Sample records for streamwise velocity component

  1. Interaction of Streamwise and Wall-Normal Velocities in Combined Wave-Current Motion

    Shu-Qing YANG; In-Soo KIM; Daniel S. KOH; Young-Chae SONG


    The aim of this paper is to present an analytical expression for the streamwise velocity distribution in a non-uniform flow in the presence of waves; the correlation between the horizontal and vertical velocity components has been comprehensively examined. Different from previous researches which attributed the deviation of velocity from the classical log-law to the wave Reynolds stress, i.e. -ρ(uv)only, this study demonstrates that the momentum flux caused by mean velocities, i.e.,(u)and(v) , is also responsible for the velocity deviation, and it is found that the streamwise velocity for a flow in the presence of non-zero wall-normal velocity does not follow the classical log-law, but the modified log-law proposed in this study based on simplified mixing-length theorem. The validity of the modified log-law has been verified by use of available experimental data from published sources for combined wave-current flows, and good agreement between the predicted and observed velocity profiles has been achieved.

  2. Negative streamwise velocities and other rare events near the wall in turbulent flows

    Lenaers, Peter; Li Qiang; Brethouwer, Geert; Schlatter, Philipp; Oerlue, Ramis, E-mail: [Linne FLOW Centre, KTH Mechanics, SE-100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)


    Negative streamwise velocities, extreme wall-normal velocites and high flatness values for the wall-normal fluctuations near the wall are investigated for turbulent channel flow simulations at a series of Reynolds numbers up to Re{sub {tau}} = 1000 in this paper. Probability density functions of the wall-shear stress and velocity components are presented, as well as joint probability density functions of the velocity components and the pressure. Backflow occurs more often (0.06% at Re{sub {tau}} = 1000) and further away from the wall into the buffer layer for rising Reynolds number. An oblique vortex outside the viscous sublayer is found to cause this backflow. Extreme v events occur also more often for rising Reynolds number. Positive and negative velocity spikes appear in pairs, located on the two edges of a strong streamwise vortex: the negative spike occurring in a high speed streak indicating a sweeping motion, while the positive spike is located between a high and low speed streak. These extreme v events cause high flatness values near the wall (F(v) = 43 at Re{sub {tau}} = 1000).

  3. Streamwise decrease of the 'unsteady' virtual velocity of gravel tracers

    Klösch, Mario; Gmeiner, Philipp; Habersack, Helmut


    Gravel tracers are usually inserted and transported on top of the riverbed, before they disperse vertically and laterally due to periods of intense bedload, the passage of bed forms, lateral channel migration and storage on bars. Buried grains have a lower probability of entrainment, resulting in a reduction of overall mobility, and, on average, in a deceleration of the particles with distance downstream. As a consequence, the results derived from tracer experiments and their significance for gravel transport may depend on the time scale of the investigation period, complicating the comparison of results from different experiments. We developed a regression method, which establishes a direct link between the transport velocity and the unsteady flow variables to yield an 'unsteady' virtual velocity, while considering the tracer slowdown with distance downstream in the regression. For that purpose, the two parameters of a linear excess shear velocity formula (the critical shear velocity u*c and coefficient a) were defined as functions of the travelled distance since the tracer's insertion. Application to published RFID tracer data from the Mameyes River, Puerto Rico, showed that during the investigation period the critical shear velocity u*c of tracers representing the median bed particle diameter (0.11 m) increased from 0.36 m s-1 to 0.44 m s-1, while the coefficient a decreased from the dimensionless value of 4.22 to 3.53, suggesting a reduction of the unsteady virtual velocity at the highest shear velocity in the investigation period from 0.40 m s-1 to 0.08 m s-1. Consideration of the tracer slowdown improved the root mean square error of the calculated mean displacements of the median bed particle diameter from 8.82 m to 0.34 m. As in previous work these results suggest the need of considering the history of transport when deriving travel distances and travel velocities, depending on the aim of the tracer study. The introduced method now allows estimating the

  4. Lateral distributions of streamwise velocity in compound channels with partially vegetated floodplains

    KNIGHT; Donald; W


    Natural rivers are commonly characterized by a main channel for primary flow conveyance and a floodplain, often partially covered with vegetation such as shrubs or trees, to carry extra flow during floods. The hydraulic resistance due to vegetation on the floodplain typically causes a further reduction of flow velocity and increases the velocity difference between the main channel and the floodplain. As a consequence a strong lateral shear layer leads to the exchange of mass and momentum between the main channel and floodplain, which in turn affects the overall channel conveyance and certain fluvial processes. The prediction of the lateral velocity distribution is important for many flood alleviation schemes, as well as for studies on sediment transport and dispersion in such channels. The present paper proposes a method for predicting the depth-averaged velocity in compound channels with partially vegetated floodplains, based on an analytical solution to the depth-integrated Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation with a term included to account for the effects of vegetation. The vegetation is modelled via an additional term in the momentum equation to account for the additional drag force. The method includes the effects of bed friction, drag force, lateral turbulence and secondary flows, via four coefficients f, CD, λ & Γ respectively. The predicted lateral distributions of depth-averaged velocity agree well with the experimental data. The analytical solutions can also be used to predict the distribution of boundary shear stresses, which adds additional weight to the method proposed.

  5. Lateral distributions of streamwise velocity in compound channels with partially vegetated floodplains

    TANG XiaoNan; KNIGHT Donald W


    Natural rivers are commonly characterized by a main channel for primary flow conveyance and a floodplain, often partially covered with vegetation such as shrubs or trees, to carry extra flow during floods.The hydraulic resistance due to vegetation on the floodplain typically causes a further reduction of flow velocity and increases the velocity difference between the main channel and the floodplain.As a consequence a strong lateral shear layer leads to the exchange of mass and momentum between the main channel and floodplain, which in turn affects the overall channel conveyance and certain fluvial processes.The prediction of the lateral velocity distribution is important for many flood alleviation schemes, as well as for studies on sediment transport and dispersion in such channels.The present paper proposes a method for predicting the depth-averaged velocity in compound channels with par-tially vegetated floodplains, based on an analytical solution to the depth-integrated Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equation with a term included to account for the effects of vegetation.The vegetation is modelled via an additional term in the momentum equation to account for the additional drag force.The method includes the effects of bed friction, drag force, lateral turbulence and secondary flows, via four coefficients f, C_D,λ & Г respectively.The predicted lateral distributions of depth-averaged velocity agree well with the experimental data.The analytical solutions can also be used to predict the distribu-tion of boundary shear stresses, which adds additional weight to the method proposed.

  6. A streamwise constant model of turbulence in plane Couette flow

    Gayme, D. F.; McKeon, B. J.; Papachristodoulou, A.; Bamieh, B; Doyle, J. C.


    Streamwise and quasi-streamwise elongated structures have been shown to play a significant role in turbulent shear flows. We model the mean behaviour of fully turbulent plane Couette flow using a streamwise constant projection of the Navier–Stokes equations. This results in a two-dimensional three-velocity-component (2D/3C) model. We first use a steady-state version of the model to demonstrate that its nonlinear coupling provides the mathematical mechanism that shapes the turbulent velocity p...

  7. SPIV investigations of correlation between streamwise vorticity and velocity in the wake of a vortex generator in a boundary layer

    Velte, Clara Marika; Okulov, Valery; Hansen, Martin Otto Laver


    The current work describes the experimental parametric study of streamwise vortices generated in a boundary layer by a rectangular vane (commonly named vortex generator) mounted perpendicularly to the wall and at an angle to the oncoming flow. Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements...

  8. A Streamwise Constant Model of Turbulence in Plane Couette Flow

    Gayme, D F; Papachristodoulou, A; Bamieh, B; Doyle, J C


    There is a consensus that turbulent flow is characterized by coherent structures. In particular, streamwise and quasi-streamwise elongated structures have been observed in both numerical simulations and experiments. Using this idea the mean behavior of fully turbulent plane Couette flow is modeled using a streamwise constant projection of the Navier Stokes equations. This assumption results in a two dimensional, three velocity component (2D/3C) model. We first use a steady state version of this 2D/3C model to demonstrate that the nonlinear coupling in the equations provides the mathematical mechanisms associated with the shape of the turbulent velocity profile. In simulating the full model we borrow some ideas from robust control and represent uncertainty as well as modeling errors using small amplitude noise forcing. Simulations of the 2D/3C model under small amplitude Gaussian forcing of the cross stream components is compared to DNS data. The results indicate that a streamwise constant projection of the Na...

  9. Spectra of Velocity components over Complex Terrain

    Panofsky, H. A.; Larko, D.; Lipschut, R.


    Spectra have been measured over a variety of types of complex terrain: on tops of hills and escarpments, over land downstream of a water surface, and over rolling terrain. Differences between spectra over many types of complex terrain, and over uniform terrain, can be explained by these hypotheses...... is horizontal, and decrease when the flow is uphill, for the longitudinal velocity component only. Since vertical-velocity spectra contain relatively less low wavenumber energy than horizontal-velocity spectra, energetic vertical-velocity fluctuations tend to be in equilibrium with local terrain....

  10. Probe and method for simultaneous measurements of ''true'' instantaneous temperature and three velocity components in turbulent flow.

    Fabris, G


    In the measurement of turbulent flows the need has always existed to obtain correct instantaneous values of temperature and three components of velocity at a particular point. Many proposed lengthy approximate correction methods that attempt to account for ''nonlinear'' effects (cross contamination between different quantities) in hot-wire measurements cannot be considered satisfactory. The availability of powerful digital computers for theoretical and experimental studies has placed pressure on experimentalists to develop better probes and methods. This paper attempts to answer these pressures by describing the development of a special four-wire probe and a method of processing the obtained signals. The use of four 0.625-microm-diam sensors makes the probe practically interference free. The processing method is based on the simultaneous solution of four complete nonlinear response equations for the sensors, yielding in principle exact instantaneous values of velocity components and temperature. Additional features of the processing method include: instantaneous full correction for tunnel free stream velocity and temperature fluctuations, first-order correction for dc drifts of the signals during data acquisition, subtraction of all 60-Hz related noise, and correction for streamwise displacement of sensors based on instantaneous streamwise velocity.


    ZHAO Zhi-yong; DONG Shou-ping; DU Ya-nan


    Measurements of characteristics by means of a two-component Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV) were carried out in turbulent boundary layers over both a symmetric V-shaped ribbed plate and a smooth one in a low speed wind tunnel. The present results clearly indicate that the logarithmic velocity profile over the riblets surface is shifted upward with a 30.9% increase in the thickness of the viscous sublayer. Also a change in the log-law region is found. And the maximum value of streamwise velocity fluctuations is reduced by approximately 17%. The skewness and flatness factors do not show any change besides those in the region of y+<0.6. It is evident that the Reynolds shear stress over the riblets is reduced. Further more, in log-law region, the Reynolds shear stress has a larger reduction of up to 18%.

  12. Single velocity-component modeling of leading edge turbulence interaction noise.

    Gill, J; Zhang, X; Joseph, P


    A computational aeroacoustics approach is used to predict leading edge turbulence interaction noise for real airfoils. One-component (transverse), two-component (transverse and streamwise), and three-component (transverse, streamwise, and spanwise) synthesized turbulence disturbances are modeled instead of harmonic transverse gusts, to which previous computational studies of leading edge noise have often been confined. The effects of the inclusion of streamwise and spanwise disturbances on the noise are assessed. It is shown that accurate noise predictions can be made by modeling only transverse disturbances which reduces the computational expense of simulations. The accuracy of using only transverse disturbances is assessed for symmetric and cambered airfoils, and also for airfoils at non-zero angle of attack.

  13. A Study of the Development of Steady and Periodic Unsteady Turbulent Wakes Through Curved Channels at Positive, Zero, and Negative Streamwise Pressure Gradients, Part 1

    Schobeiri, M. T.; John, J.


    The turbomachinery wake flow development is largely influenced by streamline curvature and streamwise pressure gradient. The objective of this investigation is to study the development of the wake under the influence of streamline curvature and streamwise pressure gradient. The experimental investigation is carried out in two phases. The first phase involves the study of the wake behind a stationary circular cylinder (steady wake) in curved channels at positive, zero, and negative streamwise pressure gradients. The mean velocity and Reynolds stress components are measured using a X-hot-film probe. The measured quantities obtained in probe coordinates are transformed to a curvilinear coordinate system along the wake centerline and are presented in similarity coordinates. The results of the steady wakes suggest strong asymmetry in velocity and Reynolds stress components. However, the velocity defect profiles in similarity coordinates are almost symmetrical and follow the same distribution as the zero pressure gradient straight wake. The results of Reynolds stress distributions show higher values on the inner side of the wake than the outer side. Other quantities, including the decay of maximum velocity defect, growth of wake width, and wake integral parameters, are also presented for the three different pressure gradient cases of steady wake. The decay rate of velocity defect is fastest for the negative streamwise pressure gradient case and slowest for the positive pressure gradient case. Conversely, the growth of the wake width is fastest for the positive streamwise pressure gradient case and slowest for the negative streamwise pressure gradient. The second phase studies the development of periodic unsteady wakes generated by the circular cylinders of the rotating wake generator in a curved channel at zero streamwise pressure gradient. Instantaneous velocity components of the periodic unsteady wakes, measured with a stationary X-hot-film probe, are analyzed by the

  14. Three Component Velocity and Acceleration Measurement Using FLEET

    Danehy, Paul M.; Bathel, Brett F.; Calvert, Nathan; Dogariu, Arthur; Miles, Richard P.


    The femtosecond laser electronic excitation and tagging (FLEET) method has been used to measure three components of velocity and acceleration for the first time. A jet of pure N2 issuing into atmospheric pressure air was probed by the FLEET system. The femtosecond laser was focused down to a point to create a small measurement volume in the flow. The long-lived lifetime of this fluorescence was used to measure the location of the tagged particles at different times. Simultaneous images of the flow were taken from two orthogonal views using a mirror assembly and a single intensified CCD camera, allowing two components of velocity to be measured in each view. These different velocity components were combined to determine three orthogonal velocity components. The differences between subsequent velocity components could be used to measure the acceleration. Velocity accuracy and precision were roughly estimated to be +/-4 m/s and +/-10 m/s respectively. These errors were small compared to the approx. 100 m/s velocity of the subsonic jet studied.

  15. Laser Doppler anemometer measurements using nonorthogonal velocity components: error estimates.

    Orloff, K L; Snyder, P K


    Laser Doppler anemometers (LDAs) that are arranged to measure nonorthogonal velocity components (from which orthogonal components are computed through transformation equations) are more susceptible to calibration and sampling errors than are systems with uncoupled channels. In this paper uncertainty methods and estimation theory are used to evaluate, respectively, the systematic and statistical errors that are present when such devices are applied to the measurement of mean velocities in turbulent flows. Statistical errors are estimated for two-channel LDA data that are either correlated or uncorrelated. For uncorrelated data the directional uncertainty of the measured velocity vector is considered for applications where mean streamline patterns are desired.

  16. Rotational Velocities of Individual Components in Very Low Mass Binaries

    Konopacky, Q. M.; Ghez, A. M.; Fabrycky, D. C.; Macintosh, B. A.; White, R. J.; Barman, T. S.; Rice, E. L.; Hallinan, G.; Duchêne, G.


    We present rotational velocities for individual components of 11 very low mass (VLM) binaries with spectral types between M7 and L7.5. These results are based on observations taken with the near-infrared spectrograph, NIRSPEC, and the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics system. We find that the observed sources tend to be rapid rotators (v sin i > 10 km s-1), consistent with previous seeing-limited measurements of VLM objects. The two sources with the largest v sin i, LP 349-25B and HD 130948C, are rotating at ~30% of their break-up speed, and are among the most rapidly rotating VLM objects known. Furthermore, five binary systems, all with orbital semimajor axes lsim3.5 AU, have component v sin i values that differ by greater than 3σ. To bring the binary components with discrepant rotational velocities into agreement would require the rotational axes to be inclined with respect to each other, and that at least one component is inclined with respect to the orbital plane. Alternatively, each component could be rotating at a different rate, even though they have similar spectral types. Both differing rotational velocities and inclinations have implications for binary star formation and evolution. We also investigate possible dynamical evolution in the triple system HD 130948A-BC. The close binary brown dwarfs B and C have significantly different v sin i values. We demonstrate that components B and C could have been torqued into misalignment by the primary star, A, via orbital precession. Such a scenario can also be applied to another triple system in our sample, GJ 569A-Bab. Interactions such as these may play an important role in the dynamical evolution of VLM binaries. Finally, we note that two of the binaries with large differences in component v sin i, LP 349-25AB and 2MASS 0746+20AB, are also known radio sources.


    Konopacky, Q. M.; Macintosh, B. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ghez, A. M. [UCLA Division of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1562 (United States); Fabrycky, D. C. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); White, R. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Georgia State University, Atlanta, GA 30303 (United States); Barman, T. S. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 W. Mars Hill Rd., Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Rice, E. L. [American Museum of Natural History, Central Park West at 79th Street, New York, NY 10024-5192 (United States); Hallinan, G. [Department of Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Duchene, G., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Astronomy Department, University of California, Berkeley, Hearst Field Annex B-20, CA 94720-3411 (United States)


    We present rotational velocities for individual components of 11 very low mass (VLM) binaries with spectral types between M7 and L7.5. These results are based on observations taken with the near-infrared spectrograph, NIRSPEC, and the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics system. We find that the observed sources tend to be rapid rotators (v sin i > 10 km s{sup -1}), consistent with previous seeing-limited measurements of VLM objects. The two sources with the largest v sin i, LP 349-25B and HD 130948C, are rotating at {approx}30% of their break-up speed, and are among the most rapidly rotating VLM objects known. Furthermore, five binary systems, all with orbital semimajor axes {approx}<3.5 AU, have component v sin i values that differ by greater than 3{sigma}. To bring the binary components with discrepant rotational velocities into agreement would require the rotational axes to be inclined with respect to each other, and that at least one component is inclined with respect to the orbital plane. Alternatively, each component could be rotating at a different rate, even though they have similar spectral types. Both differing rotational velocities and inclinations have implications for binary star formation and evolution. We also investigate possible dynamical evolution in the triple system HD 130948A-BC. The close binary brown dwarfs B and C have significantly different v sin i values. We demonstrate that components B and C could have been torqued into misalignment by the primary star, A, via orbital precession. Such a scenario can also be applied to another triple system in our sample, GJ 569A-Bab. Interactions such as these may play an important role in the dynamical evolution of VLM binaries. Finally, we note that two of the binaries with large differences in component v sin i, LP 349-25AB and 2MASS 0746+20AB, are also known radio sources.

  18. Predicting minimum fluidization velocities of multi-component solid mixtures

    Mohammad Asif


    Employing well-established mixing rules for mean properties,appropriate expressions are aerivea for predicting minimum fluidization velocities of multi-component solid mixtures in terms of monocomponent values for the velocity and the bed voidage at incipient fluidization.Based on flow regime and the mixing level of constituent species,it is found that these relationships differ significantly from each other,whether related to size-different or density-different mixtures.For mixed beds of size-different mixtures,the effect of volume contraction is accounted for by the mean voidage term,which is absent for segregated beds.Incorporating the volume-change of mixing leads to values of the mixture minimum fluidization velocities even lower than corresponding values for segregated bed,thus conforming to the trend reported in the literature.Size-different mixtures exhibit flow regime dependence irrespective of whether the bed is mixed or segregated.On the other hand,the mixing of constituent species does not affect the minimum fluidization velocity of density-different mixtures,as the difference in the expressions for a segregated and a mixed system is rather inconsequential.Comparison with experimental data available in the literature is made to test the efficacy of the minimum fluidization velocity expressions derived here.

  19. Rotational Velocities of Individual Components in Very Low Mass Binaries

    Konopacky, Q M; Fabrycky, D C; Macintosh, B A; White, R J; Barman, T S; Rice, E L; Hallinan, G; Duchene, G


    We present rotational velocities for individual components of eleven very low mass (VLM) binaries with spectral types between M7 and L7.5. These results are based on observations taken with the near-infrared spectrograph, NIRSPEC, and the Keck II laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS AO) system. We find that the observed sources tend to be rapid rotators (vsini > 10 km/s), consistent with previous seeing-limited measurements of VLM objects. The two sources with the largest vsini, LP 349-25B and HD 130948C, are rotating at ~30% of their break up speed, and are among the most rapidly rotating VLM objects known. Furthermore, five binary systems, all with orbital semi-major axes <3.5 AU, have component vsini values that differ by greater than 3sigma. To bring the binary components with discrepant rotational velocities into agreement would require the rotational axes to be inclined with respect to each other, and that at least one component is inclined with respect to the orbital plane. Alternatively, each comp...

  20. Influence of pressure gradient on streamwise skewness factor in turbulent boundary layer

    Dróżdż, Artur


    The paper shows an effect of favourable and adverse pressure gradients on turbulent boundary layer. The skewness factor of streamwise velocity component was chosen as a measure of the pressure gradient impact. It appears that skewness factor is an indicator of convection velocity of coherent structures, which is not always equal to the average flow velocity. The analysis has been performed based upon velocity profiles measured with hot-wire technique in turbulent boundary layer with pressure gradient corresponding to turbomachinery conditions. The results show that the skewness factor decreases in the flow region subjected to FPG and increases in the APG conditions. The changes of convection velocity and skewness factor are caused by influence of large-scale motion through the mechanism called amplitude modulation. The large-scale motion is less active in FPG and more active in APG, therefore in FPG the production of vortices is random (there are no high and low speed regions), while in the APG the large-scale motion drives the production of vortices. Namely, the vortices appear only in the high-speed regions, therefore have convection velocity higher than local mean velocity. The convection velocity affects directly the turbulent sweep and ejection events. The more flow is dominated by large-scale motion the higher values takes both the convection velocity of small-scale structures and sweep events induced by them.

  1. Streamwise Vortex Interaction with a Horseshoe Vortex

    Piotr Doerffer; Pawel Flaszynski; Franco Magagnato


    Flow control in turbomachinery is very difficult because of the complexity of its fully 3-D flow structure. The authors propose to introduce streamwise vortices into the control of internal flows. A simple configuration of vortices was investigated in order to better understand the flow control methods by means of streamwise vortices.The research presented here concerns streamwise vortex interaction with a horseshoe vortex. The effects of such an interaction are significantly dependent on the relative location of the streamwise vortex in respect to the leading edge of the profile. The streamwise vortex is induced by an air jet. The horseshoe vortex is generated by the leading edge of a symmetric profile. Such a configuration gives possibility to investigate the interaction of these two vortices alone. The presented analysis is based on numerical simulations by means of N-S compressible solver with a two-equation turbulence model.

  2. On generating counter-rotating streamwise vortices

    Winoto, S H


    Counter-rotating streamwise vortices are known to enhance the heat transfer rate from a surface and also to improve the aerodynamic performance of an aerofoil. In this paper, some methods to generate such counter-rotating vortices using different methods or physical conditions will be briefly considered and discussed.


    Rodriguez-Gonzalez, A.; Esquivel, A.; Raga, A. C. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-543, 04510 DF (Mexico); Canto, J.; Curiel, S. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ap. 70-264, 04510 DF (Mexico); Riera, A. [Departamento de Fisica e Ingenieria Nuclear, Escuela Universitaria de Ingenieria Tecnica Industrial de Barcelona, Universidad Politecnica de Cataluna, C. Comte Urgell 187, 08036, Barcelona (Spain); Beck, T. L., E-mail: [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)


    We present an analysis of H{alpha} spectra of the HH 34 jet with two-dimensional spectral resolution. We carry out multi-Gaussian fits to the spatially resolved line profiles and derive maps of the intensity, radial velocity, and velocity width of each of the components. We find that close to the outflow source we have three components: a high (negative) radial velocity component with a well-collimated, jet-like morphology; an intermediate velocity component with a broader morphology; and a positive radial velocity component with a non-collimated morphology and large linewidth. We suggest that this positive velocity component is associated with jet emission scattered in stationary dust present in the circumstellar environment. Farther away from the outflow source, we find only two components (a high, negative radial velocity component, which has a narrower spatial distribution than an intermediate velocity component). The fitting procedure was carried out with the new AGA-V1 code, which is available online and is described in detail in this paper.

  4. A Raman anemometer for component-selective velocity measurements of particles in a flow

    Florisson, O.; Mul, de F.F.M.; Winter, de H.G.


    An anemometer for the measurement of the velocity of particles of different components in a flow, separate and apart from that of the flow itself, is described. As a component-selective mechanism Raman scattering is used. The velocity is measured by relating the autocorrelated scattering signal to t

  5. Potential Misidentification of Love-Wave Phase Velocity Based on Three-Component Ambient Seismic Noise

    Xu, Zongbo; Xia, Jianghai; Luo, Yinhe; Cheng, Feng; Pan, Yudi


    People have calculated Rayleigh-wave phase velocities from vertical component of ambient seismic noise for several years. Recently, researchers started to extract Love waves from transverse component recordings of ambient noise, where "transverse" is defined as the direction perpendicular to a great-circle path or a line in small scale through observation sensors. Most researches assumed Rayleigh waves could be negligible, but Rayleigh waves can exist in the transverse component when Rayleigh waves propagate in other directions besides radial direction. In study of data acquired in western Junggar Basin near Karamay city, China, after processing the transverse component recordings of ambient noise, we obtain two energy trends, which are distinguished with Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave phase velocities, in the frequency-velocity domain using multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW). Rayleigh waves could be also extracted from the transverse component data. Because Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave phase velocities are close in high frequencies (>0.1 Hz), two kinds of surface waves might be merged in the frequency-velocity domain. Rayleigh-wave phase velocities may be misidentified as Love-wave phase velocities. To get accurate surface-wave phase velocities from the transverse component data using seismic interferometry in investigating the shallow geology, our results suggest using MASW to calculate real Love-wave phase velocities.

  6. Linear and Nonlinear Evolution of Disturbances in Supersonic Streamwise Vortices

    Khorrami, Mehdi R.; Chang, Chau-Lyan; Wie, Yong-Sun


    Effective control of compressible streamwise vortices play a significant role in both external and internal aerodynamics. In this study, evolution of disturbances in a supersonic vortex is studied by using quasi-cylindrical linear stability analysis and parabolized stability equations (PSE)footnote M. R. Malik and C.-L. Chang, AIAA Paper 97-0758. formulation. Appropriate mean-flow profilesfootnote M. K. Smart, I. M. Kalkhoran, and J. Bentson, AIAA Paper 94-2576. suitable for stability analysis were identified and modeled successfully. Using linear stability analysis, the stability characteristics of axisymmetric vortices were mapped thoroughly. The results indicate that viscosity has very little effect while increasing Mach number significantly stabilizes the disturbance. Linear PSE analysis shows that the effect of streamwise mean flow variation is small for the case considered here. Nonlinear evolution of helical modes is also studied by using PSE. The growth of the disturbances results in the appearance of coherent large scale motion and significant mean flow distortion in the axial velocity and temperature fields. In the end, nonlinear effects tend to stabilize the vortex.

  7. Formation Flight: Upstream Influence of a Wing on a Streamwise Vortex

    McKenna, Chris; Rockwell, Donald; Lehigh University Fluids Lab Team


    Aircraft flying together in formation can experience aerodynamic advantages. Impingement of the tip vortex of the leader wing on the trailer wing can increase the lift to drag ratio L/D and the unsteady loading on the trailer wing. These increases are sensitive to the impingement location of the vortex on the wing. Particle image velocimetry is employed to determine patterns of velocity and vorticity on successive crossflow planes along the vortex, which lead to volume representations and thereby characterization of the streamwise evolution of the vortex structure as it approaches the trailer wing. This evolution of the incident vortex is affected by the upstream influence of the trailer wing, and is highly dependent on the location of vortex impingement. As the spanwise impingement location of the vortex moves from outboard of the wing tip to inboard, the upstream influence on the development of the vortex increases. For spanwise locations close to or intersecting the vortex core, the effects of upstream influence of the wing on the vortex are to: increase the streamwise velocity deficit; decrease the streamwise vorticity; increase the in-plane vorticity; decrease the downwash; and increase the root-mean-square of both streamwise velocity and vorticity.

  8. Heat transfer with very high free-stream turbulence and streamwise vortices

    Moffat, Robert J.; Maciejewski, Paul; Eaton, John K.; Pauley, Wayne


    Results are presented for two experimental programs related to augmentation of heat transfer by complex flow characteristics. In one program, high free stream turbulence (up to 63 percent) was shown to increase the Stanton number by more than a factor of 5, compared with the normally expected value based on x-Reynolds number. These experiments are being conducted in a free-jet facility, near the margins of the jet. To a limited extent, the mean velocity, turbulence intensity, and integral length scale can be separately varied. The results show that scale is a very important factor in determining the augmentation. Detailed studies of the turbulence structure are being carried out using an orthogonal triple hot-wire anemometer equipped with a fourth wire for measuring temperature. The v' component of turbulence appears to be distributed differently from u' or w'. In the second program, the velocity distributions and boundary layer thicknesses associated with a pair of counter-rotating, streamwise vortices were measured. There is a region of considerably thinned boundary layer between the two vortices when they are of approximately the same strength. If one vortex is much stronger than the other, the weaker vortex may be lifted off the surface and absorbed into the stronger.

  9. Acoustic and streaming velocity components in a resonant waveguide at high acoustic levels.

    Daru, Virginie; Reyt, Ida; Bailliet, Hélène; Weisman, Catherine; Baltean-Carlès, Diana


    Rayleigh streaming is a steady flow generated by the interaction between an acoustic wave and a solid wall, generally assumed to be second order in a Mach number expansion. Acoustic streaming is well known in the case of a stationary plane wave at low amplitude: it has a half-wavelength spatial periodicity and the maximum axial streaming velocity is a quadratic function of the acoustic velocity amplitude at antinode. For higher acoustic levels, additional streaming cells have been observed. Results of laser Doppler velocimetry measurements are here compared to direct numerical simulations. The evolution of axial and radial velocity components for both acoustic and streaming velocities is studied from low to high acoustic amplitudes. Two streaming flow regimes are pointed out, the axial streaming dependency on acoustics going from quadratic to linear. The evolution of streaming flow is different for outer cells and for inner cells. Also, the hypothesis of radial streaming velocity being of second order in a Mach number expansion, is not valid at high amplitudes. The change of regime occurs when the radial streaming velocity amplitude becomes larger than the radial acoustic velocity amplitude, high levels being therefore characterized by nonlinear interaction of the different velocity components.

  10. Mapping crustal S-wave velocity structure with SV-component receiver function method

    邹最红; 陈晓非


    In this article, we analyze the characters of SV-component receiver function of teleseismic body waves and its advantages in mapping the S-wave velocity structure of crust in detail. Similar to radial receiver function, SV-component receiver function can be obtained by directly deconvolving the P-component from the SV-component of teleseismic recordings. Our analyses indicate that the change of amplitude of SV-component receiver function against the change of epicentral distance is less than that of radial receiver function. Moreover, the waveform of SV-component receiver function is simpler than the radial receiver function and gives prominence to the PS converted phases that are the most sensitive to the shear wave velocity structure in the inversion. The synthetic tests show that the convergence of SV-component receiver function inversion is faster than that of the radial receiver function inversion. As an example, we investigate the S-wave velocity structure beneath HIA station by using the SV-component receiver function inversion method.

  11. Development of Pre-set Counter-rotating Streamwise Vortices in Wavy Channel

    Budiman, A.C.


    Development of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in a rectangular channel with one-sided wavy surface has been experimentally quantified using hot-wire anemometry. The wavy surface has fixed amplitude of 3.75 mm. The counter-rotating vortices are pre-set by means of a sawtooth pattern cut at the leading edge of the wavy surface. Variations of the central streamwise velocity Uc with a channel gap H = 35 mm and 50 mm (corresponding to a Reynolds number from 1600 to 4400) change the instability of the flow which can be distinguished from the velocity contours at a certain spanwise plane. The streamwise velocity contours and turbulence intensity for Reynolds number Re = 3100 and H = 35 mm show the disappearance of the mushroom-like vortices prior to turbulence near the second peak of the wavy surface, while for higher Re, this phenomenon occurs earlier. Under certain conditions, for example, for Re = 4400 and H = 50 mm, the splitting of the vortices can also be observed.

  12. Blow-up criterion for the zero-diffusive Boussinesq equations via the velocity components

    Weihua Wang


    Full Text Available This article concerns the blow up for the smooth solutions of the three-dimensional Boussinesq equations with zero diffusivity. It is shown that if any two components of the velocity field $u$ satisfy $$ \\int_0^T \\frac{ \\||u_1|+|u_2|\\|^q_{L^{p,\\infty}} } {1+\\ln ( e+\\|\

  13. Laminar streak enhancement using streamwise grooves

    Martel, Carlos; Martín, Juan Ángel


    Laminar streak promotion in a flat plate boundary layer results in an increase of the stability of the Tollmien-Schlichting waves with respect to that of the 2D Blasius profile. This stabilization delays the laminar-turbulent transition, increasing the laminar phase of the flow. The stabilization effect is stronger for higher streak amplitudes, and therefore simple ways of generating high amplitude stable streaks are sought to be used as boundary layer flow control methods. In a recent experiment [Tallamelli & Franson,AIAA 2010-4291] high amplitude stable steady streaks have been produced using Miniature Vortex Generators (MGVs), where one array of MGVs is used to excite the streak and a second array is used downstream to enhance their amplitude. In this presentation we numerically explore the possibility of enhancing the streaks using a different passive mechanism: streamwise grooves carved in the plate. We will present some numerical simulations for different values of the spanwise period of the streaks and of the grooves, and we will show the combinations that provide maximum streak amplitude.

  14. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Velocity Measurements in Supersonic Underexpanded Impinging Jets

    Inman, Jennifer A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Barthel, Brett; Alderfer, David W.; Novak, Robert J.


    We report on an application of nitric oxide (NO) flow-tagging velocimetry to impinging underexpanded jet flows issuing from a Mach 2.6 nozzle. The technique reported herein utilizes a single laser, single camera system to obtain planar maps of the streamwise component of velocity. Whereas typical applications of this technique involve comparing two images acquired at different time delays, this application uses a single image and time delay. The technique extracts velocity by assuming that particular regions outside the jet flowfield have negligible velocity and may therefore serve as a stationary reference against which to measure motion of the jet flowfield. By taking the average of measurements made in 100 single-shot images for each flow condition, streamwise velocities of between -200 and +1,000 m/s with accuracies of between 15 and 50 m/s are reported within the jets. Velocity measurements are shown to explain otherwise seemingly anomalous impingement surface pressure measurements.

  15. Model-based scaling and prediction of the streamwise energy intensity in high-Reynolds number turbulent channels

    Moarref, Rashad; Tropp, Joel A; McKeon, Beverley J


    We study the Reynolds number scaling of a gain-based, low-rank approximation to turbulent channel flows, determined by the resolvent formulation of McKeon & Sharma (2010), in order to obtain a description of the streamwise turbulence intensity from direct consideration of the Navier-Stokes equations. Under this formulation, the velocity field is decomposed into propagating waves (with single streamwise and spanwise wavelengths and wave speed) whose wall-normal shapes are determined from the principal singular function of the corresponding resolvent operator. We establish that the resolvent formulation admits three classes of wave parameters that induce universal behavior with Reynolds number on the low-rank model, and which are consistent with scalings proposed throughout the wall turbulence literature. For the rank-1 model subject to broadband forcing, the integrated streamwise energy density takes a universal form which is consistent with the dominant near-wall turbulent motions. When the shape of the f...

  16. Characterization of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in flat rectangular channel with one-sided wavy wall

    Bouremel, Yann


    Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) has been used to characterize the evolution of counter-rotating streamwise vortices in a rectangular channel with one sided wavy surface. The vortices were created by a uniform set of saw-tooth carved over the leading edge of a flat plate at the entrance of a flat rectangular channel with one-sided wavy wall. PIV measurements were taken over the spanwise and streamwise planes at different locations and at Reynolds number of 2500. Two other Reynolds numbers of 2885 and 3333 have also been considered for quantification purpose. Pairs of counter-rotating streamwise vortices have been shown experimentally to be centred along the spanwise direction at the saw-tooth valley where the vorticity ωz=0ωz=0. It has also been found that the vorticity ωzωz of the pairs of counter-rotating vortices decreases along the streamwise direction, and increases with the Reynolds number. Moreover, different quantifications of such counter-rotating vortices have been discussed such as their size, boundary layer, velocity profile and vorticity. The current study shows that the mixing due to the wall shear stress of counter-rotating streamwise vortices as well as their averaged viscous dissipation rate of kinetic energy decrease over flat and adverse pressure gradient surfaces while increasing over favourable pressure gradient surfaces. Finally, it was also demonstrated that the main direction of stretching is orientated at around 45° with the main flow direction.

  17. Streamwise transport in multi-component granular flows

    Johnson, Chris; Hogg, Andrew; Phillips, Jeremy


    Thin free-surface avalanches of granular material occur widely in nature and industry. In these contexts the flows often contain particles of a wide range of sizes, which separate from one another due to particle size segregation. This segregation is troublesome in industry (where a well-mixed state is usually desired) and is an important mechanism for determining the runout and morphology of natural avalanches and debris flows. In this talk we develop a model for the spatial and temporal evolution of the particle size distribution in a granular flow, due to particle segregation, diffusion and advection processes. We use asymptotic solutions of this model to formulate equations governing the depth-integrated particle size distribution. These equations naturally extend the shallow-water models often used to predict the dynamics of monodisperse avalanches. Our modelling shows that particles in granular avalanches may strongly segregate in the direction of flow, even when the segregation is relatively weak compared to diffusive mixing and the avalanche is nearly homogeneous throughout its depth. We demonstrate this surprising phenomenon through comparison with discrete particle simulations.

  18. Direct numerical simulation of particle-laden turbulent channel flows with two- and four-way coupling effects: budgets of Reynolds stress and streamwise enstrophy

    Dritselis, Chris D, E-mail: [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Thessaly, Pedion Areos, 38334 Volos (Greece)


    The budgets of the Reynolds stress and streamwise enstrophy are evaluated through direct numerical simulations for the turbulent particle-laden flow in a vertical channel with momentum exchange between the two phases. The influence of the dispersed particles on the budgets is examined through a comparison of the particle-free and the particle-laden cases at the same Reynolds number of Re{sub b} = 5600 based on the bulk fluid velocity and the distance between the channel walls. Results are obtained for particle ensembles with four response times in simulations with and without streamwise gravity and inter-particle collisions at average mass (volume) fractions of 0.2 (2.7 × 10{sup −5}) and 0.5 (6.8 × 10{sup −5}). The particle feedback force on the flow of the carrier phase is modeled by a point-force approximation (PSIC-method). It is shown that all the terms in the budgets of the Reynolds stress components are decreased in the presence of particles. The level of reduction depends on the particle response time and it is higher under the effects of gravity and inter-particle collisions. A considerable reduction in all the terms of the streamwise enstrophy budget is also observed. In particular, all production mechanisms, and mainly vortex stretching, are inhibited in the particulate flows and thus the production of streamwise vorticity is significantly damped. A further insight into the direct particle effects on the fluid turbulence is provided by analyzing in detail the fluid–fluid, fluid–particle and particle–particle correlations, and the spectra of the fluid–particle energy exchange rate. The present results indicate that the turbulence production, dissipation and pressure–strain term are generally large quantities, but their summation is relatively small and comparable to the fluid–particle direct energy exchange rate. Consequently, the particle contribution can potentially increase or decrease the fluctuating fluid velocities and eventually

  19. A cold component and the complex velocity structure of DLA1331+170

    Carswell, R F; Wolfe, A M; Murphy, M T


    [ABRIDGED] We examine the velocity structure in the gas associated with \\ion{H}{1} in the damped Ly$\\alpha$ absorption system at redshift $z=1.7764$ towards the QSO $1331+170$ using 21cm data, optical and STIS spectra. We find at least two, and possibly three, components showing \\ion{C}{1} lines. One of these has Doppler parameter $b=0.55${\\kms}, corresponding to a kinetic temperature of 220K if the broadening is thermal. We re-examine the H$_2$ analysis undertaken by \\citet{Cui05} using the neutral carbon velocity structure, and find a model which is, consistent with a mixture of collisional and background radiation excitation of the observed H$_2$ rotational levels. For singly ionized heavy elements we find eight components covering a velocity range of $\\sim 110$ {\\kms}. The \\ion{H}{1} structure is expected to follow some combination of the singly ionized and neutral gas, but the 21cm absorption profile is considerably different. This may be because of the different extent and brightness distributions of th...

  20. Toward the Dynamical Classification of Galaxies: Principal Component Analysis of SAURON and CALIFA circular velocity curves

    Kalinova, Veselina; Rosolowsky, Erik; van de Ven, Glenn; Lyubenova, Mariya; Falcón-Barroso, Jesus; Kannan, Rahul; Läsker, Ronald; Galbany, Lluís; García-Benito, Rubén; Delgado, Rosa González; Sánchez, Sebastian F; Ruiz-Lara, Tomás


    We present a dynamical classification system for galaxies based on the shapes of their circular velocity curves (CVCs). We derive the CVCs of 40 SAURON and 42 CALIFA galaxies across Hubble sequence via a full line-of-sight integration as provided by solutions of the axisymmetric Jeans equations. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) applied to the circular curve shapes to find characteristic features and use a k-means classifier to separate circular curves into classes. This objective classification method identifies four different classes, which we name Slow-Rising (SR), Flat (F), Sharp-Peaked (SP) and Round-Peaked (RP) circular curves. SR-CVCs are mostly represented by late-type spiral galaxies (Scd-Sd) with no prominent spheroids in the central parts and slowly rising velocities; F-CVCs span almost all morphological types (E,S0,Sab,Sb-Sbc) with flat velocity profiles at almost all radii; SP-CVCs are represented by early-type and early-type spiral galaxies (E,S0,Sb-Sbc) with prominent spheroids and shar...

  1. Statistical analysis of turbulent super-streamwise vortices based on observations of streaky structures near the free surface in the smooth open channel flow

    Zhong, Qiang; Chen, Qigang; Wang, Hao; Li, Danxun; Wang, Xingkui


    Long streamwise-elongated high- and low-speed streaks are repeatedly observed near the free surface in open channel flows in natural rivers and lab experiments. Super-streamwise vortex model has been proposed to explain this widespread phenomenon for quite some time. However, statistical evidence of the existence of the super-streamwise vortices as one type of coherent structures is still insufficient. Correlation and proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis based on PIV experimental data in the streamwise-spanwise plane near the free surface in a smooth open channel flow are employed to investigate this topic. Correlation analysis revealed that the streaky structures appear frequently near the free surface and their occurrence probability at any spanwise position is equal. The spanwise velocity fluctuation usually flows from low-speed streaks toward high-speed streaks. The average spanwise width and spacing between neighboring low (or high) speed streaks are approximately h and 2h respectively. POD analysis reveals that there are streaks with different spanwise width in the instantaneous flow fields. Typical streamwise rotational movement can be sketched out directly based on the results from statistical analyses. Point-by-point analysis indicates that this pattern is consistent everywhere in the measurement window and is without any inhomogeneity in the spanwise direction, which reveals the essential difference between coherent structures and secondary flow cells. The pattern found by statistical analysis is consistent with the notion that the super-streamwise vortices exist universally as one type of coherent structure in open channel flows.

  2. Effect of streamwise spacing on periodic and random unsteadiness in a bundle of short cylinders confined in a channel

    Ostanek, Jason K.; Thole, Karen A.


    While flow across long tube bundles is considered classical data, pin-fin arrays made up of short tubes have become a growing topic of interest for use in cooling gas turbine airfoils. Data from the literature indicate that decreasing streamwise spacing increases heat transfer in pin-fin arrays; however, the specific mechanism that causes increased heat transfer coefficients remains unknown. The present work makes use of time-resolved PIV to quantify the effects of streamwise spacing on the turbulent near wake throughout various pin-fin array spacings. Specifically, proper orthogonal decomposition was used to separate the (quasi-) periodic motion from vortex shedding and the random motion from turbulent eddies. Reynolds number flow conditions of 3.0 × 103 and 2.0 × 104, based on pin-fin diameter and velocity at the minimum flow area, were considered. Streamwise spacing was varied from 3.46 pin diameters to 1.73 pin diameters while the pin-fin height-to-diameter ratio was unity and the spanwise spacing was held constant at two diameters. Results indicated that (quasi-) periodic motions were attenuated at closer streamwise spacings while the level of random motions was not strongly dependent on pin-fin spacing. This trend was observed at both Reynolds number conditions considered. Because closer spacings exhibit higher heat transfer levels, the present results imply that periodic motions may not contribute to heat transfer, although further experimentation is required.

  3. Wake Component Detection in X-Band SAR Images for Ship Heading and Velocity Estimation

    Maria Daniela Graziano


    Full Text Available A new algorithm for ship wake detection is developed with the aim of ship heading and velocity estimation. It exploits the Radon transform and utilizes merit indexes in the intensity domain to validate the detected linear features as real components of the ship wake. Finally, ship velocity is estimated by state-of-the-art techniques of azimuth shift and Kelvin arm wavelength. The algorithm is applied to 13 X-band SAR images from the TerraSAR-X and COSMO/SkyMed missions with different polarization and incidence angles. Results show that the vast majority of wake features are correctly detected and validated also in critical situations, i.e., when multiple wake appearances or dark areas not related to wake features are imaged. The ship route estimations are validated with truth-at-sea in seven cases. Finally, it is also verified that the algorithm does not detect wakes in the surroundings of 10 ships without wake appearances.

  4. Low Velocity Impact Behavior of Glass Filled Fiber-Reinforced Thermoplastic Engine Components

    Zakaria Mouti


    Full Text Available This paper concerns automotive parts located underneath the engine and in particular the engine oil pan. Classically made of stamped steel or cast aluminum, new developments have allowed the manufacture oil pans with polyamide 66 reinforced by 35% weight of short glass fiber. However, polyamides have some limitations and the most significant is their response to localized impact loading. The nature of the impact considered here is of a typical stone collected from the road and projected into the oil pan. Low velocity impact investigations were carried out using a gas gun and drop weight tower. The study shows that the design of the oil pan has a significant contribution in the shock absorption. In addition to the material properties, the geometry and the ribbing both cleverly combined, increase the impact resistance of the component significantly. Areas of oil pan design improvement have been identified and conclusions drawn.


    Rigliaco, E.; Pascucci, I. [Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, The University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Gorti, U.; Hollenbach, D. [SETI Institute, Mountain View, CA (United States); Edwards, S., E-mail: [Astronomy Department, Smith College, Northampton, MA 01063 (United States)


    The formation time, masses, and location of planets are strongly impacted by the physical mechanisms that disperse protoplanetary disks and the timescale over which protoplanetary material is cleared out. Accretion of matter onto the central star, protostellar winds/jets, magnetic disk winds, and photoevaporative winds operate concurrently. Hence, disentangling their relative contribution to disk dispersal requires identifying diagnostics that trace different star-disk environments. Here, we analyze the low-velocity component (LVC) of the oxygen optical forbidden lines, which is found to be blueshifted by a few km s{sup -1} with respect to the stellar velocity. We find that the [O I] LVC profiles are different from those of [Ne II] at 12.81 {mu}m and CO at 4.7 {mu}m lines pointing to different origins for these gas lines. We report a correlation between the luminosity of the [O I] LVC and the accretion luminosity L{sub acc}. We do not find any correlation with the X-ray luminosity, while we find that the higher is the stellar far-UV (FUV) luminosity, the higher is the luminosity of the [O I] LVC. In addition, we show that the [O I] {lambda}6300/{lambda}5577 ratio is low (ranging between 1 and 8). These findings favor an origin of the [O I] LVC in a region where OH is photodissociated by stellar FUV photons and argue against thermal emission from an X-ray-heated layer. Detailed modeling of two spectra with the highest S/N and resolution shows that there are two components within the LVC: a broad, centrally peaked component that can be attributed to gas arising in a warm disk surface in Keplerian rotation (with FWHM between {approx}40 and {approx}60 km s{sup -1}), and a narrow component (with FWHM {approx} 10 km s{sup -1} and small blueshifts of {approx}2 km s{sup -1}) that may arise in a cool ({approx}<1000 K) molecular wind.

  6. Controlling the onset of turbulence by streamwise traveling waves. Part 1: Receptivity analysis

    Moarref, Rashad


    We examine the efficacy of streamwise traveling waves generated by a zero-net-mass-flux surface blowing and suction for controlling the onset of turbulence in a channel flow. For small amplitude actuation, we utilize weakly nonlinear analysis to determine base flow modifications and to assess the resulting net power balance. Receptivity analysis of the velocity fluctuations around this base flow is then employed to design the traveling waves. Our simulation-free approach reveals that, relative to the flow with no control, the downstream traveling waves with properly designed speed and frequency can significantly reduce receptivity which makes them well-suited for controlling the onset of turbulence. In contrast, the velocity fluctuations around the upstream traveling waves exhibit larger receptivity to disturbances. Our theoretical predictions, obtained by perturbation analysis (in the wave amplitude) of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations with spatially periodic coefficients, are verified using full-scale...

  7. Probe shapes that measure time-averaged streamwise momentum and cross-stream turbulence intensity

    Rossow, Vernon J. (Inventor)


    A method and apparatus for directly measuring the time-averaged streamwise momentum in a turbulent stream use a probe which has total head response which varies as the cosine-squared of the angle of incidence. The probe has a nose with a slight indentation on its front face for providing the desired response. The method of making the probe incorporates unique design features. Another probe may be positioned in a side-by-side relationship to the first probe to provide a direct measurement of the total pressure. The difference between the two pressures yields the sum of the squares of the cross-stream components of the turbulence level.

  8. Steady streamwise transpiration control in turbulent pipe flow

    Gómez, F; Rudman, M; Sharma, AS; McKeon, BJ


    A study of the the main features of low- and high amplitude steady streamwise wall transpiration applied to pipe flow is presented. The effect of the two transpiration parameters, amplitude and wavenumber, on the flow have been investigated by means of direct numerical simulation at a moderate turbulent Reynolds number. The behaviour of the three identified mechanisms that act in the flow: modification of Reynolds shear stress, steady streaming and generation of non-zero mean streamwise gradients, have been linked to the transpiration parameters. The observed trends have permitted the identification of wall transpiration configurations able to reduce or increase the overall flow rate in -36.1% and 19.3% respectively. A resolvent analysis has been carried out to obtain a description of the reorganization of the flow structures induced by the transpiration.

  9. Effects of streamwise vortex breakdown on supersonic combustion.

    Hiejima, Toshihiko


    This paper presents a numerical simulation study of the combustion structure of streamwise vortex breakdown at Mach number 2.48. Hydrogen fuel is injected into a combustor at sonic speed from the rear of a hypermixer strut that can generate streamwise vortices. The results show that the burning behavior is enhanced at the points of the shock waves that are incident on the vortex and therefore the vortex breakdown in the subsonic region occurs due to combustion. The breakdown domain in the mainstream is found to form a flame-holding region suited to combustion and to lead to a stable combustion field with detached flames. In this way, streamwise vortex breakdown has an essential role in combustion enhancement and the formation of flames that hold under supersonic inflow conditions. Finally, the combustion property defined here is shown to coincide with the produced-water mass flow. This property shows that the amount of combustion is saturated at equivalence ratios over 0.4, although there is a slight increase beyond 1.

  10. The Roles of the Horizontal Component of the Earth's Angular Velocity in Nonhydrostatic Linear Models.

    Kasahara, Akira


    Roles of the horizontal component of the earth's rotation, which is neglected traditionally in atmospheric and oceanographic models, are studied through the normal mode analysis of a compressible and stratified model on a tangent plane in the domain that is periodic in the zonal and meridional directions but bounded at the top and bottom. As expected, there exist two distinct kinds of acoustic and buoyancy oscillations that are modified by the earth's rotation. When the cos(latitude) Coriolis terms are included, there exists another kind of wave oscillation whose frequencies are very close to the inertial frequency, 2 sin(latitude), where is the earth's angular velocity.The objective of this article is to clarify the circumstance in which a distinct kind of wave oscillation emerges whose frequencies are very close to the inertial frequency. Because this particular kind of normal mode appears only due to the presence of boundary conditions in the vertical, it may be appropriate to call these waves boundary-induced inertial (BII) modes as demonstrated through the normal mode analyses of a homogeneous and incompressible model and a Boussinesq model with thermal stratification. Thus, it can be understood that the BII modes can coexist with the acoustic and inertio-gravity modes when the effect of compressibility is added to the effects of buoyancy and complete Coriolis force in the compressible, stratified, and rotating model.

  11. Controlling the onset of turbulence by streamwise traveling waves. Part 2. Direct numerical simulations

    Lieu, Binh K; Jovanović, Mihailo R


    This work builds on and confirms the theoretical findings of Part 1 of this paper, Moarref & Jovanovi\\'c (2010). We use direct numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations to assess the efficacy of blowing and suction in the form of streamwise traveling waves for controlling the onset of turbulence in a channel flow. We highlight the effects of the modified base flow on the dynamics of velocity fluctuations and net power balance. Our simulations verify the theoretical predictions of Part 1 that the upstream traveling waves promote turbulence even when the uncontrolled flow stays laminar. On the other hand, the downstream traveling waves with parameters selected in Part 1 are capable of reducing the fluctuations' kinetic energy, thereby maintaining the laminar flow. In flows driven by a fixed pressure gradient, a positive net efficiency as large as 25 % relative to the uncontrolled turbulent flow can be achieved with downstream waves. Furthermore, we show that these waves can also relaminarize full...

  12. Effect of streamwise vortices on Tollmien-Schlichting waves

    Nayfeh, A. H.


    The method of multiple scales is used to determine a first-order uniform expansion for the effect of counter-rotating steady streamwise vortices in growing boundary layers on oblique Tollmien-Schlichting waves. The results show that such vortices have a strong tendency to amplify oblique Tollmien-Schlichting waves having a spanwise wavelength that is twice the wavelength of the vortices. An analytical expression is derived for the growth rates of these waves. These exponential growth rates increase linearly with increasing amplitudes of the vortices. Numerical results are presented. They suggest that this mechanism may dominate the instability.

  13. Shock Wave Induced Separation Control by Streamwise Vortices

    Ryszard SZWABA


    Control of shock wave and boundary layer interaction finds still a lot of attention. Methods of this interaction control have been especially investigated in recent decade. This research was mostly concerned with flows without separation. However, in many applications shock waves induce separation often leads to strong unsteady effects. In this context it is proposed to use streamwise vortices for the interaction control. The results of experimental investigations are presented here. The very promising results were obtained, meaning that the incipient separation was postponed and the separation size was reduced for the higher Mach numbers. The decrease of the RMS of average shock wave oscillation was also achieved.

  14. Untangling the Recombination Line Emission from HII Regions with Multiple Velocity Components

    Anderson, L D; Wenger, T V; Bania, T M; Balser, Dana S


    HII regions are the ionized spheres surrounding high-mass stars. They are ideal targets for tracing Galactic structure because they are predominantly found in spiral arms and have high luminosities at infrared and radio wavelengths. In the Green Bank Telescope HII Region Discovery Survey (GBT HRDS) we found that >30% of first Galactic quadrant HII regions have multiple hydrogen radio recombination line (RRL) velocities, which makes determining their Galactic locations and physical properties impossible. Here we make additional GBT RRL observations to determine the discrete HII region velocity for all 117 multiple-velocity sources within 18deg. < l < 65deg. The multiple-velocity sources are concentrated in the zone 22deg. < l < 32deg., coinciding with the largest regions of massive star formation, which implies that the diffuse emission is caused by leaked ionizing photons. We combine our observations with analyses of the electron temperature, molecular gas, and carbon recombination lines to determ...

  15. Stream-wise distribution of skin-friction drag reduction on a flat plate with bubble injection

    Qin, Shijie; Chu, Ning; Yao, Yan; Liu, Jingting; Huang, Bin; Wu, Dazhuan


    To investigate the stream-wise distribution of skin-friction drag reduction on a flat plate with bubble injection, both experiments and simulations of bubble drag reduction (BDR) have been conducted in this paper. Drag reductions at various flow speeds and air injection rates have been tested in cavitation tunnel experiments. Visualization of bubble flow pattern is implemented synchronously. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method, in the framework of Eulerian-Eulerian two fluid modeling, coupled with population balance model (PBM) is used to simulate the bubbly flow along the flat plate. A wide range of bubble sizes considering bubble breakup and coalescence is modeled based on experimental bubble distribution images. Drag and lift forces are fully modeled based on applicable closure models. Both predicted drag reductions and bubble distributions are in reasonable concordance with experimental results. Stream-wise distribution of BDR is revealed based on CFD-PBM numerical results. In particular, four distinct regions with different BDR characteristics are first identified and discussed in this study. Thresholds between regions are extracted and discussed. And it is highly necessary to fully understand the stream-wise distribution of BDR in order to establish a universal scaling law. Moreover, mechanism of stream-wise distribution of BDR is analysed based on the near-wall flow parameters. The local drag reduction is a direct result of near-wall max void fraction. And the near-wall velocity gradient modified by the presence of bubbles is considered as another important factor for bubble drag reduction.

  16. Measuring two-dimensional components of a flow velocity vector using a hot-wire probe.

    Kiełbasa, Jan


    The article presents a single-hot-wire probe adapted to detect the direction of flow velocity. The modification consists of the introduction of a third support which allows to measure voltage at the central point of the wire. The sign of voltage difference DeltaU between both parts of the wire is the measure of the direction of flow velocity in a system of coordinates associated with the probe.

  17. Dynamics of the Davydov–Scott soliton with location or velocity mismatch of its high-frequency component

    Blyakhman, L.G.; Gromov, E.M.; Onosova, I.V.; Tyutin, V.V., E-mail:


    The dynamics of a two-component Davydov–Scott (DS) soliton with a small mismatch of the initial location or velocity of the high-frequency (HF) component was investigated within the framework of the Zakharov-type system of two coupled equations for the HF and low-frequency (LF) fields. In this system, the HF field is described by the linear Schrödinger equation with the potential generated by the LF component varying in time and space. The LF component in this system is described by the Korteweg–de Vries equation with a term of quadratic influence of the HF field on the LF field. The frequency of the DS soliton's component oscillation was found analytically using the balance equation. The perturbed DS soliton was shown to be stable. The analytical results were confirmed by numerical simulations. - Highlights: • The dynamics of the Davydov–Scott soliton with initial location or velocity mismatch of the HF component was investigated. • The study was performed within the framework of coupled linear Schrödinger and KdV equations for the HF and LF fields. • Analytical and numerical approaches were used. • The frequency of the DS soliton component oscillation was found. • Stability of the perturbed DS solitons was demonstrated.

  18. Calculation of the velocity components for continuous GNSS station through applying the algorithm for least squares adjustment.

    Jorge Moya Zamora


    Full Text Available The calculation of the velocity of a continuous GNSS observation station represents a key input in modern surveying. The act of determining the position of the GNSS stations involves daily which can establish the time series of stations, based on which information can be influenced by phenomena affecting the performance thereof. This article is a description of the algorithm of the least squares adapted and applied to the determination of the velocity components of continuous observation stations. Furthermore, this algorithm is applied for calculating the speed of ETCG station belonging to the Geocentric System for the Americas (SIRGAS.

  19. New developments in the laser-2-focus technique for non-intrusive velocity measurements in gasturbine components

    Schodl, Richard; Förster, Wolfgang


    Further improvement of aircraft engines with respect to fuel consumption and emission reduction requires costly and difficult investigations which are impossible without modern measuring techniques. The Institute of Propulsion Technology is primarily concerned with investigations on turbomachinery components (e.g. compressors, combustors, turbines), where very often extremely difficult conditions prevail (high flow velocities, complex geometries, rotating flow channels). For this reason non-intrusive measuring techniques play an important role. The Laser-2-Focus technique for non-intrusive velocity measurements developed in the institute has won high regard worldwide. Developments in optics and electronics have resulted in this technique having a considerably greater area of application.

  20. Flow Control Application on a Submerged Inlet Characterized by Three-Component LDV


    The probe type obtaining the streamwise velocity measurements was a Dantec model 55p11. The hotwire has a 2.5 µm platinum plated tungsten wire with a...with the LDV beams above the submerged inlet for freestream measurements. from the measurement region. Particle temperatures that were too hot or cold...plane. 4.1 Schlieren and Hotwire Examination Schlieren photography and one-component hotwire anemometry obtained some general characteristics of the

  1. Two-component laser Doppler anemometer for measurement of velocity and turbulent shear stress near prosthetic heart valves.

    Woo, Y R; Yoganathan, A P


    The velocity and turbulent shear stress measured in the immediate vicinity of prosthetic heart valves play a vital role in the design and evaluation of these devices. In the past hot wire/film and one-component laser Doppler anemometer (LDA) systems were used extensively to obtain these measurements. Hot wire/film anemometers, however, have some serious disadvantages, including the inability to measure the direction of the flow, the disturbance of the flow field caused by the probe, and the need for frequent calibration. One-component LDA systems do not have these problems, but they cannot measure turbulent shear stresses directly. Since these measurements are essential and are not available in the open literature, a two-component LDA system for measuring velocity and turbulent shear stress fields under pulsatile flow conditions was assembled under an FDA contract. The experimental methods used to create an in vitro data base of velocity and turbulent shear stress fields in the immediate vicinity of prosthetic heart valves of various designs in current clinical use are also discussed.

  2. Detection of High Velocity Absorption Components in the He I Lines of Eta Carinae near the Time of Periastron

    Richardson, Noel D.; St-Jean, Lucas; Gull, Theodore R.; Madura, Thomas; Hillier, D. John; Teodoro, Mairan; Moffat, Anthony; Corcoran, Michael; Damineli, Augusto


    We have obtained a total of 58 high spectral resolution (R90,000) spectra of the massive binary star eta Carinae since 2012 in an effort to continue our orbital and long-term echelle monitoring of this extreme binary (Richardson et al. 2010, AJ, 139, 1534) with the CHIRON spectrograph on the CTIO 1.5 m telescope (Tokovinin et al. 2013, PASP, 125, 1336) in the 45507500A region. We have increased our monitoring efforts and observation frequency as the periastron event of 2014 has approached. We note that there were multiple epochs this year where we observe unusual absorption components in the P Cygni troughs of the He I triplet lines. In particular, we note high velocity absorption components related to the following epochs for the following lines: He I 4713: HJD 2456754- 2456795 (velocity -450 to -560 kms) He I 5876: HJD 2456791- 2456819 (velocity -690 to -800 kms) He I 7065: HJD 2456791- 2456810 (velocity -665 to -730 kms) Figures: Note that red indicates a high-velocity component noted above. He I 4713: http:www.astro.umontreal.carichardson4713.png He I 5876: http:www.astro.umontreal.carichardson5876.png He I 7065: http:www.astro.umontreal.carichardson7065.png These absorptions are likely related to the wind-wind collision region and bow shock, as suggested by the high-velocity absorption observed by Groh et al. (2010, AA, 519, 9) in the He I 10830 Atransition. In these cases, we suspect that we look along an arm of the shock cone and that we will see a fast absorption change from the other collision region shortly after periastron. We suspect that this is related to the multiple-components of the He II 4686 line that was noted by Walter (ATel6334), and is confirmed in our data. Further, high spectral resolution data are highly encouraged,especially for resolving powers greater than 50,000.These observations were obtained with the CTIO 1.5 m telescope, operated by the SMARTS Consortium, and were obtained through both SMARTS and NOAO programs 2012A-0216,2012B-0194

  3. Streamwise decay of localized states in channel flow

    Zammert, Stefan


    Channel flow, the pressure driven flow between parallel plates, has exact coherent structures that show various degrees of localization. For states which are localized in streamwise direction but extended in spanwise direction, we show that they are exponentially localized, with decay constants that are different on the upstream and downstream side. We extend the analysis of Brand and Gibson, J. Fluid Mech. 750, R1 (2014), for stationary states to the case of advected structures that is needed here, and derive expressions for the decay in terms of eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of certain second order differential equations. The results are in very good agreement with observations on exact coherent structures of different transversal wave length.

  4. Wavelet phase analysis of two velocity components to infer the structure of interscale transfers in a turbulent boundary-layer

    Keylock, Christopher J [Sheffield Fluid Mechanics Group and Department of Civil and Structural Engineering, University of Sheffield, Mappin Street, Sheffield, S1 3JD (United Kingdom); Nishimura, Kouichi, E-mail: [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan)


    Scale-dependent phase analysis of velocity time series measured in a zero pressure gradient boundary layer shows that phase coupling between longitudinal and vertical velocity components is strong at both large and small scales, but minimal in the middle of the inertial regime. The same general pattern is observed at all vertical positions studied, but there is stronger phase coherence as the vertical coordinate, y, increases. The phase difference histograms evolve from a unimodal shape at small scales to the development of significant bimodality at the integral scale and above. The asymmetry in the off-diagonal couplings changes sign at the midpoint of the inertial regime, with the small scale relation consistent with intense ejections followed by a more prolonged sweep motion. These results may be interpreted in a manner that is consistent with the action of low speed streaks and hairpin vortices near the wall, with large scale motions further from the wall, the effect of which penetrates to smaller scales. Hence, a measure of phase coupling, when combined with a scale-by-scale decomposition of perpendicular velocity components, is a useful tool for investigating boundary-layer structure and inferring process from single-point measurements. (paper)

  5. An accurate, fast, mathematically robust, universal, non-iterative algorithm for computing multi-component diffusion velocities

    Ambikasaran, Sivaram


    Using accurate multi-component diffusion treatment in numerical combustion studies remains formidable due to the computational cost associated with solving for diffusion velocities. To obtain the diffusion velocities, for low density gases, one needs to solve the Stefan-Maxwell equations along with the zero diffusion flux criteria, which scales as $\\mathcal{O}(N^3)$, when solved exactly. In this article, we propose an accurate, fast, direct and robust algorithm to compute multi-component diffusion velocities. To our knowledge, this is the first provably accurate algorithm (the solution can be obtained up to an arbitrary degree of precision) scaling at a computational complexity of $\\mathcal{O}(N)$ in finite precision. The key idea involves leveraging the fact that the matrix of the reciprocal of the binary diffusivities, $V$, is low rank, with its rank being independent of the number of species involved. The low rank representation of matrix $V$ is computed in a fast manner at a computational complexity of $\\...

  6. Automation of manufacturing products from intelligent polymeric composites with regard to the components relative velocity

    Олексій Модестович Халімовський


    Full Text Available A device design has been developed that makes it possible to insert intelligent sensors (IS into the products from composite polymeric materials to control their stress-strain state. The results of the experiments made it possible to improve the algorithm of coordinated work of the vector controlled induction electric drive of the device elements. The simulation results of the transient processes of the operating conditions of the IS automatic insertions into the predetermined spatial coordinates of the extruder channel polymer have been shown. The presence of such sensors within the given spatial coordinates of a product is realized due to rapid movement of molten polymer with included IS under use of the scheme of influx fitting to the polymer that moves in the main channel of the extruder. Based on the simulation results a dependence function for the immersion depth of the polymer melt with included IS from its movement velocity has been obtained. The approximation of this dependence via a polynomial function of 5-th order made it possible to determine with the relative error less than 1% analytically the linear velocity of the rod in the cylinder injector for transporting of the molten polymer with included IS to the predetermined spatial coordinates of the polymer channel of the extruder. For inserting of the intelligent sensors (IS into the depth of 1.2 mm a required motor speed of electric drive was calculated under considering of the peculiarities of the chosen kinematic scheme. The obtained experimental data have confirmed the possibility of technical implementation of the developed device as well as allowed refining of the algorithm for the automation system. The simulation results for the system have been presented. The system used the vector-controlled asynchronous electric drives with standard settings for their contours to provide the agreed movement of the plasticiser screw and the injector rod by inserting of IS at a given depth

  7. Development of Streamwise Counter-Rotating Vortices in Flat Plate Boundary Layer Pre-set by Leading Edge Patterns

    Hasheminejad, S.M.


    Development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices induced by leading edge patterns with different pattern shape is investigated using hot-wire anemometry in the boundary layer of a flat plate. A triangular, sinusoidal and notched patterns with the same pattern wavelength λ of 15mm and the same pattern amplitude A of 7.5mm were examined for free-stream velocity of 3m/s. The results show a good agreement with earlier studies. The inflection point on the velocity profile downstream of the trough of the patterns at the beginning of the vortex formation indicates that the vortices non-linearly propagate downstream. An additional vortex structure was also observed between the troughs of the notched pattern.

  8. On the use of applying Lie-group symmetry analysis to turbulent channel flow with streamwise rotation

    Frewer, Michael


    The study by Oberlack et al. (2006) consists of two main parts: a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of a turbulent plane channel flow with streamwise rotation and a preceding Lie-group symmetry analysis on the two-point correlation equation (TPC) to analytically predict the scaling of the mean velocity profiles for different rotation rates. We will only comment on the latter part, since the DNS result obtained in the former part has already been commented on by Recktenwald et al. (2009), stating that the observed mismatch between DNS and their performed experiment is possibly due to the prescription of periodic boundary conditions on a too small computational domain in the spanwise direction. By revisiting the group analysis part in Oberlack et al. (2006), we will generate more natural scaling laws describing better the mean velocity profiles than the ones proposed. However, due to the statistical closure problem of turbulence, this improvement is illusive. As we will demonstrate, any arbitrary invariant scal...

  9. What governs the bulk velocity of the jet components in active galactic nuclei?

    Chai, Bo; Gu, Minfeng


    We use a sample of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) with measured black hole masses to explore the jet formation mechanisms in these sources. Based on the K\\"{o}nigl's inhomogeneous jet model, the jet parameters, such as the bulk motion Lorentz factor, magnetic field strength, and electron density in the jet, can be estimated with the very long-baseline interferometry and X-ray data. We find a significant correlation between black hole mass and the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet components for this sample, while no significant correlation is present between the bulk Lorentz factor and the Eddington ratio. The massive black holes will be spun up through accretion, as the black holes acquire mass and angular momentum simultaneously through accretion. Recent investigation indeed suggested that most supermassive black holes in elliptical galaxies have on average higher spins than the black holes in spiral galaxies, where random, small accretion episodes (e.g., tidally disrupted stars, accretion of molecul...

  10. Formation Flight: Modes of Interaction of a Streamwise Vortex with a Wing

    McKenna, Chris; Bross, Matthew; Rockwell, Donald


    Aircraft flying together in an echelon or V formation experience aerodynamic advantages. Impingement of the tip vortex of the leader (upstream) wing on the follower wing can yield an increase of lift to drag ratio. This enhancement is known to be sensitive to the location of vortex impingement on the follower wing. Particle image velocimetry is employed to determine patterns of velocity and vorticity in successive crossflow planes, which characterize the streamwise evolution of the vortex structure along the chord of the follower wing and into its wake. Different modes of vortex-follower wing interaction are created by varying the spanwise location of the leader wing. These modes are defined by differences in the development of, and interaction between, the incident tip vortex from the leader wing and the tip vortex along the follower wing. Modes of development/interaction of the tip vortices include bifurcation, attenuation, and mutual induction. The bifurcation and attenuation modes decrease the strength of the follower tip vortex. In contrast, the mutual induction mode increases the strength of the follower tip vortex.

  11. Interference effects in the long-time tail of the velocity auto-correlation function for a dense one-component plasma in a magnetic field

    Suttorp, L.G.; Schoolderman, A.J.


    The long-time behaviour of the velocity autocorrelation function that describes the motion of a tagged particle through a one-component plasma in a uniform magnetic field has been determined with the use of mode-coupling theory. The long-time tail depends on the orientation of the velocity with resp

  12. Structure of the velocity gradient tensor in turbulent shear flows

    Pumir, Alain


    The expected universality of small-scale properties of turbulent flows implies isotropic properties of the velocity gradient tensor in the very large Reynolds number limit. Using direct numerical simulations, we determine the tensors formed by n =2 and 3 velocity gradients at a single point in turbulent homogeneous shear flows and in the log-layer of a turbulent channel flow, and we characterize the departure of these tensors from the corresponding isotropic prediction. Specifically, we separate the even components of the tensors, invariant under reflexion with respect to all axes, from the odd ones, which identically vanish in the absence of shear. Our results indicate that the largest deviation from isotropy comes from the odd component of the third velocity gradient correlation function, especially from the third moment of the derivative along the normal direction of the streamwise velocity component. At the Reynolds numbers considered (Reλ≈140 ), we observe that these second- and third-order correlation functions are significantly larger in turbulent channel flows than in homogeneous shear flow. Overall, our work demonstrates that a mean shear leads to relatively simple structure of the velocity gradient tensor. How isotropy is restored in the very large Reynolds limit remains to be understood.

  13. Secondary Flow Loss Reduction in a Turbine Cascade with a Linearly Varied Height Streamwise Endwall Fence

    Krishna Nandan Kumar


    Full Text Available The present study attempts to reduce secondary flow losses by application of streamwise endwall fence. After comprehensive analysis on selection of objective function for secondary flow loss reduction, coefficient of secondary kinetic energy (CSKE is selected as the objective function in this study. A fence whose height varies linearly from the leading edge to the trailing edge and located in the middle of the flow passage produces least CSKE and is the optimum fence. The reduction in CSKE by the optimum fence is 27% compared to the baseline case. The geometry of the fence is new and is reported for the first time. Idea of this fence comes from the fact that the size of the passage vortex (which is the prime component of secondary flow increases as it travels downstream, hence the height of fence should vary as the objective of fence is to block the passage vortex from crossing the passage and impinging on suction surface of the blade. Optimum fence reduced overturning and underturning of flow by more than 50% compared to the baseline case. Magnitude and spanwise penetration of the passage vortex were reduced considerably compared to the baseline case.

  14. Three-dimensional two-component velocity measurement of the flow field induced by the Vorticella picta microorganism using a confocal microparticle image velocimetry technique.

    Nagai, Moeto; Oishi, Masamichi; Oshima, Marie; Asai, Hiroshi; Fujita, Hiroyuki


    Understanding the biological feeding strategy and characteristics of a microorganism as an actuator requires the detailed and quantitative measurement of flow velocity and flow rate induced by the microorganism. Although some velocimetry methods have been applied to examine the flow, the measured dimensions were limited to at most two-dimensional two-component measurements. Here we have developed a method to measure three-dimensional two-component flow velocity fields generated by the microorganism Vorticella picta using a piezoscanner and a confocal microscope. We obtained the two-component velocities of the flow field in a two-dimensional plane denoted as the XY plane, with an observation area of 455x341 mum(2) and the resolution of 9.09 mum per each velocity vector by a confocal microparticle image velocimetry technique. The measurement of the flow field at each height took 37.5 ms, and it was repeated in 16 planes with a 2.50 mum separation in the Z direction. We reconstructed the three-dimensional two-component flow velocity field. From the reconstructed data, the flow velocity field [u((x,y,z)),v((x,y,z))] in an arbitrary plane can be visualized. The flow rates through YZ and ZX planes were also calculated. During feeding, we examined a suction flow to the mouth of the Vorticella picta and measured it to be to 300 pls.

  15. Optimizing Spanwise & Streamwise Spacings of MHK Devices in a Trapezoidal River Channel

    Roberts, J. D.; Barco, J.; Johnson, E.; James, S. C.; Jones, C. A.; Jepsen, R. A.


    The world is facing significant challenges meeting the energy demands for the future. Growing populations and developing economies as well as increasing energy expenditures highlight the need for a spectrum of energy sources. One promising renewable is marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy, which has the potential to make important contributions to future energy portfolios. Increasing interest in MHK energy has spurred to significant research on optimal placement of emerging technologies to maximize energy capture and minimize potential negative effects on the environment. Understanding changes to near- and far-field hydrodynamics is necessary to assess optimal placement. This work demonstrates a newly developed modeling tool that can be used to optimize MHK array layouts to maximize energy capture while minimizing potentially harmful environmental effects. SNL has developed and implemented modifications to an existing flow, sediment-dynamics, and water-quality code (SNL-EFDC) to qualify, quantify, and visualize the interaction and influence of MHK-device operation at a representative site using an appropriate and verified representation of momentum/energy extraction and turbulent wake generation. Various hypothetical MHK array configurations are simulated within a straight rectangular unidirectional flow conditions channel at several water column depths. Results show that the turbine-array power efficiency increased, nonlinearly, as turbine spacing was increased in both the spanwise and streamwise directions as well as when turbines were placed higher in the water column. Contour plots facilitate evaluation of tradeoffs between efficiency and spacing. In addition, results show that flow increases around and over/under the array leading to elevated velocities in the main channel, near the bank, and near the sediment bed, which may have potential implications for bank and bottom erosion, and navigation. SNL-EFDC's "MHK friendly" array-optimization tool is and will

  16. Development of plasma streamwise vortex generators for increased boundary layer control authority

    Bowles, Patrick; Schatzman, David; Corke, Thomas; Thomas, Flint


    This experimental study focuses on active boundary layer flow control utilizing streamwise vorticity produced by a single dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuator. A novel plasma streamwise vortex generator (PSVG) layout is presented that mimics the passive flow control characteristics of the trapezoidal vane vortex generator. The PSVG consists of a common insulated electrode and multiple, exposed streamwise oriented electrodes used to produce counter-rotating vortical structures. Smoke and oil surface visualization of boundary layer flow over a flat plate compare the characteristics of passive control techniques and different PSVG designs. Passive and active control over a generic wall-mounted hump model, Rec = 288,000-575,000, are compared through static wall pressure measurements along the model's centerline. Different geometric effects of the PSVG electrode configuration were investigated. PSVG's with triangular exposed electrodes outperformed ordinary PSVG's under certain circumstances. The electrode arrangement produced flow control mechanisms and effectiveness similar to the passive trapezoidal vane vortex generators.

  17. Numerical simulation of quasi-streamwise hairpin-like vortex generation in turbulent boundary layer

    ZHANG Nan; LU Li-peng; DUAN Zhen-zhen; YUAN Xiang-jiang


    A mechanism for generation of near wall quasi-streamwise hairpin-like vortex (QHV) and secondary quasi-streamwise vortices (SQV) is presented. The conceptual model of resonant triad in the theory of hydrodynamic instability and direct numerical simulation of a turbulent boundary layer were applied to reveal the formation of QHV and SQV. The generation procedures and the characteristics of the vortex structures are obtained, which share some similarities with previous numerical simulations. The research using resonant triad conceptual model and numerical simulation provides a possibility for investigating and controling the vortex structures, which play a dominant role in the evolution of coherent structures in the near-wall region.

  18. Ionized gas kinematics of galaxies in the CALIFA survey I: Velocity fields, kinematic parameters of the dominant component, and presence of kinematically distinct gaseous systems

    Garcia-Lorenzo, B; Barrera-Ballesteros, J K; Masegosa, J; Husemann, B; Falcón-Barroso, J; Lyubenova, M; Sanchez, S F; Walcher, J; Mast, D; Garcia-Benito, R; Mendez-Abreu, J; van de Ven, G; Spekkens, K; Holmes, L; Monreal-Ibero, A; del Olmo, A; Ziegler, B; Bland-Hawthorn, J; Sanchez-Blazquez, P; Iglesias-Paramo, J; Aguerri, J A L; Papaderos, P; Gomes, J M; Marino, R A; Delgado, R M Gonzalez; Cortijo-Ferrero, C; Lopez-Sanchez, A R; Bekeraite, S; Wisotzki, L; Bomans, D


    This work provides an overall characterization of the kinematic behavior of the ionized gas of the galaxies included in the Calar Alto Legacy Integral field Area (CALIFA), offering kinematic clues to potential users of this survey for including kinematical criteria for specific studies. From the first 200 galaxies observed by CALIFA, we present the 2D kinematic view of the 177 galaxies satisfying a gas detection threshold. After removing the stellar contribution, we used the cross-correlation technique to obtain the radial velocity of the dominant gaseous component. The main kinematic parameters were directly derived from the radial velocities with no assumptions on the internal motions. Evidence of the presence of several gaseous components with different kinematics were detected by using [OIII] profiles. Most objects in the sample show regular velocity fields, although the ionized-gas kinematics are rarely consistent with simple coplanar circular motions. 35% of the objects present evidence of a displacemen...

  19. Generalized logarithmic scaling for high-order moments of the longitudinal velocity component explained by the random sweeping decorrelation hypothesis

    Katul, Gabriel G.; Banerjee, Tirtha; Cava, Daniela; Germano, Massimo; Porporato, Amilcare


    Expressions for the logarithmic variations of the normalized turbulent longitudinal velocity (u2p ¯ +) 1 /p with normalized distance z/δ from a boundary for high-order (p) moments in the intermediate region of wall bounded flows characterized by thickness δ are derived. The ansatz that ( u2p¯ +) 1 /pvariationin ln(z/δ) originates from a compound effect of random sweeping and -1 power-law scaling in the longitudinal velocity spectrum Eu(k) is discussed, where k is the wavenumber. Using velocity time series sampled above a uniform ice sheet, an Eu(k) ˜ k-1 scaling is confirmed for kz 1. The data were then used to analyze assumptions required for the utility of the random sweeping decorrelation (RSD) hypothesis connecting the k-1 power-law with log-scaling in (u2p ¯ +) 1 /p. It has been found out that while the RSD hypothesis is operationally applicable to scales associated with attached eddies bounded by kz 1, significant interactions among high-order turbulent velocity and velocity increments lead to the conclusion that the RSD hypothesis cannot be exactly valid. Its operational utility stems from the observations that some of the interaction terms among the high-order velocity and velocity increments act in opposite directions thereby canceling their additive effects in RSD.

  20. Accurate measurement of streamwise vortices in low speed aerodynamic flows

    Waldman, Rye M.; Kudo, Jun; Breuer, Kenneth S.


    Low Reynolds number experiments with flapping animals (such as bats and small birds) are of current interest in understanding biological flight mechanics, and due to their application to Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) which operate in a similar parameter space. Previous PIV wake measurements have described the structures left by bats and birds, and provided insight to the time history of their aerodynamic force generation; however, these studies have faced difficulty drawing quantitative conclusions due to significant experimental challenges associated with the highly three-dimensional and unsteady nature of the flows, and the low wake velocities associated with lifting bodies that only weigh a few grams. This requires the high-speed resolution of small flow features in a large field of view using limited laser energy and finite camera resolution. Cross-stream measurements are further complicated by the high out-of-plane flow which requires thick laser sheets and short interframe times. To quantify and address these challenges we present data from a model study on the wake behind a fixed wing at conditions comparable to those found in biological flight. We present a detailed analysis of the PIV wake measurements, discuss the criteria necessary for accurate measurements, and present a new dual-plane PIV configuration to resolve these issues.

  1. Analysis of streamwise conduction in forced convection of microchannels using fin approach

    Suhandran MUNIANDY; Yew Mun HUNG


    The effects induced by streamwise conduction on the thermal characteristics of forced convection for single-phase liquid flow in rectangular microchannel heat sinks under imposed constant wall temperature have been studied.By employing the fin approach in the first law of analysis,models with and without streamwise conduction term in the energy equation were developed for hydrodynamically and thermally fully-developed flow under local thermal non-equilibrium for the solid and fluid phases.These two models were solved to obtain closed form analytical solutions for the fluid and solid temperature distributions and the analysis emphasized details of the variations induced by the streamwise conduction on the fluid temperature distributions.The effects of the Peclet number,aspect ratio,and thermal conductivity ratio on the thermal characteristics of forced convection in microchannel heat sinks were analyzed and discussed.This study reveals the conditions under which the effect of streamwise conduction is significant and should not be neglected in the forced convective heat transfer analysis ofmicrochannel heat sinks.

  2. Analysis of the Effects of Streamwise Lift Distribution on Sonic Boom Signature

    Yoo, Paul


    Investigation of sonic boom has been one of the major areas of study in aeronautics due to the benefits a low-boom aircraft has in both civilian and military applications. This work conducts a numerical analysis of the effects of streamwise lift distribution on the shock coalescence characteristics. A simple wing-canard-stabilator body model is used in the numerical simulation. The streamwise lift distribution is varied by fixing the canard at a deflection angle while trimming the aircraft with the wing and the stabilator at the desired lift coefficient. The lift and the pitching moment coefficients are computed using the Missile DATCOM v. 707. The flow field around the wing-canard- stabilator body model is resolved using the OVERFLOW-2 flow solver. Overset/ chimera grid topology is used to simplify the grid generation of various configurations representing different streamwise lift distributions. The numerical simulations are performed without viscosity unless it is required for numerical stability. All configurations are simulated at Mach 1.4, angle-of-attack of 1.50, lift coefficient of 0.05, and pitching moment coefficient of approximately 0. Four streamwise lift distribution configurations were tested.

  3. A perturbative model for predicting the high-Reynolds-number behaviour of the streamwise travelling waves technique in turbulent drag reduction

    Belan, Marco


    The background of this work is the problem of reducing the aerodynamic turbulent friction drag, which is an important source of energy waste in innumerable technological fields. We develop a theoretical framework aimed at predicting the behaviour of existing drag reduction techniques when used at the large values of Re which are typical of applications. We focus on one recently proposed and very promising technique, which consists in creating at the wall streamwise-travelling waves of spanwise velocity. A perturbation analysis of the Navier-Stokes equations that govern the fluid motion is carried out, for the simplest wall-bounded flow geometry, i.e. the plane channel flow. The streamwise base flow is perturbed by the spanwise time-varying base flow induced by the travelling waves. An asymptotic expansion is then carried out with respect to the velocity amplitude of the travelling wave. The analysis, although based on several assumptions, leads to predictions of drag reduction that agree well with the measure...

  4. A new three-component signal model to objectively select power Doppler wall filter cut-off velocity for quantitative microvascular imaging

    Elfarnawany, Mai; Lacefield, James C.


    The wall-filter selection curve (WFSC) method was developed to automatically select cut-off velocities for high-frequency power Doppler imaging. Selection curves are constructed by plotting color pixel density (CPD) as a function of wall filter cut-off velocity. A new three-component mathematical model is developed to guide the design of an online implementation of the method for in vivo imaging. The model treats Doppler imaging as a signal detection task in which the scanner must distinguish intravascular pixels from perivascular and extravascular pixels and includes a cost function to identify the optimum cut-off velocity that provides accurate vascular quantification and minimizes the effect of color pixel artifacts on visualization of vascular structures. The goodness of fit of the three-component model to flow-phantom data is significantly improved compared to a previous two-component model (F test, p new model indicate that selection curves should be sampled using at least 100 cut-off velocities to ensure robust performance of the automated WFSC method and determine an upper bound on CPD variability that ensures reliable vascular quantification accuracy, defined as CPD within 5% of the reference vascular volume fraction. Results of the simulations also provide evidence that limiting the selection of the cut-off velocity to a binary choice between the middle and right end of the characteristic interval is sufficient to meet the quantification accuracy goal. The model provides an intuitive, empirical description of the relationship between system settings and blood-flow detection performance in power Doppler imaging.

  5. Component

    Tibor Tot


    Full Text Available A unique case of metaplastic breast carcinoma with an epithelial component showing tumoral necrosis and neuroectodermal stromal component is described. The tumor grew rapidly and measured 9 cm at the time of diagnosis. No lymph node metastases were present. The disease progressed rapidly and the patient died two years after the diagnosis from a hemorrhage caused by brain metastases. The morphology and phenotype of the tumor are described in detail and the differential diagnostic options are discussed.

  6. Prediction of Streamwise Flow-Induced Vibration of A Circular Cylinder in the First Instability Range

    Xu Wan-hai; Yu Jian-xing; Du Jie; CHENG An-kang; KANG Hao


    The streamwise flow-induced vibration of a circular cylinder with symmetric vortex shedding in the first instability range is investigated,and a wake oscillator model for the dynamic response prediction is proposed.An approach is applied to calibrate the empirical parameters in the present model; the numerical and experimental results are compared to validate the proposed model.It can be found that the present prediction model is accurate and sufficiently simple to be easily applied in practice.

  7. The effects of the solar magnetic polarity and the solar wind velocity on Bz-component of the interplanetary magnetic field

    Youssef, M.; Mahrous, A.; Mawad, R.; Ghamry, E.; Shaltout, M.; El-Nawawy, M.; Fahim, A.


    We have studied the effect of both solar magnetic polarity and the solar wind velocity on the Bz-component of the interplanetary magnetic field, IMFBz, for the minimum activity of the solar cycles 21, 22, 23 and 24. We made a statistical study of IMFBz in the first section which is considered as an extension of Lyatsky et al. (2003). They made a statistical study of IMFBz for two periods of minimum solar activity 22 and 23 related to 1985-1987 and 1995-1997 when the solar magnetic field had opposite polarity. Our results seem to be consistent with the results obtained by Lyatsky et al. (2003). We found that there is a dependence of IMFBz on the IMFBx and the solar magnetic polarity for the minimum periods of the selected four solar cycles. In addition, we found that there is a dependence of IMFBz on the solar wind velocity.

  8. Experimental research of the influence of particle size and fluidization velocity on zeolite drying in a two-component fluidized bed

    Janevski Jelena N.


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the kinetics research into the drying of fine grained material in a two-component fluidized bed. A review of theoretical and experimental investigations of aerodynamics of the fluidized bed is given, with a special insight into two-component fluidized beds, as well as the basics of heat and material transfer through a fluidized bed. Apart from the theoretical basis of convective drying of wet materials in a stagnant fluidized bed, the paper also emphasizes different approaches to fine grained material drying kinetics. Based on the experimental investigations, where zealots used as a representative of fine grained material and polyethylene as a representative of inert material (another component, an analysis of the influence of working parameters on drying in a two-component fluidized bed is performed. It is established that, apart from the influence of the considered parameters, such as fluidization velocity, diameter of fine grained material particles and drying agent temperature, on the drying curve, the participation of inert material can considerably increase the intensity of heat and material transfer in the fluidized bed. A comparison of the experimental drying curves of fine grained material in the two-component fluidized bed with the results from the studies by other authors shows satisfactory agreement.

  9. Lagrangian structures and mixing in the wake of a streamwise oscillating cylinder

    Cagney, N.; Balabani, S.


    Lagrangian analysis is capable of revealing the underlying structure and complex phenomena in unsteady flows. We present particle-image velocimetry measurements of the wake of a cylinder undergoing streamwise vortex-induced vibrations and calculate the Finite-Time Lyapunov Exponents (FTLE) in backward- and forward-time. The FTLE fields are compared to the phase-averaged vorticity fields for the four different wake modes observed while the cylinder experiences streamwise vortex-induced vibrations. The backward-time FTLE fields characterise the formation of vortices, with the roll up of spiral-shaped ridges coinciding with the roll up of the shear layers to form the vortices. Ridges in the forward-time fields tend to lie perpendicular to the flow direction and separate nearby vortices. The shedding of vortices coincides with a "peel off" process in the forward-time FTLE fields, in which a ridge connected to the cylinder splits into two strips, one of which moves downstream. Particular attention is given to the "wake breathing" process, in which the streamwise motion of the cylinder causes both shear layers to roll up simultaneously and two vortices of opposite sign to be shed into the wake. In this case, the ridges in forward-time FTLE fields are shown to define "vortex cells," in which the new vortices form, and the FTLE fields allow the wake to be decomposed into three distinct regions. Finally, the mixing associated with each wake mode is examined, and it is shown that cross-wake mixing is significantly enhanced when the vibration amplitude is large and the vortices are shed alternately. However, while the symmetric shedding induces large amplitude vibrations, no increase in mixing is observed relative to the von Kármán vortex street observed behind near-stationary bodies.

  10. Effects of Wavy Channel Entrance Design on Streamwise Counter-rotating Vortices: a Visualization Study

    Alexander Christantho Budiman


    Full Text Available Two different channel entrance designs, code named Valley First (VF and Peak First (PF, were experimentally visualized by means of smoke-wire visualization technique to observe their effects towards the streamwise counter-rotating vortices generated. The spanwise wavelength of the vortices was pre-set by modifying the leading edge. The investigation was carried out on the laminar boundary-layer flow in a rectangular channel with one-sided wavy surface that has amplitude a and wavelength λ of 7.5 mm and 76 mm, respectively. The vortices in the channel with VF design preserve farther downstream than those on the PF design, which might be caused by the large favorable pressure gradient between the entrance flat plate and the first peak location. The counter-rotating vortices could still be observed at non-dimensionalized streamwise distance χ (= x/λ = 2.47 for Reynolds number Re (= UH/ν = 9900 in channel with VF design. For lower Re, the vortices could preserve further downstream. In contrast, in channel with PF design, the structures were only visible clearly up to approximately χ = 1.32 for Re = 4700 and χ = 0.39 for Re = 5200.

  11. Preferential accumulation and enhanced relative velocity of inertial droplets due to interactions with homogeneous isotropic turbulence

    Bateson, Colin; Aliseda, Alberto


    We present results from wind tunnel experiments on the evolution of small inertial (d ~ 10 - 200 μm) water droplets in homogeneous, isotropic, slowly decaying grid turbulence. High-speed imaging and a Particle Tracking algorithm are used to calculate relative velocity distributions. We analyze the preferential concentration, via the 2D Radial Distribution Function, and enhanced relative velocity of droplets resulting from their inertial interactions with the underlying turbulence. The two-dimensional particle velocities, measured from multi-image tracks along a streamwise plane, are conditionally analyzed with respect to the distance from the nearest particle. We focus on the non-normality of the statistics for the particle-particle separation velocity component to examine the influence of the inertial interaction with the turbulence on the dynamics of the droplets. We observe a negative bias (in the mean and mode) in the separation velocity of particles for short separations, signaling a tendency of particles to collide more frequently than a random agitation by turbulence would predict. The tails of the distribution are interpreted in terms of the collision/coalescence process and the probability of collisions that do not lead to coalescence.

  12. Convenient method for estimating underground s-wave velocity structure utilizing horizontal and vertical components microtremor spectral ratio; Bido no suiheido/jogedo supekutoru hi wo riyoshita kan`i chika s ha sokudo kozo suiteiho

    Yamamoto, H.; Yoshioka, M.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Studies were conducted about the method of estimating the underground S-wave velocity structure by inversion making use of the horizontal/vertical motion spectral ratio of microtremors. For this purpose, a dynamo-electric velocity type seismograph was used, capable of processing the east-west, north-south, and vertical components integratedly. For the purpose of sampling the Rayleigh wave spectral ratio, one out of all the azimuths was chosen, whose horizontal motion had a high Fourier frequency component coherency with the vertical motions. For the estimation of the underground S-wave velocity structure, parameters (P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density, and layer thickness) were determined from the minimum residual sum of squares involving the observed microtremor spectral ratio and the theoretical value calculated by use of a model structure. The known boring data was utilized for the study of the S-wave velocity in the top layer, and it was determined using an S-wave velocity estimation formula for the Morioka area constructed using the N-value, depth, and geological classification. It was found that the optimum S-wave velocity structure even below the top layer well reflects the S-wave velocity obtained by the estimation formula. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Convenient method for estimating underground s-wave velocity structure utilizing horizontal and vertical components microtremor spectral ratio; Bido no suiheido/jogedo supekutoru hi wo riyoshita kan`i chika s ha sokudo kozo suiteiho

    Yamamoto, H.; Yoshioka, M.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Studies were conducted about the method of estimating the underground S-wave velocity structure by inversion making use of the horizontal/vertical motion spectral ratio of microtremors. For this purpose, a dynamo-electric velocity type seismograph was used, capable of processing the east-west, north-south, and vertical components integratedly. For the purpose of sampling the Rayleigh wave spectral ratio, one out of all the azimuths was chosen, whose horizontal motion had a high Fourier frequency component coherency with the vertical motions. For the estimation of the underground S-wave velocity structure, parameters (P-wave velocity, S-wave velocity, density, and layer thickness) were determined from the minimum residual sum of squares involving the observed microtremor spectral ratio and the theoretical value calculated by use of a model structure. The known boring data was utilized for the study of the S-wave velocity in the top layer, and it was determined using an S-wave velocity estimation formula for the Morioka area constructed using the N-value, depth, and geological classification. It was found that the optimum S-wave velocity structure even below the top layer well reflects the S-wave velocity obtained by the estimation formula. 5 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Derivation and evaluation of an approximate analysis for three-dimensional viscous subsonic flow with large secondary velocities. [finite difference method

    Anderson, O. L.; Briley, W. R.; Mcdonald, H.


    An approximate analysis is presented for calculating three-dimensional, low Mach number, laminar viscous flows in curved passages with large secondary flows and corner boundary layers. The analysis is based on the decomposition of the overall velocity field into inviscid and viscous components with the overall velocity being determined from superposition. An incompressible vorticity transport equation is used to estimate inviscid secondary flow velocities to be used as corrections to the potential flow velocity field. A parabolized streamwise momentum equation coupled to an adiabatic energy equation and global continuity equation is used to obtain an approximate viscous correction to the pressure and longitudinal velocity fields. A collateral flow assumption is invoked to estimate the viscous correction to the transverse velocity fields. The approximate analysis is solved numerically using an implicit ADI solution for the viscous pressure and velocity fields. An iterative ADI procedure is used to solve for the inviscid secondary vorticity and velocity fields. This method was applied to computing the flow within a turbine vane passage with inlet flow conditions of M = 0.1 and M = 0.25, Re = 1000 and adiabatic walls, and for a constant radius curved rectangular duct with R/D = 12 and 14 and with inlet flow conditions of M = 0.1, Re = 1000, and adiabatic walls.

  15. Numerical study of streamwise and cross flow in the presence of heat and mass transfer

    Rizwan-ul-Haq; Soomro, Feroz Ahmed; Khan, Z. H.; Al-Mdallal, Qasem M.


    The present model is devoted to investigate the streamwise and cross flow of a viscous fluid over a heated moving surface. Viscous dissipation effects are also considered with heat and mass transfer effects and these effects with cross flow have not been explored yet in the literature. Governing boundary layer equations consist in the form of nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs). Compatible transformations are applied to change such equations into ordinary differential equations which are further solved using the Runge-Kutta technique and shooting method. Linear stability analysis is also performed over the obtained solutions to validate the results and to determine the smallest eigenvalues. Three different kinds of fluids namely: acetone, water and ethaline glycol are investigated to analyse the heat transfer rate. The problem contains important physical parameters namely: Prandtl number, Eckert numbers and Lewis number. The obtained solutions are discussed in detail against each physical parameter using graphs and tables.

  16. Joint Stream-Wise THP Transceiver Design for the Multiuser MIMO Downlink

    Miao, Wei; Chen, Xiang; Zhao, Ming; Zhou, Shidong; Wang, Jing

    This paper addresses the problem of joint transceiver design for Tomlinson-Harashima Precoding (THP) in the multiuser multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) downlink under both perfect and imperfect channel state information at the transmitter (CSIT). For the case of perfect CSIT, we differ from the previous work by performing stream-wise (both inter-user and intra-user) interference pre-cancelation at the transmitter. A minimum total mean square error (MT-MSE) criterion is used to formulate our optimization problem. By some convex analysis of the problem, we obtain the necessary conditions for the optimal solution. An iterative algorithm is proposed to handle this problem and its convergence is proved. Then we extend our designed algorithm to the robust version by minimizing the conditional expectation of the T-MSE under imperfect CSIT. Simulation results are given to verify the efficacy of our proposed schemes and to show their superiorities over existing MMSE-based THP schemes.

  17. Kinetic assessment of measured mass flow rates and streamwise pressure distributions in microchannel gas flows

    Jing Fan; Chong Xie; Jianzheng Jiang


    Measured mass flow rates and streamwise pressure distributions of gas flowing through microchannels were reported by many researchers. Assessment of these data is crucial before they are used in the examination of slip models and numerical schemes, and in the design of microchannel elements in various MEMS devices. On the basis of kinetic solutions of the mass flow rates and pressure distributions in microchannel gas flows, the measured data available are properly normalized and then are compared with each other. The 69 normalized data of measured pressure distributions are in excellent agreement, and 67 of them are within 1 ± 0.05. The normalized data of mass flow-rates ranging between 0.95 and 1 agree well with each other as the inlet Knudsen number Kni > 0.02, but they scat ter between 0.85 and 1.15 as Kni < 0.02 with, to some extent, a very interesting bifurcation trend.

  18. Curved ducts with strong secondary motion - Velocity measurements of developing laminar and turbulent flow

    Taylor, A. M. K. P.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Yianneskis, M.


    Two orthogonal components of velocity and associated Reynolds stresses are determined in a square-sectioned, 90 degree bend of 2.3 radius ratio by utilizing laser-Doppler velocimetry for Reynolds numbers of 790 and 40,000. Results show that boundary layers at the bend inlet of 0.25 and 0.15 of the hydraulic diameter create secondary velocity maxima of 0.6 and 0.4 of the bulk flow velocity, respectively. It is concluded that the boundary layer thickness is important to the flow development, mainly in the first half of the bend, especially when it is reduced to 0.15 of the hydraulic diameter. Smaller secondary velocities are found for turbulent flow in an identical duct with a radius ratio of 7.0 than in the strongly curved bend, although their effect is more important to the streamwise flow development because of the smaller pressure gradients. In addition, the detail and accuracy of the measurements make them suitable for evaluation of numerical techniques and turbulence models.

  19. Mean and fluctuating velocity fields of a diamond turbulent jet

    Xu Min-Yi; Zhang Jian-Peng; Mi Jian-Chun; Nathan G.J.; Kalt P.A.M.


    The present paper reports the first investigation on a turbulent jet issuing from a diamond orifice (hereafter termed a "diamond jet") with an aspect ratio of 1.7.Velocity measurements were conducted in the transitional region,and the exit Reynolds number of the jet was 50000.For comparison,a round jet with identical normalized boundary conditions was also measured.It is shown that the diamond jet decays and spreads faster than the round jet does over the measured flow region.The axis-switching phenomenon is observed in the diamond jet.Although both jets display primary coherent structures in the near field,these structures are found to break down more rapidly in the diamond jet,due to the higher three-dimensionality of the flow.Moreover,the streamwise components of the Reynolds normal stress and all the shear stresses reach their maxima around the location of the maximal mean shear while the maxima of the lateral components of the Reynolds normal stresses occur around the centreline of the jet.

  20. Continuous Time Random Walks for the Evolution of Lagrangian Velocities

    Dentz, Marco; Comolli, Alessandro; Borgne, Tanguy Le; Lester, Daniel R


    We develop a continuous time random walk (CTRW) approach for the evolution of Lagrangian velocities in steady heterogeneous flows based on a stochastic relaxation process for the streamwise particle velocities. This approach describes persistence of velocities over a characteristic spatial scale, unlike classical random walk methods, which model persistence over a characteristic time scale. We first establish the relation between Eulerian and Lagrangian velocities for both equidistant and isochrone sampling along streamlines, under transient and stationary conditions. Based on this, we develop a space continuous CTRW approach for the spatial and temporal dynamics of Lagrangian velocities. While classical CTRW formulations have non-stationary Lagrangian velocity statistics, the proposed approach quantifies the evolution of the Lagrangian velocity statistics under both stationary and non-stationary conditions. We provide explicit expressions for the Lagrangian velocity statistics, and determine the behaviors of...

  1. Flow interaction between a streamwise oscillating cylinder and a downstream stationary cylinder

    Xu, S. J.; Gan, L.; Zhou, Y.


    In this paper, we present some experimental results about the physical effects of a cylinder's streamwise oscillation motion on a downstream one in a tandem arrangement. The upstream cylinder undergoes a controlled simple harmonic oscillation at amplitudes A/ d = 0.2-0.8, where d is the cylinder diameter, and the frequency ratio of f_e/f_s = 0-3.0, where f_e is the cylinder oscillation frequency and f_s is the natural frequency of vortex shedding from a single stationary cylinder. Under these conditions, the vortex shedding is locked to the controlled oscillation motion. Flow visualisation using the planar laser-induced fluorescence and qualitative measurements using hot-wire anemometry reveal three distinct flow regimes behind the downstream cylinder. For f_e/f_s > (f_e/f_s)_c, where (f_e/f_s)_c is a critical frequency ratio which depends on A/ d and Reynolds number Re, a so-called SA-mode occurs. The upstream oscillating cylinder generates binary vortices symmetrically arranged about the centreline, each containing a pair of counter-rotating vortices, and the downstream cylinder sheds vortices alternately at 0.5f_e. For 0.7-1.0 < f_e/f_s < (f_e/f_s)_c a complex vortex street that consists of two outer rows of vortices generated by the oscillating cylinder and two inner rows of vortices shed from the downstream stationary cylinder, which is referred to as AA-mode. For 0.3-0.6 < f_e/f_s< 0.8-1.0, one single staggered vortex street (A-mode) is observed. It is also found that, when f_e/f_s is near unity, the streamwise interaction of the two cylinders gives rise to the most energetic wake in the cross-stream direction, in terms of its maximum width, and the wake is AA-mode-like. The effects of other parameters such as the spacing between the two cylinders, Re and A/ d on the flow pattern are also discussed in details. The observations are further compared to the stationary tandem cylinder cases.

  2. Streamwise-body-force-model for rapid simulation combining internal and external flow fields

    Cui Rong


    Full Text Available A streamwise-body-force-model (SBFM is developed and applied in the overall flow simulation for the distributed propulsion system, combining internal and external flow fields. In view of axial stage effects, fan or compressor effects could be simplified as body forces along the streamline. These body forces which are functions of local parameters could be added as source terms in Navier-Stokes equations to replace solid boundary conditions of blades and hubs. The validation of SBFM with uniform inlet and distortion inlet of compressors shows that pressure performance characteristics agree well with experimental data. A three-dimensional simulation of the integration configuration, via a blended wing body aircraft with a distributed propulsion system using the SBFM, has been completed. Lift coefficient and drag coefficient agree well with wind tunnel test results. Results show that to reach the goal of rapid integrated simulation combining internal and external flow fields, the computational fluid dynamics method based on SBFM is reasonable.

  3. A statistical model to predict streamwise turbulent dispersion from the wall at small times

    Nguyen, Quoc; Papavassiliou, Dimitrios V.


    Data from simulations are used to develop a statistical model that can provide the streamwise dispersion distribution of passive particles released from the wall of a turbulent flow channel. It is found that a three-point gamma probability density function is the statistical distribution that can describe the dispersion of particles with Schmidt numbers ranging from 6 to 2400 at relatively short times after the release of the particles. Scaling arguments are used to physically justify and predict the parameters of the gamma three-point distribution. The model is used to predict particle separation that can occur in turbulent flow under special conditions. Close to the channel wall, turbulent convection is not the dominant transport mechanism, but molecular diffusion can dominate transport depending on the Schmidt number of the particles. This leads to turbulence-induced separation rather than mixing, and the currently proposed model can be used to predict the level of separation. Practically, these results can be applied for separating very small particles or even macromolecules in dilute suspensions.

  4. Streamwise counter-rotating vortices generated by triangular leading edge pattern in flat plate boundary layer

    Hasheminejad, S. M.


    A series of flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the development of streamwise counter-rotating vortices over a flat plate induced by triangular patterns at the leading edge of a flat plate. The experiments were carried out for a Reynolds number based on the pattern wavelength (λ) of 3080. The results depict the onset, development and breakdown of the vortical structures within the flat plate boundary layer. Moreover, the effect of one spanwise array of holes with diameter of 0.2λ (=3 mm) was examined. This investigation was done on two different flat plates with holes placed at the location x/λ = 2 downstream of the troughs and peaks. The presence of holes after troughs does not show any significant effect on the vortical structures. However, the plate with holes after peaks noticeably delays the vortex breakdown. In this case, the “mushroom-like” vortices move away from the wall and propagate downstream with stable vortical structures. The vortex growth is halted further downstream but start to tilt aside.

  5. Analysis of streamwise-oriented vortex interactions for two wings in close proximity

    Barnes, Caleb J.; Visbal, Miguel R.; Gordnier, Raymond E.


    This investigation addresses the impingement of the trailing vortex provided by a leader-wing upon a follower-wing operating in close proximity. Exploration of the relative spacing between the two wings reveals several distinct flow regimes occur within a small range of lateral positions of the incident vortex. These changes effectively alter the evolution of the follower-wing wake via mutual induction between the incident and trailing vortices. Several unsteady mechanisms impact the general flow field in each regime. The incident vortex for an inboard impingement rapidly decays over the wing due to transition to turbulence. A tip-aligned vortex results in a highly unsteady interaction and generates enhanced surface pressure fluctuations beneath the tip vortex. Placing the incident vortex outboard elicits mutual instability between the leader and follower-wing trailing vortices. While lift-enhancement was found to be dominated by an inviscid increase in effective angle of attack, viscous effects in the near-tip region alter the local surface force distribution and influence the rolling moment coefficient. These flow variations which occur over a small range of lateral positions could generate buffeting loads in the presence of a wandering streamwise vortex.

  6. A parabolic velocity-decomposition method for wind turbines

    Mittal, Anshul; Briley, W. Roger; Sreenivas, Kidambi; Taylor, Lafayette K.


    An economical parabolized Navier-Stokes approximation for steady incompressible flow is combined with a compatible wind turbine model to simulate wind turbine flows, both upstream of the turbine and in downstream wake regions. The inviscid parabolizing approximation is based on a Helmholtz decomposition of the secondary velocity vector and physical order-of-magnitude estimates, rather than an axial pressure gradient approximation. The wind turbine is modeled by distributed source-term forces incorporating time-averaged aerodynamic forces generated by a blade-element momentum turbine model. A solution algorithm is given whose dependent variables are streamwise velocity, streamwise vorticity, and pressure, with secondary velocity determined by two-dimensional scalar and vector potentials. In addition to laminar and turbulent boundary-layer test cases, solutions for a streamwise vortex-convection test problem are assessed by mesh refinement and comparison with Navier-Stokes solutions using the same grid. Computed results for a single turbine and a three-turbine array are presented using the NREL offshore 5-MW baseline wind turbine. These are also compared with an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solution computed with full rotor resolution. On balance, the agreement in turbine wake predictions for these test cases is very encouraging given the substantial differences in physical modeling fidelity and computer resources required.

  7. Three-dimensional instability analysis of boundary layers perturbed by streamwise vortices

    Martín, Juan A.; Paredes, Pedro


    A parametric study is presented for the incompressible, zero-pressure-gradient flat-plate boundary layer perturbed by streamwise vortices. The vortices are placed near the leading edge and model the vortices induced by miniature vortex generators (MVGs), which consist in a spanwise-periodic array of small winglet pairs. The introduction of MVGs has been experimentally proved to be a successful passive flow control strategy for delaying laminar-turbulent transition caused by Tollmien-Schlichting (TS) waves. The counter-rotating vortex pairs induce non-modal, transient growth that leads to a streaky boundary layer flow. The initial intensity of the vortices and their wall-normal distances to the plate wall are varied with the aim of finding the most effective location for streak generation and the effect on the instability characteristics of the perturbed flow. The study includes the solution of the three-dimensional, stationary, streaky boundary layer flows by using the boundary region equations, and the three-dimensional instability analysis of the resulting basic flows by using the plane-marching parabolized stability equations. Depending on the initial circulation and positioning of the vortices, planar TS waves are stabilized by the presence of the streaks, resulting in a reduction in the region of instability and shrink of the neutral stability curve. For a fixed maximum streak amplitude below the threshold for secondary instability (SI), the most effective wall-normal distance for the formation of the streaks is found to also offer the most stabilization of TS waves. By setting a maximum streak amplitude above the threshold for SI, sinuous shear layer modes become unstable, as well as another instability mode that is amplified in a narrow region near the vortex inlet position.

  8. Energy velocity and group velocity



    A new Lagrangian method for studying the relationship between the energy velocity and the group velocity is described. It is proved that under the usual quasistatic electric field, the energy velocity is identical to the group velocity for acoustic waves in anisotropic piezoelectric (or non-piezoelectric) media.

  9. Correlative velocity fluctuations over a gravel river bed

    Dinehart, R.L.


    Velocity fluctuations in a steep, coarse-bedded river were measured in flow depths ranging from 0.8 to 2.2 m, with mean velocities at middepth from 1.1 to 3.1 m s−1. Analyses of synchronous velocity records for two and three points in the vertical showed a broad range of high coherence for wave periods from 10 to 100 s, centering around 10–30 s. Streamwise correlations over distances of 9 and 14 m showed convection velocities near mean velocity for the same wave periods. The range of coherent wave periods was a small multiple of predicted “boil” periods. Correlative fluctuations in synchronous velocity records in the vertical direction suggested the blending of short pulses into longer wave periods. The highest spectral densities were measured beyond the range of coherent wave periods and were probably induced by migration of low-relief bed forms.

  10. Doppler Frequency Shift in Ocean Wave Measurements: Frequency Downshift of a Fixed Spectral Wave Number Component by Advection of Wave Orbital Velocity

    Hwang, Paul


    ... expected intrinsic frequency in the frequency spectrum measured by a stationary probe. The advection of the wave number component by the orbital current of background waves produces a net downshift in the encounter frequency...

  11. The formation mechanism and impact of streamwise vortices on NACA 0021 airfoil's performance with undulating leading edge modification

    Rostamzadeh, N.; Hansen, K. L.; Kelso, R. M.; Dally, B. B.


    Wings with tubercles have been shown to display advantageous loading behavior at high attack angles compared to their unmodified counterparts. In an earlier study by the authors, it was shown that an undulating leading-edge configuration, including but not limited to a tubercled model, induces a cyclic variation in circulation along the span that gives rise to the formation of counter-rotating streamwise vortices. While the aerodynamic benefits of full-span tubercled wings have been associated with the presence of such vortices, their formation mechanism and influence on wing performance are still in question. In the present work, experimental and numerical tests were conducted to further investigate the effect of tubercles on the flow structure over full-span modified wings based on the NACA 0021 profile, in the transitional flow regime. It is found that a skew-induced mechanism accounts for the formation of streamwise vortices whose development is accompanied by flow separation in delta-shaped regions near the trailing edge. The presence of vortices is detrimental to the performance of full-span wings pre-stall, however renders benefits post-stall as demonstrated by wind tunnel pressure measurement tests. Finally, primary and secondary vortices are identified post-stall that produce an enhanced momentum transfer effect that reduces flow separation, thus increasing the generated amount of lift.

  12. Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor

    Perotti, Jose; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)


    This presentation provides an overview of the development of new hurricane wind sensor (Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor) for the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) which is designed to withstand winds of up to three hundred miles an hour. The proposed Extreme Velocity Wind Sensor contains no moveable components that would be exposed to extreme wind conditions. Topics covered include: need for new hurricane wind sensor, conceptual design, software applications, computational fluid dynamic simulations of design concept, preliminary performance tests, and project status.

  13. Instantaneous velocity profile measurements in a turbulent boundary layer

    Robinson, S. K.


    Instantaneous wall shear stress and streamwise velocities have been measured simultaneously in a flat-plate, turbulent boundary layer at moderate Reynolds number in an effort to provide experimental support for large eddy simulations. Data were obtained using a buried-wire, wall shear gage and a hot-wire rake positioned in the log region of the flow. Fluctuations of the instantaneous U(+) versus Y(+) profiles about a mean law of the wall are shown to be significant and complex. Peak cross-correlation values between wall shear stress and the velocities are high, and reflect the passage of a large structure inclined at a small angle to the wall. Estimates of this angle are consistent with those made by other investigators. Conditional sampling techniques were used to detect the passage of various sizes and types of flow disturbances (events), and to estimate their mean frequency of occurrence. Events characterized by large aand sudden streamwise accelerations were found to be highly coherent throughout the log region and were strongly correlated with large fluctuations in wall shear stress. Phase randomness between the near-wall quantities and the outer velocities was small. The results suggest that the flow events detected by conditional sampling applied to velocities in the log region may be related to the bursting process.

  14. Computing discharge using the index velocity method

    Levesque, Victor A.; Oberg, Kevin A.


    Application of the index velocity method for computing continuous records of discharge has become increasingly common, especially since the introduction of low-cost acoustic Doppler velocity meters (ADVMs) in 1997. Presently (2011), the index velocity method is being used to compute discharge records for approximately 470 gaging stations operated and maintained by the U.S. Geological Survey. The purpose of this report is to document and describe techniques for computing discharge records using the index velocity method. Computing discharge using the index velocity method differs from the traditional stage-discharge method by separating velocity and area into two ratings—the index velocity rating and the stage-area rating. The outputs from each of these ratings, mean channel velocity (V) and cross-sectional area (A), are then multiplied together to compute a discharge. For the index velocity method, V is a function of such parameters as streamwise velocity, stage, cross-stream velocity, and velocity head, and A is a function of stage and cross-section shape. The index velocity method can be used at locations where stage-discharge methods are used, but it is especially appropriate when more than one specific discharge can be measured for a specific stage. After the ADVM is selected, installed, and configured, the stage-area rating and the index velocity rating must be developed. A standard cross section is identified and surveyed in order to develop the stage-area rating. The standard cross section should be surveyed every year for the first 3 years of operation and thereafter at a lesser frequency, depending on the susceptibility of the cross section to change. Periodic measurements of discharge are used to calibrate and validate the index rating for the range of conditions experienced at the gaging station. Data from discharge measurements, ADVMs, and stage sensors are compiled for index-rating analysis. Index ratings are developed by means of regression

  15. Quantitative velocity modulation spectroscopy

    Hodges, James N.; McCall, Benjamin J.


    Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy (VMS) is arguably the most important development in the 20th century for spectroscopic study of molecular ions. For decades, interpretation of VMS lineshapes has presented challenges due to the intrinsic covariance of fit parameters including velocity modulation amplitude, linewidth, and intensity. This limitation has stifled the growth of this technique into the quantitative realm. In this work, we show that subtle changes in the lineshape can be used to help address this complexity. This allows for determination of the linewidth, intensity relative to other transitions, velocity modulation amplitude, and electric field strength in the positive column of a glow discharge. Additionally, we explain the large homogeneous component of the linewidth that has been previously described. Using this component, the ion mobility can be determined.

  16. Experiment for estimating phase velocity and power fraction of Love wave from three component microtremor array observation in Morioka area; Moriokashiiki deno bido no sanseibun array kansoku ni yoru love ha no iso sokudo oyobi power hi suitei no kokoromi

    Yamamoto, H.; Yakuwa, A.; Saito, T. [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    Three component microtremor array observations were carried out in two locations in the city of Morioka for an attempt of estimating phase velocity and power fraction of Love wave by applying the expanded three component spatial self-correlation method. The microtremors were observed by using a seismograph with a natural period of one second. The arrays were so arranged as to form an equilateral triangle consisted of seven points. The maximum radii were 100 m, 50 m, 25 m and 12.5 m for vertical movements, and 100 m and 30 m for horizontal movements at the Iwate University, and 80 m, 40 m, 20 m and 10 m for vertical movements and 90 m for horizontal movements at the Morioka Technical Highschool. The analysis has used three sections, each with relatively steady state of about 40 seconds as selected from records of observations for about 30 minutes. The result of the discussions revealed that it is possible to derive phase velocity of not only Rayleigh waves but also Love waves by applying the expanded spatial self-correlation method to the observation record. Thus, estimation of underground structures with higher accuracy has become possible by using simultaneously the Rayleigh waves and Love waves. 3 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. The streamwise turbulence intensity in the intermediate layer of turbulent pipe flow

    Vassilicos, J C; Foucaut, J -M; Stanislas, M


    The spectral model of Perry, Henbest & Chong (1986) predicts that the integral length-scale varies very slowly with distance to the wall in the intermediate layer. The only way for the integral length scale's variation to be more realistic while keeping with the Townsend-Perry attached eddy spectrum is to add a new wavenumber range to the model at wavenumbers smaller than that spectrum. This necessary addition can also account for the high Reynolds number outer peak of the turbulent kinetic energy in the intermediate layer. An analytic expression is obtained for this outer peak in agreement with extremely high Reynolds number data by Hultmark, Vallikivi, Bailey & Smits (2012, 2013). The finding of Dallas, Vassilicos & Hewitt (2009) that it is the eddy turnover time and not the mean flow gradient which scales with distance to the wall and skin friction velocity in the intermediate layer implies, when combined with Townsend's (1976) production-dissipation balance, that the mean flow gradient has an ...

  18. Streamwise Evolution of Statistical Events in a Model Wind-Turbine Array

    Viestenz, Kyle; Cal, Raúl Bayoán


    Hot-wire anemometry data, obtained from a wind-tunnel experiment containing a 3 × 3 model wind-turbine array, are used to conditionally average the Reynolds stresses. Nine profiles at the centreline behind the array are analyzed to characterize the turbulent velocity statistics of the wake flow. Quadrant analysis yields statistical events occurring in the wake of the wind farm where quadrants 2 and 4 produce ejections and sweeps, respectively. The scaled difference between these two events is expressed via the Δ R0 parameter and is based on the Δ S0 quantity as introduced by M. R. Raupach (J Fluid Mech 108:363-382, 1981). Δ R0 attains a maximum value at hub height and changes sign near the top of the rotor. The ratio of quadrant events of upward momentum flux to those of the downward flux, known as the exuberance, is examined and reveals the effect of root vortices persisting to eight rotor diameters downstream. These events are then associated with the triple correlation term present in the turbulent kinetic energy equation of the fluctuations where it is found that ejections play the dual role of entraining mean kinetic energy while convecting turbulent kinetic energy out of the turbine canopy. The development of these various quantities possesses significance in closure models, and is assessed in light of wake remediation, energy transport and power fluctuations, where it is found that the maximum fluctuation is about 30% of the mean power produced.

  19. Development of an optimal velocity selection method with velocity obstacle

    Kim, Min Geuk; Oh, Jun Ho [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The Velocity obstacle (VO) method is one of the most well-known methods for local path planning, allowing consideration of dynamic obstacles and unexpected obstacles. Typical VO methods separate a velocity map into a collision area and a collision-free area. A robot can avoid collisions by selecting its velocity from within the collision-free area. However, if there are numerous obstacles near a robot, the robot will have very few velocity candidates. In this paper, a method for choosing optimal velocity components using the concept of pass-time and vertical clearance is proposed for the efficient movement of a robot. The pass-time is the time required for a robot to pass by an obstacle. By generating a latticized available velocity map for a robot, each velocity component can be evaluated using a cost function that considers the pass-time and other aspects. From the output of the cost function, even a velocity component that will cause a collision in the future can be chosen as a final velocity if the pass-time is sufficiently long enough.

  20. Diffraction imaging and velocity analysis using oriented velocity continuation

    Decker, Luke


    We perform seismic diffraction imaging and velocity analysis by separating diffractions from specular reflections and decomposing them into slope components. We image slope components using extrapolation in migration velocity in time-space-slope coordinates. The extrapolation is described by a convection-type partial differential equation and implemented efficiently in the Fourier domain. Synthetic and field data experiments show that the proposed algorithm is able to detect accurate time-migration velocities by automatically measuring the flatness of events in dip-angle gathers.

  1. Near-wall hot-wire measurements . Part II: Turbulence time scale, convective velocity and spectra in the viscous sublayer

    Khoo, B. C.; Chew, Y. T.; Teo, C. J.

    This work continues the studies of Khoo et al. (Exp. Fluids 29: 448-460, 2001), where experiments were performed in turbulent-channel and flat-plate boundary-layer flows using near-wall hot-wire probes. The probability density function (pdf) of the wall-shear stress and streamwise velocity fluctuations in the viscous sublayer, buffer region and beyond were compared and analyzed. The convective velocity Uc of the streamwise velocity fluctuations in the very near-wall region was obtained using a two-point correlation technique. It was found that in the viscous sublayer, Uc is approximately constant at 13uτ and 15uτ, respectively, for the channel and boundary-layer flows. Spectra data for the viscous sublayer are presented for the first time, and the normalized spectral plots for different flow conditions collapse at high frequencies or wavenumbers, thus indicating the possible presence of small-scale universality at different Reynolds numbers. The integral time scale corresponding to the streamwise velocity fluctuations in the viscous sublayer is also presented.

  2. Effect of Streamwise Fences on Secondary Flows and Losses in a Twod-imensional Turbine Rotor Cascade

    M. Govardhan; A. Rajender; J.P. Umang


    To control secondary flows,streamwise fences were attached to end wall of a linear turbine rotor cascade.The cascade had 8 blades of 400 mm long and 175 mm chord.The blades deflected the flow by 120°.The fences were madeout of 0.7 mm thick brass sheet and the heights of the fences were 14 mm,18 mm respectively.The curvature of the fences was the same as that of the blade camber line.The fences were fixed normal to the end wall and at half pitch away from the blades.The experimental program consists of total pressure,static pressure measurements at the inlet and outlet of the cascade,by using five-hole probe.In addition,static pressure on the blade suction surface and pressure surface was also obtained.Fences are effective in preventing the movement of the pressure side leg of the horseshoe vortex.Consequently the accumulation of low energy fluid on the suction surface is minimised.End wall losses are reduced by the fences due to weakening of the end wall cross flow.

  3. Estimation of underground structure using phase velocities of Love-and Rayleigh-waves from three-component microtremor array observation at Morioka city; Moriokashi ni okeru sanseibun are bido kansoku ni yoru reiri-ha rabu-ha no ryoiso sokudo wo mochiita chika kozo suitei

    Yamamoto, Hidekazu; Saito, Tokumi; Ohashi, Hiromasa [Iwate University, Iwate (Japan)


    In conventional microtremor prospecting methods, underground structure is estimated using the phase velocity of Rayleigh-wave only. However, it is considered that the underground structure can be estimated at a higher accuracy by using two phase velocities of Rayleigh-wave and Love-wave that directly reflects S-wave velocity structure. Therefore, three-component microtremor array observation of a circle (equilateral triangle) with the maximum radius of 40 to 250 m was carried out at the center of Morioka city. Analysis was carried out by means of extended space with autocorrelation to obtain phase velocities of Love- and Rayleigh-waves. The frequency zone of the obtained Rayleigh-wave phase velocity is 1.5 Hz to 8.6 Hz, and the phase velocity is 2670 m/s to 733 m/s. The frequency zone of the obtained Love-wave phase velocity is 3 Hz to 8.6 Hz, and the phase velocity is 2100 m/s to 412 m/s. The underground structure obtained by using two observed phase velocities is clarified under a depth of 116 m. A stratum deemed to be the basement exists from a depth of 21 m (Vs=1100 m). As a result, the underground structure can be estimated at a higher accuracy if two phase velocities of Love-and Rayleigh-waves are used. (translated by NEDO)

  4. 湍流边界层流向-展向平面中发卡涡的涡迹特征%Hairpin vortex signature in the streamwise-spanwise plane in a turbulent boundary layer

    刘璐璐; 张军; 翟树成; 张国平


    The analysis of detailed flow structure of a turbulent boundary layer is of great significance for establishing the link among the detailed flow structure characteristics, flow noise and wall friction, which can help lay the foundation for deeper research of the drag and noise reduction mechanism. PIV (particle image velocimetry) technique is applied in this paper to study the hairpin vortex signatures in the streamwise-spanwise plane in turbulent boundary layer flow on a flat plate. The experiment successfully identifies low-speed streaks from PIV instantaneous velocity field and the distributions of spanwise spacing of low-speed streaks along with wall-normal distance and Reynolds number are obtained through statistical analysis in the logarithmic layer. Meanwhile, the counter-rotating vortices surrounding the long low-speed streaks in the streamwise-spanwise plane are extracted through vortex identification criterion, which reveals the relationship between hairpin packets and long low-speed streaks. Besides, this paper performs a research about the distribution of spanwise spacing of hairpin vortex legs, considering various wall-normal distances and the effect of Reynolds numbers.%研究湍流边界层精细流动结构特征,有助于建立流动结构特征与壁面摩阻、流噪声之间的关联,从而为湍流边界层减阻降噪机理的深层次研究奠定基础。该文应用PIV(粒子图像测速)技术,对平板湍流边界层中发卡涡在流向-展向平面的涡迹特征进行研究。利用PIV瞬时速度场,捕捉到明显的低速条带,通过统计分析获得对数层范围低速条带间距随壁面法向距离的变化以及雷诺数的影响规律。同时,通过涡识别准则,提取在流向-展向平面内长低速条带两侧的反向漩涡带,揭示了发卡涡包与长低速条带的内在关系。此外,还研究了流向-展向平面发卡涡涡腿间距随壁面法向距离的变化规律以及雷诺数的影响。

  5. Heat transfer, velocity-temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress from Navier-Stokes computations of shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows

    Wang, C. R.; Hingst, W. R.; Porro, A. R.


    The properties of 2-D shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interaction flows were calculated by using a compressible turbulent Navier-Stokes numerical computational code. Interaction flows caused by oblique shock wave impingement on the turbulent boundary layer flow were considered. The oblique shock waves were induced with shock generators at angles of attack less than 10 degs in supersonic flows. The surface temperatures were kept at near-adiabatic (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) and cold wall (ratio of wall static temperature to free stream total temperature) conditions. The computational results were studied for the surface heat transfer, velocity temperature correlation, and turbulent shear stress in the interaction flow fields. Comparisons of the computational results with existing measurements indicated that (1) the surface heat transfer rates and surface pressures could be correlated with Holden's relationship, (2) the mean flow streamwise velocity components and static temperatures could be correlated with Crocco's relationship if flow separation did not occur, and (3) the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model should be modified for turbulent shear stress computations in the interaction flows.

  6. Simultaneous PIV and PTV measurements of wind and sand particle velocities

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Yuan; Lee, Sang Joon


    Wind-blown sand is a typical example of two-phase particle-laden flows. Owing to lack of simultaneous measured data of the wind and wind-blown sand, interactions between them have not yet been fully understood. In this study, natural sand of 100-125 μm taken from Taklimakan Desert was tested at the freestream wind speed of 8.3 m/s in an atmospheric boundary layer wind tunnel. The captured flow images containing both saltating sand and small wind tracer particles, were separated by using a digital phase mask technique. The 2-D PIV (particle imaging velocimetry) and PTV (particle tracking velocimetry) techniques were employed to extract simultaneously the wind velocity field and the velocity field of dispersed sand particles, respectively. Comparison of the mean streamwise wind velocity profile and the turbulence statistics with and without sand transportation reveal a significant influence of sand movement on the wind field, especially in the dense saltating sand layer ( y/ δ < 0.1). The ensemble-averaged streamwise velocity profile of sand particles was also evaluated to investigate the velocity lag between the sand and the wind. This study would be helpful in improving the understanding of interactions between the wind and the wind-blown sand.

  7. Normalized velocity profiles of field-measured turbidity currents

    Xu, Jingping


    Multiple turbidity currents were recorded in two submarine canyons with maximum speed as high as 280 cm/s. For each individual turbidity current measured at a fixed station, its depth-averaged velocity typically decreased over time while its thickness increased. Some turbidity currents gained in speed as they traveled downcanyon, suggesting a possible self-accelerating process. The measured velocity profiles, first in this high resolution, allowed normalizations with various schemes. Empirical functions, obtained from laboratory experiments whose spatial and time scales are two to three orders of magnitude smaller, were found to represent the field data fairly well. The best similarity collapse of the velocity profiles was achieved when the streamwise velocity and the elevation were normalized respectively by the depth-averaged velocity and the turbidity current thickness. This normalization scheme can be generalized to an empirical function Y = exp(–αXβ) for the jet region above the velocity maximum. Confirming theoretical arguments and laboratory results of other studies, the field turbidity currents are Froude-supercritical.

  8. Shed Vortex Structure and Phase-Averaged Velocity Statistics in Symmetric/Asymmetric Turbulent Flat Plate Wakes

    Rai, Man Mohan


    The near wake of a flat plate is investigated via direct numerical simulations (DNS). Many earlier experimental investigations have used thin plates with sharp trailing edges and turbulent boundary layers to create the wake. This results in large theta divided by D (sub TE) values (theta is the boundary layer momentum thickness towards the end of the plate and D (sub TE) is the trailing edge thickness). In the present study the emphasis is on relatively thick plates with circular trailing edges (CTE) resulting in theta divided by D values less than one (D is the plate thickness and the diameter of the CTE), and vigorous vortex shedding. The Reynolds numbers based on the plate length and D are 1.255 x 10 (sup 6) and 10,000, respectively. Two cases are computed; one with turbulent boundary layers on both the upper and lower surfaces of the plate (statistically the same, symmetric wake, Case TT) and, a second with turbulent and laminar boundary layers on the upper and lower surfaces, respectively (asymmetric case, Case TL). The data and understanding obtained is of considerable engineering interest, particularly in turbomachinery where the pressure side of an airfoil can remain laminar or transitional because of a favorable pressure gradient and the suction side is turbulent. Shed-vortex structure and phase-averaged velocity statistics obtained in the two cases are compared here. The upper negative shed vortices in Case TL (turbulent separating boundary layer) are weaker than the lower positive ones (laminar separating boundary layer) at inception (a factor 1.27 weaker in terms of peak phase-averaged spanwise vorticity at first appearance of a peak). The upper vortices weaken rapidly as they travel downstream. A second feature of interest in Case TL is a considerable increase in the peak phase-averaged, streamwise normal intensity (random component) with increasing streamwise distance (x divided by D) that occurs nears the positive vortex cores. This behavior is

  9. Wake Oscillator Model Proposed for the Stream-Wise Vortex-Induced Vibration of a Circular Cylinder in the Second Excitation Region

    徐万海; 杜杰; 余建星; 李敬成


    A wake oscillator model is presented for the stream-wise vortex-induced vibration of a circular cylinder in the second excitation region. The near wake dynamics related to the fluctuating nature of alternate vortex shedding is modeled based on the classical van der Pol equation. An appropriate approach used in cross-Sow VIV is developed to estimate the model empirical parameters. The comparison between our calculations and experiments is carried out to validate the proposed model. It is found that the present model results agree fairly well with the experimental data.%A wake oscillator model is presented for the stream-wise vortex-induced vibration of a circular cylinder in the second excitation region.The near wake dynamics related to the fluctuating nature of alternate vortex shedding is modeled based on the classical van der Pol equation.An appropriate approach used in cross-flow VIV is developed to estimate the nodel empirical parameters.The comparison between our calculations and experiments is carried out to validate the proposed model.It is found that the present model results agree fairly well with the experimental data.



    By large eddy simulation (LES), turbulent databases of channel flows at different Reynolds numbers were established. Then, the probability distribution functions of the streamwise and wall-normal velocity fluctuations were obtained and compared with the corresponding normal distributions. By hypothesis test, the deviation from the normal distribution was analyzed quantitatively. The skewness and flatness factors were also calculated. And the variations of these two factors in the viscous sublayer, buffer layer and log-law layer were discussed. Still illustrated were the relations between the probability distribution functions and the burst events-sweep of high-speed fluids and ejection of low-speed fluids-in the viscous sub-layer, buffer layer and loglaw layer. Finally the variations of the probability distribution functions with Reynolds number were examined.

  11. Frequency-wavenumber velocity spectra, Taylor's hypothesis, and length scales in a natural gravel bed river

    Macmahan, Jamie; Reniers, Ad; Ashley, Will; Thornton, Ed


    Macroscale turbulent coherent flow structures in a natural fast-flowing river were examined with a combination of a novel 2 MHz Acoustic Doppler Beam (ADB) and a Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) to characterize the streamwise horizontal length scales and persistence of coherent flow structures by measuring the frequency (f)-streamwise-wavenumber (ks) energy density velocity spectrum, E(f, ks), for the first time in natural rivers. The ADB was deployed under a range of Froude numbers (0.1-0.6) at high Reynolds numbers (˜106) based on depth and velocity conditions within a gravel bed reach of the Kootenai River, Idaho. The MLE employed on the ADB data increased our ability to describe river motions with relatively long (>10 m) length scales in ˜1 m water depths. The E(f, ks) spectra fell along a ridge described by V = f/ks, where Vis the mean velocity over depth, consistent with Taylor's hypothesis. New, consistent length scale measures are defined based on averaged wavelengths of the low-frequencyE(f, ks) and coherence spectra. Energetic (˜50% of the total spectral energy), low-frequency (f 1 m/s,Lmwere found to be significantly longer than their corresponding coherence lengths, suggesting that the turbulent structures evolve rapidly under these conditions. This is attributed to the stretching and concomitant deformation of preexisting macroturbulent motions by the ubiquitous bathymetry-induced spatial flow accelerations present in a natural gravel bed river.

  12. Velocity anticipation in the optimal velocity model

    DONG Li-yun; WENG Xu-dan; LI Qing-ding


    In this paper,the velocity anticipation in the optimal velocity model (OVM) is investigated.The driver adjusts the velocity of his vehicle by the desired headway,which depends on both instantaneous headway and relative velocity.The effect of relative velocity is measured by a sensitivity function.A specific form of the sensitivity function is supposed and the involved parameters are determined by the both numerical simulation and empirical data.It is shown that inclusion of velocity anticipation enhances the stability of traffic flow.Numerical simulations show a good agreement with empirical data.This model provides a better description of real traffic,including the acceleration process from standing states and the deceleration process approaching a stopped car.

  13. Statistics of Peculiar Velocities from Cosmic Strings

    Moessner, R.


    We calculate the probability distribution of a single component of peculiar velocities due to cosmic strings, smoothed over regions with a radius of several $h^{-1}$ Mpc. The probability distribution is shown to be Gaussian to good accuracy, in agreement with the distribution of peculiar velocities deduced from the 1.9 Jy IRAS redshift survey. Using the normalization of parameters of the cosmic string model from CMB measurements, we show that the rms values for peculiar velocities inferred fr...

  14. Frequency-Wavenumber Velocity Spectra, Taylor's Hypothesis and Length-Scales in a Natural Gravel-Bed River

    Thornton, E. B.; MacMahan, J. H.; Reniers, A. J.; Ashley, W.


    Macro-scale turbulent coherent flow structures in a natural fast-flowing river were examined with a combination of a novel 2 MHz Acoustic Doppler Beam (ADB) and a Maximum Likelihood Estimator (MLE) to characterize the stream-wise horizontal length scales and persistence of coherent flow structures by measuring the frequency (f)- streamwise-wavenumber (k) energy density velocity spectrum, E(f,k ), for the first time in natural rivers. The ADB was deployed under a range of Froude numbers (0.1-0.6) at high Reynolds Numbers based on depth and velocity conditions within a gravel-bed reach of the Kootenai River, ID. The MLE employed on the ADB data increased our ability to describe river motions with relatively long (>10 m) length scales in ~1 m water depths. The E(f,k) fall along a ridge described by V=f/k, where V is the mean velocity over depth, verifying Taylor's hypothesis. New, consistent length scale measures are defined based on averaged wave lengths of the low frequency E(f,k) and coherence spectra. Energetic (~50% of the total spectral energy), low-frequency (f1 m/s, L were found to be significantly longer than their corresponding coherence lengths suggesting that the turbulent structures evolve rapidly under these conditions. This is attributed to the stretching and concomitant deformation of pre-existing macro-turbulent motions by the ubiquitous bathymetry-induced spatial flow accelerations present in a natural gravel-bed river.Mean motion lengths, Lm, (circles) and coherence lengths, Lc, (squares) as a function of the mean streamwise velocity at locations in Zones 1-4.

  15. Multi-component pre-stack time-imaging and migration-based velocity analysis in transversely isotropic media; Imagerie sismique multicomposante et analyse de vitesse de migration en milieu transverse isotrope

    Gerea, C.V.


    Complementary to the recording of compressional (P-) waves, the observation of P-S converted waves has recently been receiving specific attention. This is mainly due to their tremendous potential as a tool for fracture and lithology characterization, imaging sediments in gas saturated rocks, and imaging shallow sediments with higher resolution than conventional P-P data. In a conventional marine seismic survey, we cannot record P-to-S converted-wave energy since the fluids cannot support shear-wave strain. Thus, to capture the converted-wave energy, we need to record it at the water-bottom casing an ocean-bottom cable (OBC). The S-waves recorded at the seabed are mainly converted from P to S (i.e., PS-waves or C-waves) at the subsurface reflectors. The most accurate way to image seismic data is pre-stack depth migration. In this thesis, I develop a numerically efficient 2.5-D true-amplitude elastic Kirchhoff pre-stack migration algorithm designed to handle OBC data gathered along a single line. All the kinematic and dynamic elastic Green's functions required in the computation of true-amplitude weight term of Kirchhoff summation, are based on the non-hyperbolic explicit approximations of P- and SV-wave travel-times in layered transversely isotropic (VTI) media. Hence, this elastic imaging algorithm is very well-suited for migration-based velocity analysis techniques, for which fast, robust and iterative pre-stack migration is desired. In this thesis, I approach also the topic of anisotropic velocity model building for elastic pre-stack time-imaging. and propose an original methodology for joint PP-PS migration-based velocity analysis (MVA) in layered VTI anisotropic media. Tests on elastic synthetic and real OBC seismic data ascertain the validity of the pre-stack migration algorithm and velocity analysis methodology. (author)

  16. Tachoastrometry: astrometry with radial velocities

    Pasquini, L; Lombardi, M; Monaco, L; Leão, I C; Delabre, B


    Spectra of composite systems (e.g., spectroscopic binaries) contain spatial information that can be retrieved by measuring the radial velocities (i.e., Doppler shifts) of the components in four observations with the slit rotated by 90 degrees in the sky. By using basic concepts of slit spectroscopy we show that the geometry of composite systems can be reliably retrieved by measuring only radial velocity differences taken with different slit angles. The spatial resolution is determined by the precision with which differential radial velocities can be measured. We use the UVES spectrograph at the VLT to observe the known spectroscopic binary star HD 188088 (HIP 97944), which has a maximum expected separation of 23 milli-arcseconds. We measure an astrometric signal in radial velocity of 276 \\ms, which corresponds to a separation between the two components at the time of the observations of 18 $\\pm2$ milli-arcseconds. The stars were aligned east-west. We describe a simple optical device to simultaneously record p...

  17. The Velocity Distribution of Isolated Radio Pulsars

    Arzoumanian, Z; Cordes, J M


    (Abridged) We infer the velocity distribution of radio pulsars by modelling their birth, evolution, and detection in large-scale 0.4 GHz pulsar surveys, and by comparing model distributions of measurable pulsar properties with survey data using a likelihood function. We test models that characterize a population's birth rate, luminosity, shutoff of radio emission, birth locations, and birth velocities. We infer that the radio beam luminosity (i) is comparable to the energy flux of relativistic particles in models for spin-driven magnetospheres, signifying that radio emission losses reach nearly 100% for the oldest pulsars; and (ii) scales approximately as sqrt(Edot) which, in magnetosphere models, is proportional to the voltage drop available for acceleration of particles. We find that a two-component velocity distribution with characteristic velocities of 90 km/s and 500 km/s is greatly preferred to any one-component distribution. We explore some consequences of the preferred birth velocity distribution: (i)...

  18. Numerical investigation of turbulent flow within a channel with chamfered edge ribs in stream-wise direction

    Bianco, Vincenzo; Borreani, Walter; Lomonaco, Guglielmo


    The present paper reports a numerical investigation of a forced convection water flow within a two-dimensional ribbed channel. A uniform heat flux is applied on the external walls. The flow regime is turbulent and Reynolds numbers are in the range 10·103÷100·103. Square and chamfered rib shapes with different arrangements are analyzed in terms of various dimensionless heights and pitches of elements. The investigation is accomplished by using a CFD code and its aim consists in finding of arrangements to obtain a high Performance Evaluation Criterion (PEC). Results are presented in terms of temperature and velocity fields, profiles of average Nusselt number, average heat transfer coefficients and required pumping power. Heat transfer enhancement increases with the ribs presence, but it is accompanied by an increasing pumping power. In particular, the best performances in terms of Nusselt are shown for p/e = 4 and 12 for both the square and chamfered cases. The heat transfer improves as Reynolds number raises, but a substantial increase of pumping power is also observed. The utilization of chamfered ribs allows to increase the PEC, especially at low Re. The maximum PEC is equal to 1.3 and it is obtained for Re = 104 and p/e = 4.

  19. Standard logarithmic mean velocity distribution in a band-limited restricted nonlinear model of turbulent flow in a half-channel

    Bretheim, Joel U; Gayme, Dennice F


    Numerical simulations of wall-turbulence using the restricted nonlinear (RNL) model generate realistic mean velocity profiles in plane Couette and channel flow at low Reynolds numbers. The results are less accurate at higher Re, and while a logarithmic region is observed, its von-K\\'arm\\'an constant is not consistent with the standard logarithmic law. In half-channel flow we show that limiting the streamwise-varying wavenumber support of RNL turbulence to one or few empirically determined modes improves its predictions considerably. In particular, the mean velocity profiles obtained with the band-limited RNL model follow standard logarithmic behavior for the higher Reynolds numbers in this study.

  20. High-velocity clouds

    Wakker, BP; vanWoerden, H


    High-velocity clouds (HVCs) consist of neutral hydrogen (HI) at velocities incompatible with a simple model of differential galactic rotation; in practice one uses \\v(LSR)\\ greater than or equal to 90 km/s to define HVCs. This review describes the main features of the sky and velocity distributions,

  1. Transverse Spectral Velocity Estimation

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    A transverse oscillation (TO)-based method for calculating the velocity spectrum for fully transverse flow is described. Current methods yield the mean velocity at one position, whereas the new method reveals the transverse velocity spectrum as a function of time at one spatial location. A convex...

  2. The nature of near-wall convection velocity in turbulent channel flow

    Yuhui Cao; Jun Chen; Zhensu She


    A novel notion of turbulent structure-the local cascade structure-is introduced to study the convection phenomenon in a turbulent channel flow. A space-time cross-correlation method is used to calculate the convection velo-city. It is found that there are two characteristic convection speeds near the wall, one associated with small-scale streaks of a lower speed and another with streamwise vortices and hairpin vortices of a higher speed. The new concept of tur-bulent structure is powerful to illustrate the dominant role of coherent structures in the near-wall convection, and to reveal also the nature of the convection-the propagation of patterns of velocity fluctuations-which is scale-dependent.

  3. Velocity selective optical pumping

    Aminoff, C. G.; Pinard, M.


    We consider optical pumping with a quasi monochromatic tunable light beam, in the low intensity limit where a rate equation regime is obtained The velocity selective optical pumping (V.S.O.P.) introduces a correlation between atomic velocity and internal variables in the ground (or metastable) state. The aim of this article is to evaluate these atomic observables (orientation, alignment, population) as a function of velocity, using a phenomenological description of the relaxation effect of co...

  4. Numerical performance analysis of acoustic Doppler velocity profilers in the wake of an axial-flow marine hydrokinetic turbine

    Richmond, Marshall C.; Harding, Samuel F.; Romero Gomez, Pedro DJ


    The use of acoustic Doppler current profilers (ADCPs) for the characterization of flow conditions in the vicinity of both experimental and full scale marine hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines is becoming increasingly prevalent. The computation of a three dimensional velocity measurement from divergent acoustic beams requires the assumption that the flow conditions are homogeneous between all beams at a particular axial distance from the instrument. In the near wake of MHK devices, the mean fluid motion is observed to be highly spatially dependent as a result of torque generation and energy extraction. This paper examines the performance of ADCP measurements in such scenarios through the modelling of a virtual ADCP (VADCP) instrument in the velocity field in the wake of an MHK turbine resolved using unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD). This is achieved by sampling the CFD velocity field at equivalent locations to the sample bins of an ADCP and performing the coordinate transformation from beam coordinates to instrument coordinates and finally to global coordinates. The error in the mean velocity calculated by the VADCP relative to the reference velocity along the instrument axis is calculated for a range of instrument locations and orientations. The stream-wise velocity deficit and tangential swirl velocity caused by the rotor rotation lead to significant misrepresentation of the true flow velocity profiles by the VADCP, with the most significant errors in the transverse (cross-flow) velocity direction.

  5. Experimental investigation of transverse velocity estimation using cross-correlation

    Bjerngaard, Rasmus; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    A technique for estimating the full flow velocity vector has previously been presented by our group. Unlike conventional estimators, that only detect the axial component of the flow, this new method is capable of estimating the transverse velocity component. The method uses focusing along the flow....... A mean parabolic velocity profile was obtained for purely transverse flow with a mean bias to the true profile of -2.5% relative to the peak velocity and a standard deviation of 13.3% relative to the peak velocity. Twenty pulse-echo lines were used for each estimate and 18 profiles were obtained...

  6. Velocity Field in a Vertical Foam Film

    Seiwert, Jacopo; Kervil, Ronan; Nou, Soniraks; Cantat, Isabelle


    The drainage of vertical foam films governs their lifetime. For a foam film supported on a rectangular solid frame, when the interface presents a low resistance to shear, the drainage dynamics involves a complex flow pattern at the film scale, leading to a drainage time proportional to the frame width. Using an original velocimetry technique, based on fluorescent foam films and photobleaching, we measure the horizontal and vertical components of the velocity in a draining film, thus providing the first quantitative experimental evidence of this flow pattern. Upward velocities up to 10 cm /s are measured close to the lateral menisci, whereas a slower velocity field is obtained in the center of the film, with comparable downwards and horizontal components. Scaling laws are proposed for all characteristic velocities, coupling gravitational effects, and capillary suction.

  7. Estimation of vector velocity


    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...

  8. Estimation of vector velocity


    Using a pulsed ultrasound field, the two-dimensional velocity vector can be determined with the invention. The method uses a transversally modulated ultrasound field for probing the moving medium under investigation. A modified autocorrelation approach is used in the velocity estimation. The new...

  9. Performance of a vector velocity estimator

    Munk, Peter; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    It is a well-known limitation of all commercially available scanners that only the velocity component along the propagation direction of the emitted pulse is measured, when evaluating blood velocities with ultrasound. Proposals for solving this limitation using several transducers or speckle...... tracking can be found in the literature, but no method with a satisfactory performance has been found that can be used in a commercial implementation. A method for estimation of the velocity vector is presented. Here an oscillation transverse to the ultrasound beam is generated, so that a transverse motion...

  10. Principle and performance of the transverse oscillation vector velocity technique in medical ultrasound

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Udesen, Jesper;


    to the axial blood velocity. A major drawback is that only the axial velocity component is found. Often the lateral component is most important as blood vessels run parallel to the skin surface. The talk presents the transverse oscillation approach, which also can find the lateral velocity component by using...

  11. Velocity spectrum for the Iranian plateau

    Bastami, Morteza; Soghrat, M. R.


    Peak ground acceleration (PGA) and spectral acceleration values have been proposed in most building codes/guidelines, unlike spectral velocity (SV) and peak ground velocity (PGV). Recent studies have demonstrated the importance of spectral velocity and peak ground velocity in the design of long period structures (e.g., pipelines, tunnels, tanks, and high-rise buildings) and evaluation of seismic vulnerability in underground structures. The current study was undertaken to develop a velocity spectrum and for estimation of PGV. In order to determine these parameters, 398 three-component accelerograms recorded by the Building and Housing Research Center (BHRC) were used. The moment magnitude (Mw) in the selected database was 4.1 to 7.3, and the events occurred after 1977. In the database, the average shear-wave velocity at 0 to 30 m in depth (Vs30) was available for only 217 records; thus, the site class for the remaining was estimated using empirical methods. Because of the importance of the velocity spectrum at low frequencies, the signal-to-noise ratio of 2 was chosen for determination of the low and high frequency to include a wider range of frequency content. This value can produce conservative results. After estimation of the shape of the velocity design spectrum, the PGV was also estimated for the region under study by finding the correlation between PGV and spectral acceleration at the period of 1 s.

  12. Velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy

    Xu, Z.; Koplitz, B.; Wittig, C.


    The technique of velocity-aligned Doppler spectrosocopy (VADS) is presented and discussed. For photolysis/probe experiments with pulsed initiation, VADS can yield Doppler profiles for nascent photofragments that allow detailed center-of-mass (c.m.) kinetic energy distributions to be extracted. When compared with traditional forms of Doppler spectroscopy, the improvement in kinetic energy resolution is dramatic. Changes in the measured profiles are a consequence of spatial discrimination (i.e., focused and overlapping photolysis and probe beams) and delayed observation. These factors result in the selective detection of species whose velocities are aligned with the wave vector of the probe radiation k/sub pr/, thus revealing the speed distribution along k/sub pr/ rather than the distribution of nascent velocity components projected upon this direction. Mathematical details of the procedure used to model VADS are given, and experimental illustrations for HI, H/sub 2/S, and NH/sub 3/ photodissociation are presented. In these examples, pulsed photodissociation produces H atoms that are detected by sequential two-photon, two-frequency ionization via Lyman-..cap alpha.. with a pulsed laser (121.6+364.7 nm), and measuring the Lyman-..cap alpha.. Doppler profile as a function of probe delay reveals both internal and c.m. kinetic energy distributions for the photofragments. Strengths and weaknesses of VADS as a tool for investigating photofragmentation phenomena are also discussed.

  13. Scaling properties of the mean wall-normal velocity in zero-pressure-gradient boundary layers

    Wei, Tie; Klewicki, Joseph


    The scaling properties of the mean wall-normal velocity V (x ,y ) in zero-pressure-gradient laminar and turbulent boundary-layer flows are investigated using numerical simulation data, physical experiment data, and integral analyses of the governing equations. The maximum mean wall-normal velocity V∞ and the boundary-layer thickness δ are evidenced to be the proper scaling for V over most if not all of the boundary layer. This is different from the behavior of the mean streamwise velocity U or the turbulent shear stress T =-ρ , which depend on different characteristic length scales in the regions near and away from the surface, respectively. The reason for this apparent difference in scaling behaviors is described physically relative to the downstream development of the U velocity profile and the mechanisms of boundary-layer growth. Insights pertaining to this are further surmised from an analytical relationship for the ratio of the displacement to momentum thickness, i.e., shape factor H . Integral analyses using the continuity and mean momentum equation show that U∞V∞/uτ2=H , where uτ is the friction velocity. Both the laminar similarity solution and direct numerical simulation data in post-transitional flows convincingly support this relation. Over the transitional regime, data of sufficiently high quality are lacking to check if this relation remains valid.

  14. Superluminal Recession Velocities

    Davis, T M; Davis, Tamara M.; Lineweaver, Charles H.


    Hubble's Law, v=HD (recession velocity is proportional to distance), is a theoretical result derived from the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker metric. v=HD applies at least as far as the particle horizon and in principle for all distances. Thus, galaxies with distances greater than D=c/H are receding from us with velocities greater than the speed of light and superluminal recession is a fundamental part of the general relativistic description of the expanding universe. This apparent contradiction of special relativity (SR) is often mistakenly remedied by converting redshift to velocity using SR. Here we show that galaxies with recession velocities faster than the speed of light are observable and that in all viable cosmological models, galaxies above a redshift of three are receding superluminally.

  15. Simultaneous measurements of three velocity components by a flying hot-wire method using an x-array hot-wire probe. 2nd Report. Calibration technique and its application to a flow field downstream of a vortex generator; X gata nessen probe wo mochiita flying hot wire ho ni yoru sokudo no sanhoko seibun no doji keisoku. 2. Nessen sensor no kosei hoho to uzu hasseiki karyu no keisokurei

    Shiino, T. [Nissan Motor Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Yamamoto, K.; Shizawa, T.; Honami, S. [Science University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering


    This paper proposes a calibration technique for a flying hot-wire method that uses with an X-array hot-wire probe. The flying hot-wire system moves the hot-wire probe in the span wise Z-direction of the flow field. The calibration of yaw and pitch angle sensitivities of the probe is of utmost importance to this system. After careful calibration, the system is applied to a three-dimensional flow to obtain three components of the mean velocity and six components of the Reynolds stress. The mean velocities and the Reynolds shear stresses downstream of a pair of vortex generators embedded in a two-dimensional boundary layer show the same profiles as those obtained with an ordinary X-array hot-wire probe. In one traverse, the flying hot-wire system can measure 60 points of six components of the Reynolds stress with good accuracy. 6 refs., 15 figs.

  16. Protection by high velocity thermal spraying coatings on thick walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs 'SHARK'. Overview at the end of the project; Schutz durch Hochgeschwindigkeitsflammspritzschichten auf dickwandigen End- und Zwischenlagerbauteilen zur Reduktion von Reparaturen, Korrosion und Kosten 'SHARK'. Ein Ueberblick zum Abschluss des Projektes

    Behrens, Sabine; Hassel, Thomas; Bach, Friedrich-Wilhelm [Unterwassertechnikum Hannover, Garbsen (Germany). Inst. fuer Werkstoffkunde; Steinwarz, Wolfgang; Dyllong, Nobert; Tragsdorf, Inga Maren [Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH, Krefeld (Germany)


    The corrosion protection of the internal space of thick-walled interim and permanent storage facility components, such as Castor {sup copyright} containers, are ensured nowadays by a galvanic nickel layer. The method has proved itself and protects the base material of the containers at the underwater loading in the Nuclear power station from a corrosive attack. Although, the galvanic nickel plating is a relatively time consuming method, it lasts for several days for each container, and is with a layer thickness of 1,000 {mu}m also expensive. To develop an alternative, faster and more economical method, a BMBF research project named - 'SHARK - protection by high velocity thermal spraying layers on thick-walled permanent and interim store components for the diminution of repairs, corrosion and costs' in cooperation between Siempelkamp Nukleartechnik GmbH and the Institute of Materials Science of the Leibniz University of Hanover was established to investigate the suitability of the high velocity oxy fuel spraying technology (HVOF) for the corrosion protective coating of thickwalled interim and permanent storage facility components. Since the permanent storage depot components are manufactured from cast iron with globular graphite, this material was exclusively used as a base material in this project. The evaluation of the economical features of the application of different nickel base spraying materials on cast iron substratum was in focus, as well as the scientific characterization of the coating systems with regard to the corrosion protective properties. Furthermore, the feasibility of the transfer of the laboratory results on a large industrial setup as well as a general suitability of the coating process for a required repair procedure was to be investigated. The preliminary examination program identified chromium containing spraying materials as successful. Results of the preliminary examination program have been used for investigations with the CASOIK

  17. Three dimensional (3d) transverse oscillation vector velocity ultrasound imaging


    An ultrasound imaging system (300) includes a transducer array (302) with a two- dimensional array of transducer elements configured to transmit an ultrasound signal and receive echoes, transmit circuitry (304) configured to control the transducer array to transmit the ultrasound signal so...... as to traverse a field of view, and receive circuitry (306) configured to receive a two dimensional set of echoes produced in response to the ultrasound signal traversing structure in the field of view, wherein the structure includes flowing structures such as flowing blood cells, organ cells etc. A beamformer...... (312) configured to beamform the echoes, and a velocity processor (314) configured to separately determine a depth velocity component, a transverse velocity component and an elevation velocity component, wherein the velocity components are determined based on the same transmitted ultrasound signal...

  18. Radial Velocity Fluctuations of RZ Psc

    Potravnov, I. S.; Gorynya, N. A.; Grinin, V. P.; Minikulov, N. Kh.


    The behavior of the radial velocity of the UX Ori type star RZ Psc is studied. The existence of an inner cavity with a radius of about 0.7 a.u. in the circumstellar disk of this star allows to suggest the presence of a companion. A study of the radial velocity of RZ Psc based on our own measurements and published data yields no periodic component in its variability. The two most accurate measurements of V r , based on high resolution spectra obtained over a period of three months, show that the radial velocity is constant over this time interval to within 0.5 km/s. This imposes a limit of M p ≤10 M Jup on the mass of the hypothetical companion. Possible reasons for the observed strong fluctuations in the radial velocity of this star are discussed.

  19. Velocities in Solar Pores

    Balasubramaniam, K. S.; Keil, S. L.; Smaldone, L. A.


    We investigate the three dimensional structure of solar pores and their surroundings using high spatial and spectral resolution data. We present evidence that surface velocities decrease around pores with a corresponding increase in the line-of-sight (LOS) velocities. LOS velocities in pores increase with the strength of the magnetic field. Surface velocities show convergence toward a weak downflow which appear to trace boundaries resembling meso-granular and super granular flows. The observed magnetic fields in the pores appear near these boundaries. We analyze the vertical velocity structure in pores and show that they generally have downflows decreasing exponentially with height, with a scale height of about 90 km. Evidence is also presented for the expanding nature of flux tubes. Finally we describe a phenomenological model for pores. This work was supported by AFOSR Task 2311G3. LAS was partially supported by the Progetto Nazionale Astrofisica e Fisica Cosmica of MURST and Scambi Internazionali of the Universita degli Studi di Napoli Frederico II. National Solar Observatory, NOAO, is operated for the National Science Foundation by AURA, Inc.

  20. Asymptotic solution of the turbulent mixing layer for velocity ratio close to unity

    Higuera, F. J.; Jimenez, J.; Linan, A.


    The equations describing the first two terms of an asymptotic expansion of the solution of the planar turbulent mixing layer for values of the velocity ratio close to one are obtained. The first term of this expansion is the solution of the well-known time-evolving problem and the second, which includes the effects of the increase of the turbulence scales in the stream-wise direction, obeys a linear system of equations. Numerical solutions of these equations for a two-dimensional reacting mixing layer show that the correction to the time-evolving solution may explain the asymmetry of the entrainment and the differences in product generation observed in flip experiments.

  1. Velocity-vorticity correlation structures in compressible turbulent boundary layer

    Chen, Jun; Li, Shi-Yao; She, Zhen-Su


    A velocity-vorticity correlation structure (VVCS) analysis is applied to analyze data of 3-dimensional (3-D) direct numerical simulations (DNS), to investigate the quantitative properties of the most correlated vortex structures in compressible turbulent boundary layer (CTBL) at Mach numbers, Ma = 2 . 25 and 6 . 0 . It is found that the geometry variation of the VVCS closely reflects the streamwise development of CTBL. In laminar region, the VVCS captures the instability wave number of the boundary layer. The transition region displays a distinct scaling change of the dimensions of VVCS. The developed turbulence region is characterized by a constant spatial extension of the VVCS. For various Mach numbers, the maximum correlation coefficient of the VVCS presents a clear multi-layer structure with the same scaling laws as a recent symmetry analysis proposed to quantifying the sublayer, the log-layer, and the wake flow. A surprising discovery is that the wall friction coefficient, Cf, holds a "-1"-power law of the wall normal distance of the VVCS, ys. This validates the speculation that the wall friction is determined by the near-wall coherent structure, which clarifies the correlation between statistical structures and the near-wall dynamics. Project 11452002 and 11172006 supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China.

  2. The Prescribed Velocity Method

    Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm

    The- velocity level in a room ventilated by jet ventilation is strongly influenced by the supply conditions. The momentum flow in the supply jets controls the air movement in the room and, therefore, it is very important that the inlet conditions and the numerical method can generate a satisfactory...... description of this momentum flow. The Prescribed Velocity Method is a practical method for the description of an Air Terminal Device which will save grid points close to the opening and ensure the right level of the momentum flow....

  3. Cirrus Crystal Terminal Velocities.

    Heymsfield, Andrew J.; Iaquinta, Jean


    Cirrus crystal terminal velocities are of primary importance in determining the rate of transport of condensate from upper- to middle-tropospheric levels and profoundly influence the earth's radiation balance through their effect on the rate of buildup or decay of cirrus clouds. In this study, laboratory and field-based cirrus crystal drag coefficient data, as well as analytical descriptions of cirrus crystal shapes, are used to derive more physically based expressions for the velocities of cirrus crystals than have been available in the past.Polycrystals-often bullet rosettes-are shown to be the dominant crystal types in synoptically generated cirrus, with columns present in varying but relatively large percentages, depending on the cloud. The two critical parameters needed to calculate terminal velocity are the drag coefficient and the ratio of mass to cross-sectional area normal to their fall direction. Using measurements and calculations, it is shown that drag coefficients from theory and laboratory studies are applicable to crystals of the types found in cirrus. The ratio of the mass to area, which is shown to be relatively independent of the number of bullets in the rosette, is derived from an analytic model that represents bullet rosettes containing one to eight bullets in 19 primary geometric configurations. The ratio is also derived for columns. Using this information, a general set of equations is developed to calculate the terminal velocities and masses in terms of the aspect ratio (width divided by length), ice density, and rosette maximum dimension. Simple expressions for terminal velocity and mass as a function of bullet rosette maximum dimension are developed by incorporating new information on bullet aspect ratios.The general terminal velocity and mass relations are then applied to a case from the First International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project (ISCCP) Research Experiment (FIRE) 2, when size spectra from a balloon-borne ice crystal

  4. Modeling Terminal Velocity

    Brand, Neal; Quintanilla, John A.


    Using a simultaneously falling softball as a stopwatch, the terminal velocity of a whiffle ball can be obtained to surprisingly high accuracy with only common household equipment. This classroom activity engages students in an apparently daunting task that nevertheless is tractable, using a simple model and mathematical techniques at their…

  5. Turbulence of non-uniform open channel flows and mean velocity scaling

    Stewart, R.; Fox, J.


    Turbulence and mean velocity distributions are well studied for uniform flows, however fully turbulent non-uniform open channel flows over rough gravel beds are an understudied class of realistic flows with significant geomorphologic importance. The two-fold objectives of this study are to investigate the effects of flow deceleration on multi-layer turbulence and determine velocity scales that produce self-similar profiles using turbulent boundary layer theory. Turbulence statistics were calculated from data collected using a three-dimensional acoustic Doppler velocimeter in backwater region produced by placing cylindrical obstruction downstream of measuring location. Results indicate inner turbulent processes are set according to shear velocity while outer layer of turbulence is not. Mean streamwise velocity profiles of 101 published datasets including 2211 data points from non-uniform decelerating rivers and laboratory flumes are scaled using inner, outer and 2 mixed methods. Theoretical arguments indicate the outer velocity scale determined from the AIP definition of equilibrium provides a more appropriate scaling for the velocity deficit of non-uniform open channel flows than inner scaling determined from Clauser equilibrium. Scaling results of mean profiles show outer scaling collapses data better than inner scaling. Mixed scaling approaches, which account for upstream conditions and the effect of bed roughness felt throughout the flow, provide a better scaling choice for this class of flows than either inner or outer scales alone. Results of this analysis provide insight on the behavior of turbulence in decelerating fully turbulent open channel flow over a rough gravel bed and provides a scaling useful for predicting velocity distributions.



    In this paper, with the starting velocity experiments of natural cohesive sedimentation, the author proposes an assumption concerning the starting mechanism of cohesive sedimentation and gives a formula to determine the starting velocity of compact clay. It is pointed out that the fluctuating function of flow is a main factor for the starting of sedimentation. And the component and the structure of cohesive sedimentation are also the affecting factors for the starting. Consequently, the study shows that modern results of soil mechanics, clay mineralogy and fluid mechanics are helpful in the investigation of this kind of engineering problem.

  7. Wave propagation and group velocity

    Brillouin, Léon


    Wave Propagation and Group Velocity contains papers on group velocity which were published during the First World War and are missing in many libraries. It introduces three different definitions of velocities: the group velocity of Lord Rayleigh, the signal velocity of Sommerfeld, and the velocity of energy transfer, which yields the rate of energy flow through a continuous wave and is strongly related to the characteristic impedance. These three velocities are identical for nonabsorbing media, but they differ considerably in an absorption band. Some examples are discussed in the last chapter

  8. Hydrocarbon saturation determination using acoustic velocities obtained through casing

    Moos, Daniel


    Compressional and shear velocities of earth formations are measured through casing. The determined compressional and shear velocities are used in a two component mixing model to provides improved quantitative values for the solid, the dry frame, and the pore compressibility. These are used in determination of hydrocarbon saturation.



    Searching ships on the ocean with the technique of the oceanic remote sensing, one must be requensted to know not only the amplitude of ship waves, but also horizontal velocities. In this article Lighthill’s two-stage scheme was employed to change the integral expressions into algebraic expressions for the velocity components, so the obtained results are very succinct.

  10. 3-D Velocity Estimation for Two Planes in vivo

    Holbek, Simon; Pihl, Michael Johannes; Ewertsen, Caroline;


    3-D velocity vectors can provide additional flow information applicable for diagnosing cardiovascular diseases e.g. by estimating the out-of-plane velocity component. A 3-D version of the Transverse Oscillation (TO) method has previously been used to obtain this information in a carotid flow phan...

  11. Radial Velocities with PARAS

    Roy, Arpita; Mahadevan, S.; Chakraborty, A.; Pathan, F. M.; Anandarao, B. G.


    The Physical Research Laboratory Advanced Radial-velocity All-sky Search (PARAS) is an efficient fiber-fed cross-dispersed high-resolution echelle spectrograph that will see first light in early 2010. This instrument is being built at the Physical Research laboratory (PRL) and will be attached to the 1.2m telescope at Gurushikhar Observatory at Mt. Abu, India. PARAS has a single-shot wavelength coverage of 370nm to 850nm at a spectral resolution of R 70000 and will be housed in a vacuum chamber (at 1x10-2 mbar pressure) in a highly temperature controlled environment. This renders the spectrograph extremely suitable for exoplanet searches with high velocity precision using the simultaneous Thorium-Argon wavelength calibration method. We are in the process of developing an automated data analysis pipeline for echelle data reduction and precise radial velocity extraction based on the REDUCE package of Piskunov & Valenti (2002), which is especially careful in dealing with CCD defects, extraneous noise, and cosmic ray spikes. Here we discuss the current status of the PARAS project and details and tests of the data analysis procedure, as well as results from ongoing PARAS commissioning activities.

  12. Transverse velocity shifts in protostellar jets: rotation or velocity asymmetries?

    De Colle, Fabio; Riera, Angels


    Observations of several protostellar jets show systematic differences in radial velocity transverse to the jet propagation direction, which have been interpreted as evidence of rotation in the jets. In this paper we discuss the origin of these velocity shifts, and show that they could be originated by rotation in the flow, or by side to side asymmetries in the shock velocity, which could be due to asymmetries in the jet ejection velocity/density or in the ambient medium. For typical poloidal jet velocities (~ 100-200 km/s), an asymmetry >~ 10% can produce velocity shifts comparable to those observed. We also present three dimensional numerical simulations of rotating, precessing and asymmetric jets, and show that, even though for a given jet there is a clear degeneracy between these effects, a statistical analysis of jets with different inclination angles can help to distinguish between the alternative origins of transverse velocity shifts. Our analysis indicate that side to side velocities asymmetries could ...

  13. New experiment in Plane Poiseuille flow with zero mean advection velocity: observation of stationary turbulent spots

    Klotz, Lukasz; Lemoult, Gregoire; Wesfreid, Jose Eduardo


    We describe a new experimental set-up which allows us to study the sub-critical transition to turbulence in a two dimensional shear flow (including plane Couette, plane Couette-Poiseuille and plane Poiseuille flows). Our facility is an extension of a classical plane Couette experiment, in which one uses a single closed loop of plastic belt to generate the opposite sign velocity at each wall of the test section. However, in our case, we use two independent closed loops of plastic belt, one at each wall of the test section. The speed of these belts may be controlled separately. That enables to set two different velocities (in value and direction) as a boundary conditions at each of two test section's walls. In addition the pressure gradient in streamwise direction can be controlled. In particular, the plane Poiseuille flow with zero mean advection velocity can be created. We characterize by PIV the basic flow for different configurations. For a plane Poiseuille flows as base flow, we were able to observe for the first time the nearly stationary turbulent spots in this flow, with structures of characteristic wavelength ~ the distance between the two plates.

  14. Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy.

    Speckhard, Eric G; Ng, Kenny C Y; Beacom, John F; Laha, Ranjan


    Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce linelike spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming experiments will have the precision needed. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications.

  15. Minimum Length - Maximum Velocity

    Panes, Boris


    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA about superluminal neutrinos.

  16. Dark Matter Velocity Spectroscopy

    Speckhard, Eric G; Beacom, John F; Laha, Ranjan


    Dark matter decays or annihilations that produce line-like spectra may be smoking-gun signals. However, even such distinctive signatures can be mimicked by astrophysical or instrumental causes. We show that velocity spectroscopy-the measurement of energy shifts induced by relative motion of source and observer-can separate these three causes with minimal theoretical uncertainties. The principal obstacle has been energy resolution, but upcoming and proposed experiments will make significant improvements. As an example, we show that the imminent Astro-H mission can use Milky Way observations to separate possible causes of the 3.5-keV line. We discuss other applications.

  17. Boosting Moving Object Indexing through Velocity Partitioning

    Nguyen, Thi; Zhang, Rui; Ward, Phillip


    There have been intense research interests in moving object indexing in the past decade. However, existing work did not exploit the important property of skewed velocity distributions. In many real world scenarios, objects travel predominantly along only a few directions. Examples include vehicles on road networks, flights, people walking on the streets, etc. The search space for a query is heavily dependent on the velocity distribution of the objects grouped in the nodes of an index tree. Motivated by this observation, we propose the velocity partitioning (VP) technique, which exploits the skew in velocity distribution to speed up query processing using moving object indexes. The VP technique first identifies the "dominant velocity axes (DVAs)" using a combination of principal components analysis (PCA) and k-means clustering. Then, a moving object index (e.g., a TPR-tree) is created based on each DVA, using the DVA as an axis of the underlying coordinate system. An object is maintained in the index whose DVA...

  18. Electronic components

    Colwell, Morris A


    Electronic Components provides a basic grounding in the practical aspects of using and selecting electronics components. The book describes the basic requirements needed to start practical work on electronic equipment, resistors and potentiometers, capacitance, and inductors and transformers. The text discusses semiconductor devices such as diodes, thyristors and triacs, transistors and heat sinks, logic and linear integrated circuits (I.C.s) and electromechanical devices. Common abbreviations applied to components are provided. Constructors and electronics engineers will find the book useful

  19. Estimating 2-D Vector Velocities Using Multidimensional Spectrum Analysis

    Oddershede, Niels; Løvstakken, Lasse; Torp, Hans


    new velocity estimators for finding both the axial and lateral velocity components. The estimators essentially search for the plane in the 3-D Fourier space, where the integrated power spectrum is largest. The first uses the 3-D Fourier transform to find the power spectrum, while the second uses...... a minimum variance approach. Based on this plane, the axial and lateral velocity components are estimated. Several phantom measurements, for flow-to-depth angles of 60, 75, and 90 degrees, were performed. Multiple parallel lines were beamformed simultaneously, and 2 different receive apodization schemes...

  20. Forced Convective Air Cooling from Electronic Component Arrays in a Parallel Plate Channel

    D.Y.Cai; Y.P.Gan; 等


    This paper discusses air forced convection heat transfer from inline protruding elements arranged in eight rows.The streamwise and spanwise spacings between elements were varied using a splitter plate that can be positioned at three different modular configurations.A set of empirical formulas was presented to correlate the experimental data for the design of air cooling systems.Arrays of componets with one odd-size module have been tested also.Experimental results show that blocks near the entrance and behind the odd-size module have improved performance compared with uniform arrangements.Accordingly,temperature sensitive components are suggested to be arranged in these locations.

  1. Velocity centroids as tracers of the turbulent velocity statistics

    Lazarian, A E A


    We use the results of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations to emulate spectroscopic observations, and produce maps of variations of velocity centroids to study their scaling properties. We compare them with those of the underlying velocity field, and analytic predictions presented in a previous paper (Lazarian & Esquivel 2003). We tested, with success, a criteria for recovering velocity statistics from velocity centroids derived in our previous work. That is, if >> (where S is a 2D map of ``unnormalized'', v velocity, and I integrated intensity map -column density-), then the structure function of the centroids is dominated by the structure function of velocity. We show that it is possible to extract the velocity statistics using centroids for subsonic and mildly supersonic turbulence (e.g. Mach numbers ~2.5). While, towards higher Mach numbers other effects could affect significantly the statistics of centroids.

  2. Statistics of Velocity from Spectral Data Modified Velocity Centroids

    Lazarian, A


    We address the problem of studying interstellar (ISM) turbulence using spectral line data. We construct a measure that we term modified velocity centroids (MVCs) and derive an analytical solution that relates the 2D spectra of the modified centroids with the underlying 3D velocity spectrum. We test our results using synthetic maps constructed with data obtained through simulations of compressible MHD turbulence. We prove that the MVCs are able to restore the underlying spectrum of turbulent velocity. We show that the modified velocity centroids (MVCs) are complementary to the the Velocity Channel Analysis (VCA) technique that we introduced earlier. Employed together they make determining of the velocity spectral index more reliable. At the same time we show that MVCs allow to determine velocity spectra when the underlying statistics is not a power law and/or the turbulence is subsonic.

  3. Anisotropic enhancement of group velocity in a homogenized dielectric composite medium

    Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh


    Under certain circumstances, the group velocity in a homogenized composite medium (HCM) can exceed the group velocity in its component material phases. We explore this phenomenon for a uniaxial dielectric HCM comprising isotropic component material phases distributed as oriented spheroidal particles. The theoretical approach is based upon the Bruggeman homogenization formalism. Enhancement in group velocity in the HCM with respect to the component material phases is shown to be sensitively de...

  4. Minimal information in velocity space

    Evrard, Guillaume


    Jaynes' transformation group principle is used to derive the objective prior for the velocity of a non-zero rest-mass particle. In the case of classical mechanics, invariance under the classical law of addition of velocities, leads to an improper constant prior over the unbounded velocity space of classical mechanics. The application of the relativistic law of addition of velocities leads to a less simple prior. It can however be rewritten as a uniform volumetric distribution if the relativistic velocity space is given a non-trivial metric.

  5. Visual control of walking velocity.

    François, Matthieu; Morice, Antoine H P; Bootsma, Reinoud J; Montagne, Gilles


    Even if optical correlates of self-motion velocity have already been identified, their contribution to the control of displacement velocity remains to be established. In this study, we used a virtual reality set-up coupled to a treadmill to test the role of both Global Optic Flow Rate (GOFR) and Edge Rate (ER) in the regulation of walking velocity. Participants were required to walk at a constant velocity, corresponding to their preferred walking velocity, while eye height and texture density were manipulated. This manipulation perturbed the natural relationship between the actual walking velocity and its optical specification by GOFR and ER, respectively. Results revealed that both these sources of information are indeed used by participants to control walking speed, as demonstrated by a slowing down of actual walking velocity when the optical specification of velocity by either GOFR or ER gives rise to an overestimation of actual velocity, and vice versa. Gait analyses showed that these walking velocity adjustments result from simultaneous adaptations in both step length and step duration. The role of visual information in the control of self-motion velocity is discussed in relation with other factors.

  6. Developing a Model Component

    Fields, Christina M.


    The Spaceport Command and Control System (SCCS) Simulation Computer Software Configuration Item (CSCI) is responsible for providing simulations to support test and verification of SCCS hardware and software. The Universal Coolant Transporter System (UCTS) was a Space Shuttle Orbiter support piece of the Ground Servicing Equipment (GSE). The initial purpose of the UCTS was to provide two support services to the Space Shuttle Orbiter immediately after landing at the Shuttle Landing Facility. The UCTS is designed with the capability of servicing future space vehicles; including all Space Station Requirements necessary for the MPLM Modules. The Simulation uses GSE Models to stand in for the actual systems to support testing of SCCS systems during their development. As an intern at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), my assignment was to develop a model component for the UCTS. I was given a fluid component (dryer) to model in Simulink. I completed training for UNIX and Simulink. The dryer is a Catch All replaceable core type filter-dryer. The filter-dryer provides maximum protection for the thermostatic expansion valve and solenoid valve from dirt that may be in the system. The filter-dryer also protects the valves from freezing up. I researched fluid dynamics to understand the function of my component. The filter-dryer was modeled by determining affects it has on the pressure and velocity of the system. I used Bernoulli's Equation to calculate the pressure and velocity differential through the dryer. I created my filter-dryer model in Simulink and wrote the test script to test the component. I completed component testing and captured test data. The finalized model was sent for peer review for any improvements. I participated in Simulation meetings and was involved in the subsystem design process and team collaborations. I gained valuable work experience and insight into a career path as an engineer.

  7. Seismic velocity estimation from time migration

    Cameron, Maria Kourkina [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)


    This is concerned with imaging and wave propagation in nonhomogeneous media, and includes a collection of computational techniques, such as level set methods with material transport, Dijkstra-like Hamilton-Jacobi solvers for first arrival Eikonal equations and techniques for data smoothing. The theoretical components include aspects of seismic ray theory, and the results rely on careful comparison with experiment and incorporation as input into large production-style geophysical processing codes. Producing an accurate image of the Earth's interior is a challenging aspect of oil recovery and earthquake analysis. The ultimate computational goal, which is to accurately produce a detailed interior map of the Earth's makeup on the basis of external soundings and measurements, is currently out of reach for several reasons. First, although vast amounts of data have been obtained in some regions, this has not been done uniformly, and the data contain noise and artifacts. Simply sifting through the data is a massive computational job. Second, the fundamental inverse problem, namely to deduce the local sound speeds of the earth that give rise to measured reacted signals, is exceedingly difficult: shadow zones and complex structures can make for ill-posed problems, and require vast computational resources. Nonetheless, seismic imaging is a crucial part of the oil and gas industry. Typically, one makes assumptions about the earth's substructure (such as laterally homogeneous layering), and then uses this model as input to an iterative procedure to build perturbations that more closely satisfy the measured data. Such models often break down when the material substructure is significantly complex: not surprisingly, this is often where the most interesting geological features lie. Data often come in a particular, somewhat non-physical coordinate system, known as time migration coordinates. The construction of substructure models from these data is less and less

  8. Seismic velocity estimation from time migration

    Cameron, Maria Kourkina

    This is concerned with imaging and wave propagation in nonhomogeneous media, and includes a collection of computational techniques, such as level set methods with material transport, Dijkstra-like Hamilton-Jacobi solvers for first arrival Eikonal equations and techniques for data smoothing. The theoretical components include aspects of seismic ray theory, and the results rely on careful comparison with experiment and incorporation as input into large production-style geophysical processing codes. Producing an accurate image of the Earth's interior is a challenging aspect of oil recovery and earthquake analysis. The ultimate computational goal, which is to accurately produce a detailed interior map of the Earth's makeup on the basis of external soundings and measurements, is currently out of reach for several reasons. First, although vast amounts of data have been obtained in some regions, this has not been done uniformly, and the data contain noise and artifacts. Simply sifting through the data is a massive computational job. Second, the fundamental inverse problem, namely to deduce the local sound speeds of the earth that give rise to measured reflected signals, is exceedingly difficult: shadow zones and complex structures can make for ill-posed problems, and require vast computational resources. Nonetheless, seismic imaging is a crucial part of the oil and gas industry. Typically, one makes assumptions about the earth's substructure (such as laterally homogeneous layering), and then uses this model as input to an iterative procedure to build perturbations that more closely satisfy the measured data. Such models often break down when the material substructure is significantly complex: not surprisingly, this is often where the most interesting geological features lie. Data often come in a particular, somewhat non-physical coordinate system, known as time migration coordinates. The construction of substructure models from these data is less and less reliable as the

  9. Velocity dependant splash behaviour

    Hamlett, C. A. E.; Shirtcliffe, N. J.; McHale, G.; Ahn, S.; Doerr, S. H.; Bryant, R.; Newton, M. I.


    Extreme soil water repellency can occur in nature via condensation of volatile organic compounds released during wildfires and can lead to increased erosion rate. Such extreme water repellent soil can be classified as superhydrophobic and shares similar chemical and topographical features to specifically designed superhydrophobic surfaces. Previous studies using high speed videography to investigate single droplet impact behaviour on artificial superhydrophobic have revealed three distinct modes of splash behaviour (rebound, pinned and fragmentation) which are dependent on the impact velocity of the droplet. In our studies, using high-speed videography, we show that such splash behaviour can be replicated on fixed 'model' water repellent soils (hydrophobic glass beads/particles). We show that the type of splash behaviour is dependent on both the size and chemical nature of the fixed particles. The particle shape also influences the splash behaviour as shown by drop impact experiments on fixed sand samples. We have also studied soil samples, as collected from the field, which shows that the type of droplet splash behaviour can lead to enhanced soil particle transport.

  10. Radial velocities of southern visual multiple stars

    Tokovinin, Andrei [Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Pribulla, Theodor [Astronomical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 059 60 Tatranská Lomnica (Slovakia); Fischer, Debra, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States)


    High-resolution spectra of visual multiple stars were taken in 2008–2009 to detect or confirm spectroscopic subsystems and to determine their orbits. Radial velocities of 93 late-type stars belonging to visual multiple systems were measured by numerical cross-correlation. We provide the individual velocities, the width, and the amplitude of the Gaussians that approximate the correlations. The new information on the multiple systems resulting from these data is discussed. We discovered double-lined binaries in HD 41742B, HD 56593C, and HD 122613AB, confirmed several other known subsystems, and constrained the existence of subsystems in some visual binaries where both components turned out to have similar velocities. The orbits of double-lined subsystems with periods of 148 and 13 days are computed for HD 104471 Aa,Ab and HD 210349 Aa,Ab, respectively. We estimate individual magnitudes and masses of the components in these triple systems and update the outer orbit of HD 104471 AB.

  11. Examples of Vector Velocity Imaging

    Hansen, Peter M.; Pedersen, Mads M.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.


    To measure blood flow velocity in vessels with conventional ultrasound, the velocity is estimated along the direction of the emitted ultrasound wave. It is therefore impossible to obtain accurate information on blood flow velocity and direction, when the angle between blood flow and ultrasound wa...... with a 90° angle on the vessel. Moreover secondary flow in the abdominal aorta is illustrated by scanning on the transversal axis....

  12. Choice of velocity variables for complex flow computation

    Shyy, W.; Chang, G. C.


    The issue of adopting the velocity components as dependent velocity variables for the Navier-Stokes flow computations is investigated. The viewpoint advocated is that a numerical algorithm should preferably honor both the physical conservation law in differential form and the geometric conservation law in discrete form. With the use of Cartesian velocity vector, the momentum equations in curvilinear coordinates can retain the full conservation-law form and satisfy the physical conservation laws. With the curvilinear velocity components, source terms appear in differential equations and hence the full conservation law form can not be retained. In discrete expressions, algorithms based on the Cartesian components can satisfy the geometric conservation-law form for convection terms but not for viscous terms; those based on the curvilinear components, on the other hand, cannot satisfy the geometric conservation-law form for either convection or viscous terms. Several flow solutions for domain with 90 and 360 degree turnings are presented to illustrate the issues of using the Cartesian velocity components and the staggered grid arrangement.

  13. In vivo validation of a blood vector velocity estimator with MR angiography

    Hansen, K.L.; Udesen, J.; Thomsen, C.


    Conventional Doppler methods for blood velocity estimation only estimate the velocity component along the ultrasound beam direction. This implies that a Doppler angle under examination close to 90 degrees results in unreliable information about the true blood direction and blood velocity. The novel...... method transverse oscillation (TO), which combines estimates of the axial and the transverse velocity components in the scan plane, makes it possible to estimate the vector velocity of the blood regardless of the Doppler angle. The present study evaluates the TO method with magnetic resonance phase...

  14. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.


    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  15. An improved estimation and focusing scheme for vector velocity estimation

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Munk, Peter


    beamforming method. A modified autocorrelation approach employing fourth order moments of the input data is used for velocity estimation. The new estimator calculates the axial and lateral velocity component independently of each other. The estimation is optimized for differences in axial and lateral......The full blood velocity vector must be estimated in medical ultrasound to give a correct depiction of the blood flow. This can be done by introducing a transversely oscillating pulse-echo ultrasound field, which makes the received signal influenced by a transverse motion. Such an approach...... modulation periods in the ultrasound field by using a lag different from one in the estimation process, and noise artifacts are reduced by using averaging of RF samples. Furthermore, compensation for the axial velocity can be introduced, and the velocity estimation is done at a fixed depth in tissue...

  16. The Importance of Velocity Acceleration to Flow-Mediated Dilation

    Lee Stoner


    Full Text Available The validity of the flow-mediated dilation test has been questioned due to the lack of normalization to the primary stimulus, shear stress. Shear stress can be calculated using Poiseuille's law. However, little attention has been given to the most appropriate blood velocity parameter(s for calculating shear stress. The pulsatile nature of blood flow exposes the endothelial cells to two distinct shear stimuli during the cardiac cycle: a large rate of change in shear at the onset of flow (velocity acceleration, followed by a steady component. The parameter typically entered into the Poiseuille's law equation to determine shear stress is time-averaged blood velocity, with no regard for flow pulsatility. This paper will discuss (1 the limitations of using Posieuille's law to estimate shear stress and (2 the importance of the velocity profile—with emphasis on velocity acceleration—to endothelial function and vascular tone.


    Welsch, Brian T.; Fisher, George H. [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-7450 (United States); Sun, Xudong [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    The zero point of measured photospheric Doppler shifts is uncertain for at least two reasons: instrumental variations (from, e.g., thermal drifts); and the convective blueshift, a known correlation between intensity and upflows. Accurate knowledge of the zero point is, however, useful for (1) improving estimates of the Poynting flux of magnetic energy across the photosphere, and (2) constraining processes underlying flux cancellation, the mutual apparent loss of magnetic flux in closely spaced, opposite-polarity magnetogram features. We present a method to absolutely calibrate line-of-sight (LOS) velocities in solar active regions (ARs) near disk center using three successive vector magnetograms and one Dopplergram coincident with the central magnetogram. It exploits the fact that Doppler shifts measured along polarity inversion lines (PILs) of the LOS magnetic field determine one component of the velocity perpendicular to the magnetic field, and optimizes consistency between changes in LOS flux near PILs and the transport of transverse magnetic flux by LOS velocities, assuming that ideal electric fields govern the magnetic evolution. Previous calibrations fitted the center-to-limb variation of Doppler velocities, but this approach cannot, by itself, account for residual convective shifts at the limb. We apply our method to vector magnetograms of AR 11158, observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, and find clear evidence of offsets in the Doppler zero point in the range of 50-550 m s{sup -1}. In addition, we note that a simpler calibration can be determined from an LOS magnetogram and Dopplergram pair from the median Doppler velocity among all near-disk-center PIL pixels. We briefly discuss shortcomings in our initial implementation, and suggest ways to address these. In addition, as a step in our data reduction, we discuss the use of temporal continuity in the transverse magnetic field direction to correct apparently

  18. The Smoothest Velocity Field and Token Matching Schemes.


    photoreceptors or sensors is a suprisingly difficult computational problem, which has attracted much attention in recent years [for example, Fennema ...initial motion measurement only one component of velocity can be obtained directly from the changing image [ Fennema & Thompson (197P), Horn & Schunk...M.J.. Computational Geometry for Design and Manufacture, Ellis Horwood Limited, Chichester, England, 1979. Fennema , C.1. & Thompson, W.B. "Velocity

  19. Introduction to vector velocity imaging

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Udesen, Jesper; Hansen, Kristoffer Lindskov;

    Current ultrasound scanners can only estimate the velocity along the ultrasound beam and this gives rise to the cos() factor on all velocity estimates. This is a major limitation as most vessels are close to perpendicular to the beam. Also the angle varies as a function of space and time making...

  20. Instantaneous Velocity Using Photogate Timers

    Wolbeck, John


    Photogate timers are commonly used in physics laboratories to determine the velocity of a passing object. In this application a card attached to a moving object breaks the beam of the photogate timer providing the time for the card to pass. The length L of the passing card can then be divided by this time to yield the average velocity (or speed)…

  1. Kriging Interpolating Cosmic Velocity Field

    Yu, Yu; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie


    [abridge] Volume-weighted statistics of large scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in mass-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number $n_k$ of the nearby particles to interpolate and the density $n_P$ of the observed sample are investigated. (1) We find that Kriging induces $1\\%$ and $3\\%$ systematics at $k\\sim 0.1h{\\rm Mpc}^{-1}$ when $n_P\\sim 6\\times 10^{-2} ({\\rm Mpc}/h)^{-3}$ and $n_P\\sim 6\\times 10^{-3} ({\\rm Mpc...

  2. Astrometric radial velocities. I. Non-spectroscopic methods for measuring stellar radial velocity


    High-accuracy astrometry permits the determination of not only stellar tangential motion, but also the component along the line-of-sight. Such non-spectroscopic (i.e. astrometric) radial velocities are independent of stellar atmospheric dynamics, spectral complexity and variability, as well as of gravitational redshift. Three methods are analysed: (1) changing annual parallax, (2) changing proper motion and (3) changing angular extent of a moving group of stars. All three have significant pot...

  3. Effect of Fermion Velocity on Phase Structure of QED3

    Li, Jian-Feng; Feng, Hong-Tao; Zong, Hong-Shi


    Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking (DCSB) in thermal QED3 with fermion velocity is studied in the framework of Dyson-Schwinger equations. By adopting instantaneous approximation and neglecting the transverse component of gauge boson propagator at finite temperature, we numerically solve the fermion self-energy equation in the rainbow approximation. It is found that both DCSB and fermion chiral condensate are suppressed by fermion velocity. Moreover, the critical temperature decreases as fermion velocity increases. Supported in part by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11535005 and the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province under Grant No. BK20130387

  4. Boundary layer heights derived from velocity spectra

    Hoejstrup, J.; Barthelmie, R.J. [Risoe National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark); Kaellstrand, B. [Univ. of Uppsala, Uppsala (Sweden)


    It is a well-known fact that the height of the mixed layer determines the size of the largest and most energetic eddies that can be observed in the unstable boundary layer, and consequently a peak can be observed in the power spectra of the along-wind velocity component at scales comparable to the mixed layer depth. We will now show how the mixed layer depth can be derived from the u-specta and the results will be compared with direct measurements using pibal and tethersonde measurements. (au)

  5. Two-Dimensional Distributed Velocity Collision Avoidance


    trigonometry . For convex polygon agents, the tangents are found by iterating over each point, calculating the z-component of the cross product between a...the modifications to the basic VO to favor the source bot’s current velocity (i.e., encourage the bot to change course as little as possible). To...the source agent on a collision course . However, if ignore factors are used, then A2 is more important (i.e., has a lower ignore factor), and so the

  6. The interaction between duration, velocity and repetitive auditory stimulation.

    Makin, Alexis D J; Poliakoff, Ellen; Dillon, Joe; Perrin, Aimee; Mullet, Thomas; Jones, Luke A


    Repetitive auditory stimulation (with click trains) and visual velocity signals both have intriguing effects on the subjective passage of time. Previous studies have established that prior presentation of auditory clicks increases the subjective duration of subsequent sensory input, and that faster moving stimuli are also judged to have been presented for longer (the time dilation effect). However, the effect of clicks on velocity estimation is unknown, and the nature of the time dilation effect remains ambiguous. Here were present a series of five experiments to explore these phenomena in more detail. Participants viewed a rightward moving grating which traveled at velocities ranging from 5 to 15°/s and which lasted for durations of 500 to 1500 ms. Gratings were preceded by clicks, silence or white noise. It was found that both clicks and higher velocities increased subjective duration. It was also found that the time dilation effect was a constant proportion of stimulus duration. This implies that faster velocity increases the rate of the pacemaker component of the internal clock. Conversely, clicks increased subjective velocity, but the magnitude of this effect was not proportional to actual velocity. Through considerations of these results, we conclude that clicks independently affect velocity and duration representations.

  7. Orientation and velocity dependence of the nonequilibrium partition coefficient

    Beatty, K. M.; Jackson, K. A.


    Monte Carlo simulations based on a Spin-1 Ising Model for binary alloys have been used to investigate the non-equilibrium partition coefficient (k(sub neq)) as a function of solid-liquid interface velocity and orientation. In simulations of Si with a second component k(sub neq) is greater in the [111] direction than the [100] direction in agreement with experimental results reported by Azlz et al. The simulated partition coefficient scales with the square of the step velocity divided by the diffusion coefficient of the secondary component in the liquid.

  8. The effect of channel shape, bed morphology, and shipwrecks on flow velocities in the Upper St. Clair River

    Czuba, Jonathan A.; Oberg, Kevin; Best, Jim; Parsons, Daniel R.


    In the Great Lakes of North America, the St. Clair River is the major outlet of Lake Huron and conveys water to Lake St. Clair which then flows to Lake Erie. One major topic of interest is morphological change in the St. Clair River and its impact on water levels in the Upper Great Lakes and connecting channel flows. A combined multibeam echosounder (MBES) bathymetric survey and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) flow survey of the outlet of Lake Huron and the Upper St. Clair River was conducted July 21 – 25, 2008. This paper presents how channel morphology and shipwrecks affect the flow in the Upper St. Clair River. The river is most constricted at the Blue Water Bridge near Port Huron, Michigan, with water velocities over 2 ms-1 for a flow of 5,200 m3s-1. Downstream of this constriction, the river flows around a bend and expands creating a large recirculation zone along the left bank due to flow separation. This recirculation zone reduces the effective channel width, and thus increases flow velocities to over 2 ms-1 in this region. The surveys reveal several shipwrecks on the bed of the St. Clair River, which possess distinct wakes in their flow velocity downstream of the wrecks. The constriction and expansion of the channel, combined with forcing of the flow by bed topography, initiates channel-scale secondary flow, creating streamwise vortices that maintain coherence downstream over a distance of several channel widths.

  9. A neural circuit for angular velocity computation

    Samuel B Snider


    Full Text Available In one of the most remarkable feats of motor control in the animal world, some Diptera, such as the housefly, can accurately execute corrective flight maneuvers in tens of milliseconds. These reflexive movements are achieved by the halteres, gyroscopic force sensors, in conjunction with rapidly-tunable wing-steering muscles. Specifically, the mechanosensory campaniform sensilla located at the base of the halteres transduce and transform rotation-induced gyroscopic forces into information about the angular velocity of the fly's body. But how exactly does the fly's neural architecture generate the angular velocity from the lateral strain forces on the left and right halteres? To explore potential algorithms, we built a neuro-mechanical model of the rotation detection circuit. We propose a neurobiologically plausible method by which the fly could accurately separate and measure the three-dimensional components of an imposed angular velocity. Our model assumes a single sign-inverting synapse and formally resembles some models of directional selectivity by the retina. Using multidimensional error analysis, we demonstrate the robustness of our model under a variety of input conditions. Our analysis reveals the maximum information available to the fly given its physical architecture and the mathematics governing the rotation-induced forces at the haltere's end knob.

  10. Seismic velocities for hydrate-bearing sediments using weighted equation

    Lee, M.W.; Hutchinson, D.R.; Collett, T.S.; Dillon, William P.


    A weighted equation based on the three-phase time-average and Wood equations is applied to derive a relationship between the compressional wave (P wave) velocity and the amount of hydrates filling the pore space. The proposed theory predicts accurate P wave velocities of marine sediments in the porosity range of 40-80% and provides a practical means of estimating the amount of in situ hydrate using seismic velocity. The shear (S) wave velocity is derived under the assumption that the P to S wave velocity ratio of the hydrated sediments is proportional to the weighted average of the P to S wave velocity ratios of the constituent components of the sediment. In the case that all constituent components are known, a weighted equation using multiphase time-average and Wood equations is possible. However, this study showed that a three-phase equation with modified matrix velocity, compensated for the clay content, is sufficient to accurately predict the compressional wave velocities for the marine sediments. This theory was applied to the laboratory measurements of the P and S wave velocities in permafrost samples to infer the amount of ice in the unconsolidated sediment. The results are comparable to the results obtained by repeatedly applying the two-phase wave scattering theory. The theory predicts that the Poisson's ratio of the hydrated sediments decreases as the hydrate concentration increases and the porosity decreases. In consequence, the amplitude versus offset (AVO) data for the bottom-simulating reflections may reveal positive, negative, or no AVO anomalies depending on the concentration of hydrates in the sediments.

  11. Neutrino Velocity and Neutrino Oscillations

    Minakata, H


    We study distances of propagation and the group velocities of the muon neutrinos in the presence of mixing and oscillations assuming that Lorentz invariance holds. Oscillations lead to distortion of the $\

  12. Statistics of Centroids of Velocity

    Esquivel, A


    We review the use of velocity centroids statistics to recover information of interstellar turbulence from observations. Velocity centroids have been used for a long time now to retrieve information about the scaling properties of the turbulent velocity field in the interstellar medium. We show that, while they are useful to study subsonic turbulence, they do not trace the statistics of velocity in supersonic turbulence, because they are highly influenced by fluctuations of density. We show also that for sub-Alfv\\'enic turbulence (both supersonic and subsonic) two-point statistics (e.g. correlation functions or power-spectra) are anisotropic. This anisotropy can be used to determine the direction of the mean magnetic field projected in the plane of the sky.

  13. Kriging interpolating cosmic velocity field

    Yu, Yu; Zhang, Jun; Jing, Yipeng; Zhang, Pengjie


    Volume-weighted statistics of large-scale peculiar velocity is preferred by peculiar velocity cosmology, since it is free of the uncertainties of galaxy density bias entangled in observed number density-weighted statistics. However, measuring the volume-weighted velocity statistics from galaxy (halo/simulation particle) velocity data is challenging. Therefore, the exploration of velocity assignment methods with well-controlled sampling artifacts is of great importance. For the first time, we apply the Kriging interpolation to obtain the volume-weighted velocity field. Kriging is a minimum variance estimator. It predicts the most likely velocity for each place based on the velocity at other places. We test the performance of Kriging quantified by the E-mode velocity power spectrum from simulations. Dependences on the variogram prior used in Kriging, the number nk of the nearby particles to interpolate, and the density nP of the observed sample are investigated. First, we find that Kriging induces 1% and 3% systematics at k ˜0.1 h Mpc-1 when nP˜6 ×1 0-2(h-1 Mpc )-3 and nP˜6 ×1 0-3(h-1 Mpc )-3 , respectively. The deviation increases for decreasing nP and increasing k . When nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 , a smoothing effect dominates small scales, causing significant underestimation of the velocity power spectrum. Second, increasing nk helps to recover small-scale power. However, for nP≲6 ×1 0-4(h-1 Mpc )-3 cases, the recovery is limited. Finally, Kriging is more sensitive to the variogram prior for a lower sample density. The most straightforward application of Kriging on the cosmic velocity field does not show obvious advantages over the nearest-particle method [Y. Zheng, P. Zhang, Y. Jing, W. Lin, and J. Pan, Phys. Rev. D 88, 103510 (2013)] and could not be directly applied to cosmology so far. However, whether potential improvements may be achieved by more delicate versions of Kriging is worth further investigation.

  14. Event Detection by Velocity Pyramid


    In this paper, we propose velocity pyramid for multimediaevent detection. Recently, spatial pyramid matching is proposed to in-troduce coarse geometric information into Bag of Features framework,and is eective for static image recognition and detection. In video, notonly spatial information but also temporal information, which repre-sents its dynamic nature, is important. In order to fully utilize it, wepropose velocity pyramid where video frames are divided into motionalsub-regions. Our meth...

  15. Gait phase varies over velocities.

    Liu, Yancheng; Lu, Kun; Yan, Songhua; Sun, Ming; Lester, D Kevin; Zhang, Kuan


    We sought to characterize the percent (PT) of the phases of a gait cycle (GC) as velocity changes to establish norms for pathological gait characteristics with higher resolution technology. Ninety five healthy subjects (49 males and 46 females with age 34.9 ± 11.8 yrs, body weight 64.0 ± 11.7 kg and BMI 23.5 ± 3.6) were enrolled and walked comfortably on a 10-m walkway at self-selected slower, normal, and faster velocities. Walking was recorded with a high speed camera (250 frames per second) and the eight phases of a GC were determined by examination of individual frames for each subject. The correlation coefficients between the mean PT of the phases of the three velocities gaits and PT defined by previous publications were all greater than 0.99. The correlation coefficient between velocity and PT of gait phases is -0.83 for loading response (LR), -0.75 for mid stance (MSt), and -0.84 for pre-swing (PSw). While the PT of the phases of three velocities from this study are highly correlated with PT described by Dr. Jacquenlin Perry decades ago, actual PT of each phase varied amongst these individuals with the largest coefficient variation of 24.31% for IC with slower velocity. From slower to faster walk, the mean PT of MSt diminished from 35.30% to 25.33%. High resolution recording revealed ambiguity of some gait phase definitions, and these data may benefit GC characterization of normal and pathological gait in clinical practice. The study results indicate that one should consider individual variations and walking velocity when evaluating gaits of subjects using standard gait phase classification.

  16. Critical velocity of sandwich cylindrical shell under moving internal pressure


    Critical velocity of an infinite long sandwich shell under moving internal pres-sure is studied using the sandwich shell theory and elastodynamics theory. Propagation of axisymmetric free harmonic waves in the sandwich shell is studied using the sandwich shell theory by considering compressibility and transverse shear deformation of the core, and transverse shear deformation of face sheets. Based on the elastodynamics theory, displacement components expanded by Legendre polynomials, and position-dependent elastic constants and densities are introduced into the equations of motion. Critical ve-locity is the minimum phase velocity on the desperation relation curve obtained by using the two methods. Numerical examples and the finite element (FE) simulations are pre-sented. The results show that the two critical velocities agree well with each other, and two desperation relation curves agree well with each other when the wave number κ is relatively small. However, two limit phase velocities approach to the shear wave velocities of the face sheet and the core respectively when k limits to infinite. The two methods are efficient in the investigation of wave propagation in a sandwich cylindrical shell when κ is relatively small. The critical velocity predicted in the FE simulations agrees with theoretical prediction.

  17. Scaling of granular convective velocity and timescale of asteroidal resurfacing

    Yamada, Tomoya; Ando, Kousuke; Morota, Tomokatsu; Katsuragi, Hiroaki

    Granular convection is one of the well-known phenomena observed in a vertically vibrated granular bed. Recently, the possbile relation between granular convection and asteroidal surface processes has been discussed. The granular convection on the surface of small asteroids might be induced by seismic vibration resulting from meteorite impacts. To quantitatively evaluate the timescale of asteroidal resurfacing by granular convection, the granular convective velocity under various conditions must be revealed. As a first step to approach this problem, we experimentally study the velocity scaling of granular convection using a vertically vibrated glass-beads layer. By systematic experiments, a scaling form of granular convective velocity has been obtained. The obtained scaling form implies that the granular convective velocity can be written by a power-law product of two characteristic velocity components: vibrational and gravitational velocities. In addition, the system size dependence is also scaled. According to the scaling form, the granular convective velocity is almost proportional to gravitatinal acceleration. Using this scaling form, we have estimated the resurfacing timescale on small asteroid surface.

  18. Spanwise loading distribution and wake velocity surveys of a semi-span wing

    Felker, F. F., III; Piziali, R. A.; Gall, J. K.


    The spanwise distribution of bound circulation on a semi-span wing and the flow velocities in its wake were measured in a wind tunnel. Particular attention was given to documenting the flow velocities in and around the development tip vortex. A two-component laser velocimeter was used to make the velocity measurements. The spanwise distribution of bound circulation, three components of the time-averaged velocities throughout the near wake their standard deviations, and the integrated forces and moments on a metric tip as measured by an internal strain gage balance are presented without discussion.

  19. Velocity Field Statistics in Star-Forming Regions, 1 Centroid Velocity Observations

    Miesch, M S; Bally, J


    The probability density functions (pdfs) of molecular line centroid velocity fluctuations and fluctuation differences at different spatial lags are estimated for several nearby molecular clouds with active internal star formation. The data consist of over 75,000 $^{13}$CO line profiles divided among twelve spatially and/or kinematically distinct regions. Although three regions (all in Mon R2) appear nearly Gaussian, the others show strong evidence for non-Gaussian, often nearly exponential, centroid velocity pdfs, possibly with power law contributions in the far tails. Evidence for nearly exponential centroid pdfs in the neutral HI component of the ISM is also presented, based on older optical and radio observations. These results are in striking contrast to pdfs found in isotropic incompressible turbulence experiments and simulations. Furthermore, no evidence is found for the scaling of difference pdf kurtosis with Reynolds number which is seen in incompressible turbulence, and the spatial distribution of hi...

  20. Vertical velocity variances and Reynold stresses at Brookhaven

    Busch, Niels E.; Brown, R.M.; Frizzola, J.A.


    Results of wind tunnel tests of the Brookhaven annular bivane are presented. The energy transfer functions describing the instrument response and the numerical filter employed in the data reduction process have been used to obtain corrected values of the normalized variance of the vertical wind v...... velocity component....

  1. Transverse Oscillations for Phased Array Vector Velocity Imaging

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Medical ultrasound imaging is widely used to visualize blood flow in the human circulatory system. However, conventional methods are angle dependent. The Transverse Oscillation (TO) method is able to measure the lateral velocity component, and it has been demonstrated in in vivo measurements...

  2. Large-Eddy Simulation of pollutant dispersion around a cubical building: analysis of the turbulent mass transport mechanism by unsteady concentration and velocity statistics.

    Gousseau, P; Blocken, B; van Heijst, G J F


    Pollutant transport due to the turbulent wind flow around buildings is a complex phenomenon which is challenging to reproduce with Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). In the present study we use Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) to investigate the turbulent mass transport mechanism in the case of gas dispersion around an isolated cubical building. Close agreement is found between wind-tunnel measurements and the computed average and standard deviation of concentration in the wake of the building. Since the turbulent mass flux is equal to the covariance of velocity and concentration, we perform a detailed statistical analysis of these variables to gain insight into the dispersion process. In particular, the fact that turbulent mass flux in the streamwise direction is directed from the low to high levels of mean concentration (counter-gradient mechanism) is explained. The large vortical structures developing around the building are shown to play an essential role in turbulent mass transport.


    Cheng, Wan


    We describe large-eddy simulations of turbulent boundary-layer flow over a flat plate at high Reynolds number in the presence of an unsteady, three-dimensional flow separation/reattachment bubble. The stretched-vortex subgrid-scale model is used in the main flow domain combined with a wall-model that is a two-dimensional extension of that developed by Chung & Pullin (2009). Flow separation and re-attachment of the incoming boundary layer is induced by prescribing wall-normal velocity distribution on the upper boundary of the flow domain that produces an adverse-favorable stream-wise pressure distribution at the wall. The LES predicts the distribution of mean shear stress along the wall including the interior of the separation bubble. Several properties of the separation/reattachment flow are discussed.

  4. Velocity Data in a Fully Developed Wind Turbine Array Boundary Layer

    Turner, John; Wosnik, Martin


    Results are reported from an experimental study of an array of porous disks simulating offshore wind turbines. The disks mimic power extraction of similarly scaled wind turbines via drag matching, and the array consists of 19x5 disks of 0.25 m diameter. The study was conducted in the UNH Flow Physics Facility (FPF), which has test section dimensions of 6.0 m wide, 2.7 m high and 72.0 m long. The FPF can achieve a boundary layer height on the order of 1 m at the entrance of the wind turbine array which puts the model turbines in the bottom third of the boundary layer, which is typical of field application. Careful consideration was given to an expanded uncertainty analysis, to determine possible measurements in this type of flow. For a given configuration (spacing, initial conditions, etc.), the velocity levels out and the wind farm approaches fully developed behavior, even within the maintained growth of the simulated atmospheric boundary layer. Benchmark pitot tube data was acquired in vertical profiles progressing streamwise behind the centered column at every row in the array.

  5. Efficient focusing scheme for transverse velocity estimation using cross-correlation

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    The blood velocity can be estimated by cross-correlation of received RE signals, but only the velocity component along the beam direction is found. A previous paper showed that the complete velocity vector can be estimated, if received signals are focused along lines parallel to the direction...... simulations with Field II. A 64-elements, 5 MHz linear array was used. A parabolic velocity profile with a peak velocity of 0.5 m/s was considered for different angles between the flow and the ultrasound beam and for different emit foci. At 60 degrees the relative standard deviation was 0.58 % for a transmit...

  6. Calculation of a velocity distribution from particle trajectory end-points.

    Rasmussen, Lowell A.


    The longitudinal component of the velocity of a particle at or near a glacier surface is considered, its position as a function of time being termed its trajectory. Functional relationships are derived for obtaining the trajectory from the spatial distribution of velocity and for obtaining the velocity distribution from the trajectory. It is established that the trajectory end-points impose only an integral condition on the velocity distribution and that no individual point on the velocity distribution can be determined if only the end-points are known.-from Author

  7. Velocity requirements for causality violation

    Modanese, Giovanni


    It is known that the hypothetical existence of superluminal signals would imply the logical possibility of active causal violation: an observer in relative motion with respect to a primary source could in principle emit secondary superluminal signals (triggered by the primary ones) which go back in time and deactivate the primary source before the initial emission. This is a direct consequence of the structure of the Lorentz transformations, sometimes called "Regge-Tolman paradox". It is straightforward to find a formula for the velocity of the moving observer required to produce the causality violation. When applied to some recent claims of slight superluminal propagation, this formula yields a required velocity very close to the speed of light; this raises some doubts about the real physical observability of such violations. We re-compute this velocity requirement introducing a realistic delay between the reception of the primary signal and the emission of the secondary. It turns out that for -any- delay it...

  8. Signal velocity in oscillator arrays

    Cantos, C. E.; Veerman, J. J. P.; Hammond, D. K.


    We investigate a system of coupled oscillators on the circle, which arises from a simple model for behavior of large numbers of autonomous vehicles where the acceleration of each vehicle depends on the relative positions and velocities between itself and a set of local neighbors. After describing necessary and sufficient conditions for asymptotic stability, we derive expressions for the phase velocity of propagation of disturbances in velocity through this system. We show that the high frequencies exhibit damping, which implies existence of well-defined signal velocitiesc+ > 0 and c- < 0 such that low frequency disturbances travel through the flock as f+(x - c+t) in the direction of increasing agent numbers and f-(x - c-t) in the other.

  9. Angle independent velocity spectrum determination


    An ultrasound imaging system (100) includes a transducer array (102) that emits an ultrasound beam and produces at least one transverse pulse-echo field that oscillates in a direction transverse to the emitted ultrasound beam and that receive echoes produced in response thereto and a spectral vel...... velocity estimator (110) that determines a velocity spectrum for flowing structure, which flows at an angle of 90 degrees and flows at angles less than 90 degrees with respect to the emitted ultrasound beam, based on the received echoes....

  10. Velocity field calculation for non-orthogonal numerical grids

    Flach, G. P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)


    Computational grids containing cell faces that do not align with an orthogonal (e.g. Cartesian, cylindrical) coordinate system are routinely encountered in porous-medium numerical simulations. Such grids are referred to in this study as non-orthogonal grids because some cell faces are not orthogonal to a coordinate system plane (e.g. xy, yz or xz plane in Cartesian coordinates). Non-orthogonal grids are routinely encountered at the Savannah River Site in porous-medium flow simulations for Performance Assessments and groundwater flow modeling. Examples include grid lines that conform to the sloping roof of a waste tank or disposal unit in a 2D Performance Assessment simulation, and grid surfaces that conform to undulating stratigraphic surfaces in a 3D groundwater flow model. Particle tracking is routinely performed after a porous-medium numerical flow simulation to better understand the dynamics of the flow field and/or as an approximate indication of the trajectory and timing of advective solute transport. Particle tracks are computed by integrating the velocity field from cell to cell starting from designated seed (starting) positions. An accurate velocity field is required to attain accurate particle tracks. However, many numerical simulation codes report only the volumetric flowrate (e.g. PORFLOW) and/or flux (flowrate divided by area) crossing cell faces. For an orthogonal grid, the normal flux at a cell face is a component of the Darcy velocity vector in the coordinate system, and the pore velocity for particle tracking is attained by dividing by water content. For a non-orthogonal grid, the flux normal to a cell face that lies outside a coordinate plane is not a true component of velocity with respect to the coordinate system. Nonetheless, normal fluxes are often taken as Darcy velocity components, either naively or with accepted approximation. To enable accurate particle tracking or otherwise present an accurate depiction of the velocity field for a non

  11. A probability density function of liftoff velocities in mixed-size wind sand flux


    With the discrete element method(DEM) ,employing the diameter distribution of natural sands sampled from the Tengger Desert,a mixed-size sand bed was produced and the particle-bed collision was simulated in the mixed-size wind sand movement. In the simulation,the shear wind velocity,particle diameter,incident velocity and incident angle of the impact sand particle were given the same values as the experimental results. After the particle-bed collision,we collected all the initial velocities of rising sand particles,including the liftoff angular velocities,liftoff linear velocities and their horizontal and vertical components. By the statistical analysis on the velocity sample for each velocity component,its probability density functions were obtained,and they are the functions of the shear wind velocity. The liftoff velocities and their horizontal and vertical components are distributed as an exponential density function,while the angular velocities are distributed as a normal density function.

  12. Effects of increasing tip velocity on wind turbine rotor design.

    Resor, Brian Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Maniaci, David Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Berg, Jonathan Charles [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Richards, Phillip William [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A reduction in cost of energy from wind is anticipated when maximum allowable tip velocity is allowed to increase. Rotor torque decreases as tip velocity increases and rotor size and power rating are held constant. Reduction in rotor torque yields a lighter weight gearbox, a decrease in the turbine cost, and an increase in the capacity for the turbine to deliver cost competitive electricity. The high speed rotor incurs costs attributable to rotor aero-acoustics and system loads. The increased loads of high speed rotors drive the sizing and cost of other components in the system. Rotor, drivetrain, and tower designs at 80 m/s maximum tip velocity and 100 m/s maximum tip velocity are created to quantify these effects. Component costs, annualized energy production, and cost of energy are computed for each design to quantify the change in overall cost of energy resulting from the increase in turbine tip velocity. High fidelity physics based models rather than cost and scaling models are used to perform the work. Results provide a quantitative assessment of anticipated costs and benefits for high speed rotors. Finally, important lessons regarding full system optimization of wind turbines are documented.

  13. Centroid Velocity Statistics of Molecular Clouds

    Bertram, Erik; Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C O; Klessen, Ralf S


    We compute structure functions and Fourier spectra of 2D centroid velocity (CV) maps in order to study the gas dynamics of typical molecular clouds (MCs) in numerical simulations. We account for a simplified treatment of time-dependent chemistry and the non-isothermal nature of the gas and use a 3D radiative transfer tool to model the CO line emission in a post-processing step. We perform simulations using three different initial mean number densities of n_0 = 30, 100 and 300 cm^{-3} to span a range of typical values for dense gas clouds in the solar neighbourhood. We compute slopes of the centroid velocity increment structure functions (CVISF) and of Fourier spectra for different chemical components: the total density, H2 number density, 12CO number density as well as the integrated intensity of 12CO (J=1-0) and 13CO (J=1-0). We show that optical depth effects can significantly affect the slopes derived for the CVISF, which also leads to different scaling properties for the Fourier spectra. The slopes of CVI...

  14. Centroid velocity statistics of molecular clouds

    Bertram, Erik; Konstandin, Lukas; Shetty, Rahul; Glover, Simon C. O.; Klessen, Ralf S.


    We compute structure functions and Fourier spectra of 2D centroid velocity maps in order to study the gas dynamics of typical molecular clouds in numerical simulations. We account for a simplified treatment of time-dependent chemistry and the non-isothermal nature of the gas and use a 3D radiative transfer tool to model the CO line emission in a post-processing step. We perform simulations using three different initial mean number densities of n0 = 30, 100 and 300 cm-3 to span a range of typical values for dense gas clouds in the solar neighbourhood. We compute slopes of the centroid velocity increment structure functions (CVISF) and of Fourier spectra for different chemical components: the total density, H2 number density, 12CO number density as well as the integrated intensity of 12CO (J = 1 → 0) and 13CO (J = 1 → 0). We show that optical depth effects can significantly affect the slopes derived for the CVISF, which also leads to different scaling properties for the Fourier spectra. The slopes of CVISF and Fourier spectra for H2 are significantly steeper than those for the different CO tracers, independent of the density and the numerical resolution. This is due to the larger space-filling factor of H2 as it is better able to self-shield in diffuse regions, leading to a larger fractal co-dimension compared to CO.

  15. An Improved Velocity Volume Processing Method

    LI Nan; WEI Ming; TANG Xiaowen; PAN Yujie


    Velocity volume processing (VVP) retrieval of single Doppler radar is an effective method which can be used to obtain many wind parameters. However, due to the problem of an ill-conditioned matrix arising from the coefficients of equations not being easily resolved, the VVP method has not been applied adequately and effectively in operation. In this paper, an improved scheme, SVVP (step velocity volume processing), based on the original method, is proposed. The improved algorithm retrieves each group of components of the wind field through a stepwise procedure, which overcomes the problem of an ill-conditioned matrix, which currently limits the application of the VVP method. Variables in a six-parameter model can be retrieved even if the analysis volume is very small. In addition, the source and order of errors which exist in the traditional method are analyzed. The improved method is applied to real cases, which show that it is robust and has the capability to obtain the wind field structure of the local convective system. It is very helpful for studying severe storms.

  16. Spatiotemporal velocity-velocity correlation function in fully developed turbulence

    Canet, Léonie; Wschebor, Nicolás; Balarac, Guillaume


    Turbulence is an ubiquitous phenomenon in natural and industrial flows. Since the celebrated work of Kolmogorov in 1941, understanding the statistical properties of fully developed turbulence has remained a major quest. In particular, deriving the properties of turbulent flows from a mesoscopic description, that is from Navier-Stokes equation, has eluded most theoretical attempts. Here, we provide a theoretical prediction for the {\\it space and time} dependent velocity-velocity correlation function of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence from the field theory associated to Navier-Stokes equation with stochastic forcing. This prediction is the analytical fixed-point solution of Non-Perturbative Renormalisation Group flow equations, which are exact in a certain large wave-number limit. This solution is compared to two-point two-times correlation functions computed in direct numerical simulations. We obtain a remarkable agreement both in the inertial and in the dissipative ranges.

  17. About the velocity operator for spinning particles in quantum mechanics

    Salesi, Giovanni [Universita Statale di Catania (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Catania (Italy); Recami, Erasmo; Rodrigues Junior, Waldyr A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Aplicada


    Starting from the formal expressions of the hydrodynamical (or local) quantities employed in the applications of Clifford Algebras to quantum mechanics, we introduce - in terms of the ordinary tensorial framework - a new definition for the field of a generic quantity. By translating from Clifford into sensor algebra, we also propose a new (non-relativistic) velocity operator for a spin 1/2 particle. This operator is the sum of the ordinary part p/m describing the mean motion (the motion of the center-of-mass), and of a second part associated with the so-called Zitterbewegung, which is the spin internal motion observed in the center-of-mass frame. This spin component of the velocity operator is non-zero not only in the Pauli theoretical framework in presence of external magnetic fields and spin precession, but also in the Schroedinger case, when the wave-function is a spin eigenstate. In the latter case, one gets a decomposition of the velocity field for the Madelueng fluid into two distinct parts: which constitutes the non-relativistic analogue of the Gordon decomposition for the Dirac current. We find furthermore that the Zitterbewegung motion involves a velocity field which is solenoidal, and that the local angular velocity is parallel to the spin vector. In presence of a non-constant spin vector (Pauli case) we have, besides the component normal to spin present even in the Schroedinger theory, also a component of the local velocity which is parallel to the rotor of the spin vector. (author). 19 refs.

  18. Spectroscopic Observations of SN 2012fr: A Luminous Normal Type Ia Supernova with Early High Velocity Features and Late Velocity Plateau

    Childress, M J; Sim, S A; Tucker, B E; Yuan, F; Schmidt, B P; Cenko, S B; Silverman, J M; Contreras, C; Hsiao, E Y; Phillips, M; Morrell, N; Jha, S W; McCully, C; Filippenko, A V; Anderson, J P; Benetti, S; Bufano, F; de Jaeger, T; Forster, F; Gal-Yam, A; Guillou, L Le; Maguire, K; Maund, J; Mazzali, P A; Pignata, G; Smartt, S; Spyromilio, J; Sullivan, M; Taddia, F; Valenti, S; Bayliss, D D R; Bessell, M; Blanc, G A; Carson, D J; Clubb, K I; de Burgh-Day, C; Desjardins, T D; Fang, J J; Fox, O D; Gates, E L; Ho, I-T; Keller, S; Kelly, P L; Lidman, C; Loaring, N S; Mould, J R; Owers, M; Ozbilgen, S; Pei, L; Pickering, T; Pracy, M B; Rich, J A; Schaefer, B E; Scott, N; Stritzinger, M; Vogt, F P A; Zhou, G


    We present 65 optical spectra of the Type Ia supernova SN 2012fr, of which 33 were obtained before maximum light. At early times SN 2012fr shows clear evidence of a high-velocity feature (HVF) in the Si II 6355 line which can be cleanly decoupled from the lower velocity "photospheric" component. This Si II 6355 HVF fades by phase -5; subsequently, the photospheric component exhibits a very narrow velocity width and remains at a nearly constant velocity of v~12,000 km/s until at least 5 weeks after maximum brightness. The Ca II infrared (IR) triplet exhibits similar evidence for both a photospheric component at v~12,000 km/s with narrow line width and long velocity plateau, as well as a high-velocity component beginning at v~31,000 km/s two weeks before maximum. SN 2012fr resides on the border between the "shallow silicon" and "core-normal" subclasses in the Branch et al. (2009) classification scheme, and on the border between normal and "high-velocity" SNe Ia in the Wang et al. (2009a) system. Though it is a ...


    LI Zhong; LI Chunfeng


    The ring expansion procedures over various forming velocities are calculated with ANSYS software in order to show the effect of forming velocity on ductility of rate insensitive materials. Ring expansion procedures are simplified to one-dimensional tension by constraining the radial deformation, with element birth and death method, fracture problem of circular ring are considered. The calculated results show that for insensitive materials of 1060 aluminum and 3A21 aluminum alloy, fracture strain increases corresponding to the increase of forming velocity. This trend agrees well with experimental results, and indicates inertia is the key factor to affect ductility; With element birth and death methods, fracture problems can be solved effectively. Experimental studies on formability of tubular workpieces are also conducted, experimental results show that the formability of 1060 aluminum and 3A21 aluminum alloy under electromagnetic forming is higher than that under quasistatic forming, according to the characteristics of electromagnetic forming, the forming limit diagrams of the two materials tube are also built respectively, this is very important to promote the development of electromagnetic forming and guide the engineering practices.

  20. Velocity envelope of vector flow estimation with spatial quadrature

    Kerr, Richard F.; Anderson, Martin E.


    We present the results of two studies investigating the optimal aperture configuration for maximized lateral blood flow velocity estimation using Heterodyned Spatial Quadrature. Our objective was to determine the maximum velocities that can be estimated at Doppler angles of 90 degrees and 60 degrees with a bias of less than 5% for both uniform scatterer motion in a tissue-mimicking phantom and blood-mimicking fluid circulated through a wall-less vessel flow phantom. Constant flow rates ranging from 3.0 to 18.0 ml/sec were applied in the flow phantom, producing expected peak velocities of 15.0 to 89.8 cm/sec under laminar flow conditions. Velocity estimates were obtained at each flow rate using 256 trials, with each trial consisting of an ensemble of 32 vectors. For an f/1 receive geometry with bi-lobed Hamming apodization, all peak flow velocities tested were estimated to within 5% of their expected values for both 90 degree and 60 degree Doppler angles. An f/2 receive geometry featuring bi-lobed Blackman apodization generally provided accurate lateral velocity estimates up to 71.9 cm/sec for a Doppler angle of 90 degrees, and accurate lateral component estimates up to 50.1 cm/sec for a 60 degree Doppler angle. The implications of these findings will be discussed.

  1. ITRF2014 GNSS vertical velocities and global Earth figure variations

    Métivier, Laurent; Rouby, Hélène; Rebischung, Paul; Altamimi, Zuheir


    We investigate the GNSS station vertical velocities provided by the new solution of the International Terrestrial Reference Frame, the ITRF2014. Constructed from a global network of approximately 1500 stations of the different space geodetic techniques, this new solution provides two times more GNSS station velocities than the ITRF2008, and shows a global pattern of vertical velocities very homogeneous regionally. As in the ITRF2008 solution, large vertical velocities can be seen over North America, Northern Europe, or Antarctica, probably induced predominantly by the Glacial Isostatic Adjustment (GIA) still occurring today since the last deglaciation. But the ITRF2014 solution shows also large vertical velocities over regions such as Greenland and Alaska clearly larger than in the ITRF2008, probably related to last decadal ice melting and its possible acceleration. We investigate different methods to calculate low degree spherical harmonics coefficient from ITRF2014 GNSS vertical velocities. We particularly focus on the components related to the geocenter motion, the ellipticity of the solid Earth, and the J2 rate, and we present time tendencies with respect to different GIA and recent ice melting models.


    Esquivel, A. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-543, 04510 México D.F., México (Mexico); Lazarian, A. [Astronomy Department, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 475 N. Charter Street, Madison, WI (United States); Pogosyan, D., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Physics Department, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    Turbulence in the interstellar medium is anisotropic due to the ubiquitous magnetic fields. This anisotropy depends on the strength of the magnetic field and leaves an imprint on observations of spectral line maps. We use a grid of ideal magnetohydrodynamic simulations of driven turbulence and produce synthetic position–position–velocity maps to study the turbulence anisotropy in velocity channels of various resolutions. We found that the average structure function of velocity channels is aligned with the projection of the magnetic field on the plane of the sky. We also found that the degree of such anisotropy increases with the magnitude of the magnetic field. For thick velocity channels (low velocity resolution), the anisotropy is dominated by density, and the degree of anisotropy in these maps allows one to distinguish sub-Alfvénic and super-Alfvénic turbulence regimes, but it also depends strongly on the sonic Mach number. For thin channels (high velocity resolution), we find that the anisotropy depends less on the sonic Mach number. An important limitation of this technique is that it only gives a lower limit on the magnetic field strength because the anisotropy is related only to the magnetic field component on the plane of the sky. It can, and should, be used in combination with other techniques to estimate the magnetic field, such as the Fermi-Chandrasekhar method, anisotropies in centroids, Faraday rotation measurements, or direct line-of-sight determinations of the field from Zeeman effect observations.

  3. Speckle-based three-dimensional velocity measurement using spatial filtering velocimetry

    Iversen, Theis Faber Quist; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner


    We present an optical method for measuring the real-time three-dimensional (3D) translational velocity of a diffusely scattering rigid object observed through an imaging system. The method is based on a combination of the motion of random speckle patterns and regular fringe patterns. The speckle...... spatial filters designed to measure the three components of the object’s translational velocity. Furthermore, experimental data are presented that demonstrate full 3D velocity measurement....

  4. High-resolution observations of the spatial and velocity distribution of cometary hydrogen

    Brown, Michael E.; Spinrad, Hyron


    We have obtained high velocity and spatial resolution long-slit H alpha spectra of comets Austin (1989c1) and Levy (1990c). Spectra of both comets clearly show the existence of a low velocity thermalized component of hydrogen gas. The amount of slow hydrogen is estimated for comet Austin. The Levy spectrum shows an unusual high-velocity spatially-confined blob of hydrogen emission of unknown origin.

  5. Simulating Our Cosmological Neighborhood: Mock Catalogs for Velocity Analysis

    Kolatt, Tsafrir; Dekel, Avishai; Ganon, Galit; Willick, Jeffrey


    We describe the construction of an N-body simulation that mimics the true velocity and mass-density fields in a box of side 256\\hmpc about the Local Group , and the production of mock catalogs that mimic in detail current catalogs of redshifts and peculiar velocities. Our main purpose is to provide a tool for developing and testing reconstruction methods, but the different components of the method can be used on their own in other applications. The initial conditions are based on the IRAS 1.2...

  6. Power exponential velocity distributions in disordered porous media

    Matyka, Maciej; Koza, Zbigniew


    Velocity distribution functions link the micro- and macro-level theories of fluid flow through porous media. Here we study them for the fluid absolute velocity and its longitudinal and lateral components relative to the macroscopic flow direction in a model of a random porous medium. We claim that all distributions follow the power exponential law controlled by an exponent $\\gamma$ and a shift parameter $u_0$ and examine how these parameters depend on the porosity. We find that $\\gamma$ has a universal value $1/2$ at the percolation threshold and grows with the porosity, but never exceeds 2.

  7. Measuring 3D Velocity Vectors using the Transverse Oscillation Method

    Pihl, Michael Johannes; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Experimentally obtained estimates of threedimensional (3D) velocity vectors using the 3D Transverse Oscillation (TO) method are presented. The method employs a 2D transducer and synthesizes two double-oscillating fields in receive to obtain the axial, transverse, and elevation velocity components...... simultaneously. Experimental data are acquired using the ultrasound research scanner SARUS. The double-oscillating TO fields are investigated in an experimental scanning tank setup. The results demonstrate that the created fields only oscillate in the axial plus either the transverse or the elevation direction...

  8. Velocity operator and velocity field for spinning particles in (non-relativistic) quantum mechanics

    Recami, E. [Bergamo Univ. (Italy). Facolta` di Ingegneria]|[INFN, Milan (Italy)]|[Campinas State Univ., SP (Brazil). Dept. of Applied Math.; Salesi, G. [Catania Univ. (Italy). Dip. di Fisica


    Starting from the formal expressions of the hydrodynamical (or local) quantities employed in the applications of Clifford Algebras to quantum mechanics, the paper introduces - in terms of the ordinary tensorial framework - a new definition for the field of a generic quantity. By translating from Clifford into tensor algebra, a new (non-relativistic) velocity operator for a spin 1/2 particle is also proposed. This operator is the sum of the ordinary part p/m describing the mean motion (the motion of the center-of-mass), and of a second part associated with the so-called Zitterbewegung, which is the spin internal motion observed in the center-of- mass frame. This spin component of the velocity operator is non-zero not only in the Pauli theoretical framework, i.e. in presence of external magnetic fields and spin precession, but also in the Schroedinger case, when the wave-function is a spin eigenstate. In the latter case, one gets a decomposition of the velocity field for the Madelueng fluid into two distinct parts: which the constitutes the non-relativistic analogue of the Gordon decomposition for the Dirac current.

  9. Signal velocity for anomalous dispersive waves

    Mainardi, F. (Bologna Univ. (Italy))


    The concept of signal velocity for dispersive waves is usually identified with that of group velocity. When the dispersion is anomalous, this interpretation is not correct since the group velocity can assume nonphysical values. In this note, by using the steepest descent method first introduced by Brillouin, the phase velocity is shown to be the signal velocity when the dispersion is anomalous in the full range of frequencies.

  10. The integration of angular velocity

    Boyle, Michael


    A common problem in physics and engineering is determination of the orientation of an object given its angular velocity. When the direction of the angular velocity changes in time, this is a nontrivial problem involving coupled differential equations. Several possible approaches are examined, along with various improvements over previous efforts. These are then evaluated numerically by comparison to a complicated but analytically known rotation that is motivated by the important astrophysical problem of precessing black-hole binaries. It is shown that a straightforward solution directly using quaternions is most efficient and accurate, and that the norm of the quaternion is irrelevant. Integration of the generator of the rotation can also be made roughly as efficient as integration of the rotation. Both methods will typically be twice as efficient naive vector- or matrix-based methods. Implementation by means of standard general-purpose numerical integrators is stable and efficient, so that such problems can ...

  11. The Pulsar Kick Velocity Distribution

    Hansen, B M S; Hansen, Brad M. S.


    We analyse the sample of pulsar proper motions, taking detailed account of the selection effects of the original surveys. We treat censored data using survival statistics. From a comparison of our results with Monte Carlo simulations, we find that the mean birth speed of a pulsar is 250-300 km/s, rather than the 450 km/s foundby Lyne & Lorimer (1994). The resultant distribution is consistent with a maxwellian with dispersion $ \\sigma_v = 190 km/s$. Despite the large birth velocities, we find that the pulsars with long characteristic ages show the asymmetric drift, indicating that they are dynamically old. These pulsars may result from the low velocity tail of the younger population, although modified by their origin in binaries and by evolution in the galactic potential.

  12. Multilogarithmic velocity renormalization in graphene

    Sharma, Anand; Kopietz, Peter


    We reexamine the effect of long-range Coulomb interactions on the quasiparticle velocity in graphene. Using a nonperturbative functional renormalization group approach with partial bosonization in the forward scattering channel and momentum transfer cutoff scheme, we calculate the quasiparticle velocity, v (k ) , and the quasiparticle residue, Z , with frequency-dependent polarization. One of our most striking results is that v (k ) ∝ln[Ck(α ) /k ] where the momentum- and interaction-dependent cutoff scale Ck(α ) vanishes logarithmically for k →0 . Here k is measured with respect to one of the charge neutrality (Dirac) points and α =2.2 is the strength of dimensionless bare interaction. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the so-obtained multilogarithmic singularity is reconcilable with the perturbative expansion of v (k ) in powers of the bare interaction.

  13. The calibration of (multi-)hot-wire probes. 2. Velocity-calibration

    Dijk, van A.; Nieuwstadt, F.T.M.


    We review a set of velocity calibration methods for one popular configuration of a four-hot-wire probe with the aim of finding a method of estimating with 10% accuracy (based on full scale) the mean flow vector, the rms of the turbulent velocity component and the associated linearized anisotropy inv

  14. Temporal evolution of confined fast-ion velocity distributions measured by collective Thomson scattering in TEXTOR

    Nielsen, Stefan Kragh; Bindslev, Henrik; Porte, L.


    of scattering locations and different resolved velocity components can be measured. The temporal resolution is 4 ms while the spatial resolution is similar to 10 cm depending on the scattering geometry. Fast-ion velocity distributions in a variety of scenarios are measured, including the evolution...

  15. Apparatus and method for determining movements and velocities of moving objects


    (M) elements. The transmit beam former and the receive beam former are configured to obtain the spatially oscillating field. The signal received from the interacting objects (4) is processed by the velocity estimator processor (7) for calculation of the velocity vector components by estimating the shift...

  16. Glacier Surface Velocity Measurements from Radar Interferometry and the Principle of Mass Conservation

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Reeh, Niels


    Presents a relation between the three glacier surface velocity components, the surface flux-divergence, glacier thickness and bottom melt and displacement. The relation can be used as an extension to the surface parallel flow assumption often used with interferometric synthetic aperture measurements of glacier velocities. The assumptions for the derivation are described and important limitations high-lighted.


    Joao P. Vilas-Boas


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze the relationship between the intra-cycle variation of the horizontal velocity of displacement of the center of mass (dV, the hand's and feet's velocity, as well as, to identify the variables that most predict the dV's, in butterfly stroke. The study was divided in two parts. The aim of Part I was to investigate the behavior of variables in study at slow swimming velocities and the purpose of Part II was the same but at high swimming velocities. 3 male Portuguese swimmers and 1 female swimmer, of international level were studied in Part I. The swimmers were submitted to an incremental set of 200 m butterfly swims. In the Part II, 7 Portuguese male swimmers of national and international level were studied. Each swimmer performed two maximal 25 m butterfly swims. Both protocols were recorded from four different plans, allowing a 3D analysis. It was calculated the dV, the 3D components (Vx, Vy, Vz of the hand's velocity and the 2D components (Vx, Vy of the feet's velocity. Several variables presented significant correlation coefficients with dV at all selected velocities (high velocity ranged from r = 0.58 for Vx-out to r = 0.82 for Vy-1dwn; slow velocity ranged from r = -0.45 for Vx-1dwn to r=0.73 for Vx-ups; overall velocity ranged from r= 0.34 for Vz-ent to r = 0.82 for Vx-ins. It was also computed a regression model to predict dV. For high velocity (up to 1.75 ± 0.09 m.s-1, the variables that best predict dV were Vy during the first downbeat, Vx and Vy during the arm's insweep (r2 = 0.93. At slow velocity (up to 1.48 m.s-1, the variables included in the forward step-by-step regression model were Vx during upsweep, Vy and Vx during insweep (r2 = 0.69. For overall velocity, the variables that most fit the regression model were Vx during upsweep, Vy during second downbeat and Vz during entry (r2= 0.94. In order to reduce dV, butterfliers should increase hand's velocity in all orthogonal components at the

  18. High velocity collisions of nanoparticles

    Johnson, Donald F.; Mattson, William D.


    Nanoparticles (NPs) are a unique class of material with highly functionalizable surfaces and exciting applications. With a large surface-to-volume ratio and potentially high surface tension, shocked nanoparticles might display unique materials behavior. Using density functional theory, we have simulated high-velocity NP collisions under a variety of conditions. NPs composed of diamond-C, cubic-BN, and diamond-Si were considered with particle sizes up to 3.5 nm diameter. Additional simulations involved NPs that were destabilized by incorporating internal strain. The initial spherical NP structures were carved out of bulk crystals while the NPs with internal strain were constructed as a dense core (compressive strain) encompassed by a thin shell (tensile strain). Both on-axis and off-axis collisions were simulated at 10 km/s relative velocity. The amount of internal strain was artificially increased by creating a dense inner core with bond lengths compressed up to 8%. Collision dynamics, shock propagation, and fragmentation will be analyzed, but the simulation are ongoing and results are not finalized. The effect of material properties, internal strain, and collision velocity will be discussed.

  19. Frequency domain analysis of triggered lightning return stroke luminosity velocity

    Carvalho, F. L.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D. M.; Moore, R. C.


    Fourier analysis is applied to time domain return stroke luminosity signals to calculate the phase and group velocities and the amplitude of the luminosity signals as a function of frequency measured between 4 m and 115 m during 12 triggered lightning strokes. We show that pairs of time domain luminosity signals measured at different heights can be interpreted as the input and the output of a system whose frequency domain transfer function can be determined from the measured time domain signals. From the frequency domain transfer function phase we find the phase and group velocities, and luminosity amplitude as a function of triggered lightning channel height and signal frequency ranging from 50 kHz to 300 kHz. We show that higher-frequency luminosity components propagate faster than the lower frequency components and that higher-frequency luminosity components attenuate more rapidly than lower frequency components. Finally, we calculate time domain return stroke velocities as a function of channel height using two time delay techniques: (1) measurement at the 20% amplitude level and (2) cross correlation.

  20. Velocity Correction and Measurement Uncertainty Analysis of Light Screen Velocity Measuring Method

    ZHENG Bin; ZUO Zhao-lu; HOU Wen


    Light screen velocity measuring method with unique advantages has been widely used in the velocity measurement of various moving bodies.For large air resistance and friction force which the big moving bodies are subjected to during the light screen velocity measuring,the principle of velocity correction was proposed and a velocity correction equation was derived.A light screen velocity measuring method was used to measure the velocity of big moving bodies which have complex velocity attenuation,and the better results were gained in practical tests.The measuring uncertainty after the velocity correction was calculated.

  1. Iron-nickel alloy from iron meteorite Chinga studied by Moessbauer spectroscopy with high velocity resolution

    Oshtrakh, M. I., E-mail:; Grokhovsky, V. I.; Abramova, N. V. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Physical Techniques and Devices for Quality Control (Russian Federation); Semionkin, V. A. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Faculty of Experimental Physics (Russian Federation); Milder, O. B. [Ural State Technical University-UPI, Radio-Technical Department (Russian Federation)


    Study of iron-nickel alloy from iron meteorite Chinga using Moessbauer spectroscopy with improved velocity resolution (measurement and presentation in 4,096 channels) revealed six magnetic components which may be related to various {alpha}-Fe(Ni, Co) and {gamma}-Fe(Ni, Co) phases while previous study with low velocity resolution (in 512 channels) revealed only three magnetic components. This new result was in agreement with the scanning electron microscopy study.

  2. Constraints on the original ejection velocity fields of asteroid families

    Carruba, Valerio


    Asteroid families form as a result of large-scale collisions among main belt asteroids. The orbital distribution of fragments after a family-forming impact could inform us about their ejection velocities. Unfortunately, however, orbits dynamically evolve by a number of effects, including the Yarkovsky drift, chaotic diffusion, and gravitational encounters with massive asteroids, such that it is difficult to infer the ejection velocities eons after each family's formation. Here we analyze the inclination distribution of asteroid families, because proper inclination can remain constant over long time intervals, and could help us to understand the distribution of the component of the ejection velocity that is perpendicular to the orbital plane ($v_{W}$). From modeling the initial breakup, we find that the distribution of $v_{W}$ of the fragments, which manage to escape the parent body's gravity, should be more peaked than a Gaussian distribution (i.e., be leptokurtic) even if the initial distribution was Gaussia...

  3. Three Kinds of Velocity Structure Function in Turbulent Flows

    LIU Wei; JIANG Nan


    Based on the local multi-scale eddy structures in turbulent flows, we elucidate the essential difference between the real turbulent field with a finite Reynolds number and the Kolmogorov fully developed random field. The motion of fluid particles in the real turbulent field is not fully random. There exist multi-scale structures due to the effect of viscosity. Actually the movements of fluid particles in the turbulent field are restricted by such eddy structures. Furthermore, concept of the locally averaged velocity structure function is put forward to describe the relative strain distortion of two adjacent turbulent eddy structures at a certain scale. The time sequence of the longitudinal velocity component at different vertical locations in turbulent boundary layer has been elaborately measured by the constant temperature anemometry of model IFA-300 in a wind tunnel. The experiment proves that the locally averaged velocity structure function is in agreement with the wavelet-coefficient structure function.

  4. The kinematic component of the cosmological redshift

    Chodorowski, Michał


    It is widely believed that the cosmological redshift is not a Doppler shift. However, Bunn & Hogg have recently pointed out that to settle properly this problem, one has to transport parallelly the velocity four-vector of a distant galaxy to the observer's position. Performing such a transport along the null geodesic of photons arriving from the galaxy, they found that the cosmological redshift is purely kinematic. Here we argue that one should rather transport the velocity four-vector along the geodesic connecting the points of intersection of the world-lines of the galaxy and the observer with the hypersurface of constant COSMIC TIME. We find that the resulting relation between the transported velocity and the redshift of arriving photons is NOT given by a relativistic Doppler formula. Instead, for small redshifts it coincides with the well known non-relativistic decomposition of the redshift into a Doppler (kinematic) component and a gravitational component. We perform such a decomposition for arbitrar...

  5. Simultaneous inversion of the background velocity and the perturbation in full-waveform inversion

    Wu, Zedong


    The gradient of standard full-waveform inversion (FWI) attempts to map the residuals in the data to perturbations in the model. Such perturbations may include smooth background updates from the transmission components and high wavenumber updates from the reflection components. However, if we fix the reflection components using imaging, the gradient of what is referred to as reflected-waveform inversion (RWI) admits mainly transmission background-type updates. The drawback of existing RWI methods is that they lack an optimal image capable of producing reflections within the convex region of the optimization. Because the influence of velocity on the data was given mainly by its background (propagator) and perturbed (reflectivity) components, we have optimized both components simultaneously using a modified objective function. Specifically, we used an objective function that combined the data generated from a source using the background velocity, and that by the perturbed velocity through Born modeling, to fit the observed data. When the initial velocity was smooth, the data modeled from the source using the background velocity will mainly be reflection free, and most of the reflections were obtained from the image (perturbed velocity). As the background velocity becomes more accurate and can produce reflections, the role of the image will slowly diminish, and the update will be dominated by the standard FWI gradient to obtain high resolution. Because the objective function was quadratic with respect to the image, the inversion for the image was fast. To update the background velocity smoothly, we have combined different components of the gradient linearly through solving a small optimization problem. Application to the Marmousi model found that this method converged starting with a linearly increasing velocity, and with data free of frequencies below 4 Hz. Application to the 2014 Chevron Gulf of Mexico imaging challenge data set demonstrated the potential of the

  6. Peculiar velocities in dynamic spacetimes

    Bini, Donato


    We investigate the asymptotic behavior of peculiar velocities in certain physically significant time-dependent gravitational fields. Previous studies of the motion of free test particles have focused on the \\emph{collapse scenario}, according to which a double-jet pattern with Lorentz factor $\\gamma \\to \\infty$ develops asymptotically along the direction of complete gravitational collapse. In the present work, we identify a second \\emph{wave scenario}, in which a single-jet pattern with Lorentz factor $\\gamma \\to \\infty$ develops asymptotically along the direction of wave propagation. The possibility of a connection between the two scenarios for the formation of cosmic jets is critically examined.

  7. Minimum length-maximum velocity

    Panes, Boris


    We study a framework where the hypothesis of a minimum length in space-time is complemented with the notion of reference frame invariance. It turns out natural to interpret the action of the obtained reference frame transformations in the context of doubly special relativity. As a consequence of this formalism we find interesting connections between the minimum length properties and the modified velocity-energy relation for ultra-relativistic particles. For example, we can predict the ratio between the minimum lengths in space and time using the results from OPERA on superluminal neutrinos.

  8. Velocity condensation for magnetotactic bacteria

    Rupprecht, Jean-Francois; Bocquet, Lydéric


    Magnetotactic swimmers tend to align along magnetic field lines against stochastic reorientations. We show that the swimming strategy, e.g. active Brownian motion versus run-and-tumble dynamics, strongly affects the orientation statistics. The latter can exhibit a velocity condensation whereby the alignment probability density diverges. As a consequence, we find that the swimming strategy affects the nature of the phase transition to collective motion, indicating that L\\'evy run-and-tumble walks can outperform active Brownian processes as strategies to trigger collective behavior.

  9. A nonlinear inversion for the velocity background and perturbation models

    Wu, Zedong


    Reflected waveform inversion (RWI) provides a method to reduce the nonlinearity of the standard full waveform inversion (FWI) by inverting for the single scattered wavefield obtained using an image. However, current RWI methods usually neglect diving waves, which is an important source of information for extracting the long wavelength components of the velocity model. Thus, we propose a new optimization problem through breaking the velocity model into the background and the perturbation in the wave equation directly. In this case, the perturbed model is no longer the single scattering model, but includes all scattering. We optimize both components simultaneously, and thus, the objective function is nonlinear with respect to both the background and perturbation. The new introduced w can absorb the non-smooth update of background naturally. Application to the Marmousi model with frequencies that start at 5 Hz shows that this method can converge to the accurate velocity starting from a linearly increasing initial velocity. Application to the SEG2014 demonstrates the versatility of the approach.

  10. Improved accuracy in the estimation of blood velocity vectors using matched filtering

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gori, P.


    The blood velocity can be estimated by finding the shift in position of the blood scatterers between subsequent ultrasonic pulse emissions through cross-correlation of the received RF signals. Usually only the velocity component along the beam direction is found. It was shown in a previous paper...... that the complete velocity vector can be found, if the received signals are focused along lines parallel to the direction of the blood flow. A fairly broad beam is emitted in the approach, and this gives rise to a widening in the profiles of the estimated velocity. To reduce this effect, a focused ultrasound...

  11. Velocity and turbulence at a wing-wall abutment

    Abdul Karim Barbhuiya; Subhasish Dey


    Experimental investigation of the 3D turbulent flow field around a 45° wing-wall abutment, resting on a rough rigid bed, is reported. The experiment was conducted in a laboratory flume using the Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter (ADV). Profiles of time-averaged velocity components, turbulent intensity components, turbulent kinetic energy and Reynolds stresses at different azimuthal planes are presented. Vector plots of flow fields at azimuthal and horizontal planes show the presence of a primary vortex associated with the downflow in the upstream side of the abutment and a wake vortex on the downstream side. The shear stresses acting on the bed around the abutment are estimated from the Reynolds stresses and velocity gradients. The data presented in this study would be useful to researchers for future development and comparison of theoretical models of flow fields around bridge abutments.

  12. Extension of migration velocity analysis to transmitted wavefields

    Lameloise, Charles-Antoine; Chauris, Hervé


    Migration velocity analysis aims at automatically updating the large-scale components of the velocity model, called macromodel. Extended Common Image Gathers are panels used to evaluate focusing after imaging and are constructed as a function of a spatial shift introduced in the imaging condition. We investigate how transmitted waves can also be used in migration velocity analysis: instead of back-propagating the residuals associated with reflected waves, we propose to back-propagate the full wavefield. The image function, equivalent to the migrated section for reflected data, does not exhibit localized events in space along horizons but is still sensitive to the choice of the background velocity model and can thus be coupled to the same objective function defined in the image domain. In order to enhance the benefits of direct waves, we consider a cross-well configuration. Direct waves provide a large illumination between two vertical wells. Associated Common Image Gathers present different characteristics than the ones associated with reflected waves in surface acquisition. In particular, energy is spread over up to the maximum penetration depth. We invert cross-well seismic data along two lines. In the first case, the input data contain the full wavefield dominated by transmitted waves. It demonstrates the possibility to handle transmitted waves to determine the velocity model. It appears that the misfit in the data domain is largely reduced after inversion. In the second case, we use the same algorithm, but with reflected observed data only, as in a classical approach. Most of velocity updates are localized around the reflectivity, leading to an incorrect final model. This demonstrates the benefit of transmitted waves for migration velocity analysis in a cross-well configuration.

  13. Empirical Limits on Radial Velocity Planet Detection for Young Stars

    Hillenbrand, Lynne; Marcy, Geoffrey; Barenfeld, Scott; Fischer, Debra; Howard, Andrew


    We report initial results from our long term search using precision radial velocities for planetary-mass companions located within a few AU of stars younger than the Sun. Based on a sample of >150 stars, we define a floor in the radial velocity scatter, sigma_RV, as a function of the chromospheric activity level R'_{HK}. This lower bound to the jitter, which increases with increasing stellar activity, sets the minimum planet mass that could be detected. Adopting a median activity-age relationship reveals the astrophysical limits to planet masses discernable via radial velocity monitoring, as a function of stellar age. Considering solar-mass primaries having the mean jitter-activity level, when they are younger than 100 / 300 / 1000 Myr, the stochastic jitter component in radial velocity measurements restricts detectable companion masses to > 0.3 / 0.2 / 0.1 M_Jupiter. These numbers require a large number -- several tens -- of radial velocity observations taken over a time frame longer than the orbital period....

  14. Migration velocity analysis using pre-stack wave fields

    Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali


    Using both image and data domains to perform velocity inversion can help us resolve the long and short wavelength components of the velocity model, usually in that order. This translates to integrating migration velocity analysis into full waveform inversion. The migration velocity analysis part of the inversion often requires computing extended images, which is expensive when using conventional methods. As a result, we use pre-stack wavefield (the double-square-root formulation) extrapolation, which includes the extended information (subsurface offsets) naturally, to make the process far more efficient and stable. The combination of the forward and adjoint pre-stack wavefields provides us with update options that can be easily conditioned to improve convergence. We specifically use a modified differential semblance operator to split the extended image into a residual part for classic differential semblance operator updates and the image (Born) modelling part, which provides reflections for higher resolution information. In our implementation, we invert for the velocity and the image simultaneously through a dual objective function. Applications to synthetic examples demonstrate the features of the approach.

  15. Expansion Velocity Investigation of the Elliptical Planetary Nebula NGC 6803

    Choi, Younsu Choi; Lee, Seong-Jae; Hyung, Siek


    Using the spectral data in the 3700 to 10050 Å wavelength range secured with the Hamilton Echelle Spectrograph (HES) at the Lick observatory, we have investigated the expansion velocities and the physical conditions of the elliptical planetary nebula NGC 6803. Various forbidden and permitted lines, e.g. HI, HeI, HeII, [OIII], [NII], [ArIII], and [SII], indicate complicated but systematic physical conditions variation: electron temperatures T_{ɛ} ˜ 9000 - 11,000 K and electron number densities N_{ɛ} ˜ 2000 - 9000 cm^{-3}. The line profile analysis of these ions also indicates the systematic change or the acceleration of the expansion velocities in the range of 10 - 22 kms. We show that the velocity gradient and physical condition found in various ions are closely related to the prolate ellipsoidal structure of NGC 6803. The expansion velocity and the ionic abundance of O^{2+} were derived based on the OII and [OIII] lines. In spite of the discrepancy of ionic abundances derived by the two cases and their line profiles, the expansion velocities of them agree well. We find that the ratios of the red to blue line component of the HeII & OII lines are different from those of the [OIII] or other forbidden lines that indicates a possible involvement of emission of HeII & OII lines. This subtle difference and the different physical condition of the lines are likely to be caused by the elongated geometry and the latitude dependence of the emission zone.

  16. Single-mode fiber, velocity interferometry

    Krauter, K. G.; Jacobson, G. F.; Patterson, J. R.; Nguyen, J. H.; Ambrose, W. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave., Livermore California 94551 (United States)


    In this paper, we describe a velocity interferometer system based entirely on single-mode fiber optics. This paper includes a description of principles used in developing the single-mode velocity interferometry system (SMV). The SMV design is based on polarization-insensitive components. Polarization adjusters are included to eliminate the effects of residual birefringence and polarization dependent losses in the interferometers. Characterization measurements and calibration methods needed for data analysis and a method of data analysis are described. Calibration is performed directly using tunable lasers. During development, we demonstrated its operation using exploding-foil bridge-wire fliers up to 200 m/s. In a final test, we demonstrated the SMV in a gas gun experiment up to 1.2 km/sec. As a basis for comparison in the gas gun experiment, we used another velocimetry technique that is also based on single-mode fiber optics: photonic Doppler velocimetry (PDV). For the gas gun experiment, we split the light returned from a single target spot and performed a direct comparison of the homodyne (SMV) and heterodyne (PDV) techniques concurrently. The two techniques had a negligible mean difference and a 1.5% standard deviation in the one-dimensional shock zone. Within one interferometer delay time after a sudden Doppler shift, a SMV unencumbered by multimode-fiber dispersion exhibits two color beats. These beats have the same period as PDV beats--this interference occurs between the ''recently'' shifted and ''formerly unshifted'' paths within the interferometer. We believe that recognizing this identity between homodyne and heterodyne beats is novel in the shock-physics field. SMV includes the conveniences of optical fiber, while removing the time resolution limitations associated with the multimode delivery fiber.

  17. Velocity measurements of low Reynolds number tube flow using fiber-optic technology

    Bianchi, J.C.


    In 1988 Nielsen started work to measure the spatial variability of the mass flux vector being transported in a porous medium. To measure the spatial variability of the mass flux vector, the spatial variability of its components(velocity, concentration) must be measured. Nielsen was successful in measuring the pore level concentration at many different pores and in verifying the assumption that a nonuniform concentration field exists within the mixing zone between two miscible fluids. However, Nielsen was unable to conduct the necessary pore level velocity measurements needed. Nielsen's work is being continued and a probe is being developed that will measure both velocity and concentration components at pore level. The probe is essentially the same probe used to make the pore level concentration measurements with added capabilities needed to make the velocity measurements. This probe has several design variables, dealing primarily with the velocity component, that need further investigation. The research presented in this thesis investigates these parameters by performing experiments in a capillary tube. The tube is a controlled system where the velocity of the fluid can be determined from the volumetric flow rate using Poiseuille's solution for viscous flow. Also, a statistically based relationship between the velocity measured with the probe and the velocity determined from the volumetric flow rate has been developed.

  18. Velocity measurements of low Reynolds number tube flow using fiber-optic technology

    Bianchi, J. Christopher [Univ. of Vermont, Burlington, VT (United States)


    In 1988 Nielsen started work to measure the spatial variability of the mass flux vector being transported in a porous medium. To measure the spatial variability of the mass flux vector, the spatial variability of its components(velocity, concentration) must be measured. Nielsen was successful in measuring the pore level concentration at many different pores and in verifying the assumption that a nonuniform concentration field exists within the mixing zone between two miscible fluids. However, Nielsen was unable to conduct the necessary pore level velocity measurements needed. Nielsen`s work is being continued and a probe is being developed that will measure both velocity and concentration components at pore level. The probe is essentially the same probe used to make the pore level concentration measurements with added capabilities needed to make the velocity measurements. This probe has several design variables, dealing primarily with the velocity component, that need further investigation. The research presented in this thesis investigates these parameters by performing experiments in a capillary tube. The tube is a controlled system where the velocity of the fluid can be determined from the volumetric flow rate using Poiseuille`s solution for viscous flow. Also, a statistically based relationship between the velocity measured with the probe and the velocity determined from the volumetric flow rate has been developed.

  19. Intramuscular fiber conduction velocity, isometric force and explosive performance

    Methenitis Spyridon; Terzis Gerasimos; Zaras Nikolaos; Stasinaki Angeliki-Nikoletta; Karandreas Nikolaos


    Conduction of electrical signals along the surface of muscle fibers is acknowledged as an essential neuromuscular component which is linked with muscle force production. However, it remains unclear whether muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) is also linked with explosive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between vastus lateralis MFCV and countermovement jumping performance, the rate of force development and maximum isometric force. Fifteen moder...

  20. Intramuscular fiber conduction velocity, isometric force and explosive performance

    Methenitis, Spyridon; Terzis, Gerasimos; Zaras, Nikolaos; Stasinaki, Angeliki-Nikoletta; Karandreas, Nikolaos


    Abstract Conduction of electrical signals along the surface of muscle fibers is acknowledged as an essential neuromuscular component which is linked with muscle force production. However, it remains unclear whether muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) is also linked with explosive performance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between vastus lateralis MFCV and countermovement jumping performance, the rate of force development and maximum isometric force. Fift...

  1. Velocity of sound in hadron matter

    Epele, L.N.; Fanchiotti, H.; Garcia Canal, C.A.; Roulet, E.


    The velocity of sound in hadron matter, in both the confined and deconfined phases, is studied. This velocity of sound appears to be an important tool to distinguish among different bag-model-based thermodynamical descriptions of hadronic matter.

  2. Inexpensive Time-of-Flight Velocity Measurements.

    Everett, Glen E.; Wild, R. L.


    Describes a circuit designed to measure time-of-flight velocity and shows how to use it to determine bullet velocity in connection with the ballistic pendulum demonstration of momentum conservation. (Author/GA)

  3. On the role of the chaotic velocity in relativistic kinetic theory

    Moratto, Valdemar [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, 09340 México D.F. (Mexico); García-Perciante, A. L. [Departamento de Matemáticas Aplicadas y Sistemas, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Cuajimalpa, Prol. Vasco de Quiroga 4871, México D. F. 05348 (Mexico)


    In this paper we revisit the concept of chaotic velocity within the context of relativistic kinetic theory. Its importance as the key ingredient which allows to clearly distinguish convective and dissipative effects is discussed to some detail. Also, by addressing the case of the two component mixture, the relevance of the barycentric comoving frame is established and thus the convenience for the introduction of peculiar velocities for each species. The fact that the decomposition of molecular velocity in systematic and peculiar components does not alter the covariance of the theory is emphasized. Moreover, we show that within an equivalent decomposition into space-like and time-like tensors, based on a generalization of the relative velocity concept, the Lorentz factor for the chaotic velocity can be expressed explicitly as an invariant quantity. This idea, based on Ellis' theorem, allows to foresee a natural generalization to the general relativistic case.

  4. Fluid approach to evaluate sound velocity in Yukawa systems (complex plasmas)

    Khrapak, Sergey


    The conventional fluid description of multi-component plasma, supplemented by an appropriate equation of state for the macroparticle component, is used to evaluate the longitudinal sound velocity of Yukawa fluids. The obtained results are in very good agreement with those obtained earlier employing the quasi-localized charge approximation and molecular dynamics simulations in a rather broad parameter regime. Thus, a simple yet accurate tool to estimate the sound velocity across coupling regimes is proposed, which can be particularly helpful in estimating the dust-acoustic velocity in strongly coupled dusty (complex) plasmas. It is shown that, within the present approach, the sound velocity is completely determined by particle-particle correlations and the neutralizing medium (plasma), apart from providing screening of the Coulomb interaction, has no other effect on the sound propagation. The ratio of the actual sound velocity to its "ideal gas" (weak coupling) scale only weakly depends on the coupling strengt...

  5. Hypersonic Boundary Layer Measurements with Variable Blowing Rates Using Molecular Tagging Velocimetry

    Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Johansen, Craig T.; Jones, Stephen B.; Goyne, Christopher P.


    Measurements of mean and instantaneous streamwise velocity profiles in a hypersonic boundary layer with variable rates of mass injection (blowing) of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were obtained over a 10-degree half-angle wedge model. The NO2 was seeded into the flow from a slot located 29.4 mm downstream of the sharp leading edge. The top surface of the wedge was oriented at a 20 degree angle in the Mach 10 flow, yielding an edge Mach number of approximately 4.2. The streamwise velocity profiles and streamwise fluctuating velocity component profiles were obtained using a three-laser NO2->NO photolysis molecular tagging velocimetry method. Observed trends in the mean streamwise velocity profiles and profiles of the fluctuating component of streamwise velocity as functions of the blowing rate are described. An effort is made to distinguish between the effect of blowing rate and wall temperature on the measured profiles. An analysis of the mean velocity profiles for a constant blowing rate is presented to determine the uncertainty in the measurement for different probe laser delay settings. Measurements of streamwise velocity were made to within approximately 120 gm of the model surface. The streamwise spatial resolution in this experiment ranged from 0.6 mm to 2.6 mm. An improvement in the spatial precision of the measurement technique has been made, with spatial uncertainties reduced by about a factor of 2 compared to previous measurements. For the quiescent flow calibration measurements presented, uncertainties as low as 2 m/s are obtained at 95% confidence for long delay times (25 gs). For the velocity measurements obtained with the wind tunnel operating, average single-shot uncertainties of less than 44 m/s are obtained at 95% confidence with a probe laser delay setting of 1 gs. The measurements were performed in the 31-inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  6. Ultrasonic position and velocity measurement for a moving object by M-sequence pulse compression using Doppler velocity estimation by spectrum-pattern analysis

    Ikari, Yohei; Hirata, Shinnosuke; Hachiya, Hiroyuki


    Pulse compression using a maximum-length sequence (M-sequence) can improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reflected echo in the pulse-echo method. In the case of a moving object, however, the echo is modulated owing to the Doppler effect. The Doppler-shifted M-sequence-modulated signal cannot be correlated with the reference signal that corresponds to the transmitted M-sequence-modulated signal. Therefore, Doppler velocity estimation by spectrum-pattern analysis of a cyclic M-sequence-modulated signal and cross correlations with Doppler-shifted reference signals that correspond to the estimated Doppler velocities has been proposed. In this paper, measurements of the position and velocity of a moving object by the proposed method are described. First, Doppler velocities of the object are estimated using a microphone array. Secondly, the received signal from each microphone is correlated with each Doppler-shifted reference signal. Then, the position of the object is determined from the B-mode image formed from all cross-correlation functions. After that, the velocity of the object is calculated from velocity components estimated from the Doppler velocities and the position. Finally, the estimated Doppler velocities, determined positions, and calculated velocities are evaluated.

  7. Velocity Measurement Based on Laser Doppler Effect

    ZHANG Yan-Yan; HUO Yu-Jing; HE Shu-Fang; GONG Ke


    @@ A novel method for velocity measurement is presented.In this scheme,a parallel-linear-polarization dualfrequency laser is incident on the target and senses the target velocity with both the frequencies,which can increase the maximum measurable velocity significantly.The theoretical analysis and verification experiment of the novel method are presented,which show that high-velocity measurement can be achieved with high precision using this method.

  8. Left ventricular ejection time, not heart rate, is an independent correlate of aortic pulse wave velocity.

    Salvi, Paolo; Palombo, Carlo; Salvi, Giovanni Matteo; Labat, Carlos; Parati, Gianfranco; Benetos, Athanase


    Several studies showed a positive association between heart rate and pulse wave velocity, a sensitive marker of arterial stiffness. However, no study involving a large population has specifically addressed the dependence of pulse wave velocity on different components of the cardiac cycle. The aim of this study was to explore in subjects of different age the link between pulse wave velocity with heart period (the reciprocal of heart rate) and the temporal components of the cardiac cycle such as left ventricular ejection time and diastolic time. Carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity was assessed in 3,020 untreated subjects (1,107 men). Heart period, left ventricular ejection time, diastolic time, and early-systolic dP/dt were determined by carotid pulse wave analysis with high-fidelity applanation tonometry. An inverse association was found between pulse wave velocity and left ventricular ejection time at all ages (pulse wave velocity and heart period was also found, with the exception of the youngest subjects (P = 0.20). A significant positive correlation was also found between pulse wave velocity and dP/dt (P pulse wave velocity at all ages, whereas the contribution of heart period no longer became significant. Our data demonstrate that pulse wave velocity is more closely related to left ventricular systolic function than to heart period. This may have methodological and pathophysiological implications.

  9. Structure identification in pipe flow using proper orthogonal decomposition

    Hellström, Leo H. O.; Smits, Alexander J.


    The energetic motions in direct numerical simulations of turbulent pipe flow at Reτ=685 are investigated using proper orthogonal decomposition. The procedure is extended such that a pressure component is identified in addition to the three-component velocity field for each mode. The pressure component of the modes is shown to align with the streamwise velocity component associated with the large-scale motions, where positive pressure coincides with positive streamwise velocity, and vice versa. The streamwise evolution of structures is then visualized using a conditional mode, which exhibit a strong similarity to the large-scale, low-momentum motions. A low-pressure region is present in the downstream section of the structure, and a high-pressure region is present in the upstream section.

  10. Weakly nonlinear density-velocity relation

    Chodorowski, M J; Chodorowski, Michal J; Lokas, Ewa L


    We rigorously derive weakly nonlinear relation between cosmic density and velocity fields up to third order in perturbation theory. The density field is described by the mass density contrast, \\de. The velocity field is described by the variable \\te proportional to the velocity divergence, \\te = - f(\\Omega)^{-1} H_0^{-1} \

  11. Balance velocities of the Greenland ice sheet

    Joughin, I.; Fahnestock, M.; Ekholm, Simon;


    We present a map of balance velocities for the Greenland ice sheet. The resolution of the underlying DEM, which was derived primarily from radar altimetery data, yields far greater detail than earlier balance velocity estimates for Greenland. The velocity contours reveal in striking detail......, the balance map is useful for ice-sheet modelling, mass balance studies, and field planning....

  12. Application of Vectors to Relative Velocity

    Tin-Lam, Toh


    The topic 'relative velocity' has recently been introduced into the Cambridge Ordinary Level Additional Mathematics syllabus under the application of Vectors. In this note, the results of relative velocity and the 'reduction to rest' technique of teaching relative velocity are derived mathematically from vector algebra, in the hope of providing…

  13. Extending the unambiguous velocity range using multiple carrier frequencies

    Zhang, Z.; Jakobsson, A.; Nikolov, Svetoslav;


    Typically, velocity estimators based on the estimation of the Doppler shift will suffer from a limited unambiguous velocity range. Proposed are two novel multiple carrier based velocity estimators extending the velocity range above the Nyquist velocity limit. Numerical simulations indicate...

  14. Reconstruction of velocity profiles in axisymmetric and asymmetric flows using an electromagnetic flow meter

    Kollár, László E.; Lucas, Gary P.; Meng, Yiqing


    An analytical method that was developed formerly for the reconstruction of velocity profiles in asymmetric flows is improved to be applicable for both axisymmetric and asymmetric flows. The method is implemented in Matlab, and predicts the velocity profile from measured electrical potential distributions obtained around the boundary of a multi-electrode electromagnetic flow meter (EMFM). Potential distributions are measured in uniform and non-uniform magnetic fields, and the velocity is assumed as a sum of axisymmetric and polynomial components. The procedure requires three steps. First, the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) is applied to the potential distribution obtained in a uniform magnetic field. Since the direction of polynomial components of order greater than two in the plane of the pipe cross section is not unique multiple solutions exist, therefore all possible polynomial velocity profiles are determined. Then, the DFT is applied to the potential distribution obtained in a specific non-uniform magnetic field, and used to calculate the exponent in a power-law representation of the axisymmetric component. Finally, the potential distribution in the non-uniform magnetic field is calculated for all of the possible velocity profile solutions using weight values, and the velocity profile with the calculated potential distribution which is closest to the measured one provides the optimum solution. The method is validated by reconstructing two quartic velocity profiles, one of which includes an axisymmetric component. The potential distributions are obtained from simulations using COMSOL Multiphysics where a model of the EMFM is constructed. The reconstructed velocity profiles show satisfactory agreement with the input velocity profiles. The main benefits of the method described in this paper are that it provides a velocity distribution in the circular cross section of a pipe as an analytical function of the spatial coordinates which is suitable for both

  15. Velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy

    Xu, Z.; Koplitz, B.; Wittig, C.


    The use of velocity-aligned Doppler spectroscopy (VADS) to measure center-of-mass kinetic-energy distributions of nascent photofragments produced in pulsed-initiation photolysis/probe experiments is described and demonstrated. In VADS, pulsed photolysis and probe laser beams counterpropagate through the ionization region of a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The theoretical principles of VADS and the mathematical interpretation of VADS data are explained and illustrated with diagrams; the experimental setup is described; and results for the photodissociation of HI, H2S, and NH3 are presented in graphs and characterized in detail. VADS is shown to give much higher kinetic-energy resolution than conventional Doppler spectroscopy.

  16. The critical velocity in swimming.

    di Prampero, Pietro E; Dekerle, Jeanne; Capelli, Carlo; Zamparo, Paola


    In supra-maximal exercise to exhaustion, the critical velocity (cv) is conventionally calculated from the slope of the distance (d) versus time (t) relationship: d = I + St. I is assumed to be the distance covered at the expense of the anaerobic capacity, S the speed maintained on the basis of the subject's maximal O(2) uptake (VO2max) This approach is based on two assumptions: (1) the energy cost of locomotion per unit distance (C) is constant and (2) VO2max is attained at the onset of exercise. Here we show that cv and the anaerobic distance (d (anaer)) can be calculated also in swimming, where C increases with the velocity, provided that VO2max its on-response, and the C versus v relationship are known. d (anaer) and cv were calculated from published data on maximal swims for the four strokes over 45.7, 91.4 and 182.9 m, on 20 elite male swimmers (18.9 +/- 0.9 years, 75.9 +/- 6.4 kg), whose VO2max and C versus speed relationship were determined, and compared to I and S obtained from the conventional approach. cv was lower than S (4, 16, 7 and 11% in butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and front crawl) and I (=11.6 m on average in the four strokes) was lower than d (anaer). The latter increased with the distance: average, for all strokes: 38.1, 60.6 and 81.3 m over 45.7, 91.4 and 182.9 m. It is concluded that the d versus t relationship should be utilised with some caution when evaluating performance in swimmers.

  17. Vector blood velocity estimation in medical ultrasound

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Gran, Fredrik; Udesen, Jesper


    Two methods for making vector velocity estimation in medical ultrasound are presented. All of the techniques can find both the axial and transverse velocity in the image and can be used for displaying both the correct velocity magnitude and direction. The first method uses a transverse oscillation...... in the ultrasound field to find the transverse velocity. In-vivo examples from the carotid artery are shown, where complex turbulent flow is found in certain parts of the cardiac cycle. The second approach uses directional beam forming along the flow direction to estimate the velocity magnitude. Using a correlation...

  18. Astrometric radial velocities. I. Non-spectroscopic methods for measuring stellar radial velocity

    Dravins, Dainis; Lindegren, Lennart; Madsen, Søren


    High-accuracy astrometry permits the determination of not only stellar tangential motion, but also the component along the line-of-sight. Such non-spectroscopic (i.e. astrometric) radial velocities are independent of stellar atmospheric dynamics, spectral complexity and variability, as well as of gravitational redshift. Three methods are analysed: (1) changing annual parallax, (2) changing proper motion and (3) changing angular extent of a moving group of stars. All three have significant potential in planned astrometric projects. Current accuracies are still inadequate for the first method, while the second is marginally feasible and is here applied to 16 stars. The third method reaches high accuracy (accuracy limit is set by uncertainties in the cluster expansion rate. Based (in part) on observations by the ESA Hipparcos satellite

  19. Astrometric radial velocities; 1, Non-spectroscopic methods for measuring stellar radial velocity

    Dravins, D; Madsen, S; Dravins, Dainis; Lindegren, Lennart; Madsen, Soren


    High-accuracy astrometry permits the determination of not only stellar tangential motion, but also the component along the line-of-sight. Such non-spectroscopic (i.e. astrometric) radial velocities are independent of stellar atmospheric dynamics, spectral complexity and variability, as well as of gravitational redshift. Three methods are analysed: (1) changing annual parallax, (2) changing proper motion and (3) changing angular extent of a moving group of stars. All three have significant potential in planned astrometric projects. Current accuracies are still inadequate for the first method, while the second is marginally feasible and is here applied to 16 stars. The third method reaches high accuracy (<1 km/s) already with present data, although for some clusters an accuracy limit is set by uncertainties in the cluster expansion rate.

  20. The effect of cortical endplates on ultrasound velocity through the calcaneus: an in vitro study.

    Njeh, C F; Langton, C M


    Ultrasound velocity has been reported as a good predictor of bone strength measured in vitro using standard mechanical testing techniques. Such mechanical investigation of bone strength cannot be carried out in vivo, because of the invasive nature of the testing. Therefore to be able to extrapolate the in vitro findings to the clinical situation, the effect of cortex on ultrasound transmission velocity through the calcaneus is required. This was investigated in vitro by measuring ultrasound velocity through samples of different modification using a CUBAResearch ultrasound machine. The different sample modifications were: "whole" (soft tissue removed), "core" (cylindrical sample), "can" (cancellous sample without the cortex) and "def" (defatted cancellous sample). Ultrasound transmission velocity for the various sample modification were highly correlated with each other (r = 0.80-0.97). Coring resulted in a 0.77% increase in the mean velocity. Substituting bone marrow (defatting) with water at room temperature had no measurable effect on the ultrasound velocity. The velocity in the whole samples and the cancellous samples were statistically different with the cortex introducing only a 2% increase in the ultrasound velocity. Therefore the in vivo ultrasound velocity measured at the calcaneus is determined mainly by the cancellous bone component which is more sensitive to osteoporotic changes. Hence the reported ability of ultrasound velocity in vitro to predict bone strength could be expected in vivo.

  1. Embedded Fiber Optic Probes to Measure Detonation Velocities Using the Photonic Doppler Velocimeter

    Hare, D E; Holtkamp, D B; Strand, O T


    Detonation velocities for high explosives can be in the 7 to 8 km/s range. Previous work has shown that these velocities may be measured by inserting an optical fiber probe into the explosive assembly and recording the velocity time history using a Fabry-Perot velocimeter. The measured velocity using this method, however, is the actual velocity multiplied times the refractive index of the fiber core, which is on the order of 1.5. This means that the velocimeter diagnostic must be capable of measuring velocities as high as 12 km/s. Until recently, a velocity of 12 km/s was beyond the maximum velocity limit of a homodyne-based velocimeter. The limiting component in a homodyne system is usually the digitizer. Recently, however, digitizers have come on the market with 20 GHz bandwidth and 50 GS/s sample rate. Such a digitizer coupled with high bandwidth detectors now have the total bandwidth required to make velocity measurements in the 12 km/s range. This paper describes measurements made of detonation velocities using a high bandwidth homodyne system.

  2. Turbulent Velocity Structure in Molecular Clouds

    Ossenkopf, V; Ossenkopf, Volker; Low, Mordecai-Mark Mac


    We compare velocity structure observed in the Polaris Flare molecular cloud at scales ranging from 0.015 pc to 20 pc to the velocity structure of a suite of simulations of supersonic hydrodynamic and MHD turbulence computed with the ZEUS MHD code. We examine different methods of characterising the structure, including a scanning-beam size-linewidth relation, structure functions, velocity and velocity difference probability distribution functions (PDFs), and the Delta-variance wavelet transform, and use them to compare models and observations. The Delta-variance is most sensitive in detecting characteristic scales and varying scaling laws, but is limited in the observational application by its lack of intensity weighting. We compare the true velocity PDF in our models to simulated observations of velocity centroids and average line profiles in optically thin lines, and find that the line profiles reflect the true PDF better. The observed velocity structure is consistent with supersonic turbulence showing a com...

  3. Variability and component composition

    Storm, T. van der


    In component-based product populations, feature models have to be described at the component level to be able to benefit from a product family approach. As a consequence, composition of components becomes very complex. We describe how component-level variability can be managed in the face of compone

  4. Cohesive zone length of metagabbro at supershear rupture velocity

    Fukuyama, Eiichi; Xu, Shiqing; Yamashita, Futoshi; Mizoguchi, Kazuo


    We investigated the shear strain field ahead of a supershear rupture. The strain array data along the sliding fault surfaces were obtained during the large-scale biaxial friction experiments at the National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Resilience. These friction experiments were done using a pair of meter-scale metagabbro rock specimens whose simulated fault area was 1.5 m × 0.1 m. A 2.6-MPa normal stress was applied with loading velocity of 0.1 mm/s. Near-fault strain was measured by 32 two-component semiconductor strain gauges installed at an interval of 50 mm and 10 mm off the fault and recorded at an interval of 1 MHz. Many stick-slip events were observed in the experiments. We chose ten unilateral rupture events that propagated with supershear rupture velocity without preceding foreshocks. Focusing on the rupture front, stress concentration was observed and sharp stress drop occurred immediately inside the ruptured area. The temporal variation of strain array data is converted to the spatial variation of strain assuming a constant rupture velocity. We picked up the peak strain and zero-crossing strain locations to measure the cohesive zone length. By compiling the stick-slip event data, the cohesive zone length is about 50 mm although it scattered among the events. We could not see any systematic variation at the location but some dependence on the rupture velocity. The cohesive zone length decreases as the rupture velocity increases, especially larger than √{2} times the shear wave velocity. This feature is consistent with the theoretical prediction.

  5. Sensors for Using Times of Flight to Measure Flow Velocities

    Fralick, Gutave; Wrbanek, John D.; Hwang, Danny; Turso, James


    Thin-film sensors for measuring flow velocities in terms of times of flight are undergoing development. These sensors are very small and can be mounted flush with surfaces of airfoils, ducts, and other objects along which one might need to measure flows. Alternatively or in addition, these sensors can be mounted on small struts protruding from such surfaces for acquiring velocity measurements at various distances from the surfaces for the purpose of obtaining boundary-layer flow-velocity profiles. These sensors are related to, but not the same as, hot-wire anemometers. Each sensor includes a thin-film, electrically conductive loop, along which an electric current is made to flow to heat the loop to a temperature above that of the surrounding fluid. Instantaneous voltage fluctuations in segments of the loop are measured by means of electrical taps placed at intervals along the loop. These voltage fluctuations are caused by local fluctuations in electrical resistance that are, in turn, caused by local temperature fluctuations that are, in turn, caused by fluctuations in flow-induced cooling and, hence, in flow velocity. The differential voltage as a function of time, measured at each pair of taps, is subjected to cross-correlation processing with the corresponding quantities measured at other pairs of taps at different locations on the loop. The cross-correlations yield the times taken by elements of fluid to travel between the pairs of taps. Then the component of velocity along the line between any two pairs of taps is calculated simply as the distance between the pairs of taps divided by the travel time. Unlike in the case of hot-wire anemometers, there is no need to obtain calibration data on voltage fluctuations versus velocity fluctuations because, at least in principle, the correlation times are independent of the calibration data.

  6. Frequency Comb Velocity Modulation Spectroscopy

    Cossel, Kevin C.; Sinclair, Laura C.; Coffey, Tyler; Cornell, Eric; Ye, Jun


    We have developed a novel technique for rapid ion-sensitive spectroscopy over a broad spectral bandwidth by combining the high sensitivity of velocity modulation spectroscopy (VMS) with the parallel nature and high frequency accuracy of cavity-enhanced direct frequency comb spectroscopy. Prior to this research, no techniques have been capable of high sensitivity velocity modulation spectroscopy on every parallel detection channel over such a broad spectral range. We have demonstrated the power of this technique by measuring the A^2Π_u - X^2Σ_g^+ (4,2) band of N_2^+ at 830 nm with an absorption sensitivity of 1×10-6 for each of 1500 simultaneous measurement channels spanning 150 Cm-1. A densely sampled spectrum consisting of interleaved measurements to achieve 75 MHz spacing is acquired in under an hour. This technique is ideally suited for high resolution survey spectroscopy of molecular ions with applications including chemical physics, astrochemistry, and precision measurement. Currently, this system is being used to map the electronic transitions of HfF^+ for the JILA electron electric dipole moment (eEDM) experiment. The JILA eEDM experiment uses trapped molecular ions to significantly increase the coherence time of the measurement in addition to utilizing the strong electric field enhancement available from molecules. Previous theoretical work has shown that the metastable ^3Δ_1 state in HfF^+ and ThF^+ provides high sensitivity to the eEDM and good cancellation of systematic effects; however, the electronic level structure of these species have not previously been measured, and the theoretical uncertainties are hundreds to thousands of wavenumbers. This necessitates broad-bandwidth, high-resolution survey spectroscopy provided by frequency comb VMS in the 700-900 nm spectral window. F. Adler, M. J. Thorpe, K. C. Cossel, and J. Ye. Annu. Rev. Anal. Chem. 3, 175-205 (2010) A. E. Leanhardt, et. al. arXiv:1008.2997v2 E. Meyer, J. L. Bohn, and M. P. Deskevich

  7. Measurement of the velocity of a quantum object: A role of phase and group velocities

    Lapinski, Mikaila; Rostovtsev, Yuri V.


    We consider the motion of a quantum particle in a free space. Introducing an explicit measurement procedure for velocity, we demonstrate that the measured velocity is related to the group and phase velocities of the corresponding matter waves. We show that for long distances the measured velocity coincides with the matter wave group velocity. We discuss the possibilities to demonstrate these effects for the optical pulses in coherently driven media or for radiation propagating in waveguides.

  8. Lagrangian velocity auto-correlations in statistically-steady rotating turbulence

    Del Castello, Lorenzo


    Lagrangian statistics of passive tracers in rotating turbulence is investigated by Particle Tracking Velocimetry. A confined and steadily-forced turbulent flow is subjected to five different rotation rates. The PDFs of the velocity components clearly reveal the anisotropy induced by background rotation. Although the statistical properties of the horizontal turbulent flow field are approximately isotropic, in agreement with previously reported results by van Bokhoven and coworkers [Phys. Fluids 21, 096601 (2009)], the velocity component parallel to the (vertical) rotation axis gets strongly reduced (compared to the horizontal ones) while the rotation is increased. The auto-correlation coefficients of all three components are progressively enhanced for increasing rotation rates, although the vertical one shows a tendency to decrease for slow rotation rates. The decorrelation is approximately exponential. Lagrangian data compare favourably with previously reported Eulerian data for horizontal velocity components...

  9. Chemical separation of disc components using RAVE

    Wojno, Jennifer; Steinmetz, Matthias; McMillan, Paul J; Matijevič, Gal; Binney, James; Wyse, Rosemary F G; Boeche, Corrado; Just, Andreas; Grebel, Eva K; Siebert, Arnaud; Bienaymé, Olivier; Gibson, Brad K; Zwitter, Tomaž; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Navarro, Julio F; Parker, Quentin A; Reid, Warren; Seabroke, George; Watson, Fred


    We present evidence from the RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) survey of chemically separated, kinematically distinct disc components in the solar neighbourhood. We apply probabilistic chemical selection criteria to separate our sample into $\\alpha$-low (`thin disc') and $\\alpha$-high (`thick disc') components. Using newly derived distances, which will be utilized in the upcoming RAVE DR5, we explore the kinematic trends as a function of metallicity for each of the disc components. For our thin disc stars, we find a negative trend in the mean rotational velocity ($V_{\\mathrm{\\phi}}$) as a function of iron abundance ([Fe/H]). We measure a positive trend in $\\partial V_{\\mathrm{\\phi}}$/$\\partial$[Fe/H] for the thick disc, consistent with results from high-resolution surveys. We also find differences between the chemical thin and thick discs in all three components of velocity dispersion. We discuss the implications of an $\\alpha$-low, metal-rich population originating from the inner Galaxy, where the orbits of ...

  10. High velocity impact experiment (HVIE)

    Toor, A.; Donich, T.; Carter, P.


    The HVIE space project was conceived as a way to measure the absolute EOS for approximately 10 materials at pressures up to {approximately}30 Mb with order-of-magnitude higher accuracy than obtainable in any comparable experiment conducted on earth. The experiment configuration is such that each of the 10 materials interacts with all of the others thereby producing one-hundred independent, simultaneous EOS experiments The materials will be selected to provide critical information to weapons designers, National Ignition Facility target designers and planetary and geophysical scientists. In addition, HVIE will provide important scientific information to other communities, including the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization and the lethality and vulnerability community. The basic HVIE concept is to place two probes in counter rotating, highly elliptical orbits and collide them at high velocity (20 km/s) at 100 km altitude above the earth. The low altitude of the experiment will provide quick debris strip-out of orbit due to atmospheric drag. The preliminary conceptual evaluation of the HVIE has found no show stoppers. The design has been very easy to keep within the lift capabilities of commonly available rides to low earth orbit including the space shuttle. The cost of approximately 69 million dollars for 100 EOS experiment that will yield the much needed high accuracy, absolute measurement data is a bargain!

  11. Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles

    Giese, Andrew


    © 2014 IEEE. Modern multi-agent systems frequently use highlevel planners to extract basic paths for agents, and then rely on local collision avoidance to ensure that the agents reach their destinations without colliding with one another or dynamic obstacles. One state-of-the-art local collision avoidance technique is Optimal Reciprocal Collision Avoidance (ORCA). Despite being fast and efficient for circular-shaped agents, ORCA may deadlock when polygonal shapes are used. To address this shortcoming, we introduce Reciprocally-Rotating Velocity Obstacles (RRVO). RRVO generalizes ORCA by introducing a notion of rotation for polygonally-shaped agents. This generalization permits more realistic motion than ORCA and does not suffer from as much deadlock. In this paper, we present the theory of RRVO and show empirically that it does not suffer from the deadlock issue ORCA has, permits agents to reach goals faster, and has a comparable collision rate at the cost of performance overhead quadratic in the (typically small) user-defined parameter δ.

  12. Geotail observations of FTE velocities

    G. I. Korotova


    Full Text Available We discuss the plasma velocity signatures expected in association with flux transfer events (FTEs. Events moving faster than or opposite the ambient media should generate bipolar inward/outward (outward/inward flow perturbations normal to the nominal magnetopause in the magnetosphere (magnetosheath. Flow perturbations directly upstream and downstream from the events should be in the direction of event motion. Flows on the flanks should be in the direction opposite the motion of events moving at subsonic and subAlfvénic speeds relative to the ambient plasma. Events moving with the ambient flow should generate no flow perturbations in the ambient plasma. Alfvén waves propagating parallel (antiparallel to the axial magnetic field of FTEs may generate anticorrelated (correlated magnetic field and flow perturbations within the core region of FTEs. We present case studies illustrating many of these signatures. In the examples considered, Alfvén waves propagate along event axes away from the inferred reconnection site. A statistical study of FTEs observed by Geotail over a 3.5-year period reveals that FTEs within the magnetosphere invariably move faster than the ambient flow, while those in the magnetosheath move both faster and slower than the ambient flow.

  13. Radial Velocity Studies of Close Binary Stars. XI

    Pribulla, T; Lu, W; Mochnacki, S W; Conidis, G; Blake, R M; De Bond, H; Thomson, J R; Pych, W; Ogloza, W; Siwak, M; Pribulla, Theodor; Rucinski, Slavek M.; Lu, Wenxian; Mochnacki, Stefan W.; Conidis, George; Bond, Heide De; Pych, Wojtek; Ogloza, Waldemar; Siwak, Michal


    Radial-velocity measurements and sine-curve fits to the orbital radial velocity variations are presented for ten close binary systems: DU Boo, ET Boo, TX Cnc, V1073 Cyg, HL Dra, AK Her, VW LMi, V566 Oph, TV UMi and AG Vir. By this contribution, the DDO program has reached the point of 100 published radial velocity orbits. The radial velocities have been determined using an improved fitting technique which uses rotational profiles to approximate individual peaks in broadening functions. Three systems, ET Boo, VW LMi and TV UMi, were found to be quadruple while AG Vir appears to be a spectroscopic triple. ET Boo, a member of a close visual binary with $P_{vis} = 113$ years, was previously known to be a multiple system, but we show that the second component is actually a close, non-eclipsing binary. The new observations enabled us to determine the spectroscopic orbits of the companion, non-eclipsing pairs in ET Boo and VW LMi. The particularly interesting case is VW LMi, where the period of the mutual revolution...

  14. Velocity Building by Reflection Waveform Inversion without Cycle-skipping

    Guo, Q.


    Reflection waveform inversion (RWI) provides estimation of low wavenumber model components using reflections generated from a migration/demigration process. The resulting model tends to be a good initial model for FWI. In fact, the optimization images to combine the migration velocity analysis (MVA) objectives (given here by RWI) and the FWI ones. However, RWI may still encounter cycle-skipping at far offsets if the velocity model is highly inaccurate. Similar to MVA, RWI is devoted to focusing reflection data to its true image positions, yet because of the cycle skipping potential we tend to initially use only near offsets. To make the inversion procedure more robust, we introduce the extended image into our RWI. Extending the model perturbations (or image) allows us to better fit the data at larger offsets even with an inaccurate velocity. Thus, we implement a nested approach to optimize the velocity and extended image simultaneously using the objective function of RWI. We slowly reduce the extension, as the image becomes focused, to allow wavepath updates from far offsets to near as a natural progression from long wavelength updates to shorter ones. Applications on synthetic data demonstrate the effectiveness of our method without much additional cost to RWI.

  15. The effect of velocity filtering in pressure estimation

    Schiavazzi, D. E.; Nemes, A.; Schmitter, S.; Coletti, F.


    Velocity field measurements allow, in principle, the evaluation of the pressure field by integrating the equations of fluid motion. Unavoidable experimental uncertainty, however, may result in unreliable estimates. In this study, we use the Poisson pressure equation to estimate the relative pressure from experimental velocities, and investigate how pre-processing with smoothing and solenoidal filters affects this estimate. For diffusion dominated laminar flow or for turbulent flow modeled through an eddy viscosity, measurement noise significantly affects the results. In this case, solenoidal filtering provides superior performance over other smoothing approaches, as it preserves the second spatial derivatives of the velocity field. For laminar flows dominated by advection or acceleration components of the pressure gradient, the choice of the filter appears to have little effect under limited noise, while smoothing produces improved relative pressure estimates for higher noise intensities. The above statements are verified using idealized flow conditions, numerical fluid dynamics simulations, and velocity fields from in-vivo and in-vitro magnetic resonance velocimetry.

  16. Velocity measurements in jets with application to noise source modeling

    Morris, Philip J.; Zaman, K. B. M. Q.


    This paper describes an experimental investigation of the statistical properties of turbulent velocity fluctuations in an axisymmetric jet. The focus is on those properties that are relevant to the prediction of noise. Measurements are performed using two single hot-wire anemometers as well as a two-component anemometer. Two-point cross correlations of the axial velocity fluctuations and of the fluctuations in the square of the axial velocity fluctuations are presented. Several reference locations in the jet are used including points on the jet lip and centerline. The scales of the turbulence and the convection velocity are determined, both in an overall sense as well as a function of frequency. The relationship between the second and fourth order correlations is developed and compared with the experimental data. The implications of the use of dimensional as well as non-dimensional correlations are considered. Finally, a comparison is made between the length scales deduced from the flow measurements and a RANS CFD calculation.

  17. Ovarian fluid of receptive females enhances sperm velocity

    Gasparini, Clelia; Andreatta, Gabriele; Pilastro, Andrea


    The females of several internal fertilizers are able to store sperm for a long time, reducing the risk of sperm limitation. However, it also means that males can attempt to mate outside females' receptive period, potentially increasing the level of sperm competition and exacerbating sexual conflict over mating. The guppy ( Poecilia reticulata), an internally fertilizing fish, is a model system of such competition and conflict. Female guppies accept courtship and mate consensually only during receptive periods of the ovarian cycle but receive approximately one (mostly forced) mating attempt per minute both during and outside their sexually receptive phase. In addition, females can store viable sperm for months. We expected that guppy females would disfavour sperm received during their unreceptive period, possibly by modulating the quality and/or quantity of the components present in the ovarian fluid (OF) over the breeding cycle. Ovarian fluid has been shown to affect sperm velocity, a determinant of sperm competition success in this and other fishes. We found that in vitro sperm velocity is slower in OF collected from unreceptive females than in OF from receptive females. Visual stimulation with a potential partner prior to collection did not significantly affect in vitro sperm velocity. These results suggest that sperm received by unreceptive females may be disfavoured as sperm velocity likely affects the migration process and the number of sperm that reach storage sites.

  18. Hammering Yucca Flat, Part Two: Shear-Wave Velocity

    Finlay, T. S.; Abbott, R. E.; Knox, H. A.; Tang, D. G.; James, S. R.; Haney, M. M.; Hampshire, J. B., II


    In preparation for the next phase of the Source Physics Experiment (SPE), we conducted an active-source seismic survey of Yucca Flat, Nevada, on the Nevada National Security Site. Results from this survey will be used to inform the geologic models associated with the SPE project. For this study, we used a novel 13,000 kilogram weight-drop seismic source to interrogate an 18-km North-South transect of Yucca Flat. Source points were spaced every 200 meters and were recorded by 350 to 380 3-component 2-Hz geophones with variable spacings of 10, 20, and 100 meters. We utilized the Refraction-Microtremor (ReMi) technique to create multiple 1D dispersion curves, which were then inverted for shear-wave velocity profiles using the Dix inversion method (Tsai and Haney, 2015). Each of these 1D velocity models was subsequently stitched together to create a 2D profile over the survey area. The dispersion results indicate a general decrease in surface-wave phase velocity to the south. This result is supported by slower shear-wave velocity sediments and increasing basin depth towards the survey's southern extent. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  19. Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph Observations of High-Velocity Interstellar Absorption-Line Profiles in the Carina Nebula

    Walborn, Nolan R.; Danks, Anthony C.; Vieira, Gladys; Landsman, Wayne B.


    An atlas of ultraviolet interstellar absorption-line profiles toward four stars in the Carina Nebula is presented. The observations have been made with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph on the Hubble Space Telescope, with a resolving power of 114,000. Low-ionization, high-ionization, and excited-state lines from a wide array of chemical species are included. Extensive measurements of radial velocities, velocity dispersions, and column densities of individual components in these profiles are also given. The unprecedented capabilities of STIS reveal many more velocity components than previously known; most of the high-velocity components in previous observations with the International Ultraviolet Explorer are now resolved into multiple subcomponents, and even higher velocities are seen. The great range of line strengths available permits the detection of the low-velocity components in the weakest lines, and progressively higher velocities in stronger lines (in which the low-velocity components become completely blended). The weak and high-ionization lines trace global structure in the H II region, while the strong low-ionization lines show intricate high-velocity structure that likely originates relatively near to the O stars observed. The extreme velocities found in the low-ionization lines toward these four stars are -388 and +127 km s-1, with 23-26 resolved components in each. Some components in different stars may be related, but many are different in each line of sight. A remarkably well-defined Routly-Spitzer effect is found in this region. Temporal variations toward one star observed twice have already been reported. These measurements will be used in subsequent astrophysical analyses to further constrain the origins of the phenomena. Based on observations with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract

  20. Refinement of turbulent flow velocity characteristics

    Y.V. Bryanskaya


    Full Text Available The basic laws of Prandtl semi-empirical turbulence theory were analyzed in the article. It was shown, that the Prandtl – Nikuradse logarithmic distribution of velocities are not strictly universal. The change of the first and second turbulence constants was analyzed on the basis of experimental data of I. Nikuradse. The logarithmic velocity profiles for smooth and rough pipes have been transformed. A united velocity logarithmic profile for flows in pipes, appropriate for any rate of hydraulic resistance was received. A more precise, consistent with the resistance laws, description of the kinematic structure of the flow with varying parameters of the velocity profiles was set. It was shown that the position of the average velocity point for the flow in pipe remained constant when the parameters of the velocity profile changed.

  1. Surface Velocities and Hydrology at Engabreen

    Messerli, Alexandra

    on surface velocities recorded at the site. The Svartisen Subglacial Laboratory (SSL) under Engabreen, augmented by additional subglacial pressure and hydrological measurements, provides a invaluable observations for detailed process-oriented studies. However, the lack of complementary surface velocity data...... complicates comparisons with other surface-oriented glaciohydrological studies. One major aim of this thesis is to provide a longer record of surface velocity, enabling a more complete understanding of the glacial hydro-mechanical relationship at Engabreen. In order to extend the velocity dataset here, a time......-lapse camera based study was carried out, providing seasonal velocity maps over a large portion of an inaccessible region of the glacier. The processing and feature tracking of terrestrially based imagery, in order to obtain quantitative velocity measurements, is challenging. Whilst optical feature tracking...


    WANG Dianchang; WANG Xingkui; YU Mingzhong; LI Danxun


    The log-law and the wake law of velocity profile for open channel flows are discussed and compared in this paper. Experimental data from eight sources are used to verify the velocity distribution models.The effect of bed level on the velocity profile is analyzed. A formula to calculate the maximum velocity is proposed. In the region of y <δm , the velocity profile approximately follows the log-law. For the region of y >δm , the effect of the aspect ratio is considered. A new velocity profile model on the basis of log-law that can unify all of the hydraulic bed roughness is presented.

  3. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running

    Lyngeraa, Tobias; Pedersen, Lars Møller; Mantoni, T


    for eight subjects, respectively, were excluded from analysis because of insufficient signal quality. Running increased mean arterial pressure and mean MCA velocity and induced rhythmic oscillations in BP and in MCA velocity corresponding to the difference between step rate and heart rate (HR) frequencies......) blood flow velocity, photoplethysmographic finger BP, and step frequency were measured continuously during three consecutive 5-min intervals of treadmill running at increasing running intensities. Data were analysed in the time and frequency domains. BP data for seven subjects and MCA velocity data....... During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow...

  4. Local wavefield velocity imaging for damage evaluation

    Chia, Chen Ciang; Gan, Chia Sheng; Mustapha, F.


    Ultrasonic Propagation Imaging or Acoustic Wavefield Imaging has been widely used to evaluate structural damages and internal features. Inspecting complete wavefield time history for damage identification is tedious and error-prone. A more effective way is by extracting damage-related information into a single image. A wavefield velocity imaging method that maps the local estimates of group or phase velocity is proposed. Actual velocity values rather than arbitrarily-scaled intensities are mapped, enabling damage sizing without the need of supervised training or inspecting wavefield propagation video. Performance of the proposed method was tested by inspecting a 100 mm by 100 mm area of a 2 mm thick stainless steel specimen. Local phase velocity maps of A0 mode showed a half-thickness hole of 2 mm diameter as significant change in local phase velocity from the nominal 2 m/ms. Full width at half maximum of relevant velocity profiles proved the accuracy and consistency of the damage sizing.

  5. Decreased group velocity in compositionally graded films.

    Gao, Lei


    A theoretical formalism is presented that describes the group velocity of electromagnetic signals in compositionally graded films. The theory is first based on effective medium approximation or the Maxwell-Garnett approximation to obtain the equivalent dielectric function in a z slice. Then the effective dielectric tensor of the graded film is directly determined, and the group velocities for ordinary and extraordinary waves in the film are derived. It is found that the group velocity is sensitively dependent on the graded profile. For a power-law graded profile f(x)=ax(m), increasing m results in the decreased extraordinary group velocity. Such a decreased tendency becomes significant when the incident angle increases. Therefore the group velocity in compositionally graded films can be effectively decreased by our suitable adjustment of the total volume fraction, the graded profile, and the incident angle. As a result, the compositionally graded films may serve as candidate material for realizing small group velocity.

  6. Magnetogenesis through Relativistic Velocity Shear

    Miller, Evan

    Magnetic fields at all scales are prevalent in our universe. However, current cosmological models predict that initially the universe was bereft of large-scale fields. Standard magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) does not permit magnetogenesis; in the MHD Faraday's law, the change in magnetic field B depends on B itself. Thus if B is initially zero, it will remain zero for all time. A more accurate physical model is needed to explain the origins of the galactic-scale magnetic fields observed today. In this thesis, I explore two velocity-driven mechanisms for magnetogenesis in 2-fluid plasma. The first is a novel kinematic 'battery' arising from convection of vorticity. A coupling between thermal and plasma oscillations, this non-relativistic mechanism can operate in flows that are incompressible, quasi-neutral and barotropic. The second mechanism results from inclusion of thermal effects in relativistic shear flow instabilities. In such flows, parallel perturbations are ubiquitously unstable at small scales, with growth rates of order with the plasma frequency over a defined range of parameter-space. Of these two processes, instabilities seem far more likely to account for galactic magnetic fields. Stable kinematic effects will, at best, be comparable to an ideal Biermann battery, which is suspected to be orders of magnitude too weak to produce the observed galactic fields. On the other hand, instabilities grow until saturation is reached, a topic that has yet to be explored in detail on cosmological scales. In addition to investigating these magnetogenesis sources, I derive a general dispersion relation for three dimensional, warm, two species plasma with discontinuous shear flow. The mathematics of relativistic plasma, sheared-flow instability and the Biermann battery are also discussed.

  7. Algorithms for estimating blood velocities using ultrasound

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Ultrasound has been used intensively for the last 15 years for studying the hemodynamics of the human body. Systems for determining both the velocity distribution at one point of interest (spectral systems) and for displaying a map of velocity in real time have been constructed. A number of schemes...... have been developed for performing the estimation, and the various approaches are described. The current systems only display the velocity along the ultrasound beam direction and a velocity transverse to the beam is not detected. This is a major problem in these systems, since most blood vessels...

  8. Effect of Pressure on Minimum Fluidization Velocity

    Zhu Zhiping; Na Yongjie; Lu Qinggang


    Minimum fluidization velocity of quartz sand and glass bead under different pressures of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 Mpa were investigated. The minimum fluidization velocity decreases with the increasing of pressure. The influence of pressure to the minimum fluidization velocities is stronger for larger particles than for smaller ones.Based on the test results and Ergun equation, an experience equation of minimum fluidization velocity is proposed and the calculation results are comparable to other researchers' results.

  9. Conduction velocity of antigravity muscle action potentials.

    Christova, L; Kosarov, D; Christova, P


    The conduction velocity of the impulses along the muscle fibers is one of the parameters of the extraterritorial potentials of the motor units allowing for the evaluation of the functional state of the muscles. There are no data about the conduction velocities of antigravity muscleaction potentials. In this paper we offer a method for measuring conduction velocity of potentials of single MUs and the averaged potentials of the interference electromiogram (IEMG) lead-off by surface electrodes from mm. sternocleidomastoideus, trapezius, deltoideus (caput laterale) and vastus medialis. The measured mean values of the conduction velocity of antigravity muscles potentials can be used for testing the functional state of the muscles.

  10. A method for determining critical swimming velocity.

    Takahashi, S; Wakayoshi, K; Hayashi, A; Sakaguchi, Y; Kitagawa, K


    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the critical swimming velocity (Vcri) estimated by the swimming velocity for a distance of 300 m at maximal effort breaststroke reflects the maximal lactate steady state (MLSS). Twelve trained swimmers swam 50 m, 300 m and 2 000 m at maximal effort for determination of Vcri that averaged 1.167 +/- 0.045 m . sec (-1). Since Vcri was equivalent to 90.5 % of the mean swimming velocity over the distance of 300 m at maximal effort, the swimming velocity obtained by multiplying the swimming velocity for the distance of 300 m of each subject by 90.5 % was taken to be 100 % of the predicted critical swimming velocity (Vcri-pred). Then, in an MLSS test, the subjects were instructed to swim breaststroke 2 000 m (5 x 400 m) at three constant velocities (98 %, 100 %, and 102 % of Vcri-pred), interrupted by four short rest periods from 30 to 45 seconds for blood sampling and heart rate measurement. As a result, the blood lactate concentration at 100 % Vcri-pred showed a higher steady state than the slow velocity, but at high velocity did not show the steady state. In conclusion, we can accurately estimate the Vcri for breaststroke by a one-time 300-m maximal effort swimming test.

  11. Estimation of Shallow S-Wave Velocity Structure of Two Practical Sites from Microtremors Array Observation in Tangshan Area


    Microtremors array observation for estimating S-wave velocity structure from phase velocities of Rayleigh and Love wave on two practical sites in Tangshan area by a China-US joint group are researched. The phase velocities of Rayleigh wave are estimated from vertical component records and those of Love wave are estimated from three-component records of microtremors array using modified spatial auto-correlation method. Haskell matrix method is used in calculating Rayleigh and Love wave phase velocities, and the shallow S-wave velocity structure of two practical sites are estimated by means of a hybrid approach of Genetic Algorithm and Simplex. The results are compared with the PS logging data of the two sites, showing it is feasible to estimate the shallow S-wave velocity structure of practical site from the observation of microtremor array.

  12. On the influence of the tangential solar-motion component

    Ninković Slobodan D.


    Full Text Available The influence of the tangential component of the solar motion (towards l = 90o, b = 0o corrected for the value of the asymmetric drift, on the galactocentric orbits of selected nearby stars is studied. Different models of the Galaxy potential are used. It is noticed, in general, that the increase of this corrected velocity component is followed by changes of the orbital elements characterising the motion in the galactic plane (the component perpendicular to the galactic plane remains practically unaffected; the orbital eccentricity increases or decreases depending on whether the galactocentric tangential velocity component of a given star exceeds or not the value of the circular velocity involved by the used model.

  13. Velocity fields in and around sunspots at the highest resolution

    Denker, Carsten


    The flows in and around sunspots are rich in detail. Starting with the Evershed flow along low-lying flow channels, which are cospatial with the horizontal penumbral magnetic fields, Evershed clouds may continue this motion at the periphery of the sunspot as moving magnetic features in the sunspot moat. Besides these well-ordered flows, peculiar motions are found in complex sunspots, where they contribute to the build-up or relaxation of magnetic shear. In principle, the three-dimensional structure of these velocity fields can be captured. The line-of-sight component of the velocity vector is accessible with spectroscopic measurements, whereas local correlation or feature tracking techniques provide the means to assess horizontal proper motions. The next generation of ground-based solar telescopes will provide spectropolarimetric data resolving solar fine structure with sizes below 50 km. Thus, these new telescopes with advanced post-focus instruments act as a "zoom lens" to study the intricate surface flows ...

  14. Lagrangian Velocity Correlations and Absolute Dispersion in the Midlatitude Troposphere

    Sukhatme, J


    Employing daily wind data from the ECMWF, we perform passive particle advection to estimate the Lagrangian velocity correlation functions (LVCF) associated with the midlatitude tropospheric flow. In particular we decompose the velocity field into time mean and transient (or eddy) components to better understand the nature of the LVCF's.A closely related quantity, the absolute dispersion (AD) is also examined. Given the anisotropy of the flow, meridional and zonal characteristics are considered separately. The zonal LVCF is seen to be non-exponential. In fact, for a broad set of intermediate timescales it is better described as a power law of the form $\\tau^{-\\alpha}$ with $ 0<\\alpha<1$. Indeed, the implied long time correlation in the zonal flow results in a superdiffusive zonal AD regime. On the other hand, the meridional LVCF decays rapidly to zero. Interestingly, before approaching to zero it shows a region of negative correlation. A physical argument based on the rotational inhibition of latitudinal...

  15. Three-dimensional surface velocities of Storstrømmen glacier, Greenland, derived from radar interferometry and ice-sounding radar measurements

    Reeh, Niels; Mohr, Johan Jacob; Madsen, Søren Nørvang


    in substantial errors (up to 20%) also on the south-north component of horizontal velocities derived by satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) measurements. In many glacier environments, the steady-state vertical velocity component required to balance the annual ablation rate is 5-10 m a(-1...... tracks with airborne ice-sounding radar measurement of ice thickness. The results are compared to InSAR velocities previously derived by using the SPF assumption, and to velocities obtained by in situ global positioning system (GPS) measurements. The velocities derived by using the MC principle...

  16. Velocity centroids and the structure of interstellar turbulence: I. Analytical study

    Levrier, F


    We present an analytical study of the statistical properties of integrated emission and velocity centroids for a slightly compressible turbulent slab model, to retrieve the underlying statistics of three-dimensional density and velocity fluctuations. Under the assumptions that the density and velocity fields are homogeneous and isotropic, we derive the expressions of the antenna temperature for an optically thin spectral line observation, and of its successive moments with respect to the line of sight velocity component, focusing on the zeroth (intensity or integrated emission I) and first (non-normalized velocity centroid C) moments. The ratio of the latter to the former is the normalized centroid C_0, whose expression can be linearized for small density fluctuations. To describe the statistics of I, C and C_0, we derive expansions of their autocorrelation functions in powers of density fluctuations and perform a lowest-order real-space calculation of their scaling behaviour, assuming that the density and ve...

  17. The Velocity Structure of SN 1987A's Outer Circumstellar Envelope

    Crotts, A. P. S.; Heathcote, S. R.


    We present high-resolution optical spectroscopy, (obtained with the CTIO 4-meter/echelle spectrograph over many epochs between 1989 and 1997) of the circumstellar nebula of SN 1987A, including the outer rings (within 3 arcsec of the SN), the inner (equatorial) ring, and fainter features at larger radii never studied before spectroscopically. We report velocity displacements for portions of the outer rings, up to 26 km s(-1) with respect the SN centroid velocity, with blueshifted components in the location of the southern outer ring and the redshifted portions of the northern outer ring. The largest shifts are near the SN, as predicted by a model in which the outer rings are the crowns of an expanding, bipolar nebula with the inner ring at its waist. We also confirm that the inner ring shows a velocity full-width of about 13 km s(-1) , which, along with the geometry of the rings and our outer ring velocity measurements, allows us to estimate a characteristic timescale of about 20,000 y for each of the three rings, implying that all are coeval. This contrasts with measurements by others of compositional ratios in the inner versus outer rings indicating that they were, perhaps, ejected at different times from the progenitor's star's outer envelope. Additionally, we measure the velocity of low surface brightness features at larger radii indicating that circumstellar material even farther from the SN was ejected up to 400,000 y before the explosion. Finally, we note the presence of transient emission features within the circumstellar nebula and describe their behaviour, and consider what implications our observations may have for the coming transformation of this nebula into Supernova Remnant 1987A.

  18. Nonlinear peculiar-velocity analysis and PCA

    Dekel, A. [and others


    We allow for nonlinear effects in the likelihood analysis of peculiar velocities, and obtain {approximately}35%-lower values for the cosmological density parameter and for the amplitude of mass-density fluctuations. The power spectrum in the linear regime is assumed to be of the flat {Lambda}CDM model (h = 0:65, n = 1) with only {Omega}{sub m} free. Since the likelihood is driven by the nonlinear regime, we break the power spectrum at k{sub b} {approximately} 0.2 (h{sup {minus}1} Mpc){sup {minus}1} and fit a two-parameter power-law at k > k{sub b} . This allows for an unbiased fit in the linear regime. Tests using improved mock catalogs demonstrate a reduced bias and a better fit. We find for the Mark III and SFI data {Omega}{sub m} = 0.35 {+-} 0.09 with {sigma}{sub 8}{Omega}P{sub m}{sup 0.6} = 0.55 {+-} 0.10 (90% errors). When allowing deviations from {Lambda}CDM, we find an indication for a wiggle in the power spectrum in the form of an excess near k {approximately} 0.05 and a deficiency at k {approximately} 0.1 (h{sup {minus}1} Mpc){sup {minus}1}--a cold flow which may be related to a feature indicated from redshift surveys and the second peak in the CMB anisotropy. A {chi}{sup 2} test applied to principal modes demonstrates that the nonlinear procedure improves the goodness of fit. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) helps identifying spatial features of the data and fine-tuning the theoretical and error models. We address the potential for optimal data compression using PCA.

  19. Projectile Velocity and Crater Formation in Water

    Pravitra Chaikulngamdee


    Full Text Available The relationship between the velocity of impact and maximum crater diameter was found for two steel balls dropped into water using 300 fps video. The maximum diameter of the crater was found to be proportional to the impact velocity and independent of the diameter of the ball.

  20. Demonstration of a Vector Velocity Technique

    Hansen, Peter Møller; Pedersen, Mads M.; Hansen, Kristoffer L.;


    With conventional Doppler ultrasound it is not possible to estimate direction and velocity of blood flow, when the angle of insonation exceeds 60–70°. Transverse oscillation is an angle independent vector velocity technique which is now implemented on a conventional ultrasound scanner. In this pa...

  1. Velocity gradients and microturbulence in Cepheids.

    Karp, A. H.


    Variations of the microturbulent velocity with phase and height in the atmosphere have been reported in classical Cepheids. It is shown that these effects can be understood in terms of variations of the velocity gradient in the atmospheres of these stars.

  2. Position and velocity estimation through acceleration measurements

    Estrada, Antonio; Efimov, Denis; Perruquetti, Wilfrid


    International audience; This paper proposes a solution to the problem of velocity and position estimation for a class of oscillating systems whose position, velocity and acceleration are zero mean signals. The proposed scheme considers that the dynamic model of the system is unknown and only noisy acceleration measurements are available.

  3. Critical Landau Velocity in Helium Nanodroplets

    N.B. Brauer; S. Smolarek; E. Loginov; D. Mateo; A. Hernando; M. Pi; M. Barranco; W.J. Buma; M. Drabbels


    The best-known property of superfluid helium is the vanishing viscosity that objects experience while moving through the liquid with speeds below the so-called critical Landau velocity. This critical velocity is generally considered a macroscopic property as it is related to the collective excitatio

  4. Simulating river flow velocity on global scale

    K. Schulze


    Full Text Available Flow velocity in rivers has a major impact on residence time of water and thus on high and low water as well as on water quality. For global scale hydrological modeling only very limited information is available for simulating flow velocity. Based on the Manning-Strickler equation, a simple algorithm to model temporally and spatially variable flow velocity was developed with the objective of improving flow routing in the global hydrological model of WaterGAP. An extensive data set of flow velocity measurements in US rivers was used to test and to validate the algorithm before integrating it into WaterGAP. In this test, flow velocity was calculated based on measured discharge and compared to measured velocity. Results show that flow velocity can be modeled satisfactorily at selected river cross sections. It turned out that it is quite sensitive to river roughness, and the results can be optimized by tuning this parameter. After the validation of the approach, the tested flow velocity algorithm has been implemented into the WaterGAP model. A final validation of its effects on the model results is currently performed.

  5. Three-component laser anemometer measurement systems

    Goldman, Louis J.


    A brief overview of the different laser anemometer (LA) optical designs available is presented. Then, the LA techniques that can be used to design a three-component measurement system for annular geometries are described. Some of the facility design considerations unique to these LA systems are also addressed. Following this, the facilities and the LA systems that were used to successfully measure the three components of velocity in the blading of annular-flow machines are reviewed. Finally, possible LA system enhancements and future research directions are presented.

  6. Velocity scaling of cue-induced smooth pursuit acceleration obeys constraints of natural motion.

    Ladda, Jennifer; Eggert, Thomas; Glasauer, Stefan; Straube, Andreas


    Information about the future trajectory of a visual target is contained not only in the history of target motion but also in static visual cues, e.g., the street provides information about the car's future trajectory. For most natural moving targets, this information imposes strong constraints on the relation between velocity and acceleration which can be exploited by predictive smooth pursuit mechanisms. We questioned how cue-induced predictive changes in pursuit direction depend on target speed and how cue- and target-induced pursuit interact. Subjects pursued a target entering a +/-90 degrees curve and moving on either a homogeneous background or on a low contrast static band indicating the future trajectory. The cue induced a predictive change of pursuit direction, which occurred before curve onset of the target. The predictive velocity component orthogonal to the initial pursuit direction started later and became faster with increasing target velocity. The predictive eye acceleration increased quadratically with target velocity and was independent of the initial target direction. After curve onset, cue- and target-induced pursuit velocity components were not linearly superimposed. The quadratic increase of eye acceleration with target velocity is consistent with the natural velocity scaling implied by the two-thirds power law, which is a characteristic of biological controlled movements. Comparison with linear pursuit models reveals that the ratio between eye acceleration and actual or expected retinal slip cannot be considered a constant gain factor. To obey a natural velocity scaling, this acceleration gain must linearly increase with target or pursuit velocity. We suggest that gain control mechanisms, which affect target-induced changes of pursuit velocity, act similarly on predictive changes of pursuit induced by static visual cues.

  7. Tangential Velocity of the Dark Matter in the Bullet Cluster from Precise Lensed Image Redshifts

    Molnar, Sandor M.; Broadhurst, Tom; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; Rephaeli, Yoel; Shimon, Meir


    We show that the fast-moving component of the "Bullet Cluster" (1E0657-56) can induce potentially resolvable redshift differences between multiply lensed images of background galaxies. This moving cluster effect, due to the tangential peculiar velocity of the lens, can be expressed as the scalar product of the lensing deflection angle with the tangential velocity of the mass components; the effect is maximal for clusters colliding in the plane of the sky with velocities boosted by their mutual gravity. The Bullet Cluster is likely to be the best candidate for the first measurement of this effect due to the large collision velocity and because the lensing deflection and the cluster fields can be calculated in advance. We derive the deflection field using multiply lensed background galaxies detected with the Hubble Space Telescope. The velocity field is modeled using self-consistent N-body/hydrodynamical simulations constrained by the observed X-ray and gravitational lensing features of this system. We predict that the triply lensed images of systems "G" and "H" straddling the critical curve of the bullet component will show the largest frequency shifts up to ~0.5 km s-1. These shifts are within the range of the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array for molecular emission, and are near the resolution limit of the new generation high-throughput optical-IR spectrographs. The detection of this effect measures the tangential motion of the subclusters directly, thereby clarifying the tension with ΛCDM, which is inferred from the gas motion less directly. This method may be extended to smaller redshift differences using the Lyα forest toward QSOs lensed by more typical clusters of galaxies. More generally, the tangential component of the peculiar velocities of clusters derived by our method complements the radial component determined by the kinematic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect, providing a full three-dimensional description of velocities.

  8. Ultrasound systems for blood velocity estimation

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    color image of velocity at up to 20 to 60 frames a second. Both measurements are performedby repeatedly pulsing in the same direction and then usethe correlation from pulse to pulse to determine the velocity.The paper gives a simple model for the interactionbetween the ultrasound and the moving blood......Medical ultrasound scanners can be used both for displayinggray-scale images of the anatomy and for visualizing theblood flow dynamically in the body.The systems can interrogate the flow at a single position in the bodyand there find the velocity distribution over time. They can also show adynamic....... The calculation of the velocity distribution is then explainedalong with the different physical effects influencing the estimation.The estimation of mean velocities using auto- andcross-correlation for color flow mapping is also described....

  9. Minimum and terminal velocities in projectile motion

    Miranda, E N; Riba, R


    The motion of a projectile with horizontal initial velocity V0, moving under the action of the gravitational field and a drag force is studied analytically. As it is well known, the projectile reaches a terminal velocity Vterm. There is a curious result concerning the minimum speed Vmin; it turns out that the minimum velocity is lower than the terminal one if V0 > Vterm and is lower than the initial one if V0 < Vterm. These results show that the velocity is not a monotonous function. If the initial speed is not horizontal, there is an angle range where the velocity shows the same behavior mentioned previously. Out of that range, the volocity is a monotonous function. These results come out from numerical simulations.

  10. A method to deconvolve stellar rotational velocities

    Cure, Michel; Cassetti, Julia; Christen, Alejandra


    Rotational speed is an important physical parameter of stars and knowing the distribution of stellar rotational velocities is essential for the understanding stellar evolution. However, it cannot be measured directly but the convolution of the rotational speed and the sine of the inclination angle, $v \\sin i$. We developed a method to deconvolve this inverse problem and obtain the cumulative distribution function (CDF) for stellar rotational velocities extending the work of Chandrasekhar & M\\"unch (1950). This method is applied a) to theoretical synthetic data recovering the original velocity distribution with very small error; b) to a sample of about 12.000 field main--sequence stars, corroborating that the velocity distribution function is non--Maxwellian, but is better described by distributions based on the concept of maximum entropy, such as Tsallis or Kaniadakis distribution functions. This is a very robust and novel method that deconvolve the rotational velocity cumulative distribution function fro...

  11. Velocity dependence of friction of confined polymers

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, V.N.; Persson, B.N.J.


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate, and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the frictional...... cases the frictional shear stress increases monotonically with the sliding velocity. For polymer sliding on polymer [case (b)] the friction is much larger, and the velocity dependence is more complex. For hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 140 C-atoms, the number of monolayers of lubricant...... shows no dependence on the sliding velocity, and for the shortest hydrocarbon (20 C-atoms) the frictional shear stress increases nearly linearly with the sliding velocity....

  12. Velocity estimation using synthetic aperture imaging

    Nikolov, Svetoslav; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    In a previous paper we have demonstrated that the velocity can be estimated for a plug flow using recursive ultrasound imaging [1]. The approach involved the estimation of the velocity at every emission and using the estimates for motion compensation. An error in the estimates, however, would lead...... to an error in the compensation further increasing the error in the estimates. In this paper the approach is further developed such that no motion compensation is necessary. In recursive ultrasound imaging a new high resolution image is created after every emission. The velocity was estimated by cross...... and significantly improves the velocity estimates. The approach is verified using simulations with the program Field II and measurements on a blood-mimicking phantom. The estimates from the simulations have a bias of -3.5% and a mean standard deviation less than 2.0% for a parabolic velocity profile. The estimates...

  13. Typical object velocity influences motion extrapolation.

    Makin, Alexis D J; Stewart, Andrew J; Poliakoff, Ellen


    Previous work indicates that extrapolation of object motion during occlusion is affected by the velocity of the immediately preceding trial. Here we ask whether longer-term velocity representations can also influence motion extrapolation. Red, blue or green targets disappeared behind an occluder. Participants pressed a button when they thought the target had reached the other side. Red targets were slower (10-20 deg/s), blue targets moved at medium velocities (14-26 deg/s) and green targets were faster (20-30 deg/s). We compared responses on a subset of red and green trials which always travelled at 20 deg/s. Although trial velocities were identical, participants responded as if the green targets moved faster (M = 22.64 deg/s) then the red targets (M = 19.72 deg/s). This indicates that motion extrapolation is affected by longer-term information about the typical velocity of different categories of stimuli.

  14. Radial velocity moments of dark matter haloes

    Wojtak, R; Gottlöber, S; Mamon, G A; Wojtak, Radoslaw; Lokas, Ewa L.; Gottloeber, Stefan; Mamon, Gary A.


    Using cosmological N-body simulations we study the radial velocity distribution in dark matter haloes focusing on the lowest-order even moments, dispersion and kurtosis. We determine the properties of ten massive haloes in the simulation box approximating their density distribution by the NFW formula characterized by the virial mass and concentration. We also calculate the velocity anisotropy parameter of the haloes and find it mildly radial and increasing with distance from the halo centre. The radial velocity dispersion of the haloes shows a characteristic profile with a maximum, while the radial kurtosis profile decreases with distance starting from a value close to Gaussian near the centre. We therefore confirm that dark matter haloes possess intrinsically non-Gaussian, flat-topped velocity distributions. We find that the radial velocity moments of the simulated haloes are very well reproduced by the solutions of the Jeans equations obtained for the halo parameters with the anisotropy measured in the simu...

  15. High-Velocity Line-Forming Regions in the Type Ia Supernova 2009ig

    Marion, G H "Howie"; Wheeler, J Craig; Foley, Ryan J; Hsiao, Eric Y; Brown, Peter J; Challis, Peter; Filippenko, Alexei V; Garnavich, Peter; Kirshner, Robert P; Landsman, Wayne B; Parrent, Jerod T; Pritchard, Tyler A; Roming, Peter W A; Silverman, Jeffrey M; Wang, Xiaofeng


    We report measurements and analysis of high-velocity (> 20,000 km/s) and photospheric absorption features in a sequence of spectra of SN Ia 2009ig obtained between -14d and +13d with respect to the time of B-band maximum light. We identify lines of Si II, Si III, S II, Ca II and Fe II that produce simultaneous high-velocity (HV) and photospheric velocity (PS) components from -12d to -5d. SN 2009ig is unusual in the number of lines with detectable HV features in its spectra but the light-curve parameters, M_B = -19.46 mag and the Delta m15(B) = 0.90 mag, correspond to a slightly overluminous but unexceptional SN Ia. The velocity of 13,400 km/s for Si II 6355 at the time of B-max is above "normal" for SN Ia but not unusual. The early start and high cadence of our data permit a detailed study of the transition in SN Ia from features dominated by high-velocity components to features with exclusively photospheric components. The -14d and -13d spectra in our sample are the first to clearly resolve high-velocity Si ...

  16. Comparison of solar horizontal velocity fields from SDO/HMI and Hinode data

    Roudier, Th; Prat, V; Malherbe, J M; Renon, N; Frank, Z; Svanda, M; Berger, T; Burston, R; Gizon, L


    The measurement of the Sun's surface motions with a high spatial and temporal resolution is still a challenge. We wish to validate horizontal velocity measurements all over the visible disk of the Sun from Solar Dynamics Observatory/ Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI) data. Horizontal velocity fields are measured by following the proper motions of solar granules using a newly developed version of the Coherent Structure Tracking (CST) code. The comparison of the surface flows measured at high spatial resolution (Hinode, 0.1 arcsec) and low resolution (SDO/HMI, 0.5 arcsec) allows us to determine corrections to be applied to the horizontal velocity measured from HMI white light data. We derive horizontal velocity maps with spatial and temporal resolutions of respectively 2.5 Mm and 30 min. From the two components of the horizontal velocity Vx and Vy measured in the sky plane and the simultaneous line of sight component from SDO/HMI dopplergrams v_D, we derive the spherical velocity components (Vr, Vtheta...

  17. Seismic wave attenuation and velocity dispersion in UAE carbonates

    Ogunsami, Abdulwaheed Remi

    Interpreting the seismic property of fluids in hydrocarbon reservoirs at low frequency scale has been a cherished goal of petroleum geophysics research for decades. Lately, there has been tremendous interest in understanding attenuation as a result of fluid flow in porous media. Although interesting, the emerging experimental and theoretical information still remain ambiguous and are practically not utilized for reasons not too obscure. Attenuation is frequency dependent and hard to measure in the laboratory at low frequency. This thesis describes and reports the results of an experimental study of low frequency attenuation and velocity dispersion on a selected carbonate reservoir samples in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). For the low frequency measurements, stress-strain method was used to measure the moduli from which the velocity is derived. Attenuation was measured as the phase difference between the applied stress and the strain. For the ultrasonic component, the pulse propagation method was employed. To study the fluid effect especially at reservoir in situ conditions, the measurements were made dry and saturated with liquid butane and brine at differential pressures of up to 5000 psi with pore pressure held constant at 500 psi. Similarly to what has been documented in the literatures for sandstone, attenuation of the bulk compressibility mode dominates the losses in these dry and somewhat partially saturated carbonate samples with butane and brine. Overall, the observed attenuation cannot be simply said to be frequency dependent within this low seismic band. While attenuation seems to be practically constant in the low frequency band for sample 3H, such conclusion cannot be made for sample 7H. For the velocities, significant dispersion is observed and Gassmann generally fails to match the measured velocities. Only the squirt model fairly fits the velocities, but not at all pressures. Although the observed dispersion is larger than Biot's prediction, the fact


    Childress, M. J.; Scalzo, R. A.; Sim, S. A.; Tucker, B. E.; Yuan, F.; Schmidt, B. P. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT 2611 (Australia); Cenko, S. B.; Filippenko, A. V. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Silverman, J. M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712-0259 (United States); Contreras, C.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Phillips, M.; Morrell, N. [Las Campanas Observatory, Carnegie Observatories, Casilla 601, La Serena (Chile); Jha, S. W.; McCully, C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Anderson, J. P.; De Jaeger, T.; Forster, F. [Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago (Chile); Benetti, S. [INAF Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell' Osservatorio 5, I-35122 Padova (Italy); Bufano, F., E-mail: [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); and others


    We present 65 optical spectra of the Type Ia SN 2012fr, 33 of which were obtained before maximum light. At early times, SN 2012fr shows clear evidence of a high-velocity feature (HVF) in the Si II {lambda}6355 line that can be cleanly decoupled from the lower velocity ''photospheric'' component. This Si II {lambda}6355 HVF fades by phase -5; subsequently, the photospheric component exhibits a very narrow velocity width and remains at a nearly constant velocity of {approx}12,000 km s{sup -1} until at least five weeks after maximum brightness. The Ca II infrared triplet exhibits similar evidence for both a photospheric component at v Almost-Equal-To 12,000 km s{sup -1} with narrow line width and long velocity plateau, as well as an HVF beginning at v Almost-Equal-To 31,000 km s{sup -1} two weeks before maximum. SN 2012fr resides on the border between the ''shallow silicon'' and ''core-normal'' subclasses in the Branch et al. classification scheme, and on the border between normal and high-velocity Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in the Wang et al. system. Though it is a clear member of the ''low velocity gradient'' group of SNe Ia and exhibits a very slow light-curve decline, it shows key dissimilarities with the overluminous SN 1991T or SN 1999aa subclasses of SNe Ia. SN 2012fr represents a well-observed SN Ia at the luminous end of the normal SN Ia distribution and a key transitional event between nominal spectroscopic subclasses of SNe Ia.

  19. The Velocity Campaign for Ignition on NIF

    Callahan, Debra


    Achieving ignition requires a high velocity implosion since the energy required for ignition scales like 1/v8. Beyond ignition, a higher velocity produces more robust performance, which will be useful for applications of ignition. In the velocity campaign, we will explore three methods for increasing implosion velocity: increased laser power and energy, optimized hohlraum and capsule materials, and optimized capsule thickness. The main issue with increasing the laser power and energy is the way in which LPI (laser plasma interactions) and hot electron preheat will change as we increase the laser power. Based on scalings from previous data and theory, we expect to couple 80-85% of 1.5 MJ at 475-500 TW. We can also increase the velocity by optimizing the hohlraum and capsule materials. In this campaign, we will explore depleted uranium hohlraums to reduce wall loss and optimize the capsule dopant by replacing the germanium dopant with silicon. Those two changes are expected to increase velocity by 6-7%. Finally, we will optimize the capsule thickness. The optimal capsule thickness is a trade-off between velocity and mix. A thinner capsule has higher velocity, but is more susceptible to mix of the ablator material into the hotspot due to hydrodynamic instabilities seeded by ablation surface imperfections. Once we have achieved adequate capsule areal density, we will optimize the velocity/mix trade off by varying the capsule thickness. We will also make direct measure of Rayleigh-Taylor instability growth by backlighting the growth of engineered features on the surface of the capsule. This will allow us to benchmark our models of mix. In this paper, we will describe the designs and experimental results of the velocity campaign. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.


    Lu Li; Li Zhongyuan


    The velocity shear instability in a magnetized, three-component dusty plasma is investigated for both positively and negatively charged dust particles. The critical shears as a function of the relative charge of dust grains for both positively and negatively charged dust grains are in the same form. The instability excitation is easier in colder proton's environment for positively charged dust, and so also in colder electron's environment for negatively charged dust. For a certain flow pattern, the instability excites in different direction for different sign of charged dust grains. This conclusion may be helpful in interpreting the helical structures and streamer splitted phenomena in a cometary tail.

  1. Reusable Component Services

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Reusable Component Services (RCS) is a super-catalog of components, services, solutions and technologies that facilitates search, discovery and collaboration in...

  2. Trip-Induced Transition Measurements in a Hypersonic Boundary Layer Using Molecular Tagging Velocimetry

    Bathel, Brett F.; Danehy, Paul M.; Jones, Stephen B.; Johansen, Craig T.; Goyne, Christopher P.


    Measurements of mean streamwise velocity, fluctuating streamwise velocity, and instantaneous streamwise velocity profiles in a hypersonic boundary layer were obtained over a 10-degree half-angle wedge model. A laser-induced fluorescence-based molecular tagging velocimetry technique was used to make the measurements. The nominal edge Mach number was 4.2. Velocity profiles were measured both in an untripped boundary layer and in the wake of a 4-mm diameter cylindrical tripping element centered 75.4 mm downstream of the sharp leading edge. Three different trip heights were investigated: k = 0.53 mm, k = 1.0 mm and k = 2.0 mm. The laminar boundary layer thickness at the position of the measurements was approximately 1 mm, though the exact thickness was dependent on Reynolds number and wall temperature. All of the measurements were made starting from a streamwise location approximately 18 mm downstream of the tripping element. This measurement region continued approximately 30 mm in the streamwise direction. Additionally, measurements were made at several spanwise locations. An analysis of flow features show how the magnitude, spatial location, and spatial growth of streamwise velocity instabilities are affected by parameters such as the ratio of trip height to boundary layer thickness and roughness Reynolds number. The fluctuating component of streamwise velocity measured along the centerline of the model increased from approximately 75 m/s with no trip to +/-225 m/s with a 0.53-mm trip, and to +/-240 m/s with a 1-mm trip, while holding the freestream Reynolds number constant. These measurements were performed in the 31-inch Mach 10 Air Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center.

  3. Principal component analysis

    Bro, R.; Smilde, A.K.


    Principal component analysis is one of the most important and powerful methods in chemometrics as well as in a wealth of other areas. This paper provides a description of how to understand, use, and interpret principal component analysis. The paper focuses on the use of principal component analysis

  4. Velocity bias in a LCDM model

    Colin, Pierre; Kravtsov, A V; Colin, Pedro; Klypin, Anatoly; Kravtsov, Andrey V.


    We use N-body simulations to study the velocity bias of dark matter halos, the difference in the velocity fields of dark matter and halos, in a flat low- density LCDM model. The high force, 2kpc/h, and mass, 10^9Msun/h, resolution allows dark matter halos to survive in very dense environments of groups and clusters making it possible to use halos as galaxy tracers. We find that the velocity bias pvb measured as a ratio of pairwise velocities of the halos to that of the dark matter evolves with time and depends on scale. At high redshifts (z ~5) halos move generally faster than the dark matter almost on all scales: pvb(r)~1.2, r>0.5Mpc/h. At later moments the bias decreases and gets below unity on scales less than r=5Mpc/h: pvb(r)~(0.6-0.8) at z=0. We find that the evolution of the pairwise velocity bias follows and probably is defined by the spatial antibias of the dark matter halos at small scales. One-point velocity bias b_v, defined as the ratio of the rms velocities of halos and dark matter, provides a mo...

  5. Anaerobic critical velocity in four swimming techniques.

    Neiva, H P; Fernandes, R J; Vilas-Boas, J P


    The aim of this study was to assess critical velocity in order to control and evaluate anaerobic swimming training. 51 highly trained male swimmers performed maximal 15, 25, 37.5 and 50 m in the 4 swimming techniques to determine critical velocity from the distance-time relationship. Anaerobic critical velocity was compared with 100 m swimming performance and corresponding partials. Complementarily, 9 swimmers performed a 6×50 m (4 min interval) training series at front crawl individual anaerobic critical velocity, capillary blood lactate concentrations being assessed after each repetition. The mean±SD values of anaerobic critical velocity and its relationship with the 100 m event were: 1.61±0.07 (r=0.60, p=0.037), 1.53±0.05 (r=0.81, p=0.015), 1.33±0.05 (r=0.83, p=0.002), and 1.75±0.05 (r=0.74, p=0.001), for butterfly, backstroke, breaststroke and front crawl, respectively. However, differences between anaerobic critical velocity and performance were observed (with exception of the second half of the 100 m swimming events in breaststroke and butterfly). Lactate concentration values at the end of the series were 14.52±1.06 mmol.l (-1), which suggests that it was indeed an anaerobic training set. In this sense, anaerobic critical velocity can be used to prescribe anaerobic training intensities.

  6. Velocities of Thwaites and Land glaciers

    Lucchitta, B. K.; Mullins, Kevin F.; Ferrigno, J. G.


    Changes in the area of volume of polar ice sheets are intricately linked to changes in global climate and may severely impact the densely populated coastal regions on Earth. An ice sheet's velocity is a critical parameter, which, together with ice thickness, allows the determination of discharge rates. Using moderate-resolution satellite images such as Landsat, the velocity of floating ice can be measured quickly and relatively inexpensively by tracing crevasse patterns on shelves and ice tongues. Errors in measured velocities are as little as 0.02 km per year, if the following criteria are met: (1) the time interval is longer than 10 years; (2) the velocity is higher than 0.5 km per year; (3) the coregistration points are well dispersed and enclose the area to be measured; and (4) the image pair includes a Landsat 4 or 5 image. The fewer of these conditions that are met, the less accurate the results become; but even for poor conditions, the velocities are generally reliable to near 0.1 km per year. We are in the process of obtaining velocities of all ice shelves and ice tongues along the Bakutis and Ruppert coasts, wherever suitable crevasse patterns exist. So far, we have obtained velocities for the Thwaites and Land glacier tongues.

  7. Evaluating the uncertainty of Darcy velocity with sparse grid collocation method

    SHI LiangSheng; YANG JinZhong; ZHANG DongXiao


    Spatial variability of Darcy velocity is presented due to the heterogeneity of aquifer parameters.The uncertainty qualification of velocity suffers great challenge in the complex porous media.This work focuses on the use of sparse grid collocation method in velocity simulation.Since the sparse grid col-location method provides a non-intrusive way to incorporate any existing deterministic solver, the mixed finite element method is combined as the deterministic solver to retain the local continuity of Darcy velocity.We decompose the error of the velocity into three components, and illustrate that the Karhunen-Loeve truncation brings more error into velocity approximation than into head.The conver-gence properties of velocity moments restrict the application of sparse grid collocation method in the problems with small correlation lengths.This work provides insights towards the application of sparse grid collocation method to velocity modeling.It is demonstrated that for which problems the sparse grid collocation method is expected to be competitive with the Monte Carlo simulation.Further work about the anisotropic sparse grid collocation method should be extended to circumvent the obstacle of dimensionality.

  8. Evaluating the uncertainty of Darcy velocity with sparse grid collocation method


    Spatial variability of Darcy velocity is presented due to the heterogeneity of aquifer parameters. The uncertainty qualification of velocity suffers great challenge in the complex porous media. This work focuses on the use of sparse grid collocation method in velocity simulation. Since the sparse grid collocation method provides a non-intrusive way to incorporate any existing deterministic solver, the mixed finite element method is combined as the deterministic solver to retain the local continuity of Darcy velocity. We decompose the error of the velocity into three components, and illustrate that the Karhunen-Loeve truncation brings more error into velocity approximation than into head. The convergence properties of velocity moments restrict the application of sparse grid collocation method in the problems with small correlation lengths. This work provides insights towards the application of sparse grid collocation method to velocity modeling. It is demonstrated that for which problems the sparse grid collocation method is expected to be competitive with the Monte Carlo simulation. Further work about the anisotropic sparse grid collocation method should be extended to circumvent the obstacle of dimensionality.

  9. Velocity structure and seismicity of southeastern Tennessee

    Kaufmann, Ronald Douglas; Long, Leland Timothy


    The seismic zone in southeastern Tennessee is at the confluence of major crustal features, which have been interpreted largely from potential data, and their relation to seismicity could help us understand why major earthquakes sometimes occur in the eastern United States. In this paper we solve for the previously unknown velocity structure of the upper crust by an inversion of travel time residuals from relocated earthquakes. The gravity anomalies are included by using a linear relation between average anomalous density and average anomalous velocity. The velocity model demonstrates that the seismicity is concentrated in areas of average to below average velocity and does not appear to be associated with one of the previously identified major crustal features. The high-velocity zones mark areas that are generally lacking in seismicity. The association of earthquake hypocenters with regions of low-velocity crustal rocks is consistent with other intraplate seismic zones, and this association supports the conjecture that intraplate earthquakes occur in crust that may have been weakened. The velocity anomalies at midcrustal depths do not support the New York-Alabama (NY-AL) lineament as a linear feature extending through southeastern Tennessee and parallel to contours in gravity anomalies as originally proposed. A continuation of the (NY-AL) lineament to the southwest requires either a 15 degree southwestward change in direction or a displacement to be consistent with the velocity anomalies. The seismically active areas in southeastern Tennessee do not appear to be constrained by the major crustal features, but instead, the seismicity is characterized by the distribution of hypocenters and their association with low-velocity regions at midcrustal depths.

  10. POD of vorticity fields: A method for spatial characterization of coherent structures

    Gurka, Roi [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, University of Western Ontario, London (Canada)]. E-mail:; Liberzon, Alexander [Institute of Environmental Engineering, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland)]. E-mail:; Hetsroni, Gad [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Haifa 32000 (Israel)]. E-mail:


    We present a method to identify large scale coherent structures, in turbulent flows, and characterize them. The method is based on the linear combination of the proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) modes of vorticity. Spanwise vorticity is derived from the two-dimensional and two-component velocity fields measured by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV) in the streamwise-wall normal plane of a fully developed turbulent boundary layer in a flume. The identification method makes use of the whole data set simultaneously, through the two-point correlation tensor, providing a statistical description of the dominant coherent motions in a turbulent boundary layer. The identified pattern resembles an elongated, quasi-streamwise, vortical structure with streamwise length equal to the water height in the flume and inclined upwards in the streamwise-wall normal plane at angle of approximately 8{sup o}.

  11. Measuring Bullet Velocity with a PC Soundcard

    Courtney, M; Courtney, Michael; Edwards, Brian


    This article describes a simple method for using a PC soundcard to accurately measure bullet velocity. The method involves placing the microphone within a foot of the muzzle and firing at a steel target between 50 and 100 yards away. The time of flight for the bullet is simply the recorded time between muzzle blast and sound of the bullet hitting the target minus the time it takes the sound to return from the target to the microphone. The average bullet velocity is simply the distance from the muzzle to the target divided by the time of flight of the bullet. This method can also be applied to measurement of paintball velocities.

  12. Low-Velocity Measurement in Water

    Ellis, Christopher; Stefan, Heinz G.


    Water velocities in the centimeter per second range or less are measurable by only a few instruments. Experimental laboratory studies frequently require such measurements. A review of low water velocity measurement methods is presented. An inexpensive optical hydrogen bubble-tracing technique is described for velocity measurements in the range 0.5 to 8 cm/s. Modification to a thymol blue (pH) tracer method extends its applicability to the range 0.1 to 1.0 cm/s. Design and operational characteristics of the hydrogen bubble/thymol blue current meter are described.

  13. Sound velocities in iron to 110 gigapascals.

    Fiquet, G; Badro, J; Guyot, F; Requardt, H; Krisch, M


    The dispersion of longitudinal acoustic phonons was measured by inelastic x-ray scattering in the hexagonal closed-packed (hcp) structure of iron from 19 to 110 gigapascals. Phonon dispersion curves were recorded on polycrystalline iron compressed in a diamond anvil cell, revealing an increase of the longitudinal wave velocity (VP) from 7000 to 8800 meters per second. We show that hcp iron follows a Birch law for VP, which is used to extrapolate velocities to inner core conditions. Extrapolated longitudinal acoustic wave velocities compared with seismic data suggest an inner core that is 4 to 5% lighter than hcp iron.

  14. Quantification of ultrasound correlation-based flow velocity mapping and edge velocity gradient measurement.

    Park, Dae Woo; Kruger, Grant H; Rubin, Jonathan M; Hamilton, James; Gottschalk, Paul; Dodde, Robert E; Shih, Albert J; Weitzel, William F


    This study investigated the use of ultrasound speckle decorrelation- and correlation-based lateral speckle-tracking methods for transverse and longitudinal blood velocity profile measurement, respectively. By studying the blood velocity gradient at the vessel wall, vascular wall shear stress, which is important in vascular physiology as well as the pathophysiologic mechanisms of vascular diseases, can be obtained. Decorrelation-based blood velocity profile measurement transverse to the flow direction is a novel approach, which provides advantages for vascular wall shear stress measurement over longitudinal blood velocity measurement methods. Blood flow velocity profiles are obtained from measurements of frame-to-frame decorrelation. In this research, both decorrelation and lateral speckle-tracking flow estimation methods were compared with Poiseuille theory over physiologic flows ranging from 50 to 1000 mm/s. The decorrelation flow velocity measurement method demonstrated more accurate prediction of the flow velocity gradient at the wall edge than the correlation-based lateral speckle-tracking method. The novelty of this study is that speckle decorrelation-based flow velocity measurements determine the blood velocity across a vessel. In addition, speckle decorrelation-based flow velocity measurements have higher axial spatial resolution than Doppler ultrasound measurements to enable more accurate measurement of blood velocity near a vessel wall and determine the physiologically important wall shear.


    Wang Zhiping; Dong Zujue; Huo Shubin


    Based on gas dynamics,thermodynamics,fluid dynamics of multiphase systems and other theories,the dynamic analyses of the particle flying velocity in a high velocity oxygen fuel spray (HVOF) is accomplished.The relationships between the flying velocity of a particle and the flying time or flying length,particle size,hot gas velocity,and pressure or density of the gas are proposed.Meanwhile,the influences of the velocity and mass rate of flow of the flame gas of a HVOF gun,and particle size on the particle flying velocity are discussed in detail.The dynamic pressure concept is introduced to express the flow capacity of hot gas of a HVOF gun,and the relationship between the dynamic pressure of a HVOF gun and the velocity of a particle for depositing is presented.

  16. High resolved velocity measurements using Laser Cantilever Anemometry

    Puczylowski, Jaroslaw; Hölling, Michael; Peinke, Joachim


    We have developed a new anemometer, namely the 2d-LCA (2d-Laser-Cantilever-Anemometer), that is capable of performing high resolved velocity measurements in fluids. The anemometer uses a micostructured cantilever made of silicon as a sensing element. The specific shape and the small dimensions (about 150µm) of the cantilever allow for precise measurements of two velocity component at a temporal resolution of about 150kHz. The angular acceptance range is 180° in total. The 2d-LCA is a simple to use alternative to x-wires and can be used in many areas of operation including measurements in liquids or in particle-laden flows. Unlike hot-wires, the resolution power of the 2d-LCA does not decrease with increasing flow velocity, making it particularly suitable for measurements in high-speed flows. In the recent past new cantilever designs were implemented with the goal to further improve the angular resolution and increase the stability. In addition, we have designed more robust cantilevers for measurements in rough environments such as offshore areas. Successful comparative measurements with hot-wires have been carried out in order to assess the performance of the 2d-LCA.

  17. Acoustic equations of state for simple lattice Boltzmann velocity sets.

    Viggen, Erlend Magnus


    The lattice Boltzmann (LB) method typically uses an isothermal equation of state. This is not sufficient to simulate a number of acoustic phenomena where the equation of state cannot be approximated as linear and constant. However, it is possible to implement variable equations of state by altering the LB equilibrium distribution. For simple velocity sets with velocity components ξ(iα)∈(-1,0,1) for all i, these equilibria necessarily cause error terms in the momentum equation. These error terms are shown to be either correctable or negligible at the cost of further weakening the compressibility. For the D1Q3 velocity set, such an equilibrium distribution is found and shown to be unique. Its sound propagation properties are found for both forced and free waves, with some generality beyond D1Q3. Finally, this equilibrium distribution is applied to a nonlinear acoustics simulation where both mechanisms of nonlinearity are simulated with good results. This represents an improvement on previous such simulations and proves that the compressibility of the method is still sufficiently strong even for nonlinear acoustics.

  18. Multiwavelength observations of the M15 intermediate velocity cloud

    Smoker, J V; Keenan, F P; Davies, R D; Pollacco, D L


    We present Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope HI images, Lovell Telescope multibeam HI wide-field mapping, Wisconsin H-alpha Mapper facility images, William Herschel Telescope longslit echelle CaII observations, and IRAS ISSA 60 and 100 micron coadded images towards the intermediate velocity cloud located in the general direction of the M15 globular cluster. When combined with previously-published Arecibo data, the HI gas in the IVC is found to be clumpy, with peak HI column density of 1.5x10^(20) cm^(-2), inferred volume density (assuming spherical symmetry) of 24 cm^(-3)/(D kpc), and maximum brightness temperature at a resolution of 81x14 arcsec of 14 K. The HI gas in the cloud is warm, with a minimum FWHM value of 5 km/s, corresponding to a kinetic temperature, in the absence of turbulence, of 540 K. There are indications in the HI data of 2-component velocity structure in the IVC, indicative of cloudlets. This velocity structure is also tentatively seen in the CaK spectra, although the SNR is low. The m...

  19. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocities of K-M dwarfs (Sperauskas+, 2016)

    Sperauskas, J.; Bartasiute, S.; Boyle, R. P.; Deveikis, V.; Raudeliunas, S.; Upgren, A. R.


    We analyzed nearly 3300 measurements of radial velocities for 1049 K-M dwarfs, that we obtained during the past decade with a CORAVEL-type instrument, with a primary emphasis on detecting and eliminating from kinematic calculations the spectroscopic binaries and binary candidates. We present the catalog of our observations of radial velocities for 959 stars which are not suspected of velocity variability. Of these, 776 stars are from the MCC sample and 173 stars are K-M dwarfs from the CNS4. The catalog consists of two parts: Table 2 lists the mean radial velocities, and Table 2a contains individual measurements. Our radial velocities agree with the best published standard stars to within 0.7km/s in precision. Combining these and supplementary radial-velocity data with Hipparcos/Tycho-2 astrometry (Table 4 summarizes input observational data) we calculated the space velocity components and parameters of the galactic orbits in a three-component model potential by Johnston K.V. et al. (1995ApJ...451..598J) for a total of 1088 K-M dwarfs (Table 5), that we use for kinematical analysis and for the identification of possible candidate members of nearby stellar kinematic groups. We identified 146 stars as possible candidate members of the classical moving groups and known or suspected subgroups (Table 7). We show that the distributions of space-velocity components, orbital eccentricities, and maximum distances from the Galactic plane for nearby K-M dwarfs are consistent with the presence of young, intermediate-age and old populations of the thin disk and a small fraction (3%) of stars with the thick disk kinematics. (7 data files).

  20. Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps and three-dimensional shear velocity structure of the western US from local non-plane surface wave tomography

    Pollitz, F.F.; Snoke, J. Arthur


    We utilize two-and-three-quarter years of vertical-component recordings made by the Transportable Array (TA) component of Earthscope to constrain three-dimensional (3-D) seismic shear wave velocity structure in the upper 200 km of the western United States. Single-taper spectral estimation is used to compile measurements of complex spectral amplitudes from 44 317 seismograms generated by 123 teleseismic events. In the first step employed to determine the Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity structure, we implement a new tomographic method, which is simpler and more robust than scattering-based methods (e.g. multi-plane surface wave tomography). The TA is effectively implemented as a large number of local arrays by defining a horizontal Gaussian smoothing distance that weights observations near a given target point. The complex spectral-amplitude measurements are interpreted with the spherical Helmholtz equation using local observations about a succession of target points, resulting in Rayleigh-wave phase-velocity maps at periods over the range of 18–125 s. The derived maps depend on the form of local fits to the Helmholtz equation, which generally involve the nonplane-wave solutions of Friederich et al. In a second step, the phase-velocity maps are used to derive 3-D shear velocity structure. The 3-D velocity images confirm details witnessed in prior body-wave and surface-wave studies and reveal new structures, including a deep (>100 km deep) high-velocity lineament, of width ∼200 km, stretching from the southern Great Valley to northern Utah that may be a relic of plate subduction or, alternatively, either a remnant of the Mojave Precambrian Province or a mantle downwelling. Mantle seismic velocity is highly correlated with heat flow, Holocene volcanism, elastic plate thickness and seismicity. This suggests that shallow mantle structure provides the heat source for associated magmatism, as well as thinning of the thermal lithosphere, leading to relatively high

  1. Computer program calculates transonic velocities in turbomachines

    Katsanis, T.


    Computer program, TSONIC, combines velocity gradient and finite difference methods to obtain numerical solution for ideal, transonic, compressible flow for axial, radial, or mixed flow cascade of turbomachinery blades.

  2. Optimal Moments for Velocity Fields Analysis

    Feldman, H A; Melott, A; Feldman, Hume A; Watkins, Richard; Melott, Adrian; Proxy, Will Chambers; ccsd-00000954, ccsd


    We describe a new method of overcoming problems inherent in peculiar velocity surveys by using data compression as a filter with which to separate large-scale, linear flows from small-scale noise that biases the results systematically. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our method using realistic catalogs of galaxy velocities drawn from N--body simulations. Our tests show that a likelihood analysis of simulated catalogs that uses all of the information contained in the peculiar velocities results in a bias in the estimation of the power spectrum shape parameter $\\Gamma$ and amplitude $\\beta$, and that our method of analysis effectively removes this bias. We expect that this new method will cause peculiar velocity surveys to re--emerge as a useful tool to determine cosmological parameters.

  3. The escape velocity and Schwarzschild metric

    Murzagalieva, A G; Murzagaliev, G Z


    The escape velocity value in the terms of general relativity by means Schwarzschild metric is provided to make of the motion equation with Friedman cosmological model behavior build in the terms of Robertson-Worker metric. (author)

  4. Velocity distributions in dilute granular systems.

    van Zon, J S; MacKintosh, F C


    We investigate the idea that velocity distributions in granular gases are determined mainly by eta, the coefficient of restitution and q, which measures the relative importance of heating (or energy input) to collisions. To this end, we study by numerical simulation the properties of inelastic gases as functions of eta, concentration phi, and particle number N with various heating mechanisms. For a wide range of parameters, we find Gaussian velocity distributions for uniform heating and non-Gaussian velocity distributions for boundary heating. Comparison between these results and velocity distributions obtained by other heating mechanisms and for a simple model of a granular gas without spatial degrees of freedom, shows that uniform and boundary heating can be understood as different limits of q, with q>1 and q < or approximately 1 respectively. We review the literature for evidence of the role of q in the recent experiments.

  5. Transport velocities of coal and sand particles

    Adanez, J. (Inst. de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain)); Diego, L.F. de (Inst. de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain)); Gayan, P. (Inst. de Carboquimica, Zaragoza (Spain))


    Transport velocities of narrow cut sizes of coarse particles of sand and coal were determined at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. These velocities were obtained by four different methods previously utilized by other authors with fine particles. The four methods tested gave good predictions of the transport velocities. The method based on the measurement of the time required for all the solids to leave the bed without feeding in any fresh solid is specially interesting because of its rapidity and simplicity. The determined transport velocities were strongly dependent on the solid particle size and density. The experimental values were fitted to an equation which fitted both the experimental results obtained in this work and other published results obtained with fine particles. (orig.)

  6. Velocity in Lorentz-Violating Fermion Theories

    Altschul, B D; Colladay, Don


    We consider the role of the velocity in Lorentz-violating fermionic quantum theory, especially emphasizing the nonrelativistic regime. Information about the velocity will be important for the kinematical analysis of scattering and other problems. Working within the minimal standard model extension, we derive new expressions for the velocity. We find that generic momentum and spin eigenstates may not have well-defined velocities. We also demonstrate how several different techniques may be used to shed light on different aspects of the problem. A relativistic operator analysis allows us to study the behavior of the Lorentz-violating Zitterbewegung. Alternatively, by studying the time evolution of Gaussian wave packets, we find that there are Lorentz-violating modifications to the wave packet spreading and the spin structure of the wave function.

  7. Velocity moments of dark matter haloes

    Wojtak, R; Gottlöber, S; Mamon, G A; Wojtak, Radoslaw; Lokas, Ewa L.; Gottloeber, Stefan; Mamon, Gary A.


    Using cosmological N-body simulations we study the line-of-sight velocity distribution of dark matter haloes focusing on the lowest-order even moments, dispersion and kurtosis, and their application to estimate the mass profiles of cosmological structures. For each of the ten massive haloes selected from the simulation box we determine the virial mass, concentration and the anisotropy parameter. In order to emulate observations from each halo we choose randomly 300 particles and project their velocities and positions along the line of sight and on the surface of the sky, respectively. After removing interlopers we calculate the profiles of the line-of-sight velocity moments and fit them with the solutions of the Jeans equations. The estimates of virial mass, concentration parameter and velocity anisotropy obtained in this way are in good agreement with the values found from the full 3D analysis.

  8. Quantum rainbow scattering at tunable velocities

    Strebel, M; Ruff, B; Stienkemeier, F; Mudrich, M


    Elastic scattering cross sections are measured for lithium atoms colliding with rare gas atoms and SF6 molecules at tunable relative velocities down to ~50 m/s. Our scattering apparatus combines a velocity-tunable molecular beam with a magneto-optic trap that provides an ultracold cloud of lithium atoms as a scattering target. Comparison with theory reveals the quantum nature of the collision dynamics in the studied regime, including both rainbows as well as orbiting resonances.

  9. Velocity Fluctuations in Electrostatically Driven Granular Media

    Aranson, I. S.; Olafsen, J. S.


    We study experimentally the particle velocity fluctuations in an electrostatically driven dilute granular gas. The experimentally obtained velocity distribution functions have strong deviations from Maxwellian form in a wide range of parameters. We have found that the tails of the distribution functions are consistent with a stretched exponential law with typical exponents of the order 3/2. Molecular dynamic simulations shows qualitative agreement with experimental data. Our results suggest t...

  10. Velocity Fields as a Probe of Cosmology

    Feldman, Hume


    Analyses of peculiar velocity surveys face several challenges, including low signal--to--noise in individual velocity measurements and the presence of small--scale, nonlinear flows. I will present three new analyses that attempt to address these inherent problems. The first is geared towards the better understanding of the estimated errors in the surveys, specifically sampling errors, and the resolution of the seeming disagreements between the surveys. Another develops a new statistic that do...

  11. Acoustic measurement of potato cannon velocity

    Courtney, M; Courtney, Amy; Courtney, Michael


    This article describes measurement of potato cannon velocity with a digitized microphone signal. A microphone is attached to the potato cannon muzzle and a potato is fired at an aluminum target about 10 m away. The potato's flight time can be determined from the acoustic waveform by subtracting the time in the barrel and time for sound to return from the target. The potato velocity is simply the flight distance divided by the flight time.

  12. Stereoscopic PIV and POD applied to the far turbulent axisymmetric jet

    Wähnström, Maja; George, William K.; Meyer, Knud Erik


    Recent experiments on asymptotic high Reynolds number turbulent jet have shown a difference between results from the slice POD applied to the full velocity vector and to the streamwise component of velocity only. In particular, the evolution of the peak in the energy toward azimuthal mode-2...... in the streamwise velocity component decomposition noted in earlier experiments, shifted to mode-1 if all three components of velocity were considered. This is in contrast to what appears to be the case for the jet mixing layer and the axisymmetric wake6 where no such differences were observed. The work reported...... here applies stereoscopic PIV to the far field of the same jet in which the mode-2 phenomenon was first noticed. Indeed azimuthal mode-1 is maximal if all three velocity components are considered, so the new findings are confirmed. This work also addresses a number of outstanding issues from all...

  13. Seismic Anisotropy and Velocity-Porosity Relationships in the Seafloor.

    Berge, Patricia A.

    In this dissertation, I investigate the structure and composition of marine sediments and the upper oceanic crust using seismic data and rock physics theories. Common marine sediments such as silty clays exhibit anisotropy because they are made up of thin sub-parallel lamellae of contrasting mineralogical composition and differing elastic properties. In 1986, Rondout Associates, Inc. and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution recorded direct shear waves in shallow marine sediments in 21-m-deep water by using a newly developed ocean-bottom shear source and a multicomponent on-bottom receiver. A nearby drill hole showed that the sediments are interbedded silty clays, clays, and sands. I used an anisotropic reflectivity program written by Geo-Pacific Corporation to produce synthetic seismograms to estimate the five independent elastic stiffnesses necessary for describing transverse isotropy, the form of anisotropy found in these sediments. The synthetics fit the vertical and two horizontal components for two intersecting profiles, 150 and 200 m long. The data require low shear velocities (theories to modeling the oceanic crust. Seismic velocities are controlled by the porosity, typically 20-30% for the top of layer 2. Most rock physics theories that relate seismic velocities to porosities are invalid for such high porosities. I combined elements of the self-consistent and noninteraction approaches to extend some rock physics theories for porosities up to at least 30-35%. Since the oceanic crust contains pores and cracks of many shapes, an appropriate theory must model round pores as well as flat cracks. I present examples of how layer 2A of the oceanic crust might be represented using an extended version of the Kuster-Toksoz theory. Alteration processes modify the pore structure of the oceanic crust. Currently, alteration is measured primarily from ocean drilling results. By developing a realistic relationship between seismic velocities and the age-dependent pore

  14. Low-velocity impacts into cryogenic icy regolith

    Brisset, Julie; Colwell, Josh E.; Dove, Adrienne; Rascon, Allison; Mohammed, Nadia; Cox, Christopher


    The first stages of planet formation take place in the protoplanetary disk (PPD), where µm-sized dust grains accrete into km-sized planetesimals. In the current discussion on the processes involved in accretion beyond the cm scale, the size distribution of the particles colliding at low speeds (a few m/s) inside the PPD is thought to play an important role. A few larger bodies that survived bouncing and fragmentation collisions accumulate the fine dust residue of the erosion and fragmentation of other particles that were destroyed in more energetic collisions. A significant component of this dust on bodies farther out in the PPD will be composed of ices.We have carried out a series of experiments to study the ejecta mass-velocity distribution from impacts of cm-scale particles into granular media at speeds below 3 m/s in both microgravity and 1-g conditions in vacuo and room temperature. Aggregate-aggregate collision experiments have shown bouncing and fragmentation at speeds above ~ 1 m/s. However, most planetesimal formation occurred beyond the frost line and at much lower temperatures than our earlier experiments. We have performed impact experiments at 1-g into JSC-1 lunar regolith simulant at low temperatures (mass-velocity distribution as well as the final crater size. Our goal is to determine if the cryogenic temperature and the presence of water ice in the regolith affects the dynamic response to low-velocity impacts and the production of regolith. We will present the results of the cryogenic impacts and compare them to the study performed at room temperature without water ice. The inclusion of water ice into the target sample is a first step towards better understanding the influence of the presence of water ice in the production of ejecta in response to low-velocity impacts. We will discuss the implications of our results for planetary ring particle collisions as well as planetesimal formation.

  15. Characterizing the original ejection velocity field of the Koronis family

    Carruba, V.; Nesvorný, D.; Aljbaae, S.


    An asteroid family forms as a result of a collision between an impactor and a parent body. The fragments with ejection speeds higher than the escape velocity from the parent body can escape its gravitational pull. The cloud of escaping debris can be identified by the proximity of orbits in proper element, or frequency, domains. Obtaining estimates of the original ejection speed can provide valuable constraints on the physical processes occurring during collision, and used to calibrate impact simulations. Unfortunately, proper elements of asteroids families are modified by gravitational and non-gravitational effects, such as resonant dynamics, encounters with massive bodies, and the Yarkovsky effect, such that information on the original ejection speeds is often lost, especially for older, more evolved families. It has been recently suggested that the distribution in proper inclination of the Koronis family may have not been significantly perturbed by local dynamics, and that information on the component of the ejection velocity that is perpendicular to the orbital plane (vW), may still be available, at least in part. In this work we estimate the magnitude of the original ejection velocity speeds of Koronis members using the observed distribution in proper eccentricity and inclination, and accounting for the spread caused by dynamical effects. Our results show that (i) the spread in the original ejection speeds is, to within a 15% error, inversely proportional to the fragment size, and (ii) the minimum ejection velocity is of the order of 50 m/s, with larger values possible depending on the orbital configuration at the break-up.

  16. Order reduction in time integration caused by velocity projection

    Arnold, Martion [Martin Luther University, Halle (Germany); Cardona, Alberto [Universdad Nacional Lioral, Santa Fe (Argentina); Bruls, Olivier [University of Liege, Liège (Belgium)


    Holonomic constraints restrict the configuration of a multibody system to a subset of the configuration space. They imply so called hidden constraints at the level of velocity coordinates as well as the original constraint equations may be obtained considering both types of constraints as well as the original constraint equations may be obtained considering both types of constraints in each time step (Stabilized index-2 formulation) or using projection techniques. Both approaches are well established in the time integration of differential-algebraic equations. Recently, we have introduced a generalized-α Lie group time integration method for the stablilized index -2 formulation that achieves second order convergence for all solution components In the present paper, we show that a separate velocity projection would be less favourable since it may result in an order reduction and in large transient errors after each projection step. This undesired numerical behaviour is analysed by a one-step error recursion that considers the coupled error propagation in differential and algebraic solution components. This one-step error recursion has been used before to prove second order convergence for the application of generalized-α methods to constrained systems.

  17. Mean Velocity Estimation of Viscous Debris Flows

    Hongjuan Yang; Fangqiang Wei; Kaiheng Hu


    The mean velocity estimation of debris flows, especially viscous debris flows, is an impor-tant part in the debris flow dynamics research and in the design of control structures. In this study, theoretical equations for computing debris flow velocity with the one-phase flow assumption were re-viewed and used to analyze field data of viscous debris flows. Results show that the viscous debris flow is difficult to be classified as a Newtonian laminar flow, a Newtonian turbulent flow, a Bingham fluid, or a dilatant fluid in the strict sense. However, we can establish empirical formulas to compute its mean velocity following equations for Newtonian turbulent flows, because most viscous debris flows are tur-bulent. Factors that potentially influence debris flow velocity were chosen according to two-phase flow theories. Through correlation analysis and data fitting, two empirical formulas were proposed. In the first one, velocity is expressed as a function of clay content, flow depth and channel slope. In the second one, a coefficient representing the grain size nonuniformity is used instead of clay content. Both formu-las can give reasonable estimate of the mean velocity of the viscous debris flow.

  18. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity during running.

    Lyngeraa, T S; Pedersen, L M; Mantoni, T; Belhage, B; Rasmussen, L S; van Lieshout, J J; Pott, F C


    Running induces characteristic fluctuations in blood pressure (BP) of unknown consequence for organ blood flow. We hypothesized that running-induced BP oscillations are transferred to the cerebral vasculature. In 15 healthy volunteers, transcranial Doppler-determined middle cerebral artery (MCA) blood flow velocity, photoplethysmographic finger BP, and step frequency were measured continuously during three consecutive 5-min intervals of treadmill running at increasing running intensities. Data were analysed in the time and frequency domains. BP data for seven subjects and MCA velocity data for eight subjects, respectively, were excluded from analysis because of insufficient signal quality. Running increased mean arterial pressure and mean MCA velocity and induced rhythmic oscillations in BP and in MCA velocity corresponding to the difference between step rate and heart rate (HR) frequencies. During running, rhythmic oscillations in arterial BP induced by interference between HR and step frequency impact on cerebral blood velocity. For the exercise as a whole, average MCA velocity becomes elevated. These results suggest that running not only induces an increase in regional cerebral blood flow but also challenges cerebral autoregulation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. Supply chain components

    Vieraşu, T.


    Full Text Available In this article I will go through three main logistics components, which are represented by: transportation, inventory and facilities, and the three secondary logistical components: information, production location, price and how they determine performance of any supply chain. I will discuss then how these components are used in the design, planning and operation of a supply chain. I will also talk about some obstacles a supply chain manager may encounter.

  20. Nondestructive Characterization of Low-Velocity Impact Damage in Protective Ceramic Components


    ABSTRACT Unclassified c. THIS PAGE Unclassified 19b. TELEPHONE NUMBER (Include area code ) 410-306-0913 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8/98) Prescribed by...materials were modeled using the Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic ( SPH ) solver. The SPH particle size was 0.75 for the aluminum and steel, 0.5 for the...SiC silicon carbide SPH Smooth Particle Hydrodynamic NO. OF COPIES ORGANIZATION 14 1 DEFENSE TECHNICAL (PDF) INFORMATION CTR

  1. Hot gas path component

    Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Kottilingam, Srikanth Chandrudu; Porter, Christopher Donald; Schick, David Edward


    Various embodiments of the disclosure include a turbomachine component. and methods of forming such a component. Some embodiments include a turbomachine component including: a first portion including at least one of a stainless steel or an alloy steel; and a second portion joined with the first portion, the second portion including a nickel alloy including an arced cooling feature extending therethrough, the second portion having a thermal expansion coefficient substantially similar to a thermal expansion coefficient of the first portion, wherein the arced cooling feature is located within the second portion to direct a portion of a coolant to a leakage area of the turbomachine component.

  2. Psychological Component of Infertility

    ... Home FAQs Frequently Asked Questions Quick Facts About Infertility FAQs About Infertility FAQs About the Psychological Component of Infertility FAQs About Cloning and Stem Cell Research SART's ...

  3. Status update of the effort to correct the SDO/HMI systemmatic errors in Doppler velocity and derived data products

    Scherrer, Philip H.


    This poster provides an update of the status of the efforts to understand and correct the leakage of the SDO orbit velocity into most HMI data products. The following is extracted from the abstract for the similar topic presented at the 2016 SPD meeting: “The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) instrument on the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) measures sets of filtergrams which are converted into velocity and magnetic field maps. In addition to solar photospheric motions the velocity measurements include a direct component from the line-of-sight component of the SDO orbit. Since the magnetic field is computed as the difference between the velocity measured in left and right circular polarization, the orbit velocity is canceled only if the velocity is properly calibrated. When the orbit velocity is subtracted the remaining "solar" velocity shows a residual signal which is equal to about 2% of the c. +- 3000 m/s orbit velocity in a nearly linear relationship. This implies an error in our knowledge of some of the details of as-built filter components. This systematic error is the source of 12- and 24-hour variations in most HMI data products. While the instrument as presently calibrated (Couvidat et al. 2012 and 2016) meets all of the “Level-1” mission requirements it fails to meet the stated goal of 10 m/s accuracy for velocity data products. For the velocity measurements this has not been a significant problem since the prime HMI goals of obtaining data for helioseismology are not affected by this systematic error. However the orbit signal leaking into the magnetograms and vector magnetograms degrades the ability to accomplish some of the mission science goals at the expected levels of accuracy. This poster presents the current state of understanding of the source of this systematic error and prospects for near term improvement in the accuracy of the filter profile model.”

  4. Relative seismic velocity variations correlate with deformation at Kīlauea volcano.

    Donaldson, Clare; Caudron, Corentin; Green, Robert G; Thelen, Weston A; White, Robert S


    Seismic noise interferometry allows the continuous and real-time measurement of relative seismic velocity through a volcanic edifice. Because seismic velocity is sensitive to the pressurization state of the system, this method is an exciting new monitoring tool at active volcanoes. Despite the potential of this tool, no studies have yet comprehensively compared velocity to other geophysical observables on a short-term time scale at a volcano over a significant length of time. We use volcanic tremor (~0.3 to 1.0 Hz) at Kīlauea as a passive source for interferometry to measure relative velocity changes with time. By cross-correlating the vertical component of day-long seismic records between ~230 station pairs, we extract coherent and temporally consistent coda wave signals with time lags of up to 120 s. Our resulting time series of relative velocity shows a remarkable correlation between relative velocity and the radial tilt record measured at Kīlauea summit, consistently correlating on a time scale of days to weeks for almost the entire study period (June 2011 to November 2015). As the summit continually deforms in deflation-inflation events, the velocity decreases and increases, respectively. Modeling of strain at Kīlauea suggests that, during inflation of the shallow magma reservoir (1 to 2 km below the surface), most of the edifice is dominated by compression-hence closing cracks and producing faster velocities-and vice versa. The excellent correlation between relative velocity and deformation in this study provides an opportunity to understand better the mechanisms causing seismic velocity changes at volcanoes, and therefore realize the potential of passive interferometry as a monitoring tool.

  5. Kinematic principles of primate rotational vestibulo-ocular reflex. I. Spatial organization of fast phase velocity axes

    Hess, B. J.; Angelaki, D. E.


    The spatial organization of fast phase velocity vectors of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) was studied in rhesus monkeys during yaw rotations about an earth-horizontal axis that changed continuously the orientation of the head relative to gravity ("barbecue spit" rotation). In addition to a velocity component parallel to the rotation axis, fast phases also exhibited a velocity component that invariably was oriented along the momentary direction of gravity. As the head rotated through supine and prone positions, torsional components of fast phase velocity axes became prominent. Similarly, as the head rotated through left and right ear-down positions, fast phase velocity axes exhibited prominent vertical components. The larger the speed of head rotation the greater the magnitude of this fast phase component, which was collinear with gravity. The main sequence properties of VOR fast phases were independent of head position. However, peak amplitude as well as peak velocity of fast phases were both modulated as a function of head orientation, exhibiting a minimum in prone position. The results suggest that the fast phases of vestibulo-ocular reflexes not only redirect gaze and reposition the eye in the direction of head motion but also reorient the eye with respect to earth-vertical when the head moves relative to gravity. As further elaborated in the companion paper, the underlying mechanism could be described as a dynamic, gravity-dependent modulation of the coordinates of ocular rotations relative to the head.

  6. Optical refraction in silver: counterposition, negative phase velocity and orthogonal phase velocity

    Naqvi, Qaisar A [Department of Electronics, Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad 45320 (Pakistan); Mackay, Tom G [School of Mathematics and Maxwell Institute for Mathematical Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh EH9 3JZ (United Kingdom); Lakhtakia, Akhlesh, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [NanoMM-Nanoengineered Metamaterials Group, Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)


    Complex behaviour associated with metamaterials can arise even in commonplace isotropic dielectric materials. We demonstrate how silver, for example, can support negative phase velocity and counterposition, but not negative refraction, at optical frequencies. The transition from positive to negative phase velocity is not accompanied by remarkable changes in the Abraham and Minkowski momentum densities. In particular, orthogonal phase velocity is associated with nonzero Abraham and Minkowski momentum densities.

  7. Estimation of blood velocity vectors using transverse ultrasound beam focusing and cross-correlation

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Lacasa, Isabel Rodriguez


    Modern ultrasound scanners estimate the blood velocity by tracking the movement of the blood scatterers along the ultrasound beam. This is done by emitting pulsed ultrasound fields and finding the shift in position from pulse to pulse by correlating the received signals. Only the velocity component...... along the beam direction is found, and this is a serious limitation in the current scanners, since most blood vessels are parallel to the skin surface. A method to find the velocity across the vessel has been suggested by Bonnefous (1988). Here a number of parallel receive beams are measured and used...... or across it or in any direction to the beam. The focused lines, thus, follow the flow and a cross-correlation of lines from different pulses can find the movement of the blood particles between pulse emissions and, thus, the blood velocity. The new approach is investigated using the Field II simulation...

  8. Blood vector velocity estimation using an autocorrelation approach: In vivo Investigation

    Udesen, Jesper; Bachmann, Michael; Rue, Kristina


    In conventional techniques for blood velocity estimation, only the axial component of the velocity vector is found. We have previously shown that it is possible to estimate the 2-D blood velocity vector both in simulations and in flow phantom experiments using a fast and inexpensive method (the...... deg phase shift in the lateral direction. The TO method works at angles where conventional methods fails to estimate any blood movement, i.e. when the angle between the ultrasound beam and the velocity vector is approximately 90 deg. In this paper the first in-vivo color flow map (CFM) images...... are presented using the TO method. A 128 element 5 MHz linear array transducer was used together with the experimental ultrasound scanner RASMUS operating at a sampling frequency of 40 MHz with a pulse repetition frequency of 24 kHz. After sampling the received channel data were beamformed off...

  9. Near field acoustic holography based on the equivalent source method and pressure-velocity transducers

    Zhang, Y.-B.; Chen, X.-Z.; Jacobsen, Finn


    on particle velocity input data than when it is based on measurements of sound pressure data, and this is confirmed by a simulation study and by experimental results. A method that combines pressure- and particle velocity-based reconstructions in order to distinguish between contributions to the sound field......The advantage of using the normal component of the particle velocity rather than the sound pressure in the hologram plane as the input of conventional spatial Fourier transform based near field acoustic holography (NAH) and also as the input of the statistically optimized variant of NAH has...... recently been demonstrated. This paper examines whether there might be a similar advantage in using the particle velocity as the input of NAH based on the equivalent source method (ESM). Error sensitivity considerations indicate that ESM-based NAH is less sensitive to measurement errors when it is based...

  10. Effects of correlated turbulent velocity fields on the formation of maser lines

    Boeger, R; Hegmann, M


    The microturbulent approximation of turbulent motions is widely used in radiative transfer calculations. Mainly motivated by its simple computational application it is probably in many cases an oversimplified treatment of the dynamical processes involved. This aspect is in particular important in the analysis of maser lines, since the strong amplification of radiation leads to a sensitive dependence of the radiation field on the overall velocity structure. To demonstrate the influence of large scale motions on the formation of maser lines we present a simple stochastic model which takes velocity correlations into account. For a quantitative analysis of correlation effects, we generate in a Monte Carlo simulation individual realizations of a turbulent velocity field along a line of sight. Depending on the size of the velocity correlation length we find huge deviations between the resulting random profiles in respect of line shape, intensity and position of single spectral components. Finally, we simulate the e...

  11. An experiment to measure the one-way velocity of propagation of electromagnetic radiation

    Kolen, P.; Torr, D. G.


    An experiment involving commercially available instrumentation to measure the velocity of the earth with respect to absolute space is described. The experiment involves the measurement of the one-way propagation velocity of electromagnetic radiation down a high-quality coaxial cable. It is demonstrated that the experiment is both physically meaningful and exceedingly simple in concept and in implementation. It is shown that with currently available commercial equipment one might expect to detect a threshold value for the component of velocity of the earth's motion with respect to absolute space in the equatorial plane of approximately 10 km/s, which greatly exceeds the velocity resolution required to detect the motion of the solar system with respect to the center of the galaxy.

  12. Proof of Concept: Model Based Bionic Muscle with Hyperbolic Force-Velocity Relation

    D. F. B. Haeufle


    Full Text Available Recently, the hyperbolic Hill-type force-velocity relation was derived from basic physical components. It was shown that a contractile element CE consisting of a mechanical energy source (active element AE, a parallel damper element (PDE, and a serial element (SE exhibits operating points with hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. In this paper, a technical proof of this concept was presented. AE and PDE were implemented as electric motors, SE as a mechanical spring. The force-velocity relation of this artificial CE was determined in quick release experiments. The CE exhibited hyperbolic force-velocity dependency. This proof of concept can be seen as a well-founded starting point for the development of Hill-type artificial muscles.

  13. Using second-sound shock waves to probe the intrinsic critical velocity of liquid helium II

    Turner, T. N.


    A critical velocity truly intrinsic to liquid helium II is experimentally sought in the bulk fluid far from the apparatus walls. Termed the 'fundamental critical velocity,' it necessarily is caused by mutual interactions which operate between the two fluid components and which are activated at large relative velocities. It is argued that flow induced by second-sound shock waves provides the ideal means by which to activate and isolate the fundamental critical velocity from other extraneous fluid-wall interactions. Experimentally it is found that large-amplitude second-sound shock waves initiate a breakdown in the superfluidity of helium II, which is dramatically manifested as a limit to the maximum attainable shock strength. This breakdown is shown to be caused by a fundamental critical velocity. Secondary effects include boiling for ambient pressures near the saturated vapor pressure or the formation of helium I boundary layers at higher ambient pressures. When compared to the intrinsic critical velocity discovered in highly restricted geometries, the shock-induced critical velocity displays a similar temperature dependence and is the same order of magnitude.

  14. Range/velocity limitations for time-domain blood velocity estimation

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    The traditional range/velocity limitation for blood velocity estimation systems using ultrasound is elucidated. It is stated that the equation is a property of the estimator used, not the actual physical measurement situation, as higher velocities can be estimated by the time domain cross......-correlation approach. It is demonstrated that the time domain technique under certain measurement conditions will yield unsatisfactory results, when trying to estimate high velocities. Various methods to avoid these artifacts using temporal and spatial clustering techniques are suggested. The improvement...

  15. Extension of the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity to the hydrophobic microchannels with velocity slip.

    Park, H M; Kim, T W


    Electrokinetic flows through hydrophobic microchannels experience velocity slip at the microchannel wall, which affects volumetric flow rate and solute retention time. The usual method of predicting the volumetric flow rate and velocity profile for hydrophobic microchannels is to solve the Navier-Stokes equation and the Poisson-Boltzmann equation for the electric potential with the boundary condition of velocity slip expressed by the Navier slip coefficient, which is computationally demanding and defies analytic solutions. In the present investigation, we have devised a simple method of predicting the velocity profiles and volumetric flow rates of electrokinetic flows by extending the concept of the Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity to microchannels with Navier slip. The extended Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity is simple to use and yields accurate results as compared to the exact solutions. Employing the extended Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity, the analytical expressions for volumetric flow rate and velocity profile for electrokinetic flows through rectangular microchannels with Navier slip have been obtained at high values of zeta potential. The range of validity of the extended Helmholtz-Smoluchowski velocity is also investigated.

  16. Anisotropic q-Gaussian velocity distributions in LambdaCDM halos

    Silva, L Beraldo e; Duarte, M; Peirani, S; Boué, G


    The knowledge of the velocity distribution function (VDF) of dark matter (DM) halos is required for calibrating the direct DM detection experiments and useful for recovering the mass profile from the observed distribution of tracers in projected phase space when the VDF has unknown anisotropy. Unfortunately, the VDF of halos in LambdaCDM dissipationless cosmological simulations is still poorly known. We consider the q-Gaussian (Tsallis) family of VDFs, among which the Gaussian is a special case. We extend the q-Gaussian to anisotropic VDFs by considering the isotropic set of dimensionless spherical velocity components normalized by the velocity dispersion along that component. We test our anisotropic VDF on 90 cluster-mass halos of a dissipationless cosmological simulation. While our anisotropic q-Gaussian model adequately reproduces the VDF averaged in spherical shells with radii greater than 2 virial radii, no q-Gaussian model can adequately represent the VDF in spherical shells of radius smaller than 2 vir...

  17. Study of heat transfer in CI engine using heat transfer correlation based on intake jet velocity

    Sharief, A. [Sri Siddharhta Inst. of Technology, Tumkur, Karnataka (India); Samaga, B.S.; Shrinivas Rao, B.R. [Nitte Mahalinga Adyantaya Institute of Technology, Karkala, Karnataka (India); JAntonyc, A. [Sahyadri Inst. of Technology, Mangalore, Karnataka (India)


    A reliable heat transfer formulation is needed to simulate reciprocating combustion engines. In order to reduce heat loss and improve thermal efficiency, it is necessary to calculate the rate of heat transfer from the working fluid to the combustion chamber walls. The thermal stresses in the engine components must also be determined. In this study, the author calculated heat transfer coefficient in a diesel engine using a heat transfer correlation based on intake jet velocity instead of mean piston speed. Experiments were conducted in a diesel engine with natural aspiration of hot air at 150 to 300 degrees C. Peak temperature was 1100 degrees C at various loads. The convective heat transfer coefficient and radiative heat transfer coefficient component was also determined separately at various loads. This model based on intake jet velocity instead of mean piston speed was found to be more realistic when considering the influence of gas velocities on the thermal boundary layer thickness. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Point Measurements of Fermi Velocities by a Time-of-Flight Method

    Falk, David S.; Henningsen, J. O.; Skriver, Hans Lomholt;


    The present paper describes in detail a new method of obtaining information about the Fermi velocity of electrons in metals, point by point, along certain contours on the Fermi surface. It is based on transmission of microwaves through thin metal slabs in the presence of a static magnetic field...... obtained one component of the velocity along half the circumference of the centrally symmetric orbit for B→∥[100]. The results are in agreement with current models for the Fermi surface. For B→∥[011], the electrons involved are not moving in a symmetry plane of the Fermi surface. In such cases one cannot...... immediately derive the velocity components, but the method can still be used to provide a comparison of different Fermi surface models. Such a comparison has been made of an augmented-plane-wave model (Christensen) and a Fourier model (Halse), both yielding the experimentally determined areas and cyclotron...

  19. Multilevel component analysis

    Timmerman, M.E.


    A general framework for the exploratory component analysis of multilevel data (MLCA) is proposed. In this framework, a separate component model is specified for each group of objects at a certain level. The similarities between the groups of objects at a given level can be expressed by imposing cons

  20. Design of Critical Components

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Zaretsky, Erwin V.


    Critical component design is based on minimizing product failures that results in loss of life. Potential catastrophic failures are reduced to secondary failures where components removed for cause or operating time in the system. Issues of liability and cost of component removal become of paramount importance. Deterministic design with factors of safety and probabilistic design address but lack the essential characteristics for the design of critical components. In deterministic design and fabrication there are heuristic rules and safety factors developed over time for large sets of structural/material components. These factors did not come without cost. Many designs failed and many rules (codes) have standing committees to oversee their proper usage and enforcement. In probabilistic design, not only are failures a given, the failures are calculated; an element of risk is assumed based on empirical failure data for large classes of component operations. Failure of a class of components can be predicted, yet one can not predict when a specific component will fail. The analogy is to the life insurance industry where very careful statistics are book-kept on classes of individuals. For a specific class, life span can be predicted within statistical limits, yet life-span of a specific element of that class can not be predicted.

  1. POTENT Reconstruction from Mark III Velocities

    Dekel, A.; Eldar, A.; Kolatt, T.; Yahil, A.; Willick, J. A.; Faber, S. M.; Courteau, S.; Burstein, D.


    We present an improved version of the POTENT method for reconstructing the cosmological velocity and mass density fields from radial peculiar velocities, test it with mock catalogs, and apply it to the Mark III Catalog of Galaxy Peculiar Velocities. The method is improved in several ways: (1) the inhomogeneous Malmquist bias is reduced by grouping and corrected statistically in either forward or inverse analyses of inferred distances, (2) the smoothing into a radial velocity field is optimized such that window and sampling biases are reduced, (3) the density field is derived from the velocity field using an improved weakly nonlinear approximation in Eulerian space, and (4) the computational errors are made negligible compared to the other errors. The method is carefully tested and optimized using realistic mock catalogs based on an N-body simulation that mimics our cosmological neighborhood, and the remaining systematic and random errors are evaluated quantitatively. The Mark III catalog, with ~3300 grouped galaxies, allows a reliable reconstruction with fixed Gaussian smoothing of 10-12 h-1 Mpc out to ~60 h-1 Mpc and beyond in some directions. We present maps of the three-dimensional velocity and mass-density fields and the corresponding errors. The typical systematic and random errors in the density fluctuations inside 40 h-1 Mpc are +/-0.13 and +/-0.18 (for Ω=1). In its gross features, the recovered mass distribution resembles the galaxy distribution in redshift surveys and the mass distribution in a similar POTENT analysis of a complementary velocity catalog (SFI), including such features as the Great Attractor, Perseus-Pisces, and the large void in between. The reconstruction inside ~40 h-1 Mpc is not affected much by a revised calibration of the distance indicators (VM2, tailored to match the velocities from the IRAS 1.2 Jy redshift survey). The volume-weighted bulk velocity within the sphere of radius 50 h-1 Mpc about the Local Group is V50=370+/-110 km s-1

  2. Aligning component upgrades

    Roberto Di Cosmo


    Full Text Available Modern software systems, like GNU/Linux distributions or Eclipse-based development environment, are often deployed by selecting components out of large component repositories. Maintaining such software systems by performing component upgrades is a complex task, and the users need to have an expressive preferences language at their disposal to specify the kind of upgrades they are interested in. Recent research has shown that it is possible to develop solvers that handle preferences expressed as a combination of a few basic criteria used in the MISC competition, ranging from the number of new components to the freshness of the final configuration. In this work we introduce a set of new criteria that allow the users to specify their preferences for solutions with components aligned to the same upstream sources, provide an efficient encoding and report on the experimental results that prove that optimising these alignment criteria is a tractable problem in practice.

  3. Aligning component upgrades

    Di Cosmo, Roberto; Michel, Claude; 10.4204/EPTCS.65.1


    Modern software systems, like GNU/Linux distributions or Eclipse-based development environment, are often deployed by selecting components out of large component repositories. Maintaining such software systems by performing component upgrades is a complex task, and the users need to have an expressive preferences language at their disposal to specify the kind of upgrades they are interested in. Recent research has shown that it is possible to develop solvers that handle preferences expressed as a combination of a few basic criteria used in the MISC competition, ranging from the number of new components to the freshness of the final configuration. In this work we introduce a set of new criteria that allow the users to specify their preferences for solutions with components aligned to the same upstream sources, provide an efficient encoding and report on the experimental results that prove that optimising these alignment criteria is a tractable problem in practice.

  4. Imaging thermal plasma mass and velocity analyzer

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew


    We present the design and principle of operation of the imaging ion mass and velocity analyzer on the Enhanced Polar Outflow Probe (e-POP), which measures low-energy (1-90 eV/e) ion mass composition (1-40 AMU/e) and velocity distributions using a hemispherical electrostatic analyzer (HEA), a time-of-flight (TOF) gate, and a pair of toroidal electrostatic deflectors (TED). The HEA and TOF gate measure the energy-per-charge and azimuth of each detected ion and the ion transit time inside the analyzer, respectively, providing the 2-D velocity distribution of each major ionospheric ion species and resolving the minor ion species under favorable conditions. The TED are in front of the TOF gate and optionally sample ions at different elevation angles up to ±60°, for measurement of 3-D velocity distribution. We present examples of observation data to illustrate the measurement capability of the analyzer, and show the occurrence of enhanced densities of heavy "minor" O++, N+, and molecular ions and intermittent, high-velocity (a few km/s) upward and downward flowing H+ ions in localized regions of the quiet time topside high-latitude ionosphere.

  5. Power Spectrum Estimation from Peculiar Velocity Catalogues

    Macaulay, Edward; Ferreira, Pedro G; Jaffe, Andrew H; Agarwal, Shankar; Hudson, Michael J; Watkins, Richard


    The peculiar velocities of galaxies are an inherently valuable cosmological probe, providing an unbiased estimate of the distribution of matter on scales much larger than the depth of the survey. Much research interest has been motivated by the high dipole moment of our local peculiar velocity field, which suggests a large scale excess in the matter power spectrum, and can appear to be in some tension with the LCDM model. We use a composite catalogue of 4,537 peculiar velocity measurements with a characteristic depth of 33 h-1 Mpc to estimate the matter power spectrum. We compare the constraints with this method, directly studying the full peculiar velocity catalogue, to results from Macaulay et al. (2011), studying minimum variance moments of the velocity field, as calculated by Watkins, Feldman & Hudson (2009) and Feldman, Watkins & Hudson (2010). We find good agreement with the LCDM model on scales of k > 0.01 h Mpc-1. We find an excess of power on scales of k < 0.01 h Mpc-1, although with a 1 s...

  6. Measuring Global Monopole Velocities, one by one

    Lopez-Eiguren, Asier; Achúcarro, Ana


    We present an estimation of the average velocity of a network of global monopoles in a cosmological setting using large numerical simulations. In order to obtain the value of the velocity, we improve some already known methods, and present a new one. This new method estimates individual global monopole velocities in a network, by means of detecting each monopole position in the lattice and following the path described by each one of them. Using our new estimate we can settle an open question previously posed in the literature: velocity-dependent one-scale (VOS) models for global monopoles predict two branches of scaling solutions, one with monopoles moving at subluminal speeds and one with monopoles moving at luminal speeds. Previous attempts to estimate monopole velocities had large uncertainties and were not able to settle that question. Our simulations find no evidence of a luminal branch. We also estimate the values of the parameters of the VOS model. With our new method we can also study the microphysics...

  7. Fall velocity of multi-shaped clasts

    Le Roux, Jacobus P.


    Accurate settling velocity predictions of differently shaped micro- or macroclasts are required in many branches of science and engineering. Here, a single, dimensionally correct equation is presented that yields a significant improvement on previous settling formulas for a wide range of clast shapes. For smooth or irregular clasts with known axial dimensions, a partially polynomial equation based on the logarithmic values of dimensionless sizes and settling velocities is presented, in which the values of only one coefficient and one exponent need to be adapted for different shapes, irrespective of the Reynolds number. For irregular, natural clasts with unknown axial dimensions, a polynomial equation of the same form is applied, but with different coefficients. Comparison of the predicted and measured settling velocities of 8 different shape classes as well as natural grains with unknown axial dimensions in liquids, representing a total of 390 experimental data points, shows a mean percentage error of - 0.83% and a combined R2 value of 0.998. The settling data of 169 differently shaped particles of pumice, glass and feldspar falling in air were also analyzed, which demonstrates that the proposed equation is also valid for these conditions. Two additional shape classes were identified in the latter data set, although the resultant equations are less accurate than for liquids. An Excel spreadsheet is provided to facilitate the calculation of fall velocities for grains settling individually and in groups, or alternatively to determine the equivalent sieve size from the settling velocity, which can be used to calibrate settling tubes.

  8. Measuring global monopole velocities, one by one

    Lopez-Eiguren, Asier; Urrestilla, Jon; Achúcarro, Ana


    We present an estimation of the average velocity of a network of global monopoles in a cosmological setting using large numerical simulations. In order to obtain the value of the velocity, we improve some already known methods, and present a new one. This new method estimates individual global monopole velocities in a network, by means of detecting each monopole position in the lattice and following the path described by each one of them. Using our new estimate we can settle an open question previously posed in the literature: velocity-dependent one-scale (VOS) models for global monopoles predict two branches of scaling solutions, one with monopoles moving at subluminal speeds and one with monopoles moving at luminal speeds. Previous attempts to estimate monopole velocities had large uncertainties and were not able to settle that question. Our simulations find no evidence of a luminal branch. We also estimate the values of the parameters of the VOS model. With our new method we can also study the microphysics of the complicated dynamics of individual monopoles. Finally we use our large simulation volume to compare the results from the different estimator methods, as well as to asses the validity of the numerical approximations made.

  9. Indentation of aluminium foam at low velocity

    Shi Xiaopeng


    Full Text Available The indentation behaviour of aluminium foams at low velocity (10 m/s ∼ 30 m/s was investigated both in experiments and numerical simulation in this paper. A flat-ended indenter was used and the force-displacement history was recorded. The Split Hopkinson Pressure bar was used to obtain the indentation velocity and forces in the dynamic experiments. Because of the low strength of the aluminium foam, PMMA bar was used, and the experimental data were corrected using Bacon's method. The energy absorption characteristics varying with impact velocity were then obtained. It was found that the energy absorption ability of aluminium foam gradually increases in the quasi-static regime and shows a significant increase at ∼10 m/s velocity. Numerical simulation was also conducted to investigate this process. A 3D Voronoi model was used and models with different relative densities were investigated as well as those with different failure strain. The indentation energy increases with both the relative density and failure strain. The analysis of the FE model implies that the significant change in energy absorption ability of aluminium foam in indentation at ∼10 m/s velocity may be caused by plastic wave effect.

  10. Distinct patterns of seasonal Greenland glacier velocity.

    Moon, Twila; Joughin, Ian; Smith, Ben; van den Broeke, Michiel R; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Usher, Mika


    Predicting Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss due to ice dynamics requires a complete understanding of spatiotemporal velocity fluctuations and related control mechanisms. We present a 5 year record of seasonal velocity measurements for 55 marine-terminating glaciers distributed around the ice sheet margin, along with ice-front position and runoff data sets for each glacier. Among glaciers with substantial speed variations, we find three distinct seasonal velocity patterns. One pattern indicates relatively high glacier sensitivity to ice-front position. The other two patterns are more prevalent and appear to be meltwater controlled. These patterns reveal differences in which some subglacial systems likely transition seasonally from inefficient, distributed hydrologic networks to efficient, channelized drainage, while others do not. The difference may be determined by meltwater availability, which in some regions may be influenced by perennial firn aquifers. Our results highlight the need to understand subglacial meltwater availability on an ice sheet-wide scale to predict future dynamic changes. First multi-region seasonal velocity measurements show regional differencesSeasonal velocity fluctuations on most glaciers appear meltwater controlledSeasonal development of efficient subglacial drainage geographically divided.

  11. Distinct patterns of seasonal Greenland glacier velocity

    Moon, Twila; Joughin, Ian; Smith, Ben; van den Broeke, Michiel R; van de Berg, Willem Jan; Noël, Brice; Usher, Mika


    Predicting Greenland Ice Sheet mass loss due to ice dynamics requires a complete understanding of spatiotemporal velocity fluctuations and related control mechanisms. We present a 5 year record of seasonal velocity measurements for 55 marine-terminating glaciers distributed around the ice sheet margin, along with ice-front position and runoff data sets for each glacier. Among glaciers with substantial speed variations, we find three distinct seasonal velocity patterns. One pattern indicates relatively high glacier sensitivity to ice-front position. The other two patterns are more prevalent and appear to be meltwater controlled. These patterns reveal differences in which some subglacial systems likely transition seasonally from inefficient, distributed hydrologic networks to efficient, channelized drainage, while others do not. The difference may be determined by meltwater availability, which in some regions may be influenced by perennial firn aquifers. Our results highlight the need to understand subglacial meltwater availability on an ice sheet-wide scale to predict future dynamic changes. Key Points First multi-region seasonal velocity measurements show regional differences Seasonal velocity fluctuations on most glaciers appear meltwater controlled Seasonal development of efficient subglacial drainage geographically divided PMID:25821275

  12. Propagation velocities of laser-produced plasmas from copper wire targets and water droplets

    Song, Kyo-Dong; Alexander, Dennis R.


    Experiments were performed to determine the plasma propagation velocities resulting from KrF laser irradiation of copper wire target (75 microns diameter) and water droplets (75 microns diameter) at irradiance levels ranging from 25 to 150 GW/sq cm. Plasma propagation velocities were measured using a streak camera system oriented orthogonally to the high-energy laser propagation axis. Plasma velocities were studied as a function of position in the focused beam. Results show that both the shape of the plasma formation and material removal from the copper wire are different and depend on whether the targets are focused or slightly defocused (approximately = 0.5 mm movement in the beam axis). Plasma formation and its position relative to the target is an important factor in determining the practical focal point during high-energy laser interaction with materials. At irradiance of 100 GW/sq cm, the air plasma has two weak-velocity components which propagate toward and away from the incident laser while a strong-velocity component propagates away from the laser beam as a detonation wave. Comparison of the measured breakdown velocities (in the range of 2.22-2.27 x 10(exp 5) m/s) for air and the value calculated by the nonlinear breakdown wave theory at irradiance of 100 GW/sq cm showed a quantitative agreement within approximately 50% while the linear theory and Gaussian pulse theory failed. The detonation wave velocities of plasma generated from water droplets and copper wire targets for different focused cases were measured and analyzed theoretically. The propagation velocities of laser-induced plasma liquid droplets obtained by previous research are compared with current work.

  13. Spectral sensitivity analysis of FWI in a constant-gradient background velocity model

    Kazei, V.; Kashtan, B.M.; Troyan, V.N.; Mulder, W.A.


    Full waveform inversion suffers from local minima, due to a lack of low frequencies in the data. A reflector below the zone of interest may help in recovering the long-wavelength components of a velocity perturbation, as demonstrated in a paper by Mora. Because smooth models are more popular as init

  14. High-Resolution Radial Velocity Mapping of Optical Filaments in Evolved Supernova Remnants

    Greidanus, H.; Strom, R. G.

    The authors report on observations of the kinematical structure of optical filaments in evolved supernova remnants, using an imaging Fabry-Perot interferometer. The radial velocity characteristics as seen in [O III] λ5007 emission in one area in the Cygnus Loop are described, where four kinematically different components contributing to the emission can be recognized.

  15. Glacier Surface Velocity Measurements from Radar Interferometry and the Principle of Mass Conservation

    Mohr, Johan Jacob; Reeh, Niels


    Presents a relation between the three glacier surface velocity components, the surface flux-divergence, glacier thickness and bottom melt and displacement. The relation can be used as an extension to the surface parallel flow assumption often used with interferometric synthetic aperture...

  16. Ionized Gas Velocities from Multi-slit Spectroscopy for Nearby, Edge-on Galaxies

    Wu, Catharine J.; Walterbos, R. A.; Rand, R. J.; Heald, G.; HALOGAS Team, [Unknown

    Extra-planar (EP) gas in several spiral galaxies shows a decrease in rotational velocity with increasing height above the disk. The majority of this EP gas likely originates from disk-halo cycling driven by star formation in the disk via galactic fountains, which predict a lagging EP component.

  17. Ways to Increase Launch Velocities of 2-Stage Gas Guns

    Bogdanoff, David W.; Cambier, Jean-Luc; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)


    The amount of space debris is rapidly increasing and the debris is distributed over a wide variety of orbits. Satellites, manned space vehicles and space stations will have to pay increasing attention to the dangers of impacts with space debris. Various armoring techniques (i.e., double or triple layer armor) will have to tested extensively to determine the most effective armor per unit weight. Intersecting near-earth orbits can lead to impact velocities up to 15 km/sec. Conventional two-stage light gas guns can launch intact, controlled-shape projectiles with a density of 1.2 gm/cc and length- to-diameter ratios of 0.5-1.0 at velocities up to 8-9 km/sec. Higher velocities (10-11 km/sec) can be obtained' for very light projectiles. The higher launch velocities tend to be very severe on the high pressure coupling and barrel of the gun and lead to short component lifetimes. Clearly, the ability to raise the launch velocity of a gun (for reasonably massive projectile shapes) from 8-9 km/sec to 11-13 km/sec (or higher), without reduction of component lifetimes, would have significant benefits. This would allow much better simulation of the higher velocity debris impacts as well as better simulation of high speed re-entry into planetary atmospheres. Several techniques for increasing the launcher muzzle velocity above 8-9 km/sec have been studied using CFD simulations and appear to offer the potential for significant gains. The first technique is to use multiple compressions, instead of a single compression, in the pump tube of the light gas gun. In a sense, this is a kind of pre-heating of the gas in the pump tube; other types of pre-heating have yielded disappointing results in the past. The dynamics of the multiple compression pump tube is very different, however, from the earlier techniques, where the pump tube was typically heated ohmically before the gun 2 cycle was started. In this paper, we present CFD calculations that show that significant increases in muzzle

  18. Vector Velocity Imaging Using Cross-Correlation and Virtual Sources

    Holfort, Iben Kraglund; Kortbek, Jacob; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    Previous investigations have shown promising results in using the directional cross-correlation method to estimate velocity vectors. The velocity vector estimate provides information on both velocity direction and magnitude. The direction is estimated by beamforming signals along directions...

  19. Automatic stabilization of velocity for ultrasonic vibration system


    Describes the structure of a current feedback ultrasonicgeneration system with such characteristic as velocity stabilization and automatic frequency tracking, discusses the velocity stabilization principle, and points out that successful frequency tracking is precondition for velocity stabilization.

  20. Seismic velocity structure of the Guerrero gap, Mexico

    Dominguez, Jaime [Colegio de Ciencias y Humanidades, Plantel Sur, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Suarez, Gerardo [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Comte, Diana [Departamento de Geofisica, Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile); Quintanar, Luis [Instituto de Geofisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)


    A two-dimensional velocity structure of the Guerrero gap was obtained by applying a damped least square method to hypocenters of local seismicity recorded by a telemetric network situated on the Guerrero coast, above Cocos plate subduction zone. The region was parameterized by a mesh of 64 cubes in six layers, a total of 384 blocks. The results of 3-D inversion showed that differences of P-wave velocity values among blocks along the strike of the subduction zone were {approx}0.25 km/s, effectively showing a two-dimensional symmetry. A 2-D inversion taking into account velocity similarities among the 2-D bands generated megablocks. A final inversion procedure yields P-wave velocity values ranging from 5.4 to 8.2 km/s, and S-wave values from 3.2 and 4.7 km/s, suggesting a continental crust with a thickness of {approx}32 km composed of four flat megablocks with a P-wave velocity interval of 5.4 to 7.1 km/s. The Moho interface lies at {approx}32 km depth and above a mantle wedge between continental and oceanic crust. The downgoing oceanic crust has three layers (7.2-7.7 km/s), dipping at an angle of {approx}26 degrees. A sharp velocity change at a depth of {approx}30 km suggests a phase change from basalt to eclogite (7.2 to 7.6 km/s). The mantle has an average velocity of 8.2 km/s. The new velocity model reduced the error in locations and fits better the characteristics of the Guerrero gap. [Spanish] Se obtiene la estructura bidimensional de velocidades sismicas de la brecha de Guerrero aplicando el metodo de minimos cuadrados amortiguados a los datos de la sismicidad local registrada por una red telemetrica situada en la costa, ubicada en la zona de subduccion de la placa de Cocos. La region se parametrizo con una malla de 64 cubos en seis capas, un total de 384 bloques. Los resultados de esta inversion tridimensional (3-D) mostraron una diferencia de velocidad de onda P, entre bloques adyacentes y paralelos a la costa, no mayor de 0.25 km/s, mostrando una simetria

  1. Velocity Segregation and Systematic Biases In Velocity Dispersion Estimates With the SPT-GMOS Spectroscopic Survey

    Bayliss, Matthew.B. [MIT, MKI; Zengo, Kyle [Colby Coll.; Ruel, Jonathan [Harvard U., Phys. Dept.; Benson, Bradford A. [Fermilab; Bleem, Lindsey E. [Argonne; Bocquet, Sebastian [Argonne; Bulbul, Esra [MIT, MKI; Brodwin, Mark [Missouri U., Kansas City; Capasso, Raffaella [Munich, Tech. U., Universe; Chiu, I-non [Taiwan, Natl. Tsing Hua U.; McDonald, Michael [MIT, MKI; Rapetti, David [NASA, Ames; Saro, Alex [Munich, Tech. U., Universe; Stalder, Brian [Inst. Astron., Honolulu; Stark, Antony A. [Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Strazzullo, Veronica [Munich, Tech. U., Universe; Stubbs, Christopher W. [Harvard-Smithsonian Ctr. Astrophys.; Zenteno, Alfredo [Cerro-Tololo InterAmerican Obs.


    The velocity distribution of galaxies in clusters is not universal; rather, galaxies are segregated according to their spectral type and relative luminosity. We examine the velocity distributions of different populations of galaxies within 89 Sunyaev Zel'dovich (SZ) selected galaxy clusters spanning $ 0.28 < z < 1.08$. Our sample is primarily draw from the SPT-GMOS spectroscopic survey, supplemented by additional published spectroscopy, resulting in a final spectroscopic sample of 4148 galaxy spectra---2868 cluster members. The velocity dispersion of star-forming cluster galaxies is $17\\pm4$% greater than that of passive cluster galaxies, and the velocity dispersion of bright ($m < m^{*}-0.5$) cluster galaxies is $11\\pm4$% lower than the velocity dispersion of our total member population. We find good agreement with simulations regarding the shape of the relationship between the measured velocity dispersion and the fraction of passive vs. star-forming galaxies used to measure it, but we find a small offset between this relationship as measured in data and simulations in which suggests that our dispersions are systematically low by as much as 3\\% relative to simulations. We argue that this offset could be interpreted as a measurement of the effective velocity bias that describes the ratio of our observed velocity dispersions and the intrinsic velocity dispersion of dark matter particles in a published simulation result. Measuring velocity bias in this way suggests that large spectroscopic surveys can improve dispersion-based mass-observable scaling relations for cosmology even in the face of velocity biases, by quantifying and ultimately calibrating them out.

  2. Component reduction for regularity criteria of the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics systems

    Kazuo Yamazaki


    Full Text Available We study the regularity of the three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics system, and obtain criteria in terms of one velocity field component and two magnetic field components. In contrast to the previous results such as [22], we have eliminated the condition on the third component of the magnetic field completely while preserving the same upper bound on the integrability condition.

  3. Velocity Controller for a Class of Vehicles

    Herman Przemyslaw


    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of velocity tracking control for various fully-actuated robotic vehicles. The presented method, which is based on transformation of equations of motion allows one to use, in the control gain matrix, the dynamical couplings existing in the system. Consequently, the dynamics of the vehicle is incorporated into the control process what leads to fast velocity error convergence. The stability of the system under the controller is derived based on Lyapunov argument. Moreover, the robustness of the proposed controller is shown too. The general approach is valid for 6 DOF models as well as other reduced models of vehicles. Simulation results on a 6 DOF indoor airship validate the described velocity tracking methodology.

  4. Velocity and Magnetic Compressions in FEL Drivers

    Serafini, L


    We will compare merits and issues of these two techniques suitable for increasing the peak current of high brightness electron beams. The typical range of applicability is low energy for the velocity bunching and middle to high energy for magnetic compression. Velocity bunching is free from CSR effects but requires very high RF stability (time jitters), as well as a dedicated additional focusing and great cure in the beam transport: it is very well understood theoretically and numerical simulations are pretty straightforward. Several experiments of velocity bunching have been performed in the past few years: none of them, nevertheless, used a photoinjector designed and optimized for that purpose. Magnetic compression is a much more consolidated technique: CSR effects and micro-bunch instabilities are its main drawbacks. There is a large operational experience with chicanes used as magnetic compressors and their theoretical understanding is quite deep, though numerical simulations of real devices are still cha...


    Vječislav Bohanek


    Full Text Available Shaped explosive charges with one dimension significantly larger than the other are called linear shaped charges. Linear shaped charges are used in various industries and are applied within specific technologies for metal cutting, such as demolition of steel structures, separating spent rocket fuel tanks, demining, cutting holes in the barriers for fire service, etc. According to existing theories and models efficiency of linear shaped charges depends on the kinetic energy of the jet which is proportional to square of jet velocity. The original method for measuring velocity of linear shaped charge jet is applied in the aforementioned research. Measurements were carried out for two different linear materials, and the results are graphically presented, analysed and compared. Measurement results show a discrepancy in the measured velocity of the jet for different materials with the same ratio between linear and explosive mass (M/C per unit of surface, which is not described by presented models (the paper is published in Croatian.

  6. Magnetized galactic halos and velocity lags

    Henriksen, Richard N


    We present an analytic model of a magnetized galactic halo surrounding a Mestel gravitating disc. The magnetic field is taken to be in energy equipartition with the pressure dominant rotating halo gas ({\\it not} with the cosmic rays), and the whole system is in a steady state. A more flexible `anisotropic equipartition' model is also explored. A definite pressure law is required to maintain the equilibrium, but the halo density is constant. The velocity/magnetic system is scale-free. The objective is to find the rotational velocity lag in such a halo. The magnetic field is not force-free so that angular momentum may be transported from the halo to the intergalactic medium. We find that the `X'-shaped structure observed for halo magnetic fields can be obtained together with a simple analytic formula for the rate of decline of the velocity with height $z$. The formula also predicts the change in lag with radius, $r$.

  7. Critical Landau velocity in helium nanodroplets.

    Brauer, Nils B; Smolarek, Szymon; Loginov, Evgeniy; Mateo, David; Hernando, Alberto; Pi, Marti; Barranco, Manuel; Buma, Wybren J; Drabbels, Marcel


    The best-known property of superfluid helium is the vanishing viscosity that objects experience while moving through the liquid with speeds below the so-called critical Landau velocity. This critical velocity is generally considered a macroscopic property as it is related to the collective excitations of the helium atoms in the liquid. In the present work we determine to what extent this concept can still be applied to nanometer-scale, finite size helium systems. To this end, atoms and molecules embedded in helium nanodroplets of various sizes are accelerated out of the droplets by means of optical excitation, and the speed distributions of the ejected particles are determined. The measurements reveal the existence of a critical velocity in these systems, even for nanodroplets consisting of only a thousand helium atoms. Accompanying theoretical simulations based on a time-dependent density functional description of the helium confirm and further elucidate this experimental finding.

  8. Constraining cosmology with pairwise velocity estimator

    Ma, Yin-Zhe; He, Ping


    In this paper, we develop a full statistical method for the pairwise velocity estimator previously proposed, and apply Cosmicflows-2 catalogue to this method to constrain cosmology. We first calculate the covariance matrix for line-of-sight velocities for a given catalogue, and then simulate the mock full-sky surveys from it, and then calculate the variance for the pairwise velocity field. By applying the $8315$ independent galaxy samples and compressed $5224$ group samples from Cosmicflows-2 catalogue to this statistical method, we find that the joint constraint on $\\Omega^{0.6}_{\\rm m}h$ and $\\sigma_{8}$ is completely consistent with the WMAP 9-year and Planck 2015 best-fitting cosmology. Currently, there is no evidence for the modified gravity models or any dynamic dark energy models from this practice, and the error-bars need to be reduced in order to provide any concrete evidence against/to support $\\Lambda$CDM cosmology.

  9. Cosmology with Peculiar Velocities: Observational Effects

    Andersen, Per; Howlett, Cullan


    In this paper we investigate how observational effects could possibly bias cosmological inferences from peculiar velocity measurements. Specifically, we look at how bulk flow measurements are compared with theoretical predictions. Usually bulk flow calculations try to approximate the flow that would occur in a sphere around the observer. Using the Horizon Run 2 simulation we show that the traditional methods for bulk flow estimation can overestimate the magnitude of the bulk flow for two reasons: when the survey geometry is not spherical (the data do not cover the whole sky), and when the observations undersample the velocity distributions. Our results may explain why several bulk flow measurements found bulk flow velocities that seem larger than those expected in standard {\\Lambda}CDM cosmologies. We recommend a different approach when comparing bulk flows to cosmological models, in which the theoretical prediction for each bulk flow measurement is calculated specifically for the geometry and sampling rate o...

  10. Upper Arctic Ocean velocity structure from in-situ observations

    Recinos, Beatriz; Rabe, Benjamin; Schauer, Ursula


    The gross circulation of the upper and intermediate layers of the Arctic Ocean has been inferred from water mass properties: the mixed layer, containing fresh water from the shelf seas, travels from Siberia towards the Atlantic sector, and the saline and warm layer of Atlantic origin below, follows cyclonic pathways along topographic features. Direct observations of the flow below the sea ice are, however, sparse and difficult to obtain. This research presents the analysis of a unique time series/section of in situ velocity measurements obtained by a drifting ice-tethered platform in the Transpolar Drift near the North Pole. Two instruments were used to obtain in situ measurements of velocity, temperature, salinity and pressure: an Ice-tethered Acoustic Current profiler (ITAC) and an Ice-tethered Profiler (ITP). Both systems were deployed in the Amundsen basin, during the Arctic Ocean expedition ARK XXII/2 of the German Research Vessel Polarstern in September 2007. The systems transmitted profile data from the 14th of September to the 29th of November 2007 and covered a maximum depth range of 23 to 400 m. The results are compared to observations by a shipboard Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) from the 2011 Polarstern expedition ARK-XXVI/3, and wind and ice concentration from satellite reanalysis products. The data set allows an overview of the upper and intermediate circulation along the Lomonosov Ridge. Near-surface velocity and ice drift obtained by the ITAC unit are consistent with the Transpolar Drift Current. Ekman transports calculated from the observed ice drift and assumed ice-ocean drag behaviour suggest that Ekman dynamics influenced velocities at depths greater than the Ekman layer. Direct velocity observations in combination with water mass analyses from the temperature and salinity data, suggest the existence of a current along the Eurasian side of the Lomonosov Ridge within the warm Atlantic layer below the cold halocline. At those depths

  11. EVA: GPS-based extended velocity and acceleration determination

    Salazar, Dagoberto; Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel; Juan-Zornoza, Jose Miguel; Sanz-Subirana, Jaume; Aragon-Angel, Angela


    cope with the dynamics of mountainous flight. A RTK-derived solution was also generated, and when comparing the three methods to a known zero-velocity reference the results yielded similar performance. The EVA and the improved-Kennedy methods outperformed the RTK solutions, and the EVA method provided the best results in this experiment. Finally, both the improved version of the Kennedy method and the EVA method were applied to a network in equatorial South America with baselines of more than 1,770 km, and during local noon. Under this tough scenario, the EVA method showed a clear advantage for all components of velocity and acceleration, yielding better and more robust results.

  12. GCS component development cycle

    Rodríguez, Jose A.; Macias, Rosa; Molgo, Jordi; Guerra, Dailos; Pi, Marti


    The GTC1 is an optical-infrared 10-meter segmented mirror telescope at the ORM observatory in Canary Islands (Spain). First light was at 13/07/2007 and since them it is in the operation phase. The GTC control system (GCS) is a distributed object & component oriented system based on RT-CORBA8 and it is responsible for the management and operation of the telescope, including its instrumentation. GCS has used the Rational Unified process (RUP9) in its development. RUP is an iterative software development process framework. After analysing (use cases) and designing (UML10) any of GCS subsystems, an initial component description of its interface is obtained and from that information a component specification is written. In order to improve the code productivity, GCS has adopted the code generation to transform this component specification into the skeleton of component classes based on a software framework, called Device Component Framework. Using the GCS development tools, based on javadoc and gcc, in only one step, the component is generated, compiled and deployed to be tested for the first time through our GUI inspector. The main advantages of this approach are the following: It reduces the learning curve of new developers and the development error rate, allows a systematic use of design patterns in the development and software reuse, speeds up the deliverables of the software product and massively increase the timescale, design consistency and design quality, and eliminates the future refactoring process required for the code.

  13. Robust Principal Component Analysis?

    Candes, Emmanuel J; Ma, Yi; Wright, John


    This paper is about a curious phenomenon. Suppose we have a data matrix, which is the superposition of a low-rank component and a sparse component. Can we recover each component individually? We prove that under some suitable assumptions, it is possible to recover both the low-rank and the sparse components exactly by solving a very convenient convex program called Principal Component Pursuit; among all feasible decompositions, simply minimize a weighted combination of the nuclear norm and of the L1 norm. This suggests the possibility of a principled approach to robust principal component analysis since our methodology and results assert that one can recover the principal components of a data matrix even though a positive fraction of its entries are arbitrarily corrupted. This extends to the situation where a fraction of the entries are missing as well. We discuss an algorithm for solving this optimization problem, and present applications in the area of video surveillance, where our methodology allows for th...

  14. Discriminant Incoherent Component Analysis.

    Georgakis, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Pantic, Maja


    Face images convey rich information which can be perceived as a superposition of low-complexity components associated with attributes, such as facial identity, expressions, and activation of facial action units (AUs). For instance, low-rank components characterizing neutral facial images are associated with identity, while sparse components capturing non-rigid deformations occurring in certain face regions reveal expressions and AU activations. In this paper, the discriminant incoherent component analysis (DICA) is proposed in order to extract low-complexity components, corresponding to facial attributes, which are mutually incoherent among different classes (e.g., identity, expression, and AU activation) from training data, even in the presence of gross sparse errors. To this end, a suitable optimization problem, involving the minimization of nuclear-and l1 -norm, is solved. Having found an ensemble of class-specific incoherent components by the DICA, an unseen (test) image is expressed as a group-sparse linear combination of these components, where the non-zero coefficients reveal the class(es) of the respective facial attribute(s) that it belongs to. The performance of the DICA is experimentally assessed on both synthetic and real-world data. Emphasis is placed on face analysis tasks, namely, joint face and expression recognition, face recognition under varying percentages of training data corruption, subject-independent expression recognition, and AU detection by conducting experiments on four data sets. The proposed method outperforms all the methods that are compared with all the tasks and experimental settings.

  15. Scientific Software Component Technology

    Kohn, S.; Dykman, N.; Kumfert, G.; Smolinski, B.


    We are developing new software component technology for high-performance parallel scientific computing to address issues of complexity, re-use, and interoperability for laboratory software. Component technology enables cross-project code re-use, reduces software development costs, and provides additional simulation capabilities for massively parallel laboratory application codes. The success of our approach will be measured by its impact on DOE mathematical and scientific software efforts. Thus, we are collaborating closely with library developers and application scientists in the Common Component Architecture forum, the Equation Solver Interface forum, and other DOE mathematical software groups to gather requirements, write and adopt a variety of design specifications, and develop demonstration projects to validate our approach. Numerical simulation is essential to the science mission at the laboratory. However, it is becoming increasingly difficult to manage the complexity of modern simulation software. Computational scientists develop complex, three-dimensional, massively parallel, full-physics simulations that require the integration of diverse software packages written by outside development teams. Currently, the integration of a new software package, such as a new linear solver library, can require several months of effort. Current industry component technologies such as CORBA, JavaBeans, and COM have all been used successfully in the business domain to reduce software development costs and increase software quality. However, these existing industry component infrastructures will not scale to support massively parallel applications in science and engineering. In particular, they do not address issues related to high-performance parallel computing on ASCI-class machines, such as fast in-process connections between components, language interoperability for scientific languages such as Fortran, parallel data redistribution between components, and massively

  16. Decorrelation-based blood flow velocity estimation: effect of spread of flow velocity, linear flow velocity gradients, and parabolic flow.

    Lupotti, F.A.; Steen, A.F.W. van der; Mastik, F.; Korte, C.L. de


    In recent years, a new method to measure transverse blood flow, based on the decorrelation of the radio frequency (RF) signals has been developed. In this paper, we investigated the influence of nonuniform flow on the velocity estimation. The decorrelation characteristics of transverse blood flow us

  17. Velocity, acceleration and gravity in Einstein's relativity

    Abramowicz, Marek A


    Einstein's relativity theory demands that all meaningful physical objects should be defined covariantly, i.e. in a coordinate independent way. Concepts of relative velocity, acceleration, gravity acceleration and gravity potential are fundamental in Newton's theory and they are imprinted in everyone's physical intuition. Unfortunately, relativistic definitions of them are not commonly known or appreciated. Every now and then some confused authors use wrong, non-covariant, definitions of velocity, acceleration and gravity, based on their vague Newtonian intuitions and hidden in a superficial, often purely semantic, relativistic disguise. A recent example of such a confusion (Gorkavyi & Vasilkov, 2016) is discussed at the end of this Note.

  18. Pulse Wave Velocity in the Carotid Artery

    Sørensen, Gertrud Laura; Jensen, Julie Brinck; Udesen, Jesper;


    The pulse wave velocity (PWV) in the carotid artery (CA) has been estimated based on ultrasound data collected by the experimental scanner RASMUS at DTU. Data is collected from one test subject using a frame rate (FR) of 4000 Hz. The influence of FRs is also investigated. The PWV is calculated from...... distension wave forms (DWF) estimated using cross-correlation. The obtained velocities give results in the area between 3-4 m/s, and the deviations between estimated PWV from two beats of a pulse are around 10%. The results indicate that the method presented is applicable for detecting the local PWV...

  19. STARE velocities: 2. Evening westward electron flow

    M. Uspensky


    Full Text Available Four evening events and one morning event of joint EISCAT/STARE observations during ~22h are considered and the differences between observed STARE line-of-sight (l-o-s velocities and EISCAT electron drift velocities projected onto the STARE beams are studied. We demonstrate that the double-pulse technique, which is currently in use in the STARE routine data handling, typically underestimates the true phase velocity as inferred from the multi-pulse STARE data. We show that the STARE velocities are persistently smaller (1.5–2 times than the EISCAT velocities, even for the multi-pulse data. The effect seems to be more pronounced in the evening sector when the Finland radar observes at large flow angles. We evaluate the performance of the ion-acoustic approach (IAA, Nielsen and Schlegel, 1985 and the off-orthogonal fluid approach (OOFA, Uspensky et al., 2003 techniques to predict the true electron drift velocity for the base event of 12 February 1999. The IAA technique predicts the convection reasonably well for enhanced flows of >~1000m/s, but not so well for slower ones. By considering the EISCAT N(h profiles, we derive the effective aspect angle and effective altitude of backscatter, and use this information for application of the OOFA technique. We demonstrate that the OOFA predictions for the base event are superior over the IAA predictions and thus, we confirm that OOFA predicts the electron velocities reasonably well in the evening sector, in addition to the morning sector, as concluded by Uspensky et al. (2003. To check how "robust" the OOFA model is and how successful it is for convection estimates without the EISCAT support, we analysed three additional evening events and one additional morning event for which information on N(h profiles was intentionally ignored. By accepting the mean STARE/EISCAT velocity ratio of 0.55 and the mean azimuth rotation of 9° (derived for the basic event, we show that the OOFA performs

  20. Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis


    ER D C/ CH L TR -1 4- 12 Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry...library at ERDC/CHL TR-14-12 October 2014 Inner Harbor Navigation Canal Basin Velocity Analysis...system of levees, gates, and drainage structures in the Inner Harbor Navigation Canal (IHNC) basin and the greater New Orleans, Louisiana, area. Two

  1. Analyses of hydraulic performance of velocity caps

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Degn Eskesen, Mark Chr.; Buhrkall, Jeppe


    The hydraulic performance of a velocity cap has been investigated. Velocity caps are often used in connection with offshore intakes. CFD (computational fluid dynamics) examined the flow through the cap openings and further down into the intake pipes. This was combined with dimension analyses...... in order to analyse the effect of different layouts on the flow characteristics. In particular, flow configurations going all the way through the structure were revealed. A couple of suggestions to minimize the risk for flow through have been tested....

  2. Precise Near-Infrared Radial Velocities

    Plavchan, Peter; Gagne, Jonathan; Furlan, Elise; Brinkworth, Carolyn; Bottom, Michael; Tanner, Angelle; Anglada-Escude, Guillem; White, Russel; Davison, Cassy; Mills, Sean; Beichman, Chas; Johnson, John Asher; Ciardi, David; Wallace, Kent; Mennesson, Bertrand; Vasisht, Gautam; Prato, Lisa; Kane, Stephen; Crawford, Sam; Crawford, Tim; Sung, Keeyoon; Drouin, Brian; Lin, Sean; Leifer, Stephanie; Catanzarite, Joe; Henry, Todd; von Braun, Kaspar; Walp, Bernie; Geneser, Claire; Ogden, Nick; Stufflebeam, Andrew; Pohl, Garrett; Regan, Joe


    We present the results of two 2.3 micron near-infrared radial velocity surveys to detect exoplanets around 36 nearby and young M dwarfs. We use the CSHELL spectrograph (R ~46,000) at the NASA InfraRed Telescope Facility, combined with an isotopic methane absorption gas cell for common optical path relative wavelength calibration. We have developed a sophisticated RV forward modeling code that accounts for fringing and other instrumental artifacts present in the spectra. With a spectral grasp of only 5 nm, we are able to reach long-term radial velocity dispersions of ~20-30 m/s on our survey targets.

  3. Hubble expansion is not a velocity

    Ma, Yin-Zhe; Zhang, Shuang-Nan


    In this paper, we clarify the difference between the Hubble expansion and the Doppler shift pedagogically and illustrate both physically and mathematically why the Hubble expansion cannot be regarded as a velocity. Therefore, we suggest to replace the misleading word ‘recession velocity’ to be ‘Hubble recession’ to describe the cosmic expansion. We further derive how the peculiar velocity of a galaxy is related to its observed redshift and proper distance, which has practical use in the galaxy redshift and distance surveys.

  4. Antarctica: measuring glacier velocity from satellite images.

    Lucchitta, B K; Ferguson, H M


    Many Landsat images of Antarctica show distinctive flow and crevasse features in the floating part of ice streams and outlet glaciers immediately below their grounding zones. Some of the features, which move with the glacier or ice stream, remain visible over many years and thus allow time-lapse measurements of ice velocities. Measurements taken from Landsat images of features on Byrd Glacier agree well with detailed ground and aerial observations. The satellite-image technique thus offers a rapid and cost-effective method of obtaining average velocities, to a first order of accuracy, of many ice streams and outlet glaciers near their termini.

  5. Components in Chemical Thermodynamics

    Alberty, Robert A.


    Chemical equations are actually matrix equations, and this has important implications for their thermodynamic treatment. The fundamental equation for chemical thermodynamics for a chemical reaction system can be written in terms of species, but at chemical equilibrium, it has to be written in terms of components. The number of components is equal to the number of species minus the number of independent chemical reactions. The fundamental equation for the Gibbs energy of a system containing ethylene, methane, ethane, and propane is discussed. At chemical equilibrium there are two components, which can be taken to be carbon and hydrogen or ethylene and methane. There are advantages in using matrix notation.

  6. A first comparison of irregularity and ion drift velocity measurements in the E-region

    R. A. Makarevich


    Full Text Available E-region irregularity velocity measurements at large flow angles with the STARE Finland coherent VHF radar are considered in context of the ion and electron velocity data provided by the EISCAT tristatic radar system, CUTLASS Finland coherent HF radar, and IMAGE fluxgate magnetometers. The data have been collected during a special experiment on 27 March 2004 during which EISCAT was scanning between several E- and one F-region altitudes along the magnetic field line. Within the E-region, the EISCAT measurements at two altitudes of 110 and 115 km are considered while the electron velocity is inferred from the EISCAT ion velocity measurements at 278 km. The line-of-sight (l-o-s VHF velocity measured by STARE VHF los is compared to the ion and electron velocity components (Vi0 comp and Ve0 comp along the STARE l-o-s direction. The comparison with Ve0 comp for the entire event shows that the measurements exhibit large scatter and small positive correlation. The correlation with Ve0 comp was substantial in the first half of the interval under study when Ve0 comp was larger in magnitude. The comparison with Vi0 comp at 110 and 115 km shows a considerable positive correlation, with VHF velocity being typically larger (smaller in magnitude than Vi0 comp at 110 km (115 km so that VVHF los appears to be bounded by the ion velocity components at two altitudes. It is also demonstrated that the difference between VVHF los and Vi0 comp at 110 km can be treated, in the first approximation, as a linear function of the effective backscatter height heff also counted from 110 km; heff varies in the range 108–114 km due to the altitude integration effects in the scattering cross-section. Our results are consistent with the notion that VHF

  7. Optical Refraction in Silver: Counterposition, Negative Phase Velocity and Orthogonal Phase Velocity

    Naqvi, Qaisar A.; Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh


    Complex behaviour associated with metamaterials can arise even in commonplace isotropic dielectric materials. We demonstrate how silver, for example, can support negative phase velocity and counterposition, but not negative refraction, at optical frequencies. The transition from positive to negative phase velocity is not accompanied by remarkable…

  8. Counterposed phase velocity and energy-transport velocity vectors in a dielectric-magnetic uniaxial medium

    Lakhtakia, A.; McCall, M. W.


    When a plane wave is launched from a plane surface in a linear, homogenous, dielectric-magnetic, uniaxial medium, we show that its phase velocity and the energy-transport velocity vectors can be counterposed (i.e., lie on different sides of the surface normal) under certain circumstances.

  9. Optical Refraction in Silver: Counterposition, Negative Phase Velocity and Orthogonal Phase Velocity

    Naqvi, Qaisar A.; Mackay, Tom G.; Lakhtakia, Akhlesh


    Complex behaviour associated with metamaterials can arise even in commonplace isotropic dielectric materials. We demonstrate how silver, for example, can support negative phase velocity and counterposition, but not negative refraction, at optical frequencies. The transition from positive to negative phase velocity is not accompanied by remarkable…

  10. Velocity Segregation and Systematic Biases In Velocity Dispersion Estimates with the SPT-GMOS Spectroscopic Survey

    Bayliss, Matthew. B.; Zengo, Kyle; Ruel, Jonathan; Benson, Bradford A.; Bleem, Lindsey E.; Bocquet, Sebastian; Bulbul, Esra; Brodwin, Mark; Capasso, Raffaella; Chiu, I.-non; McDonald, Michael; Rapetti, David; Saro, Alex; Stalder, Brian; Stark, Antony A.; Strazzullo, Veronica; Stubbs, Christopher W.; Zenteno, Alfredo


    The velocity distribution of galaxies in clusters is not universal; rather, galaxies are segregated according to their spectral type and relative luminosity. We examine the velocity distributions of different populations of galaxies within 89 Sunyaev Zel’dovich (SZ) selected galaxy clusters spanning 0.28population. We find good agreement with simulations regarding the shape of the relationship between the measured velocity dispersion and the fraction of passive versus star-forming galaxies used to measure it, but we find a small offset between this relationship as measured in data and simulations, which suggests that our dispersions are systematically low by as much as 3% relative to simulations. We argue that this offset could be interpreted as a measurement of the effective velocity bias that describes the ratio of our observed velocity dispersions and the intrinsic velocity dispersion of dark matter particles in a published simulation result. Measuring velocity bias in this way suggests that large spectroscopic surveys can improve dispersion-based mass-observable scaling relations for cosmology even in the face of velocity biases, by quantifying and ultimately calibrating them out.

  11. Three-dimensional surface velocities of Storstrømmen glacier, Greenland, derived from radar interferometry and ice-sounding radar measurements

    Reeh, Niels; Mohr, Johan Jacob; Nørvang Madsen, Søren; Oerter, Hans; Gundestrup, Niels S.

    Non-steady-state vertical velocities of up to 5 m a-1 exceed the vertical surface-parallel flow (SPF) components over much of the ablation area of Storstrømmen, a large outlet glacier from the East Greenland ice sheet. Neglecting a contribution to the vertical velocity of this magnitude results in substantial errors (up to 20%) also on the south-north component of horizontal velocities derived by satellite synthetic aperture radar interferometry (InSAR) measurements. In many glacier environments, the steady-state vertical velocity component required to balance the annual ablation rate is 5-10m a-1 or more.This indicates that the SPFassumption may be problematic also for glaciers in steady state. Here we derive the three-dimensional surface velocity distribution of Storstrømmen by using the principle of mass conservation (MC) to combine InSAR measurements from ascending and descending satellite tracks with airborne ice-sounding radar measurement of ice thickness. The results are compared to InSAR velocities previously derived by using the SPF assumption, and to velocities obtained by in situ global positioning system (GPS) measurements. The velocities derived by using the MC principle are in better agreement with the GPS velocities than the previously calculated velocities derived with the SPFassumption.

  12. A radial velocity study of the intermediate polar EX Hydrae

    Echevarría, J.; Ramírez-Torres, A.; Michel, R.; Hernández Santisteban, J. V.


    A study on the intermediate polar EX Hya is presented, based on simultaneous photometry and high-dispersion spectroscopic observations, during four consecutive nights. The strong photometric modulation related to the 67-min spin period of the primary star is clearly present, as well as the narrow eclipses associated with the orbital modulation. Since our eclipse timings have been obtained almost 91 000 cycles since the last reported observations, we present new linear ephemeris, although we cannot rule out a sinusoidal variation suggested by previous authors. The system shows double-peaked H α, H β and He I λ5876 Å emission lines, with almost no other lines present. As H α is the only line with enough S/N ratio in our observations, we have concentrated our efforts in its study, in order to obtain a reliable radial velocity semi-amplitude. From the profile of this line, we find two important components; one with a steep rise and velocities not larger than ˜1000 km s-1 and another broader component extending up to ˜2000 km s-1, which we interpret as coming mainly from the inner disc. A strong and variable hotspot is found and a stream-like structure is seen at times. We show that the best solution correspond to K1 = 58 ± 5 km s-1 from H α, from the two emission components, which are both in phase with the orbital modulation. We remark on a peculiar effect in the radial velocity curve around phase zero, which could be interpreted as a Rositter-MacLaughlin-like effect, which has been taken into account before deriving K1. This value is compatible with the values found in high resolution both in the ultraviolet and X-ray. Using the published inclination angle of i =78° ± 1° and semi-amplitude K2 = 432 ± 5 km s-1, we find: M1 = 0.78 ± 0.03 M⊙, M2 = 0.10 ± 0.02 M⊙ and a = 0.67 ± 0.01 R⊙. Doppler Tomography has been applied, to construct six Doppler tomograms for single orbital cycles spanning the four days of observations to support our conclusions

  13. In vivo lateral blood flow velocity measurement using speckle size estimation.

    Xu, Tiantian; Hozan, Mohsen; Bashford, Gregory R


    In previous studies, we proposed blood measurement using speckle size estimation, which estimates the lateral component of blood flow within a single image frame based on the observation that the speckle pattern corresponding to blood reflectors (typically red blood cells) stretches (i.e., is "smeared") if blood flow is in the same direction as the electronically controlled transducer line selection in a 2-D image. In this observational study, the clinical viability of ultrasound blood flow velocity measurement using speckle size estimation was investigated and compared with that of conventional spectral Doppler of carotid artery blood flow data collected from human patients in vivo. Ten patients (six male, four female) were recruited. Right carotid artery blood flow data were collected in an interleaved fashion (alternating Doppler and B-mode A-lines) with an Antares Ultrasound Imaging System and transferred to a PC via the Axius Ultrasound Research Interface. The scanning velocity was 77 cm/s, and a 4-s interval of flow data were collected from each subject to cover three to five complete cardiac cycles. Conventional spectral Doppler data were collected simultaneously to compare with estimates made by speckle size estimation. The results indicate that the peak systolic velocities measured with the two methods are comparable (within ±10%) if the scan velocity is greater than or equal to the flow velocity. When scan velocity is slower than peak systolic velocity, the speckle stretch method asymptotes to the scan velocity. Thus, the speckle stretch method is able to accurately measure pure lateral flow, which conventional Doppler cannot do. In addition, an initial comparison of the speckle size estimation and color Doppler methods with respect to computational complexity and data acquisition time indicated potential time savings in blood flow velocity estimation using speckle size estimation. Further studies are needed for calculation of the speckle stretch method

  14. Prediction of the Shear Wave Velocity from Compressional Wave Velocity for Gachsaran Formation

    Parvizi Saeed


    Full Text Available Shear and compressional wave velocities, coupled with other petrophysical data, are very important for hydrocarbon reservoir characterization. In situ shear wave velocity (Vs is measured by some sonic logging tools. Shear velocity coupled with compressional velocity is vitally important in determining geomechanical parameters, identifying the lithology, mud weight design, hydraulic fracturing, geophysical studies such as VSP, etc. In this paper, a correlation between compressional and shear wave velocity is obtained for Gachsaran formation in Maroon oil field. Real data were used to examine the accuracy of the prediction equation. Moreover, the genetic algorithm was used to obtain the optimal value for constants of the suggested equation. Furthermore, artificial neural network was used to inspect the reliability of this method. These investigations verify the notion that the suggested equation could be considered as an efficient, fast, and cost-effective method for predicting Vs from Vp.

  15. Explosive Components Facility

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The 98,000 square foot Explosive Components Facility (ECF) is a state-of-the-art facility that provides a full-range of chemical, material, and performance analysis...

  16. Emotional Components of Pain

    Carla J Hale


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Current definitions of pain suggest that emotion is an essential component of pain, however, the presumed relationship between emotion and pain, and the specific emotions that are involved in pain experiences have yet to be clarified.

  17. Group velocity dispersion characteristics and one-dimensional regional shear velocity structure of the eastern Indian craton

    Mandal, Prantik


    In the past three years, a semi-permanent network of fifteen 3-component broadband seismographs has become operational in the eastern Indian shield region occupying the Archean (∼2.5-3.6 Ga) Singhbhum-Odisha craton (SOC) and the Proterozoic (∼1.0-2.5 Ga) Chotanagpur Granitic Gneissic terrane (CGGT). The reliable and accurate broadband data for the recent 2015 Nepal earthquake sequence from 10 broadband stations of this network enabled us to estimate the group velocity dispersion characteristics and one-dimensional regional shear velocity structure of the region. First, we measure fundamental mode Rayleigh- and Love-wave group velocity dispersion curves in the period range of 7-70 s and then invert these curves to estimate the crustal and upper mantle structure below the eastern Indian craton (EIC). We observe that group velocities of Rayleigh and Love waves in SOC are relatively high in comparison to those of CGGT. This could be attributed to a relatively mafic-rich crust-mantle structure in SOC resulting from two episodes of magmatism associated with the 1.6 Ga Dalma and ∼117 Ma Rajmahal volcanisms. The best model for the EIC from the present study is found to be a two-layered crust, with a 14-km thick upper-crust (UC) of average shear velocity (Vs) of 3.0 km/s and a 26-km thick lower-crust (LC) of average Vs of 3.6 km/s. The present study detects a sharp drop in Vs (∼-2 to 3%) at 120-260 km depths, underlying the EIC, representing the probable seismic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) at 120 km depth. Such sharp fall in Vs below the LAB indicates a partially molten layer. Further, a geothermal gradient extrapolated from the surface heat flow shows that such a gradient would intercept the wet basalt solidus at 88-103 km depths, suggesting a 88-103 km thick thermal lithosphere below the EIC. This could also signal the presence of small amounts of partial melts. Thus, this 2-3% drop in Vs could be attributed to the presence of partial melts in the

  18. Develop a Model Component

    Ensey, Tyler S.


    During my internship at NASA, I was a model developer for Ground Support Equipment (GSE). The purpose of a model developer is to develop and unit test model component libraries (fluid, electrical, gas, etc.). The models are designed to simulate software for GSE (Ground Special Power, Crew Access Arm, Cryo, Fire and Leak Detection System, Environmental Control System (ECS), etc. .) before they are implemented into hardware. These models support verifying local control and remote software for End-Item Software Under Test (SUT). The model simulates the physical behavior (function, state, limits and 110) of each end-item and it's dependencies as defined in the Subsystem Interface Table, Software Requirements & Design Specification (SRDS), Ground Integrated Schematic (GIS), and System Mechanical Schematic.(SMS). The software of each specific model component is simulated through MATLAB's Simulink program. The intensiv model development life cycle is a.s follows: Identify source documents; identify model scope; update schedule; preliminary design review; develop model requirements; update model.. scope; update schedule; detailed design review; create/modify library component; implement library components reference; implement subsystem components; develop a test script; run the test script; develop users guide; send model out for peer review; the model is sent out for verifictionlvalidation; if there is empirical data, a validation data package is generated; if there is not empirical data, a verification package is generated; the test results are then reviewed; and finally, the user. requests accreditation, and a statement of accreditation is prepared. Once each component model is reviewed and approved, they are intertwined together into one integrated model. This integrated model is then tested itself, through a test script and autotest, so that it can be concluded that all models work conjointly, for a single purpose. The component I was assigned, specifically, was a

  19. Component fragility research program

    Tsai, N.C.; Mochizuki, G.L.; Holman, G.S. (NCT Engineering, Inc., Lafayette, CA (USA); Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA))


    To demonstrate how high-level'' qualification test data can be used to estimate the ultimate seismic capacity of nuclear power plant equipment, we assessed in detail various electrical components tested by the Pacific Gas Electric Company for its Diablo Canyon plant. As part of our Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, we evaluated seismic fragility for five Diablo Canyon components: medium-voltage (4kV) switchgear; safeguard relay board; emergency light battery pack; potential transformer; and station battery and racks. This report discusses our Phase II fragility evaluation of a single Westinghouse Type W motor control center column, a fan cooler motor controller, and three local starters at the Diablo Canyon nuclear power plant. These components were seismically qualified by means of biaxial random motion tests on a shaker table, and the test response spectra formed the basis for the estimate of the seismic capacity of the components. The seismic capacity of each component is referenced to the zero period acceleration (ZPA) and, in our Phase II study only, to the average spectral acceleration (ASA) of the motion at its base. For the motor control center, the seismic capacity was compared to the capacity of a Westinghouse Five-Star MCC subjected to actual fragility tests by LLNL during the Phase I Component Fragility Research Program, and to generic capacities developed by the Brookhaven National Laboratory for motor control center. Except for the medium-voltage switchgear, all of the components considered in both our Phase I and Phase II evaluations were qualified in their standard commercial configurations or with only relatively minor modifications such as top bracing of cabinets. 8 refs., 67 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Constraints on Shear Velocity in the Cratonic Upper Mantle From Rayleigh Wave Phase Velocity

    Hirsch, A. C.; Dalton, C. A.


    In recent years, the prevailing notion of Precambrian continental lithosphere as a thick boundary layer (200-300 km), defined by a depleted composition and a steady-state conductively cooled temperature structure, has been challenged by several lines of seismological evidence. One, profiles of shear velocity with depth beneath cratons exhibit lower wave speed at shallow depths and higher wave speed at greater depths than can be explained by temperature alone. These profiles are also characterized by positive or flat velocity gradients with depth and anomalously high attenuation in the uppermost mantle, both of which are difficult to reconcile with the low temperatures and large thermal gradient expected with a thermal boundary layer. Two, body-wave receiver-function studies have detected a mid-lithospheric discontinuity that requires a large and abrupt velocity decrease with depth in cratonic regions that cannot be achieved by thermal gradients alone. Here, we used forward-modeling to identify the suite of shear-velocity profiles that are consistent with phase-velocity observations made for Rayleigh waves that primarily traversed cratons in North America, South America, Africa, and Australia. We considered two approaches; with the first, depth profiles of shear velocity were predicted from thermal models of the cratonic upper mantle that correspond to a range of assumed values of mantle potential temperature, surface heat flow, and radiogenic heat production in the crust and upper mantle. With the second approach, depth profiles of shear velocity were randomly generated. In both cases, Rayleigh wave phase velocity was calculated from the Earth models and compared to the observed values. We show that it is very difficult to match the observations with an Earth model containing a low-velocity zone in the upper mantle; instead, the best-fit models contain a flat or positive velocity gradient with depth. We explore the implications of this result for the thermal and

  1. Deep S-wave velocity structure at Hawaii Islands obtained by microtremor array measurements

    Hayashi, K.


    Microtremor array measurements and three-component microtremor measurements have been performed at the west coast of Hawaii Island (Figure.1). Two seismographs with three-component accelerometers were used for data acquisition. At each site, one seismograph was fixed in one place and data was acquired at that location for the entire survey. Data was acquired by a second seismograph at larger separations ranging from 5 to 3403m from the fixed seismograph. Data acquisition was repeated at each new separation. In each measurement, 10 to 60 minutes of ambient noise was recorded. As the separations of seismographs increased, the record length of ambient noise was increased. The sampling interval used was 10msec. An entire measurement took several hours. Data acquisition was performed in the day-time and the seismographs were placed in relatively quiet places such as in parks or residential areas. A spatial autocorrelation was used for calculating phase velocity and a clear dispersion curve (Figure 2a) was obtained in frequency range from 0.2 to 30 Hz. A joint inversion was applied to the observed dispersion curve, and H/V spectrum, and S-wave velocity model was analyzed for the site. In the inversion, phase velocities of the dispersion curve and the absolute value and peak frequencies of the H/V spectra were used as observation data. The unknown parameters were layer thickness and S-wave velocity. A Genetic Algorithm was used for optimization. Theoretical H/V spectra and phase velocities are generated by calculating the weighted average of the fundamental mode and higher modes (up to the 5th mode) based on medium response. Figure 2b shows an S-wave velocity model obtained by the inversion. We can see that a low velocity layer with S-wave velocity from 250 to 700 m/s exists to a depth of 90 m. A velocity layer with S-wave velocity from 900 to 1500 m/s exists at a depth range of 90 to 1300 m. Bedrock with S-wave velocity about 3000 m/s exists at a depth of 2200 m.


    Vinko Škrlec


    Full Text Available Blasting operations in built-up areas, at short distances from structures, impose new requirements on blasting techniques and properties of explosives in order to mitigate seismic effect of blasting. Explosives for civil uses are mixtures of different chemical composition of explosive and/or non-explosive substances. Chemical and physical properties, along with means of initiation, environment and the terms of application define detonation and blasting parameters of a particular type of the explosive for civil uses. Velocity of detonation is one of the most important measurable characteristics of detonation parameters which indirectly provide information about the liberated energy, quality of explosives and applicability for certain purposes. The level of shock effect of detonated charge on the rock, and therefore the level of seismic effect in the area, depends on the velocity of detonation. Since the velocity of detonation is proportional to the density of an explosive, the described research is carried out in order to determine the borderline density of the mixture of an emulsion explosive with expanded polystyrene while achieving stable detonation, and to determine the dependency between the velocity of detonation and the density of mixture (the paper is published in Croatian.

  3. Calculations supporting HyperVelocity Launcher development

    Trucano, T.G.; Chhabildas, L.C.


    Sandia National Laboratories has developed a HyperVelocity Launcher (also referred to as HVL) in which a thin flier plate (nominally 1 mm thick) is launched to velocities in excess of 12 km/s. The length to diameter ratio of these launched flier plates varies from 0.02 to 0.06. The launch technique is based upon using structured, time-dependant, high-pressure, high-acceleration pulses to drive the flier plates. Such pulses are achieved by using a graded-density material to impact a stationary flier. A computational and experimental program at Sandia seeks to extend this technique to allow launching thick plates whose length-to-diameter ratio is 10 to 20 times larger than thin plates. Hydrodynamic codes are used to design modifications to the basic technique. The authors have controlled and used these effects to successfully launch a chunk-flier, consisting of 0.33 gm of titanium alloy, 0.3 cm thick by 0.6 cm in diameter, to a velocity of 10.2 km/s. This is the largest chunky size ever launched at this velocity from a gas gun configuration.

  4. Spectral Velocity Estimation in the Transverse Direction

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    estimation scheme can reliably find the spectrum at 90, where a traditional estimator yields zero velocity. Measurements have been conducted with the SARUS experimental scanner and a BK 8820e convex array transducer (BK Medical, Herlev, Denmark). A CompuFlow 1000 (Shelley Automation, Inc, Toronto, Canada...

  5. A novel two dimensional particle velocity sensor

    Pjetri, Olti; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Lammerink, Theo S.; Krijnen, Gijs J.


    In this paper we present a two wire, two-dimensional particle velocity sensor. The miniature sensor of size 1.0x2.5x0.525 mm, consisting of only two crossed wires, shows excellent directional sensitivity in both directions, thus requiring no directivity calibration, and is relatively easy to fabrica

  6. Velocity Dependence of Friction of Confined Hydrocarbons

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Samoilov, Vladimir N.; Persson, Bo N. J.


    We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence of the f......We present molecular dynamics friction calculations for confined hydrocarbon “polymer” solids with molecular lengths from 20 to 1400 carbon atoms. Two cases are considered: (a) polymer sliding against a hard substrate and (b) polymer sliding on polymer. We discuss the velocity dependence...... in the polymer film is always close to the thermostat temperature. In the first setup (a), for hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 1400 carbon atoms, the shear stresses are nearly independent of molecular length, but for the shortest hydrocarbon C20H42 the frictional shear stress is lower. In all...... cases the frictional shear stress increases monotonically with the sliding velocity. For polymer sliding on polymer (case b) the friction is much larger, and the velocity dependence is more complex. For hydrocarbons with molecular lengths from 60 to 140 C atoms, the number of monolayers of lubricant...

  7. Quantum transport velocity in strongly scattering media

    Malfliet, R


    Based on the Kadanoff-Baym equations of quantum transport: theory, an approach is proposed which goes beyond the usual quasiparticle approximation. It allows one to deduct the correct transport velocity for propagation in strongly scattering media, a quantity of great importance for localization phe

  8. Kinematic determination of Electron-Hole velocities

    Hutchinson, Ian H.; Zhou, C.


    Coherent self-sustaining BGK potential structures, like the electron holes that often form during nonlinear electrostatic instabilities and are frequently observed in space plasmas, have ``kinematic'' momentum conservation properties that determine their velocity. The electron and ion momentum, both internal and external to the hole, must be included. Momentum changes arise from hole acceleration and from hole depth growth, by energization processes we call jetting; and these must balance any additional external forces on the particles. Comprehensive analytic expressions for the contributions have been calculated for holes of arbitrary localized potential form. Using these, we can deduce velocity changes in various interesting situations such as the self-acceleration of electron holes during formation, the circumstances under which holes accelerate at the rate of the electrons in a background electric field, the influence of the ion stream pushing and pulling holes to higher or lower speeds, and the trapping of hole velocity between the velocity of two ion streams. The predictions are in excellent quantitative agreement with targeted PIC simulations. The kinematic theory thus explains why isolated holes behave the way they do. Partially supported by NSF/DOE Basic Plasma Grant DE-SC0010491.

  9. Wave Velocity Estimation in Heterogeneous Media

    Asiri, Sharefa M.


    In this paper, modulating functions-based method is proposed for estimating space-time dependent unknown velocity in the wave equation. The proposed method simplifies the identification problem into a system of linear algebraic equations. Numerical simulations on noise-free and noisy cases are provided in order to show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Radar velocity tomography in anisotropic media

    Kim, Jung Ho; Cho, Seong Jun; Yi Myeong Jong; Chung, Seung Hwan [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)


    Radar tomography inversion method was developed in the elliptic anisotropic environment with the parametrization of maximum, minimum velocity, and the direction of symmetry axis. Nonlinear least-square method with smoothness constraint was adopted as inversion scheme. Newly developed algorithm was successfully tested with the 2-D numerical cross-borehole data in isotropic environment. Seismic data from physical modelling in partially anisotropic environment was also inverted and compared with the reconstruction technique assuming isotropic media. We could confirm the effectiveness of our algorithm, even though the tested data were generated from isotropic or partially anisotropic media. Cross-hole radar field data in limestone area in Korea was analyzed that the limestone bedrock is systematically anisotropic in the sense of radar application. The data set was inverted with the new anisotropy algorithm. The anisotropic effect in the data was corrected and also inverted for the comparison through the algorithm with isotropic assumption. Applying two different algorithm and comparing the various images, the tomographic image of maximum velocity from anisotropic inversion could give the most excellent way to visualize underground. An addition to the high resolution image, we could grasp some information on the material type from the feature of maximum velocity distribution the degree of anisotropy which can be inferred from the ratio of maximum and minimum velocity. The newly developed algorithm will be expected to provide a good way to image underground, especially in sedimentary or metamorphosed bedrock. (author). 9 refs., 21 figs.


    the pressure and fluid velocity are average over the ... describing the flow are sets of nonlinear first-order ... resemble those of the one-dimensional gas dynamics. [5]. .... blood constituents (solid corpuscles and plasma) flow ... where ρ is the varying fluid density, u axial fluid ..... (1989): Biofluid mechanics, Annual review fluid.

  12. Velocity Estimation in Medical Ultrasound [Life Sciences

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Villagómez Hoyos, Carlos Armando; Holbek, Simon


    This article describes the application of signal processing in medical ultrasound velocity estimation. Special emphasis is on the relation among acquisition methods, signal processing, and estimators employed. The description spans from current clinical systems for one-and two-dimensional (1-D an...

  13. Steel Spheres and Skydiver--Terminal Velocity

    Costa Leme, J.; Moura, C.; Costa, Cintia


    This paper describes the use of open source video analysis software in the study of the relationship between the velocity of falling objects and time. We discuss an experiment in which a steel sphere falls in a container filled with two immiscible liquids. The motion is similar to that of a skydiver falling through air.

  14. Adaptive blood velocity estimation in medical ultrasound

    Gran, Fredrik; Jakobsson, Andreas; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt


    This paper investigates the use of data-adaptive spectral estimation techniques for blood velocity estimation in medical ultrasound. Current commercial systems are based on the averaged periodogram, which requires a large observation window to give sufficient spectral resolution. Herein, we propose...

  15. Mass spectrometry of hyper-velocity impacts of organic micrograins.

    Srama, Ralf; Woiwode, Wolfgang; Postberg, Frank; Armes, Steven P; Fujii, Syuji; Dupin, Damien; Ormond-Prout, Jonathan; Sternovsky, Zoltan; Kempf, Sascha; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Mocker, Anna; Grün, Eberhard


    The study of hyper-velocity impacts of micrometeoroids is important for the calibration of dust sensors in space applications. For this purpose, submicron-sized synthetic dust grains comprising either polystyrene or poly[bis(4-vinylthiophenyl)sulfide] were coated with an ultrathin overlayer of an electrically conductive organic polymer (either polypyrrole or polyaniline) and were accelerated to speeds between 3 and 35 km s(-1) using the Heidelberg Dust Accelerator facility. Time-of-flight mass spectrometry was applied to analyse the resulting ionic impact plasma using a newly developed Large Area Mass Analyser (LAMA). Depending on the projectile type and the impact speed, both aliphatic and aromatic molecular ions and cluster species were identified in the mass spectra with masses up to 400 u. Clusters resulting from the target material (silver) and mixed clusters of target and projectile species were also observed. Impact velocities of between 10 and 35 km s(-1) are suitable for a principal identification of organic materials in micrometeoroids, whereas impact speeds below approximately 10 km s(-1) allow for an even more detailed analysis. Molecular ions and fragments reflect components of the parent molecule, providing determination of even complex organic molecules embedded in a dust grain. In contrast to previous measurements with the Cosmic Dust Analyser instrument, the employed LAMA instrument has a seven times higher mass resolution--approximately 200--which allowed for a detailed analysis of the complex mass spectra. These fundamental studies are expected to enhance our understanding of cometary, interplanetary and interstellar dust grains, which travel at similar hyper-velocities and are known to contain both aliphatic and aromatic organic compounds. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Fine velocity structures collisional dissipation in plasmas

    Pezzi, Oreste; Valentini, Francesco; Veltri, Pierluigi


    In a weakly collisional plasma, such as the solar wind, collisions are usually considered far too weak to produce any significant effect on the plasma dynamics [1]. However, the estimation of collisionality is often based on the restrictive assumption that the particle velocity distribution function (VDF) shape is close to Maxwellian [2]. On the other hand, in situ spacecraft measurements in the solar wind [3], as well as kinetic numerical experiments [4], indicate that marked non-Maxwellian features develop in the three-dimensional VDFs, (temperature anisotropies, generation of particle beams, ring-like modulations etc.) as a result of the kinetic turbulent cascade of energy towards short spatial scales. Therefore, since collisional effects are proportional to the velocity gradients of the VDF, the collisionless hypothesis may fail locally in velocity space. Here, the existence of several characteristic times during the collisional relaxation of fine velocity structures is investigated by means of Eulerian numerical simulations of a spatially homogeneous force-free weakly collisional plasma. The effect of smoothing out velocity gradients on the evolution of global quantities, such as temperature and entropy, is discussed, suggesting that plasma collisionality can increase locally due to the velocity space deformation of the particle velocity distribution. In particular, by means of Eulerian simulations of collisional relaxation of a spatially homogeneous force-free plasma, in which collisions among particles of the same species are modeled through the complete Landau operator, we show that the system entropy growth occurs over several time scales, inversely proportional to the steepness of the velocity gradients in the VDF. We report clear evidences that fine velocity structures are dissipated by collisions in a time much shorter than global non-Maxwellian features, like, for example, temperature anisotropies. Moreover we indicate that, if small-scale structures

  17. Geospatial data stream processing in Python using FOSS4G components

    McFerren, Graeme


    Full Text Available (CDM) standards. We illustrate how the geospatial software components are integrated with the Swordfish framework. Furthermore, we describe the tight temporal constraints under which geospatial functionality can be invoked when processing high velocity...

  18. IR diagnostics of embedded jets: velocity resolved observations of the HH34 and HH1 jets

    Lopez, R Garcia; Giannini, T; Eislöffel, J; Bacciotti, F; Podio, L


    We present VLT-ISAAC medium resolution spectroscopy of the HH34 and HH1 jets. Our aim is to derive the kinematics and the physical parameters and to study how they vary with jet velocity. We use several important diagnostic lines such as [FeII] 1.644um, 1.600um and H2 2.122um. In the inner jet region of HH34 we find that both the atomic and molecular gas present two components at high and low velocity. The [FeII] LVC in HH34 is detected up to large distances from the source (>1000 AU), at variance with TTauri jets. In H2 2.122um, the LVC and HVC are spatially separated. We detect, for the first time, the fainter red-shifted counterpart down to the central source. In HH1, we trace the jet down to ~1" from the VLA1 driving source: the kinematics of this inner region is again characterised by the presence of two velocity components, one blue-shifted and one red-shifted with respect to the source LSR velocity. In the inner HH34 jet region, ne increases with decreasing velocity. Up to ~10" from the driving source,...

  19. Two-Component Structure of the Hbeta Broad-Line Region in Quasars. I. Evidence from Spectral Principal Component Analysis

    Hu, Chen; Ho, Luis C; Ferland, Gary J; Baldwin, Jack A; Wang, Ye


    We report on a spectral principal component analysis (SPCA) of a sample of 816 quasars, selected to have small Fe II velocity shifts with spectral coverage in the rest wavelength range 3500--5500 \\AA. The sample is explicitly designed to mitigate spurious effects on SPCA induced by Fe II velocity shifts. We improve the algorithm of SPCA in the literature and introduce a new quantity, \\emph{the fractional-contribution spectrum}, that effectively identifies the emission features encoded in each eigenspectrum. The first eigenspectrum clearly records the power-law continuum and very broad Balmer emission lines. Narrow emission lines dominate the second eigenspectrum. The third eigenspectrum represents the Fe II emission and a component of the Balmer lines with kinematically similar intermediate velocity widths. Correlations between the weights of the eigenspectra and parametric measurements of line strength and continuum slope confirm the above interpretation for the eigenspectra. Monte Carlo simulations demonstr...

  20. Two-component model of solar plages

    LI; Jianping(李建平); DING; Mingde(丁明德); FANG; Cheng(方成)


    By use of the 2-m Mcmath-Pierce telescope at Kitt Peak, the high-quality spectra of a plage with moderate brightness near the center of solar disk were obtained. The data include seven spectral lines, which are Hα, Hβ, CaII H and K lines and the infrared triplet. With the consideration of fine structures of solar plages, a two-component atmospheric model is constructed by keeping the cool component to be the quiet atmosphere. Three cases of the hot component are given for different filling factors where the temperature and density distribution are adjusted in order to reproduce the seven observed spectral profiles. We also briefly discuss the influence of the column density at the base of the corona, m0, and the macro-turbulent velocity on the required filling factor and computed profiles. The two-component model is compared with precious one-component semi-empirical models. The limitation of the model is pointed out and further improvement is indicated.