods. The literature review was extracted and compiled from manuscripts, streetscape design books, and from universal design principles. Furthermore, the constructed theory were used to examine the case studies of themed streets. The findings indicated that themed streets’ character design were strongly influenced by local cultural aspect even though the basic guidelines were universal design principles; the resumed design direction can be suggested universal along with the richness of local aspects.

  1. IL-6/IL-12 Cytokine Receptor Shuffling of Extra- and Intracellular Domains Reveals Canonical STAT Activation via Synthetic IL-35 and IL-39 Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floss, D M; Schönberg, M; Franke, M; Horstmeier, F C; Engelowski, E; Schneider, A; Rosenfeldt, E M; Scheller, J

    2017-11-09

    IL-35 and IL-39 are recently discovered shared members of the IL-6- and IL-12-type cytokine family with immune-suppressive capacity. IL-35 has been reported to induce the formation of four different receptor complexes: gp130:IL-12β2, gp130:gp130, IL-12β2:IL-12β2, and IL-12β2:WSX-1. IL-39 was proposed to form a gp130:IL-23R receptor complex. IL-35, but not IL-39, has been reported to activate non-conventional STAT signaling, depending on the receptor complex and target cell. Analyses of IL-35 and IL-39 are, however, hampered by the lack of biologically active recombinant IL-35 and IL-39 proteins. Therefore, we engineered chimeric cytokine receptors to accomplish synthetic IL-35 and IL- 39 signaling by shuffling the extra- and intracellular domains of IL-6/IL-12-type cytokine receptors, resulting in biological activity for all previously described IL-35 receptor complexes. Moreover, we found that the proposed IL-39 receptor complex is biologically active and discovered two additional biologically active synthetic receptor combinations, gp130/IL-12Rβ1 and IL-23R/IL-12Rβ2. Surprisingly, synthetic IL-35 activation led to more canonical STAT signaling of all receptor complexes. In summary, our receptor shuffling approach highlights an interchangeable, modular domain structure among IL-6- and IL-12-type cytokine receptors and enabled synthetic IL-35 and IL-39 signaling.

  2. IL-22R Ligands IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24 Promote Wound Healing in Diabetic db/db Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolumam, Ganesh; Wu, Xiumin; Lee, Wyne P; Hackney, Jason A; Zavala-Solorio, Jose; Gandham, Vineela; Danilenko, Dimitry M; Arora, Puneet; Wang, Xiaoting; Ouyang, Wenjun

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) are one of the major complications in type II diabetes patients and can result in amputation and morbidity. Although multiple approaches are used clinically to help wound closure, many patients still lack adequate treatment. Here we show that IL-20 subfamily cytokines are upregulated during normal wound healing. While there is a redundant role for each individual cytokine in this subfamily in wound healing, mice deficient in IL-22R, the common receptor chain for IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, display a significant delay in wound healing. Furthermore, IL-20, IL-22 and IL-24 are all able to promote wound healing in type II diabetic db/db mice. Mechanistically, when compared to other growth factors such as VEGF and PDGF that accelerate wound healing in this model, IL-22 uniquely induced genes involved in reepithelialization, tissue remodeling and innate host defense mechanisms from wounded skin. Interestingly, IL-22 treatment showed superior efficacy compared to PDGF or VEGF in an infectious diabetic wound model. Taken together, our data suggest that IL-20 subfamily cytokines, particularly IL-20, IL-22, and IL-24, might provide therapeutic benefit for patients with DFU.

  3. Designing safe and inclusive streets in India | CRDI - Centre de ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    17 nov. 2016 ... Safe streets play a crucial role in enabling livelihoods, mobility, and access to services. In fast-growing Indian cities such as Ahmedabad, streets are also the site of conflict. With incomes and vehicle ownership on the rise, traffic has replaced people as the central point of street design. Vehicle-focused street ...

  4. StreetMekka - Ledelse af Københavns nye streetkulturhus

    OpenAIRE

    Gjelstrup, Mikkel

    2009-01-01

    Street culture is spreading out through the streets of Denmark and in the summer of 2009 the City of Copenhagen will open up an indoor street culture facility called StreetMekka. Moving street culture from its natural concrete habitat to a communal facility presents challenges. The City of Copenhagen has made official guideline for the StreetMekka facility to follow, but the free and self organized street culture is not an easy thing to keep within guidelines. This master thesis discusses fro...

  5. Public Reactions to New Street Tree Planting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth A. Rae

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available MillionTreesNYC, which has the goal of planting one million trees in New York City by 2017, is intended to make New York City a greener, more sustainable city and is part of the Mayor’s comprehensive long term strategic plan, PlaNYC. Through planting a tree at every suitable sidewalk location in the city, the City of New York is transforming blocks and communities, and providing a variety of environmental, social and aesthetic benefits. This article examines the large scale municipal planting of new street trees and the reaction by some of the pubic to this planting.Trees offer benefits to the city overall, but the public may not understand these benefits or the street tree planting process. Between 2007 and 2009, the Department of Parks & Recreation planted 53,235 new street trees, and received 4,108 items of correspondence from the public. The majority of this correspondence consisted of public comments about the City’s new street tree planting policies and processes including placement objections, maintenance concerns, reports of resultant damage from tree planting operations, requests for new street trees and reports of tree conditions.This study describes the operational policies that guide New York City's municipal street tree planting, and results of content and spatial analysis of the correspondence. Qualitative analysis of the correspondence revealed the public perceptions and concerns related to the MillionTreesNYC program. Spatial analysis explored the relationship between the planting locations of new street trees and the locations of the citizen correspondence.Public reactions to this large scale municipal planting are related to the dual public and private nature of the sidewalk, issues of territoriality, responsibility, aesthetics and place attachment. Correspondence volume was associated with the scale of the new street tree block planting program, and the effectiveness of NYC’s 311 Customer Service Center. The discussion

  6. Il nucleo terrestre: il cuore magnetico della Terra

    OpenAIRE

    De Santis, A.

    2006-01-01

    Il campo magnetico terrestre è una proprietà intrinseca del nostro pianeta e di altri oggetti del sistema solare. Il Sole stesso possiede un forte campo magnetico che si inverte quasi ciclicamente ogni 10-11 anni; tale comportamento è visibile attraverso la medesima ciclicità delle macchie solari che denotano sulla superficie l’intensa attività magnetica della nostra stella. Il campo magnetico terrestre è importantissimo per la vita sulla Terra. Esso protegge il pianeta dalle p...

  7. A Study on Evaluation for Street Space using AHP Method

    OpenAIRE

    小塚, みすず; 許, 彦; 川本, 義海; 本多, 義明

    2004-01-01

    Street space is an important public area which forms the framework of city space. In addition, from the view of the traffic functions, street space also plays a role to support people's activities performed in city. This paper examines the evaluations of street space among the cities of Fukui (Japan), Toyota (Japan) and Suzhou (China). Therefore, a questionnaire has been carried out and actual conditions of street space are grasped. In addition street functions were evaluated with the AHP met...

  8. Il libro di fisica

    CERN Document Server

    Asimov, Isaac

    1986-01-01

    Isaac Asimov, illustre studioso e brillante divulgatore scientifico, ma anche grandissimo scrittore di science fiction, ha costruito questa volta una vera e propria «biografia delle scienze fisiche». Il presente volume, che nel mondo anglosassone è diventato una «bibbia della fisica», ci introduce, in forma semplice ma rigorosa, ai segreti dei quasar e dei buchi neri, dei quark e degli acceleratori di particelle, dell'intelligenza artificiale e delle fonti di energia, sia essa quella «sporca» sia quella «pulita». Un vero, completo manuale, ma anche un «romanzo» affascinante sia per il profano sia per l'uomo di scienza.

  9. IL-6 enhances plasma IL-1ra, IL-10, and cortisol in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensberg, Adam; Fischer, Christian Philip; Keller, Charlotte

    2003-01-01

    compared with saline infusion. In addition, C-reactive protein increased 3 h post-rhIL-6 infusion and was further elevated 16 h later compared with saline infusion. rhIL-6 induced increased levels of plasma cortisol and, consequently, an increase in circulating neutrophils and a decrease in the lymphocyte......-alpha, enhances the levels not only of IL-1ra but also of IL-10. Furthermore, IL-6 induces an increase in cortisol and, consequently, in neutrocytosis and late lymphopenia to the same magnitude and with the same kinetics as during exercise, suggesting that muscle-derived IL-6 has a central role in exercise...

  10. Road and Street Centerlines - COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN: Street Centerlines Maintained by County Agencies in Indiana (Indiana Department of Homeland Security, Line Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — COUNTY_STREET_CENTERLINES_IDHS_IN is a line feature class that contains street centerlines maintained by county agencies in Indiana, provided by personnel of Indiana...

  11. The social world of street children : street children's peer friendship, group life and subculture in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Fikre, Kaleab

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to explore the street children’s social world, focusing on their peer friendship, group life, and street subculture in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. The study shows how street children’s peer friendship, street group, and subculture are part and parcel of children’s quest for survival in the street in the absence of guardians conventionally considered as responsible for the provision and protection of children. The main perspective of the study is grounded in the p...

  12. Street Children as M arginal People: The Relationship between Life History and Social Networks on the Street

    OpenAIRE

    SUCHARITKUL, Juthathip

    2007-01-01

    This paper assumes that street children are victims of socioeconomic development policy. As a consequence of the street life experience, children are labeled as street children by society and their way of their life is different from ordinary children, thus pushing them to become marginalized people. The purpose of this paper is to examine the Street Children phenomenon, and especially to study the relationship between their life history and personal networks on the street. The focus is to...

  13. IL-33 Enhanced the Proliferation and Constitutive Production of IL-13 and IL-5 by Fibrocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hisako Hayashi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin-33 appears to play important roles in the induction of allergic airway inflammation. However, whether IL-33 is involved in airway remodeling remains unclear. Because fibrocytes contribute to tissue remodeling in the setting of chronic inflammation, we examined the effects of IL-33 on fibrocyte functions. Fibrocytes were generated in vitro from peripheral blood mononuclear cells by culturing in the presence of platelet derived growth factors and the cells were stimulated with IL-33. IL-33 enhanced cell proliferation, α-SMA expression, and pro-MMP-9 activity by the fibrocytes without increasing endogenous transforming growth factor-β1 production. Fibrocytes constitutively expressed IL-13 and IL-5, and their production was augmented by stimulation with IL-33. Dexamethasone inhibited the functions of fibrocytes, but IL-33 made fibrocytes slightly refractory to the inhibitory effect of dexamethasone in terms of IL-13 production. Montelukast suppressed IL-13 production by nonstimulated fibrocytes but not those stimulated by IL-33. These findings suggest that IL-33 is involved in the airway remodeling process through its modulation of fibrocyte function independent of antigen stimulation. IL-33 might partially reduce the therapeutic effects of glucocorticoid and cysteinyl leukotriene receptor antagonist on fibrocyte-mediated Th2 responses.

  14. Generative Street Addresses from Satellite Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlke Demir

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe our automatic generative algorithm to create street addresses from satellite images by learning and labeling roads, regions, and address cells. Currently, 75% of the world’s roads lack adequate street addressing systems. Recent geocoding initiatives tend to convert pure latitude and longitude information into a memorable form for unknown areas. However, settlements are identified by streets, and such addressing schemes are not coherent with the road topology. Instead, we propose a generative address design that maps the globe in accordance with streets. Our algorithm starts with extracting roads from satellite imagery by utilizing deep learning. Then, it uniquely labels the regions, roads, and structures using some graph- and proximity-based algorithms. We also extend our addressing scheme to (i cover inaccessible areas following similar design principles; (ii be inclusive and flexible for changes on the ground; and (iii lead as a pioneer for a unified street-based global geodatabase. We present our results on an example of a developed city and multiple undeveloped cities. We also compare productivity on the basis of current ad hoc and new complete addresses. We conclude by contrasting our generative addresses to current industrial and open solutions.

  15. Notes on LED Installations in Street Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeta Spunei

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a study made on choosing LED street lighting installations, such that the quality requirements for exterior artificial lighting are fulfilled. We analyze two types of LED street lighting installations from a technical point of view, together with lighting level and brightness values obtained during the measurements. Following on the field measurements, the lighting quality parameters are calculated, and, for the lighting installation with the best performance, optimal mounting suggestions are made. The optimal quality parameters are calculated by simulations using the Dialux software. The same software and the same light sources we also compute an optimal street lighting by determining the size of the installation that provides the best lighting parameter values.

  16. Lead in Glasgow street dirt and soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, J G [Univ. of Glasgow; Lyon, T D.B.

    1977-07-01

    The levels of lead in city street dirt and in soil from various locations in Glasgow were investigated during spring 1976. Lead concentrations in street dirt ranged from 150 to 2300 ppM, mean 960 ppM, and were significantly elevated with respect to the observed ''natural'' level of 78 ppM. Lead derived from anti-knock compounds in petrol and introduced to the environment via automobile exhausts was clearly implicated as the main source of lead pollution in a series of soil lead measurements at the centre and periphery of eight Glasgow parks. Various chemical leaching techniques were employed and compared. Less than 5 percent of street dirt and soil lead was found to be associated with the organic phase.

  17. Risk behaviour of street children in Colombo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senaratna, B C V; Wijewardana, B V N

    2012-09-01

    Sri Lankan street children live in insecure and disadvantaged environments and have disrupted and poorly functioning families resulting in their poor socialisation. In this backdrop they are at high risk of adopting delinquent and antisocial behaviour and becoming victims of abuse. Despite recognition of this as a social problem, an in-depth exploration of their behaviour and its correlates has not been attempted. To describe risk behaviour among street children in Colombo city and the determinants of such behaviour. A cross sectional qualitative study in Colombo Fort, Pettah, Slave Island, and Maradana areas was conducted using focus group discussions (FGDs) with street children and semi-structured interviews (SSIs) with street children and key informants in their environment. Data generated were used to profile 283 children identified through referral sampling. An observation study was conducted to validate data generated through FGDs and SSIs. Semi-structured questionnaires, a moderator guide, an interviewer-administered questionnaire, and an observational checklist were used for SSIs, FGDs, profiling, and observational study, respectively. Majority of street children were boys and were aged 14 years or less. Nearly 18% lived alone without a guardian. Two thirds had never enrolled in a school. Many children were used for begging, neglecting their health vulnerabilities. Occupational risk behaviour included heavy manual labour, transportation and sale of illicit alcohol and narcotics, robbing/pick-pocketing, commercial sex work, and pimping. Recreational risk behaviour included abuse of alcohol/narcotics, smoking, sexual promiscuity, and patronising commercial sex workers. Increased awareness and strategies are required to minimise threats to street children and society.

  18. Street children of India -- a glimpse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S

    1994-01-01

    In India, 90% of street children are working children with regular family ties who live with their families, but are on the streets due to poverty and their parents' unemployment. The remaining 10% are either working children with few family ties who view the streets as their homes or abandoned and neglected children with no family ties. The National Policy for Children established in 1974 emphasizes the provision of equal opportunities for the development to all children during their growing years. Policy stresses programs to maintain, educate, and train destitute children and orphans. Policy is also to protect children against neglect, cruelty, and exploitation, but this is only on paper. An UNICEF study found that almost 40,000 children die every day in developing countries, 25% of whom are in India. Studies in some major cities indicate that the street children in India are of moderate health status, suffering from various chronic diseases and undernourishment. They are deprived of all health programs, but seem to prefer government hospitals in case of dire need. Street children often have to pay for water. Almost 97% in Calcutta, 99% in Bangalore, and 90% in Madras reported having no access to toilet and bathing facilities; 83% in Kanpur, however, had access to such facilities. Nothing has been heard in recent years of the National Children's Board established in 1975. Apparently the board has gradually waned. Various schemes were planned in 1992 by the Union Welfare Ministry in association with UNICEF. Extending extra health facilities, establishing nutrition programs, providing vocational training, protecting children from abuse, distributing dry-food polypacks, providing night shelters, providing ration cards, and creating bathing and toilet facilities would go far in improving the quality of life and the future of street children in India.

  19. Il GEOatleta moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bartoli

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Nell'ultimo decennio gli straordinari sforzi tecnologici hanno evoluto il settore geomatico e portato enormi vantaggi nell'ambito dei cosiddetti servizi a valore aggiunto. Tuttavia la svalutazione commerciale del sistema di navigazione satellitare ha fatto del navigatore un oggetto di uso comune, quasi alla pari del più quotato telefono cellulare. Scemata la corsa al cellulare più modaiolo è subentrata quella al navigatore satellitare più tecnologico con cartografia e punti di interesse più aggiornati. E' assai frequente trovare commercializzazioni degli operatori di telefonia che unisconoal dispositivo mobile il sistema di navigazione, grazie anche apolitiche di businness agreement tra le varie major. L'utilizzo dei dispositivi GPS è davvero ancora arenato alla semplice ricerca di un percorso o di un indirizzo da raggiungere? L'usodi tali apparecchiature può inserirsi all'interno di target quali l'intrattenimento e le attività ricreative? Negli ultimi anni stiamo riscoprendo la bellezza della natura e il piacere di dedicarci ad una serie di attività sportive outdoor che ci conciliano con essa, unendo ai benefici della mente quelli del corpo derivanti da una corretta sollecitazione della propria frequenza cardiaca. Questa mia relazione vuole essere un diario di viaggio nelle quotidiane attività all'aria aperta di un atleta non professionista, praticate durante le quattro stagioni sfruttando le tecnologie legate alla triangolazione satellitare.

  20. Il muro nella mente:

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Concilio

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A 78 anni, Nadine Gordimer, premio Nobel per la letteratura nel 1991, è infaticabile: il suo ultimo romanzo The Pick up è stato pubblicato negli Stati Uniti e in Inghilterra, dove ha ricevuto però tiepida accoglienza,e ora anche in Italia1. Alcuni mesi fa, tuttavia, Nadine Gordimer veniva ricordata dai giornali per un’impresa non letteraria: si tratta di un film-documentario dal titolo Johannesburg-Berlin, The Wall in the Mind, che Gordimer ha scritto e che ha girato con suo figlio, Hugo Cassirer, nel 1995-1996.

  1. Street Cries and the urban refrain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kreutzfeldt, Jacob

    2012-01-01

    Rasmussen have investigated Danish street cries as respectably a musical and a spatial phenomenon. Such studies – from each their perspectives – can be said to explore the aesthetics of urban environments, since street calls are specifically developed and heard in the context of the city. Investigating...... the different methods employed in the two studies and presenting Deleuze and Guattaris theory about the refrain as a framework for further studies in the field, this article seeks to outline a fertile area of study for sound studies: the investigation of everyday refrains and the environmental relations...

  2. Citygml and the Streets of New York - a Proposal for Detailed Street Space Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beil, C.; Kolbe, T. H.

    2017-10-01

    Three-dimensional semantic city models are increasingly used for the analysis of large urban areas. Until now the focus has mostly been on buildings. Nonetheless many applications could also benefit from detailed models of public street space for further analysis. However, there are only few guidelines for representing roads within city models. Therefore, related standards dealing with street modelling are examined and discussed. Nearly all street representations are based on linear abstractions. However, there are many use cases that require or would benefit from the detailed geometrical and semantic representation of street space. A variety of potential applications for detailed street space models are presented. Subsequently, based on related standards as well as on user requirements, a concept for a CityGML-compliant representation of street space in multiple levels of detail is developed. In the course of this process, the CityGML Transportation model of the currently valid OGC standard CityGML2.0 is examined to discover possibilities for further developments. Moreover, a number of improvements are presented. Finally, based on open data sources, the proposed concept is implemented within a semantic 3D city model of New York City generating a detailed 3D street space model for the entire city. As a result, 11 thematic classes, such as roadbeds, sidewalks or traffic islands are generated and enriched with a large number of thematic attributes.

  3. Il bilinguismo disegnato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Favaro

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Il tema della diversità linguistica e del riconoscimento e della valorizzazione delle forme di bilinguismo dei bambini e dei ragazzi è cruciale nella scuola multiculturale e plurilingue. Ma quale rappresentazione della “mente bilingue” hanno i parlanti una o più lingue? Come immaginano la testa di chi e bilingue e dove collocano le diverse parole? Abbiamo chiesto agli alunni, piccoli e grandi, di alcune scuole di “disegnare il bilinguismo”: emergono in maniera vivida i “posti” diversi in cui le lingue si installano, i dubbi e le spiegazioni dei bambini, la necessità del controllo e la coloritura affettiva dell’uno e dell’altro idioma.  Drawing bilingualism The theme of linguistic diversity and the recognition and appreciation of forms of bilingualism in children and young people is crucial in a multilingual, multicultural school environment. But how do speakers of one or more languages imagine a “bilingual mind”? How do they imagine a bilingual person’s head and where are the different words located? We asked school children to “draw bilingualism”. The “placement” of the different languages, the children’s doubts and explanations and their need to check and the affective coloring of one and the other language emerged.

  4. Clinical significance of determination of changes of serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with chronic renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Congjiang; Li Fen; Zhang Lei; Liu Jianhua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the changes of serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with chronic renal diseases. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 levels were determined with RIA and IL-18 levels with ELISA in 32 patients with chronic renal diseases both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum IL -6, IL-8, IL-10 and IL-18 levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). After 6 months of treatment, the levels though dropped markedly remained significantly higher (P<0.05). Conclusion: Levels of serum IL-6, IL- 8, IL-10 and IL-18 increased significantly in patients with chronic renal diseases, especially in those advanced cases. (authors)

  5. Internalization of interleukin 1 (IL 1) correlates with IL 1-induced IL 2 receptor expression and IL 2 secretion of EL4 thymoma cells

    OpenAIRE

    Von Hoegen, I.; Falk, Werner; Kojouharoff, G.; Krammer, P. H.

    1989-01-01

    The cytokine interleukin 1 (IL 1) plays an important role in the induction of IL 2 secretion and high-affinity IL 2 receptor (IL 2R) expression by T cells. The events that follow binding of IL 1 to IL 1R, however, are still unknown. In this study we describe two variants of the murine thymoma EL4 (5D3 and D6/76) that express comparable numbers of cell surface IL 1 receptors and bind IL 1 with the same affinity, but show distinct IL 1-dependent IL 2 secretion and IL 2R expression. In the prese...

  6. Il danno alla persona del lavoratore: il mobbing orizzontale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Gentile

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Sommario:1. Il mobbing tra diritto civile e diritto del lavoro – 2. Il fenomeno mobbing: gli studi iniziali e la definizione – 3. Le concrete condotte integranti fattispecie di mobbing – 4. Onere della prova – 5. Il mobbing orizzontale – 6. L’elemento soggettivo di colpevolezza del da­tore di lavoro nella responsabilità ex art. 2087 c.c. per mobbing orizzontale

  7. PATTERNS OF SUBSTANCE ABUSE AMONG KENYAN STREET ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sample of 50 (36 male and 14 female) street children currently in a remand home at Kabete in Nairobi, Kenya, were interviewed using a predesigned questionnaire in order to estimate prevalence rates for use of selected substances. The lifetime prevalence rates of the drugs most commonly used were volatile ...

  8. Wall Street sours on nuke plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1984-01-01

    Wall Street has been threatening to join the antinuclear campaign for years as construction lead times and costs grew and the financial condition of utilities building reactors deteriorated. With nuclear plant cancellations, licensing problems, quality-assurance breakdowns, and elevated costs, stock prices have dropped causing unrest among utility investors

  9. Smart street lights using power line communication

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Toit, P

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The increasing popularity of automation has resulted in the development of “smart” systems for a variety of different applications. One such application is street lighting which still mostly uses very primitive methods of maintenance. The use...

  10. [Agnosia for streets and defective root finding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Nobuyoshi

    2011-08-01

    Topographical disorientation is identified as a condition in which patients are unable to find their way in familiar surroundings, such as their home neighborhood or the admitting hospital after the onset of illness. I proposed to classify topographical disorientation into two categories: agnosia for streets (landmark agnosia) and defective root finding (heading disorientation). Patients with agnosia for streets are unable to identify familiar buildings and landscapes. They can, however, morphologically perceive them and remember their way around familiar areas. The lesions are located in the right posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus, anterior half of the lingual gyrus and adjacent fusiform gyrus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions play a crucial role in the interaction between the visual information of streets and memories of them, which are thought to be retained in the right anterior part of the temporal lobe. In particular, the posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus is critical for the acquisition of novel information. On the other hand, patients with defective root finding can identify familiar streets, but cannot remember their own location or positional relation between two points within a comparatively wide range not surveyable at one time. The lesions are located in the right retrosplenial cortex (Areas 29, 30), posterior cingulate cortex (Areas 23, 31) and precuneus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions are involved in the orientation function for navigating in wide spaces. In particular, the retrosplenial cortex is critical for encoding novel information.

  11. Vortex Cloud Street during AMTEX 75

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Otto; Agee, E. M.

    1978-01-01

    Strong northerly flow across Cheju Island, Korea, during the 1975 Air Mass Transformation Experiment (AMTEX 75) resulted in a pronounced vortex cloud street to the lee of the island on February 17 1975. This pattern has been studied and explained in terms of classical von Karman eddies shed...

  12. CONSUMPTION PATTERNS OF STREET FOOD CONSUMERS IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    diet of people living in low- and middle-income countries ... market for SF consumers in Cape Town. However, most ... beverages prepared and/or sold by vendors and hawkers ... many street-food items sold are unhealthy ...... going children in lower-income groups, who may ... The dangers of regular consumption of sugar-.

  13. Opportunities and constraints facing informal street traders ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A small income and the limited ability of the government and the formal business sector to provide sufficient employment opportunities to people in the economically active age categories are two of the main reasons for informal trading in South African cities. As a result, the informal street trading sector plays an important ...

  14. The Earl Lee Street Art Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bubba

    2013-01-01

    This article describes a catchy phrase with more to its meaning than first view. A slogan "All the girls love Earl Lee," appears in street art around the world. Earl Lee is a lovable, handsome man who owns the fictitious Earl Lube industries. Originally intended to bring a smile to people's faces at a time when there wasn't much to smile…

  15. Social Sustainability of Shopping Streets in Ankara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özge YALÇINER ERCOŞKUN

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Shopping streets are integral parts of public spaces in traditional shopping areas of Central Business Districts (CBD. Furthermore, as modern shopping venues, shopping centers offer advantages for modern lifestyles with spacious shopping areas, variety of commercial and social activities, and economic value of their investments. These advantages act in favor of shopping centers and improve the level of shopping street social sustainability and its relevant concepts. The aim of this study is to analyze the main shopping streets of Ankara, using the concepts of social sustainability. In this study, these concepts, such as locality, identity, vitality, viability, sense of place, conviviality, meaning and local characteristics of the shopping streets are investigated. For the first time, the retail unit locations in Ankara, their brands and their business types, are illustrated on thematic land use maps using Geographical Information Systems (GIS software. Next, population activities and consumer spatial behavior are observed and marked on maps that are also referred to as social sustainability maps. The results of the study can be useful in formulating strategies within the framework of social sustainability, which is a relatively new concept.

  16. Agnosia for streets and defective root finding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Nobuyoshi

    2011-01-01

    Topographical disorientation is identified as a condition in which patients are unable to find their way in familiar surroundings, such as their home neighborhood or the admitting hospital after the onset of illness. I proposed to classify topographical disorientation into two categories: agnosia for streets (landmark agnosia) and defective root finding (heading disorientation). Patients with agnosia for streets are unable to identify familiar buildings and landscapes. They can, however, morphologically perceive them and remember their way around familiar areas. The lesions are located in the right posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus, anterior half of the lingual gyrus and adjacent fusiform gyrus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions play a crucial role in the interaction between the visual information of streets and memories of them, which are thought to be retained in the right anterior part of the temporal lobe. In particular, the posterior part of the parahippocampus gyrus is critical for the acquisition of novel information. On the other hand, patients with defective root finding can identify familiar streets, but cannot remember their own location or positional relation between two points within a comparatively wide range not surveyable at one time. The lesions are located in the right retrosplenial cortex (Areas 29, 30), posterior cingulate cortex (Areas 23, 31) and precuneus. Clinical findings and functional imaging studies suggest that these regions are involved in the orientation function for navigating in wide spaces. In particular, the retrosplenial cortex is critical for encoding novel information. (author)

  17. Turbulent ventilation of a street canyon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Morten

    2000-01-01

    A selection of turbulence data corresponding to 185 days of field measurements has een analysed. The non-ideal building geometry influenced the circulation patterns in the street canyon and the largest average vertical velocities were observed in the wake of an unbroken line of buildings. The sta...

  18. Travel Time Estimation on Urban Street Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Kajalić

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Level of service (LOS is used as the main indicator of transport quality on urban roads and it is estimated based on the travel speed. The main objective of this study is to determine which of the existing models for travel speed calculation is most suitable for local conditions. The study uses actual data gathered in travel time survey on urban streets, recorded by applying second by second GPS data. The survey is limited to traffic flow in saturated conditions. The RMSE method (Root Mean Square Error is used for research results comparison with relevant models: Akcelik, HCM (Highway Capacity Manual, Singapore model and modified BPR (the Bureau of Public Roads function (Dowling - Skabardonis. The lowest deviation in local conditions for urban streets with standardized intersection distance (400-500 m is demonstrated by Akcelik model. However, for streets with lower signal density (<1 signal/km the correlation between speed and degree of saturation is best presented by HCM and Singapore model. According to test results, Akcelik model was adopted for travel speed estimation which can be the basis for determining the level of service in urban streets with standardized intersection distance and coordinated signal timing under local conditions.

  19. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage ...

  20. Streets? Where We're Going, We Don't Need Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.

    2017-12-01

    In 2007 Google Street View started as a project to provide 360-degree imagery along streets, but in the decade since has evolved into a platform through which to explore everywhere from the slope of everest, to the middle of the Amazon rainforest to under the ocean. As camera technology has evolved it has also become a tool for ground truthing maps, and provided scientific observations, storytelling and education. The Google Street View "special collects" team has undertaken increasingly more challenging projects across 80+ countries and every continent. All of which culminated in possibly the most ambitious collection yet, the capture of Street View on board the International Space Station. Learn about the preparation and obstacles behind this and other special collects. Explore these datasets through both Google Earth and Google Expeditions VR, an educational tool to take students on virtual field trips using 360 degree imagery.

  1. Tobacco Taxation, Smuggling, and Street Tobacco Vendors in Eritrea

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The bulk of the smuggled cigarettes are sold by street vendors, many of them women and children, ... and its implications for government revenue;; identify the reasons why people sell on the streets; and, ... Agent(e) responsable du CRDI.

  2. Reproductive health behaviour of street youth and associated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-03-30

    Mar 30, 2014 ... street, alcohol drinking, cigarette smoking and khat chewing. Among the .... Street youth: In this study, youth is defined as the people ... factors that influence sexual behaviours of ... means of preventing pregnancy. Condom ...

  3. Il bizzarro mondo dei quanti

    CERN Document Server

    Camejo, Silvia Arroyo

    2008-01-01

    Scritto prima dell'esame di maturità da una giovane di eccezionale talento, questo libro colma il vuoto esistente tra la letteratura divulgativa sulla fisica quantistica, che normalmente evita ogni formula matematica, e la letteratura specialistica, ben farcita, invece, di matematica avanzata. L'autrice, appena diciannovenne, con l'ausilio della sola matematica della scuola superiore, introduce il lettore ai principi della fisica dei quanti. Se ne ricava uno sguardo profondo sul microcosmo, il regno affascinante delle particelle elementari: oggetti il cui comportamento si distingue in modo drastico e fondamentale da tutto ciò a cui è avvezzo il nostro umano buonsenso. "Un libro... che avrei desiderato avere a 17 anni". Silvia Arroyo Camejo "In modo assolutamente preciso dal punto di vista fisico, l'autrice spiega con grande passione e divertimento i fondamenti della moderna fisica quantistica ... " Prof. Reinhold A. Bertlmann "Un libro stupefacente di un'autrice straordinaria! Si avverte il suo entusiasmo ...

  4. Il paesaggio dell’architettura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Zermani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available l saggio si articola come un’itinerario tra alcuni progetti italiani proposti come “occasioni di applicazione di un modo d’intendere l’architettura nel rapporto con il paesaggio smarrito, che cambia, ma potrebbe custodire ancora i valori di ciò che Heidegger definiva il “soggiorno”: la riconoscibilità intesa come misura”. Le architetture, come strumenti di conoscenza dello spazio, entrano nel paesaggio per diventarne speciali “misuratori”.Partendo dai luoghi del paesaggio padano, Noceto, con il Nuovo Municipio, con la minimale Cappella della Madonna, con il Padiglione privato, e Varano, con la Casa dal grande occhio spalancato sul bosco, alle terre umbre, con la Chiesa ed il Centro Parrocchiale di Perugia ed il Cimitero di Sansepolcro, si propone un percorso di ricerca di una identità dell’architettura italiana contemporanea nella dimensione paesaggistica. 

  5. Mimesis e il giallo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minne de Boer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Recensione di: Ilaria Marzia Orsini, Donne in giallo: la detective story tra genere e gender, Milano/Udine, Mimesis/DeGenere – USB Ultra Slim Books, 2014, 128 p., ISBN: 97888575245680, € 11,00. Bruna Durante, Specchio delle mie trame: la vita secondo dieci scrittori italiani. Con interviste a Eraldo Baldini, Gianni Biondillo, Giancarlo De Cataldo, Giorgio Faletti, Marcello Fois, Carlo Lucarelli, Raul Montanari, Santo Piazzese, Andrea G. Pinketts, Gaetano Savatteri, Milano/Udine, Mimesis/DeGenere, 2014, 180 p., ISBN: 9788857518176, € 13,60.Carlo Oliva, Giallo popolare: il poliziesco alla radio, a cura di Nicoletta Di Ciolla e Nicoletta Vallorani, Milano/Udine, Mimesis/DeGenere, 2013, 150 p., ISBN: 9788857518183, € 12,00.

  6. Il GEOatleta moderno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Bartoli

    2006-12-01

    di tali apparecchiature può inserirsi all'interno di target quali l'intrattenimento e le attività ricreative? Negli ultimi anni stiamo riscoprendo la bellezza della natura e il piacere di dedicarci ad una serie di attività sportive outdoor che ci conciliano con essa, unendo ai benefici della mente quelli del corpo derivanti da una corretta sollecitazione della propria frequenza cardiaca. Questa mia relazione vuole essere un diario di viaggio nelle quotidiane attività all'aria aperta di un atleta non professionista, praticate durante le quattro stagioni sfruttando le tecnologie legate alla triangolazione satellitare.

  7. Il cumulo dei redditi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. BARATTIERI

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available L’imposizione dei redditi familiari è diffusa nella maggior parte dei paesi sviluppati, seppure con varianti profondamente diverse per mitigare l’onere. La tassazione separata è in vigore solo in Canada, Grecia e Nuova Zelanda, on chè , tra i paesi latini, in Argentina. Non sempre però la tassazione separata risulta più favorevole, in quanto alcune forme peculiari del cumulo, quali “splitting” ed il quoziente familiare, consentono un trattamento preferenziale per le famiglie rispetto ai nn coniugati. I vantaggi del quoziente familiare sono ancora maggiori , specie per le famiglie numerose, e questo sembra anacronistico in un momento in cui vi è larga convergenza d’opinioni sull’opportunità di non incoraggiare l’espansione demografica.

  8. Il fiore e la pietra

    OpenAIRE

    Hirsch, Debora

    2012-01-01

    Il fiore e la pietra è un progetto di scultura urbana per una piazza della città di Torino. Il tema trae la sua prima ispirazione dal fumetto B.C. di Johnny Hart: un fragile fiore dialoga con una pietra. Lʼambiguità tra solidità e fragilità è simbolicamente accostata alla situazione avversa in cui si trova lʼindustria torinese per eccellenza, FIAT, e al problema dei quartieri dormitori. Il contesto nel quale venne realizzato il progetto è tuttora sintomatico di una situazione ...

  9. Role of periostin, FENO, IL-13, lebrikzumab, other IL-13 antagonist and dual IL-4/IL-13 antagonist in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Swati; Townley, Robert G

    2014-02-01

    Asthma markedly diminishes quality of life due to limited activity, absences from work or school and hospitalizations. Patients with severe asthma which are not controlled despite taking effective therapy are most in need of new treatment approaches. IL-13 was demonstrated as 'central mediator of allergic asthma'. IL-13 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and COPD. IL-13 levels in the sputum and bronchial biopsy samples remain elevated in severe asthma despite the use of inhaled and systemic corticosteroids. Thus, IL-13 is a mediator involved in corticosteroid resistance. Periostin enhances profibrotic TGF-β signaling in subepithelial fibrosis associated with asthma. IL-13 induces bronchial epithelial cells to secrete periostin. Periostin may be a biomarker for Th2 induced airway inflammation. Lebrikizumab is a monoclonal antibody against IL-13. Lebrikizumab improved lung function in asthmatics who were symptomatic despite treatment with long acting beta agonist and inhaled corticosteroids and provided benefit in the treatment of severe uncontrolled asthma. Lebrikizumab block IL-13 signaling through the IL-13Rα1/IL-4Rα receptor. There was a larger reduction in FENO in the high periostin subgroup than in the low periostin subgroup (34.4 vs 4.3%). Serum CCL17, CCL13 and total IgE levels decreased in the lebrikizumab group.

  10. POLICY EVALUATION OF RESTRUCTURING STREET VENDORS IN SURAKARTA CITY (Study of Street Vendors in Monument Park Banjarsari and Street Vendors in Manahan Stadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frahlevi Prajasari

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the policy evaluation of restructuring street vendors in Surakarta city. Street vendors represent the economic actors in the informal sector of urban economic activity. The government of City/District usually removes these street vendors by disguising this activity behind the reason of structuring, . The study used descriptive research with a qualitative approach. The relocation of street vendors in Surakarta City is orderly and smooth without violence which may impact badly on physic and material because the government of Surakarta City, especially Surakarta Mayor, uses persuasive approach. Notoharjo Market is a relocation place for street vendors at Banjarsari Monument Park. In the beginning, Notoharjo Market is crowded with buyers but current days, street vendors who occupy Notoharjo Market complain about lack of buyers. The lack of buyers at Notoharjo Market is because the facilities previously provided by the government of Surakarta City are not well maintained. The government of Surakarta City must listening all complains of street vendors for the smoothness and orderliness of trading activity of street vendors. Not only listening, but the government of Surakarta City also gives appropriate and best solution to street vendors such that street vendors feel comfort in selling and their income is better than before.

  11. Socio - demographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Involvement of children in street trading is inimical, contrary to the Rights of the Child, and threatens holistic child development. Objective: To describe the sociodemographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi. Method: A cross-sectional questionnaire survey of children selling wares on the streets of ...

  12. Street Food Consumption and its associated socio-demographic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street Food Consumption and its associated socio-demographic factors in Oyo town, Nigeria. ... Abstract. Background: Contemporary life-styles have made street foods to be an important meal option in Nigeria. They contribute ... Nutrition education is suggested for people to make a better choice of nourishing street foods.

  13. Psychosocial profile of institutionalised street children in Alexandria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The phenomenon of street children in Egypt constitutes a public health concern. This study aimed to investigate the characteristics of institutionalised street children in Alexandria, to compare the prevalence of substance abuse and conduct disorder between street children and school children, and to identify ...

  14. An Art of Resistance: From the Street to the Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Rooted in graffiti culture and its attitude toward the world, street art is regarded as a postgraffiti movement. Street art encompasses a wide array of media and techniques, such as traditional spray-painted tags, stickers, stencils, posters, photocopies, murals, paper cutouts, mosaics, street installations, performances, and video projections…

  15. Socio-demographic characteristics of street children in rural ... - Ibadan

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    15.0%), part-time driving (9.5%) and car washing (5.0%) were the commonest types of work. Of those still schooling, 41.6% had no form of part-time work on the streets. None of the street children lived on the street with 65% still living with parents.

  16. IL-5 and IL-5 receptor in asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ATC Kotsimbos

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophils, along with mast cells are key cells involved in the innate immune response against parasitic infection whereas the adaptive immune response is largely dependent on lymphocytes. In chronic parasitic disease and in chronic allergic disease, IL-5 is predominantly a T cell derived cytokine which is particularly important for the terminal differentiation, activation and survival of committed eosinophil precursors. The human IL-5 gene is located on chromosome 5 in a gene cluster that contains the evolutionary related IL-4 family of cytokine genes. The human IL-5 receptor complex is a heterodimer consisting of a unique a subunit (predominantly expressed on eosinophils and a beta subunit which is shared between the receptors for IL-3 & GM-CSF (more widely expressed. The a subunit is required for ligand-specific binding whereas association with the beta subunit results in increased binding affinity. The alternative splicing of the alphaIL-5R gene which contains 14 exons can yield several alphaIL-5R isoforms including a membrane-anchored isoform (alphaIL-5Rm and a soluble isoform (alphaIL-5Rs. Cytokines such as IL-5 produce specific and non-specific cellular responses through specific cell membrane receptor mediated activation of intracellular signal transduction pathways which, to a large part, regulate gene expression. The major intracellular signal transduction mechanism is activation of non-receptor associated tyrosine kinases including JAK and MAP kinases which can then transduce signals via a novel family of transcriptional factors named signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATS. JAK2, STAT1 and STAT 5 appear to be particularly important in IL-5 mediated eosinophil responses. Asthma is characterized by episodic airways obstruction, increased bronchial responsiveness, and airway inflammation. Several studies have shown an association between the number of activated T cells and eosinophils in the airways and abnormalities

  17. The changes of IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IgE in serum of patients with asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chao; Liu Deyi; Hou Guihua; Wang Haodan

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship and the clinical significance between the serum IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IgE in patients with asthma, the serum IL-8, IL-10 are measured by radioimmunoassay method and the serum IL-12, IgE by ELISA in 55 patients with asthma. The level of serum IL-8, IgE at stage of episode are significantly higher than that at stage of remission (P<0.01); the level of serum IL-10, IL-12 at stage of episode are significantly lower than that at stage of remission (P<0.01). Linear regression shows that the decrease of IL-12 relate to the increase of IgE. The results suggests that the change of the level of serum IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and IgE could be a maker for the aggravation of asthma

  18. Study on the changes of serum IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF levels in patients with diabetic nephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qin Wenjing

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the changes of serum IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF levels in patients with diabetic nephrosis. Methods: Serum IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF levels were measured with RIA in 38 patients with diabetic nephrosis and 36 controls. Results: Serum levels of IL-6, IL-8 and TNF were significantly higher in patients with diabetic nephrosis than those in controls (P<0.01), but serum IL-2 levels were significantly lower in the patients (P<0.01). Conclusion: These cytokines participated in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephrosis. Monitoring the changes of their serum levels was helpful for the management of the disease. (authors)

  19. LES of flow in the street canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuka, Vladimír; Brechler, Josef

    2012-04-01

    Results of computer simulation of flow over a series of street canyons are presented in this paper. The setup is adapted from an experimental study by [4] with two different shapes of buildings. The problem is simulated by an LES model CLMM (Charles University Large Eddy Microscale Model) and results are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. The results in the channel (layout from the experiment) are compared with results with a free top boundary.

  20. Finding Street Gang Members on Twitter

    OpenAIRE

    Balasuriya, Lakshika; Wijeratne, Sanjaya; Doran, Derek; Sheth, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Most street gang members use Twitter to intimidate others, to present outrageous images and statements to the world, and to share recent illegal activities. Their tweets may thus be useful to law enforcement agencies to discover clues about recent crimes or to anticipate ones that may occur. Finding these posts, however, requires a method to discover gang member Twitter profiles. This is a challenging task since gang members represent a very small population of the 320 million Twitter users. ...

  1. 75 FR 71744 - Fifth Street Finance Corp., et al.; Notice of Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-24

    ... Street Finance Corp., et al.; Notice of Application November 18, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Street Finance Corp. (``Fifth Street''), Fifth Street Management LLC, Fifth Street Mezzanine Partners IV... regulated as a business development company (``BDC'') under the Act. Fifth Street is a specialty finance...

  2. Self-Localization at Street Intersections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusco, Giovanni; Shen, Huiying; Coughlan, James M

    2014-05-01

    There is growing interest among smartphone users in the ability to determine their precise location in their environment for a variety of applications related to wayfinding, travel and shopping. While GPS provides valuable self-localization estimates, its accuracy is limited to approximately 10 meters in most urban locations. This paper focuses on the self-localization needs of blind or visually impaired travelers, who are faced with the challenge of negotiating street intersections. These travelers need more precise self-localization to help them align themselves properly to crosswalks, signal lights and other features such as walk light pushbuttons. We demonstrate a novel computer vision-based localization approach that is tailored to the street intersection domain. Unlike most work on computer vision-based localization techniques, which typically assume the presence of detailed, high-quality 3D models of urban environments, our technique harnesses the availability of simple, ubiquitous satellite imagery (e.g., Google Maps) to create simple maps of each intersection. Not only does this technique scale naturally to the great majority of street intersections in urban areas, but it has the added advantage of incorporating the specific metric information that blind or visually impaired travelers need, namely, the locations of intersection features such as crosswalks. Key to our approach is the integration of IMU (inertial measurement unit) information with geometric information obtained from image panorama stitchings. Finally, we evaluate the localization performance of our algorithm on a dataset of intersection panoramas, demonstrating the feasibility of our approach.

  3. IL CAMPO GEOMAGNETICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. MOLINA

    1972-06-01

    Full Text Available Questo lavoro non è un trattato sul campo geomagnetico e nemmeno
    una rassegna sull'argomento, almeno nel significato che normalmente
    si attribuisce al termine « rassegna »; esso è semplicemente
    un tentativo di condensare in termini comprensibili agli studiosi non
    specializzati ciò che oggi si sa o si ipotizza sul magnetismo terrestre
    e sulle sue cause. Chi scrive si è sempre trovato a disagio di fronte
    alle richieste di una spiegazione sull'origine del campo magnetico
    terrestre: o si cerca di cavarsela con poche parole (« si tratta di correnti
    elettriche indotte nell'interno della Terra » che possono forse accontentare
    chi non si occupa in modo particolare di problemi scientifici
    ma non possono soddisfare un fisico, oppure ci si sente obbligati a
    tentare faticosamente di approfondire, sia per capirli personalmente
    che per poterli poi spiegare agli altri, argomenti e ragionamenti che
    sono in realtà accessibili solo a un fisico teorico ben preparato. Apparentemente
    non esiste una via di mezzo, come del resto in molti altri
    campi della fisica contemporanea.
    La presente monografia rappresenta appunto il tentativo di trovare
    questa via di mezzo: nel terzo capitolo, dedicato alle teorie sull'origine
    del campo geomagnetico, si cerca di descrivere qualitativamente
    i principali processi fisici proposti come sorgenti del campo,
    dopo un accenno ai fondamenti fisici e matematici sui quali sono state
    elaborate le varie teorie. Senza farmi soverchie illusioni di essere riuscito
    nell'intento, mi dichiarerei tuttavia soddisfatto se questo lavoro
    destasse sull'argomento l'interesse di qualche giovane ricercatore, incoraggiandolo
    ad un approfondimento.

  4. Il discreto e il continuo complementarita in matematica

    CERN Document Server

    Kuyk, Willem

    1982-01-01

    Nato dall'esperienza didattica dell'autore, il libro si presenta come un testo interdisciplinare di matematica e di filosofia, inteso a fornire un quadro complessivo dello stato attuale dei fondamenti della matematica.

  5. IFN-γ, IL-4 and IL-13 modulate responsiveness of human airway smooth muscle cells to IL-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michoud Marie-Claire

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IL-13 is a critical mediator of allergic asthma and associated airway hyperresponsiveness. IL-13 acts through a receptor complex comprised of IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα subunits with subsequent activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6. The IL-13Rα2 receptor may act as a decoy receptor. In human airway smooth muscle (HASM cells, IL-13 enhances cellular proliferation, calcium responses to agonists and induces eotaxin production. We investigated the effects of pre-treatment with IL-4, IL-13 and IFN-γ on the responses of HASM cells to IL-13. Methods Cultured HASM were examined for expression of IL-13 receptor subunits using polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Effects of cytokine pre-treatment on IL-13-induced cell responses were assessed by looking at STAT6 phosphorylation using Western blot, eotaxin secretion and calcium responses to histamine. Results IL-13Rα1, IL-4Rα and IL-13Rα2 subunits were expressed on HASM cells. IL-13 induced phosphorylation of STAT6 which reached a maximum by 30 minutes. Pre-treatment with IL-4, IL-13 and, to a lesser degree, IFN-γ reduced peak STAT6 phosphorylation in response to IL-13. IL-13, but not IFN-γ, pre-treatment abrogated IL-13-induced eotaxin secretion. Pre-treatment with IL-4 or IL-13 abrogated IL-13-induced augmentation of the calcium transient evoked by histamine. Cytokine pre-treatment did not affect expression of IL-13Rα1 and IL-4Rα but increased expression of IL-13Rα2. An anti-IL-13Rα2 neutralizing antibody did not prevent the cytokine pre-treatment effects on STAT6 phosphorylation. Cytokine pre-treatment increased SOCS-1, but not SOCS-3, mRNA expression which was not associated with significant increases in protein expression. Conclusion Pre-treatment with IL-4 and IL-13, but not IFN-γ, induced desensitization of the HASM cells to IL-13 as measured by eotaxin secretion and calcium transients to histamine

  6. IL6 and IL10 are genetic susceptibility factors of periodontal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Scapoli

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The present investigation indicated that polymorphisms of IL6 and IL10 constitute risk factors for chronic periodontitis, while there was no evidence implicating a specific IL1A or IL1B genotype.

  7. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M; Anderson, Andrew R; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F

    2017-12-01

    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Vermeer's The Little Street: a precise location

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frans Grijzenhout

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In the autumn of 2015, Frans Grijzenhout published his sensational findings regarding the likely location of Johannes Vermeer’s ‘little street’ (The Little Street. After consulting a variety of sources, including the ‘The Ledger of Dredging of the Canals in the Town of Delft’ from 1666–1667, he had reached the conclusion that the famous painting by Vermeer must have been based on the houses and two intervening passageways that in Vermeer’s day stood on Vlamingstraat, an unassuming canal in the eastern part of Delft, where numbers 40 and 42 stand today. He had also ascertained that one of Vermeer’s aunts, Ariaentgen Claes van der Minne, was the occupant of 42 Vlamingstraat at that time. Several authors have since produced material indicating that Vermeer painted the right-hand house in Little Street ‘from life’: the house was, it now appears, observed and reproduced in meticulous detail. The same can now be confirmed for other aspects, such as the colour used for the painted shutters and the recesses for wind hooks in the sill of the window of the righthand house. Philip Steadman has rightly pointed to an apparent discrepancy of four feet (c. 1.25 m. between the details in the aforementioned ‘Ledger of the Dredging of the Canals in the Town of Delft’ and the actual spatial situation at 40 Vlamingstraat. This difference can be traced back to the fact that the gateway provided access to both front and back houses. Accordingly, the owners of both front and back houses would have been taxed on the width (four feet of the passageway. Given what we know about the meticulous precision with which the Ledger was compiled in the case of 42 Vlamingstraat, it is inconceivable that the authors of the register for number 40 should have made a mistake. A spatial rendering based on an earlier perspective study of The Little Street, corresponds surprisingly well, and in some respects in detail, with the cadastral and other information we

  9. [Homeless on the streets of Copenhagen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, M

    1994-05-16

    A group of homeless people living in the streets is described with the purpose of gaining the knowledge necessary to prevent development of homelessness and establishing programmes for the homeless. Out-reach work in the streets and cooperation with private and religious organisations was conducted during a two-year period and 59 homeless persons were interviewed. Fifteen were women and 44 were men. Upbringing, social conditions, daily living, physical and mental health and contact with health services, social security and private organisations were highlighted in a structured and semistructured interview. Compared with the background population the homeless had much more frequently childhood experience of parents' divorce or death of one of the parents. The women were significantly older than the men and the majority of the women were suffering from schizophrenia and had very little contact with network and public services. The majority of the men were abusing alcohol or drugs, many had had a troublesome childhood with stays in institutions. Many had had many contacts with different social institutions and a criminal record. Among the homeless in the streets of Copenhagen, the prevalence of mental illness, especially schizophrenia, is high. It is recommended that homelessness among the mentally ill is prevented by a special effort directed towards the patient group at risk of becoming homeless and through establishing different housing facilities with varying degrees of professional support. Out-reach work towards the homeless mentally ill should be carried out with the purpose of establishing contact with psychiatric services and securing the possibility of compulsory admission.

  10. Il marketing del nuovo millennio

    OpenAIRE

    M. Addis

    2007-01-01

    Con la consueta maestria, Kolter, supportato da Keller, mette a disposizione dei suoi numerosi lettori uno strumento di grande efficacia, dalla struttura estremamente agile, che potrà essere apprezzato da coloro che il marketing lo insegnano e dai professionisti che cercano un'opera di riferimento autorevole e aggiornata ma al contempo di facile consultazione, che possa accompagnarli nello svolgimento delle attività quotidiane. Il testo è una guida essenziale alla disciplina del marketing,...

  11. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2010-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage...... of caseworkers emphasizing actions that are consistent with the national employment reform goal of getting clients into jobs quickly. The influence of politicians and managers in bringing this about is relatively limited in comparison to the influences of caseworkers’ understanding of policy goals...

  12. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J. May, Peter; Winter, Søren

    2009-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street-level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage...... of caseworkers emphasizing actions that are consistent with the national employment reform goal of getting clients into jobs quickly. The influence of politicians and managers in bringing this about is relatively limited in comparison to the influences of caseworkers’ understanding of policy goals...

  13. Philippines: street children, children at risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantoco, F G

    1993-01-01

    Almost 2 million of Manila's 2.5 million children younger than 15 years old live on or below the poverty line. 75,000 of these children live on the streets after having run away from home or being abandoned. They beg, steal, scavenge for food, and sell newspapers, cigarettes, and leis. About 20,000 of the street children prostitute themselves. It is these latter children and adolescents who are at particular risk of HIV infection. Studies in the Philippines indicate that 91% of reported HIV infections are among individuals aged 15-44, the male/female infection ratio is one to one, the transmission rate is 45%, and the most common mode of transmission is through heterosexual intercourse. The high incidence of child sexual abuse and child prostitution in the Philippines would suggest that there are a significant number of children and adolescents under age 15 who are infected with HIV. Caritas Manila has developed an information, education, and communication program for HIV/AIDS prevention focusing upon individuals who have direct influence upon and are in direct contact with people: clergy, religious and civic associations, educators, and social and health workers. Caritas has also to a limited extent reached out directly to populations at risk, while collaborating with human rights advocacy groups and networking with other children-oriented agencies in the interest of providing resources to street children. Efforts must be made to protect the rights of children and provide them with an environment conducive to their growth and development. The author notes how off-duty policemen in Manila help real estate developers forcibly eject the poor from their shelters to clear the way for the construction of new infrastructure without concern for the legal processes and requirements in the humane and peaceful relocation of the homeless poor. Many women and children are hurt and killed in the process. It has also been reported that off-duty policemen in Rio de Janeiro

  14. CONTROLLING STREET DOG POPULATION IN MOSCOW

    OpenAIRE

    ZHULENKO A.S.; POLYNOVA G.V.

    2016-01-01

    The issue represents the analysis of the fundamentals and world-wide best practices of controlling street dog population in Moscow and other global cities. Actions proposed to improve the strategy of managing free-ranging dogs in Moscow.Some reasons of increase in number of stray dogs and “pet overpopulation” ware studied. There are ecological types of stray dogs characterized the types of running wild of dogs and foraging (food procurement) strategy of animals.The analysis of the basic princ...

  15. Potential reductions of street solids and phosphorus in urban watersheds from street cleaning, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2009-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorenson, Jason R.

    2013-01-01

    Material accumulating and washing off urban street surfaces and ultimately into stormwater drainage systems represents a substantial nonpoint source of solids, phosphorus, and other constituent loading to waterways in urban areas. Cost and lack of usable space limit the type and number of structural stormwater source controls available to municipalities and other public managers. Non-structural source controls such as street cleaning are commonly used by cities and towns for construction, maintenance and aesthetics, and may reduce contaminant loading to waterways. Effectiveness of street cleaning is highly variable and potential improvements to water quality are not fully understood. In 2009, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, and initiated a study to better understand the physical and chemical nature of the organic and inorganic solid material on street surfaces, evaluate the performance of a street cleaner at removing street solids, and make use of the Source Loading and Management Model (SLAMM) to estimate potential reductions in solid and phosphorus loading to the lower Charles River from various street-cleaning technologies and frequencies. Average yield of material on streets collected between May and December 2010, was determined to be about 740 pounds per curb-mile on streets in multifamily land use and about 522 pounds per curb-mile on commercial land-use streets. At the end-of-winter in March 2011, about 2,609 and 4,788 pounds per curb-mile on average were collected from streets in multifamily and commercial land-use types, respectively. About 86 percent of the total street-solid yield from multifamily and commercial land-use streets was greater than or equal to 0.125 millimeters in diameter (or very fine sand). Observations of street-solid distribution across the entire street width indicated that as

  16. A social work study on family patterns and street children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a social work study on relationship between various family characteristics and street children in rural area as well as city of Esfahan, Iran. The proposed study selects a sample of 150 street children, 75 from city and 75 from rural area, and using some statistical tests verifies the effects of three factors including family income, place of residency and family size on street children. The results indicate that the city residence had more street children than rural residence did. In addition, there was a meaningful difference between the number of street children in low-income families and high-income families. Finally, the survey results indicate that big size families more likely suffered from street children than low size families did.

  17. Diversity of contexts in drug use among street adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves de Moura, Yone; van der Meer Sanchez, Zila; Noto, Ana Regina

    2010-09-01

    In this study we aimed to investigate through ethnographic methods the different contexts of drug use by street adolescents in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Participant observations and semistructured interviews were performed at 11 major points of adolescent concentration in the streets of the city and in 10 care institutions. The sample was composed of 17 adolescents between 12 and 17 years of age. Data showed diverse patterns of drug use distributed by geographic situation and street circumstances. Observations were grouped into three main contexts: (a) immersion: greater intensity of drug use associated with greater involvement in the street culture; (b) surface: less drug use associated with family closeness; and (c) alternative-migratory: greater involvement with drug trafficking and prostitution associated with less family closeness and street culture. The drug use patterns varied in accordance with the diversity of street situations. Therefore, the peculiarities of each context should be taken into consideration in the development of social/ health policies.

  18. [Street social education: historical, political and pedagogical bases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Walter Ferreira

    2007-01-01

    This work is about street social education as a pedagogical system that started in Latin America in the late 1970s, as the street population formed mostly by children and adolescents called for attention. The first street social educators were 'pastoral' agents working at the praça da Sé a place with large numbers of street children in São Paulo. Based on the Liberation Theology and on the pedagogies developed by Paulo Freire, Celestine Freinet, Anton Makarenko, and Emília Ferreiro, the street educators developed a conceptual field and participated in the promulgation of the 1988 Federal Constitution, particularly by writing and introducing the 'Estatuto da Criança e do Adolescente' (the 'Child and Adolescent Statute'). Street social education is currently latent and suffering the consequences of program discontinuity caused by successive changes of government. It is, therefore important to know the conceptual proposals.

  19. Whose Bay Street? Competing Narratives of Nassau's City Centre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nona Patara Martin

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bay Street has always been at the centre of commercial, cultural and political life in the Bahama Islands. It also acts as a gateway for millions of tourists who come to Nassau, the Bahamian capital, via cruise ships every year. Not surprisingly, Bahamians and non-Bahamians have widely divergent impressions of Bay Street. The need to accommodate the tourists who are critical to the Bahamian economy has meant that Bay Street, despite its deep social significance for Bahamians, has increasingly become a tourist space. With reference to the ‘sense of place’ and place attachment literature, this paper traces the transformation of Bay Street and attempts to tease out the most obvious tensions between the Bay Street that Bahamians experience and Bay Street as a port of call.

  20. IL-1 and IL-23 mediate early IL-17A production in pulmonary inflammation leading to late fibrosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paméla Gasse

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a devastating as yet untreatable disease. We demonstrated recently the predominant role of the NLRP3 inflammasome activation and IL-1β expression in the establishment of pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis in mice. METHODS: The contribution of IL-23 or IL-17 in pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis was assessed using the bleomycin model in deficient mice. RESULTS: We show that bleomycin or IL-1β-induced lung injury leads to increased expression of early IL-23p19, and IL-17A or IL-17F expression. Early IL-23p19 and IL-17A, but not IL-17F, and IL-17RA signaling are required for inflammatory response to BLM as shown with gene deficient mice or mice treated with neutralizing antibodies. Using FACS analysis, we show a very early IL-17A and IL-17F expression by RORγt(+ γδ T cells and to a lesser extent by CD4αβ(+ T cells, but not by iNKT cells, 24 hrs after BLM administration. Moreover, IL-23p19 and IL-17A expressions or IL-17RA signaling are necessary to pulmonary TGF-β1 production, collagen deposition and evolution to fibrosis. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate the existence of an early IL-1β-IL-23-IL-17A axis leading to pulmonary inflammation and fibrosis and identify innate IL-23 and IL-17A as interesting drug targets for IL-1β driven lung pathology.

  1. The on-street parking premium and car drivers' choice between street and garage parking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobus, M.B.W.; Gutierrez Puigarnau, E.; Rietveld, P.; van Ommeren, J.N.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a methodology to estimate the effect of parking prices on car drivers' choice between street and garage parking. Our key identifying assumption is that the marginal benefit of parking duration does not depend on this choice. The endogeneity of parking duration is acknowledged in the

  2. The Ballet of the Streets: Teaching about Cities at Street Level

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Patrick A.; Spates, James L.

    2011-01-01

    The urban scholar Jane Jacobs once described city life as "the ballet of the streets." In more than a quarter century of joint teaching, the authors have used Jacobs' metaphor to help their students understand that cities are living organisms created and maintained, for good or ill, by the people who live and work in them. At heart their…

  3. [Addictive behavior of street children: interculturation and resilience].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kommegne, T; Denoux, P; Bernoussi, A; Njiengwe, E F

    2014-09-01

    This research belongs to a more comprehensive study on the care of street children in Cameroon. The idea is to develop an analysis of the street pathology where symptoms such as addictive behavior and drug addiction can be found. Beside HIV AIDS, addictive behaviors are the main risk factors that many professionals have to face with while dealing with the street problems today. Through an intercultural approach, we examined the practices of addictive typology, their initiatory role and their function in the integration of the street system. We also analysed their importance in the survival strategies. After an overview of theoretical controversies that feed the debate on addictions, we questioned the impact of these practices on the street career through the prism of general theory of addictions, particularly the hedonic management model. Addiction helps to resist adversity, it helps to desist and then to begin a harmonious neo development despite the horrors of the street experience. We undertook a quantitative and qualitative study on a sample of 148 street children. We proposed to 128 of them a questionnaire focused on addictive behaviors and survival strategies in the street context. We notably evaluated the street career of 24 of them, using interviews and standardized tests to assess self-esteem (Coopersmith's SEI) frustration tolerance (Rosenweig's P-F) and self-efficacy (Sherer's SE Scale) in order to measure the impact of addictive behaviors on the resilience process. We found that the street career is essentially traumatic, and that addictive behaviors involving various integration strategies are strongly linked to the interculturation process through the identity strategies and the intercultural competences. Addiction itself is not significantly related to self-esteem issues but strongly impacts on self-efficacy and the ability to tolerate frustration. They allow the street children to withstand the street adversity but are a real obstacle to their

  4. Trees in the city: valuing street trees in Portland, Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    G.H. Donovan; D.T. Butry

    2010-01-01

    We use a hedonic price model to simultaneously estimate the effects of street trees on the sales price and the time-on-market (TOM) of houses in Portland. Oregon. On average, street trees add $8,870 to sales price and reduce TOM by 1.7 days. In addition, we found that the benefits of street trees spill over to neighboring houses. Because the provision and maintenance...

  5. Playing With the City: Street Art and Videogames

    OpenAIRE

    Vazques Marquez, Israel; Pajares Tosca, Susana

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectator...

  6. On the escape of pollutants from urban street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, J.J.; Kim, J.J. [Kwangju Inst. of Science and Technology (Korea). Dept. of Environmental Science and Engineering

    2002-07-01

    Pollutant transport from urban street canyons is numerically investigated using a two-dimensional flow and dispersion model. The ambient wind blows perpendicular to the street and passive pollutants are released at the street level. Results from the control experiment with a street aspect ratio of 1 show that at the roof level of the street canyon, the vertical turbulent flux of pollutants is upward everywhere and the vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow is upward or downward. The horizontally integrated vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow at the roof level of the street canyon is downward and its magnitude is much smaller than that by turbulent process. These results indicate that pollutants escape from the street canyon mainly by turbulent process and that the net effect of mean flow is to make some escaped pollutants reenter the street canyon. Further experiments with different inflow turbulence intensities, inflow wind speeds, and street aspect ratio confirm the findings from the control experiment. In the case of two isolated buildings, the horizontally integrated vertical flux of pollutants by mean flow is upward due to flow separation but the other main results are the same as those from the control experiment. (author)

  7. [Street Outreach Offices: visibility, invisibility, and enhanced visibility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallais, Janaína Alves da Silveira; Barros, Nelson Filice de

    2015-07-01

    This article discusses care for street people from a socio-anthropological perspective, using participant observation conducted with a team from a street outreach project. Based on observations, street people are historically viewed as marginal and rarely obtain access to health services, thus making them invisible to the Brazilian Unified National Health System. Brazil's National Policy for the Homeless provides for their access to health care, but such care is not always guaranteed in practice, because health services and professionals have little experience in dealing with homeless persons. The study concludes that enhanced visibility is needed to ensure care for people living on the street, establishing a therapeutic bond that deconstructs stigmatizing practice.

  8. Into a Mapping of Copenhagen Street Lighting 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja; Asp, Claus; Kongshaug, Jesper

    LED lighting is a new lighting component in urban Spaces. How does LED lighting change the visual experience of a street, how did it use to be and how will it become? The book presents a mapping method in which an overview map of light sources in the Copenhagen streets is combined with a video...... recording and a series of photos from a route, whick goes through different city parts and types of streets. The mapping is done in the crucial changing fase, in which the street lighting in Copenhagen is a mix of previously used light sources and LED....

  9. Quantitative Contribution of IL2Rγ to the Dynamic Formation of IL2-IL2R Complexes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis F Ponce

    Full Text Available Interleukin-2 (IL2 is a growth factor for several immune cells and its function depends on its binding to IL2Rs in the cell membrane. The most accepted model for the assembling of IL2-IL2R complexes in the cell membrane is the Affinity Conversion Model (ACM. This model postulates that IL2R receptor association is sequential and dependent on ligand binding. Most likely free IL2 binds first to IL2Rα, and then this complex binds to IL2Rβ, and finally to IL2Rγ (γc. However, in previous mathematical models representing this process, the binding of γc has not been taken into account. In this work, the quantitative contribution of the number of IL2Rγ chain to the IL2-IL2R apparent binding affinity and signaling is studied. A mathematical model of the affinity conversion process including the γ chain in the dynamic, has been formulated. The model was calibrated by fitting it to experimental data, specifically, Scatchard plots obtained using human cell lines. This paper demonstrates how the model correctly explains available experimental observations. It was estimated, for the first time, the value of the kinetic coefficients of IL2-IL2R complexes interaction in the cell membrane. Moreover, the number of IL2R components in different cell lines was also estimated. It was obtained a variable distribution in the number of IL2R components depending on the cell type and the activation state. Of most significance, the study predicts that not only the number of IL2Rα and IL2Rβ, but also the number of γc determine the capacity of the cell to capture and retain IL2 in signalling complexes. Moreover, it is also showed that different cells might use different pathways to bind IL2 as consequence of its IL2R components distribution in the membrane.

  10. Smart street lighting : The advantages of LED street lighting and a smart control system in Uppsala municipality

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöberg, Inga; Gidén Hember, Amanda; Wallerström, Carolina

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this bachelor thesis is to examine how LED street lights and a smart street light control system can reduce the energy consumption, costs and in extension the CO2 equivalents in a geographically delimited area. In 2015 the municipality of Sala installed LED armatures connected to a smart control system in the whole municipality. The smart control system enables for instance adjustment of the light intensity at specific times during the day and a supervision of the street light ...

  11. Simulating the impacts of on-street vehicle parking on traffic operations on urban streets using cellular automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingxu; Li, Zhibin; Jiang, Hang; Zhu, Senlai; Wang, Wei

    2017-02-01

    In recent years, many bicycle lanes on urban streets are replaced with vehicle parking places. Spaces for bicycle riding are reduced, resulting in changes in bicycle and vehicle operational features. The objective of this study is to estimate the impacts of on-street parking on heterogeneous traffic operation on urban streets. A cellular automaton (CA) model is developed and calibrated to simulate bicycle lane-changing on streets with on-street parking. Two types of street segments with different bicycle lane width are considered. From the simulation, two types of conflicts between bicycles and vehicles are identified which are frictional conflicts and blocking conflicts. Factors affecting the frequency of conflicts are also identified. Based on the results, vehicle delay is estimated for various traffic situations considering the range of occupancy levels for on-street parking. Later, a numerical network example is analyzed to estimate the network impact of on-street parking on traffic assignment and operation. Findings of the study are helpful to policies and design regarding on-street vehicle parking to improve the efficiency of traffic operations.

  12. Air quality considerations for stormwater green street design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaneyfelt, Kathryn M.; Anderson, Andrew R.; Kumar, Prashant; Hunt, William F.

    2017-01-01

    Green streets are increasingly being used as a stormwater management strategy to mitigate stormwater runoff at its source while providing other environmental and societal benefits, including connecting pedestrians to the street. Simultaneously, human exposure to particulate matter from urban transportation is of major concern worldwide due to the proximity of pedestrians, drivers, and cyclists to the emission sources. Vegetation used for stormwater treatment can help designers limit the exposure of people to air pollutants. This goal can be achieved through the deliberate placement of green streets, along with strategic planting schemes that maximize pollutant dispersion. This communication presents general design considerations for green streets that combine stormwater management and air quality goals. There is currently limited guidance on designing green streets for air quality considerations; this is the first communication to offer suggestions and advice for the design of green stormwater streets in regards to their effects on air quality. Street characteristics including (1) the width to height ratio of the street to the buildings, (2) the type of trees and their location, and (3) any prevailing winds can have an impact on pollutant concentrations within the street and along sidewalks. Vegetation within stormwater control measures has the ability to reduce particulate matter concentrations; however, it must be carefully selected and placed within the green street to promote the dispersion of air flow. - Highlights: • Green streets can be used for both stormwater and air quality management. • Design considerations must be made to minimize human exposure to air pollutants. • Urban vegetation can improve air quality with careful selection and placement.

  13. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ko Kawada

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation. The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive and CARS (negative. Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive.

  14. Street Choice Logit Model for Visitors in Shopping Districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Ko; Yamada, Takashi; Kishimoto, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose two models for predicting people’s activity. The first model is the pedestrian distribution prediction (or postdiction) model by multiple regression analysis using space syntax indices of urban fabric and people distribution data obtained from a field survey. The second model is a street choice model for visitors using multinomial logit model. We performed a questionnaire survey on the field to investigate the strolling routes of 46 visitors and obtained a total of 1211 street choices in their routes. We proposed a utility function, sum of weighted space syntax indices, and other indices, and estimated the parameters for weights on the basis of maximum likelihood. These models consider both street networks, distance from destination, direction of the street choice and other spatial compositions (numbers of pedestrians, cars, shops, and elevation). The first model explains the characteristics of the street where many people tend to walk or stay. The second model explains the mechanism underlying the street choice of visitors and clarifies the differences in the weights of street choice parameters among the various attributes, such as gender, existence of destinations, number of people, etc. For all the attributes considered, the influences of DISTANCE and DIRECTION are strong. On the other hand, the influences of Int.V, SHOPS, CARS, ELEVATION, and WIDTH are different for each attribute. People with defined destinations tend to choose streets that “have more shops, and are wider and lower”. In contrast, people with undefined destinations tend to choose streets of high Int.V. The choice of males is affected by Int.V, SHOPS, WIDTH (positive) and CARS (negative). Females prefer streets that have many shops, and couples tend to choose downhill streets. The behavior of individual persons is affected by all variables. The behavior of people visiting in groups is affected by SHOP and WIDTH (positive). PMID:25379274

  15. Health policy making for street children: challenges and strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Fatemeh; Saeieh, Sara Esmaelzadeh; Roozbeh, Nasibeh; Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh

    2017-08-17

    Background The phenomenon of street children is a bio-psychological and social issue that not only harms children, but also endangers the health of a society. In line with the national programs for the development and promotion of street children's health in Iran, health policy making and essential strategies for this group of children will be presented in this paper. This paper will discuss the main issues and challenges of street children's health and, also, health policy and guidelines for this population. Methods In this review study, the keywords; street children, health, challenges, policy, and health policy making were searched through PubMed, SID, Iranmedex, World Health Organization (WHO), Emro, the Cochran Library, Medline and Google scholar to collect data. The search resulted in 84 related resources from which 48 cases that were more relevant to this research and covered the issue more comprehensively, were used. All data published during 2002-2015 have been included in this paper. Results Key concepts including street children and their health, health policy, strategies to improve the health of street children, health policy approaches for street children, the WHO's strategies, and social support program for street children must be considered in the health policy making processes for street children, as precise identification of the relevant information makes planning more effective in health policy making for this group of children. Conclusion The phenomenon of street children is a growing problem in the world and it has turned into a serious concern in many countries including Iran. The findings of this study can be used for identifying necessary measures in order to use research outcomes more effectively in policy making processes and reforming street children's health policies in Iran.

  16. Direct regulation of IL-2 by curcumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jin-Gyo; Hwang, Da-Jeong; Heo, Tae-Hwe

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a crucial growth factor for both regulatory and effector T cells. Thus, IL-2 plays a critical role in the stimulation and suppression of immune responses. Recently, anti-IL-2 antibodies (Abs) have been shown to possess strong IL-2 modulatory activities by affecting the interaction between IL-2 and IL-2 receptors. In this study, we screened an herbal library to identify a compound that regulates IL-2, which resulted in the identification of curcumin as a direct binder and inhibitor of IL-2. Curcumin is a phytochemical with well-known anti-cancer properties. In this study, curcumin mimicked or altered the binding pattern of anti-IL-2 Abs against IL-2 and remarkably inhibited the interaction of recombinant IL-2 with the IL-2 receptor α, CD25. Interestingly, curcumin neutralized the biological activities of IL-2 both in vitro and in vivo. In this report, we elucidated the unsolved mechanism of the anti-cancer effect of curcumin by identifying IL-2 as a direct molecular target. Curcumin, as a small molecule IL-2 modulator, has the potential to be used to treat IL-2 related pathologic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Il libro agente della socializzazione

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sideri

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Il saggio indaga il ruolo del libro come agente di socializzazione, con particolare riferimento al pubblico dei lettori ragazzi e bambini e alle specifiche funzioni formative della “lettura della letteratura” in età pre-scolare e scolare fino ai 14 anni. La ricerca di matrice socio-culturale si è occupata per lo più del libro in qualità di prodotto eminentemente sociale (sociologia della letteratura, contenitore di testi significanti (semiotica, e bene di consumo dell’industria culturale (cultural studies: lo studio proposto richiama le conclusioni fondamentali di decenni di studi intorno al libro, con l’intento di rintracciare i criteri adeguati (tema, target, identità visiva, funzione pratica e utopica a guidare una classificazione dei generi 0-14 che evidenzi il valore socializzante di ciascuno, proponendo così una originale tipologia, che giustifica l’inserimento del libro tra quelle definite “agenzie testuali” della socializzazione.

  18. Il potere di Prometeo e il dovere di Kant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Picchetti

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Kant ci suggerisce qualcosa che Prometeo e il mito greco avevano già accennato. L'imperativo che pone freno al fare, è già in sé nel soggetto ed è per questo che egli che egli è responsabile delle proprie azioni, indipendentemente dalla legge scritta.

  19. Il Sole, il genoma e Internet strumenti delle revoluzioni scientifiche

    CERN Document Server

    Dyson, Freeman J

    2000-01-01

    In queste appassionate conferenze «di soglia» Dyson si sporge sul domani con la visionarietà di un Verne o di un Wells, consapevole però di abbozzare «solo uno dei corsi possibili, tra i milioni di altri che il futuro potrà riservarci». Il nuovo trivio di forze rivoluzionarie che, secondo il modello di Dyson, muoverà lo sviluppo ha nomi noti a tutti, e disputati da molti: energia solare, ingegneria genetica, rete di comunicazione globale. Un loro utilizzo flessibile e sinergico arriverebbe a ridisegnare il paesaggio sociale del pianeta, facendo affluire verso aree depresse risorse ora concentrate in pochi paesi, e ridando vita ovunque all'economia di villaggio. La raccolta di energia da una fonte equidistribuita come la luce solare potrebbe infatti avvenire attraverso coltivazioni arboree manipolate genetica mente allo scopo, con costi sostenibili e senza pregiudizio della ecodiversità. Sia che guardi al prossimo futuro terrestre sia che contempli la prospettiva non troppo lontana di insediamenti uma...

  20. Il programma dell'universo

    CERN Document Server

    Lloyd, Seth

    2006-01-01

    Da quando l'universo ha avuto inizio, ha cominciato a calcolare il proprio comportamento. All'inizio il computer-universo produceva strutture semplici, particelle elementari e leggi elementari della fisica; col passare del tempo ha processato "informazioni" sempre più complesse, producendo strutture sempre più intricate (galassie, stelle, pianeti), ma sempre secondo leggi semplici. Ogni cosa deve quindi la propria esistenza alla capacità intrinseca della materia e dell'energia di processare informazione. Se si decifrasse fino in fondo si potrebbe, con un computer quantistico di dimensioni ridotte, comprendere l'universo nel suo insieme.

  1. Politicians, Managers, and Street-Level Bureaucrats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    May, Peter J.; Winter, Søren

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses the influence of politicians, managers, and the dispositions of street level bureaucrats in shaping actions at the frontlines of policy implementation. We investigate these for the implementation of employment policy reforms in Denmark. Our findings show a large percentage...... of caseworkers emphasizing actions that are consistent with thenational employment reform goal of getting clients into jobs quickly. The influence of politicians and managers in bringing this about is relatively limited in comparison to the influences of caseworkers’ understanding of policy goals......, their professional knowledge, and their policy predispositions. Our main contribution is an unpacking of the political and managerial influences on caseworkers’ policy emphases. We find direct effects and, more notably, indirect effects that operate on the influence of caseworkers’ perceptions of policy goals...

  2. The digital evolution of occupy wall street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Michael D; Ferrara, Emilio; Menczer, Filippo; Flammini, Alessandro

    2013-01-01

    We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation from a set of highly interconnected users with pre-existing interests in domestic politics and foreign social movements. These users, while highly vocal in the months immediately following the birth of the movement, appear to have lost interest in Occupy related communication over the remainder of the study period.

  3. Technology transfer, a two-way street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, H.L.

    1994-01-01

    Technology transfer through the Pollution Prevention ampersand Control Conferences, which have been cosponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency and by the professional societies of industry, greatly improved the environmental projects of the Department of Energy at Savannah River Site (SRS) in the mid-1980's. Those technologies, used in the liquid effluent treatment of the metal finishing liquid effluents from aluminum cleaning and nickel plating of fuel and targets for the nuclear production reactors, have been enhanced by the research and development of SRS engineers and scientists. The technology transfer has now become a two-way street to the benefit of our Nation's environment as these enhancements are being adopted in the metal finishing industry. These success stories are examples of the achievements anticipated in the 1990's as technology development in the federal facilities is shared with commercial industry

  4. The digital evolution of occupy wall street.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael D Conover

    Full Text Available We examine the temporal evolution of digital communication activity relating to the American anti-capitalist movement Occupy Wall Street. Using a high-volume sample from the microblogging site Twitter, we investigate changes in Occupy participant engagement, interests, and social connectivity over a fifteen month period starting three months prior to the movement's first protest action. The results of this analysis indicate that, on Twitter, the Occupy movement tended to elicit participation from a set of highly interconnected users with pre-existing interests in domestic politics and foreign social movements. These users, while highly vocal in the months immediately following the birth of the movement, appear to have lost interest in Occupy related communication over the remainder of the study period.

  5. Introduction. Street Art: Iconoclasm and Institutionalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Bianchi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available On the night of May 12, 2016 the street artist Blu, armed with a roller and some grey paint, set out to paint over all the works he had done in the city of Bologna. In this intent, the following day also, he was helped by activists from the community centers, his own collaborators and ordinary citizens united in an informal community that upheld his cause. Many others gathered either to celebrate this rite of destruction or to complain in disbelief, but in any case, to watch as it happened. Attention centered particularly on #OccupyMordor, a large mural that dominated the XM24 (an occupied social community center in the Bolognina district which had previously been a focus when citizens mobilized to protect it from new building projects that envisaged the destruction of the building (July 2013.

  6. Road dust emission sources and assessment of street washing effect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karanasiou, A.; Amato, F.; Moreno, T.; Lumbreras, J.; Borge, R.; Linares, C.; Boldo, E.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies report on the effect of street washing on ambient particulate matter levels, there is a lack of studies investigating the results of street washing on the emission strength of road dust. A sampling campaign was conducted in Madrid urban area during July 2009 where road dust

  7. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  8. INTRODUCTION The term street children has many definitions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    this, the still schooling street children in this study may likely have gravitated to the streets due to the lack of recreational facilities to keep youths occupied after school hours in the rural areas. As at the time of study, no amusement parks, cinemas and other recreational places exists in the Local Government Area. It is known.

  9. Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street vending foods are readily available sources of meals for many people but the biological safe-ty of such food is always in doubt. The aim of this study is to ascertain bacterial isolate and deter-mine total counts of bacterial species responsible for the contamination of the street vending food in Kumasi so as to determine ...

  10. Adolescent Street Boy Urchins and Vocational Training in Northern Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, Lantana M.

    2009-01-01

    In northern Nigeria, over 80% of the unskilled and uneducated adolescent street boys, or "Almajiris", are from the ethnic Hausa-Fulani tribes. They depend on street begging and menial jobs for daily survival. In dealing with the situation, state vocational centers were established as the Millennium Hope Project (MHP) to provide the boys…

  11. Gender Differences in the Family Situation of Brazilian Street Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raffaelli, M.; Koller, S. H.; Reppold, C.; Kuschick, M.; Krum, F.; Bandeira, D.; Simoes, C.

    The goal of this analysis was to examine gender differences in the experiences of children and adolescents found on city streets. It has been proposed that girls who leave home to seek their survival on city streets are from more disturbed families than boys, reflecting cultural factors that result in differential norms for male and female…

  12. Green Street in District of Columbia Curbs Harmful Runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    The name of the block hasn’t been changed to “Oh!” Street, but a revamped section of O Street NW in the District of Columbia is turning heads with green features that are keeping stormwater pollution out of the Anacostia River.

  13. HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HIV knowledge and sexual risk behavior among street adolescents in rehabilitation centres in Kinshasa; DRC: gender differences. ... Background: Street children, common in Africa, are increasingly vulnerable to alcohol and drugs of abuse and lack access to both healthcare and knowledge about HIV and AIDS. Hence, this ...

  14. Land Use Correlates of Street Children in Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There exist many locations in which street children are found: public spheres such as markets, bus stops, car parks, garages, street corners, and under the bridges .... attributes of space such as form, pattern and aspect and are descriptive in ...

  15. 77 FR 67689 - Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.;

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-13

    ...] Fidelity Aberdeen Street Trust, et al.; Notice of Application November 6, 2012. AGENCY: Securities and... arrangements (``Prior Order'').\\1\\ \\1\\ Colchester Street Trust, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos... Trust, et al., Investment Company Act Release Nos. 23787 (Apr. 15, 1999) (notice) and 23831 (May 11...

  16. A Semiotic Reading and Discourse Analysis of Postmodern Street Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mimi Miyoung; Chung, Sheng Kuan

    2009-01-01

    Postmodern street art operates under a set of references that requires art educators and researchers to adopt alternative analytical frameworks in order to understand its meanings. In this article, we describe social semiotics, critical discourse analysis, and postmodern street performance as well as the relevance of the former two in interpreting…

  17. The Initiation of Homeless Youth into the Street Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwadz, Marya Viorst; Gostnell, Karla; Smolenski, Carol; Willis, Brian; Nish, David; Nolan, Theresa C.; Tharaken, Maya; Ritchie, Amanda S.

    2009-01-01

    Homeless youth (HY) who lack employment in the formal economy typically turn to the street economy (e.g., prostitution, drug selling) for survival. Guided by the theory of social control, the present paper explores factors influencing HY's initiation into the street economy. Eighty HY (ages 15-23) were recruited from four community-based…

  18. Hygiene practices among street food vendors in Tamale Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study noted that street food business in the Tamale Metropolis was women dominated (76%). Majority of vendors (78%) were aged 20-39 years. Public toilets (pit latrines) were accessible to all vending sites. Though high number of street food vendors had some form of formal education (66%) and knowledge of food ...

  19. Detecting Themed Streets Using a Location Based Service Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byeongsuk Ji

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Various themed streets have recently been developed by local governments in order to stimulate local economies and to establish the identity of the corresponding places. However, the motivations behind the development of some of these themed street projects has been based on profit, without full considerations of people’s perceptions of their local areas, resulting in marginal effects on the local economies concerned. In response to this issue, this study proposed a themed street clustering method to detect the themed streets of a specific region, focusing on the commercial themed street, which is more prevalent than other types of themed streets using location based service data. This study especially uses “the street segment” as a basic unit for analysis. The Sillim and Gangnam areas of Seoul, South Korea were chosen for the evaluation of the adequacy of the proposed method. By comparing trade areas that were sourced from a market analysis report by a reliable agent with the themed streets detected in this study, the experiment results showed high proficiency of the proposed method.

  20. Relationships as determinants of substance use amongst street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Unrestrained exposure to street life often makes the street child vulnerable to psychoactive substances. In other settings, the social relationships of the substance user with those around him or her and family norms of parenting have been docu-mented to modulate use. However, there is a dearth of literature on ...

  1. An Assessment of the Emerging Networks of Support for Street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria, being asignatory to the Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC, 1989) promulgated the Child Rights Act 2003, which aimed at ameliorating the condition of street children in Nigeria. In line with this, there are emerging networks of support for street children. The extent to which these support networks are ...

  2. Poverty alleviation from the perspective of street vendors in Lesoth ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this paper was to examine from the perspective of street vendors how they are fighting poverty and the extent of winning this endemic cankerworm. The findings of this paper are informed by a study carried in 2007 on poverty and street vendors in Lesotho. Questionnaires and focus group discussions were used ...

  3. Designing safe and inclusive streets in India | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-11-17

    Nov 17, 2016 ... In fast-growing Indian cities such as Ahmedabad, streets are also the site of conflict. ... while instances of violence against women are partly linked to land ... by poor street design, and to develop people-centred alternatives.

  4. Health problems of street children and women in Awassa, Southern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The number of street children and women in major towns of Ethiopia is rapidly increasing. Yet their problems have not been fully studied. Objective: To assess health and related problems in street children and women. Methods: A cross sectional survey was conducted in Awassa town, women southern ...

  5. Quality Analysis of Open Street Map Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, M.; Li, Q.; Hu, Q.; Zhou, M.

    2013-05-01

    Crowd sourcing geographic data is an opensource geographic data which is contributed by lots of non-professionals and provided to the public. The typical crowd sourcing geographic data contains GPS track data like OpenStreetMap, collaborative map data like Wikimapia, social websites like Twitter and Facebook, POI signed by Jiepang user and so on. These data will provide canonical geographic information for pubic after treatment. As compared with conventional geographic data collection and update method, the crowd sourcing geographic data from the non-professional has characteristics or advantages of large data volume, high currency, abundance information and low cost and becomes a research hotspot of international geographic information science in the recent years. Large volume crowd sourcing geographic data with high currency provides a new solution for geospatial database updating while it need to solve the quality problem of crowd sourcing geographic data obtained from the non-professionals. In this paper, a quality analysis model for OpenStreetMap crowd sourcing geographic data is proposed. Firstly, a quality analysis framework is designed based on data characteristic analysis of OSM data. Secondly, a quality assessment model for OSM data by three different quality elements: completeness, thematic accuracy and positional accuracy is presented. Finally, take the OSM data of Wuhan for instance, the paper analyses and assesses the quality of OSM data with 2011 version of navigation map for reference. The result shows that the high-level roads and urban traffic network of OSM data has a high positional accuracy and completeness so that these OSM data can be used for updating of urban road network database.

  6. Street canyon aerosol pollutant transport measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longley, I D; Gallagher, M W; Dorsey, J R; Flynn, M; Bower, K N; Allan, J D

    2004-12-01

    Current understanding of dispersion in street canyons is largely derived from relatively simple dispersion models. Such models are increasingly used in planning and regulation capacities but are based upon a limited understanding of the transport of substances within a real canyon. In recent years, some efforts have been made to numerically model localised flow in idealised canyons (e.g., J. Appl. Meteorol. 38 (1999) 1576-89) and stepped canyons (Assimakopoulos V. Numerical modelling of dispersion of atmospheric pollution in and above urban canopies. PhD thesis, Imperial College, London, 2001) but field studies in real canyons are rare. To further such an understanding, a measurement campaign has been conducted in an asymmetric street canyon with busy one-way traffic in central Manchester in northern England. The eddy correlation method was used to determine fluxes of size-segregated accumulation mode aerosol. Measurements of aerosol at a static location were made concurrently with measurements on a platform lift giving vertical profiles. Size-segregated measurements of ultrafine and coarse particle concentrations were also made simultaneously at various heights. In addition, a small mobile system was used to make measurements of turbulence at various pavement locations within the canyon. From this data, various features of turbulent transport and dispersion in the canyon will be presented. The concentration and the ventilation fluxes of vehicle-related aerosol pollutants from the canyon will be related to controlling factors. The results will also be compared with citywide ventilation data from a separate measurement campaign conducted above the urban canopy.

  7. The Education Rights of Street-Involved Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Grover

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an overview of certain key aspects of the practical and legal situation of street-involved children globally. The inadequate protection of these children under both domestic and international law is addressed. The diversity of the population of street-involved children is considered as is the fact that this group is composed of both legally stateless and de facto stateless children. The relationship of street involvement to child labor, various health risks and victimization is discussed. The educational needs of older street-involved children are addressed including their right to participate in decision-making regarding aspects of educational service design and delivery. The overall objective of this paper is to encourage those who are involved in, or could impact upon educational policy to include street-involved children in their educational planning implementation and advocacy efforts.

  8. Psoriasis is not associated with IL-12p70/IL-12p40 production and IL12B promoter polymorphism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Litjens, Nicolle H R; van der Plas, Mariena J A; Ravensbergen, Bep

    2004-01-01

    Psoriasis is a type-1 T cell-mediated, chronic inflammatory disease. Since interleukin (IL)-12p70 promotes the development of type-1 T cells, we investigated whether psoriasis is associated with an increased production of this cyctokine by blood cells. Results revealed that the production of IL-12p....... The frequencies of the various genotypes for the promoter region of the gene encoding IL-12p40 (IL12B) did not differ between psoriasis patients and controls. No association was observed between the various IL12B promoter genotypes and the LPS-stimulated production of IL-12p70 or IL-12p40 by blood cells. Together......, psoriasis is not associated with a promoter polymorphism in the IL12B gene nor with the production of IL-12p70 by LPS-stimulated blood cells....

  9. Diffusion of Complete Streets policies Across US communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Eyler, Amy; Barbero, Colleen; Hipp, J Aaron; Walsh, Heidi

    2013-01-01

    Complete Streets policies guide planning in communities by making the transportation system accommodating to all users including vehicle drivers, pedestrians, and bicyclists, as well as those using public transportation. While the number of Complete Streets policies has increased over the past decade, no research has explored the factors attributing to the widespread diffusion of these policies. The purpose of this study was to apply concepts of the Diffusion of Innovation Theory to data related to Complete Streets policies in order to identify potential patterns and correlates. The main outcome of this study was policy adoption. Using the Diffusion of Innovation Theory and results from previous literature, we identified several factors that had the potential to affect the rate of Complete Streets policy diffusion: rural/urban status, state obesity rate, state funding for transportation, state obesity prevention funding, percentage of people who walk or bike to work in the state, presence of a state Complete Streets policy, and the number of bordering communities with Complete Streets policy. We used event history analysis as the main analysis method. Data from 49 community-level policies were analyzed, with a "community" defined as a city, a county, or a regional/Metropolitan Planning Organization. Three variables were significant predictors of Complete Streets policy adoption: state obesity rate (odds ratio [OR] = 1.465; confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-1.96) percentage of people who bike or walk to work in the state (OR = 1.726; CI = 1.069-2.79), and presence of a border community with a Complete Streets policy (OR = 3.859; CI = 1.084-13.742). Communities with Complete Streets policies varied in geographic and sociodemographic factors. Information about communities that are more likely to adopt a policy can be a tool for advocates and policy makers interested in this topic. Because adoption does not imply implementation, further research is needed to study

  10. Road and Street Centerlines, StreetLabels-The data set is a text feature consisting of 6329 label points representing street names. It was created to show the names of city and county based streets., Published in 1989, Davis County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Road and Street Centerlines dataset current as of 1989. StreetLabels-The data set is a text feature consisting of 6329 label points representing street names. It was...

  11. Role of IL-38 and Its Related Cytokines in Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianli Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin- (IL- 38 is a recently discovered cytokine and is the tenth member of the IL-1 cytokine family. IL-38 shares structural features with IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra. IL-36R is the specific receptor of IL-38, a partial receptor antagonist of IL-36. IL-38 inhibits the production of T-cell cytokines IL-17 and IL-22. IL-38 also inhibits the production of IL-8 induced by IL-36γ, thus inhibiting inflammatory responses. IL-38-related cytokines, including IL-1Ra and IL-36Ra, are involved in the regulation of inflammation and immune responses. The study of IL-38 and IL-38-related cytokines might provide new insights for developing anti-inflammatory treatments in the near future.

  12. Clinical significance of measurement of changes of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL-1β levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chunyan; Zhang Shumin; Zhou Dongxia; Wang Enbo

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL-1β levels after treatment in patients with endometriosis. Methods: Serum IL-6 (with RIA) and IL-18, IL-1β (with ELISA) levels were determined in 38 patients with endometriosis both before and after treatment as well as 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, the serum IL-6, IL- 18 and IL-1β levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum IL-6, IL-18 and IL- 1β levels might reflect the progress of diseases in patients with endometriosis. (authors)

  13. MAINTENANCE OF THE CARPARK AND STREET LIGHTING

    CERN Multimedia

    ST-FM Group

    2002-01-01

    La division ST vous informe qu'elle va procéder dans les prochaines semaines au contrôle et à l'entretien des éclairages des routes et parkings. Ces éclairages s'enclenchent normalement grâce à des cellules photosensibles, mais durant ces tests ils seront allumés zone par zone pendant la journée. Nous demandons aux utilisateurs de ne pas s'étonner de voir l'éclairage extérieur allumé en plein jour et les remercions de leur compréhension.   Groupe ST-FM

  14. Pauropolis. Pianificare il controllo attraverso il progetto della sicurezza.

    OpenAIRE

    Ragonese, Marco

    2008-01-01

    2006/2007 “Il grado di sicurezza misura la democrazia di un paese”, con questa frase un esponente della destra salutava l’approvazione nel parlamento italiano del nuovo pacchetto di norme in tema, appunto, di sicurezza. L’affermazione indica sintomaticamente come la questione, seppur non nuova, abbia acquisito un ruolo centrale nel dibattito contemporaneo, facilitata da una perfusione mediatica che ha trasformato l’evento dei primi giorni del settembre 2001 nel simbolo controverso della cr...

  15. Childcare needs of female street vendors in Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, P; Zetina, A; Tapia, M; Ortiz, C; Soto, I C

    1996-06-01

    This article reports on strategies developed by female street vendors (vendedoras ambulantes) in Mexico City to ensure the care of their young children in the absence of a specific and operational government policy to fulfil this need. The information concerning child care and health was gathered by a survey of 426 street traders selected by multi-stage random cluster sampling in four of the administrative districts (delegaciones politicas) of Mexico City during 1990. It was found that, as mothers of young children, street vendors most frequently looked after their children personally on the street or left them with other members of the family. Related factors were availability of alternative child care providers in the family, the age of the children and working conditions of the mother. Children who remained on the streets with their mothers suffered more frequently from gastro-intestinal diseases and accidents than the national average. The incidence of acute respiratory diseases, however, was similar in the cases of maternal care in the street and care by family members in another environment. Existing public health measures show a greater concern for the health of food consumers than that of workers in this area. Current public policy seeks to regulate street vending activities and to concentrate traders in ad hoc areas and facilities. Our research results document the need for actions that can contribute to an improvement in the care and health conditions of these young children.

  16. Aloin Inhibits Interleukin (IL)-1β-Stimulated IL-8 Production in KB Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hee Sam; Song, Yu Ri; Kim, Seyeon; Heo, Jun-Young; Chung, Hae-Young; Chung, Jin

    2016-06-01

    Interleukin (IL)-1β, which is elevated in oral diseases including gingivitis, stimulates epithelial cells to produce IL-8 and perpetuate inflammatory responses. This study investigates stimulatory effects of salivary IL-1β in IL-8 production and determines if aloin inhibits IL-1β-stimulated IL-8 production in epithelial cells. Saliva was collected from volunteers to determine IL-1β and IL-8 levels. Samples from volunteers were divided into two groups: those with low and those with high IL-1β levels. KB cells were stimulated with IL-1β or saliva with or without IL-1 receptor agonist or specific mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors. IL-8 production was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). MAPK protein expression involved in IL-1β-induced IL-8 secretion was detected by Western blot. KB cells were pretreated with aloin, and its effect on IL-1β-induced IL-8 production was examined by ELISA and Western blot analysis. Saliva with high IL-1β strongly stimulated IL-8 production in KB cells, and IL-1 receptor agonist significantly inhibited IL-8 production. Low IL-1β-containing saliva did not increase IL-8 production. IL-1β treatment of KB cells induced activation of MAPK signaling molecules as well as nuclear factor-kappa B. IL-1β-induced IL-8 production was decreased by p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) inhibitor treatment. Aloin pretreatment inhibited IL-1β-induced IL-8 production in a dose-dependent manner and inhibited activation of the p38 and ERK signaling pathway. Finally, aloin pretreatment also inhibited saliva-induced IL-8 production. Results indicated that IL-1β in saliva stimulates epithelial cells to produce IL-8 and that aloin effectively inhibits salivary IL-1β-induced IL-8 production by mitigating the p38 and ERK pathway. Therefore, aloin may be a good candidate for modulating oral inflammatory diseases.

  17. Identification and Characterization of a Novel IL-4 Receptor α Chain (IL-4Rα Antagonist to Inhibit IL-4 Signalling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayyar Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: In recent times, allergy has become a financial, physical and psychological burden to the society as a whole. In allergic cascades, cytokine IL-4 binds to IL-4 receptor (IL-4R, consequently producing allergen-specific IgE antibodies by B cells. In addition, among other functions, IL-4 is also responsible for B and T cell proliferation and differentiation. Hence, characterization of novel antagonists that inhibit IL-4 signalling forms the overall aim of this study. Methods: Phage display was used to screen a random 12-mer synthetic peptide library with a human IL-4Rα to identify peptide candidates. Once identified, the peptides were commercially synthesized and used for in vitro immunoassays. Results: We have successfully used phage display to identify M13 phage clones that demonstrated specific binding to IL-4Rα. The peptide N1 was synthesized for use in ELISA, demonstrating significant binding to IL-4Rα and inhibiting interaction with cytokine IL-4. Furthermore, the peptide was tested in a transfected HEK-Blue IL-4 reporter cell line model, which produces alkaline phosphatase (AP. QUANTI-Blue, a substrate, breaks down in the presence of AP producing a blue coloration. Using this colorimetric analysis, >50% inhibition of IL-4 signalling was achieved. Conclusion: We have successfully identified and characterised a synthetic peptide antagonist against IL-4Rα, which effectively inhibits IL-4 interaction with the IL-4Rα in vitro. Since IL-4 interaction with IL-4Rα is a common pathway for many allergies, a prophylactic treatment can be devised by inhibiting this interaction for future treatment of allergies.

  18. The role of IL-17 in psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakouti, Mona; Brown, Gabrielle Elena; Wang, Eva; Koo, John; Levin, Ethan C

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition traditionally believed to involve the Th1 pathway. Recently, the IL-23/Th17/IL-17 pathway has been highlighted in the pathogenesis of psoriasis and other autoimmune inflammatory conditions. From a clinician's perspective, we sought to review the basic science data relevant to IL-17's role in psoriasis pathogenesis. We performed a Pubmed and Web of Knowledge search for English articles starting from 1990 that discussed the Th17 pathway. Search terms such as "IL-17" and "psoriasis" were utilized. The IL-17 pathway is regulated by IL-23, a cytokine that is vital for the expansion and maintenance of the Th17 cell population. Th17 derived cytokines (IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-17A/F and IL-22) were elevated in both psoriasis-like murine models and human psoriatic lesional biopsies. Ixekizumab (anti-IL-17A) treatment of psoriasis was found to normalize levels of IL-17 downstream gene products. Both preclinical and clinical studies support the central role of IL-17 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis.

  19. A Solution for Street Lighting in Smart Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Popa

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart Cities is a domain of great interest in the modern society. The aim of a smart urban environment is to increase citizens’ comfort and quality of life with minimum resources and power consumption and without affecting the natural environment. Street lighting is one of the main interests in such a smart environment. This thesis focuses on implementing a lighting control system that makes street lighting to be an autonomous and efficient part of the urban environment. The performance of the proposed system is analyzed using an OMNET++ network simulation. The results lead to the conclusion that the smart control system improves some drawbacks of a classic street lighting system.

  20. Playing With the City: Street Art and Videogames

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vazques Marquez, Israel; Pajares Tosca, Susana

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we introduce and describe the phenomenon of videogame street art as a specific kind of street art. We consider its materiality and significance, and conceptualize it in the light of a double manifestation of play: the playful appropriation of the city by the artist and the fact...... that street art encapsulates the act of playing videogames in a visual form. Digital play spills out of our computer screens and occupies the urban space with the explicit intention of involving spectators, who are invited to play in symbolic ways that actualize nostalgic memories of gaming and can be related...

  1. Street vending and informal economy: Survey data from Cali, Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Lina M; Estrada, Daniela

    2017-10-01

    This data brief describes data collected in Cali, Colombia about the economic dynamic and socioeconomic conditions of street vendors in the city. The study was conducted between 2014 and 2016 in two populated sites in terms of formal and informal commerce in the city. We present the methodology followed in the study, location of street vending sites and type of data collected to approximate to the economic dimension of street vending. Data collected contains information about sociodemographic characteristics, life satisfaction, business operation and characteristics, income and expenses, official license for operation. This information is linked to the publication (Martinez et al., 2017) [1].

  2. Street canyon ventilation control by proper planning and development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakin Vladimir Vasil'evich

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of street canyon ventilation control in major streets is a tool of air pollution prevention in them, protection of housing areas from excessive wind or preservation and intensification of existing wind speed in case of insufficient ventilation. The maximum permissible concentration of car exhaust pollutants with wind speed within comfortable and permissible values by physiological and hygienic criteria, are ensured as from 40 to 70 % of thoroughfares in major cities. The dependence of air pollution level on wind speed is comparable to its dependence on traffic intensity and ratio of buildings height (H to street width. But one has to take into account that, if the wind blows across the street, vortices form within the street canyon, which results in higher concentration of car exhaust pollutants near the downwind buildings. The objective of this work is to find the functional dependences of wind speed in a major street on its width and density of buildings, and also to find out which street configurations are favorable for formation of closed air circulation within it, resulting in insufficient aeration. The experimental research was done on a site for large-scale modeling of built-up urban territory, using cup anemometers. The coefficients of dependence of wind speed within a street on the types of buildings and on the street width were obtained. Characteristics of street layouts for control of aeration were determined. Building density rates for maximizing or optimizing the wind speed were determined. Street layouts are considered where stable vortices form between the buildings. For example, vortices within the street canyon’s cross-section appear when buildings squarish in ground plan situated far apart are replaced by oblong ones with the minimum allowed intervals of 15 meters between them (for 5-storeyed buildings; or intervals equal to the buildings’ height, or where the buildings are long and close together. With

  3. The dichotomous pattern of IL-12r and IL-23R expression elucidates the role of IL-12 and IL-23 in inflammation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaëlle Chognard

    Full Text Available IL-12 and IL-23 cytokines respectively drive Th1 and Th17 type responses. Yet, little is known regarding the biology of these receptors. As the IL-12 and IL-23 receptors share a common subunit, it has been assumed that these receptors are co-expressed. Surprisingly, we find that the expression of each of these receptors is restricted to specific cell types, in both mouse and human. Indeed, although IL-12Rβ2 is expressed by NK cells and a subset of γδ T cells, the expression of IL-23R is restricted to specific T cell subsets, a small number of B cells and innate lymphoid cells. By exploiting an IL-12- and IL-23-dependent mouse model of innate inflammation, we demonstrate an intricate interplay between IL-12Rβ2 NK cells and IL-23R innate lymphoid cells with respectively dominant roles in the regulation of systemic versus local inflammatory responses. Together, these findings support an unforeseen lineage-specific dichotomy in the in vivo role of both the IL-12 and IL-23 pathways in pathological inflammatory states, which may allow more accurate dissection of the roles of these receptors in chronic inflammatory diseases in humans.

  4. IL26 gene inactivation in Equidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakhsi-Niaei, M; Drögemüller, M; Jagannathan, V; Gerber, V; Leeb, T

    2013-12-01

    Interleukin-26 (IL26) is a member of the IL10 cytokine family. The IL26 gene is located between two other well-known cytokines genes of this family encoding interferon-gamma (IFNG) and IL22 in an evolutionary conserved gene cluster. In contrast to humans and most other mammals, mice lack a functional Il26 gene. We analyzed the genome sequences of other vertebrates for the presence or absence of functional IL26 orthologs and found that the IL26 gene has also become inactivated in several equid species. We detected a one-base pair frameshift deletion in exon 2 of the IL26 gene in the domestic horse (Equus caballus), Przewalski horse (Equus przewalskii) and donkey (Equus asinus). The remnant IL26 gene in the horse is still transcribed and gives rise to at least five alternative transcripts. None of these transcripts share a conserved open reading frame with the human IL26 gene. A comparative analysis across diverse vertebrates revealed that the IL26 gene has also independently been inactivated in a few other mammals, including the African elephant and the European hedgehog. The IL26 gene thus appears to be highly variable, and the conserved open reading frame has been lost several times during mammalian evolution. © 2013 The Authors, Animal Genetics © 2013 Stichting International Foundation for Animal Genetics.

  5. A bicycle safety index for evaluating urban street facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi-Shekari, Zohreh; Moeinaddini, Mehdi; Zaly Shah, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research are to conceptualize the Bicycle Safety Index (BSI) that considers all parts of the street and to propose a universal guideline with microscale details. A point system method comparing existing safety facilities to a defined standard is proposed to estimate the BSI. Two streets in Singapore and Malaysia are chosen to examine this model. The majority of previous measurements to evaluate street conditions for cyclists usually cannot cover all parts of streets, including segments and intersections. Previous models also did not consider all safety indicators and cycling facilities at a microlevel in particular. This study introduces a new concept of a practical BSI to complete previous studies using its practical, easy-to-follow, point system-based outputs. This practical model can be used in different urban settings to estimate the level of safety for cycling and suggest some improvements based on the standards.

  6. Street Littering in Nigerian Towns: towards a Framework for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    behaviour certainly affects everyone's quality of life, gives a visitor a bad first impression and .... sex, education level, occupation, effects of littering, etc.). Levels of .... creams, bananas, junk food, etc) along the streets than older people, as the.

  7. Relationships as determinants of substance use amongst street ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    stress, peer relationships and frequency of family meals.7,8,9,10 Amongst ... students with the fewest peer interaction problems.12 Furthermore, the ..... substance use among street children in a local government area of Nigeria: Drug and.

  8. Procedures for waste management from street sweeping and stormwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Street sweeping and storm water system cleaning activities are conducted regularly by ODOT to comply with NPDES permit requirements and to ensure roadway safety. Once collected, these materials are classified as solid waste and require cost-effective...

  9. demographic characteristics of child street vendors in Nnewi, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof Ezechukwu

    2012-05-14

    May 14, 2012 ... Teaching Hospital Nnewi,. Anambra State .... formed consent obtained before interview. A semi- structured .... obtaining a higher education if given the opportunity. Another 18 .... differences in Brazilian street youth's family ...

  10. Street Harassment in Cairo: A Symptom of Disintegrating Social ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    chifaou.amzat

    2012-03-13

    Mar 13, 2012 ... and contextualize street harassment as a social phenomenon and secondly ..... incidents, which were widely reported in the media, spurred many dis- ... impact on the general economic development of Egypt and on the tourist.

  11. Evaluation of complete streets policy implementation by metropolitan planning organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Over the last ten years, communities around the country have begun to implement comprehensive reforms : designed to ensure that roadway users of all ages and abilities can safely utilize the transportation system. : This complete streets policy frame...

  12. Drivers willingness to pay progressive rate for street parking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This study finds willingness to pay and price elasticity for on-street parking demand using stated : preference data obtained from 238 respondents. Descriptive, statistical and economic analyses including : regression, generalized linear model, and f...

  13. Implementing a Dynamic Street-Children's Program: Successes and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dynamic street children's program in Mzuzu Malawi – using a developmental ... dynamics of parentchild, parent-parent and child-parent-environment; life-events; ... of child and adolescent development, and how they can influence the child's ...

  14. Characterization of Residuals Collected from Street Sweeping Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-02-01

    Street sweeping is a routine roadway maintenance activity conducted by the Virginia Department of Transportation (VDOT). It also provides an added benefit as a non-structural stormwater best management practice implemented by VDOT to meet total maxim...

  15. IL-25 or IL-17E protects against high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis in mice dependent upon IL-13 activation of STAT6

    Science.gov (United States)

    IL-25 is a member of IL-17 cytokine family and has immune-modulating activities. The role of IL-25 in maintaining lipid metabolic homeostasis remains unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of exogenous IL-25 or deficiency of IL-25 on lipid accumulation in the liver. Mice were injected with IL-25...

  16. Cord Blood Cells Responses to IL2, IL7 and IL15 Cytokines for mTOR Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Mohammadian

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTORis important in hematopoiesis and affect cell growth,differentiation and survival. Although previous studies were identified the effect of cytokines on the mononuclear cells development however the cytokines effect on mTOR in cord blood mononuclear cells was unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate mTOR expression in cord blood mononuclear and cord blood stem cells (CD34+ cells in culture conditions for lymphoid cell development. Methods: Isolation of The mononuclear cells (MNCs from umbilical cord blood were done with use of Ficollpaque density gradient. We evaluated cultured cord blood mononuclear and CD34+ cells in presece of IL2, IL7 and IL15 at distinct time points during 21 days by using flow cytometry. In this study, we presented the role of IL2, IL7 and IL15 on the expression of mTOR in cord blood cells. Results: mTOR expression were increased in peresence of IL2, IL7 and IL15 in day 14 and afterword reduced. However in persence of IL2 and IL15 expression of mTOR significantly reduced. mTOR expression in CD34+ cells decreased significantly from day7 to day 21 in culture. Conclusion: cytokines play important role in mTOR expression during hematopoiesis and development of cord blood mononuclear cells.

  17. A street rubbish detection algorithm based on Sift and RCNN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, XiPeng; Chen, Zhong; Zhang, Shuo; Zhang, Ting

    2018-02-01

    This paper presents a street rubbish detection algorithm based on image registration with Sift feature and RCNN. Firstly, obtain the rubbish region proposal on the real-time street image and set up the CNN convolution neural network trained by the rubbish samples set consists of rubbish and non-rubbish images; Secondly, for every clean street image, obtain the Sift feature and do image registration with the real-time street image to obtain the differential image, the differential image filters a lot of background information, obtain the rubbish region proposal rect where the rubbish may appear on the differential image by the selective search algorithm. Then, the CNN model is used to detect the image pixel data in each of the region proposal on the real-time street image. According to the output vector of the CNN, it is judged whether the rubbish is in the region proposal or not. If it is rubbish, the region proposal on the real-time street image is marked. This algorithm avoids the large number of false detection caused by the detection on the whole image because the CNN is used to identify the image only in the region proposal on the real-time street image that may appear rubbish. Different from the traditional object detection algorithm based on the region proposal, the region proposal is obtained on the differential image not whole real-time street image, and the number of the invalid region proposal is greatly reduced. The algorithm has the high mean average precision (mAP).

  18. Restoring Detroit's Street Lighting System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinzey, Bruce [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-09-30

    The City of Detroit is in the midst of a comprehensive restoration of its street lighting system that includes transitioning the existing HPS sources to LED. This report provides an objective review of the circumstances surrounding the system restoration, the processes undertaken and decisions made, and the results so far — and contains useful information about issues that arise during large-scale LED street lighting projects.

  19. A Solution for Street Lighting in Smart Cities

    OpenAIRE

    M. Popa; A. Marcu

    2012-01-01

    Smart Cities is a domain of great interest in the modern society. The aim of a smart urban environment is to increase citizens’ comfort and quality of life with minimum resources and power consumption and without affecting the natural environment. Street lighting is one of the main interests in such a smart environment. This thesis focuses on implementing a lighting control system that makes street lighting to be an autonomous and efficient part of the urban environment. The performance of th...

  20. Structure, function and value of street trees in California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Natalie van Doorn; John de Goede

    2016-01-01

    This study compiled recent inventory data from 929,823 street trees in 50 cities to determine trends in tree number and density, identify priority investments and create baseline data against which the efficacy of future practices can be evaluated. The number of street trees increased from 5.9 million in 1988 to 9.1 million in 2014, about one for every four residents....

  1. Street trees reduce the negative effects of urbanization on birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, João Carlos de Castro; Martello, Felipe; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Armitage, Richard A; Young, Robert J; Rodrigues, Marcos

    2017-01-01

    The effects of streets on biodiversity is an important aspect of urban ecology, but it has been neglected worldwide. Several vegetation attributes (e.g. street tree density and diversity) have important effects on biodiversity and ecological processes. In this study, we evaluated the influences of urban vegetation-represented by characteristics of street trees (canopy size, proportion of native tree species and tree species richness)-and characteristics of the landscape (distance to parks and vegetation quantity), and human impacts (human population size and exposure to noise) on taxonomic data and functional diversity indices of the bird community inhabiting streets. The study area was the southern region of Belo Horizonte (Minas Gerais, Brazil), a largely urbanized city in the understudied Neotropical region. Bird data were collected on 60 point count locations distributed across the streets of the landscape. We used a series of competing GLM models (using Akaike's information criterion for small sample sizes) to assess the relative contribution of the different sets of variables to explain the observed patterns. Seventy-three bird species were observed exploiting the streets: native species were the most abundant and frequent throughout this landscape. The bird community's functional richness and Rao's Quadratic Entropy presented values lower than 0.5. Therefore, this landscape was favoring few functional traits. Exposure to noise was the most limiting factor for this bird community. However, the average size of arboreal patches and, especially the characteristics of street trees, were able to reduce the negative effects of noise on the bird community. These results show the importance of adequately planning the urban afforestation process: increasing tree species richness, preserving large trees and planting more native trees species in the streets are management practices that will increase bird species richness, abundance and community functional aspects and

  2. The relationship between high street footfall, attraction and conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Graham, CD

    2016-01-01

    The three critical measures of retail performance are often suggested to be “location, location, location”. However this generalisation, like many others in the literature, is of little practical use without underpinning empirical evidence. At a time when high streets find themselves under pressure from emerging omni-channel shopping behaviours, now more than ever retail managers need reliable performance benchmarks and comparators. We report findings from a mass observation of high street sh...

  3. Street foods in Accra, Ghana: how safe are they?

    OpenAIRE

    Mensah, Patience; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy; Owusu-Darko, Kwaku; Ablordey, Anthony

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the microbial quality of foods sold on streets of Accra and factors predisposing to their contamination. METHODS: Structured questionnaires were used to collect data from 117 street vendors on their vital statistics, personal hygiene, food hygiene and knowledge of foodborne illness. Standard methods were used for the enumeration, isolation, and identification of bacteria. FINDINGS: Most vendors were educated and exhibited good hygiene behaviour. Diarrhoea was defined...

  4. Serum IL-10, IL-17 and IL-23 levels as "bioumoral bridges" between dyslipidemia and atopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manti, S; Leonardi, S; Panasiti, I; Arrigo, T; Salpietro, C; Cuppari, C

    2017-11-01

    Although several studies suggest a possible link between dyslipidemia and atopy, literature findings are still unclear. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between dyslipidemia and atopy in a pediatric population affected by dyslipidemia or dyslipidemia/atopic predisposition. Children with dyslipidemia, dyslipidemia and atopy as well as healthy children were recruited. Serum total IgE, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-23 levels as well as fasting lipid values (total cholesterol, LDL, HDL and triglycerides) were performed on all enrolled children. The present study evaluated 23 patients affected by dyslipidemia, 26 patients affected by atopy and dyslipidemia and, 22healthy children. Serum total IgE levels significantly related also with serum cholesterol levels: positively with total cholesterol (pdyslipidemia than patients with dyslipidemia (pdyslipidemia than patients with dyslipidemia (pdyslipidemia and atopic predisposition share the same immune pathways as well as they offer new insights in the complex crosstalk between hyperlipidemia and atopy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Urban street structure and traffic safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Villaveces, Andres

    2017-09-01

    This paper reports the influence of road type and junction density on road traffic fatality rates in U.S. cities. The Fatality Analysis Reporting System (FARS) files were used to obtain fatality rates for all cities for the years 2005-2010. A stratified random sample of 16 U.S. cities was taken, and cities with high and low road traffic fatality rates were compared on their road layout details (TIGER maps were used). Statistical analysis was done to determine the effect of junction density and road type on road traffic fatality rates. The analysis of road network and road traffic crash fatality rates in these randomly selected U.S. cities shows that, (a) higher number of junctions per road length was significantly associated with a lower motor- vehicle crash and pedestrian mortality rates, and, (b) increased number of kilometers of roads of any kind was associated with higher fatality rates, but an additional kilometer of main arterial road was associated with a significantly higher increase in total fatalities. When compared to non-arterial roads, the higher the ratio of highways and main arterial roads, there was an association with higher fatality rates. These results have important implications for road safety professionals. They suggest that once the road and street structure is put in place, that will influence whether a city has low or high traffic fatality rates. A city with higher proportion of wider roads and large city blocks will tend to have higher traffic fatality rates, and therefore in turn require much more efforts in police enforcement and other road safety measures. Urban planners need to know that smaller block size with relatively less wide roads will result in lower traffic fatality rates and this needs to be incorporated at the planning stage. Copyright © 2017 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Effect of greenbelt on pollutant dispersion in street canyon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wei-Jia; Xing, Hong; Yu, Zhi

    2012-02-01

    The effect feature of greenbelt on flow field and pollutant dispersion in urban street canyon was researched. The greenbelt was assumed as uniform porous media and its aerodynamics property defined by the pressure loss coefficient. Subsequently, the pollutant dispersion in the street canyon of which there was greenbelt in the middle was simulated with the steady-state standard kappa-epsilon turbulence model and species transport equation. The simulated results agreed well with the wind-tunnel data. Compared with the treeless case, it finds that the street canyon contain a clockwise vortex, the pollutant concentration of the leeward was several times than the windward and the growth rate of pollutant concentration was 46.0%. The further simulation for the impact of tree crown position on the airflow and pollutant dispersion finds that the height of major vortex center in the street canyon increases with the height of tree crown and gradually closes the top of windward building This causes that the average wind speed in the street canyon decreases. Especially when the top of tree crown over the roof and hinder the air flow above the street canyon, the average pollutant concentration increases with the height of tree crown rapidly.

  7. NUTRIENTS INTAKE AND NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF STREET CHILDREN IN BANDUNG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Patriasih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The objectives of this research were to analyze food habits and nutrients intake, and health and nutritional status of street children. The research was carried out in the City of Bandung, West Java; Indonesia. A sample of 324 street children was selected randomly. The sample consisted of 232 boys and 92 girls. The data obtained from questionnaires. Means, standard deviation, frequency and proportion were calculated with a combination of software applications:  Microsoft Excel and Statistical Analysis System. The result showed the level of consumption adequacy did not meet the recommended dietary allowances i.e. with the shortage of 10-15%, this is an indication that the street children should be aware of their daily food consumption. The most common diseases suffered by the respondents were acute respiratory infections (ARI (47%. In addition, 22.7 % and 18.4 % of them suffered from diarrhoea and skin diseases, respectively. Blood haemoglobin status of street children shows that the incidence of anemia was 29.3%. Based on the classification of nutritional status, 42.7% and 80.4 % of street children were underweight and stunted, respectively. Key words: nutrients intake, nutritional status, street children

  8. Drug use among street children and adolescents: what helps?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yone Gonçalves de Moura

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated to frequent and heavy drug use among street children and adolescents aged 10 to 18 years. A sample of 2,807 street children and adolescents from the 27 Brazilian state capital cities was analyzed. A World Health Organization questionnaire for non-students was adapted for use in Brazil. Data analysis was performed using logistic regression and decision tree models. Factors inversely associated with frequent and heavy drug use were: being age nine to 11 years (OR = 0.1; school attendance (OR = 0.3; daily time (one to five hours spent on the streets (OR = 0.3 and 0.4; not sleeping on the streets (OR = 0.4; being on the streets for less than one year (OR = 0.4; maintenance of some family bonds (OR = 0.5; presence on the streets of a family member (OR = 0.6; not suffering domestic violence (OR = 0.6; being female (OR = 0.8. All of these variables were significant at the p < 0.05 level. The findings suggest that being younger, having family bonds and engagement in school are important protective factors that affect drug use among this population and should be considered in the formulation of public policies.

  9. Structure of IL-22 Bound to Its High-Affinity IL-22R1 Chain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, B.C.; Logsdon, N.J.; Walter, M.R. (UAB)

    2008-09-29

    IL-22 is an IL-10 family cytokine that initiates innate immune responses against bacterial pathogens and contributes to immune disease. IL-22 biological activity is initiated by binding to a cell-surface complex composed of IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 receptor chains and further regulated by interactions with a soluble binding protein, IL-22BP, which shares sequence similarity with an extracellular region of IL-22R1 (sIL-22R1). IL-22R1 also pairs with the IL-20R2 chain to induce IL-20 and IL-24 signaling. To define the molecular basis of these diverse interactions, we have determined the structure of the IL-22/sIL-22R1 complex. The structure, combined with homology modeling and surface plasmon resonance studies, defines the molecular basis for the distinct affinities and specificities of IL-22 and IL-10 receptor chains that regulate cellular targeting and signal transduction to elicit effective immune responses.

  10. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  11. Il gioco le leggi naturali governano il caso

    CERN Document Server

    Eigen, Manfred

    1986-01-01

    Manfred Eigen, Premio Nobel per la chimica nel 1967, e la sua collaboratrice Ruthild Winkler hanno voluto con questo libro uscire allo scoperto, esponendo in una trattazione complessa ma comprensibile per ogni lettore veramente interessato una teoria molto audace, basata su ricerche e scoperte di Eigen stesso e di altri (come per esempio Thom e Prigogine) che in questi ultimi anni sono al centro dell’attenzione degli scienziati, anche se non sempre sono filtrate al di fuori della loro cerchia. Questa teoria ha come perno la nozione di gioco: e non già in una o più delle innumerevoli accezioni della parola, ma in tutte, con l’aggiunta di una ulteriore accezione che sottende tutte le altre: il gioco come struttura intelligibile emergente dal divenire caotico, quindi come fenomeno «che ha guidato fin dall’inizio il corso dell’Universo». Gioco, in questo libro, è dunque un «fenomeno naturale», non specificamente umano. I giochi che noi tutti giochiamo sono soltanto la schiuma variegata di un flutto...

  12. Do suburban residents want to pay for wide streets? a survey on consumer preference and ability to afford towards wide street and on-street parking in American suburbia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    All local governments in the U.S. set the street minimum width and cross-section design for local : neighborhood streets. Because local streets typically require no more than two traffic lanes (approx. 20 feet : wide), a minimum width of 26 feet or w...

  13. Competition for the Elements of the City Environment for Irkutsk’s Public Spaces: Street Furniture, Street Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatyana Danilova

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article reviews the contest «Street furniture. Street design», which was held this summer by manufacturing company «PalpNord», International research laboratory of study and design of the urban environment «Urban Planning School» and the Union of Architects of Russia. The winners and their projects are also listed in the article.

  14. Identification on the street: A field comparison of police street identifications and video line-ups in England

    OpenAIRE

    Davis, Josh P.; Valentine, Tim; Memon, Amina; Roberts, Andrew J.

    2015-01-01

    A street identification or live show-up provides an eyewitness with an opportunity to identify a suspect shortly after a crime. In England, the majority of suspects identified are subsequently included in a video line-up for the same witness to view. In Study 1, robbery squad data from three English police forces recorded 696 crimes, the identification procedures employed and prosecution decisions. A street identification was the most frequent identification procedure, being attempted in 22.7...

  15. IL-17A, IL-17RC polymorphisms and IL17 plasma levels in Tunisian patients with rheumatoid arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chahbi, Mayssa; Haouami, Youssra; Sfar, Imen; Abdelmoula, Leila; Ben Abdallah, Taieb; Gorgi, Yousr

    2018-01-01

    Background Interleukin-17 (IL-17), a cytokine mainly secreted by Th17 cells, seems to play a significant role in the pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Functional genetic polymorphisms in IL-17 and its receptor genes can influence either qualitatively or quantitatively their functions. Therefore, we aimed to study the impact of IL17-A and IL17RC polymorphisms on plasma level of IL-17 and RA susceptibility and severity. Methods In this context, IL-17A*rs2275913 and IL-17RC*rs708567 polymorphisms were investigated together with the quantification of IL17 plasma level in 115 RA patients and 91 healthy control subjects matched in age, sex and ethnic origin. Results There were no statistically significant associations between IL-17A and IL-17RC studied polymorphisms and RA susceptibility. In contrast, IL-17A plasma levels were significantly higher in patients (55.07 pg/ml) comparatively to controls (4.75 pg/ml), p<10E-12. A ROC curve was used to evaluate the performance of plasma IL-17 in detecting RA. Given 100% specificity, the highest sensitivity of plasma IL-17A was 61.7% at a cut-off value of 18.25 pg/ml; p < 10E-21, CI = [0.849–0.939]. Analytic results showed that the IgM-rheumatoid factor and anti-CCP antibodies were significantly less frequent in patients with the IL-17RC*A/A genotype than those carrying *G/G and *G/A genotypes; p = 0.013 and p = 0.015, respectively. Otherwise, IL-17 plasma levels’ analysis showed a significant association with the activity of RA (DAS28≥5.1 = 74.71 pg/ml vs. DAS28<5.1 = 11.96 pg/ml), p<10E-6. Conclusion IL-17A*rs2275913 (G/A) and IL-17RC*rs708567 (G/A) polymorphisms did not seem to influence RA susceptibility in Tunisian population. This result agrees with those reported previously. Plasma IL-17A level seems to be predictive of severe RA occurrence. PMID:29584788

  16. Clinical value of determination of changes of serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after transfusion of Red blood cells in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Tingting; Li Xinghua

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigation the changes of serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-18 contents after transfusion of red blood cells in patients with peptic ulcer. Methods: Serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 (with RIA), serum IL-18 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 31 patients with peptic ulcer and 35 controls. Results: Before transfusion,the serum IL-2 level in the patients was significantly lower than that in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Detection of serum Gas, IL-2, IL-10 and IL-18 levels is clinically useful for monitoring progress and favourable prognosis of patients with peptic ulcer possess important clinical value. (authors)

  17. Importance-satisfaction analysis of street food sanitation and choice factor in Korea and Taiwan

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Nami; Park, Sanghyun; Lee, Bohee; Yoon, Jiyoung

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES The present study investigated Korean and Taiwan adults on the importance of and the satisfaction with street food sanitation and street food choice factor, in order to present management and improvement measures for street foods. SUBJECTS/METHODS The present study conducted a survey on 400 randomly chosen adults (200 Korean, 200 Taiwanese). General characteristics, eating habits, street food intake frequency, and preference by type of street food of respondents were che...

  18. Street art a jeho vliv na současnou českou malbu

    OpenAIRE

    Grabmüllerová, Eva

    2009-01-01

    Street Art and Its Influence on Contemporary Czech Painting Street art as a concept refers to an artistic expression, which is, however, not defined by one homogenous technique or subject. The only attribute that conjoins the diverse forms and subjects of street art is a very specific urban area utilization. Although street art encompasses many diverse forms and techniques, the most prevalent ones are sticker art, street posters art, stencil graffiti, murals, traditional graffiti artwork, art...

  19. POLE-LIKE STREET FURNITURE DECOMPOSTION IN MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    OpenAIRE

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A nove...

  20. Dispersion and photochemical evolution of reactive pollutants in street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwan; Baik, Jong-Jin; Lee, Kwang-Yeon

    2013-05-01

    Dispersion and photochemical evolution of reactive pollutants in street canyons with canyon aspect ratios of 1 and 2 are investigated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model coupled with the carbon bond mechanism IV (CBM-IV). Photochemical ages of NOx and VOC are expressed as a function of the NO2-to-NOx and toluene-to-xylene ratios, respectively. These are found to be useful for analyzing the O3 and OH oxidation processes in the street canyons. The OH oxidation process (O3 oxidation process) is more pronounced in the upper (lower) region of the street canyon with a canyon aspect ratio of 2, which is characterized by more (less) aged air. In the upper region of the street canyon, O3 is chemically produced as well as transported downward across the roof level, whereas O3 is chemically reduced in the lower region of the street canyon. The O3 chemical production is generally favorable when the normalized photochemical ages of NOx and VOC are larger than 0.55 and 0.28, respectively. The sensitivities of O3 chemical characteristics to NOx and VOC emission rates, photolysis rate, and ambient wind speed are examined for the lower and upper regions of the street canyon with a canyon aspect ratio of 2. The O3 concentration and the O3 chemical production rate divided by the O3 concentration increase as the NOx emission rate decreases and the VOC emission rate and photolysis rate increase. The O3 concentration is less sensitive to the ambient wind speed than to other factors considered. The relative importance of the OH oxidation process compared to the O3 oxidation process increases with increasing NOx emission rate and photolysis rate and decreasing VOC emission rate. In this study, both O3 and OH oxidation processes are found to be important in street-canyon scale chemistry. The methodology of estimating the photochemical ages can potentially be adopted to neighborhood scale chemistry.

  1. IL22/IL-22R pathway induces cell survival in human glioblastoma cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein Akil

    Full Text Available Interleukin-22 (IL-22 is a member of the IL-10 cytokine family that binds to a heterodimeric receptor consisting of IL-22 receptor 1 (IL-22R1 and IL-10R2. IL-22R expression was initially characterized on epithelial cells, and plays an essential role in a number of inflammatory diseases. Recently, a functional receptor was detected on cancer cells such as hepatocarcinoma and lung carcinoma, but its presence was not reported in glioblastoma (GBM. Two GBM cell lines and 10 primary cell lines established from patients undergoing surgery for malignant GBM were used to investigate the expression of IL-22 and IL-22R by using quantitative RT-PCR, western blotting and confocal microscopy studies. The role of IL-22 in proliferation and survival of GBM cell lines was investigated in vitro by BrdU and ELISA cell death assays. We report herein that the two subunits of the IL-22R complex are expressed on human GBM cells. Their activation, depending on exogenous IL-22, induced antiapoptotic effect and cell proliferation. IL-22 treatment of GBM cells resulted in increased levels of phosphorylated Akt, STAT3 signaling protein and its downstream antiapoptotic protein Bcl-xL and decreased level of phosphorylated ERK1/2. In addition, IL-22R subunits were expressed in all the 10 tested primary cell lines established from GBM tumors. Our results showed that IL-22R is expressed on GBM established and primary cell lines. Depending on STAT3, ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt pathways, IL-22 induced GBM cell survival. These data are consistent with a potential role of IL-22R in tumorigenesis of GBM. Since endogenous IL-22 was not detected in all studied GBM cells, we hypothesize that IL-22R could be activated by immune microenvironmental IL-22 producing cells.

  2. I lectores medioevali tra il libro e il testo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Riviello

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available L’intento del lavoro è di problematizzare alcuni aspetti, generalmente ritenuti emblematici, della relazione tra i litterati medievali e il libro – nelle sue declinazioni di Testo sacro, Libro della natura e auctoritates. L’impiego, come strumenti di lavoro, di concetti di recente elaborazione e di osservazioni di pensatori contemporanei sull’argomento, non è finalizzato ad attualizzare tale relazione, quanto piuttosto ad ampliare i punti di vista su di essa e a metterne alla prova la capacità di offrire originali spunti di riflessione. Le proposte teoriche di Jacques Derrida, Michel Foucault e Roland Barthes sono qui adoperate come esemplificazioni di un’interpretazione che ha storicamente reso quasi paradigmatico il modo di leggere dei docti, specialmente altomedievali. Tuttavia, alcune definizioni della Scrittura – il libro per eccellenza – proposte da questi ultimi, nonché la teorizzazione del suo quadruplice senso sembrano smussare la radicalità di queste osservazioni. Concetti quali “funzione-autore” di Foucault e “testo” di Barthes sono invece adottati per considerare all’interno di una diversa cornice teorica il confronto dei doctores, in particolare bassomedievali, con le cosiddette auctoritates. Nella visione ordinaria la reverenza nei confronti dell’autore, divino o umano, la ricerca e la riproposizione fedele di un significato univoco dell’opera aldilà dei segni, naturali o culturali, che lo veicolano costituiscono tratti tipici dell’atteggiamento dei lettori medievali. A fronte di questi aspetti, tuttavia, è possibile sottolinearne altri eterodossi e perlopiù trascurati, quali la rilevanza attribuita all’interpretazione, prassi ineludibile e da disciplinare, al ruolo del lettore e alla sua fruizione attiva e produttiva dei testi. The aim of the work is to problematize some aspects generally considered representative of the relationship between medieval savants and the book - in its variations

  3. IL-21 Receptor Expression in Human Tendinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abigail L. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The pathogenetic mechanisms underlying tendinopathy remain unclear, with much debate as to whether inflammation or degradation has the prominent role. Increasing evidence points toward an early inflammatory infiltrate and associated inflammatory cytokine production in human and animal models of tendon disease. The IL-21/IL-21R axis is a proinflammatory cytokine complex that has been associated with chronic inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. This project aimed to investigate the role and expression of the cytokine/receptor pair IL-21/IL-21R in human tendinopathy. We found significantly elevated expression of IL-21 receptor message and protein in human tendon samples but found no convincing evidence of the presence of IL-21 at message or protein level. The level of expression of IL-21R message/protein in human tenocytes was significantly upregulated by proinflammatory cytokines (TNFα/IL-1β in vitro. These findings demonstrate that IL-21R is present in early human tendinopathy mainly expressed by tenocytes and macrophages. Despite a lack of IL-21 expression, these data again suggest that early tendinopathy has an inflammatory/cytokine phenotype, which may provide novel translational targets in the treatment of tendinopathy.

  4. Genetic polymorphism of interleukin-1A (IL-1A), IL-1B, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) and prostate cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Ding, Qiang; Jiang, Hao-Wen

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the associations between polymorphisms of interleukin-1A (IL-1A), IL-1B, and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1RN) and prostate cancer (PCa) risk. A comprehensive search for articles of MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and bibliographies of retrieved articles published up to August 3, 2014 was performed. Methodological quality assessment of the trials was based on a standard quality scoring system. The meta-analysis was performed using STATA 12.0. We included 9 studies (1 study for IL-1A, 5 studies for IL-1B, and 3 studies for IL-1RN), and significant association was found between polymorphisms of IL-1B-511 (rs16944) as well as IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) and PCa risk. IL-1B-511 (rs16944) polymorphism was significantly associated with PCa risk in homozygote and recessive models, as well as allele contrast (TT vs CC: OR, 0.74; 95%CI, 0.58-0.94; P=0.012; TT vs TC+CC; OR, 0.79; 95%CI, 0.63-0.98; P=0.033; T vs C: OR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.77-0.96; P=0.008). The association between IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) polymorphism and PCa risk was weakly significant under a heterozygote model (OR, 1.35; 95%CI, 1.00-1.80; P=0.047). Sequence variants in IL-1B-511 (rs16944) and IL-1B-31 (rs1143627) are significantly associated with PCa risk, which provides additional novel evidence that proinflammatory cytokines and inflammation play an important role in the etiology of PCa.

  5. "Street Love": How Street Life Oriented U. S. Born African Men Frame Giving Back to One Another and the Local Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Yasser Arafat; Hamdi, Hanaa A.

    2009-01-01

    This Participatory Action Research (PAR) project worked with four active street life oriented U. S. born African men, to document how a community sample of street life oriented U. S. born African men between the ages of 16-65, frame and use "street life" as a Site of Resiliency (Payne, Dissertation, 2005; "Journal of Black Psychology" 34(1):3-31,…

  6. IL-15 deficient tax mice reveal a role for IL-1α in tumor immunity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A Rauch

    Full Text Available IL-15 is recognized as a promising candidate for tumor immunotherapy and has been described as both a promoter of cancer and a promoter of anti-cancer immunity. IL-15 was discovered in cells transformed by HTLV-1, the etiologic agent of adult T cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL and the human retrovirus that carries the Tax oncogene. We have developed the TAX-LUC mouse model of ATL in which Tax expression drives both malignant transformation and luciferase expression, enabling non-invasive imaging of tumorigenesis in real time. To identify the role of IL-15 in spontaneous development of lymphoma in vivo, an IL-15(-/- TAX-LUC strain was developed and examined. The absence of IL-15 resulted in aggressive tumor growth and accelerated mortality and demonstrated that IL-15 was not required for Tax-mediated lymphoma but was essential for anti-tumor immunity. Further analysis revealed a unique transcriptional profile in tumor cells that arise in the absence of IL-15 that included a significant increase in the expression of IL-1α and IL-1α-regulated cytokines. Moreover, anti-IL-1α antibodies and an IL-1 receptor antagonist (Anakinra were used to interrogate the potential of IL-1α targeted therapies in this model. Taken together, these findings identify IL-15 and IL-1α as therapeutic targets in lymphoma.

  7. The IL-17F/IL-17RC Axis Promotes Respiratory Allergy in the Proximal Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella De Luca

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The interleukin 17 (IL-17 cytokine and receptor family is central to antimicrobial resistance and inflammation in the lung. Mice lacking IL-17A, IL-17F, or the IL-17RA subunit were compared with wild-type mice for susceptibility to airway inflammation in models of infection and allergy. Signaling through IL-17RA was required for efficient microbial clearance and prevention of allergy; in the absence of IL-17RA, signaling through IL-17RC on epithelial cells, predominantly by IL-17F, significantly exacerbated lower airway Aspergillus or Pseudomonas infection and allergic airway inflammation. In contrast, following infection with the upper respiratory pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, the IL-17F/IL-17RC axis mediated protection. Thus, IL-17A and IL-17F exert distinct biological effects during pulmonary infection; the IL-17F/IL-17RC signaling axis has the potential to significantly worsen pathogen-associated inflammation of the lower respiratory tract in particular, and should be investigated further as a therapeutic target for treating pathological inflammation in the lung.

  8. IL-17 mediates immunopathology in the absence of IL-10 following Leishmania major infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gonzalez-Lombana

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis, resulting from infection with the protozoan parasite Leishmania, consists of a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from healing cutaneous lesions to fatal visceral infections. A particularly severe form of cutaneous leishmaniasis, termed mucosal leishmaniasis, exhibits decreased IL-10 levels and an exaggerated inflammatory response that perpetuates the disease. Using a mouse model of leishmaniasis, we investigated what cytokines contribute to increased pathology when IL-10-mediated regulation is absent. Leishmania major infected C57BL/6 mice lacking IL-10 regulation developed larger lesions than controls, but fewer parasites. Both IFN-γ and IL-17 levels were substantially elevated in mice lacking the capacity to respond to IL-10. IFN-γ promoted an increased infiltration of monocytes, while IL-17 contributed to an increase in neutrophils. Surprisingly, however, we found that IFN-γ did not contribute to increased pathology, but instead regulated the IL-17 response. Thus, blocking IFN-γ led to a significant increase in IL-17, neutrophils and disease. Similarly, the production of IL-17 by cells from leishmaniasis patients was also regulated by IL-10 and IFN-γ. Additional studies found that the IL-1 receptor was required for both the IL-17 response and increased pathology. Therefore, we propose that regulating IL-17, possibly by downregulating IL-1β, may be a useful approach for controlling immunopathology in leishmaniasis.

  9. IL-28 and IL-29 as protective markers in subject with dengue fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Chih-Hsing; Huang, Chung-Hao; Wang, Lin; Huang, Chun-Chi; Wu, Meng-Chieh; Chin, Yi-Ying; Lin, Chun-Yu; Chang, Ko; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chen, Yen-Hsu

    2017-06-01

    About 400 million people every year are estimated to contract dengue virus infection, which causes prolonged morbidity and sometimes mortality. Interleukin (IL)-28 and IL-29 are relatively newly discovered cytokines and play an important role in our immune defense against pathogens, especially for viral infection. In the present study, we investigated serum IL-28 and IL-29 expression and the relationship to clinical and laboratory parameters in patients with dengue virus infection. Adult patients with dengue (n = 45) and control group (n = 24) were included prospectively. Clinical symptoms and laboratory data were collected from every patient. We investigated IL-28 and IL-29 levels in serum by ELISA. The concentrations of serum IL-28 and IL-29 were significantly higher in subjects with dengue when compared to those of control group. The patients with higher serum IL-28 and IL-29 levels had significantly lower ALAT and peripheral blood neutrophil percentage, but higher peripheral platelet, total white blood cell (WBC), monocyte, and lymphocyte counts. Patients with higher serum IL-28 and IL-29 levels also had more flu-like symptoms, but less vomiting. Increased level of IL-28 and IL-29 was associated with better liver function, platelet and WBC numbers and clinical symptom in subjects with dengue and could potentially serve as a protective marker.

  10. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, IL-31, and IL-33 in Children with Allergic Disease of the Airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Bonanno

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Low vitamin D is involved in allergic asthma and rhinitis. IL-31 and IL-33 correlate with Th2-associated cytokines in allergic disease. We investigated whether low vitamin D is linked with circulating IL-31 and IL-33 in children with allergic disease of the airways. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH Vit D], IL-31, and IL-33 plasma levels were measured in 28 controls (HC, 11 allergic rhinitis (AR patients, and 35 allergic asthma with rhinitis (AAR patients. We found significant lower levels of 25(OH Vit D in AR and in AAR than in HC. IL-31 and IL-33 plasma levels significantly increased in AAR than HC. IL-31 and IL-33 positively correlated in AR and AAR. 25(OH Vit D deficient AAR had higher levels of blood eosinophils, exacerbations, disease duration, and total IgE than patients with insufficient or sufficient 25(OH Vit D. In AAR 25(OH Vit D levels inversely correlated with total allergen sIgE score and total atopy index. IL-31 and IL-33 did not correlate with 25(OH Vit D in AR and AAR. In conclusion, low levels of 25(OH Vit D might represent a risk factor for the development of concomitant asthma and rhinitis in children with allergic disease of the airways independently of IL-31/IL-33 Th2 activity.

  11. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charlie Bridgewood

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  12. IL-36γ Is a Strong Inducer of IL-23 in Psoriatic Cells and Activates Angiogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridgewood, Charlie; Fearnley, Gareth W; Berekmeri, Anna; Laws, Philip; Macleod, Tom; Ponnambalam, Sreenivasan; Stacey, Martin; Graham, Anne; Wittmann, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    The IL-1 family member cytokine IL-36γ is recognised as key mediator in the immunopathology of psoriasis, hallmarks of which involve the activation of both resident and infiltrating inflammatory myeloid cells and aberrant angiogenesis. This research demonstrates a role for IL-36γ in both myeloid activation and angiogenesis. We show that IL-36γ induces the production of psoriasis-associated cytokines from macrophages (IL-23 and TNFα) and that this response is enhanced in macrophages from psoriasis patients. This effect is specific for IL-36γ and could not be mimicked by other IL-1 family cytokines such as IL-1α. IL-36γ was also demonstrated to induce endothelial tube formation and branching, in a VEGF-A-dependent manner. Furthermore, IL-36γ-stimulated macrophages potently activated endothelial cells and led to increased adherence of monocytes, effects that were markedly more pronounced for psoriatic macrophages. Interestingly, regardless of stimulus, psoriasis monocytes showed increased adherence to both the stimulated and unstimulated endothelium when compared with monocytes from healthy individuals. Collectively, these findings show that IL-36γ has the potential to enhance endothelium directed leucocyte infiltration into the skin and strengthen the IL-23/IL-17 pathway adding to the growing evidence of pathogenetic roles for IL-36γ in psoriatic responses. Our findings also point to a cellular response, which could potentially explain cardiovascular comorbidities in psoriasis in the form of endothelial activation and increased monocyte adherence.

  13. Pecan Street Grid Demonstration Program. Final technology performance report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2015-02-10

    This document represents the final Regional Demonstration Project Technical Performance Report (TPR) for Pecan Street Inc.’s (Pecan Street) Smart Grid Demonstration Program, DE-OE-0000219. Pecan Street is a 501(c)(3) smart grid/clean energy research and development organization headquartered at The University of Texas at Austin (UT). Pecan Street worked in collaboration with Austin Energy, UT, Environmental Defense Fund (EDF), the City of Austin, the Austin Chamber of Commerce and selected consultants, contractors, and vendors to take a more detailed look at the energy load of residential and small commercial properties while the power industry is undergoing modernization. The Pecan Street Smart Grid Demonstration Program signed-up over 1,000 participants who are sharing their home or businesses’s electricity consumption data with the project via green button protocols, smart meters, and/or a home energy monitoring system (HEMS). Pecan Street completed the installation of HEMS in 750 homes and 25 commercial properties. The program provided incentives to increase the installed base of roof-top solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, plug-in electric vehicles with Level 2 charging, and smart appliances. Over 200 participants within a one square mile area took advantage of Austin Energy and Pecan Street’s joint PV incentive program and installed roof-top PV as part of this project. Of these homes, 69 purchased or leased an electric vehicle through Pecan Street’s PV rebate program and received a Level 2 charger from Pecan Street. Pecan Street studied the impacts of these technologies along with a variety of consumer behavior interventions, including pricing models, real-time feedback on energy use, incentive programs, and messaging, as well as the corresponding impacts on Austin Energy’s distribution assets.The primary demonstration site was the Mueller community in Austin, Texas. The Mueller development, located less than three miles from the Texas State Capitol

  14. Il Gambling Compulsivo: rilevanza epidemiologica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Coacci

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Introduzione: il gioco d’azzardo ha profonde radici nella storia e nella cultura di ogni popolo. Si stima che circa l’80% della popolazione adulta nel nostro Paese giochi d’azzardo. Esso, pur rappresentando per la maggior parte di queste persone solo un innocuo passatempo, si trasforma talora in una vera e propria malattia (gambling compulsivo, con comportamenti che denotano forme estreme di rischio, sino a forme che portano alla distruzione della famiglia e persino della propria vita.

    Si tratta un disturbo poco conosciuto e spesso non diagnosticato. Infatti, benché sia largamente diffuso e comporti rilevanti costi umani e sociali, il gambling compulsivo solo di recente è stato incluso nelle classificazioni diagnostiche internazionali.

    Obiettivi: valutare l’impatto epidemiologico del gambling compulsivo (gioco d’azzardo patologico in una ASL/provincia.

    Materiali e metodi: è stato inviato un questionario ai 190 Medici di Medicina Generale della provincia di Grosseto (ASL 8, per raccogliere informazioni su: sistema di cura, numero di soggetti che si sono rivolti al proprio medico di famiglia per tale problema, eventuale coesistenza di problemi e comportamenti di dipendenza e di abuso (alcool, psicofarmaci, droghe illegali, ecc.

    Risultati: sono pervenuti 127 (pari al 66,8% questionari compilati. L’elaborazione dei dati è tuttora in corso.

    Conclusioni: dai risultati preliminari sembra emergere che il numero di persone che chiede aiuto al medico e al SSN, differentemente da quanto accade per i tossicodipendenti, è molto limitato e, quindi, intuitivamente poco indicativo della massa di soggetti realmente coinvolti dalla problematica studiata. Si discute del ruolo nella promozione della salute potenzialmente svolto dai Medici di Medicina Generale. Per quanto la tecnica di rilevazione appaia relativamente poco sensibile

  15. Can activity support influence image of a street?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiami Fachrudin, Hilma

    2018-03-01

    Activity support may affect the formation of the image of a corridor and street. Form, place, and character of activity support in an area will have the function attraction and usefulness of its activities. The aim of this research is to analyze how the influence of activity support on the image of a street, in this case, Dr.Mansyur street which located in front of Universitas Sumatera Utara. Along the street, there are various activities that conducted from morning until evening. The method used is a quantitative method with observation and questionnaire techniques. A population of this study is visitors and students of architecture department from Universitas Sumatera Utara (USU) with sample number is 100 respondents for visitors and 100 respondents for students. Independent variables are activity support factors that consist of the type of activity, form, color, dimension, material, position and lighting. The dependent variable is imageability by [1]. Data were analyzed using logistic regression analysis. The results show that activity support influences image Dr. Mansyur street that has an image as a campus and culinary area and easy to identify.

  16. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STREET PATTERNS IN ISRAELI CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak OMER

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Street patterns of Israeli cities were investigated by comparing three time periods of urban development: (I the late 19th century until the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948; (II 1948 until the 1980s; and (III the late 1980s until the present. These time periods are related respectively to the pre-modern, modern and late-modern urban planning approach. Representative urban street networks were examined in selected cities by means of morphological analysis of typical street pattern properties: curvature, fragmentation, connectivity, continuity and differentiation. The study results reveal significant differences between the street patterns of the three examined periods in the development of cities in Israel. The results show clearly the gradual trends in the intensification of curvature, fragmentation, complexity and hierarchical organization of street networks as well as the weakening of the network's internal and external connectivity. The implications of these changes on connectivity and spatial integration are discussed with respect to planning approaches.

  17. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STREET PATTERNS IN ISRAELI CITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itzhak OMER

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Street patterns of Israeli cities were investigated by comparing three time periods of urban development: (I the late 19th century until the establishment of the state of Israel in 1948; (II 1948 until the 1980s; and (III the late 1980s until the present. These time periods are related respectively to the pre-modern, modern and late-modern urban planning approach. Representative urban street networks were examined in selected cities by means of morphological analysis of typical street pattern properties: curvature, fragmentation, connectivity, continuity and differentiation. The study results reveal significant differences between the street patterns of the three examined periods in the development of cities in Israel. The results show clearly the gradual trends in the intensification of curvature, fragmentation, complexity and hierarchical organization of street networks as well as the weakening of the network's internal and external connectivity. The implications of these changes on connectivity and spatial integration are discussed with respect to planning approaches.

  18. Modelling the air flow in symmetric and asymmetric street canyons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santiago, J.L.; Martin, F. [Research Center for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain). Fossil Fuels Dept., Numerical Simulation and Modelling Program

    2004-07-01

    In recent years a large amount of research has been conducted on urban scale and street canyon. Control of air quality inside cities is important for human health. To achieve this objective, street canyon modelling plays a significant role. Pollutant dispersion inside canyons are determined by wind flow around this complex geometry. Experimental investigations have been made by means of field measurements such as Vachon, G. et al. or wind tunnel experiences as Meroney, R.N. et al. or Kastner-Klein, P. and E.J. Plate. In many of these researches, they have used CFD models in several configurations, for instance Assimakopoulos, V.D. et al. or Sini, J.-F. et al. These models are based on a numerical resolution of Navier-Stokes equations with a turbulence closure. In this study, the aim is contribute to the understanding of air circulation inside street canyons. In order to achieve this purpose, several configurations of canyons are investigated. Two-dimensional sequences of real-scale street canyons (order to obstacles height is meters) with different features (symmetric canyons and asymmetric canyons forming step-up and step-down notch configurations) are simulated. These general configurations are modified to investigate some parameters such as aspect ratio, W/H, where W is the width of street and H is the height of buildings. Flows with high Reynolds numbers are modelling. FLUENT CFD software is used. (orig.)

  19. A qualitative enquiry into OpenStreetMap making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Wei

    2011-04-01

    Based on a case study on the OpenStreetMap community, this paper provides a contextual and embodied understanding of the user-led, user-participatory and user-generated produsage phenomenon. It employs Grounded Theory, Social Worlds Theory, and qualitative methods to illuminate and explores the produsage processes of OpenStreetMap making, and how knowledge artefacts such as maps can be collectively and collaboratively produced by a community of people, who are situated in different places around the world but engaged with the same repertoire of mapping practices. The empirical data illustrate that OpenStreetMap itself acts as a boundary object that enables actors from different social worlds to co-produce the Map through interacting with each other and negotiating the meanings of mapping, the mapping data and the Map itself. The discourses also show that unlike traditional maps that black-box cartographic knowledge and offer a single dominant perspective of cities or places, OpenStreetMap is an embodied epistemic object that embraces different world views. The paper also explores how contributors build their identities as an OpenStreetMaper alongside some other identities they have. Understanding the identity-building process helps to understand mapping as an embodied activity with emotional, cognitive and social repertoires.

  20. Trees and Streets as Drivers of Urban Stormwater Nutrient Pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Benjamin D; Finlay, Jacques C; Hobbie, Sarah E

    2017-09-05

    Expansion of tree cover is a major management goal in cities because of the substantial benefits provided to people, and potentially to water quality through reduction of stormwater volume by interception. However, few studies have addressed the full range of potential impacts of trees on urban runoff, which includes deposition of nutrient-rich leaf litter onto streets connected to storm drains. We analyzed the influence of trees on stormwater nitrogen and phosphorus export across 19 urban watersheds in Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN, U.S.A., and at the scale of individual streets within one residential watershed. Stormwater nutrient concentrations were highly variable across watersheds and strongly related to tree canopy over streets, especially for phosphorus. Stormwater nutrient loads were primarily related to road density, the dominant control over runoff volume. Street canopy exerted opposing effects on loading, where elevated nutrient concentrations from trees near roads outweighed the weak influence of trees on runoff reduction. These results demonstrate that vegetation near streets contributes substantially to stormwater nutrient pollution, and therefore to eutrophication of urban surface waters. Urban landscape design and management that account for trees as nutrient pollution sources could improve water quality outcomes, while allowing cities to enjoy the myriad benefits of urban forests.

  1. Neighborhood sampling: how many streets must an auditor walk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMillan, Tracy E; Cubbin, Catherine; Parmenter, Barbara; Medina, Ashley V; Lee, Rebecca E

    2010-03-12

    This study tested the representativeness of four street segment sampling protocols using the Pedestrian Environment Data Scan (PEDS) in eleven neighborhoods surrounding public housing developments in Houston, TX. The following four street segment sampling protocols were used (1) all segments, both residential and arterial, contained within the 400 meter radius buffer from the center point of the housing development (the core) were compared with all segments contained between the 400 meter radius buffer and the 800 meter radius buffer (the ring); all residential segments in the core were compared with (2) 75% (3) 50% and (4) 25% samples of randomly selected residential street segments in the core. Analyses were conducted on five key variables: sidewalk presence; ratings of attractiveness and safety for walking; connectivity; and number of traffic lanes. Some differences were found when comparing all street segments, both residential and arterial, in the core to the ring. Findings suggested that sampling 25% of residential street segments within the 400 m radius of a residence sufficiently represents the pedestrian built environment. Conclusions support more cost effective environmental data collection for physical activity research.

  2. Alcohol in urban streetscapes: a comparison of the use of Google Street View and on-street observation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clews, Chris; Brajkovich-Payne, Roza; Dwight, Emily; Ahmad Fauzul, Ayob; Burton, Madeleine; Carleton, Olivia; Cook, Julie; Deroles, Charlotte; Faulkner, Ruby; Furniss, Mary; Herewini, Anahera; Huband, Daymen; Jones, Nerissa; Kim, Cho Wool; Li, Alice; Lu, Jacky; Stanley, James; Wilson, Nick; Thomson, George

    2016-05-26

    Alcohol-related harm is a major global health issue, and controls on alcohol marketing are one intervention utilized by governments. This study investigated the use of Google Street View (GSV) as a novel research method for collecting alcohol-related data in the urban environment. The efficacy of GSV and on-street observation by observer teams was compared by surveying 400 m stretches of 12 streets in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. Data on alcohol sale, alcohol-related advertising, health promotion materials, regulatory information and visible alcohol consumption were collected. A total of 403 retailers with evidence of alcohol sales and 1161 items of alcohol-related communication were identified in on-street observation. Of the latter, 1028 items (89 %) were for alcohol marketing and 133 (11 %) were for alcohol-related health promotion and alcohol regulation. GSV was found to be a less sensitive tool than on-street observation with only 50 % of the alcohol venues identified and 52 % of the venue-associated brand marketing identified. A high degree of inter-observer reliability was generally found between pairs of observers e.g., for the detection of alcohol retail venues the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.78 to 0.98) for on-street observation and 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.49 to 0.96) for using GSV. GSV does not seem suitable for the comprehensive study of the influences on alcohol consumption in the urban streetscape. However, it may still have value for large, static objects in the environment and be more time efficient than traditional on-street observation measures, especially when used to collect data across a wide geographical area. Furthermore, GSV might become a more useful research tool in settings with better image quality (such as more 'footpath views') and with more regularly updated GSV imagery.

  3. Analyzing Thermal Characteristics of Urban Streets Using a Thermal Imaging Camera: A Case Study on Commercial Streets in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugie Lee

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Due to continuing city growth and global warming over the past decades, urban heat island (UHI effects, referring to the phenomena wherein the ambient air temperatures in cities are higher than those in rural areas, have become a serious threat to urban populations. Impervious surfaces, buildings with low-albedo materials, and a lack of vegetated areas are the major causes of poor urban thermal environments, particularly during the summer. Previous research has focused primarily on the thermal characteristics of individual building units. Few studies consider the impact of the street-scale thermal environments on the surface temperature, which affects pedestrian thermal comfort. The purpose of this study is to analyze the thermal characteristics of various physical elements on urban streets using thermal imaging cameras, and present policy implications for improving pedestrian thermal comfort. This study examines street-scale thermal environments of three major commercial streets: Garosu road, Serosu road, and Narosu road, in Seoul, Korea. This study conducted field measurements both during the day and the night in June 2017 in order to investigate changes in the urban surface temperatures across time. The results show that street trees are the most effective mitigation element for reducing surface temperatures. With regard to building use types, the highest surface temperatures are typically measured near restaurant buildings. Building façades that are dark-colored or partially covered with a metal contribute to high surface temperatures. Similarly, the temperatures of artificial turf or wooden decks on urban streets are also significantly high during the daytime. The thermal characteristics of various urban street elements should be considered to reduce the surface temperature and mitigate the urban heat island effect.

  4. D'Alton Community Nursing Unit, Claremorris, Mayo.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hurley, Deirdre A

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a persistent disabling condition with rising significant healthcare, social and economic costs. Current research supports the use of exercise-based treatment approaches that encourage people with CLBP to assume a physically active role in their recovery. While international clinical guidelines and systematic reviews for CLBP support supervised group exercise as an attractive first-line option for treating large numbers of CLBP patients at low cost, barriers to their delivery include space and time restrictions in healthcare settings and poor patient attendance. The European Clinical Guidelines have identified the need for research in the use of brief\\/minimal contact self-activation interventions that encourage participation in physical activity for CLBP. Walking may be an ideally suited form of individualized exercise prescription as it is easy to do, requires no special skills or facilities, and is achievable by virtually all ages with little risk of injury, but its effectiveness for LBP is unproven. METHODS AND DESIGN: This study will be an assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial that will investigate the difference in clinical effectiveness and costs of an individualized walking programme and a supervised general exercise programme compared to usual physiotherapy, which will act as the control group, in people with chronic low back pain. A sample of 246 patients will be recruited in Dublin, Ireland through acute general hospital outpatient physiotherapy departments that provide treatment for people with CLBP. Patients will be randomly allocated to one of the three groups in a concealed manner. The main outcomes will be functional disability, pain, quality of life, fear avoidance, back beliefs, physical activity, satisfaction and costs, which will be evaluated at baseline, and 3, 6 and 12 months [follow-up by pre-paid postage]. Qualitative telephone interviews and focus groups will be embedded in the research design to obtain feedback about participants\\' experiences of the interventions and trial participation, and to inform interpretation of the quantitative data. Planned analysis will be by intention to treat (quantitative data) and thematic analysis (qualitative data) DISCUSSION: The trial will evaluate the effectiveness of a walking programme and a supervised general exercise programme compared to usual physiotherapy in people with CLBP. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current controlled trial ISRCTN17592092.

  5. Increased IL-20 and IL-24 target osteoblasts and synovial monocytes in spondyloarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragstrup, Tue Wenzel; Andersen, Morten Nørgaard; Schiøttz-Christensen, Berit

    2017-01-01

    The pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis (SpA) involves activation of the innate immune system, inflammation and new bone formation. The two cytokines interleukin (IL)-20 and IL-24 have been shown to link innate immune activation and tissue homeostasis. We hypothesized that these two cytokines...... are secreted as part of activation of the innate immune system and affect bone homeostasis in SpA. IL-20 and IL-24 were measured in plasma from axial SpA patients (n = 83). Peripheral SpA patients (n = 16) were included for in-vitro cell culture studies. The plasma IL-20 and IL-24 levels were increased in Sp...

  6. The role of CD40L, IL-10 and IL-17 in radioprotection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Ting

    2003-01-01

    CD40L/CD40 interaction is central to the control of thymus-dependent humoral immunity and cell mediated immune responses. IL-17 has been shown to induce the production of IL-6 and G-CSF, which can induce proliferation and differentiation of CD34 + hematopoietic progenitors. IL-10 can interfere with up-regulation of costimulatory molecules, thus suppressing the production of costimulatory cytokines, such as IL-12. IL-10 has been implicated as an essential mediator in the induction of systemic immune suppression following ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Treating UV-irradiated mice with anti-IL-10 blocks the induction of immune suppression

  7. Il fuoco della fusione termonucleare controllata

    CERN Document Server

    Caldirola, Piero; Sindoni, Elio

    1984-01-01

    Per realizzare la fusione termonucleare controllata, cioè catturare e dominare il fuoco che accende gli astri, e ottenere così una nuova fonte di energia praticamente illimitata e a basso costo, si richiede uno sforzo collettivo e unitario globale: non esiste infatti nazione al mondo che sia in grado, singolarmente presa, di affrontare il problema, sia per le risorse finanziarie necessarie all'impresa sia per il numero dei ricercatori che dovranno dedicarvisi.

  8. IL-6 Receptor Isoforms and Ovarian Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    grown these cells in culture and have generated stable cell clones which express Tomato Red so that these cells can be followed through fluorescent...occurring in ovarian cell lines, we examined the effect of IL6 and IL6Ra expression on cell migration in vitro . Migration through uncoated cell culture ...or IL6R were plated on tissue culture plates and scratch wounds were made. Over the course of the experiment, photographs of the cultures were

  9. Il viaggio gastronomico di Paolo Monelli.

    OpenAIRE

    Salarelli, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Il ghiottone errante di Paolo Monelli, pubblicato nel 1935, rappresenta uno dei primi esempi di narrativa di viaggio in tema di enogastronomia, un genere destinato a grande successo nel secondo dopoguerra. In questo articolo, oltre a ripercorrere la vicenda biografica di Monelli, si sottolineano le relazioni tra Il ghiottone e la cultura gastronomica del regime fascista, e si evidenziano alcuni tratti caratteristici del suo stile di scrittura. Paolo Monelli‟s Il ghiottone errante (The Wand...

  10. IL-1 family members IL-18 and IL-33 upregulate the inflammatory potential of differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blom, Lars; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2012-01-01

    The IL-1 family members IL-1ß, IL-18, and IL-33 are potent cytokines in relationship to amplifying the CD4(+) T cell cytokine production. To evaluate their impact on in vitro-differentiated human Th1 and Th2 cultures, such cultures were established from naive T cells, purified from healthy blood...... donors, and reactivated in the presence of IL-1ß, IL-18, or IL-33. Interestingly, we observe modifying responses in Th1 and Th2 cultures induced by IL-18 or IL-33 but not by IL-1ß, both contributing to amplify production of IL-5, IL-13, and IFN-¿. IL-18 or IL-33 stimulation of Th1 cultures resulted...... in increased IFN-¿ and IL-13 production concurrent with reduced IL-10 gene transcription and secretion even though Th1 cultures, in contrast to IL-18Ra, had low ST2L expression. Furthermore, adding IL-18 to Th1 cultures promoted Tbet mRNA expression and production. Th2 cultures stimulated with IL-18 or IL-33...

  11. Spatial Character Analysis of Streets as Public Spaces: The Case of Izmit Hurriyet and Cumhuriyet Street, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özbayraktar, Mehtap; Pekdemir, Merve; Mırzaliyeva, Gumru

    2017-10-01

    The word “public” was first used to refer to the theatre audience in France in the mid-17th century. In the 18th century, it turned into the meaning of “public space incorporating a large variety of people and composed of acquaintances and strangers”. The concepts of publicity, public space, and public realm have been studied and described by many researchers in the course of time. These descriptions show the development of public space as well. In the very general sense, public spaces are areas of personal and social happiness; collective living spaces of the society; areas of expression of natural and cultural variety; and key elements providing a ground for the establishment of an identity. In the United Nations’ report on public spaces, public space is addressed under six groups: 1. The spaces we intensely used in our daily life; 2. Green open public spaces; 3. Public activity spaces which users can go in without any difficulty, are open to public, and are under protection; 4. Public sector realm (social agreements in which the people are represented, contribute to collective goods, and trust in the administrators elected); 5. City as a public space; 6. Cyberspace. As cities grow, public spaces transform and diversify. Attempts are made to meet the changing needs through types of space developed. However, the character of the existing public spaces, the distribution of open spaces and parks and their inadequacy, the destruction of public space, and the things that are required to be done stand as important issues to be addressed. One of the public spaces going through transformation are streets which we intensely use in our daily life. In general, streets are defined as roads with buildings on both sides in settlements such as provinces and districts whose boundaries are determined by neighbouring buildings. Some researchers have defined streets based on their social functions. According to them, streets are meeting spaces; spaces to deal with

  12. POLE-LIKE STREET FURNITURE DECOMPOSTION IN MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii pole extraction, (iii components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  13. Pole-Like Street Furniture Decompostion in Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2016-06-01

    Automatic semantic interpretation of street furniture has become a popular topic in recent years. Current studies detect street furniture as connected components of points above the street level. Street furniture classification based on properties of such components suffers from large intra class variability of shapes and cannot deal with mixed classes like traffic signs attached to light poles. In this paper, we focus on the decomposition of point clouds of pole-like street furniture. A novel street furniture decomposition method is proposed, which consists of three steps: (i) acquirement of prior-knowledge, (ii) pole extraction, (iii) components separation. For the pole extraction, a novel global pole extraction approach is proposed to handle 3 different cases of street furniture. In the evaluation of results, which involves the decomposition of 27 different instances of street furniture, we demonstrate that our method decomposes mixed classes street furniture into poles and different components with respect to different functionalities.

  14. Ergonomics and design: traffic sign and street name sign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moroni, Janaina Luisa da Silva; Aymone, José Luís Farinatti

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes a design methodology using ergonomics and anthropometry concepts applied to traffic sign and street name sign projects. Initially, a literature revision on cognitive ergonomics and anthropometry is performed. Several authors and their design methodologies are analyzed and the aspects to be considered in projects of traffic and street name signs are selected and other specific aspects are proposed for the design methodology. A case study of the signs of "Street of Antiques" in Porto Alegre city is presented. To do that, interviews with the population are made to evaluate the current situation of signs. After that, a new sign proposal with virtual prototyping is done using the developed methodology. The results obtained with new interviews about the proposal show the user satisfaction and the importance of cognitive ergonomics to development of this type of urban furniture.

  15. AUTOMATIC ADJUSTMENT OF WIDE-BASE GOOGLE STREET VIEW PANORAMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Boussias-Alexakis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issue of sparse matching in cases of extremely wide-base panoramic images such as those acquired by Google Street View in narrow urban streets. In order to effectively use affine point operators for bundle adjustment, panoramas must be suitably rectified to simulate affinity. To this end, a custom piecewise planar projection (triangular prism projection is applied. On the assumption that the image baselines run parallel to the street façades, the estimated locations of the vanishing lines of the façade plane allow effectively removing projectivity and applying the ASIFT point operator on panorama pairs. Results from comparisons with multi-panorama adjustment, based on manually measured image points, and ground truth indicate that such an approach, if further elaborated, may well provide a realistic answer to the matching problem in the case of demanding panorama configurations.

  16. Sinergetica il segreto del successo della natura

    CERN Document Server

    Haken, Hermann

    1983-01-01

    Introduzione e sommario ; il disordine cresce sempre? la morte termica dell'universo ; i cristalli : strutture ordinate, ma morte ; strutture ordinate nei liquidi e nelle nubi e formazioni geologiche ; fiat lux! la luce del laser ; configurazioni chimiche ; l'evoluzione biologica e la sopravvivenza del migliore ; sopravvivi anche senza essere il migliore : specializzati, scavati una nicchia ecologica ; come si formano gli organismi biologici ; talvolta i conflitti sono ineluttabili ; il caos, il caso e la concezione meccanicistica del mondo ; gli effetti sinergetici nell'economia ; si possono prevedere le rivoluzioni ? ; le allucinazioni comprovano le teorie sul cervello.

  17. Il caso Lautsi contro l’Italia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grégor Puppinck

    2012-02-01

    SOMMARIO: 1. Premesse – 2. Il ragionamento della Seconda Sezione - 2.1. La ridefinizione dalla finalità del sistema educativo pubblico - 2.2. Il pluralismo educativo come finalità – 2.3. Sintesi del ragionamento della Sezione – 2.4.  Una sentenza contestata - 3.  Il ragionamento sviluppato dalla Grande Camera - 3.1. La sussidiarietà e il margine di apprezzamento – 3.2.  Il laicismo è una convinzione filosofica non neutra – 3.3. La neutralità si applica all’ “agire” e non all' "essere” dello  Stato – 3.4.  Democrazia, neutralità confessionale e laicità – 3.5.  L’educazione pubblica  nel senso della Grande Camera – 3.6.  Il crocefisso: un simbolo passivo – 3.7.  L’assenza d’ingerenza dello Stato - 4.  Gli sviluppi supplementari alla sentenza della Grande Camera – 4.1.  Il crocefisso e il velo islamico – 4.2.  La libertà negativa di religione dei non credenti – 4.3. La falsa soluzione bavarese – 4.4.  La tradizione – 4.5. La religione maggioritaria – 4.6.  Il dibattito religioso e politico – 4.7. Le conseguenze del caso Lautsi.

  18. A review of variables of urban street connectivity for spatial connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamad, W S N W; Said, I

    2014-01-01

    Several studies on street connectivity in cities and towns have been modeled on topology, morphology, technology and psychology of people living in the urban environment. Street connectivity means the connection of streets that offers people alternative routes. However, there emerge difficulties to determine the suitable variables and analysis to be chosen in defining the accurate result for studies street connectivity. The aim of this paper is to identify variables of street connectivity by applying GIS and Space Syntax. This paper reviews the variables of street connectivity from 15 past articles done in 1990s to early 2000s from journals of nine disciplines on Environment and Behavior, Planning and Design, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information, Environment and Planning, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Environmental Psychology, Social Science and Medicine and Building and Environment. From the review, there are four variables found for street connectivity: link (streets-streets, street-nodes or node-streets, nodes-nodes), accessibility, least-angle, and centrality. Space syntax and GIS are suitable tools to analyze the four variables relating to systematic street systems for pedestrians. This review implies that planners of the street systems, in the aspect of street connectivity in cities and towns, should consider these four variables

  19. A review of variables of urban street connectivity for spatial connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, W. S. N. W.; Said, I.

    2014-02-01

    Several studies on street connectivity in cities and towns have been modeled on topology, morphology, technology and psychology of people living in the urban environment. Street connectivity means the connection of streets that offers people alternative routes. However, there emerge difficulties to determine the suitable variables and analysis to be chosen in defining the accurate result for studies street connectivity. The aim of this paper is to identify variables of street connectivity by applying GIS and Space Syntax. This paper reviews the variables of street connectivity from 15 past articles done in 1990s to early 2000s from journals of nine disciplines on Environment and Behavior, Planning and Design, Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, Applied Earth Observation and Geo-information, Environment and Planning, Physica A: Statistical Mechanics and its Applications, Environmental Psychology, Social Science and Medicine and Building and Environment. From the review, there are four variables found for street connectivity: link (streets-streets, street-nodes or node-streets, nodes-nodes), accessibility, least-angle, and centrality. Space syntax and GIS are suitable tools to analyze the four variables relating to systematic street systems for pedestrians. This review implies that planners of the street systems, in the aspect of street connectivity in cities and towns, should consider these four variables.

  20. Mapping Urban Land Use at Street Block Level Using OpenStreetMap, Remote Sensing Data, and Spatial Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taïs Grippa

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Up-to-date and reliable land-use information is essential for a variety of applications such as planning or monitoring of the urban environment. This research presents a workflow for mapping urban land use at the street block level, with a focus on residential use, using very-high resolution satellite imagery and derived land-cover maps as input. We develop a processing chain for the automated creation of street block polygons from OpenStreetMap and ancillary data. Spatial metrics and other street block features are computed, followed by feature selection that reduces the initial datasets by more than 80%, providing a parsimonious, discriminative, and redundancy-free set of features. A random forest (RF classifier is used for the classification of street blocks, which results in accuracies of 84% and 79% for five and six land-use classes, respectively. We exploit the probabilistic output of RF to identify and relabel blocks that have a high degree of uncertainty. Finally, the thematic precision of the residential blocks is refined according to the proportion of the built-up area. The output data and processing chains are made freely available. The proposed framework is able to process large datasets, given that the cities in the case studies, Dakar and Ouagadougou, cover more than 1000 km2 in total, with a spatial resolution of 0.5 m.

  1. Counterbalancing of TH2-driven allergic airway inflammation by IL-12 does not require IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tournoy, K G; Kips, J C; Pauwels, R A

    2001-03-01

    Asthma is characterized by allergen-induced airway inflammation orchestrated by TH2 cells. The TH1-promoting cytokine IL-12 is capable of inhibiting the TH2-driven allergen-induced airway changes in mice and is therefore regarded as an interesting strategy for treating asthma. The antiallergic effects of IL-12 are only partially dependent of IFN-gamma. Because IL-12 is a potent inducer of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, the aim of the present study was to investigate in vivo whether the antiallergic effects of IL-12 are mediated through IL-10. C57BL/6J-IL-10 knock-out (IL-10(-/-)) mice were sensitized intraperitoneally to ovalbumin (OVA) and subsequently exposed from day 14 to day 21 to aerosolized OVA (1%). IL-12 was administered intraperitoneally during sensitization, subsequent OVA exposure, or both. IL-12 inhibited the OVA-induced airway eosinophilia, despite the absence of IL-10. Moreover, a shift from a TH2 inflammatory pattern toward a TH1 reaction was observed, with concomitant pronounced mononuclear peribronchial inflammation after IL-12 treatment. Allergen-specific IgE synthesis was completely suppressed only when IL-12 was administered along with the allergen sensitization. Furthermore, treating the animals with IL-12 at the time of the secondary allergen challenge resulted not only in a significant suppression of the airway responsiveness but also in an important IFN-gamma-associated toxicity. These results indicate that IL-12 is able to inhibit allergen-induced airway changes, even in the absence of IL-10. In addition, our results raise concerns regarding the redirection of TH2 inflammation by TH1-inducing therapies because treatment with IL-12 resulted not only in a disappearance of the TH2 inflammation but also in a TH1-driven inflammatory pulmonary pathology.

  2. Pro-inflammatory signaling by IL-10 and IL-22: bad habit stirred up by interferons ?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko eMühl

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Interleukin (IL-10 and IL-22 are key members of the IL-10 cytokine family that share characteristic properties such as defined structural features, usage of IL-10R2 as one receptor chain, and activation of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT-3 as dominant signaling mode. IL-10, formerly known as cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor, is key to deactivation of monocytes/macrophages and dendritic cells. Accordingly, pre-clinical studies document its anti-inflammatory capacity. However, the outcome of clinical trials assessing the therapeutic potential of IL-10 in prototypic inflammatory disorders has been disappointing. In contrast to IL-10, IL-22 acts primarily on non-leukocytic cells, in particular epithelial cells of intestine, skin, liver, and lung. STAT3-driven proliferation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-microbial tissue protection is regarded a principal function of IL-22 at host/environment interfaces. In this hypothesis article, hidden/underappreciated pro-inflammatory characteristics of IL-10 and IL-22 are outlined and related to cellular priming by type I interferon. It is tempting to speculate that an inherent inflammatory potential of IL-10 and IL-22 confines their usage in tissue protective therapy and beyond that determines in some patients efficacy of type I interferon treatment.

  3. Role of the IL-12/IL-35 balance in patients with Sjögren syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogel, Olivier; Rivière, Elodie; Seror, Raphaèle; Nocturne, Gaetane; Boudaoud, Saida; Ly, Bineta; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Le Guern, Véronique; Dubost, Jean-Jacques; Nititham, Joanne; Taylor, Kimberly E; Chanson, Philippe; Dieudé, Philippe; Criswell, Lindsey A; Jagla, Bernd; Thai, Alice; Mingueneau, Michael; Mariette, Xavier; Miceli-Richard, Corinne

    2017-09-12

    An interferon signature is involved in the pathogenesis of primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS), but whether the signature is type 1 or type 2 remains controversial. Mouse models and genetic studies suggest the involvement of T H 1 and type 2 interferon pathways. Likewise, polymorphisms of the IL-12A gene (IL12A), which encodes for IL-12p35, have been associated with pSS. The IL-12p35 subunit is shared by 2 heterodimers: IL-12 and IL-35. We sought to confirm genetic association of the IL12A polymorphism and pSS and elucidate involvement of the IL-12/IL-35 balance in patients with pSS by using functional studies. The genetic study involved 673 patients with pSS from 2 French pSS cohorts and 585 healthy French control subjects. Functional studies were performed on sorted monocytes, irrespective of whether they were stimulated. IL12A mRNA expression and IL-12 and IL-35 protein levels were assessed by using quantitative RT-PCR and ELISA and a multiplex kit for IL-35 and IL-12, respectively. We confirmed association of the IL12A rs485497 polymorphism and pSS and found an increased serum protein level of IL-12p70 in patients with pSS carrying the risk allele (P = .016). Serum levels of IL-12p70 were greater in patients than control subjects (P = .0001), especially in patients with more active disease (P = .05); conversely, IL-35 levels were decreased in patients (P = .0001), especially in patients with more active disease (P = .05). In blood cellular subsets both IL12p35 and EBV-induced gene protein 3 (EBI3) mRNAs were detected only in B cells, with a trend toward a lower level among patients with pSS. Our findings emphasize involvement of the IL-12/IL-35 balance in the pathogenesis of pSS. Serum IL-35 levels were associated with low disease activity, in contrast with serum IL-12p70 levels, which were associated with more active disease. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Street food among children: a study in north Tunisia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neffati, Larbi; Ridha, Hamza; Kolsteren, Patrick; Hilderbrand, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    As urbanization increases in Tunisia, eating meals outside the home is becoming more frequent. Children are prime consumers for the fast food sold in the streets. Neither their nor their parents' attitude towards street food is well documented as yet. This study was conducted in the city of Bizerte in February 1998. Its aim was to gather information about street food and parents' and children's attitudes towards it to help organize educational sessions with the children, parents, teachers, and vendors. The study interviewed 421 primary school children, ranging in age from 6 to 15 years (mean age: 10 years), from 24 schools. Half received pocket money, a percentage that did not differ by sex. Three quarters of the children used more than 75% of their pocket money to buy street food. The items bought most frequently were candy (27.2%), sandwiches (23.9%), pastries (23.9%), sunflower seeds and peanuts (21%), and either pizza, chocolate, or cheese (20.3%); the largest proportion of money was spent on sandwiches. In more than half the cases (55.7% of the children), the main motivation for buying street food was either to replace or fill out a meal at home, with sandwiches or pastries. The parents' monthly income did not influence the children's purchasing behavior, but the rhythm of receiving pocket money did. Most children were satisfied with the nutritional and hygienic quality of the food available, but their opinion of this quality as well as the reasons for buying the food and the prices spent on it differed considerably from that of their parents. This study highlights the important role of street foods in the daily diet of schoolchildren and the need for appropriate nutrition education in primary schools.

  5. Exploring the World using Street View 360 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, J.

    2016-12-01

    The phrase "A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words" is an idiom of unknown 20th century origin. There is some belief that the modern use of the phrase stems from an article in a 1921 issue of a popular trade journal, that used "One Look is Worth A Thousand Words" to promote the use of images in advertisements on the sides of streetcars. There is a certain irony to this as nearly a century later the camera technologies on "Street View cars" are collecting images that look everywhere at once. However, while it can be to fun drive along the World's streets, it was the development of Street View imaging systems that could be mounted on other modes of transport or capture platforms (Street View Special Collects) that opened the door for these 360 images to become a tool for exploration and storytelling. Using Special Collect imagery captured in "off-road" and extreme locations, scientists are now using Street View images to assess changes to species habitats, show the impact of natural disasters and even perform "armchair" geology. A powerful example is the imagery captured before and after the 2011 earthquake and tsunami that devastated Japan. However, it is use of the immersive nature of 360 images that truly allows them to create wonder and awe, especially when combined with Virtual Reality (VR) viewers. Combined with the Street View App or Google Expeditions, VR provides insight into what it is like to swim with sealions in the Galapagos or climb El Capitan in Yosemite National Park. While these image could never replace experiencing these locations in real-life, they can inspire the viewer to explore and learn more about the many wonders of our planet. https://www.google.com/streetview/https://www.google.com/expeditions/

  6. Design of Automatic Intensity Varying Smart Street Lighting System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Gupta, Shipra

    2017-08-01

    The paper is proposed with an aim of power conservation. In this era of development, it is essential to develop a streetlight that turns on and off automatically without human interference. To achieve this light sensor have been placed in each panel which turns the street light on and off automatically. For energy conservation cool-white LED’s have been used in street light panel and dimmer modules have been installed which changes the intensity of the streetlight depending on the darkness.

  7. Institutional Trajectories of Street Youth in Buenos Aires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Litichever

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This article explores citizenship formation in institutional settings. Based on life stories and participant observation, it studies how street youth in Buenos Aires experience State institutions in charge of children and youth at risk. It analyzes the level of involvement, the demands, the expression of needs and negotiations that take place within various public institutions and explores how these interactions shape the process of citizenship formation. Results suggest three different institutional trajectories amongst street youth that lead to different processes of citizenship formation.

  8. Wall Street: money never sleeps : Motion picture (2010)

    OpenAIRE

    Lauri Lucente, Gloria; Buhagiar, Celaine

    2011-01-01

    The Social Network : Harvard student Mark Zuckerberg creates the social networking site that would become known as Facebook, but is later sued by two brothers who claimed he stole their idea, and the cofounder who was later squeezed out of the business. Wall Street: money never sleeps : Now out of prison but still disgraced by his peers, Gordon Gekko works his future son-in-law, an idealistic stock broker, when he sees an opportunity to take down a Wall Street enemy and rebuild his empire.

  9. The 2nd Generation Street Children (SGSC) in Accra: Developing Teaching Strategies to Enhance Positive Learning Outcomes in Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyini, Alhassan Abdul-Razak; Abosi, Okechuwu

    2011-01-01

    Ghana is witnessing an increasing number of 2nd generation street children (SGSC) living in the street of Accra, the capital city as a result of many factors including teenage pregnancy among street girls, ethnic conflicts and rural-urban migration. Street presents enormous risks to street children; they are excluded from safe-family environment,…

  10. Effects of Increased Commercial Navigation Traffic on Freshwater Mussels in the Upper Mississippi River: Ten-Year Evaluation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Andrew

    2002-01-01

    ... traffic at five historically prominent mussel beds in the upper Mississippi River (UMR). The purpose was to assess effects of increased navigation traffic caused by the newly completed Melvin Price Locks and Dam at Alton, IL...

  11. IL-8 dictates glycosaminoglycan binding and stability of IL-18 in cystic fibrosis.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Reeves, Emer P

    2010-02-01

    Dysregulation of airway inflammation contributes to lung disease in cystic fibrosis (CF). Inflammation is mediated by inflammatory cytokines, including IL-8, which illustrates an increase in biological half-life and proinflammatory activity when bound to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs). The aim of this project was to compare IL-8 and IL-18 for their relative stability, activity, and interaction with GAGs, including chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, and heparan sulfate, present in high quantities in the lungs of patients with CF. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was collected from patients with CF (n = 28), non-CF controls (n = 14), and patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 12). Increased levels of IL-8 and reduced concentrations of IL-18 were detected in bronchial samples obtained from CF individuals. The low level of IL-18 was not a defect in IL-18 production, as the pro- and mature forms of the molecule were expressed and produced by CF epithelial cells and monocytes. There was, however, a marked competition between IL-8 and IL-18 for binding to GAGs. A pronounced loss of IL-18 binding capacity occurred in the presence of IL-8, which displaced IL-18 from these anionic-matrices, rendering the cytokine susceptible to proteolytic degradation by neutrophil elastase. As a biological consequence of IL-18 degradation, reduced levels of IL-2 were secreted by Jurkat T lymphocytes. In conclusion, a novel mechanism has been identified highlighting the potential of IL-8 to determine the fate of other inflammatory molecules, such as IL-18, within the inflammatory milieu of the CF lung.

  12. Clinical significance of determination of changes in serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18 levels after treatment in patients with acute conjunctivitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jun

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical significance of changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels in patients with acute conjunctivitis after treatment. Methods: Serum IL-6, IL-10 (with RIA) hs-CRP (with Immuno-turbidity) and IL-18 (with ELISA) levels were measured in 38 patients with acute conjunctivitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: The serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels in the patients before treatment were significantly higher than those in the controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Measurement of the changes of serum hs-CRP, IL-6, IL-10 and IL-18 levels after treatment might be inportant for outcome prediction in patients with acute conjunctivitis. (authors)

  13. Clinical significance of determination of some serum cytokines (IL-8, IL-10, IL-18, M-CSF) levels in patients with periodontitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Dong; Zhang Xiaolei; Yang Chunxiu; Chen Guanghua

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To explore the significance of changes of serum IL-8, IL-10, IL-18 and M-CSF levels in patients with periodontitis. Methods: Serum levels of IL-8, IL-10, M-CSF (with RIA) and IL-18 (with ELISA) were measured in 55 patients with periodontitis both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment, serum levels of IL-8, IL-10, IL-18 and M-CSF were significantly higher in the patients than those in the controls (P<0.01). After one month of treatment, the serum IL-8, IL-10, IL-18 and M-CSF levels decreased somewhat, but were still significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.05). Conclusion: There was disturbance of immunomodulation in patients with periodontitis as expressed by the changes of several cytokines levels in the eourse of the diseases. (authors)

  14. [Correlation of serum IL-16, IL-18 levels and immunoglobulins in children with asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yi-Nan; Zou, Xian-De; Wu, Jia-Ling

    2006-02-01

    This study examined the changes of serum levels of interleukin (IL)-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulins and the correlation of serum IL-16, IL-18 levels and immunoglobulins in children with asthma and aimed to explore the role of IL-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulins in the pathogenesis of asthma. Thirty-four children with asthma and 21 age and gender-matched healthy children were enrolled in this study. The levels of IL-16, IL-18 and immunoglobulin E (IgE) were determined using ELISA. Immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) were detected by immunoturbidimetry. The levels of IL-16, IL-18 and IgE in patients with asthma at both acute attack and convalescence stages were significantly higher than those in healthy controls. An increased IgG and a decreased IgA levels were found in asthmatic patients at the acute attack stage. There was a positive correlation between the IL-16 and IL-18 levels at both acute attack and convalescence stages of asthma (r=0.70, P attack stage of asthma (r=0.624, P asthma. The immunologic imbalance exists in children with asthma at both acute attack and convalescence stages. Anti-allergic therapy should be administered through the acute attack to the convalescence stages of asthma.

  15. Vaccination with IL-6 analogues induces autoantibodies to IL-6 and influences experimentally induced inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Jensen, Lene; Andersson, Christina

    2007-01-01

    ; yet they appear healthy and do not exhibit overt clinical or laboratory abnormalities. We induced comparable levels of aAb-IL-6 in different mouse strains by vaccination with immunogenic IL-6 analogues. We observed that the induced aAb-IL-6 protected against collagen-induced arthritis and experimental...

  16. Functional Implications of the IL-23/IL-17 Immune Axis in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Monojit; Berk, Michael

    2017-12-01

    The aetiology of schizophrenia seems to stem from complex interactions amongst environmental, genetic, metabolic, immunologic and oxidative components. Chronic low-grade inflammation has been persistently linked to schizophrenia, and this has primarily been based on the findings derived from Th1/Th2 cytokine balance. While the IL-23/IL-17 axis plays crucial role in the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated disorders, it has remained relatively unexplored in neuropsychiatric disorders. Altered levels of cytokines related to IL-23/IL-17 axis have been observed in schizophrenia patients in a few studies. In addition, other indirect factors known to confer schizophrenia risk like complement activation and altered gut microbiota are shown to modulate the IL-23/IL-17 axis. These preliminary observations provide crucial clues about the functional implications of IL-23/IL-17 axis in schizophrenia. In this review, an attempt has been made to highlight the biology of IL-23/IL-17 axis and its relevance to schizophrenia risk and pathogenesis. Given the pathogenic potential of the IL-23/IL-17 axis, therapeutic targeting of this axis may be a promising approach to benefit patients suffering from this devastating disorder.

  17. Interleukin (IL)-17A and IL-17F and asthma in Saudi Arabia: mRNA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Win-07

    IL17A and IL17F were significantly higher in asthma patients compared to controls [IL17A: 1.112 (2.088) vs 0.938 ... Asthma is a frequently encountered chronic airway in- ... transcription was performed, in 20 μl reaction volume using the.

  18. Social and economic characteristics of street youth by gender and level of street involvement in Eldoret, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Sorber

    Full Text Available Street-connected youth are a neglected and vulnerable population, particularly in resource-constrained settings. The development of interventions and supports for this population requires insight into how they live. This study describes the social and economic characteristics of a convenience sample of street youth (SY in Eldoret, Kenya.Participants were eligible if they were aged 12-21, living in Eldoret, spending days only (part-time, or nights and days on the street (full-time and able and willing to consent or assent. Data were collected using a standardized interview conducted in English or Kiswahili. Binary dependent variables were having been arrested and/or jailed, and first priority for spending money (food vs. other. Nominal categorical dependent variables included major source of support, and major reason for being street-involved. Multivariable analysis used logistic regression models to examine the association of gender and level of street-involvement with social and economic factors of interest adjusting for age and length of time on the street. Data were analyzed using SAS 9.3.Of the 200 SY enrolled, 41% were female, mean age of 16.3 years; 71% were on the street full-time, and 29% part-time. Compared with part-time SY, full-time SY were more likely to have been arrested (Adjusted Odds Ratio [AOR]: 2.33, 95% Confidence Interval [95%CI]:1.01-5.35, name food as their first spending priority (AOR: 2.57, 95%CI:1.03-6.45, have left home due to violence (AOR: 5.54, 95%CI: 1.67-18.34, and more likely to report friends on the street as a major source of support (AOR: 3.59, 95% CI: 1.01-12.82. Compared with females, males were more likely to have ever been arrested (AOR: 2.66, 95%CI:1.14-6.18, and to have ever been jailed (AOR: 3.22, 95%CI:1.47-7.02.These results suggest a high degree of heterogeneity and vulnerability among SY in this setting. There is an urgent need for interventions taking into consideration these characteristics.

  19. Strategic guidelines for street canyon geometry to achieve sustainable street air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Andy T.; So, Ellen S.P.; Samad, Subash C. [Hong Kong Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Hong Kong (China)

    2001-08-01

    This paper is concerned with the motion of air within the urban street canyon and is directed towards a deeper understanding of pollutant dispersion with respect to various simple canyon geometries and source positions. Taking into account the present days typical urban configurations, three principal flow regimes 'isolated roughness flow', 'skimming flow' and 'wake interference flow' (Boundary Layer Climates, 2nd edition, Methuen, London) and their corresponding pollutant dispersion characteristics are studied for various canopies aspect ratios, namely relative height (h{sub 2}/H{sub 1}), canyon height to width ratio (h/w) and canyon length to height ratio (l/h). A field-size canyon has been analysed through numerical simulations using the standard k-{sup {epsilon}} turbulence closure model. It is found that the pollutant transport and diffusion is strongly dependent upon the type of flow regime inside the canyon and exchange between canyon and the above roof air. Some rules of thumbs have been established to get urban canyon geometries for efficient dispersion of pollutants. (Author)

  20. Autocrine IL-6 mediates pituitary tumor senescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes, Mariana; Ajler, Pablo; Carrizo, Guillermo; Cervio, Andrés; Sevlever, Gustavo; Stalla, Günter K.; Arzt, Eduardo

    2017-01-01

    Cellular senescence is a stable proliferative arrest state. Pituitary adenomas are frequent and mostly benign, but the mechanism for this remains unknown. IL-6 is involved in pituitary tumor progression and is produced by the tumoral cells. In a cell autonomous fashion, IL-6 participates in oncogene-induced senescence in transduced human melanocytes. Here we prove that autocrine IL-6 participates in pituitary tumor senescence. Endogenous IL-6 inhibition in somatotroph MtT/S shRNA stable clones results in decreased SA-β-gal activity and p16INK4a but increased pRb, proliferation and invasion. Nude mice injected with IL-6 silenced clones develop tumors contrary to MtT/S wild type that do not, demonstrating that clones that escape senescence are capable of becoming tumorigenic. When endogenous IL-6 is silenced, cell cultures derived from positive SA-β-gal human tumor samples decrease the expression of the senescence marker. Our results establish that IL-6 contributes to maintain senescence by its autocrine action, providing a natural model of IL-6 mediated benign adenoma senescence. PMID:27902467

  1. Knocking out IL-6 by vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galle, Pia; Hougs, Lotte; Barington, Torben

    2004-01-01

    Inappropriate expression of IL-6 plays a role in various inflammatory conditions, degenerative diseases, and cancers. Several model systems have been developed that can specifically block IL-6-receptor interactions. Here we present a simple and highly effective approach based on vaccination with ...

  2. IL-6 and mouse oocyte spindle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jashoman Banerjee

    Full Text Available Interleukin 6 (IL-6 is considered a major indicator of the acute-phase inflammatory response. Endometriosis and pelvic inflammation, diseases that manifest elevated levels of IL-6, are commonly associated with higher infertility. However, the mechanistic link between elevated levels of IL-6 and poor oocyte quality is still unclear. In this work, we explored the direct role of this cytokine as a possible mediator for impaired oocyte spindle and chromosomal structure, which is a critical hurdle in the management of infertility. Metaphase-II mouse oocytes were exposed to recombinant mouse IL-6 (50, 100 and 200 ng/mL for 30 minutes and subjected to indirect immunofluorescent staining to identify alterations in the microtubule and chromosomal alignment compared to untreated controls. The deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment were evaluated utilizing both fluorescence and confocal microscopy, and were quantitated with a previously reported scoring system. Our results showed that IL-6 caused a dose-dependent deterioration in microtubule and chromosomal alignment in the treated oocytes as compared to the untreated group. Indeed, IL-6 at a concentration as low as 50 ng/mL caused deterioration in the spindle structure in 60% of the oocytes, which increased significantly (P<0.0001 as IL-6 concentration was increased. In conclusion, elevated levels of IL-6 associated with endometriosis and pelvic inflammation may reduce the fertilizing capacity of human oocyte through a mechanism that involves impairment of the microtubule and chromosomal structure.

  3. In vitro secretion profiles of interleukin (IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, and TNF alpha after selective infection with Escherichia coli in human fetal membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maida-Claros Rolando

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chorioamniotic membranes infection is a pathologic condition in which an abnormal secretion of proinflammatory cytokines halts fetal immune tolerance. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the functional response of human chorioamniotic membranes, as well as the individual contribution of the amnion and choriodecidua after stimulation with Escherichia coli, a pathogen associated with preterm labor. Methods Explants of chorioamniotic membranes from 10 women (37–40 weeks of gestation were mounted and cultured in a Transwell system, which allowed us to test the amnion and choriodecidua compartments independently. Escherichia coli (1 × 10 6 CFU/mL was added to either the amniotic or the choriodecidual regions or both; after a 24-h incubation, the secretion of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, IL-8, and IL-10 in both compartments was measured using a specific ELISA. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance. Results After stimulation with Escherichia coli, the choriodecidua compartment showed an increase in the secretion of IL-1beta (21-fold, IL-6 (2-fold, IL-8 (6-fold, and IL-10 (37-fold, regardless of which side of the membrane was stimulated; TNFalpha secretion augmented (22-fold also but only when the stimulus was applied simultaneously to both sides. When the amnion was stimulated directly, the level of IL-1beta (13-fold rose significantly; however, the increase in IL-8 secretion was larger (20-fold, regardless of the primary site of infection. TNFalpha secretion in the amnion compartment rose markedly only when Escherichia coli was simultaneously applied to both sides. Conclusion Selective stimulation of fetal membranes with Escherichia coli results in a differential production of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNFalpha, IL-8, and IL-10. These tissues were less responsive when the amnion side was stimulated. This is in agreement with the hypothesis that the choriodecidua may play a primary role during an ascending

  4. Development and evaluation of thermoplastic street maintenance material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemens, W. D.

    1973-01-01

    An all-weather permanent street patching material was investigated for flexible and rigid pavements. The economic, operational, and material requirements are discussed along with the results of field tests with various mixtures of EVA resins and asphalt. Cost analyses for thermoplastic patching methods are included.

  5. Safety of street vended meat products - chicken and beef suya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    leftover, heated, spiced and roasted suya of the following day, were collected from three locations in Ibadan metropolis, to identify the specific microorganisms in street vended chicken and beef suya and measure the microbial count at each stage of handling from the raw state to marketing and consumption. The plate count ...

  6. Estimation of air quality improvement at road and street intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, P.G. [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Traffic and Transport Planning

    1995-12-31

    There has always been a very great problem to quantify the detrimental exhaust air pollution related to the traffic flow, especially at road and street intersections. Until now model calculations have been developed mainly for the links between the intersections. In an attempt to remedy this situation the author has developed a method of estimating emissions on the micro level from motor vehicles at intersections as a help for infrastructural design related to improved environmental conditions. Very parsimonious knowledge exists regarding the deceleration and acceleration patterns at road- and street intersections. Not many surveys are done neither in Sweden nor within other countries. Evidently, the need for knowledge regarding deceleration and acceleration behaviour on the micro level has until now not been given priority. In traffic safety related research studies have been done describing the drivers` deceleration and acceleration behaviour and the vehicles` braking performance. Those results give deceleration data for extreme situations and are not useful for describing normal decelerations and accelerations at road- and street intersections. Environment related problems within the traffic flow analysis are now accentuating the need for the studying of special deceleration and acceleration behaviours in combination with an alternative design of the road and street infrastructure. There is a big difference in different vehicles` amount of emitted exhaust pollutions during the passing of intersections depending on the vehicles` speed levels related to their deceleration and acceleration levels. (author)

  7. Single Parenthood Impact on Street Children in Ibadan Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    An International Multi-Disciplinary Journal , Ethiopia. Vol. 4 (2) April ... free and compulsory education to children without family support and help the less ... Key words: Single Parenthood, Street Children, Anti-Social Behaviour,. Aggression ... foregoing, this study therefore sought to look at the impact of single parenthood on ...

  8. Selecting reference cities for i-Tree Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2010-01-01

    The i-Tree Streets (formerly STRATUM) computer program quantifies municipal forest structure, function, and value using tree growth and geographic data from sixteen U.S. reference cities, one for each of sixteen climate zones. Selecting the reference city that best matches a subject city is problematic when the subject city is outside the U.S., lays on the border...

  9. Effects of street tree shade on asphalt concrete pavement performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J. Muchnick

    2005-01-01

    Forty-eight street segments were paired into 24 high-and low-shade pairs in Modesto, California, U.S. Field data were collected to calculate a Pavement Condition Index (PCI) and Tree Shade Index (TSI) for each segment. Statistical analyses found that greater PCI was associated with greater TSI, indicating that tree shade was partially responsible for reduced pavement...

  10. INTRODUCTION The term street children has many definitions in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: The street child in rural communities differs from the urban ... higher risk of getting involved in hard drug use and/ or peddling8. ..... school hours in the rural areas. As at the ... their attention and energy while under supervision of.

  11. The Impact of Hybrid Vehicles on Street Crossings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, William; Naghshineh, Koorosh; Salisbury, Brad; Rozema, Randall

    2006-01-01

    The authors had three purposes: (a) to compare the sound output of a Toyota Corolla, a vehicle powered by an internal combustion engine (ICE) with that of a hybrid vehicle (Prius) under conditions of acceleration and approach in relation to the potential decision of a pedestrian who is visually impaired to begin to cross the street, (b) to…

  12. What information do Karman streets offer to flow sensing?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akanyeti, Otar; Venturelli, Roberto; Visentin, Francesco; Fiorini, Paolo [Department of Computer Science, University of Verona, 37134 Verona (Italy); Chambers, Lily; Megill, William M, E-mail: otarakanyeti@yahoo.com [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Bath, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    In this work, we focus on biomimetic lateral line sensing in Karman vortex streets. After generating a Karman street in a controlled environment, we examine the hydrodynamic images obtained with digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV). On the grounds that positioning in the flow and interaction with the vortices govern bio-inspired underwater locomotion, we inspect the fluid in the swimming robot frame of reference. We spatially subsample the flow field obtained using DPIV to emulate the local flow around the body. In particular, we look at various sensor configurations in order to reliably identify the vortex shedding frequency, wake wavelength and downstream flow speed. Moreover, we propose methods that differentiate between being in and out of the Karman street with >70% accuracy, distinguish right from left with respect to Karman vortex street centreline (>80%) and highlight when the sensor system enters the vortex formation zone (>75%). Finally, we present a method that estimates the relative position of a sensor array with respect to the vortex formation point within 15% error margin.

  13. Suicide and Prostitution among Street Youth: A Qualitative Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidd, Sean A.; Kral, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents results of a qualitative analysis of the narratives of 29 street youth in which they describe their experiences with, and understanding of, suicide. A history of attempted suicide was reported by 76% of the participants. Additionally it was found that prostitution was linked with their suicidal experiences and may account for the high…

  14. Integrating the Wall Street Journal into AIS Courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlmeyer, James M., III

    2008-01-01

    While it is important for accounting information systems (AIS) students to understand computer technology, internal controls and business processes, such knowledge is of little use without reference to appropriate contexts. Integrating Wall Street Journal (WSJ) readings and discussions into AIS classes can enrich learning by stimulating…

  15. Using "The Wall Street Journal" To Stimulate Critical Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roever, Carol

    1998-01-01

    Describes an assignment in a business-communication class in which student teams construct portfolios with articles from "The Wall Street Journal," explaining and clearly expressing how these articles relate to class concepts. Argues that the assignment encourages critical-thinking skills, focuses on writing skills, and develops an…

  16. 75 FR 35478 - Funding Opportunity; Street Outreach Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... services will be carried out. D. Training: Grantees must provide initial and periodic training to staff... supervision by appropriately trained senior staff; and Back-up personnel for on-street staff. F. Positive... social contribution; (D) Independence and control over one's life; and (E) Closeness in interpersonal...

  17. Aerodynamic effects of trees on pollutant concentration in street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buccolieri, R.; Gromke, C.B.; Sabatino, Di S.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with aerodynamic effects of avenue-like tree planting on flow and traffic-originated pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons by means of wind tunnel experiments and numerical simulations. Several parameters affecting pedestrian level concentration are investigated, namely plant

  18. Implications of tree planting on pollutant dispersion in street canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.; Ruck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Traffic pollutant dispersion processes inside urban street canyons with avenue-like tree planting have been studied in wind tunnel experiments. Tree planting of different crown porosities and their effects on the pollutant concentrations at the canyon walls have been investigated for wind

  19. Ventilation Processes in a Three-Dimensional Street Canyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, Libor; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2016-05-01

    The ventilation processes in three different street canyons of variable roof geometry were investigated in a wind tunnel using a ground-level line source. All three street canyons were part of an urban-type array formed by courtyard-type buildings with pitched roofs. A constant roof height was used in the first case, while a variable roof height along the leeward or windward walls was simulated in the two other cases. All street-canyon models were exposed to a neutrally stratified flow with two approaching wind directions, perpendicular and oblique. The complexity of the flow and dispersion within the canyons of variable roof height was demonstrated for both wind directions. The relative pollutant removals and spatially-averaged concentrations within the canyons revealed that the model with constant roof height has higher re-emissions than models with variable roof heights. The nomenclature for the ventilation processes according to quadrant analysis of the pollutant flux was introduced. The venting of polluted air (positive fluctuations of both concentration and velocity) from the canyon increased when the wind direction changed from perpendicular to oblique, irrespective of the studied canyon model. Strong correlations (>0.5) between coherent structures and ventilation processes were found at roof level, irrespective of the canyon model and wind direction. This supports the idea that sweep and ejection events of momentum bring clean air in and detrain the polluted air from the street canyon, respectively.

  20. Robbed of Humanity: Lives of Guatemalan Street Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Nancy Leigh

    The situation for "street children" has degenerated over the past two decades following the economic and political transitions in much of Latin America. Drawing on scholarly materials, interviews with child rights advocates, and the words of the children themselves, this book explores the abuse, limited choices, despair, loyalty, and…

  1. Blossoms in the Dust: Street Children in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velis, Jean-Pierre

    For many African children today, the grim realities of everyday life are far removed from models of education based on traditional wisdom. Part of an attempt to draw the attention of a wide public to the situation of street children, this book focuses on the educational aspects of a problem from which no country is spared. The book focuses…

  2. Street Crossing: Observational Research and Developing Health Communication Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackert, Michael; Lazard, Allison; Wyeth, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Students in communication, and particularly in advertising, are encouraged to value creativity. However, even in programs that value creativity, it can be difficult to encourage creativity in the process of research that guides communication efforts. The project described in this paper--"Street Crossing"--is used in upper-division and…

  3. Food safety knowledge and practices of street foodvendors in Atbara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was conducted to evaluate the food safety knowledge and practices of street food vendors in Atbara city between March and April, 2008. The questionnaires respondents were 28% male and 72% were female, 48% of them had primary school education while 42% were illiterates. The most prevalent isolated ...

  4. Interactive green street enhancement using light dependent sensors and actuators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, Ivo; Chen, W.; Oorschot, van B.; Smeenk, W.

    2008-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a design of an interactive green street facility using light dependent sensors and actuators for enhancing the social cohesion of people. We show that electronics and green design can have positive effect on social interaction in a neighbourhood by a design example, called

  5. The topoligical relations of corner buildings in the street fabric

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herriott, Richard

    2016-01-01

    This paper considers the role of the corner and corner buildings in the architectural relations of the street. Referring to affordance, legibility and Weber´s (1995) psychological approach to perceived architectural space, the paper discusses the value of clearly articulated corner constructions...

  6. Demographic trends in Claremont California’s street tree population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalie S. van Doorn; E. Gregory McPherson

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify street tree population dynamics in the city of Claremont, CA. A repeated measures survey (2000 and 2014) based on a stratified random sampling approach across size classes and for the most abundant 21 species was analyzed to calculate removal, growth, and replacement planting rates. Demographic rates were estimated using a...

  7. Smart street lighting solution for remote rural areas of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajra, Debdyut

    2017-09-01

    Though many smart street lighting solutions is available for urban areas, comparatively fewer solutions exist for rural areas. In the recent times, village streets have been illuminated with artificial lights as a part of rural development drive undertaken by the governments of respective countries. But, vehicle and pedestrian traffic is quite low through village roads. Hence, if light remains on all night long on such roads, then there is a huge wastage of energy. This calls for solutions to reduce this energy loss in an efficient manner. There are a lot of factors which must be kept in mind while designing solutions. Many villages lack the proper infrastructure to support new technologies. Communication facilities are limited, lack of local technically skilled labor, lack of security, etc. After evaluating these opportunities and challenges, an attempt has been made to devise a smart street lighting solution tailored for remote rural areas in India. One part of the solution discusses how intensity of the LED street lights can be varied according to the ambient lighting conditions using sensors and LED switching in LED matrix. An artificial intelligence (AI) has also been modelled to identify traffic conditions using PIR sensors and object identification through image processing and independently control the lights. It also tracks the performance and status of each light. It would send this data and necessary notifications to a distant control center for human evaluation. This solution is also applicable for other rural areas throughout the world.

  8. Dietary patterns and prevalence of wasting among street children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In a cross-sectional study of 36 street children in Lilongwe, Malawi, dietary practices and the prevalence of wasting were assessed to provide information on the risk of poor dietary intake and malnutrition in this population. A food frequency questionnaire and 24-hour dietary recalls were used to determine dietary practices, ...

  9. Book review : Street Architecture: Work by Hans van der Heijden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jenniskens, D.P.H.

    The recently published book Street Architecture is the result of a collaboration between Karin Templin, currently pursuing a PhD in architecture at the University of Cambridge, and Hans van der Heijden, an Amsterdam-based architect of mainly urban renewal projects and residential architecture. The

  10. Theory, Method, and Triangulation in the Study of Street Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchini, Riccardo

    1996-01-01

    Describes how a comparative study of street children in Montevideo (Uruguay), Rio de Janeiro, and Mexico City contributes to a synergism between theory and method. Notes how theoretical approaches of symbolic interactionism, genetic structuralism, and habitus theory complement interview, participant observation, and content analysis methods;…

  11. Street-level bureaucrats help clients, even in difficult circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tummers, L.G.

    2015-01-01

    This policy brief presents the main findings of the Marie Curie Project “COPING: Policy implementation in stressful times: Analyzing coping strategies of civil servants”. The project combines insights from public administration and psychology to study how street-level bureaucrats (also termed

  12. Street-level bureaucrats help clients, even in difficult circumstances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.G. Tummers (Lars)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThis policy brief presents the main findings of the Marie Curie Project “COPING: Policy implementation in stressful times: Analyzing coping strategies of civil servants”. The project combines insights from public administration and psychology to study how street-level bureaucrats (also

  13. Invisible Culture: Taking Art Education to the Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darts, David

    2011-01-01

    Art educators and administrators allowed a project to evolve based on the "street life" experiences of ordinarily invisible people. The goal was to create a space or number of spaces for celebrating the human spirit through art, music, dance, poetry, theater, and story while also providing a forum for exploring some of the social issues affecting…

  14. Main Street as Art Museum: Metaphor and Teaching Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallance, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    A walk down Main Street can be very much like a stroll through a museum gallery--visually rich, inviting unexpected choices, aesthetically rewarding. This article explores the concept of shop windows as visually ordered compositions, much like paintings and other art objects, and suggests some approaches to applying this concept in teaching a…

  15. Street level bureaucracy and the dilemmas of private entities in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Given that they a pose threat to government's efforts, government sometimes moves to curtail their power of discretion and autonomy. Street-level bureaucrats are rational and activate mechanisms to escape government control. This study examines the coping mechanisms of the Ghana Private Road Transport Union ...

  16. Street foods contribute to nutrient intakes among children from rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The contribution of Street Foods (SF) to the energy and nutrient intakes of young children in rural African communities has been understudied. Under the Enhancing Child Nutrition through Animal Source Food Management (ENAM) project, a microcredit and nutrition education intervention with caregivers of children 2-to ...

  17. Seri Rama: converting a shadow play puppet to Street Fighter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghani, D B A

    2012-01-01

    Shadow puppet plays, a traditional Malaysian theater art, is slowly losing its appeal to adolescents, who prefer computer games. To help reverse this decline, the authors incorporated the traditional Seri Rama character into the Street Fighter video game. Using modeling, texturing, and animation, they developed a 3D Seri Rama prototype. Users can control Seri Rama with a PlayStation game controller.

  18. Estimation of air quality improvement at road and street intersections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeglund, P G [Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). Traffic and Transport Planning

    1996-12-31

    There has always been a very great problem to quantify the detrimental exhaust air pollution related to the traffic flow, especially at road and street intersections. Until now model calculations have been developed mainly for the links between the intersections. In an attempt to remedy this situation the author has developed a method of estimating emissions on the micro level from motor vehicles at intersections as a help for infrastructural design related to improved environmental conditions. Very parsimonious knowledge exists regarding the deceleration and acceleration patterns at road- and street intersections. Not many surveys are done neither in Sweden nor within other countries. Evidently, the need for knowledge regarding deceleration and acceleration behaviour on the micro level has until now not been given priority. In traffic safety related research studies have been done describing the drivers` deceleration and acceleration behaviour and the vehicles` braking performance. Those results give deceleration data for extreme situations and are not useful for describing normal decelerations and accelerations at road- and street intersections. Environment related problems within the traffic flow analysis are now accentuating the need for the studying of special deceleration and acceleration behaviours in combination with an alternative design of the road and street infrastructure. There is a big difference in different vehicles` amount of emitted exhaust pollutions during the passing of intersections depending on the vehicles` speed levels related to their deceleration and acceleration levels. (author)

  19. Anthropometric and motor development profiles of street children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With regard to the gross motor development, deficits were found with regard to running speed and agility, bilateral coordination and strength. Fine motor deficits were found in upper limb speed and dexterity, response speed and visual motor control. The neuromotor development of street children also showed deficits, ...

  20. Bacteria associated with street vended foods: implications to food ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Street vended foods were analysed for the bacterial load and the presence of pathogenic and/or potentially pathogenic bacteria. The foods were collected randomly from ambulatory and stationary vendors and analysed individually and then categorized as meats, salads and carbohydrates. The microbial analysis indicated ...

  1. Antigenic analysis of some Nigerian street rabies virus using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The authors studied 12 street rabies virus isolates from 3 states of Nigeria using both the anti-nucleocapsid and anti-glycoprotein monoclonal antibodies and cross-protection tests. It was observed that all the viruses were rabies having divergent antigenic presentation. Also noticed was an antigenic shift when the viruses ...

  2. Pregnancy, but not the allergic status, influences spontaneous and induced interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoudruz, Petra; Minang, Jacob Taku; Sundström, Yvonne; Nilsson, Caroline; Lilja, Gunnar; Troye-Blomberg, Marita; Sverremark-Ekström, Eva

    2006-09-01

    In this study, we investigated how pregnancy influences cytokine production in response to stimulation of the innate and the adaptive immune system, respectively. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from allergic (n = 44) and non-allergic (n = 36) women were collected at three time-points: during the third trimester, at delivery and at a non-pregnant state 2 years after delivery. The production of interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), IL-6, IL-10 and IL-12 was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or enzyme-linked immunospot assay (ELISPOT). The spontaneous cytokine production, and the response following stimulation with agents that primarily activate the adaptive part of the immune system [phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), allergen extracts from cat and birch], or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) that activate innate immunity was measured in vitro. There was a significantly higher spontaneous in vitro production of IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10 by PBMCs during pregnancy than 2 years after pregnancy, and this was not affected by the allergic status of the women. Conversely, in PHA-stimulated cell cultures there was a lower production of IL-10 and IL-12 during pregnancy than 2 years after pregnancy. LPS-induced IL-6 levels were significantly lower in PBMCs obtained during pregnancy than at 2 years after pregnancy. In addition, we made the interesting observation that in allergic women total immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels were significantly lower 2 years after pregnancy compared to the levels during pregnancy. Taken together, our results indicate that while atopic allergy in women does not have a substantial effect on cytokine production, pregnancy has an obvious effect on the immune system in terms of cytokine production as well as on the total IgE levels.

  3. Structural Characterisation Reveals Mechanism of IL-13-Neutralising Monoclonal Antibody Tralokinumab as Inhibition of Binding to IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovic, B; Breed, J; Rees, D G; Gardener, M J; Vinall, L M K; Kemp, B; Spooner, J; Keen, J; Minter, R; Uddin, F; Colice, G; Wilkinson, T; Vaughan, T; May, R D

    2017-01-20

    Interleukin (IL)-13 is a pleiotropic T helper type 2 cytokine frequently associated with asthma and atopic dermatitis. IL-13-mediated signalling is initiated by binding to IL-13Rα1, which then recruits IL-4Rα to form a heterodimeric receptor complex. IL-13 also binds to IL-13Rα2, considered as either a decoy or a key mediator of fibrosis. IL-13-neutralising antibodies act by preventing IL-13 binding to IL-13Rα1, IL-4Rα and/or IL-13Rα2. Tralokinumab (CAT-354) is an IL-13-neutralising human IgG4 monoclonal antibody that has shown clinical benefit in patients with asthma. To decipher how tralokinumab inhibits the effects of IL-13, we determined the structure of tralokinumab Fab in complex with human IL-13 to 2 Å resolution. The structure analysis reveals that tralokinumab prevents IL-13 from binding to both IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2. This is supported by biochemical ligand-receptor interaction assay data. The tralokinumab epitope is mainly composed of residues in helices D and A of IL-13. It is mostly light chain complementarity-determining regions that are driving paratope interactions; the variable light complementarity-determining region 2 plays a key role by providing residue contacts for a network of hydrogen bonds and a salt bridge in the core of binding. The key residues within the paratope contributing to binding were identified as Asp50, Asp51, Ser30 and Lys31. This study demonstrates that tralokinumab prevents the IL-13 pharmacodynamic effect by binding to IL-13 helices A and D, thus preventing IL-13 from interacting with IL-13Rα1 and IL-13Rα2. Copyright © 2016 AstraZeneca. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. The propagation of sound in narrow street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iu, K. K.; Li, K. M.

    2002-08-01

    This paper addresses an important problem of predicting sound propagation in narrow street canyons with width less than 10 m, which are commonly found in a built-up urban district. Major noise sources are, for example, air conditioners installed on building facades and powered mechanical equipment for repair and construction work. Interference effects due to multiple reflections from building facades and ground surfaces are important contributions in these complex environments. Although the studies of sound transmission in urban areas can be traced back to as early as the 1960s, the resulting mathematical and numerical models are still unable to predict sound fields accurately in city streets. This is understandable because sound propagation in city streets involves many intriguing phenomena such as reflections and scattering at the building facades, diffusion effects due to recessions and protrusions of building surfaces, geometric spreading, and atmospheric absorption. This paper describes the development of a numerical model for the prediction of sound fields in city streets. To simplify the problem, a typical city street is represented by two parallel reflecting walls and a flat impedance ground. The numerical model is based on a simple ray theory that takes account of multiple reflections from the building facades. The sound fields due to the point source and its images are summed coherently such that mutual interference effects between contributing rays can be included in the analysis. Indoor experiments are conducted in an anechoic chamber. Experimental data are compared with theoretical predictions to establish the validity and usefulness of this simple model. Outdoor experimental measurements have also been conducted to further validate the model. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  5. Street children turn to sex-work to survive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The Kenyan government currently deports tourists who are caught with child prostitutes and charges the children with prostitution. A harder treatment of foreigners caught with child prostitutes may soon emerge. The Undugu Society in Kenya, an organization working with street children, welcomes such changes. It teaches children practical skills, e.g., tailoring and carpentry. The Society has four schools and sponsors 1000 children to attend school or workshops. It sends social workers into the slums to counsel and gain the trust of street children as well as to encourage them to attend workshops. The Society has workshops on HIV transmission and emphasizes behavior change rather than condom use. Kenyan law prohibits adults from having sex with a child less than 18 years old. Juvenile courts deal with children caught engaging in solicitation of customers and/or prostitution. Children found guilty go to children's homes for rehabilitation into mainstream society. More and more countries of sex-tourists are punishing tourists who engage in sexual intercourse with minors in Kenya. Fear that high-profile cases will harm the multi-million-dollar tourist industry as well as lack of state resources makes Kenya reluctant to prosecute tourists. In 1994, most of Nairobi's 40,000 street children were engaged in prostitution. The leading centers of child prostitution are all tourist areas: Nairobi, Mombasa, Malindi, Lamu, and Diani. 80% of pornographic material in Kenya features children. Kenyan taxi drivers, tour guides, and hotel workers serve as middlemen in child prostitution. Urban poverty forces many children on to the streets. Rural children sent to urban areas to work as maids or servants in a rich house are often sexually abused. They then escape to the streets. Many child prostitutes come from poor families and have low literacy and no practical skills. AIDS orphans also become prostitutes to survive.

  6. [Who told you to grow old and live on the streets?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brêtas, Ana Cristina Passarella; Marcolan, João Fernando; Rosa, Anderson da Silva; Fernandes, Flávia Saraiva Leão; Raizer, Milena Veiga

    2010-06-01

    This qualitative case study is part of another study: Aging, health and work. The objective of this excerpt was to identify the meaning of aging on the streets for the elderly living on the street. The subjects' statements were analyzed under the light of the following themes: history of aging and history of life on the streets. It was understood that the streets are usually a hostile environment for the elderly. It does not guarantee the basic life conditions, affecting the mental health of people who are forced to live on the streets, particularly the elderly. The street does not offer any way out and, together with to the life conditions of the elderly living on the streets leads to the gradual loss of self-esteem, significantly affecting self-care. In addition to these issues, we found that compromised functional capacity puts the life/survival of the elderly living on the streets at risk.

  7. Redesigning Main Streets in Small Communities: The Viagra of Transportation Investment

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-09-16

    The national Main Street movement is building momentum. Over 1,200 small : communities across America have rediscovered their Main Streets with impressive : investment in time, energy and money. The tangible measures of return include: : economic gro...

  8. Great 3 - Cultural Resource Inventory. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    National Register LYLE MANSION - Carondelet Park ". O’FALLON PARK BOATHOUSE, O’Fallon Park Pending for National Register S.S. ADMIRAL (Excursion Boat...Street in Haskell Park, Alton MIDDLETOWN HISTORIC ISTRICT, roughly bounded by Broadway, Market, Alton, Franklin, Common, Liberty, Humboldt , and Plum...IOld Cathedral (1834), St. Louis Landmark (SLL) # 3 Chatillon Demenil Mansion (1849-1863), SLL # 5 Century Public Library (1907-1912), SLL # 19 [Lyle

  9. Impact of local traffic exclusion on near-road air quality: findings from the New York City "Summer Streets" campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlow, Thomas H; Hall, Andrew; Zhang, K Max; Anguita, Juan

    2011-01-01

    We monitored curbside airborne particulate matter (PM) concentrations and its proinflammatory capacity during 3 weekends when vehicle traffic was excluded from Park. Ave., New York City. Fine PM concentration peaked in the morning regardless of traffic while ultrafine PM was 58% lower during mornings without traffic. Ultrafine PM concentration varied linearly with traffic flow, while fine PM spiked sharply in response to random traffic events that were weakly correlated with the traffic signal cycle. Ultrafine PM concentrations decayed exponentially with distance from a cross street with unrestricted traffic flow, reaching background levels within 100 m of the source. IL-6 induction was typically highest on Friday afternoons but showed no clear relationship to the presence of traffic. The coarse fraction (>2.5 μm) had the greatest intrinsic inflammatory capacity, suggesting that coarse PM still warrants attention even as the research focus is shifting to nano-particles. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. IL-17-producing NKT cells depend exclusively on IL-7 for homeostasis and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, K E; Kim, H-O; Kyparissoudis, K; Corpuz, T M; Pinget, G V; Uldrich, A P; Brink, R; Belz, G T; Cho, J-H; Godfrey, D I; Sprent, J

    2014-09-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are innate-like T cells that rapidly recognize pathogens and produce cytokines that shape the ensuing immune response. IL-17-producing NKT cells are enriched in barrier tissues, such as the lung, skin, and peripheral lymph nodes, and the factors that maintain this population in the periphery have not been elucidated. Here we show that NKT17 cells deviate from other NKT cells in their survival requirements. In contrast to conventional NKT cells that are maintained by IL-15, RORγt(+) NKT cells are IL-15 independent and instead rely completely on IL-7. IL-7 initiates a T-cell receptor-independent (TCR-independent) expansion of NKT17 cells, thus supporting their homeostasis. Without IL-7, survival is dramatically impaired, yet residual cells remain lineage committed with no downregulation of RORγt evident. Their preferential response to IL-7 does not reflect enhanced signaling through STAT proteins, but instead is modulated via the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. The ability to compete for IL-7 is dependent on high-density IL-7 receptor expression, which would promote uptake of low levels of IL-7 produced in the non-lymphoid sites of lung and skin. This dependence on IL-7 is also reported for RORγt(+) innate lymphoid cells and CD4(+) Th17 cells, and suggests common survival requirements for functionally similar cells.

  11. Clinical significance of changes of levels of serum IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and gastrin in patients with chronic eczema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Haifeng; Bi Mingye; Shi Hejian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To study the significance of changes of serum IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and Gastrin levels in patients with chronic eczema. Methods: Serum levels of IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and Gastrin were determined with RIA in 30 patients with chronic eczema and 30 controls. Results: The levels of serum IL-2 were significantly lower in the eczema patients than those in controls (P 0.05). Both serum IL-10 and Gastrin levels were significantly higher in the patients than those in controls (P<0.01). Conclusion: Determination of serum IL-2, IL-8, IL-10 and Gastrin levels in patients with chronic eczema would be of help in monitoring the disease process and outcome prediction. (authors)

  12. IL-36 cytokines in autoimmunity and inflammatory disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liping; Wang, Xiaohui; Hong, Xiaoping; Lu, Liwei; Liu, Dongzhou

    2018-01-05

    The inteleukin-36 (IL-36) cytokines include IL-36α, IL-36β, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra, which belong to the IL-1 family and exert pro-inflammatory effects on various target cells such as keratinocytes, synoviocytes, dendritic cells and T cells. Emerging evidence has suggested a role of IL-36 in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory diseases. Here, we provide a brief review on the activation of IL-36 family cytokines and their involvement in autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases, which will provide further insights in understanding the functions of IL-36 family cytokines in the pathophysiology of autoimmunity and inflammatory diseases.

  13. Cytokine vaccination: neutralising IL-1alpha autoantibodies induced by immunisation with homologous IL-1alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svenson, M; Hansen, M B; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2000-01-01

    with IL-1alpha coupled to purified protein derivative of tuberculin (PPD). Both unprimed and primed animals developed IgG aAb to IL-1alpha. These aAb persisted at high levels more than 100 days after vaccination and did not cross-react with murine IL-1beta. The induced anti-IL-1alpha aAb inhibited binding...... in mice by vaccination with recombinant murine IL-1alpha conjugated to PPD. Studies of the effects of IL-1alpha aAb in such animals may help clarify the importance of naturally occurring IL-1alpha aAb in humans and permit the evaluation of future therapies with cytokine aAb in patients...

  14. IL-13 and the IL-13 receptor as therapeutic targets for asthma and allergic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Jesse; Dimov, Vesselin; Townley, Robert G

    2010-05-01

    It is widely accepted that T-helper 2 cell (Th2) cytokines play an important role in the maintenance of asthma and allergy. Emerging evidence has highlighted the role of IL-13 in the pathogenesis of these diseases. In particular, IL-13 is involved in the regulation of IgE synthesis, mucus hypersecretion, subepithelial fibrosis and eosinophil infiltration, and has been associated with the regulation of certain chemokine receptors, notably CCR5. Thus, targeting IL-13 and its associated receptors may be a therapeutic approach to the treatment of asthma and/or allergy. Pharmaceutical and biotechnology companies are researching various strategies, based on this approach, aimed at binding IL-13, increasing the level of the IL-13 decoy receptor, IL-13Ralpha2, or blocking the effect of the chemokine receptor CCR5. This review focuses on the therapeutic potential of anti-IL-13 agents and their role in the treatment of asthma and allergy.

  15. IL-4 function can be transferred to the IL-2 receptor by tyrosine containing sequences found in the IL-4 receptor alpha chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H Y; Paul, W E; Keegan, A D

    1996-02-01

    IL-4 binds to a cell surface receptor complex that consists of the IL-4 binding protein (IL-4R alpha) and the gamma chain of the IL-2 receptor complex (gamma c). The receptors for IL-4 and IL-2 have several features in common; both use the gamma c as a receptor component, and both activate the Janus kinases JAK-1 and JAK-3. In spite of these similarities, IL-4 evokes specific responses, including the tyrosine phosphorylation of 4PS/IRS-2 and the induction of CD23. To determine whether sequences within the cytoplasmic domain of the IL-4R alpha specify these IL-4-specific responses, we transplanted the insulin IL-4 receptor motif (I4R motif) of the huIL-4R alpha to the cytoplasmic domain of a truncated IL-2R beta. In addition, we transplanted a region that contains peptide sequences shown to block Stat6 binding to DNA. We analyzed the ability of cells expressing these IL-2R-IL-4R chimeric constructs to respond to IL-2. We found that IL-4 function could be transplanted to the IL-2 receptor by these regions and that proliferative and differentiative functions can be induced by different receptor sequences.

  16. Study on the changes of serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in patients with coronary cardiac heart diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiaozhuo; Yu Xian

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To study the role TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 played in the pathogenesis of coronary cardiac heart diseases. Methods: Serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels were determined by chemiluminescence immunoassay in 32 patients with stable angina, 39 patients with acute myocardial infarction and 36 controls. Results: Serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-8 levels in all patients were higher than those in controls. Remarkably increased level were seen in acute myocardial infarction group. Difference between control and patient groups were: stable angina group TNF-α, p<0.05, IL-6, p<0.01 and IL-8, p<0.05; acute myocardial infarction group TNF-α, p<0.01, IL-1β, p<0.05, IL-6, p<0.001 and IL-8, p<0.001. Conclusion: There is close relationship between serum TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 levels and development of coronary cardiac heart disease. They play an important role in the pathogenesis through mutual induction and synergistic actions

  17. Diagnostic value of combined determination of serum and chest fluid adenosine deaminase (ADA), IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 contents for differentiation of tuberculous from malignant pleural effusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jiaming; Wang Limin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the possible diagnostic value of combined determination of serum and chest fluid contents of ADA, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 in patients with tuberculous and malignant pleural effusion. Methods: Serum and chest fluid ADA (with biochemical method), IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 (with ELISA) contents were measured in 56 patients with tuberculosis pleural effusion, 53 patients with malignant effusion and 30 controls (in serum only). The receiving operative characteristic (ROC) curve for each parameter was analyzed for study of respective area under curse (Auc). Results: The serum IL-6 levels in both groups of patients were significantly higher than those in the controls (P<0.05). The chest fluid contents of ADA, IL-2, IL-6 and IL-10 in patients with tuberculous effusion were all significantly higher than those in patients with malignancies (P<0.05). The Auc in the ROC was largest in the case of ADA, followed by IL-10, IL-6 with IL-2 the least. Conclusion: Determination of chest fluid ADA, IL-2, IL-6, IL-10 contents was helpful in the differentiation of tuberculous from malignant pleural effusion. Combined determination of chest fluid ADA and IL-10 provided the highest accuracy rate for differentional diagnosis. (authors)

  18. One Street, Twenty Children and the Experience of a Changing Town: Year 7 Explore the Story of a London Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Amy; De Silva, Heather

    2013-01-01

    Michael Wood and others have recently drawn attention to the ways in which big stories can be told through local histories. Hughes and De Silva report a teaching unit through which they aimed to help Year 7 pupils make history come alive by exploring the history of a local street and the people who lived in it using census materials, the physical…

  19. CODASC : a database for the validation of street canyon dispersion models

    OpenAIRE

    Gromke, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    CODASC stands for Concentration Data of Street Canyons (CODASC 2008, www.codasc.de). It is a database which provides traffic pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons obtained from wind-tunnel dispersion experiments. CODASC comprises concentration data of street canyons with different aspect ratios subjected to various wind directions and also for street canyons with tree-avenues. The database includes concentration data of tree-avenue configurations of different tree arrangement, tree...

  20. An Analysis of the Street-Children Phenomenon in the City of Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Alireza Afshani; Abbas Askari-Nodoushan; Mohammad Heydari; Mohammad Noorian Najafabadi

    2013-01-01

    Introduction   In nearly all big cities around the world, the phenomenon of street children is one of the contemporary social issues. During past several decades, there is an increase in the volume of street children phenomenon around the world. The rising number of street children has many pathological and consequential negative impacts for children, youth, families, and the society at the whole . According to 2000 UN report, the number of street children is estimated between 100 to140 milli...

  1. Expression of IL-18, IL-18 Binding Protein, and IL-18 Receptor by Normal and Cancerous Human Ovarian Tissues: Possible Implication of IL-18 in the Pathogenesis of Ovarian Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liat Medina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Proinflammatory cytokine IL-18 has been shown to be elevated in the sera of ovarian carcinoma patients. The aim of the study was to examine the levels and cellular origin of IL-18, IL-18 binding protein, and IL-18 receptor in normal and cancerous ovarian tissues. Ovarian tissue samples were examined by immunohistochemical staining for IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R and mRNA of these cytokines was analyzed with semiquantitative PT-PCR. IL-18 levels were significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P=0.0007, IL-18BP levels were significantly higher in normal ovarian tissues (P=0.04, and the ratio of IL-18/IL-18BP was significantly higher in cancerous ovarian tissues (P=0.036. Cancerous ovarian tissues expressed significantly higher IL-18 mRNA levels (P=0.025, while there was no difference in the expression of IL-18BP mRNA and IL-18R mRNA between cancerous and normal ovarian tissues. IL-18 and IL-18BP were expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of both cancerous and normal ovarian tissues, while IL-18R was expressed dominantly in the epithelial cells of cancerous ovarian tissues but expressed similarly in the epithelial and stromal cells of normal cancerous tissues. This study indicates a possible role of IL-18, IL-18BP, and IL-18R in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

  2. IL-4 and IL-13 Compromise the Sinonasal Epithelial Barrier and Perturb Intercellular Junction Protein Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Sarah K.; Laury, Adrienne M.; Katz, Elizabeth H.; Den Beste, Kyle A.; Parkos, Charles A.; Nusrat, Asma

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Altered expression of epithelial intercellular junction proteins has been observed in sinonasal biopsies from nasal polyps and epithelial layers cultured from nasal polyp patients. These alterations comprise a “leaky” epithelial barrier phenotype. We hypothesize that Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 modulate epithelial junction proteins thereby contributing to the leaky epithelial barrier. Methods Differentiated primary sinonasal epithelial layers cultured at the air-liquid interface were exposed to IL-4, IL-13, and controls for 24 hours at 37°C. Epithelial resistance measurements were taken every 4 hours during cytokine exposure. Western blot and immunofluorescence staining/confocal microscopy were used to assess changes in a panel of tight and adherens junction proteins. Western blot densitometry was quantified with image analysis. Results IL-4 and IL-13 exposure resulted in a mean decrease in transepithelial resistance at 24 hours to 51.6% (n=6) and 68.6% (n=8) of baseline, respectively. Tight junction protein JAM-A expression decreased 42.2% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 37.5% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Adherens junction protein E-cadherin expression decreased 35.3% with IL-4 exposure (n=9) and 32.9% with IL-13 exposure (n=9). Tight junction protein claudin-2 showed more variability but had a trend toward higher expression with Th2 cytokine exposure. There were no appreciable changes in claudin-1, occludin, or ZO-1 with IL-4 or IL-13 exposure. Conclusion Sinonasal epithelial exposure to Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-13 results in alterations in intercellular junction proteins, reflecting increased epithelial permeability. Such changes may explain some of the phenotypic manifestations of Th2-mediated sinonasal disease, such as edema, nasal discharge, and environmental reactivity. PMID:24510479

  3. Caravaggio e il Maccheronico di Teofilo Folengo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Piciché

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Il presente studio ipotizza un’affinità tra Caravaggio e Teofilo Folengo, argomentando che la pittura del primo presenta analogie estetiche e etiche con la produzione in latino maccheronico del secondo. Il Baldus costituisce un tipico esempio di quella che Genette definirà come «parodia seria»: attraverso il rovesciamento e la irrisione beffarda Folengo ingaggia tenzone contro l’arte paludata e il travisamento dei valori cristiani. Non si tratta qui di stabilire un’influenza di Folengo su Caravaggio, bensì un’analogia, in virtù di un filo di congiunzione ideale, la cui presumibilità viene corroborata anche dal substrato biografico-culturale e da comune spirito religioso. Sia in Folengo che in Caravaggio sono stati individuati i caratteri di un certo modo della cultura lombarda di essere “contro” al punto che il duo Folengo-Caravaggio sembra epitomizzare l’antitesi al decorum curialcortigianesimo di Castiglione e Raffaello. Il Cristo-paradosso costituisce la vera fonte ispiratrice per entrambi. La comparazione tra due arti deve tenere conto dei diversi strumenti espressivi, e questo costituirà uno dei soggetti di riflessione nel testo. Se l’ipotesi della consentaneità viene ragionevolmente difesa, perché non individuare una componente maccheronica anche nell’arte di Caravaggio? Agli storici d’arte, tuttavia, decidere se si possa considerare il maccheronico come categoria pittorica

  4. Alcohol in urban streetscapes: a comparison of the use of Google Street View and on-street observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Clews

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alcohol-related harm is a major global health issue, and controls on alcohol marketing are one intervention utilized by governments. This study investigated the use of Google Street View (GSV as a novel research method for collecting alcohol-related data in the urban environment. Methods The efficacy of GSV and on-street observation by observer teams was compared by surveying 400 m stretches of 12 streets in Wellington, the capital city of New Zealand. Data on alcohol sale, alcohol-related advertising, health promotion materials, regulatory information and visible alcohol consumption were collected. Results A total of 403 retailers with evidence of alcohol sales and 1161 items of alcohol-related communication were identified in on-street observation. Of the latter, 1028 items (89 % were for alcohol marketing and 133 (11 % were for alcohol-related health promotion and alcohol regulation. GSV was found to be a less sensitive tool than on-street observation with only 50 % of the alcohol venues identified and 52 % of the venue-associated brand marketing identified. A high degree of inter-observer reliability was generally found between pairs of observers e.g., for the detection of alcohol retail venues the intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC was 0.93 (95 % CI: 0.78 to 0.98 for on-street observation and 0.85 (95 % CI: 0.49 to 0.96 for using GSV. Conclusions GSV does not seem suitable for the comprehensive study of the influences on alcohol consumption in the urban streetscape. However, it may still have value for large, static objects in the environment and be more time efficient than traditional on-street observation measures, especially when used to collect data across a wide geographical area. Furthermore, GSV might become a more useful research tool in settings with better image quality (such as more ‘footpath views’ and with more regularly updated GSV imagery.

  5. Allergic Rhinitis and Its Relationship with IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β, IFN-γ, IL 22, and IL-35

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bayrak Degirmenci

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We aimed in our study to research the role of new cytokines such as IL-35, IL-22, and IL-17 that may form a target for novel treatment approaches. Methods. IL-10, IL-17, TGF-β, IFN-γ, IL-22, and IL-35 serum levels of allergic rhinitis (AR patients were measured using ELISA method. Allergic sensitization was demonstrated by the skin prick test. Patients only with olive tree sensitivity were evaluated for seasonal AR (SAR. Patients only with mite sensitivity were included in the study for perennial AR (PAR. AR clinic severity was demonstrated by the nasal symptom scores (NSS. Results. In total, 65 AR patients (patient group, having 31 PAR and 34 SAR patients, and 31 healthy individuals (control group participated in the study. Cytokine levels between the patient group and the control group were compared; IL-17 (p=0.038, IL-22 (p=0.001, and TGF-β (p=0.031 were detected as high in the patient group, and IFN-γ (p<0.001 was detected as low in the patient group. When correlation analysis was made between age, gender, prick test result, NSS, AR duration, and cytokine levels in the patient group, a negative correlation was detected only between IFN-γ (p=0.032/r=−0.266 level and NSS. Conclusions. Accompanied by the literature information, these results made us think that T cell subgroups and cytokines have an important role in AR immunopathogenesis. It is thought that future studies to be conducted relating to this subject will form new targets in treatment.

  6. Playing Sport In The Stormy Sea Of Street Life | Human | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, there are many street children in South Africa (SA). They have been robbed from the safe harbour of family life and on a daily basis experience the stormy sea of street life. Society has an obligation to intervene in the lives of these street children through, for example, quality education, basic health services and ...

  7. CODASC : a database for the validation of street canyon dispersion models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gromke, C.B.

    2013-01-01

    CODASC stands for Concentration Data of Street Canyons (CODASC 2008, www.codasc.de). It is a database which provides traffic pollutant concentrations in urban street canyons obtained from wind-tunnel dispersion experiments. CODASC comprises concentration data of street canyons with different aspect

  8. Influence of local parameters on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants within street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karra, Styliani; Malki-Epshtein, Liora; Martin Hyde Collaboration

    2011-11-01

    Ventilation within urban cities and street canyons and the associated air quality is a problem of increasing interest in the last decades. It is important for to minimise exposure of the population to traffic-related pollutants at street level. The residence time of pollutants within the street canyons depends on the meteorological conditions such as wind speed and direction, geometry layout and local parameters (position of traffic lane within the street). An experimental study was carried out to investigate the influence of traffic lane position on the dispersion of traffic-related pollutants within different street canyons geometries: symmetrical (equal building heights on both sides of the street), non-symmetrical (uniform building heights but lower on one side of the street) and heterogeneous (non-uniform building heights on both sides of the street) under constant meteorological conditions. Laboratory experiments were carried out within a water channel and simultaneous measurements of velocity field and concentration scalar levels within and above the street canyons using PIV and PLIF techniques. Traffic -related emissions were simulated using a line emission source. Two positions were examined for all street geometries: line emission source was placed in the centre of the street canyon; line emission source was placed off the centre of the street. TSI Incorporated.

  9. Beyond discourse and competence : Science and subjugated knowledge in street children studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigengack, Roy

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that street children studies (SCS) has reduced its central concept to a discursive construct, and the young street people themselves to capable 'agents'. One consequence is that street children are not recognized as distinct intergenerational groupings in society. The traditional

  10. Beyond discourse and competence: Science and subjugated knowledge in street children studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigengack, R.A.

    2014-01-01

    This article argues that street children studies (SCS) has reduced its central concept to a discursive construct, and the young street people themselves to capable ‘agents’. One consequence is that street children are not recognized as distinct intergenerational groupings in society. The traditional

  11. Street children in Mafikeng, North-West Province: A qualitative study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The general perception, on the part of South African society, is that street children are a major social menace. Yet the reality is that, street children are a vulnerable group that suffer both psychological and physical violence including sexual abuse. This qualitative study investigated the social experiences of street children in ...

  12. Bridging the "Widest Street in the World": Reflections on the History of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirel, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    For at least a half century, education reformers have quipped that 120th Street in New York City, the street that separates Teachers College from the rest of Columbia University, "is the widest street in the world." Underlying this quip is the belief that Columbia's liberal arts faculty members regularly dismiss the child-centered educational…

  13. 75 FR 11153 - Main Mill Street Investments, LLC; Notice of Preliminary Permit Application Accepted for Filing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 13631-000] Main Mill Street..., Motions To Intervene, and Competing Applications March 1, 2010. On November 16, Main Mill Street Investments, LLC (Main Mill Street Investments) filed an application for a preliminary permit, pursuant to...

  14. Socio-economic and hygiene features of street food vending in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objectives of the study were firstly to determine the health risks associated with street food vending, secondly to determine the opinions of street food ... such as South Africa be allowed to earn their livelihood by means of an 'easy-to-enter' business such as street food vending when hygiene standards are acceptable.

  15. Attitudes of street children to the network of support for them in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Study findings show that 'of' the street children are the major targets by the network of the support since children 'on' the street are still being supported by their families and the assistance received by these children of the street from their peers and homeless adults is preferred to assistance from other support providers.

  16. Space Livability of Street Vendors in Simpang Lima Public Space, Semarang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjajanti, R.; Wahyono, H.

    2018-02-01

    Street vendors in Semarang have been growing rapidly and uncontrolled. They always use public space such as public roads, sidewalks, parks and fields as trading locations. The street vendors’ activities in the public space are considered as the cause of declining on environmental quality and aesthetics of the city. All these years, the government often evicted the street vendors than organized and provides adequate space for them. As one of the actual urban activities, the street vendors’ activities should be accommodated by the government and the location for them is managed in the urban spatial plan. Street vendors need spaces which livable and suitable to their activities’ requirements, has a relationship with users (street vendors’ doers and consumers) and the activities of street vendors themselves. Research on the aspect of space for street vendors is still less in quantity, whereas space for them is an urgent matter for the government in managing their activities. This study aims to identify the livability of space based on the street vendors’ behavior in their location. This research used descriptive quantitative method with questionnaires and GIS as the mapping tool for street vendors’ location. The result of the research shows that the livability of street vendor space is based on the activity of street vendors (type of merchandise, trading places’ size, trade place assessment, space dimension, trading time, duration and period) and space conditions (access, natural elements, safety and parking space).

  17. IL-2/anti-IL-2 mAb immunocomplexes: A renascence of IL-2 in cancer immunotherapy?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tomala, Jakub; Kovář, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 3 (2016), e1102829 ISSN 2162-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-12885S; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Anti-IL-2 mAb * cancer immunotherapy * IL-2 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 7.719, year: 2016

  18. Characteristics of flow and reactive pollutant dispersion in urban street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Soo-Jin; Kim, Jae-Jin; Kim, Minjoong J.; Park, Rokjin J.; Cheong, Hyeong-Bin

    2015-05-01

    In this study, the effects of aspect ratio defined as the ratio of building height to street width on the dispersion of reactive pollutants in street canyons were investigated using a coupled CFD-chemistry model. Flow characteristics for different aspect ratios were analyzed first. For each aspect ratio, six emission scenarios with different VOC-NOX ratios were considered. One vortex was generated when the aspect ratio was less than 1.6 (shallow street canyon). When the aspect ratio was greater than 1.6 (deep street canyon), two vortices were formed in the street canyons. Comparing to previous studies on two-dimensional street canyons, the vortex center is slanted toward the upwind building and reverse and downward flows are dominant in street canyons. Near the street bottom, there is a marked difference in flow pattern between in shallow and deep street canyons. Near the street bottom, reverse and downward flows are dominant in shallow street canyon and flow convergence exists near the center of the deep street canyons, which induces a large difference in the NOX and O3 dispersion patterns in the street canyons. NOX concentrations are high near the street bottom and decreases with height. The O3 concentrations are low at high NO concentrations near the street bottom because of NO titration. At a low VOC-NOX ratio, the NO concentrations are sufficiently high to destroy large amount of O3 by titration, resulting in an O3 concentration in the street canyon much lower than the background concentration. At high VOC-NOX ratios, a small amount of O3 is destroyed by NO titration in the lower layer of the street canyons. However, in the upper layer, O3 is formed through the photolysis of NO2 by VOC degradation reactions. As the aspect ratio increases, NOX (O3) concentrations averaged over the street canyons decrease (increase) in the shallow street canyons. This is because outward flow becomes strong and NOX flux toward the outsides of the street canyons increases

  19. Tool and ideological knowledge in Street Outreach Office working process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kami, Maria Terumi Maruyama; Larocca, Liliana Muller; Chaves, Maria Marta Nolasco; Piosiadlo, Laura Christina Macedo; Albuquerque, Guilherme Souza

    2016-01-01

    To identify ideological knowledge and tool knowledgethat provide support to the Street Outreach Office working process. Qualitative and exploratory research. TwentyStreet Outreach Office professionals and six users collected the data, applying different semi-structured interview schedules for each category of participants. The resulting categories were analyzed in light of tool and ideological knowledge presented in the working process. From the participant discourses the following ideological knowledge emerged: public policies and the needs of the person ina street situation and tool knowledge, as well as devices and tools for the care of people in street situations and a weekly schedule. The focus on the working process discourse, supported by ideological knowledge, was verified. The structural dimension of the objective reality of the population in street situations was perceptible in the social determination of being situating on the street. When daily situations were revealed, the limitations to be overcome in the working process context were noticed. Identificar os saberes ideológicos e instrumentais que subsidiam o processo de trabalho do Consultório na Rua. Pesquisa qualitativa e exploratória. A coleta de dados foi realizada junto a 20 profissionais e seis usuários do Consultório na Rua de um município do sul do Brasil, por meio de entrevistas com roteiros semiestruturados distintos para cada categoria de participantes. As classes resultantes foram analisadas à luz dos saberes ideológicos e instrumentais presentes no processo de trabalho. Dos discursos dos participantes emergiram os saberes ideológicos: políticas públicas e necessidades da pessoa em situação de rua e os saberes instrumentais: dispositivos e instrumentos no cuidado à pessoa em situação de rua e agenda semanal. Constatou-se a centralidade dos discursos no processo de trabalho, sustentado pelos saberes ideológicos. A dimensão estrutural da realidade objetiva da população em

  20. The role of interleukin-5 (IL-5 in vivo: studies with IL-5 deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus I Matthaei

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Eosinophil recruitment is a characteristic feature of a number of pathological conditions and was the topic of the recent International Symposium on allergic inflammation, asthma, parasitic and infectious diseases (Rio de Janeiro, June 3-5, 1996. Since interleukin5 (IL5 is believed to regulate the growth, differentiation and activation of eosinophils (Coffman et al. 1989, Sanderson 1992, the role of eosinophils and IL5 are closely linked. Although IL5 specifically regulates eosinophilia in vivo and this is its most well established activity, it is becoming clear that IL5 also has other biological effects. The recent derivation of an IL5 deficient mouse (Kopf et al. 1996, provides a model for exploring not only the role of IL5 and eosinophils but also other novel activities of IL5. Of note is that although the IL5 deficient mice cannot elicit a pronounced eosinophilia in response to inflammatory stimulation following aeroallergen challenge or parasite infection they still produce basal levels of eosinophils that appear to be morphologically and functionally normal. However, the basal levels of eosinophils appear insufficient for normal host defence as IL5 deficiency has now been shown to compromise defence against several helminth infections. In addition, IL5 deficient mice appear to have functional deficiencies in B-1 B lymphocytes and in IgA production.

  1. Interleukin-33 (IL-33): A nuclear cytokine from the IL-1 family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayrol, Corinne; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2018-01-01

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a tissue-derived nuclear cytokine from the IL-1 family abundantly expressed in endothelial cells, epithelial cells and fibroblast-like cells, both during homeostasis and inflammation. It functions as an alarm signal (alarmin) released upon cell injury or tissue damage to alert immune cells expressing the ST2 receptor (IL-1RL1). The major targets of IL-33 in vivo are tissue-resident immune cells such as mast cells, group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) and regulatory T cells (Tregs). Other cellular targets include T helper 2 (Th2) cells, eosinophils, basophils, dendritic cells, Th1 cells, CD8 + T cells, NK cells, iNKT cells, B cells, neutrophils and macrophages. IL-33 is thus emerging as a crucial immune modulator with pleiotropic activities in type-2, type-1 and regulatory immune responses, and important roles in allergic, fibrotic, infectious, and chronic inflammatory diseases. The critical function of IL-33/ST2 signaling in allergic inflammation is illustrated by the fact that IL33 and IL1RL1 are among the most highly replicated susceptibility loci for asthma. In this review, we highlight 15 years of discoveries on IL-33 protein, including its molecular characteristics, nuclear localization, bioactive forms, cellular sources, mechanisms of release and regulation by proteases. Importantly, we emphasize data that have been validated using IL-33-deficient cells. © 2017 The Authors. Immunological Reviews Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Elevated levels of circulating IL-18BP and perturbed regulation of IL-18 in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palladino Ilaria

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pleiotropic pro-inflammatory cytokine Interleukin (IL-18 has been proposed to play a role in schizophrenia, since elevated circulating levels of its protein and altered frequencies of genetic variants in its molecular system are reported in schizophrenic patients. Methods We analyzed 77 patients with schizophrenia diagnosis (SCZ and 77 healthy control subjects (HC for serum concentration of both IL-18 and its natural inhibitor, the IL-18 binding protein (IL-18BP. Results We confirmed that serum levels of total IL-18 are significantly increased in SCZ, as compared to HC. However, due to a highly significant increase in levels of circulating IL-18BP in SCZ, as compared to HC, the levels of free, bioactive IL-18 are not significantly different between the two groups. In addition, the relationships between the levels of IL-18 and its inhibitor, as well as between the two molecules and age appear dissimilar for SCZ and HC. In particular, the elevated levels of IL-18BP, likely a consequence of the body’s attempt to counteract the early prominent inflammation which characterizes schizophrenia, are maintained in earlier and later stages of the disease. However, the IL-18BP elevation appears ineffective to balance the IL-18 system in younger SCZ patients, while in older patients the levels of circulating bioactive IL-18 are comparable to those of HC, if not lower. Conclusions In conclusion, these findings indicate that the IL-18 system is perturbed in schizophrenia, supporting the idea that this pro-inflammatory cytokine might be part of a pathway of genetic and environmental components for vulnerability to the disease.

  3. Solar radiation and street temperature as function of street orientation. An analysis of the status quo and simulation of future scenarios towards sustainability in Bahrain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Joao Pinelo

    2017-01-01

    A countrywide analysis shows that E-W orientation accounts for the highest overall street length with 37%. The second most frequent orientation is N-S (29%, the best performer. NW-SE and NE-SW both have frequencies of only 17%. Preference for a street grid with N-S, NW-SE, and NE-SW orientation would improve the thermal performance of streets and provide a continuous network of a comfortable pedestrian environment. We simulate two future scenarios based on avoiding new E-W streets, or not. We measure their potential reduction in thermal gain and conclude that a simple policy could reduce solar exposition in 40%.

  4. Tecnologia italiana per il vuoto spinto

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    "Ancora una volta ad aggiudicarsi un ambito riconoscimento internazionale e' un fisico italiano: Cristoforo Benvenuti ritirera' tra pochi giorni a Denver il premio Gaede-Langmuir che viene assegnato dalla American vacuum society" (1/2 page).

  5. Michel Foucault e il problema della genealogia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Abeni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available "Si j'étais prétentieux, je donnerais comme titre général à ce que je fais : généalogie de la morale." Dietro questa affermazione, rilasciata nel contesto colloquiale di un'intervista, è possibile scorgere il segno di una confessione intellettuale e il compendio di un pensiero. In primo luogo, allusivamente, rinvia alla figura di Nietzsche e alla traccia indelebile che il suo pensiero ha lasciato nella filosofia e nella ricerca di Foucault. In secondo luogo, autorizza a osservare nella riflessione foucaultiana la filigrana di quella genealogia che il presente lavoro si propone di affrontare come stile d'interrogazione filosofica.

  6. PER ALDO NOSEDA: IL CRITICO MUSICALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Fiaccadori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Il presente articolo è un tentativo di fornire la lista completa degli scritti di Aldo Noseda (Milano, 1853-Stresa, 1916 come critico musicale. Fu un erudito conoscitore d’arte e appassionato collezionista, ma la quasi totalità dei suoi scritti sono dedicati alla scena musicale italiana. Prese parte all’infiammato dibattito a proposito della musica strumentale divenendo membro della Società del Quartetto e fondando la Società orchestrale della Scala a Milano. Dal 1876 al 1894, sotto lo pseudonimo de Il Misovulgo fu tra gli editorialisti militanti di importanti periodici come «La Gazzetta musicale di Milano», il «Corriere della Sera» e «Il Caffè», contribuendovi con una serie di appassionate recensioni dei contemporanei eventi musicali milanesi.

  7. Seasonal influenza A/H3N2 virus infection and IL-1Β, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-28 polymorphisms in Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogo, Lawal Dahiru; Rezaei, Farhad; Marashi, Seyed Mahdi; Yekaninejad, Mir Saeed; Naseri, Maryam; Ghavami, Nastaran; Mokhtari-Azad, Talat

    2016-12-01

    Increased blood cytokines is the main immunopathological process that were attributed to severe clinical outcomes in cases of influenza A/H3N2 virus infection. The study was aimed to investigate the polymorphisms of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-17, and IL-28 genes to find the possibility of their association with the clinical outcome of influenza A/H3N2 virus infection among the infected patients in Iran. This is a Case-Control study in which influenza A/H3N2 virus positive confirmed with real-time PCR were the cases. DNA samples from groups were genotyped for polymorphisms in rs16944 (IL-1β), rs1800872 (IL-10), rs2275913 (IL-17), and rs8099917 (IL-28). Confidence interval (95%CI) and Odds ratio (OR) were calculated. IL-17 rs2275913 (GG and AG) were associated with risk of infection with that were statistically significant (P rs16944) (GG) was associated with reduced risk of infection (P < 0.01, OR = 0.46). Genotype GG and GT of IL-10 (rs1800872) were associated with increased risk of infection with influenza A/H3N2 virus (P < 0.05, OR = 2.04-2.58). In addition, IL-28 (rs8099917) genotypes GG (P < 0.05, OR = 0.49) and TG (P < 0.05, OR = 0.59) were associated with reduced risk of ILI symptom while genotype TT (P < 0.01, OR = 4.31) was associated with increased risk of ILI symptom. The results of this study demonstrated that polymorphisms of genes involved in the inflammatory and anti-inflammatory process affect the outcome of disease caused by influenza A/H3N2 virus. Thorough insight on host immune response at the time of influenza A virus infection is required to ensure adequate patient care in the case of feature outbreaks. J. Med. Virol. 88:2078-2084, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Il viaggio gastronomico di Paolo Monelli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Salarelli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Il ghiottone errante di Paolo Monelli, pubblicato nel 1935, rappresenta uno dei primi esempi di narrativa di viaggio in tema di enogastronomia, un genere destinato a grande successo nel secondo dopoguerra. In questo articolo, oltre a ripercorrere la vicenda biografica di Monelli, si sottolineano le relazioni tra Il ghiottone e la cultura gastronomica del regime fascista, e si evidenziano alcuni tratti caratteristici del suo stile di scrittura.

  9. Increasing the biological activity of IL-2 and IL-15 through complexing with anti-IL-2 mAbs and Il-15Ralfa-Fc chimera

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Votavová, Petra; Tomala, Jakub; Kovář, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 195, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-10 ISSN 0165-2478 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP301/11/0325; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109; GA ČR GA13-12885S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : IL-2 * IL-15 * chimera Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.512, year: 2014

  10. Commensal bacteria and MAMPs are necessary for stress-induced increases in IL-1β and IL-18 but not IL-6, IL-10 or MCP-1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Maslanik

    Full Text Available Regular interactions between commensal bacteria and the enteric mucosal immune environment are necessary for normal immunity. Alterations of the commensal bacterial communities or mucosal barrier can disrupt immune function. Chronic stress interferes with bacterial community structure (specifically, α-diversity and the integrity of the intestinal barrier. These interferences can contribute to chronic stress-induced increases in systemic IL-6 and TNF-α. Chronic stress, however, produces many physiological changes that could indirectly influence immune activity. In addition to IL-6 and TNF-α, exposure to acute stressors upregulates a plethora of inflammatory proteins, each having unique synthesis and release mechanisms. We therefore tested the hypothesis that acute stress-induced inflammatory protein responses are dependent on the commensal bacteria, and more specifically, lipopolysaccharide (LPS shed from Gram-negative intestinal commensal bacteria. We present evidence that both reducing commensal bacteria using antibiotics and neutralizing LPS using endotoxin inhibitor (EI attenuates increases in some (inflammasome dependent, IL-1 and IL-18, but not all (inflammasome independent, IL-6, IL-10, and MCP-1 inflammatory proteins in the blood of male F344 rats exposed to an acute tail shock stressor. Acute stress did not impact α- or β- diversity measured using 16S rRNA diversity analyses, but selectively reduced the relative abundance of Prevotella. These findings indicate that commensal bacteria contribute to acute stress-induced inflammatory protein responses, and support the presence of LPS-mediated signaling in stress-evoked cytokine and chemokine production. The selectivity of the commensal bacteria in stress-evoked IL-1β and IL-18 responses may implicate the inflammasome in this response.

  11. Interleukin (IL)-8 and IL-36γ but not IL-36Ra are related to acrosyringia in pustule formation associated with palmoplantar pustulosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoling, Y; Chao, W; Wenming, W; Feng, L; Hongzhong, J

    2018-06-12

    Palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) is a refractory, nonbacterial impetigo confined to the palms and soles. Its pathogenesis is still obscure, but it may be associated with the large eccrine sweat glands and pores of palmoplantar skin. PPP is considered to be a localized pustular psoriasis. Interleukin (IL)-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra play important roles in the pathogenesis of pustular psoriasis, but their role in PPP is unclear. To evaluate IL-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra expression in PPP, and their relationship with acrosyringia and pustule formation. mRNA expression was quantified in skin samples from patients with PPP (n = 7), patients with psoriasis vulgaris (PSV; n = 8) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 6) by reverse-transcription-real-time PCR. Protein expression was characterized by immunohistochemistry (PPP, n = 17; PSV, n = 14; HCs, n = 12). Sweat ducts, including acrosyringia, were stained for epithelial membrane antigen (EMA). IL-8 mRNA and protein were markedly increased in PPP lesions compared with PSV lesions or HC skin. IL-36γ mRNA and protein were significantly more abundant in PPP lesions than in HC skin. IL-36Ra mRNA was significantly overexpressed in PPP lesions compared with HC skin, but there was no difference in IL-36Ra protein between PPP, PSV and HCs. IL-8 was abundantly expressed by neutrophils in PPP pustules, while IL36Ra was localized in the keratinocytes of PPP, PSV and HC skin. IL-36γ and EMA were colocalized in cells surrounding PPP pustules, and IL-36γ was also expressed in sweat duct cells in the dermis. IL-8, IL-36γ and IL-36Ra are overexpressed in PPP lesions. IL-8, IL-36γ and acrosyringia, rather than IL-36Ra, are associated with pustule formation in PPP. © 2018 British Association of Dermatologists.

  12. Targeting the IL-17/IL-6 axis can alter growth of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia in vivo/in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fang; McCaw, Lindsay; Spaner, David E; Gorczynski, Reginald M

    2018-03-01

    The tumor microenvironment (TME) is critical to the longevity of tumor B cells in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). Bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) and the cytokines they produce including IL-6 are important components of the TME in CLL. We found BMMSCs supported the survival of CLL cells in vitro through an IL-6 dependent mechanism. IL-17 which induces IL-6 generation in a variety of cells increased production of IL-6 both in CLL cells and BMMSCs in vitro. In a xenograft CLL mouse model, BMMSCs and the culture supernatant of BMMSCs increased engraftment of CLL cells through an IL-6 mediated mechanism with human recombinant IL-6 showing similar effects in vivo. Human recombinant IL-17 treatment also increased CLL engraftment in mice through an IL-6 mediated mechanism. Plasma of CLL patients showed elevated levels of both IL-6 and IL-17 by ELISA compared with healthy controls, with levels of IL-6 linearly correlated with IL-17 levels. CLL patients requiring fludarabine based chemotherapy expressed higher levels of IL-6 and IL-17, while CLL patients with the lowest levels of IgA/IgM had higher levels of IL-6, but not IL-17. These data imply an important role for the IL-17/IL-6 axis in CLL which could be therapeutic targets. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Weathering of radiocaesium contamination on urban streets, walls and roofs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.; Fogh, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Recent investigations in Russia have emphasised the significance of dose contributions from contamination on urban streets and roof pavings, and, typically to a lesser extent, walls in the urban environment. The crucial factor determining the magnitude of these contributions is the retention of the contamination by the different types of urban surface. Since the Chernobyl accident, a series of long-term field studies has been carried out on urban streets, walls and roofs, to examine the weathering processes of 137 Cs on the various surface types. The derived time-functions are applied to estimate resultant long-term doses to inhabitants of an urban centre. The paper highlights the effect on caesium retention of surface material characteristics

  14. How to integrate street-level bureaucracies into public management?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Peter; Pedersen, John Storm

    the professionals in the public sector at the street-level such as social-workers, teachers, doctors, and other professionals have maintained autonomy regarding the provision, production and delivery of the specific core welfare services to the citizens as end users. By definition hard budget constraint...... and professionals´ autonomy do not fit well. To explore both theoretically and empirically the conflicts between hard budget constraint and professionals´ autonomy, the professionals´ provision, production and delivery of the services to the citizens with disability and socially disadvantaged people and the public...... management of the public spending on the services in Denmark is used as a case. Surprisingly, we find that the managers have been able to resolve the conflicts between the hard budget constraint and the professionals´ autonomy to a rather high degree. The managers have integrated the street...

  15. Indicators of benzene emissions and exposure in Bangkok street

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, S.T.; Laortanakul, Preecha

    2003-01-01

    Ambient benzene measurements were conducted for the first time at four air monitoring sites in the Bangkok metropolitan region (BMR), from January to December 2001. Analytical results show that the mean benzene concentrations range from 42.4 μg/m 3 at the Din Daeng urban site to 15.1 μg/m 3 at the Chaeng Wattana suburban site. The monitoring results show that at a larger distance from the roadside or a higher level from the street surface, the level of benzene decreases. Analysis of the ambient benzene concentrations was carried out with reference to meteorological influences and traffic density. In traffic analysis, the combined effects of street topography and traffic flows established high impact on the overall benzene concentration in Bangkok. Statistical analysis shows good correlations of blood benzene levels and trans, trans-muconic acid with ambient benzene and demonstrated substantial exposure from traffic

  16. Street floods in Metro Manila and possible solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagmay, Alfredo Mahar; Mendoza, Jerico; Cipriano, Fatima; Delmendo, Patricia Anne; Lacsamana, Micah Nieves; Moises, Marc Anthony; Pellejera, Nicanor; Punay, Kenneth Niño; Sabio, Glenn; Santos, Laurize; Serrano, Jonathan; Taniza, Herbert James; Tingin, Neil Eneri

    2017-09-01

    Urban floods from thunderstorms cause severe problems in Metro Manila due to road traffic. Using Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR)-derived topography, flood simulations and anecdotal reports, the root of surface flood problems in Metro Manila is identified. Majority of flood-prone areas are along the intersection of creeks and streets located in topographic lows. When creeks overflow or when rapidly accumulated street flood does not drain fast enough to the nearest stream channel, the intersecting road also gets flooded. Possible solutions include the elevation of roads or construction of well-designed drainage structures leading to the creeks. Proposed solutions to the flood problem of Metro Manila may avoid paralyzing traffic problems due to short-lived rain events, which according to Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) cost the Philippine economy 2.4billionpesos/day. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. The Tragedy of V.S. Naipaul's Miguel Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zanyar Kareem Abdul

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad (V.S. Naipaul was born in Trinidad in 1932. His works have been an enduring focus between rich and poor, colonizer and colonized. In The New York Review of Books, Naipaul has been called '”a master of English prose,” which indicates his weight in modern literature, especially in post colonialism. The paper depicts a dark area and tragedy in Miguel Street throughout the characters and their dialogues. Naipaul is famous for his sad-given-tonic moment in his novels. The paper also provides examples and explanations behind the tragedy of the novel and what the characters suffer from: misunderstanding, poverty, or losing humanity that no more communication works out. Miguel Street is a place where all the tragic moments happen in the novel. Each section of the story ends with sadness and disappointment.

  18. STREET KETAMINE-ASSOCIATED BLADDER DYSFUNCTION: AN EMERGING HEALTH PROBLEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEH GC

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ketamine is frequently abused nowadays as a recreational drug. Case reports are emerging since 2007 to describe a new clinical entity of severe bladder dysfunction associated with chronic abuse of street ketamine. Clinical presentation: Severe lower urinary tract symptoms of urinary frequency and urgency which are refractory to conventional treatment. Quality of life is adversely affected as a consequence. Chronic kidney disease will develop in advanced cases. Investigation findings: The urine is sterile on culture. Ultrasound will show reduced bladder capacity with thickened bladder wall. In advanced stage, hydronephrosis and renal impairment will develop. Treatment: Patients should be advised to stop street ketamine use immediately. Anticholinergic medication could be tried to alleviate the symptoms. Refractory cases with dilatation of the upper urinary tract might need urinary diversion. Conclusion: Awareness of this new condition is essential in diagnosis. Early intervention offers better treatment outcome.

  19. From charity to caring: Nightingale's experience at Harley Street.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selanders, Louise C; Lake, Karen; Crane, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    Florence Nightingale has been the subject of numerous biographies and topical studies since she became a public figure during the Crimean War of 1854-1856. However, both the biographical and the topical literature have given little emphasis to the fourteen months of Nightingale's superintendency at The Establishment for Gentlewomen During Illness located on Harley Street, London. Thematic analysis of primary documents including Nightingale's Quarterly Reports to the Governors of her Nursing Home and the recently identified found Minutes of the Ladies' Committee of the Establishment of Gentlewomen During Illness were utilized to identify specific themes considered essential to Nightingale's professional and philosophical development. Harley Street proved to be the catalyst of opportunity that later launched her into the public view as a visionary through which she was to develop nursing as a profession and promote nursing as a legitimate route for women's education and employment.

  20. IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10, and nutritional status in pediatric patients with biliary atresia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilasco, Maria Ines de Albuquerque; Uribe-Cruz, Carolina; Santetti, Daniele; Fries, Gabriel Rodrigo; Dornelles, Cristina Toscani Leal; Silveira, Themis Reverbel da

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate whether IL-6, TNF-α, IL-10 are associated with nutritional status in patients with cirrhosis secondary to biliary atresia and compare to healthy controls. The parameters used for nutritional assessment were the standard deviation scores of height-for-age and of triceps skinfold thickness-for-age. The severity of cirrhosis was evaluated using the Child-Pugh score and PELD/MELD. Serum cytokines were measured using Cytometric Bead Array flow cytometry. IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were significantly higher in the cirrhosis group when compared with the control group (2.4 vs. 0.24 (patresia, IL-6 could be used as a possible supporting biomarker of deficient nutritional status and elevated IL-10 levels could be used as a possible early-stage supporting biomarker of deteriorating nutritional status. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. The Network Analysis of Urban Streets: A Dual Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Porta, Sergio; Crucitti, Paolo; Latora, Vito

    2004-01-01

    The application of the network approach to the urban case poses several questions in terms of how to deal with metric distances, what kind of graph representation to use, what kind of measures to investigate, how to deepen the correlation between measures of the structure of the network and measures of the dynamics on the network, what are the possible contributions from the GIS community. In this paper, the authors addresses a study of six cases of urban street networks characterised by diff...

  2. City of San Francisco, California street tree resource analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; P.J. Peper; Q. Xiao

    2004-01-01

    Street trees in San Francisco are comprised of two distinct populations, those managed by the city’s Department of Public Works (DPW) and those managed by private property owners with or without the help of San Francisco’s urban forestry nonprofit, Friends of the Urban Forest (FUF). These two entities believe that the public’s investment in stewardship of San Francisco...

  3. LEAD: THE SILENT KILLER IN OUR FAVOURITE STREET FOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnajyoti

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Street vended foods are a very common consumable commodity across age and income groups. It covers a wide range of a variety of food items to suit every need, and are hugely popular all over the country. They can, however, contain toxic heavy metals, like lead, which can pose serious health hazards, including neuropathy, cardiovascular, renal as well as bone diseases. Source of lead can be various artificial food colorants used to increase the palatability of such food, and also automobile emission exhaust smoke that pollutes the street atmosphere, the very place where such food is prepared or kept ready to consume. Contamination with heavy metals is a serious threat because of their toxicity, bioaccumulation and bio magnifications in the food chain. This source of lead toxicity, however, is one aspect of the health hazards that has not been widely explored. The aim of this study is to increase awareness among general population, both consumers and vendors, regarding a very common but often overlooked source of heavy metal contamination. METHODOLOGY Lead was measured by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry after digestion of food with 98% Nitric acid. RESULTS This present study measures the level of lead in various commonly consumed street vended food items across the streets of Kolkata, India, and shows that the range of its level is much higher than the WHO recommended level of lead in food materials. The level also has close association with the food colorant used. In conclusion, the gross lack of awareness among the general population, both at the vendor and the consumer level, regarding this particular health hazard related to the food they consume on a regular basis, needs to be addressed as a serious issue, and personal safety measures should be undertaken.

  4. A simple model for calculating air pollution within street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venegas, Laura E.; Mazzeo, Nicolás A.; Dezzutti, Mariana C.

    2014-04-01

    This paper introduces the Semi-Empirical Urban Street (SEUS) model. SEUS is a simple mathematical model based on the scaling of air pollution concentration inside street canyons employing the emission rate, the width of the canyon, the dispersive velocity scale and the background concentration. Dispersive velocity scale depends on turbulent motions related to wind and traffic. The parameterisations of these turbulent motions include two dimensionless empirical parameters. Functional forms of these parameters have been obtained from full scale data measured in street canyons at four European cities. The sensitivity of SEUS model is studied analytically. Results show that relative errors in the evaluation of the two dimensionless empirical parameters have less influence on model uncertainties than uncertainties in other input variables. The model estimates NO2 concentrations using a simple photochemistry scheme. SEUS is applied to estimate NOx and NO2 hourly concentrations in an irregular and busy street canyon in the city of Buenos Aires. The statistical evaluation of results shows that there is a good agreement between estimated and observed hourly concentrations (e.g. fractional bias are -10.3% for NOx and +7.8% for NO2). The agreement between the estimated and observed values has also been analysed in terms of its dependence on wind speed and direction. The model shows a better performance for wind speeds >2 m s-1 than for lower wind speeds and for leeward situations than for others. No significant discrepancies have been found between the results of the proposed model and that of a widely used operational dispersion model (OSPM), both using the same input information.

  5. Masculinity in Majma: An Ethnography of Street Healing in Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Anam, Mujibul

    2010-01-01

    Based on empirical research in peri-urban areas in Dhaka, this thesis took the form of an anthropological enquiry into the forms of sexuality popularized by street-canvassers and their advertisement and sale of male potency medicines in Bangladesh. The field study raises as well as explores questions regarding male sexuality and sexual health problems. This study has demonstrated, using ethnographic data, one of the multiple ways in which males’ sexual health problems are being understood and...

  6. Ventilation Processes in a Three-Dimensional Street Canyon

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nosek, Štěpán; Kukačka, L.; Kellnerová, Radka; Jurčáková, Klára; Jaňour, Zbyněk

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 159, č. 2 (2016), s. 259-284 ISSN 0006-8314 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP101/12/1554; GA ČR GA15-18964S Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : Coherent structures * line source * pollution flux measurements * street canyon * wind tunnel Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 2.573, year: 2016

  7. LES of flow in the street canyon

    OpenAIRE

    Brechler Josef; Fuka Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Results of computer simulation of flow over a series of street canyons are presented in this paper. The setup is adapted from an experimental study by [4] with two different shapes of buildings. The problem is simulated by an LES model CLMM (Charles University Large Eddy Microscale Model) and results are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. The results in the channel (layout from the experiment) are compared with results with a free top boundary.

  8. LES of flow in the street canyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brechler Josef

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Results of computer simulation of flow over a series of street canyons are presented in this paper. The setup is adapted from an experimental study by [4] with two different shapes of buildings. The problem is simulated by an LES model CLMM (Charles University Large Eddy Microscale Model and results are analysed using proper orthogonal decomposition and spectral analysis. The results in the channel (layout from the experiment are compared with results with a free top boundary.

  9. Street Hawking: Oppressing the Girl Child or Family Economic Supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, Fatima M.

    2009-01-01

    Street hawking in its simplest form is the selling of things along the roads and from one place to the other. In Nigeria this is done almost all the time by young children both males and females. The girl hawkers come to the cities in groups and then go in different directions of the city to hawk their goods. They remain in the city from the early…

  10. Facility to evaluate street lightning solutionsin a realistic urban setting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jakob Munkgaard; Thorseth, Anders; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a new large scale outdoor testing facility for street lighting solutions, that has been establish in Denmark for both research and demonstration purposes. The facility is fitted with lamp posts with an array of sensors and connections to allow for monitoring and control...... of lighting solutions under test. Initial data suggests a 75% reduction in energy usage from use of LED luminaries combined with traffic monitoring systems could be achievable....

  11. Architecture and Art Regulations for Karl Marx Street

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Mironenko

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The architecture and art regulations for Karl Marx Street and adjoining territories have been worked out for the Committee for town planning of the Irkutsk city administration. Basic provisions: facades of buildings and structures, outdoor advertising and information facilities, artistic illumination of buildings, elements of land improvements. The main principle is to preserve historical appearance and to create a contemporary and comfortable environment.

  12. Benefits and costs of street trees in Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.L. Soares; F.C. Rego; E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; P.J. Peper; Q. Xiao

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that urban trees produce various types of benefits and costs. The computer tool i-Tree STRATUM helps quantify tree structure and function, as well as the value of some of these tree services in different municipalities. This study describes one of the first applications of STRATUM outside the U.S. Lisbon’s street trees are dominated by Celtis australis...

  13. Suicide and history of childhood trauma among street youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadland, Scott E; Marshall, Brandon D L; Kerr, Thomas; Qi, Jiezhi; Montaner, Julio S; Wood, Evan

    2012-02-01

    Street youth represent a marginalized population marked by early mortality and elevated risk for suicide. It is not known to what extent childhood abuse and neglect predispose to suicide in this difficult-to-study population. This study is among the first to examine the relationship between childhood trauma and subsequent attempted suicide during adolescence and young adulthood among street youth. From October 2005 to November 2007, data were collected for the At Risk Youth Study (ARYS), a cohort of 495 street-recruited youth aged 14-26 in Vancouver, Canada. Self-reported attempted suicide in the preceding six months was examined in relation to childhood abuse and neglect, as measured by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), using logistic regression. Overall, 46 (9.3%) youth reported a suicide attempt during the preceding six months. Childhood physical and sexual abuse were highly prevalent, with 201 (40.6%) and 131 (26.5%) of youth reporting history of each, respectively. Increasing CTQ score was related to risk for suicide attempt despite adjustment for confounders (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.45 per standard deviation increase in score; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.08-1.91). Use of snowball sampling may not have produced a truly random sample, and reliance on self-report may have resulted in underreporting of risk behaviors among participants. Moreover, use of cross-sectional data limits the degree to which temporality can be concluded from the results of this study alone. There exists a strong and graded association between childhood trauma and subsequent attempted suicide among street youth, an otherwise 'hidden' population. There is a need for effective interventions that not only prevent maltreatment of children but also aid youth at increased risk for suicide given prior history of trauma. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Il processo Andreotti. Il confine labile fra la partecipazione e il concorso esterno nei reati associativi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Intoccia

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Prendendo in esame un procedimento penale d’eccezione nel presente elaborato ci si propone di condurre uno studio sul diritto penale ‘in azione’ allo scopo di verificare i meccanismi di applicazione dei reati di associazione per delinquere ‘semplice’ (a. 416 c.p. e di tipo mafioso (a. 416 bis c.p.. La seguente analisi ricostruisce, infatti, l’intensa trafila giudiziaria che ha visto protagonista Giulio Andreotti – dal 4 marzo 1993 chiamato a rispondere, prima a titolo di concorrente esterno e successivamente in qualità di partecipe, dei due reati associativi sopra richiamati a fronte di un apparato accusatorio qualitativamente complesso e temporalmente imponente. Sarà in tal modo possibile verificare quanto possa essere labile, specie ove si discuta della condotta di fiancheggiamento di un soggetto politico ad un sodalizio di tipo mafioso (qui Cosa Nostra, il confine tra la fenomenologia partecipativa (nel ruolo di intraneus all’associazione e quella concorsuale eventuale (nel ruolo di cd. concorrente esterno nei delitti associativi di cui agli artt. 416 e 416 bis c.p. Parole chiave: Andreotti, Cosa Nostra, zona grigia, reati associativi, mala informazione   By examining an exceptional criminal proceeding in this paper we propose to conduct a study on criminal law ‘in action’ in order to verify the mechanisms of application of two associative offenses (‘simple’ criminal conspiracy and mafia-type criminal conspiracy. As a matter of fact the analysis reconstructs the intense trial about Giulio Andreotti’s working with Cosa Nostra – Andreotti, starting from March 4 1993, is accused of being at first an external competitor and subsequently a participant of Cosa Nostra in connection with a qualitatively complex accusatory apparatus. As a result of this analysis we come to ascertain how fleeting the boundary between the role of partecipant and external competitor in a criminal conspiracy can be, especially in case of

  15. Tra il mediterraneo e il fonte battesimale: Musulmani a Napoli nel XVI secolo

    OpenAIRE

    Varriale, Gennaro

    2013-01-01

    Il saggio analizza la presenza di musulmani a Napoli durante il Cinquecento, quando la capitale vive una profonda trasformazione urbanistica, che è vincolata alla immigrazione di comunità esogene e al conflitto contro il Turco. Le ostilità tra la Casa d’Austria e la Sublime Porta condizionano inevitabilmente la vita dei maomettani, che appartengono a tre grandi categorie: schiavi, franchi o esuli. Secondo la propria condizione gli islamici occupano diversi spazi cittadini. I musulmani di Napo...

  16. OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype, Phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Eric B.; Matthews, Greg D.; McNinch, Kevin; Poore, Barbara S.

    2011-01-01

    Phase One of the OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype (OSMCP) attempts to determine if the open source software developed for the OpenStreetMap (OSM, http://www.openstreetmap.org) can be used for data contributions and improvements that meet or exceed the requirements for integration into The National Map (http://www.nationalmap.gov). OpenStreetMap Collaborative Prototype Phase One focused on road data aggregated at the state level by the Kansas Data Access and Support Center (DASC). Road data from the DASC were loaded into a system hosted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Geospatial Technical Operations Center (NGTOC) in Rolla, Missouri. U.S. Geological Survey editing specifications were developed by NGTOC personnel (J. Walters and G. Matthews, USGS, unpub. report, 2010). Interstate and U.S. Highways in the dataset were edited to the specifications by NGTOC personnel while State roads were edited by DASC personnel. Resulting data were successfully improved to meet standards for The National Map once the system and specifications were in place. The OSM software proved effective in providing a usable platform for collaborative data editing

  17. Affordance-based individuation of junctions in Open Street Map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Scheider

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available We propose an algorithm that can be used to identify automatically the subset of street segments of a road network map that corresponds to a junction. The main idea is to use turn-compliant locomotion affordances, i.e., restricted patterns of supported movement, in order to specify junctions independently of their data representation, and in order to motivate tractable individuation and classification strategies. We argue that common approaches based solely on geometry or topology of the street segment graph are useful but insufficient proxies. They miss certain turn restrictions essential to junctions. From a computational viewpoint, the main challenge of affordance-based individuation of junctions lies in its complex recursive definition. In this paper, we show how Open Street Map data can be interpreted into locomotion affordances, and how the recursive junction definition can be translated into a deterministic algorithm. We evaluate this algorithm by applying it to small map excerpts in order to delineate the contained junctions.

  18. Street dance: form of expressing identity in adolescents and youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Petracovschi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to foreground the counterculture phenomenon that is provides the basis for street dance and the reasons why young people practise it, as well as to analyse the styles of dance developed within this type of dance. The study was made between February and May 2010 in Timişoara on a number of 149 people practising street dance, 46 girls and 103 boys. The results of the research emphasise that the dancers mainly come from an inferior social background (49.66% or from a middle-class background (46.03% and have been regularly practising breakdance (83.89% for more than five years (32.88%. The effects of practising it can be observed on an overall basis as concerns physical condition, artistic sense, self knowledge, discipline but also culture and way of life. Conclusions show that people practise street dance due to its nonconformist and all alive style that continuously makes use of new moves, new trends but also due to it being a way of socialising within a group.

  19. Formation and interference of two pairs of vortex streets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamemoto, Kyoji

    1976-01-01

    A series of theoretical analysis were made on the mechanism of the formation and interference of two pairs of vortex streets appearing behind a pair of two long bars placed perpendicularly to uniform flow. In the first part, the flow model used for this study is explained. It was assumed that two pairs of vortex sheets having the same interval (h) were placed at the distance of g in non-viscous flow. Then small disturbance was given to the flow, and the behavior of the vortex sheets in course of time was analyzed by solving a set of linear simultaneous differential equations. Eight fundamental modes of small displacement were obtained as the independent solutions of the equations. The fundamental modes and the associated parameters are presented. In the second part, a set of non-linear differential equations were derived by substituting the vortex sheets with vortex streets with finite intensity. The set of equations were solved numerically. The results of numerical solutions for various conditions are presented. Main conclusions drawn from this study are that the condition of the existence of two pairs of vortex sheets is g/h >= 1, and that the mutual interference between two pairs of vortex streets becomes conspicuous for g/h <= 2. Some discussions made by other researchers and the author are also presented at the end of this paper. (Aoki, K.)

  20. Attitudes of business people to proposed smokefree shopping streets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vimal; Thomson, George; Wilson, Nick

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the attitudes of business people toward a possible smokefree policy along a route of major shopping streets, the "Golden Mile" (GM) in central Wellington, New Zealand. Businesses on the GM (n = 303) were visited in June-July 2011. Either the owner or manager from each business was surveyed. A response rate of 65.6% (n = 198) was achieved, with 13.3% declining to participate, and further contact not being productive for 21.2%. Support for making the GM smokefree was 43.4% (95% CI = 36.7%-50.4%), with the remainder opposed. There was significantly higher support among business people who were nonsmokers versus smokers (relative risk = 2.95; 95% CI = 1.48-5.89). Overall, 83.3% (95% CI = 77.0%-88.0%) of respondents stated that a smokefree GM would have either a positive or negligible impact on their business (nonconcern), compared with a negative impact (at 16.7%). Nonconcern about the business impact of a smokefree GM was significantly greater for nonfood businesses (89.9%) versus food businesses (64.0%; p business people may reflect the negligible promotion of the idea in this setting. Nevertheless, the likely business impact of a smokefree streets policy was not a concern for the large majority of these business people, so this may not be a significant barrier to policy development. This type of study can contribute to the process for developing smokefree streets and other outdoor areas, by gauging sector support.

  1. Energy-saving approaches to solid state street lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitta, Pranciškus; Stanikūnas, Rytis; Tuzikas, Arūnas; Reklaitis, Ignas; Stonkus, Andrius; Petrulis, Andrius; Vaitkevičius, Henrikas; Žukauskas, Artūras

    2011-10-01

    We consider the energy-saving potential of solid-state street lighting due to improved visual performance, weather sensitive luminance control and tracking of pedestrians and vehicles. A psychophysical experiment on the measurement of reaction time with a decision making task was performed under mesopic levels of illumination provided by a highpressure sodium (HPS) lamp and different solid-state light sources, such as daylight and warm-white phosphor converted light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and red-green-blue LED clusters. The results of the experiment imply that photopic luminances of road surface provided by solid-state light sources with an optimized spectral power distribution might be up to twice as low as those provided by the HPS lamp. Dynamical correction of road luminance against road surface conditions typical of Lithuanian climate was estimated to save about 20% of energy in comparison with constant-level illumination. The estimated energy savings due to the tracking of pedestrians and vehicles amount at least 25% with the cumulative effect of intelligent control of at least 40%. A solid-state street lighting system with intelligent control was demonstrated using a 300 m long test ground consisting of 10 solid-state street luminaires, a meteorological station and microwave motion sensor network operated via power line communication.

  2. Aspirin induces IL-4 production: augmented IL-4 production in aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Su-Kang; Soo Kim, Byung; Gi Uhm, Tae; Soo Chang, Hun; Sook Park, Jong; Woo Park, Sung; Park, Choon-Sik; Chung, Il Yup

    2016-01-01

    Aspirin hypersensitivity is a hallmark of aspirin-exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD), a clinical syndrome characterized by the severe inflammation of the respiratory tract after ingestion of cyclooxygenase-1 inhibitors. We investigated the capacity of aspirin to induce interleukin-4 (IL-4) production in inflammatory cells relevant to AERD pathogenesis and examined the associated biochemical and molecular pathways. We also compared IL-4 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with AERD vs aspirin-tolerant asthma (ATA) upon exposure to aspirin. Aspirin induced IL-4 expression and activated the IL-4 promoter in a report assay. The capacity of aspirin to induce IL-4 expression correlated with its activity to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases, to form DNA–protein complexes on P elements in the IL-4 promoter and to synthesize nuclear factor of activated T cells, critical transcription factors for IL-4 transcription. Of clinical importance, aspirin upregulated IL-4 production twice as much in PBMCs from patients with AERD compared with PBMCs from patients with ATA. Our results suggest that IL-4 is an inflammatory component mediating intolerance reactions to aspirin, and thus is crucial for AERD pathogenesis. PMID:27534531

  3. IL-15/IL-15 receptor biology: a guided tour through an expanding universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budagian, Vadim; Bulanova, Elena; Paus, Ralf; Bulfone-Paus, Silvia

    2006-08-01

    The cytokine interleukin-15 (IL-15) has a key role in promoting survival, proliferation and activation of natural killer (NK) and CD8+ T cells. Despite its functional similarities to IL-2, IL-15 affects a wider range of target cell populations and utilizes different mechanisms of signaling. Here, we review recent advances in the IL-15-mediated signaling, and in the functional properties on cells besides T lymphocytes and NK cells. These are discussed in the context of their potential clinical and therapeutic relevance.

  4. Individuals with severely impaired vision can learn useful orientation and mobility skills in virtual streets and can use them to improve real street safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Ellen Lambert; Liu, Lei

    2017-01-01

    Virtual reality has great potential in training road safety skills to individuals with low vision but the feasibility of such training has not been demonstrated. We tested the hypotheses that low vision individuals could learn useful skills in virtual streets and could apply them to improve real street safety. Twelve participants, whose vision was too poor to use the pedestrian signals were taught by a certified orientation and mobility specialist to determine the safest time to cross the street using the visual and auditory signals made by the start of previously stopped cars at a traffic-light controlled street intersection. Four participants were trained in real streets and eight in virtual streets presented on 3 projection screens. The crossing timing of all participants was evaluated in real streets before and after training. The participants were instructed to say "GO" at the time when they felt the safest to cross the street. A safety score was derived to quantify the GO calls based on its occurrence in the pedestrian phase (when the pedestrian sign did not show DON'T WALK). Before training, > 50% of the GO calls from all participants fell in the DON'T WALK phase of the traffic cycle and thus were totally unsafe. 20% of the GO calls fell in the latter half of the pedestrian phase. These calls were unsafe because one initiated crossing this late might not have sufficient time to walk across the street. After training, 90% of the GO calls fell in the early half of the pedestrian phase. These calls were safer because one initiated crossing in the pedestrian phase and had at least half of the pedestrian phase for walking across. Similar safety changes occurred in both virtual street and real street trained participants. An ANOVA showed a significant increase of the safety scores after training and there was no difference in this safety improvement between the virtual street and real street trained participants. This study demonstrated that virtual reality

  5. Trees as environmental modifier to improve street canyon for pedestrian activities in Muscat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khudhayer, Wael A.; Shaaban, Awni K.; Sukor, Nur Sabahiah Abdul

    2017-10-01

    Street shading efficiency is a function of orientation and profile proportion of its height to width. Under high sun altitude conditions, minimization of solar irradiance within the urban environment may often be a significant criterion in urban design. This reduction in solar irradiance achieved when the obstruction angle is large (high H/W ratio, H=height, W=width). High H/W values often lessen the solar access to streets. The horizontal sprawl of Muscat region is an example of low H/W ratio represented the remarkable challenge that causes the lack of shading rates in the urban street. This characteristic proliferates the negative impact on the pedestrian activities in the urban street. This research aims to improve the morphology of the street to promote the pedestrian behavior. The amendment based on suggesting different configurations of trees to increase effective shading of the urban street in Muscat. The street canyon abstracted into a virtual elongated channel formed of floor and walls of equal heights on both sides. Four street orientations (E/W, N/S, NE/SW, NW/SE) and three H/W ratio (0.5,1 and 2) are considered sufficient representative of street typologies. A mathematical model developed for calculation of shading efficiency of each street canyon. The trees assumed in this study as canyon's modifier to adjust the low H/W ratio of a street canyon to a higher one. Local trees and other plants in Muscat were studied concerning their morphology. The analysis selected two case study in Muscat to investigate the shading performance of their street canyons subsequently propose the modifications to improve it. The research concluded that the suggested changes of the street canyon by using a particular type of trees could increase the H/W ratio of street canyon significantly.

  6. Profile of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN- ? , TNF- ? and KC-like cytokines in pregnant bitches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.R. Feliciano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the profile of IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IFN-γ, and TNF-α cytokines and KC-like cells (natural killer in pregnant bitches, unpublished values for the species. A total of 27 females of the Shi Tzu, Pug, English Bulldog and French breeds, weighing 4-20kg and aged 4-6 years were used. Blood samples were collected from bitches during the anestrous and on the 2nd, 5th, 6th, 7th and 8th week of pregnancy. Serum levels of cytokines were measured by panel MILLIPLEX MAP (CCYTO-90K, MILLIPORE, Billerica, Massachusetts, USA validated for dogs. Twenty four females showed physiological pregnancy and three bitches showed pathological pregnancy. There was no difference between cytokine values during anestrous and gestational weeks of bitches (P>0.05. However, it was possible to verify the physiological behavior of serum levels during modulation of immune response in the gestational process of animals. In animals with gestational disorders, abnormal values for IL-2, IL-4 and INF-y were noted. It was concluded that serum levels of cytokines evaluated in pregnant bitches can help the better understanding of physiological and pathological gestational processes and correlated immunology in this species.

  7. Asessing the air pollution distribution in busy street of Copenhagen in the further development of a street pollution model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertel, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Poulsen, Maria B.

    The EU Air Quality Directive requires Member States to perform Air Quality Monitoring in order to assess ambient air quality for compliance checking with air quality limit values (http://eur-lex.europa.eu/LexUriServ/LexUriServ.do?uri=OJ:L:2008:152:0001:0044:en:PDF). This monitoring needs to include......) developed at AU; the revised version OSPM includes new features like inhomogeneous distribution of the traffic on different lanes, slope of the street etc (see e.g. Ottosen et al. (2015)). An additional goal for the project is to explore the applicability of low-cost electrochemical sensors for describing...... to get more detailed information about the traffic flow and its diurnal pattern, manual traffic counts have been performed over 24 hours. In addition a video camera has been installed on the roof of a building next to the street during the monitoring campaign. Measurements are carried out using passive...

  8. Clinical significance of changes of serum gas, IL-6 and IL-10 levels after treatment in patients with peptic ulcer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Yuexian

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore the clinical significance of changes of serum Gas, Interleukin-6(IL-6) and Interleukin-10(IL-10) levels in patients with peptic ulcer. Methods: Serum Gas, IL-6 and IL-10 (with RIA) levels were determined in 61 patients with peptic ulcer both before and after treatment as well as in 35 controls. Results: Before treatment the serum Gas, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were significantly higher in the patients with peptic ulcer than those in controls (P 0.05). Conclusion: Serum Gas, IL-6 and IL-10 levels were closely related to the diseases process of peptic ulcer and were of prognostic values. (authors)

  9. Do changes to the local street environment alter behaviour and quality of life of older adults? The 'DIY Streets' intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward Thompson, Catharine; Curl, Angela; Aspinall, Peter; Alves, Susana; Zuin, Affonso

    2014-07-01

    The burden of ill-health due to inactivity has recently been highlighted. Better studies on environments that support physical activity are called for, including longitudinal studies of environmental interventions. A programme of residential street improvements in the UK (Sustrans 'DIY Streets') allowed a rare opportunity for a prospective, longitudinal study of the effect of such changes on older adults' activities, health and quality of life. Pre-post, cross-sectional surveys were carried out in locations across England, Wales and Scotland; participants were aged 65+ living in intervention or comparison streets. A questionnaire covered health and quality of life, frequency of outdoor trips, time outdoors in different activities and a 38-item scale on neighbourhood open space. A cohort study explored changes in self-report activity and well-being postintervention. Activity levels were also measured by accelerometer and accompanying diary records. The cross-sectional surveys showed outdoor activity predicted by having a clean, nuisance-free local park, attractive, barrier-free routes to it and other natural environments nearby. Being able to park one's car outside the house also predicted time outdoors. The environmental changes had an impact on perceptions of street walkability and safety at night, but not on overall activity levels, health or quality of life. Participants' moderate-to-vigorous activity levels rarely met UK health recommendations. Our study contributes to methodology in a longitudinal, pre-post design and points to factors in the built environment that support active ageing. We include an example of knowledge exchange guidance on age-friendly built environments for policy-makers and planners. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  10. An investigation on the effect of street morphology to ambient air quality using six real-world cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jialei; Gao, Zhi; Ding, Wowo; Yu, Ying

    2017-09-01

    Street canyons are vulnerable to air pollution mainly caused by vehicle emissions, which are therefore closely related to pedestrians' health. Previous studies have showed that air quality in street canyons is associated with street morphology, though the majority of them have focused on idealized street models. This paper attempts to investigate the relationship of street morphology to air quality for 6 irregular real-world cases selected from America, Europe, and China, i.e. Manhattan, Paris, Barcelona, Berlin, London and Nanjing. Each street is analyzed as a set of slices to propose a couple of morphology indices for quantitatively assessing the actual street morphology. Pollutant transport rate of mean flows and turbulent diffusion, net escape velocity and age of air are obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to assess the ventilations and pollutant dispersion within street canyons with a parallel approaching wind. The results show that the street morphology characteristics, including the street width, lateral openings and intersections, are closely related to the air flows in street canyons. The air quality improves with a decreasing aspect ratio of central street owing to a larger vertical exchange through the street roof, which suggests an open central street is of better air quality. The lateral openings and intersections of streets have important effects on the air flows in street canyons, and the effects are particularly pronounced when the street widths are similar. The street continuity ratio indicates street continuity. It relates to the openings and the symmetry of a street and impacts on the air flows and pollutant dispersion through the lateral openings of the central street. The street spatial closure ratio is determined by the street continuity ratio and the aspect ratio of the central street. When the aspect ratio of central street is not excessively high, higher values of street continuity ratio and spatial closure ratio

  11. Modulation of pulmonary fibrosis by IL-13Rα2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumsden, Robert V; Worrell, Julie C; Boylan, Denise; Walsh, Sinead M; Cramton, Jennifer; Counihan, Ian; O'Beirne, Sarah; Medina, Maria Fe; Gauldie, Jack; Fabre, Aurelie; Donnelly, Seamas C; Kane, Rosemary; Keane, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive and fatal disease that involves the remodeling of the distal airspace and the lung parenchyma, which results in compromised gas exchange. The median survival time once diagnosed is less than three years. Interleukin (IL)-13 has been shown to play a role in a number of inflammatory and fibrotic diseases. IL-13 modulates its effector functions via a complex receptor system that includes the IL-4 receptor (R) α, IL-13Rα1, and the IL-13Rα2. IL-13Rα1 binds IL-13 with low affinity, yet, when it forms a complex with IL-4α, it binds with much higher affinity, inducing the effector functions of IL-13. IL-13Rα2 binds IL-13 with high affinity but has a short cytoplasmic tail and has been shown to act as a nonsignaling decoy receptor. Transfection of fibroblasts and epithelial cells with IL-13Rα2 inhibited the IL-13 induction of soluble collagen, TGF-β, and CCL17. Adenoviral overexpression of IL-13Rα2 in the lung reduced bleomycin-induced fibrosis. Our work shows that overexpression of IL-13Rα2 inhibits the IL-13 induction of fibrotic markers in vitro and inhibits bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. In summary our study highlights the antifibrotic nature of IL-13Ra2. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Three-Dimensional Conformal Radiotherapy in Prostate Cancer Patients: Rise in Interleukin 6 (IL-6) but not IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira Lopes, Carlos [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Centro de Oncologia Radioterapica do Vale do Paraiba, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba Instituto de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento, Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Callera, Fernando, E-mail: fcallera@gmail.com [Centro de Hematologia Onco-hematologia e Transplantes de Medula Ossea do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-03-15

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of radiotherapy (RT) on serum levels of interleukin-2 (IL-2), IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-{alpha}), macrophage inflammatory protein-1-alpha (MIP-1-{alpha}) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in patients with prostate cancer. Methods and Materials: Forty eight patients with prostate cancer received three-dimensional conformal blocking radiation therapy with a linear accelerator. IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were measured by the related immunoassay kit 1 day before the beginning of RT and during RT at days 15 and 30. Results: The mean IL-2 values were elevated before and during the RT in contrast with those of IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, which were within the normal range under the same conditions. Regarding markers IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF, comparisons among the three groups (before treatment and 15 and 30 days during RT) did not show significant differences. Although values were within the normal range, there was a significant rise in IL-6 levels at day 15 of RT (p = 0.0049) and a decline at day 30 to levels that were similar to those observed before RT. Conclusions: IL-6 appeared to peak after 15 days of RT before returning to pre-RT levels. In contrast, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, TNF-{alpha}, MIP-1-{alpha}, and LIF levels were not sensitive to irradiation. The increased levels of IL-6 following RT without the concurrent elevation of other cytokines involved in the acute phase reaction did not suggest a classical inflammatory response to radiation exposure. Further studies should be designed to elucidate the role of IL-6 levels in patients with prostate cancer treated with RT.

  13. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logsdon, Naomi J.; Allen, Christopher E.; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Walter, Mark R. (Cornell); (UAB)

    2012-02-08

    Interleukin-20 (IL-20) is an IL-10-family cytokine that regulates innate and adaptive immunity in skin and other tissues. In addition to protecting the host from various external pathogens, dysregulated IL-20 signaling has been shown to contribute to the pathogenesis of human psoriasis. IL-20 signals through two cell-surface receptor heterodimers, IL-20R1-IL-20R2 and IL-22R1-IL-20R2. In this report, crystals of the IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 ternary complex have been grown from polyethylene glycol solutions. The crystals belonged to space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2 or P4{sub 3}2{sub 1}2, with unit-cell parameters a = 111, c = 135 {angstrom}, and diffracted X-rays to 3 {angstrom} resolution. The crystallographic asymmetric unit contains one IL-20-IL-20R1-IL-20R2 complex, corresponding to a solvent content of approximately 54%.

  14. Endogenous IL-1 in cognitive function and anxiety: a study in IL-1RI-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L Murray

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, produced predominantly by peripheral immune cells but also by glia and some neuronal populations within the brain. Its signalling is mediated via the binding of IL-1α or IL-1β to the interleukin-1 type one receptor (IL-1RI. IL-1 plays a key role in inflammation-induced sickness behaviour, resulting in depressed locomotor activity, decreased exploration, reduced food and water intake and acute cognitive deficits. Conversely, IL-1 has also been suggested to facilitate hippocampal-dependent learning and memory: IL-1RI(-/- mice have been reported to show deficits on tasks of visuospatial learning and memory. We sought to investigate whether there is a generalised hippocampal deficit in IL-1RI(-/- animals. Therefore, in the current study we compared wildtype (WT mice to IL-1RI(-/- mice using a variety of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, as well as tests of anxiety and locomotor activity. We found no difference in performance of the IL-1RI(-/- mice compared to WT mice in a T-maze working memory task. In addition, the IL-1RI(-/- mice showed normal learning in various spatial reference memory tasks including the Y-maze and Morris mater maze, although there was a subtle deficit in choice behaviour in a spatial discrimination, beacon watermaze task. IL-1RI(-/- mice also showed normal memory for visuospatial context in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. In the open field, IL-1RI(-/- mice showed a significant increase in distance travelled and rearing behaviour compared to the WT mice and in the elevated plus-maze spent more time in the open arms than did the WT animals. The data suggest that, contrary to prior studies, IL-1RI(-/- mice are not robustly impaired on hippocampal-dependent memory and learning but do display open field hyperactivity and decreased anxiety compared to WT mice. The results argue for a careful evaluation of the roles of endogenous IL-1 in hippocampal

  15. Andrographolide presents therapeutic effect on ulcerative colitis through the inhibition of IL-23/IL-17 axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qin; Zheng, Peifen; Chen, Xinyu; Zhou, Feng; He, Qiaona; Yang, Yuefeng

    2018-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic and nonspecific intestinal inflammatory disease, which may increase the risk of colon cancer. Andrographolide is a main active component of Andrographis paniculata . The anti-inflammatory ability of andrographolide suggested its potential therapeutic effect against UC. In the present study, elevated serum concentrations of proinflammatory factors, including (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and IL-23, as well as increased percentages of Th17 cells (IL-17+CD4+ cells) in CD4+ cells were detected in UC patients compared to that in healthy donors. These data suggested that Th17 immune responses may involve in the pathogenesis of UC. Experimental colitis mouse model was then established. The results of hematoxylin and eosin staining demonstrated the therapeutic effect of andrographolide on colitis. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), flow cytometry and western blotting analyses showed that andrographolide could decreased the levels of proinflammatory factors TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17A in the serum and in the colon tissues, reduced the percentages of Th17 cells in CD4+ cells, and suppressed the levels of IL-23, IL-17A, ROR-γt (key transcription factor of Th17 cells) and p-STAT3 in the colon tissues. Further, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from UC patients and treated with various concentrations of andrographolide (0, 10, 20 and 30 μg/ml). Andrographolide also showed inhibitory effects on the levels of proinflammatory factors, the percentages of Th17 cells and the expression of relative proteins. Similar results were obtained in lipopolysaccharide-treated normal PBMCs. These data suggested that andrographolide may inhibit Th17 immune response via STAT3 signaling. In conclusion, we demonstrated that andrographolide inhibited the activity of IL-23/IL-17 axis and down-stream pro-inflammatory factors so as to suppress inflammation response, resulting in the relieving of UC.

  16. A Brief History of IL-1 and IL-1 Ra in Rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Michel Dayer

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The history of what, in 1979, was called interleukin-1 (IL-1, orchestrator of leukocyte inter-communication, began many years before then, initially by the observation of fever induction via the endogenous pyrogen (EP (1974 and then in rheumatology on the role in tissue destruction in rheumatoid diseases via the induction of collagenase and PGE2 in human synovial cells by a mononuclear cell factor (MCF (1977. Since then, the family has exploded to presently 11 members as well as many membrane-bound and soluble receptor forms. The discovery of a natural Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra in human biological fluids has highlighted the importance of IL-1 and IL-1Ra in human diseases. Evidence delineating its role in autoinflammatory syndromes and the elucidation of the macromolecular complex referred to as “inflammasome” have been instrumental to our understanding of the link with IL-1. At present, the IL-1blockade as therapeutic approach is crucial for many hereditary autoinflammatory diseases, as well as for adult-onset Still’s disease, crystal-induced arthropathies, certain skin diseases including neutrophil-triggered skin diseases, Behçet’s disease and deficiency of IL-1Ra and other rare fever syndromes. Its role is only marginally important in rheumatoid arthritis and is still under debate with regard to osteoarthritis, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. This brief historical review focuses on some aspects of IL-1, mainly IL-1β and IL-Ra, in rheumatology. There are many excellent reviews focusing on the IL-1 family in general or with regard to specific diseases or biological discoveries.

  17. Increased Circulating Th17 Cells, Serum IL-17A, and IL-23 in Takayasu Arteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Durga Prasanna; Chaurasia, Smriti; Misra, Ramnath

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Th17, γδT, NK, and NKT cells in peripheral blood and serum IL-17 and IL-23 in Takayasu arteritis (TA) were measured and correlated with disease activity. Methods. Th17 (anti-CD3APC, CD4PECy7, and IL-17PE), NKT, NK (anti-CD3APC, CD56FITC), and γδT (anti-CD3FITC and γδTCRAPC) cells were enumerated by flow cytometry in peripheral blood of 30 patients with TA (ACR1990 criteria) and 20 healthy controls, serum IL-17 and IL-23 measured by ELISA. Relation with disease activity (NIH criteria, ITAS2010) was analyzed (using nonparametric tests, median with interquartile range). Results. Mean age of patients was 33.47 ± 11.78 years (25 females); mean symptom duration was 7.1 ± 5.3 years. 13 were not on immunosuppressants; 12 were active (ITAS2010 ≥ 4). The percentage of Th17 cells was significantly expanded in TA (patients 2.1 (1.5-3.2) versus controls 0.75 (0.32-1.2); p < 0.0001) with no differences in other cell populations. Serum IL-17 and IL-23 (pg/mL) in patients (6.2 (4.6-8.5) and 15 (14.9-26.5), resp.) were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than controls (3.9 (3.9-7.3) and undetectable median value, resp.). Subgroup analysis revealed no correlation of Th17 cells, serum IL-17, and IL-23 with disease activity or medications, nor any significant difference before and after medication. Conclusions. There is significant expansion of Th17 cells and elevated serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels in TA patients compared to healthy controls.

  18. Wind-induced single-sided natural ventilation in buildings near a long street canyon: CFD evaluation of street configuration and envelope design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ai, Z.T.; Mak, C.M.

    2018-01-01

    an urban context, this study investigates the wind-induced single-sided natural ventilation in buildings near a long street canyon under a perpendicular wind direction using CFD method. Four aspect ratios (AR) of the street canyon, from 1.0, 2.0, 4.0 to 6.0, are investigated to examine the influence...

  19. The street school Srikandi as an empowerment model of humane education for the street girls of non halfway house in Surabaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyowati, RRN; Yani, MT; Imron, A.

    2018-01-01

    The street children have not had a solid emotional mental, however they must deal into the life of street that harsh, competitive and tend to affect negatively for their personality development. Their where abouts on the street is not motivated by family economic factor only, but it is also influenced by the disharmony of role and function of family rules and social environment influences. The street children empowerment that had been conducted by the halfway house does not run effectively. This research was aimed to identify problems faced by the street girls, to describe the efforts to overcome the problems faced by the street girls, and also developing the empowerment model for the street girls in Surabaya who do not stay in the halfway house. This research used qualitative method. The problems are often experienced by the street girls, for instance violence. Besides, imitative behavior arises as a respond towards behavior that happened to them. The parents also play role in the process of social control. The empowerment model that is designed is the educational empowerment through revitalization of family rules. Moreover, life skills education has to be strengthened to improve the welfare standard of living.

  20. Characteristics Of Street Children In Cameroon: A Situational Analysis Of Demographic, Socio-Economic And Behavioural Profiles And Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel N. Cumber

    2016-11-01

    Conclusion: As children roam the streets in search of shelter, food and other basic needs, their future hangs in the balance. Understanding the plight of street children highlights the need for immediate design and implementation of intervention strategies to prevent children from living in the streets and assist those who have become street children.

  1. Construction of an expression system for bioactive IL-18 and generation of recombinant canine distemper virus expressing IL-18.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yuxiu; Sato, Hiroki; Hamana, Masahiro; Moonan, Navita Anisia; Yoneda, Misako; Xia, Xianzhu; Kai, Chieko

    2014-09-01

    Interleukin 18 (IL-18) plays an important role in the T-helper-cell type 1 immune response against intracellular parasites, bacteria and viral infections. It has been widely used as an adjuvant for vaccines and as an anticancer agent. However, IL-18 protein lacks a typical signal sequence and requires cleavage into its mature active form by caspase 1. In this study, we constructed mammalian expression vectors carrying cDNA encoding mature canine IL-18 (cIL-18) or mouse IL-18 (mIL-18) fused to the human IL-2 (hIL-2) signal sequence. The expressed proIL-18 proteins were processed to their mature forms in the cells. The supernatants of cells transfected with these plasmids induced high interferon-γ production in canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells or mouse splenocytes, respectively, indicating the secretion of bioactive IL-18. Using reverse genetics, we also generated a recombinant canine distemper virus that expresses cIL-18 or mIL-18 fused to the hIL-2 signal sequence. As expected, both recombinant viruses produced mature IL-18 in the infected cells, which secreted bioactive IL-18. These results indicate that the signal sequence from hIL-2 is suitable for the secretion of mature IL-18. These recombinant viruses can also potentially be used as immunoadjuvants and agents for anticancer therapies in vivo.

  2. IL-7 Induces an Epitope Masking of γc Protein in IL-7 Receptor Signaling Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae Sik Goh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available IL-7 signaling via IL-7Rα and common γ-chain (γc is necessary for the development and homeostasis of T cells. Although the delicate mechanism in which IL-7Rα downregulation allows the homeostasis of T cell with limited IL-7 has been well known, the exact mechanism behind the interaction between IL-7Rα and γc in the absence or presence of IL-7 remains unclear. Additionally, we are still uncertain as to how only IL-7Rα is separately downregulated by the binding of IL-7 from the IL-7Rα/γc complex. We demonstrate here that 4G3, TUGm2, and 3E12 epitope masking of γc protein are induced in the presence of IL-7, indicating that the epitope alteration is induced by IL-7 binding to the preassembled receptor core. Moreover, the epitope masking of γc protein is inversely correlated with the expression of IL-7Rα upon IL-7 binding, implying that the structural alteration of γc might be involved in the regulation of IL-7Rα expression. The conformational change in γc upon IL-7 binding may contribute not only to forming the functional IL-7 signaling complex but also to optimally regulating the expression of IL-7Rα.

  3. IL-7 Induces an Epitope Masking of γc Protein in IL-7 Receptor Signaling Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Tae Sik; Jo, Yuna; Lee, Byunghyuk; Kim, Geona; Hwang, Hyunju; Ko, Eunhee; Kang, Seung Wan; Oh, Sae-Ock; Baek, Sun-Yong; Yoon, Sik; Lee, Jung Sub

    2017-01-01

    IL-7 signaling via IL-7Rα and common γ-chain (γc) is necessary for the development and homeostasis of T cells. Although the delicate mechanism in which IL-7Rα downregulation allows the homeostasis of T cell with limited IL-7 has been well known, the exact mechanism behind the interaction between IL-7Rα and γc in the absence or presence of IL-7 remains unclear. Additionally, we are still uncertain as to how only IL-7Rα is separately downregulated by the binding of IL-7 from the IL-7Rα/γc complex. We demonstrate here that 4G3, TUGm2, and 3E12 epitope masking of γc protein are induced in the presence of IL-7, indicating that the epitope alteration is induced by IL-7 binding to the preassembled receptor core. Moreover, the epitope masking of γc protein is inversely correlated with the expression of IL-7Rα upon IL-7 binding, implying that the structural alteration of γc might be involved in the regulation of IL-7Rα expression. The conformational change in γc upon IL-7 binding may contribute not only to forming the functional IL-7 signaling complex but also to optimally regulating the expression of IL-7Rα. PMID:28127156

  4. Lacrimal gland-derived IL-22 regulates IL-17-mediated ocular mucosal inflammation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yong Woo; Mittal, Sharad K.; Hwang, Ho Sik; Chang, Eun-Ju; Lee, Joon H.; Seo, Yuri; Yeo, Areum; Noh, Hyemi; Lee, Hye Sun; Chauhan, Sunil K.; Lee, Hyung Keun

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory damage of mucosal surface of the eye is a hallmark of dry eye disease (DED), and in severe cases can lead to significant discomfort, visual impairment, and blindness. DED is a multifactorial autoimmune disorder with a largely unknown pathogenesis. Using a cross-sectional patient study and a well-characterized murine model of DED, herein we investigated the immunoregulatory function of interleukin-22 (IL-22) in the pathogenesis of DED. We found that IL-22 levels were elevated in lacrimal fluids of DED patients and inversely correlated with severity of disease. Acinar cells of the lacrimal glands, not inflammatory immune cells, are the primary source of IL-22, which suppresses inflammation in ocular surface epithelial cells upon desiccating stress. Moreover, loss of function analyses using IL-22 knock-out mice demonstrated that IL-22 is essential for suppression of ocular surface infiltration of Th17 cells and inhibition of DED induction. Our novel findings elucidate immunoregulatory function of lacrimal gland-derived IL-22 in inhibiting IL-17-mediated ocular surface epitheliopathy in DED thus making IL-22 a new relevant therapeutic target. PMID:28051088

  5. Genetic variants in the region harbouring IL2/IL21 associated with ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, E. A. M.; Goyette, P.; Scott, R.; Annese, V.; Zhernakova, A.; Lian, J.; Lefebvre, C.; Brant, S. R.; Cho, J. H.; Silverberg, M. S.; Taylor, K. D.; de Jong, D. J.; Stokkers, P. C.; Mcgovern, D.; Palmieri, O.; Achkar, J-P; Xavier, R. J.; Daly, M. J.; Duerr, R. H.; Wijmenga, C.; Weersma, R. K.; Rioux, J. D.

    Objectives: Genetic susceptibility is known to play a large part in the predisposition to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) known as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The IL2/IL21 locus on 4q27 is known to be a common risk locus for inflammatory disease (shown in coeliac

  6. Genetic variants in the region harbouring IL2/IL21 associated with ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, E.A.M.; Goyette, P.; Scott, R.; Annese, V.; Zhernakova, A.; Lian, J.; Lefèbvre, C.; Brant, S.R.; Cho, J.H.; Silverberg, M.S.; Taylor, K.D.; de Jong, D.J.; Stokkers, P.C.; Mcgovern, D.; Palmieri, O.; Achkar, J.P.; Xavier, R.J.; Daly, M.J.; Duerr, R.H.; Wijmenga, C.; Weersma, R.K.; Rioux, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Genetic susceptibility is known to play a large part in the predisposition to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) known as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The IL2/IL21 locus on 4q27 is known to be a common risk locus for inflammatory disease (shown in coeliac

  7. Genetic variants in the region harbouring IL2/IL21 associated with ulcerative colitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, E. A. M.; Goyette, P.; Scott, R.; Annese, V.; Zhernakova, A.; Lian, J.; Lefèbvre, C.; Brant, S. R.; Cho, J. H.; Silverberg, M. S.; Taylor, K. D.; de Jong, D. J.; Stokkers, P. C.; Mcgovern, D.; Palmieri, O.; Achkar, J.-P.; Xavier, R. J.; Daly, M. J.; Duerr, R. H.; Wijmenga, C.; Weersma, R. K.; Rioux, J. D.

    2009-01-01

    Genetic susceptibility is known to play a large part in the predisposition to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) known as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The IL2/IL21 locus on 4q27 is known to be a common risk locus for inflammatory disease (shown in coeliac disease, type 1

  8. Genetic variants in the region harbouring IL2/IL21 associated with ulcerative colitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Festen, E.A.; Goyette, P.; Scott, R.; Annese, V.; Zhernakova, A.; Lian, J.; Lefebvre, C.; Brant, S.R.; Cho, J.H.; Silverberg, M.S.; Taylor, K.D.; Jong, D.J. de; Stokkers, P.C.; Mcgovern, D.; Palmieri, O.; Achkar, J.P.; Xavier, R.J.; Daly, M.J.; Duerr, R.H.; Wijmenga, C.; Weersma, R.K.; Rioux, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Genetic susceptibility is known to play a large part in the predisposition to the inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) known as Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC). The IL2/IL21 locus on 4q27 is known to be a common risk locus for inflammatory disease (shown in coeliac

  9. [Plasma IL-18 levels are related to insulin and are modulated by IL-18 gene polymorphisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Hervas, Sergio; Martínez-Barquero, Vanesa; Nuñez Savall, Ester; Lendínez, Verónica; Olivares, Laura; Benito, Esther; Real, Jose T; Chaves, F Javier; Ascaso, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory chronic disease influenced by multiple factors. Different prospective studies have shown that plasmatic levels of inflammatory markers were related to atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. To evaluate whether plasmatic levels of interleukin 18 (IL-18) are modulated by SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) of the IL 18 gene and its possible association with insulin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. 746 individuals were studied for a period of two years by opportunistic selection in the metropolitan area of Valencia. Parameters of lipid and glucose metabolism were analyzed by standard methodology. IL-18 was measured by ELISA. Individuals with insulin resistance showed significant higher levels of IL-18. IL 18 was significantly correlated with insulin levels and other cardiovascular risk factors. The CC genotype of the rs1834481 SNP was significantly associated with lower levels of IL-18. However, the GG genotype of the rs7559479 was associated with significant higher levels of IL-18. IL-18 is associated with insulin resistance and other cardiovascular risk factors, being those levels genetically regulated. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  10. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE is dispensable for immunity to systemic, oral and cutaneous candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Heather R; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M; Garg, Abhishek V; Jaycox, Jillian R; Gaffen, Sarah L

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections.

  11. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE is dispensable for immunity to systemic, oral and cutaneous candidiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather R Conti

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections.

  12. Signaling through IL-17C/IL-17RE Is Dispensable for Immunity to Systemic, Oral and Cutaneous Candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conti, Heather R.; Whibley, Natasha; Coleman, Bianca M.; Garg, Abhishek V.; Jaycox, Jillian R.; Gaffen, Sarah L.

    2015-01-01

    Candida albicans is a commensal fungal microbe of the human orogastrointestinal tract and skin. C. albicans causes multiple forms of disease in immunocompromised patients, including oral, vaginal, dermal and disseminated candidiasis. The cytokine IL-17 (IL-17A) and its receptor subunits, IL-17RA and IL-17RC, are required for protection to most forms of candidiasis. The importance of the IL-17R pathway has been observed not only in knockout mouse models, but also in humans with rare genetic mutations that impact generation of Th17 cells or the IL-17 signaling pathway, including Hyper-IgE Syndrome (STAT3 or TYK2 mutations) or IL17RA or ACT1 gene deficiency. The IL-17 family of cytokines is a distinct subclass of cytokines with unique structural and signaling properties. IL-17A is the best-characterized member of the IL-17 family to date, but far less is known about other IL-17-related cytokines. In this study, we sought to determine the role of a related IL-17 cytokine, IL-17C, in protection against oral, dermal and disseminated forms of C. albicans infection. IL-17C signals through a heterodimeric receptor composed of the IL-17RA and IL-17RE subunits. We observed that IL-17C mRNA was induced following oral C. albicans infection. However, mice lacking IL-17C or IL-17RE cleared C. albicans infections in the oral mucosa, skin and bloodstream at rates similar to WT littermate controls. Moreover, these mice demonstrated similar gene transcription profiles and recovery kinetics as WT animals. These findings indicate that IL-17C and IL-17RE are dispensable for immunity to the forms of candidiasis evaluated, and illustrate a surprisingly limited specificity of the IL-17 family of cytokines with respect to systemic, oral and cutaneous Candida infections. PMID:25849644

  13. Parametric laws to model urban pollutant dispersion with a street network approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soulhac, L.; Salizzoni, P.; Mejean, P.; Perkins, R. J.

    2013-03-01

    This study discusses the reliability of the street network approach for pollutant dispersion modelling in urban areas. This is essentially based on a box model, with parametric relations that explicitly model the main phenomena that contribute to the street canyon ventilation: the mass exchanges between the street and the atmosphere, the pollutant advection along the street axes and the pollutant transfer at street intersections. In the first part of the paper the focus is on the development of a model for the bulk transfer street/atmosphere, which represents the main ventilation mechanisms for wind direction that are almost perpendicular to the axis of the street. We then discuss the role of the advective transfer along the street axis on its ventilation, depending on the length of the street and the direction of the external wind. Finally we evaluate the performances of a box model integrating parametric exchange laws for these transfer phenomena. To that purpose we compare the prediction of the model to wind tunnel experiments of pollutant dispersion within a street canyon placed in an idealised urban district.

  14. A Numerical Simulation of Traffic-Related Air Pollution Exposures in Urban Street Canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J.; Fu, X.; Tao, S.

    2016-12-01

    Urban street canyons are usually associated with intensive vehicle emissions. However, the high buildings successively along both sides of a street block the dispersion of traffic-generated air pollutants, which enhances human exposure and adversely affects human health. In this study, an urban scale traffic pollution dispersion model is developed with the consideration of street distribution, canyon geometry, background meteorology, traffic assignment, traffic emissions and air pollutant dispersion. Vehicle exhausts generated from traffic flows will first disperse inside a street canyon along the micro-scale wind field (generated by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model) and then leave the street canyon and further disperse over the urban area. On the basis of this model, the effects of canyon geometry on the distribution of NOx and CO from traffic emissions were studied over the center of Beijing, China. We found that an increase of building height along the streets leads to higher pollution levels inside streets and lower pollution levels outside, resulting in higher domain-averaged concentrations over the area. In addition, street canyons with equal (or highly uneven) building heights on two sides of a street tend to lower the urban-scale air pollution concentrations at pedestrian level. Our results indicate that canyon geometry strongly influences human exposure to traffic pollutants in the populated urban area. Carefully planning street layout and canyon geometry in consideration of traffic demand as well as local weather pattern may significantly reduce the chances of unhealthy air being inhaled by urban residents.

  15. IL-8 as antibody therapeutic target in inflammatory diseases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Lone; Beurskens, Frank J; Zachariae, Claus O C

    2008-01-01

    IL-8 is a chemokine that has been implicated in a number of inflammatory diseases involving neutrophil activation. HuMab 10F8 is a novel fully human mAb against IL-8, which binds a discontinuous epitope on IL-8 overlapping the receptor binding site, and which effectively neutralizes IL-8-dependen...

  16. Anti-IL-1alpha autoantibodies in early rheumatoid arthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forslind, K; Svensson, Birte; Svenson, M

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the potential predictive value of autoantibodies against IL1-alpha (anti-IL-1alpha) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA).......To investigate the potential predictive value of autoantibodies against IL1-alpha (anti-IL-1alpha) in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA)....

  17. Genome-wide association study of genetic variants in LPS-stimulated IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and TNF-α cytokine response in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Margit Hørup; Albrechtsen, Anders; Thørner, Lise Wegner

    2013-01-01

    Cytokine response plays a vital role in various human lipopolysaccharide (LPS) infectious and inflammatory diseases. This study aimed to find genetic variants that might affect the levels of LPS-induced interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-1ra and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cytokine production....

  18. Solar radiation and street temperature as function of street orientation. An analysis of the status quo and simulation of future scenarios towards sustainability in Bahrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Joao Pinelo

    2017-11-01

    This paper discusses the contribution of street orientation towards the development of a comfortable microclimate for pedestrians in Bahrain. Increasing walkability is a global agenda to address issues such as a) transportation, b) energy consumption, c) health, and d) air pollution, all of which are topics of the sustainability agenda. Thermal comfort is one of the pre-requisites for walkability. In warm climates, this is a challenging goal. Street design is paramount for pedestrian comfort in warm climates. The roles of street orientation and aspect ratio are of particular importance as they determine the intake of solar radiation into the urban canyon. We investigate the state of affairs in Bahrain, by measuring the frequency with which the street orientations E-W, N-S, NE-SW, and NW-SE, currently occur. Research suggests that the street orientation E-W presents the lesser performance for mitigating the effects of heat gain. The ideal grid orientation would, therefore, be N-S, and NE-SW - NW-SE, avoiding street segments with E-W orientation. A countrywide analysis shows that E-W orientation accounts for the highest overall street length with 37%. The second most frequent orientation is N-S (29%), the best performer. NW-SE and NE-SW both have frequencies of only 17%. Preference for a street grid with N-S, NW-SE, and NE-SW orientation would improve the thermal performance of streets and provide a continuous network of a comfortable pedestrian environment. We simulate two future scenarios based on avoiding new E-W streets, or not. We measure their potential reduction in thermal gain and conclude that a simple policy could reduce solar exposition in 40%.

  19. Il-legitimacy in the eyes of the il-legitimated

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerstroem, Anna

    2013-01-01

    The financial crisis has brought il-legitimacy to the center of organizational life in the banking industry. It is unfortunate that little is known about how organizational il-legitimacy is experienced and handled by the people who spend most of their wakening hours at work within...... these organizations. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap of knowledge by exploring how members of a bankrupted bank experience and handle attributions of organizational il-legitimacy: to investigate the phenomenon from an inside perspective - in the eyes of the people who undergo it. The paper has...... an inductive approach and offers an explorative analysis based on an in-depth study of qualitative interviews with 20 members of a bankrupted bank. The analysis shows that in bankers’ narrations, (il)legitimacy is central: as a problem and as a solution. The paper contributes to extant knowledge on (il...

  20. Il rumore elettrico Dalla fisica alla progettazione

    CERN Document Server

    Pallottino, Giovanni Vittorio

    2011-01-01

    L’opera fornisce una trattazione chiara, agile ed essenziale, ma completa, del rumore elettrico, argomento considerato generalmente oscuro e specialistico. Molto più breve (circa 275mila battute) dei testi attualmente disponibili. Il contenuto copre gli aspetti essenziali della matematica e della fisica del rumore (termico, shot. 1/f, …), e della sua rappresentazione nei circuiti. Discute quindi il rumore nei dispositivi passivi e attivi, e introduce i criteri di progettazione a basso rumore. Affronta infine brevemente questioni quali l’estrazione del segnale dal rumore e gli impieghi utili del rumore. L’attenzione è generalmente rivolta alla strumentazione fisica a bassa frequenza, in relazione alla pluridecennale esperienza specifica dell’autore. Si tratta di una estensione delle dispense, utilizzate per anni, di un corso universitario. Pertanto la trattazione è fortemente didattica, con particolare attenzione a rimuovere ambiguità e incertezze, discutendo il materiale in termini fisici intuit...