Streamtube expansion effects on the Darrieus wind turbine
Paraschivoiu, I.; Fraunie, P.; Beguier, C.
1985-04-01
The purpose of the work described in this paper was to determine the aerodynamic loads and performance of a Darrieus wind turbine by including the expansion effects of the streamtubes through the rotor. The double-multiple streamtube model with variable interference factors was used to estimate the induced velocities with a modified CARDAAV computer code. Comparison with measured data and predictions shows that the stream-tube expansion effects are relatively significant at high tip-speed ratios, allowing a more realistic modeling of the upwind/downwind flowfield asymmetries inherent in the Darrieus rotor.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Eduard Dyachuk
2015-02-01
Full Text Available The complex unsteady aerodynamics of vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT poses significant challenges to the simulation tools. Dynamic stall is one of the phenomena associated with the unsteady conditions for VAWTs, and it is in the focus of the study. Two dynamic stall models are compared: the widely-used Gormont model and a Leishman–Beddoes-type model. The models are included in a double multiple streamtube model. The effects of flow curvature and flow expansion are also considered. The model results are assessed against the measured data on a Darrieus turbine with curved blades. To study the dynamic stall effects, the comparison of force coefficients between the simulations and experiments is done at low tip speed ratios. Simulations show that the Leishman–Beddoes model outperforms the Gormont model for all tested conditions.
Double-multiple streamtube model for Darrieus in turbines
Paraschivoiu, I.
1981-01-01
An analytical model is proposed for calculating the rotor performance and aerodynamic blade forces for Darrieus wind turbines with curved blades. The method of analysis uses a multiple-streamtube model, divided into two parts: one modeling the upstream half-cycle of the rotor and the other, the downstream half-cycle. The upwind and downwind components of the induced velocities at each level of the rotor were obtained using the principle of two actuator disks in tandem. Variation of the induced velocities in the two parts of the rotor produces larger forces in the upstream zone and smaller forces in the downstream zone. Comparisons of the overall rotor performance with previous methods and field test data show the important improvement obtained with the present model. The calculations were made using the computer code CARDAA developed at IREQ. The double-multiple streamtube model presented has two major advantages: it requires a much shorter computer time than the three-dimensional vortex model and is more accurate than multiple-streamtube model in predicting the aerodynamic blade loads.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ginn, Timothy R. [University of California, Davis; Weathers, Tess [University of California, Davis
2013-08-26
Biogeochemical modeling using PHREEQC2 and a streamtube ensemble approach is utilized to understand a well-to-well subsurface treatment system at the Vadose Zone Research Park (VZRP) near Idaho Falls, Idaho. Treatment involves in situ microbially-mediated ureolysis to induce calcite precipitation for the immobilization of strontium-90. PHREEQC2 is utilized to model the kinetically-controlled ureolysis and consequent calcite precipitation. Reaction kinetics, equilibrium phases, and cation exchange are used within PHREEQC2 to track pH and levels of calcium, ammonium, urea, and calcite precipitation over time, within a series of one-dimensional advective-dispersive transport paths creating a streamtube ensemble representation of the well-to-well transport. An understanding of the impact of physical heterogeneities within this radial flowfield is critical for remediation design; we address this via the streamtube approach: instead of depicting spatial extents of solutes in the subsurface we focus on their arrival distribution at the control well(s). Traditionally, each streamtube maintains uniform velocity; however in radial flow in homogeneous media, the velocity within any given streamtube is spatially-variable in a common way, being highest at the input and output wells and approaching a minimum at the midpoint between the wells. This idealized velocity variability is of significance in the case of ureolytically driven calcite precipitation. Streamtube velocity patterns for any particular configuration of injection and withdrawal wells are available as explicit calculations from potential theory, and also from particle tracking programs. To approximate the actual spatial distribution of velocity along streamtubes, we assume idealized radial non-uniform velocity associated with homogeneous media. This is implemented in PHREEQC2 via a non-uniform spatial discretization within each streamtube that honors both the streamtube’s travel time and the idealized
Improved double-multiple streamtube model for the Darrieus-type vertical axis wind turbine
Berg, D. E.
Double streamtube codes model the curved blade (Darrieus-type) vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) as a double actuator fish arrangement (one half) and use conservation of momentum principles to determine the forces acting on the turbine blades and the turbine performance. Sandia National Laboratories developed a double multiple streamtube model for the VAWT which incorporates the effects of the incident wind boundary layer, nonuniform velocity between the upwind and downwind sections of the rotor, dynamic stall effects and local blade Reynolds number variations. The theory underlying this VAWT model is described, as well as the code capabilities. Code results are compared with experimental data from two VAWT's and with the results from another double multiple streamtube and a vortex filament code. The effects of neglecting dynamic stall and horizontal wind velocity distribution are also illustrated.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakravarty, A.; Emanuel, A.S.; Bernath, J.A. [Chevron Petroleum Technology Company, LaHabra, CA (United States)
1997-08-01
The application of streamtube models for reservoir simulation has an extensive history in the oil industry. Although these models are strictly applicable only to fields under voidage balance, they have proved to be useful in a large number of fields provided that there is no solution gas evolution and production. These models combine the benefit of very fast computational time with the practical ability to model a large reservoir over the course of its history. These models do not, however, directly incorporate the detailed geological information that recent experience has taught is important. This paper presents a technique for mapping the saturation information contained in a history matched streamtube model onto a detailed geostatistically derived finite difference grid. With this technique, the saturation information in a streamtube model, data that is actually statistical in nature, can be identified with actual physical locations in a field and a picture of the remaining oil saturation can be determined. Alternatively, the streamtube model can be used to simulate the early development history of a field and the saturation data then used to initialize detailed late time finite difference models. The proposed method is presented through an example application to the Ninian reservoir. This reservoir, located in the North Sea (UK), is a heterogeneous sandstone characterized by a line drive waterflood, with about 160 wells, and a 16 year history. The reservoir was satisfactorily history matched and mapped for remaining oil saturation. A comparison to 3-D seismic survey and recently drilled wells have provided preliminary verification.
Double-multiple streamtube model for studying vertical-axis wind turbines
Paraschivoiu, Ion
1988-08-01
This work describes the present state-of-the-art in double-multiple streamtube method for modeling the Darrieus-type vertical-axis wind turbine (VAWT). Comparisons of the analytical results with the other predictions and available experimental data show a good agreement. This method, which incorporates dynamic-stall and secondary effects, can be used for generating a suitable aerodynamic-load model for structural design analysis of the Darrieus rotor.
The curvature coordinate system
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Almegaard, Henrik
2007-01-01
The paper describes a concept for a curvature coordinate system on regular curved surfaces from which faceted surfaces with plane quadrangular facets can be designed. The lines of curvature are used as parametric lines for the curvature coordinate system on the surface. A new conjugate set of lin...
Implementing quantum Ricci curvature
Klitgaard, N.; Loll, R.
2018-05-01
Quantum Ricci curvature has been introduced recently as a new, geometric observable characterizing the curvature properties of metric spaces, without the need for a smooth structure. Besides coordinate invariance, its key features are scalability, computability, and robustness. We demonstrate that these properties continue to hold in the context of nonperturbative quantum gravity, by evaluating the quantum Ricci curvature numerically in two-dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity, defined in terms of dynamical triangulations. Despite the well-known, highly nonclassical properties of the underlying quantum geometry, its Ricci curvature can be matched well to that of a five-dimensional round sphere.
Introducing quantum Ricci curvature
Klitgaard, N.; Loll, R.
2018-02-01
Motivated by the search for geometric observables in nonperturbative quantum gravity, we define a notion of coarse-grained Ricci curvature. It is based on a particular way of extracting the local Ricci curvature of a smooth Riemannian manifold by comparing the distance between pairs of spheres with that of their centers. The quantum Ricci curvature is designed for use on non-smooth and discrete metric spaces, and to satisfy the key criteria of scalability and computability. We test the prescription on a variety of regular and random piecewise flat spaces, mostly in two dimensions. This enables us to quantify its behavior for short lattices distances and compare its large-scale behavior with that of constantly curved model spaces. On the triangulated spaces considered, the quantum Ricci curvature has good averaging properties and reproduces classical characteristics on scales large compared to the discretization scale.
Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors
2010-09-01
ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Hawaii ,Institute for Astronomy,640 North A‘ohoku Place, #209 , Hilo ,HI,96720-2700 8. PERFORMING...Advanced Curvature Deformable Mirrors Christ Ftaclas1,2, Aglae Kellerer2 and Mark Chun2 Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii
Regularized strings with extrinsic curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.; Durhuus, B.
1987-07-01
We analyze models of discretized string theories, where the path integral over world sheet variables is regularized by summing over triangulated surfaces. The inclusion of curvature in the action is a necessity for the scaling of the string tension. We discuss the physical properties of models with extrinsic curvature terms in the action and show that the string tension vanishes at the critical point where the bare extrinsic curvature coupling tends to infinity. Similar results are derived for models with intrinsic curvature. (orig.)
Brane cosmology with curvature corrections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kofinas, Georgios; Maartens, Roy; Papantonopoulos, Eleftherios
2003-01-01
We study the cosmology of the Randall-Sundrum brane-world where the Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by curvature correction terms: a four-dimensional scalar curvature from induced gravity on the brane, and a five-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet curvature term. The combined effect of these curvature corrections to the action removes the infinite-density big bang singularity, although the curvature can still diverge for some parameter values. A radiation brane undergoes accelerated expansion near the minimal scale factor, for a range of parameters. This acceleration is driven by the geometric effects, without an inflation field or negative pressures. At late times, conventional cosmology is recovered. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Larbi Labbi
2007-12-01
Full Text Available The $(2k$-th Gauss-Bonnet curvature is a generalization to higher dimensions of the $(2k$-dimensional Gauss-Bonnet integrand, it coincides with the usual scalar curvature for $k = 1$. The Gauss-Bonnet curvatures are used in theoretical physics to describe gravity in higher dimensional space times where they are known as the Lagrangian of Lovelock gravity, Gauss-Bonnet Gravity and Lanczos gravity. In this paper we present various aspects of these curvature invariants and review their variational properties. In particular, we discuss natural generalizations of the Yamabe problem, Einstein metrics and minimal submanifolds.
SLED phenomenology: curvature vs. volume
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niedermann, Florian; Schneider, Robert
2016-01-01
We assess the question whether the SLED (Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions) model admits phenomenologically viable solutions with 4D maximal symmetry. We take into account a finite brane width and a scale invariance (SI) breaking dilaton-brane coupling, both of which should be included in a realistic setup. Provided that the brane tension and the microscopic size of the brane take generic values set by the fundamental bulk Planck scale, we find that either the 4D curvature or the size of the extra dimensions is unacceptably large. Since this result is independent of the dilaton-brane couplings, it provides the biggest challenge to the SLED program. In addition, to quantify its potential with respect to the cosmological constant problem, we infer the amount of tuning on model parameters required to obtain a sufficiently small 4D curvature. A first answer was recently given in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2016)025, showing that 4D flat solutions are only ensured in the SI case by imposing a tuning relation, even if a brane-localized flux is included. In this companion paper, we find that the tuning can in fact be avoided for certain SI breaking brane-dilaton couplings, but only at the price of worsening the phenomenological problem. Our results are obtained by solving the full coupled Einstein-dilaton system in a completely consistent way. The brane width is implemented using a well-known ring regularization. In passing, we note that for the couplings considered here the results of http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP02(2016)025 (which only treated infinitely thin branes) are all consistently recovered in the thin brane limit, and how this can be reconciled with the concerns about their correctness, recently brought up in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP01(2016)017.
Manifolds of positive scalar curvature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stolz, S [Department of Mathematics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame (United States)
2002-08-15
This lecture gives an survey on the problem of finding a positive scalar curvature metric on a closed manifold. The Gromov-Lawson-Rosenberg conjecture and its relation to the Baum-Connes conjecture are discussed and the problem of finding a positive Ricci curvature metric on a closed manifold is explained.
Some Inequalities for the -Curvature Image
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Daijun Wei
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Lutwak introduced the notion of -curvature image and proved an inequality for the volumes of convex body and its -curvature image. In this paper, we first give an monotonic property of -curvature image. Further, we establish two inequalities for the -curvature image and its polar, respectively. Finally, an inequality for the volumes of -projection body and -curvature image is obtained.
Lectures on mean curvature flows
Zhu, Xi-Ping
2002-01-01
"Mean curvature flow" is a term that is used to describe the evolution of a hypersurface whose normal velocity is given by the mean curvature. In the simplest case of a convex closed curve on the plane, the properties of the mean curvature flow are described by Gage-Hamilton's theorem. This theorem states that under the mean curvature flow, the curve collapses to a point, and if the flow is diluted so that the enclosed area equals \\pi, the curve tends to the unit circle. In this book, the author gives a comprehensive account of fundamental results on singularities and the asymptotic behavior of mean curvature flows in higher dimensions. Among other topics, he considers in detail Huisken's theorem (a generalization of Gage-Hamilton's theorem to higher dimension), evolution of non-convex curves and hypersurfaces, and the classification of singularities of the mean curvature flow. Because of the importance of the mean curvature flow and its numerous applications in differential geometry and partial differential ...
Environmental influences on DNA curvature
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ussery, David; Higgins, C.F.; Bolshoy, A.
1999-01-01
DNA curvature plays an important role in many biological processes. To study environmentalinfluences on DNA curvature we compared the anomalous migration on polyacrylamide gels ofligation ladders of 11 specifically-designed oligonucleotides. At low temperatures (25 degreesC and below) most......, whilst spermine enhanced theanomalous migration of a different set of sequences. Sequences with a GGC motif exhibitedgreater curvature than predicted by the presently-used angles for the nearest-neighbour wedgemodel and are especially sensitive to Mg2+. The data have implications for models...... for DNAcurvature and for environmentally-sensitive DNA conformations in the regulation of geneexpression....
Curvature force and dark energy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Balakin, Alexander B; Pavon, Diego; Schwarz, Dominik J; Zimdahl, Winfried
2003-01-01
A curvature self-interaction of the cosmic gas is shown to mimic a cosmological constant or other forms of dark energy, such as a rolling tachyon condensate or a Chaplygin gas. Any given Hubble rate and deceleration parameter can be traced back to the action of an effective curvature force on the gas particles. This force self-consistently reacts back on the cosmological dynamics. The links between an imperfect fluid description, a kinetic description with effective antifriction forces and curvature forces, which represent a non-minimal coupling of gravity to matter, are established
Discrete Curvature Theories and Applications
Sun, Xiang
2016-08-25
Discrete Di erential Geometry (DDG) concerns discrete counterparts of notions and methods in di erential geometry. This thesis deals with a core subject in DDG, discrete curvature theories on various types of polyhedral surfaces that are practically important for free-form architecture, sunlight-redirecting shading systems, and face recognition. Modeled as polyhedral surfaces, the shapes of free-form structures may have to satisfy di erent geometric or physical constraints. We study a combination of geometry and physics { the discrete surfaces that can stand on their own, as well as having proper shapes for the manufacture. These proper shapes, known as circular and conical meshes, are closely related to discrete principal curvatures. We study curvature theories that make such surfaces possible. Shading systems of freeform building skins are new types of energy-saving structures that can re-direct the sunlight. From these systems, discrete line congruences across polyhedral surfaces can be abstracted. We develop a new curvature theory for polyhedral surfaces equipped with normal congruences { a particular type of congruences de ned by linear interpolation of vertex normals. The main results are a discussion of various de nitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula. In addition to architecture, we consider the role of discrete curvatures in face recognition. We use geometric measure theory to introduce the notion of asymptotic cones associated with a singular subspace of a Riemannian manifold, which is an extension of the classical notion of asymptotic directions. We get a simple expression of these cones for polyhedral surfaces, as well as convergence and approximation theorems. We use the asymptotic cones as facial descriptors and demonstrate the
Curvature bound from gravitational catalysis
Gies, Holger; Martini, Riccardo
2018-04-01
We determine bounds on the curvature of local patches of spacetime from the requirement of intact long-range chiral symmetry. The bounds arise from a scale-dependent analysis of gravitational catalysis and its influence on the effective potential for the chiral order parameter, as induced by fermionic fluctuations on a curved spacetime with local hyperbolic properties. The bound is expressed in terms of the local curvature scalar measured in units of a gauge-invariant coarse-graining scale. We argue that any effective field theory of quantum gravity obeying this curvature bound is safe from chiral symmetry breaking through gravitational catalysis and thus compatible with the simultaneous existence of chiral fermions in the low-energy spectrum. With increasing number of dimensions, the curvature bound in terms of the hyperbolic scale parameter becomes stronger. Applying the curvature bound to the asymptotic safety scenario for quantum gravity in four spacetime dimensions translates into bounds on the matter content of particle physics models.
Surface meshing with curvature convergence
Li, Huibin; Zeng, Wei; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Chen, Liming; Gu, Xianfengdavid
2014-01-01
Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.
Surface meshing with curvature convergence
Li, Huibin
2014-06-01
Surface meshing plays a fundamental role in graphics and visualization. Many geometric processing tasks involve solving geometric PDEs on meshes. The numerical stability, convergence rates and approximation errors are largely determined by the mesh qualities. In practice, Delaunay refinement algorithms offer satisfactory solutions to high quality mesh generations. The theoretical proofs for volume based and surface based Delaunay refinement algorithms have been established, but those for conformal parameterization based ones remain wide open. This work focuses on the curvature measure convergence for the conformal parameterization based Delaunay refinement algorithms. Given a metric surface, the proposed approach triangulates its conformal uniformization domain by the planar Delaunay refinement algorithms, and produces a high quality mesh. We give explicit estimates for the Hausdorff distance, the normal deviation, and the differences in curvature measures between the surface and the mesh. In contrast to the conventional results based on volumetric Delaunay refinement, our stronger estimates are independent of the mesh structure and directly guarantee the convergence of curvature measures. Meanwhile, our result on Gaussian curvature measure is intrinsic to the Riemannian metric and independent of the embedding. In practice, our meshing algorithm is much easier to implement and much more efficient. The experimental results verified our theoretical results and demonstrated the efficiency of the meshing algorithm. © 2014 IEEE.
A prescribing geodesic curvature problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, K.C.; Liu, J.Q.
1993-09-01
Let D be the unit disk and k be a function on S 1 = δD. Find a flat metric which is pointwise conformal to the standard metric and has k as the geodesic curvature of S 1 . A sufficient condition for the existence of such a metric is that the harmonic extension of k in D has saddle points. (author). 11 refs
Cosmic curvature tested directly from observations
Denissenya, Mikhail; Linder, Eric V.; Shafieloo, Arman
2018-03-01
Cosmic spatial curvature is a fundamental geometric quantity of the Universe. We investigate a model independent, geometric approach to measure spatial curvature directly from observations, without any derivatives of data. This employs strong lensing time delays and supernova distance measurements to measure the curvature itself, rather than just testing consistency with flatness. We define two curvature estimators, with differing error propagation characteristics, that can crosscheck each other, and also show how they can be used to map the curvature in redshift slices, to test constancy of curvature as required by the Robertson-Walker metric. Simulating realizations of redshift distributions and distance measurements of lenses and sources, we estimate uncertainties on the curvature enabled by next generation measurements. The results indicate that the model independent methods, using only geometry without assuming forms for the energy density constituents, can determine the curvature at the ~6×10‑3 level.
Curvature Entropy for Curved Profile Generation
Ujiie, Yoshiki; Kato, Takeo; Sato, Koichiro; Matsuoka, Yoshiyuki
2012-01-01
In a curved surface design, the overall shape features that emerge from combinations of shape elements are important. However, controlling the features of the overall shape in curved profiles is difficult using conventional microscopic shape information such as dimension. Herein two types of macroscopic shape information, curvature entropy and quadrature curvature entropy, quantitatively represent the features of the overall shape. The curvature entropy is calculated by the curvature distribu...
A remark about the mean curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Weitao.
1992-11-01
In this paper, we give an integral identity about the mean curvature in Sobolev space H 0 1 (Ω) intersection H 2 (Ω). Suppose the mean curvature on Γ=δΩ is positive, we prove some inequalities of the positive mean curvature and propose some open problems. (author). 4 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barenboim, Gabriela; Martínez, Enrique Fernández; Mena, Olga; Verde, Licia
2010-01-01
Geometrical tests such as the combination of the Hubble parameter H(z) and the angular diameter distance d A (z) can, in principle, break the degeneracy between the dark energy equation of state parameter w(z), and the spatial curvature Ω k in a direct, model-independent way. In practice, constraints on these quantities achievable from realistic experiments, such as those to be provided by Baryon Acoustic Oscillation (BAO) galaxy surveys in combination with CMB data, can resolve the cosmic confusion between the dark energy equation of state parameter and curvature only statistically and within a parameterized model for w(z). Combining measurements of both H(z) and d A (z) up to sufficiently high redshifts z ∼ 2 and employing a parameterization of the redshift evolution of the dark energy equation of state are the keys to resolve the w(z)−Ω k degeneracy
Modern approaches to discrete curvature
Romon, Pascal
2017-01-01
This book provides a valuable glimpse into discrete curvature, a rich new field of research which blends discrete mathematics, differential geometry, probability and computer graphics. It includes a vast collection of ideas and tools which will offer something new to all interested readers. Discrete geometry has arisen as much as a theoretical development as in response to unforeseen challenges coming from applications. Discrete and continuous geometries have turned out to be intimately connected. Discrete curvature is the key concept connecting them through many bridges in numerous fields: metric spaces, Riemannian and Euclidean geometries, geometric measure theory, topology, partial differential equations, calculus of variations, gradient flows, asymptotic analysis, probability, harmonic analysis, graph theory, etc. In spite of its crucial importance both in theoretical mathematics and in applications, up to now, almost no books have provided a coherent outlook on this emerging field.
Curvature Entropy for Curved Profile Generation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Koichiro Sato
2012-03-01
Full Text Available In a curved surface design, the overall shape features that emerge from combinations of shape elements are important. However, controlling the features of the overall shape in curved profiles is difficult using conventional microscopic shape information such as dimension. Herein two types of macroscopic shape information, curvature entropy and quadrature curvature entropy, quantitatively represent the features of the overall shape. The curvature entropy is calculated by the curvature distribution, and represents the complexity of a shape (one of the overall shape features. The quadrature curvature entropy is an improvement of the curvature entropy by introducing a Markov process to evaluate the continuity of a curvature and to approximate human cognition of the shape. Additionally, a shape generation method using a genetic algorithm as a calculator and the entropy as a shape generation index is presented. Finally, the applicability of the proposed method is demonstrated using the side view of an automobile as a design example.
Dynamic Double Curvature Mould System
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jepsen, Christian Raun; Kristensen, Mathias Kræmmergaard; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2011-01-01
The present paper describes a concept for a reconfigurable mould surface which is designed to fit the needs of contemporary architecture. The core of the concept presented is a dynamic surface manipulated into a given shape using a digital signal created directly from the CAD drawing of the design....... This happens fast, automatic and without production of waste, and the manipulated surface is fair and robust, eliminating the need for additional, manual treatment. Limitations to the possibilities of the flexible form are limited curvature and limited level of detail, making it especially suited for larger...
Curvature-Controlled Topological Defects
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Luka Mesarec
2017-05-01
Full Text Available Effectively, two-dimensional (2D closed films exhibiting in-plane orientational ordering (ordered shells might be instrumental for the realization of scaled crystals. In them, ordered shells are expected to play the role of atoms. Furthermore, topological defects (TDs within them would determine their valence. Namely, bonding among shells within an isotropic liquid matrix could be established via appropriate nano-binders (i.e., linkers which tend to be attached to the cores of TDs exploiting the defect core replacement mechanism. Consequently, by varying configurations of TDs one could nucleate growth of scaled crystals displaying different symmetries. For this purpose, it is of interest to develop a simple and robust mechanism via which one could control the position and number of TDs in such atoms. In this paper, we use a minimal mesoscopic model, where variational parameters are the 2D curvature tensor and the 2D orientational tensor order parameter. We demonstrate numerically the efficiency of the effective topological defect cancellation mechanism to predict positional assembling of TDs in ordered films characterized by spatially nonhomogeneous Gaussian curvature. Furthermore, we show how one could efficiently switch among qualitatively different structures by using a relative volume v of ordered shells, which represents a relatively simple naturally accessible control parameter.
Higher curvature supergravity and cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ferrara, Sergio [Th-Ph Department, CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); U.C.L.A., Los Angeles, CA (United States); INFN - LNF, Frascati (Italy); Sagnotti, Augusto [Scuola Normale Superiore, Pisa (Italy); INFN, Pisa (Italy)
2016-04-15
In this contribution we describe dual higher-derivative formulations of some cosmological models based on supergravity. Work in this direction started with the R + R{sup 2} Starobinsky model, whose supersymmetric extension was derived in the late 80's and was recently revived in view of new CMB data. Models dual to higher-derivative theories are subject to more restrictions than their bosonic counterparts or standard supergravity. The three sections are devoted to a brief description of R + R{sup 2} supergravity, to a scale invariant R{sup 2} supergravity and to theories with a nilpotent curvature, whose duals describe non-linear realizations (in the form of a Volkov-Akulov constrained superfield) coupled to supergravity. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Weyl tensors for asymmetric complex curvatures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oliveira, C.G.
Considering a second rank Hermitian field tensor and a general Hermitian connection the associated complex curvature tensor is constructed. The Weyl tensor that corresponds to this complex curvature is determined. The formalism is applied to the Weyl unitary field theory and to the Moffat gravitational theory. (Author) [pt
The curvature function in general relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hall, G S; MacNay, Lucy
2006-01-01
A function, here called the curvature function, is defined and which is constructed explicitly from the type (0, 4) curvature tensor. Although such a function may be defined for any manifold admitting a metric, attention is here concentrated on this function on a spacetime. Some properties of this function are explored and compared with a previous discussion of it given by Petrov
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gao, Dengliang
2013-03-01
In 3D seismic interpretation, curvature is a popular attribute that depicts the geometry of seismic reflectors and has been widely used to detect faults in the subsurface; however, it provides only part of the solutions to subsurface structure analysis. This study extends the curvature algorithm to a new curvature gradient algorithm, and integrates both algorithms for fracture detection using a 3D seismic test data set over Teapot Dome (Wyoming). In fractured reservoirs at Teapot Dome known to be formed by tectonic folding and faulting, curvature helps define the crestal portion of the reservoirs that is associated with strong seismic amplitude and high oil productivity. In contrast, curvature gradient helps better define the regional northwest-trending and the cross-regional northeast-trending lineaments that are associated with weak seismic amplitude and low oil productivity. In concert with previous reports from image logs, cores, and outcrops, the current study based on an integrated seismic curvature and curvature gradient analysis suggests that curvature might help define areas of enhanced potential to form tensile fractures, whereas curvature gradient might help define zones of enhanced potential to develop shear fractures. In certain fractured reservoirs such as at Teapot Dome where faulting and fault-related folding contribute dominantly to the formation and evolution of fractures, curvature and curvature gradient attributes can be potentially applied to differentiate fracture mode, to predict fracture intensity and orientation, to detect fracture volume and connectivity, and to model fracture networks.
Curvature function and coarse graining
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diaz-Marin, Homero; Zapata, Jose A.
2010-01-01
A classic theorem in the theory of connections on principal fiber bundles states that the evaluation of all holonomy functions gives enough information to characterize the bundle structure (among those sharing the same structure group and base manifold) and the connection up to a bundle equivalence map. This result and other important properties of holonomy functions have encouraged their use as the primary ingredient for the construction of families of quantum gauge theories. However, in these applications often the set of holonomy functions used is a discrete proper subset of the set of holonomy functions needed for the characterization theorem to hold. We show that the evaluation of a discrete set of holonomy functions does not characterize the bundle and does not constrain the connection modulo gauge appropriately. We exhibit a discrete set of functions of the connection and prove that in the abelian case their evaluation characterizes the bundle structure (up to equivalence), and constrains the connection modulo gauge up to ''local details'' ignored when working at a given scale. The main ingredient is the Lie algebra valued curvature function F S (A) defined below. It covers the holonomy function in the sense that expF S (A)=Hol(l=∂S,A).
Curvature and torsion in growing actin networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shaevitz, Joshua W; Fletcher, Daniel A
2008-01-01
Intracellular pathogens such as Listeria monocytogenes and Rickettsia rickettsii move within a host cell by polymerizing a comet-tail of actin fibers that ultimately pushes the cell forward. This dense network of cross-linked actin polymers typically exhibits a striking curvature that causes bacteria to move in gently looping paths. Theoretically, tail curvature has been linked to details of motility by considering force and torque balances from a finite number of polymerizing filaments. Here we track beads coated with a prokaryotic activator of actin polymerization in three dimensions to directly quantify the curvature and torsion of bead motility paths. We find that bead paths are more likely to have low rather than high curvature at any given time. Furthermore, path curvature changes very slowly in time, with an autocorrelation decay time of 200 s. Paths with a small radius of curvature, therefore, remain so for an extended period resulting in loops when confined to two dimensions. When allowed to explore a three-dimensional (3D) space, path loops are less evident. Finally, we quantify the torsion in the bead paths and show that beads do not exhibit a significant left- or right-handed bias to their motion in 3D. These results suggest that paths of actin-propelled objects may be attributed to slow changes in curvature, possibly associated with filament debranching, rather than a fixed torque
Right thoracic curvature in the normal spine
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Masuda Keigo
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Trunk asymmetry and vertebral rotation, at times observed in the normal spine, resemble the characteristics of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. Right thoracic curvature has also been reported in the normal spine. If it is determined that the features of right thoracic side curvature in the normal spine are the same as those observed in AIS, these findings might provide a basis for elucidating the etiology of this condition. For this reason, we investigated right thoracic curvature in the normal spine. Methods For normal spinal measurements, 1,200 patients who underwent a posteroanterior chest radiographs were evaluated. These consisted of 400 children (ages 4-9, 400 adolescents (ages 10-19 and 400 adults (ages 20-29, with each group comprised of both genders. The exclusion criteria were obvious chest and spinal diseases. As side curvature is minimal in normal spines and the range at which curvature is measured is difficult to ascertain, first the typical curvature range in scoliosis patients was determined and then the Cobb angle in normal spines was measured using the same range as the scoliosis curve, from T5 to T12. Right thoracic curvature was given a positive value. The curve pattern was organized in each collective three groups: neutral (from -1 degree to 1 degree, right (> +1 degree, and left ( Results In child group, Cobb angle in left was 120, in neutral was 125 and in right was 155. In adolescent group, Cobb angle in left was 70, in neutral was 114 and in right was 216. In adult group, Cobb angle in left was 46, in neutral was 102 and in right was 252. The curvature pattern shifts to the right side in the adolescent group (p Conclusions Based on standing chest radiographic measurements, a right thoracic curvature was observed in normal spines after adolescence.
Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces
Sun, Xiang
2012-01-01
This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads
Higher Curvature Supergravity, Supersymmetry Breaking and Inflation
Ferrara, Sergio
2017-01-01
In these lectures, after a short introduction to cosmology, we discuss the supergravity embedding of higher curvature models of inflation. The supergravity description of such models is presented for the two different formulations of minimal supergravity.
Curvature of Indoor Sensor Network: Clustering Coefficient
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We investigate the geometric properties of the communication graph in realistic low-power wireless networks. In particular, we explore the concept of the curvature of a wireless network via the clustering coefficient. Clustering coefficient analysis is a computationally simplified, semilocal approach, which nevertheless captures such a large-scale feature as congestion in the underlying network. The clustering coefficient concept is applied to three cases of indoor sensor networks, under varying thresholds on the link packet reception rate (PRR. A transition from positive curvature (“meshed” network to negative curvature (“core concentric” network is observed by increasing the threshold. Even though this paper deals with network curvature per se, we nevertheless expand on the underlying congestion motivation, propose several new concepts (network inertia and centroid, and finally we argue that greedy routing on a virtual positively curved network achieves load balancing on the physical network.
The spinning particle with extrinsic curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dhar, A.
1988-01-01
We construct and analyse an action for the spinning particle which contains an extrinsic curvature term. A possible generalization of this construction to the case of the spinning string is also discussed. (orig.)
GDP growth and the yield curvature
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Stig Vinther
2014-01-01
This paper examines the forecastability of GDP growth using information from the term structure of yields. In contrast to previous studies, the paper shows that the curvature of the yield curve contributes with much more forecasting power than the slope of yield curve. The yield curvature also...... predicts bond returns, implying a common element to time-variation in expected bond returns and expected GDP growth....
Straight-line string with curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Solov'ev, L.D.
1995-01-01
Classical and quantum solutions for the relativistic straight-line string with arbitrary dependence on the world surface curvature are obtained. They differ from the case of the usual Nambu-Goto interaction by the behaviour of the Regge trajectory which in general can be non-linear. A regularization of the action is considered and a comparison with relativistic point with curvature is made. 5 refs
Curvature-Induced Instabilities of Shells
Pezzulla, Matteo; Stoop, Norbert; Steranka, Mark P.; Bade, Abdikhalaq J.; Holmes, Douglas P.
2018-01-01
Induced by proteins within the cell membrane or by differential growth, heating, or swelling, spontaneous curvatures can drastically affect the morphology of thin bodies and induce mechanical instabilities. Yet, the interaction of spontaneous curvature and geometric frustration in curved shells remains poorly understood. Via a combination of precision experiments on elastomeric spherical shells, simulations, and theory, we show how a spontaneous curvature induces a rotational symmetry-breaking buckling as well as a snapping instability reminiscent of the Venus fly trap closure mechanism. The instabilities, and their dependence on geometry, are rationalized by reducing the spontaneous curvature to an effective mechanical load. This formulation reveals a combined pressurelike term in the bulk and a torquelike term in the boundary, allowing scaling predictions for the instabilities that are in excellent agreement with experiments and simulations. Moreover, the effective pressure analogy suggests a curvature-induced subcritical buckling in closed shells. We determine the critical buckling curvature via a linear stability analysis that accounts for the combination of residual membrane and bending stresses. The prominent role of geometry in our findings suggests the applicability of the results over a wide range of scales.
Curvature constraints from the causal entropic principle
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bozek, Brandon; Albrecht, Andreas; Phillips, Daniel
2009-01-01
Current cosmological observations indicate a preference for a cosmological constant that is drastically smaller than what can be explained by conventional particle physics. The causal entropic principle (Bousso et al.) provides an alternative approach to anthropic attempts to predict our observed value of the cosmological constant by calculating the entropy created within a causal diamond. We have extended this work to use the causal entropic principle to predict the preferred curvature within the 'multiverse'. We have found that values larger than ρ k =40ρ m are disfavored by more than 99.99% peak value at ρ Λ =7.9x10 -123 and ρ k =4.3ρ m for open universes. For universes that allow only positive curvature or both positive and negative curvature, we find a correlation between curvature and dark energy that leads to an extended region of preferred values. Our universe is found to be disfavored to an extent depending on the priors on curvature. We also provide a comparison to previous anthropic constraints on open universes and discuss future directions for this work.
Some Inequalities for the Lp-Curvature Image
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang Yu
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Lutwak introduced the notion of Lp-curvature image and proved an inequality for the volumes of convex body and its Lp-curvature image. In this paper, we first give an monotonic property of Lp-curvature image. Further, we establish two inequalities for the Lp-curvature image and its polar, respectively. Finally, an inequality for the volumes of Lp-projection body and Lp-curvature image is obtained.
Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali, E-mail: shossein@bu.edu [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirza, Behrouz, E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharifian, Elham, E-mail: e.sharifian@ph.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-08-10
We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner–Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.
Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali; Mirza, Behrouz; Sharifian, Elham
2016-01-01
We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner–Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.
Substrate curvature gradient drives rapid droplet motion.
Lv, Cunjing; Chen, Chao; Chuang, Yin-Chuan; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Yin, Yajun; Grey, Francois; Zheng, Quanshui
2014-07-11
Making small liquid droplets move spontaneously on solid surfaces is a key challenge in lab-on-chip and heat exchanger technologies. Here, we report that a substrate curvature gradient can accelerate micro- and nanodroplets to high speeds on both hydrophilic and hydrophobic substrates. Experiments for microscale water droplets on tapered surfaces show a maximum speed of 0.42 m/s, 2 orders of magnitude higher than with a wettability gradient. We show that the total free energy and driving force exerted on a droplet are determined by the substrate curvature and substrate curvature gradient, respectively. Using molecular dynamics simulations, we predict nanoscale droplets moving spontaneously at over 100 m/s on tapered surfaces.
Cosmic curvature from de Sitter equilibrium cosmology.
Albrecht, Andreas
2011-10-07
I show that the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology generically predicts observable levels of curvature in the Universe today. The predicted value of the curvature, Ω(k), depends only on the ratio of the density of nonrelativistic matter to cosmological constant density ρ(m)(0)/ρ(Λ) and the value of the curvature from the initial bubble that starts the inflation, Ω(k)(B). The result is independent of the scale of inflation, the shape of the potential during inflation, and many other details of the cosmology. Future cosmological measurements of ρ(m)(0)/ρ(Λ) and Ω(k) will open up a window on the very beginning of our Universe and offer an opportunity to support or falsify the de Sitter equilibrium cosmology.
Radion stabilization in higher curvature warped spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, Ashmita [Indian Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, Guwahati, Assam (India); Mukherjee, Hiya; Paul, Tanmoy; SenGupta, Soumitra [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Kolkata (India)
2018-02-15
We consider a five dimensional AdS spacetime in presence of higher curvature term like F(R) = R + αR{sup 2} in the bulk. In this model, we examine the possibility of modulus stabilization from the scalar degrees of freedom of higher curvature gravity free of ghosts. Our result reveals that the model stabilizes itself and the mechanism of modulus stabilization can be argued from a geometric point of view. We determine the region of the parametric space for which the modulus (or radion) can to be stabilized. We also show how the mass and coupling parameters of radion field are modified due to higher curvature term leading to modifications of its phenomenological implications on the visible 3-brane. (orig.)
Longitudinal surface curvature effect in magnetohydrodynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bodas, N.G.
1975-01-01
The two-dimensional motion of an incompressible and electrically conducting fluid past an electrically insulated body surface (having curvature) is studied for a given O(1) basic flow and magnetic field, when (i) the applied magnetic field is aligned with the velocity in the basic flow, and (ii) the applied magnetic field is within the body surface. 01 and 0(Re sup(1/2)) mean the first and second order approximations respectively in an exansion scheme in powers of Resup(-1/2), Re being the Reynolds number). The technique of matched asymptotic expansions is used to solve the problem. The governing partial differential equations to 0(Resup(-1/2)) boundary layer approximation are found to give similarity solutions for a family of surface curvature and pressure gradient distributions in case (i), and for uniform basic flow with analytic surface curvature distributions in case (ii). The equations are solved numerically. In case (i) it is seen that the effect of the magnetic field on the skin-friction- correction due to the curvature is very small. Also the magnetic field at the wall is reduced by the curvature on the convex side. In case (ii) the magnetic field significantly increases the skin-friction-correction due to the curvature. The effect of the magnetic field on the O(1) and O(Resup(-1/2)) skin friction coefficients increases with the increase of the electrical conductivity of the fluid. Also, at higher values of the magnetic pressure, moderate changes in the electrical conductivity do not influence the correction to the skin-friction significantly. (Auth.)
Connections and curvatures on complex Riemannian manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ganchev, G.; Ivanov, S.
1991-05-01
Characteristic connection and characteristic holomorphic sectional curvatures are introduced on a complex Riemannian manifold (not necessarily with holomorphic metric). For the class of complex Riemannian manifolds with holomorphic characteristic connection a classification of the manifolds with (pointwise) constant holomorphic characteristic curvature is given. It is shown that the conformal geometry of complex analytic Riemannian manifolds can be naturally developed on the class of locally conformal holomorphic Riemannian manifolds. Complex Riemannian manifolds locally conformal to the complex Euclidean space are characterized with zero conformal fundamental tensor and zero conformal characteristic tensor. (author). 12 refs
Zero curvature conditions and conformal covariance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Akemann, G.; Grimm, R.
1992-05-01
Two-dimensional zero curvature conditions were investigated in detail, with special emphasis on conformal properties, and the appearance of covariant higher order differential operators constructed in terms of a projective connection was elucidated. The analysis is based on the Kostant decomposition of simple Lie algebras in terms of representations with respect to their 'principal' SL(2) subalgebra. (author) 27 refs
Norm of the Riemannian Curvature Tensor
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We consider the Riemannian functional R p ( g ) = ∫ M | R ( g ) | p d v g defined on the space of Riemannian metrics with unit volume on a closed smooth manifold where R ( g ) and d v g denote the corresponding Riemannian curvature tensor and volume form and p ∈ ( 0 , ∞ ) . First we prove that the Riemannian metrics ...
Constraining inverse curvature gravity with supernovae
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mena, Olga; Santiago, Jose; /Fermilab; Weller, Jochen; /University Coll., London /Fermilab
2005-10-01
We show that the current accelerated expansion of the Universe can be explained without resorting to dark energy. Models of generalized modified gravity, with inverse powers of the curvature can have late time accelerating attractors without conflicting with solar system experiments. We have solved the Friedman equations for the full dynamical range of the evolution of the Universe. This allows us to perform a detailed analysis of Supernovae data in the context of such models that results in an excellent fit. Hence, inverse curvature gravity models represent an example of phenomenologically viable models in which the current acceleration of the Universe is driven by curvature instead of dark energy. If we further include constraints on the current expansion rate of the Universe from the Hubble Space Telescope and on the age of the Universe from globular clusters, we obtain that the matter content of the Universe is 0.07 {le} {omega}{sub m} {le} 0.21 (95% Confidence). Hence the inverse curvature gravity models considered can not explain the dynamics of the Universe just with a baryonic matter component.
On Mass, Spacetime Curvature, and Gravity
Janis, Allen I.
2018-01-01
The frequently used analogy of a massive ball distorting an elastic sheet, which is used to illustrate why mass causes spacetime curvature and gravitational attraction, is criticized in this article. A different analogy that draws on the students' previous knowledge of spacetime diagrams in special relativity is suggested.
Curvature tensor copies in affine geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, P.P.
1981-01-01
The sets of space-time and spin-connections which give rise to the same curvature tensor are constructed. The corresponding geometries are compared. Results are illustrated by an explicit calculation and comment on the copies in Einstein-Cartan and Weyl-Cartan geometries. (Author) [pt
Gaussian curvature on hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Indian Acad. Sci. (Math. Sci.) Vol. 124, No. 2, May 2014, pp. 155–167. c Indian Academy of Sciences. Gaussian curvature on hyperelliptic Riemann surfaces. ABEL CASTORENA. Centro de Ciencias Matemáticas (Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México,. Campus Morelia) Apdo. Postal 61-3 Xangari, C.P. 58089 Morelia,.
Resolving curvature singularities in holomorphic gravity
Mantz, C.L.M.; Prokopec, T.
2011-01-01
We formulate a holomorphic theory of gravity and study how the holomorphy symmetry alters the two most important singular solutions of general relativity: black holes and cosmology. We show that typical observers (freely) falling into a holomorphic black hole do not encounter a curvature
Curvature driven instabilities in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, P.
1986-11-01
The electromagnetic ballooning mode, the curvature driven trapped electron mode and the toroidally induced ion temperature gradient mode have been studies. Eigenvalue equations have been derived and solved both numerically and analytically. For electromagnetic ballooning modes the effects of convective damping, finite Larmor radius, higher order curvature terms, and temperature gradients have been investigated. A fully toroidal fluid ion model has been developed. It is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for an instability below the MHD limit is the presence of an ion temperature gradient. Analytical dispersion relations giving results in good agreement with numerical solutions are also presented. The curvature driven trapped electron modes are found to be unstable for virtually all parameters with growth rates of the order of the diamagnetic drift frequency. Studies have been made, using both a gyrokinetic ion description and the fully toroidal ion model. Both analytical and numerical results are presented and are found to be in good agreement. The toroidally induced ion temperature gradients modes are found to have a behavior similar to that of the curvature driven trapped electron modes and can in the electrostatic limit be described by a simple quadratic dispersion equation. (author)
Random paths with curvature dependent action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.; Durhuus, B.
1986-11-01
We study discretized random paths with a curvature dependent action. The scaling limits of the corresponding statistical mechanical models can be constructed explicitly and are either usual Brownian motion or a theory where the correlations of tangents are nonzero and described by diffusion on the unit sphere. In the latter case the two point function has an anomalous dimension η = 1. (orig.)
Curvature recognition and force generation in phagocytosis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prassler Jana
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The uptake of particles by actin-powered invagination of the plasma membrane is common to protozoa and to phagocytes involved in the immune response of higher organisms. The question addressed here is how a phagocyte may use geometric cues to optimize force generation for the uptake of a particle. We survey mechanisms that enable a phagocyte to remodel actin organization in response to particles of complex shape. Results Using particles that consist of two lobes separated by a neck, we found that Dictyostelium cells transmit signals concerning the curvature of a surface to the actin system underlying the plasma membrane. Force applied to a concave region can divide a particle in two, allowing engulfment of the portion first encountered. The phagosome membrane that is bent around the concave region is marked by a protein containing an inverse Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (I-BAR domain in combination with an Src homology (SH3 domain, similar to mammalian insulin receptor tyrosine kinase substrate p53. Regulatory proteins enable the phagocyte to switch activities within seconds in response to particle shape. Ras, an inducer of actin polymerization, is activated along the cup surface. Coronin, which limits the lifetime of actin structures, is reversibly recruited to the cup, reflecting a program of actin depolymerization. The various forms of myosin-I are candidate motor proteins for force generation in particle uptake, whereas myosin-II is engaged only in retracting a phagocytic cup after a switch to particle release. Thus, the constriction of a phagocytic cup differs from the contraction of a cleavage furrow in mitosis. Conclusions Phagocytes scan a particle surface for convex and concave regions. By modulating the spatiotemporal pattern of actin organization, they are capable of switching between different modes of interaction with a particle, either arresting at a concave region and applying force in an attempt to sever the particle
Leal-Junior, Arnaldo G.; Frizera, Anselmo; José Pontes, Maria
2018-03-01
Polymer optical fibers (POFs) are suitable for applications such as curvature sensors, strain, temperature, liquid level, among others. However, for enhancing sensitivity, many polymer optical fiber curvature sensors based on intensity variation require a lateral section. Lateral section length, depth, and surface roughness have great influence on the sensor sensitivity, hysteresis, and linearity. Moreover, the sensor curvature radius increase the stress on the fiber, which leads on variation of the sensor behavior. This paper presents the analysis relating the curvature radius and lateral section length, depth and surface roughness with the sensor sensitivity, hysteresis and linearity for a POF curvature sensor. Results show a strong correlation between the decision parameters behavior and the performance for sensor applications based on intensity variation. Furthermore, there is a trade-off among the sensitive zone length, depth, surface roughness, and curvature radius with the sensor desired performance parameters, which are minimum hysteresis, maximum sensitivity, and maximum linearity. The optimization of these parameters is applied to obtain a sensor with sensitivity of 20.9 mV/°, linearity of 0.9992 and hysteresis below 1%, which represent a better performance of the sensor when compared with the sensor without the optimization.
A curvature theory for discrete surfaces based on mesh parallelity
Bobenko, Alexander Ivanovich; Pottmann, Helmut; Wallner, Johannes
2009-01-01
We consider a general theory of curvatures of discrete surfaces equipped with edgewise parallel Gauss images, and where mean and Gaussian curvatures of faces are derived from the faces' areas and mixed areas. Remarkably these notions are capable
Collineations of the curvature tensor in general relativity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Curvature collineations for the curvature tensor, constructed from a fundamental Bianchi Type-V metric, are studied. We are concerned with a symmetry property of space-time which is called curvature collineation, and we briefly discuss the physical and kinematical properties of the models.
Translating solitons to symplectic and Lagrangian mean curvature flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Xiaoli; Li Jiayu
2007-05-01
In this paper, we construct finite blow-up examples for symplectic mean curvature flows and we study symplectic translating solitons. We prove that there is no translating solitons with vertical bar α vertical bar ≤ α 0 to the symplectic mean curvature flow or to the almost calibrated Lagrangian mean curvature flow for some α 0 . (author)
Integration of length and curvature in haptic perception
Panday, V.; Bergmann Tiest, W.M.; Kappers, A.M.L.
2014-01-01
We investigated if and how length and curvature information are integrated when an object is explored in one hand. Subjects were asked to explore four types of objects between thumb and index finger. Objects differed in either length, curvature, both length and curvature correlated as in a circle,
Weyl curvature tensor in static spherical sources
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ponce de Leon, J.
1988-01-01
The role of the Weyl curvature tensor in static sources of the Schwarzschild field is studied. It is shown that in general the contribution from the Weyl curvature tensor (the ''purely gravitational field energy'') to the mass-energy inside the body may be positive, negative, or zero. It is proved that a positive (negative) contribution from the Weyl tensor tends to increase (decrease) the effective gravitational mass, the red-shift (from a point in the sphere to infinity), as well as the gravitational force which acts on a constituent matter element of a body. It is also proved that the contribution from the Weyl tensor always is negative in sources with surface gravitational potential larger than (4/9. It is pointed out that large negative contributions from the Weyl tensor could give rise to the phenomenon of gravitational repulsion. A simple example which illustrates the results is discussed
Discrete Curvatures and Discrete Minimal Surfaces
Sun, Xiang
2012-06-01
This thesis presents an overview of some approaches to compute Gaussian and mean curvature on discrete surfaces and discusses discrete minimal surfaces. The variety of applications of differential geometry in visualization and shape design leads to great interest in studying discrete surfaces. With the rich smooth surface theory in hand, one would hope that this elegant theory can still be applied to the discrete counter part. Such a generalization, however, is not always successful. While discrete surfaces have the advantage of being finite dimensional, thus easier to treat, their geometric properties such as curvatures are not well defined in the classical sense. Furthermore, the powerful calculus tool can hardly be applied. The methods in this thesis, including angular defect formula, cotangent formula, parallel meshes, relative geometry etc. are approaches based on offset meshes or generalized offset meshes. As an important application, we discuss discrete minimal surfaces and discrete Koenigs meshes.
On a curvature-statistics theorem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Calixto, M; Aldaya, V
2008-01-01
The spin-statistics theorem in quantum field theory relates the spin of a particle to the statistics obeyed by that particle. Here we investigate an interesting correspondence or connection between curvature (κ = ±1) and quantum statistics (Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein, respectively). The interrelation between both concepts is established through vacuum coherent configurations of zero modes in quantum field theory on the compact O(3) and noncompact O(2; 1) (spatial) isometry subgroups of de Sitter and Anti de Sitter spaces, respectively. The high frequency limit, is retrieved as a (zero curvature) group contraction to the Newton-Hooke (harmonic oscillator) group. We also make some comments on the physical significance of the vacuum energy density and the cosmological constant problem.
On a curvature-statistics theorem
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calixto, M [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y Estadistica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 56, 30203 Cartagena (Spain); Aldaya, V [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia, Apartado Postal 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain)], E-mail: Manuel.Calixto@upct.es
2008-08-15
The spin-statistics theorem in quantum field theory relates the spin of a particle to the statistics obeyed by that particle. Here we investigate an interesting correspondence or connection between curvature ({kappa} = {+-}1) and quantum statistics (Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein, respectively). The interrelation between both concepts is established through vacuum coherent configurations of zero modes in quantum field theory on the compact O(3) and noncompact O(2; 1) (spatial) isometry subgroups of de Sitter and Anti de Sitter spaces, respectively. The high frequency limit, is retrieved as a (zero curvature) group contraction to the Newton-Hooke (harmonic oscillator) group. We also make some comments on the physical significance of the vacuum energy density and the cosmological constant problem.
Cosmological signatures of anisotropic spatial curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pereira, Thiago S.; Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena; Carneiro, Saulo
2015-01-01
If one is willing to give up the cherished hypothesis of spatial isotropy, many interesting cosmological models can be developed beyond the simple anisotropically expanding scenarios. One interesting possibility is presented by shear-free models in which the anisotropy emerges at the level of the curvature of the homogeneous spatial sections, whereas the expansion is dictated by a single scale factor. We show that such models represent viable alternatives to describe the large-scale structure of the inflationary universe, leading to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Through the definition of a complete set of spatial eigenfunctions we compute the two-point correlation function of scalar perturbations in these models. In addition, we show how such scenarios would modify the spectrum of the CMB assuming that the observations take place in a small patch of a universe with anisotropic curvature
Cosmological signatures of anisotropic spatial curvature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pereira, Thiago S. [Departamento de Física, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86057-970, Londrina – PR (Brazil); Marugán, Guillermo A. Mena [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, IEM-CSIC, Serrano 121, 28006, Madrid (Spain); Carneiro, Saulo, E-mail: tspereira@uel.br, E-mail: mena@iem.cfmac.csic.es, E-mail: saulo.carneiro@pq.cnpq.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40210-340, Salvador – BA (Brazil)
2015-07-01
If one is willing to give up the cherished hypothesis of spatial isotropy, many interesting cosmological models can be developed beyond the simple anisotropically expanding scenarios. One interesting possibility is presented by shear-free models in which the anisotropy emerges at the level of the curvature of the homogeneous spatial sections, whereas the expansion is dictated by a single scale factor. We show that such models represent viable alternatives to describe the large-scale structure of the inflationary universe, leading to a kinematically equivalent Sachs-Wolfe effect. Through the definition of a complete set of spatial eigenfunctions we compute the two-point correlation function of scalar perturbations in these models. In addition, we show how such scenarios would modify the spectrum of the CMB assuming that the observations take place in a small patch of a universe with anisotropic curvature.
The Riemann-Lovelock curvature tensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kastor, David
2012-01-01
In order to study the properties of Lovelock gravity theories in low dimensions, we define the kth-order Riemann-Lovelock tensor as a certain quantity having a total 4k-indices, which is kth order in the Riemann curvature tensor and shares its basic algebraic and differential properties. We show that the kth-order Riemann-Lovelock tensor is determined by its traces in dimensions 2k ≤ D < 4k. In D = 2k + 1 this identity implies that all solutions of pure kth-order Lovelock gravity are 'Riemann-Lovelock' flat. It is verified that the static, spherically symmetric solutions of these theories, which are missing solid angle spacetimes, indeed satisfy this flatness property. This generalizes results from Einstein gravity in D = 3, which corresponds to the k = 1 case. We speculate about some possible further consequences of Riemann-Lovelock curvature. (paper)
Harmonic curvatures and generalized helices in En
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Camci, Cetin; Ilarslan, Kazim; Kula, Levent; Hacisalihoglu, H. Hilmi
2009-01-01
In n-dimensional Euclidean space E n , harmonic curvatures of a non-degenerate curve defined by Ozdamar and Hacisalihoglu [Ozdamar E, Hacisalihoglu HH. A characterization of Inclined curves in Euclidean n-space. Comm Fac Sci Univ Ankara, Ser A1 1975;24:15-23]. In this paper, we give some characterizations for a non-degenerate curve α to be a generalized helix by using its harmonic curvatures. Also we define the generalized Darboux vector D of a non-degenerate curve α in n-dimensional Euclidean space E n and we show that the generalized Darboux vector D lies in the kernel of Frenet matrix M(s) if and only if the curve α is a generalized helix in the sense of Hayden.
Gravitational curvature an introduction to Einstein's theory
Frankel, Theodore Thomas
1979-01-01
This classic text and reference monograph applies modern differential geometry to general relativity. A brief mathematical introduction to gravitational curvature, it emphasizes the subject's geometric essence, replacing the often-tedious analytical computations with geometric arguments. Clearly presented and physically motivated derivations express the deflection of light, Schwarzchild's exterior and interior solutions, and the Oppenheimer-Volkoff equations. A perfect choice for advanced students of mathematics, this volume will also appeal to mathematicians interested in physics. It stresses
Curvature controlled wetting in two dimensions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gil, Tamir; Mikheev, Lev V.
1995-01-01
. As the radius of the substrate r0→∞, the leading effect of the curvature is adding the Laplace pressure ΠL∝r0-1 to the pressure balance in the film. At temperatures and pressures under which the wetting is complete in planar geometry, Laplace pressure suppresses divergence of the mean thickness of the wetting...... term reduces the thickness by the amount proportional to r0-1/3...
The Riemann-Lovelock Curvature Tensor
Kastor, David
2012-01-01
In order to study the properties of Lovelock gravity theories in low dimensions, we define the kth-order Riemann-Lovelock tensor as a certain quantity having a total 4k-indices, which is kth-order in the Riemann curvature tensor and shares its basic algebraic and differential properties. We show that the kth-order Riemann-Lovelock tensor is determined by its traces in dimensions 2k \\le D
Inflationary scenario from higher curvature warped spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, Narayan; Paul, Tanmoy
2017-01-01
We consider a five dimensional warped spacetime, in presence of the higher curvature term like F(R) = R + αR 2 in the bulk, in the context of the two-brane model. Our universe is identified with the TeV scale brane and emerges as a four dimensional effective theory. From the perspective of this effective theory, we examine the possibility of ''inflationary scenario'' by considering the on-brane metric ansatz as an FRW one. Our results reveal that the higher curvature term in the five dimensional bulk spacetime generates a potential term for the radion field. Due to the presence of radion potential, the very early universe undergoes a stage of accelerated expansion and, moreover, the accelerating period of the universe terminates in a finite time. We also find the spectral index of curvature perturbation (n s ) and the tensor to scalar ratio (r) in the present context, which match with the observational results based on the observations of Planck (Astron. Astrophys. 594, A20, 2016). (orig.)
Inflationary scenario from higher curvature warped spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, Narayan [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Department of Physical Sciences, Nadia, West Bengal (India); Paul, Tanmoy [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Kolkata (India)
2017-10-15
We consider a five dimensional warped spacetime, in presence of the higher curvature term like F(R) = R + αR{sup 2} in the bulk, in the context of the two-brane model. Our universe is identified with the TeV scale brane and emerges as a four dimensional effective theory. From the perspective of this effective theory, we examine the possibility of ''inflationary scenario'' by considering the on-brane metric ansatz as an FRW one. Our results reveal that the higher curvature term in the five dimensional bulk spacetime generates a potential term for the radion field. Due to the presence of radion potential, the very early universe undergoes a stage of accelerated expansion and, moreover, the accelerating period of the universe terminates in a finite time. We also find the spectral index of curvature perturbation (n{sub s}) and the tensor to scalar ratio (r) in the present context, which match with the observational results based on the observations of Planck (Astron. Astrophys. 594, A20, 2016). (orig.)
Codimension two branes and distributional curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Traschen, Jennie
2009-01-01
In general relativity, there is a well-developed formalism for working with the approximation that a gravitational source is concentrated on a shell, or codimension one surface. In contrast, there are obstacles to concentrating sources on surfaces that have a higher codimension, for example, a string in a spacetime with a dimension greater than or equal to four. Here it is shown that, by giving up some of the generality of the codimension one case, curvature can be concentrated on submanifolds that have codimension two. A class of metrics is identified such that (1) the scalar curvature and Ricci densities exist as distributions with support on a codimension two submanifold, and (2) using the Einstein equation, the distributional curvature corresponds to a concentrated stress-energy with equation of state p = -ρ, where p is the isotropic pressure tangent to the submanifold, and ρ is the energy density. This is the appropriate stress-energy to describe a self-gravitating brane that is governed by an area action, or a braneworld deSitter cosmology. The possibility of having a different equation of state arise from a wider class of metrics is discussed.
The Influence of the Track Axis Curvature at Railway Filler-Beam Deck Bridges
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Răzvan Marian Stănescu
2016-06-01
Full Text Available The article presents a comparative study between the simplified method calculation proposed by the prescriptions of design codes and the analysis with the FEM program LUSAS [1], regarding the influence of the curvature of the track axis at railway bridges with steel beams embedded in concrete.
Distributed mean curvature on a discrete manifold for Regge calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Conboye, Rory; Miller, Warner A; Ray, Shannon
2015-01-01
The integrated mean curvature of a simplicial manifold is well understood in both Regge Calculus and Discrete Differential Geometry. However, a well motivated pointwise definition of curvature requires a careful choice of the volume over which to uniformly distribute the local integrated curvature. We show that hybrid cells formed using both the simplicial lattice and its circumcentric dual emerge as a remarkably natural structure for the distribution of this local integrated curvature. These hybrid cells form a complete tessellation of the simplicial manifold, contain a geometric orthonormal basis, and are also shown to give a pointwise mean curvature with a natural interpretation as the fractional rate of change of the normal vector. (paper)
Distributed mean curvature on a discrete manifold for Regge calculus
Conboye, Rory; Miller, Warner A.; Ray, Shannon
2015-09-01
The integrated mean curvature of a simplicial manifold is well understood in both Regge Calculus and Discrete Differential Geometry. However, a well motivated pointwise definition of curvature requires a careful choice of the volume over which to uniformly distribute the local integrated curvature. We show that hybrid cells formed using both the simplicial lattice and its circumcentric dual emerge as a remarkably natural structure for the distribution of this local integrated curvature. These hybrid cells form a complete tessellation of the simplicial manifold, contain a geometric orthonormal basis, and are also shown to give a pointwise mean curvature with a natural interpretation as the fractional rate of change of the normal vector.
A curvature theory for discrete surfaces based on mesh parallelity
Bobenko, Alexander Ivanovich
2009-12-18
We consider a general theory of curvatures of discrete surfaces equipped with edgewise parallel Gauss images, and where mean and Gaussian curvatures of faces are derived from the faces\\' areas and mixed areas. Remarkably these notions are capable of unifying notable previously defined classes of surfaces, such as discrete isothermic minimal surfaces and surfaces of constant mean curvature. We discuss various types of natural Gauss images, the existence of principal curvatures, constant curvature surfaces, Christoffel duality, Koenigs nets, contact element nets, s-isothermic nets, and interesting special cases such as discrete Delaunay surfaces derived from elliptic billiards. © 2009 Springer-Verlag.
Integration of length and curvature in haptic perception.
Panday, Virjanand; Tiest, Wouter M Bergmann; Kappers, Astrid M L
2014-01-24
We investigated if and how length and curvature information are integrated when an object is explored in one hand. Subjects were asked to explore four types of objects between thumb and index finger. Objects differed in either length, curvature, both length and curvature correlated as in a circle, or anti-correlated. We found that when both length and curvature are present, performance is significantly better than when only one of the two cues is available. Therefore, we conclude that there is integration of length and curvature. Moreover, if the two cues are correlated in a circular cross-section instead of in an anti-correlated way, performance is better than predicted by a combination of two independent cues. We conclude that integration of curvature and length is highly efficient when the cues in the object are combined as in a circle, which is the most common combination of curvature and length in daily life.
Zero curvature-surface driven small objects
Dou, Xiaoxiao; Li, Shanpeng; Liu, Jianlin
2017-08-01
In this study, we investigate the spontaneous migration of small objects driven by surface tension on a catenoid, formed by a layer of soap constrained by two rings. Although the average curvature of the catenoid is zero at each point, the small objects always migrate to the position near the ring. The force and energy analyses have been performed to uncover the mechanism, and it is found that the small objects distort the local shape of the liquid film, thus making the whole system energetically favorable. These findings provide some inspiration to design microfluidics, aquatic robotics, and miniature boats.
Spacetime Curvature and Higgs Stability after Inflation.
Herranen, M; Markkanen, T; Nurmi, S; Rajantie, A
2015-12-11
We investigate the dynamics of the Higgs field at the end of inflation in the minimal scenario consisting of an inflaton field coupled to the standard model only through the nonminimal gravitational coupling ξ of the Higgs field. Such a coupling is required by renormalization of the standard model in curved space, and in the current scenario also by vacuum stability during high-scale inflation. We find that for ξ≳1, rapidly changing spacetime curvature at the end of inflation leads to significant production of Higgs particles, potentially triggering a transition to a negative-energy Planck scale vacuum state and causing an immediate collapse of the Universe.
Constraining inverse-curvature gravity with supernovae.
Mena, Olga; Santiago, José; Weller, Jochen
2006-02-03
We show that models of generalized modified gravity, with inverse powers of the curvature, can explain the current accelerated expansion of the Universe without resorting to dark energy and without conflicting with solar system experiments. We have solved the Friedmann equations for the full dynamical range of the evolution of the Universe and performed a detailed analysis of supernovae data in the context of such models that results in an excellent fit. If we further include constraints on the current expansion of the Universe and on its age, we obtain that the matter content of the Universe is 0.07baryonic matter component.
Amplification of curvature perturbations in cyclic cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang Jun; Liu Zhiguo; Piao Yunsong
2010-01-01
We analytically and numerically show that through the cycles with nonsingular bounce, the amplitude of curvature perturbation on a large scale will be amplified and the power spectrum will redden. In some sense, this amplification will eventually destroy the homogeneity of the background, which will lead to the ultimate end of cycles of the global universe. We argue that for the model with increasing cycles, it might be possible that a fissiparous multiverse will emerge after one or several cycles, in which the cycles will continue only at corresponding local regions.
Curvature, zero modes and quantum statistics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Calixto, M [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 56, 30203 Cartagena (Spain); Aldaya, V [Instituto de AstrofIsica de AndalucIa, Apartado Postal 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain)
2006-08-18
We explore an intriguing connection between the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics and the thermal baths obtained from a vacuum radiation of coherent states of zero modes in a second quantized (many-particle) theory on the compact O(3) and noncompact O(2, 1) isometry subgroups of the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spaces, respectively. The high frequency limit is retrieved as a (zero-curvature) group contraction to the Newton-Hooke (harmonic oscillator) group. We also make some comments on the vacuum energy density and the cosmological constant problem. (letter to the editor)
Differential geometry bundles, connections, metrics and curvature
Taubes, Clifford Henry
2011-01-01
Bundles, connections, metrics and curvature are the 'lingua franca' of modern differential geometry and theoretical physics. This book will supply a graduate student in mathematics or theoretical physics with the fundamentals of these objects. Many of the tools used in differential topology are introduced and the basic results about differentiable manifolds, smooth maps, differential forms, vector fields, Lie groups, and Grassmanians are all presented here. Other material covered includes the basic theorems about geodesics and Jacobi fields, the classification theorem for flat connections, the
Curvature and temperature of complex networks.
Krioukov, Dmitri; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Vahdat, Amin; Boguñá, Marián
2009-09-01
We show that heterogeneous degree distributions in observed scale-free topologies of complex networks can emerge as a consequence of the exponential expansion of hidden hyperbolic space. Fermi-Dirac statistics provides a physical interpretation of hyperbolic distances as energies of links. The hidden space curvature affects the heterogeneity of the degree distribution, while clustering is a function of temperature. We embed the internet into the hyperbolic plane and find a remarkable congruency between the embedding and our hyperbolic model. Besides proving our model realistic, this embedding may be used for routing with only local information, which holds significant promise for improving the performance of internet routing.
Observational constraints on dark energy and cosmic curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yun; Mukherjee, Pia
2007-01-01
Current observational bounds on dark energy depend on our assumptions about the curvature of the universe. We present a simple and efficient method for incorporating constraints from cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropy data and use it to derive constraints on cosmic curvature and dark energy density as a free function of cosmic time using current CMB, Type Ia supernova (SN Ia), and baryon acoustic oscillation data. We show that there are two CMB shift parameters, R≡√(Ω m H 0 2 )r(z CMB ) (the scaled distance to recombination) and l a ≡πr(z CMB )/r s (z CMB ) (the angular scale of the sound horizon at recombination), with measured values that are nearly uncorrelated with each other. Allowing nonzero cosmic curvature, the three-year WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) data give R=1.71±0.03, l a =302.5±1.2, and Ω b h 2 =0.02173±0.00082, independent of the dark energy model. The corresponding bounds for a flat universe are R=1.70±0.03, l a =302.2±1.2, and Ω b h 2 =0.022±0.00082. We give the covariance matrix of (R,l a ,Ω b h 2 ) from the three-year WMAP data. We find that (R,l a ,Ω b h 2 ) provide an efficient and intuitive summary of CMB data as far as dark energy constraints are concerned. Assuming the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) prior of H 0 =72±8 (km/s) Mpc -1 , using 182 SNe Ia (from the HST/GOODS program, the first year Supernova Legacy Survey, and nearby SN Ia surveys), (R,l a ,Ω b h 2 ) from WMAP three-year data, and SDSS (Sloan Digital Sky Survey) measurement of the baryon acoustic oscillation scale, we find that dark energy density is consistent with a constant in cosmic time, with marginal deviations from a cosmological constant that may reflect current systematic uncertainties or true evolution in dark energy. A flat universe is allowed by current data: Ω k =-0.006 -0.012-0.025 +0.013+0.025 for assuming that the dark energy equation of state w X (z) is constant, and Ω k =-0.002 -0.018-0.032 +0.018+0.041 for w X (z
Polarized curvature radiation in pulsar magnetosphere
Wang, P. F.; Wang, C.; Han, J. L.
2014-07-01
The propagation of polarized emission in pulsar magnetosphere is investigated in this paper. The polarized waves are generated through curvature radiation from the relativistic particles streaming along curved magnetic field lines and corotating with the pulsar magnetosphere. Within the 1/γ emission cone, the waves can be divided into two natural wave-mode components, the ordinary (O) mode and the extraordinary (X) mode, with comparable intensities. Both components propagate separately in magnetosphere, and are aligned within the cone by adiabatic walking. The refraction of O mode makes the two components separated and incoherent. The detectable emission at a given height and a given rotation phase consists of incoherent X-mode and O-mode components coming from discrete emission regions. For four particle-density models in the form of uniformity, cone, core and patches, we calculate the intensities for each mode numerically within the entire pulsar beam. If the corotation of relativistic particles with magnetosphere is not considered, the intensity distributions for the X-mode and O-mode components are quite similar within the pulsar beam, which causes serious depolarization. However, if the corotation of relativistic particles is considered, the intensity distributions of the two modes are very different, and the net polarization of outcoming emission should be significant. Our numerical results are compared with observations, and can naturally explain the orthogonal polarization modes of some pulsars. Strong linear polarizations of some parts of pulsar profile can be reproduced by curvature radiation and subsequent propagation effect.
Emergent gravity in spaces of constant curvature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alvarez, Orlando; Haddad, Matthew [Department of Physics, University of Miami,1320 Campo Sano Ave, Coral Gables, FL 33146 (United States)
2017-03-07
In physical theories where the energy (action) is localized near a submanifold of a constant curvature space, there is a universal expression for the energy (or the action). We derive a multipole expansion for the energy that has a finite number of terms, and depends on intrinsic geometric invariants of the submanifold and extrinsic invariants of the embedding of the submanifold. This is the second of a pair of articles in which we try to develop a theory of emergent gravity arising from the embedding of a submanifold into an ambient space equipped with a quantum field theory. Our theoretical method requires a generalization of a formula due to by Hermann Weyl. While the first paper discussed the framework in Euclidean (Minkowski) space, here we discuss how this framework generalizes to spaces of constant sectional curvature. We focus primarily on anti de Sitter space. We then discuss how such a theory can give rise to a cosmological constant and Planck mass that are within reasonable bounds of the experimental values.
Lecture notes on mean curvature flow, barriers and singular perturbations
Bellettini, Giovanni
2013-01-01
The aim of the book is to study some aspects of geometric evolutions, such as mean curvature flow and anisotropic mean curvature flow of hypersurfaces. We analyze the origin of such flows and their geometric and variational nature. Some of the most important aspects of mean curvature flow are described, such as the comparison principle and its use in the definition of suitable weak solutions. The anisotropic evolutions, which can be considered as a generalization of mean curvature flow, are studied from the view point of Finsler geometry. Concerning singular perturbations, we discuss the convergence of the Allen–Cahn (or Ginsburg–Landau) type equations to (possibly anisotropic) mean curvature flow before the onset of singularities in the limit problem. We study such kinds of asymptotic problems also in the static case, showing convergence to prescribed curvature-type problems.
The curvature calculation mechanism based on simple cell model.
Yu, Haiyang; Fan, Xingyu; Song, Aiqi
2017-07-20
A conclusion has not yet been reached on how exactly the human visual system detects curvature. This paper demonstrates how orientation-selective simple cells can be used to construct curvature-detecting neural units. Through fixed arrangements, multiple plurality cells were constructed to simulate curvature cells with a proportional output to their curvature. In addition, this paper offers a solution to the problem of narrow detection range under fixed resolution by selecting an output value under multiple resolution. Curvature cells can be treated as concrete models of an end-stopped mechanism, and they can be used to further understand "curvature-selective" characteristics and to explain basic psychophysical findings and perceptual phenomena in current studies.
On Riemannian manifolds (Mn, g) of quasi-constant curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahman, M.S.
1995-07-01
A Riemannian manifold (M n , g) of quasi-constant curvature is defined. It is shown that an (M n , g) in association with other class of manifolds gives rise, under certain conditions, to a manifold of quasi-constant curvature. Some observations on how a manifold of quasi-constant curvature accounts for a pseudo Ricci-symmetric manifold and quasi-umbilical hypersurface are made. (author). 10 refs
Statistical mechanics of paths with curvature dependent action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.; Durhuus, B.; Jonsson, T.
1987-01-01
We analyze the scaling limit of discretized random paths with curvature dependent action. For finite values of the curvature coupling constant the theory belongs to the universality class of simple random walk. It is possible to define a non-trivial scaling limit if the curvature coupling tends to infinity. We compute exactly the two point function in this limit and discuss the relevance of our results for random surfaces and string theories. (orig.)
Evolution of the curvature perturbations during warm inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Tomohiro
2009-01-01
This paper considers warm inflation as an interesting application of multi-field inflation. Delta-N formalism is used for the calculation of the evolution of the curvature perturbations during warm inflation. Although the perturbations considered in this paper are decaying after the horizon exit, the corrections to the curvature perturbations sourced by these perturbations can remain and dominate the curvature perturbations at large scales. In addition to the typical evolution of the curvature perturbations, inhomogeneous diffusion rate is considered for warm inflation, which may lead to significant non-Gaussianity of the spectrum
3D face recognition with asymptotic cones based principal curvatures
Tang, Yinhang; Sun, Xiang; Huang, Di; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Wang, Yunhong; Chen, Liming
2015-01-01
The classical curvatures of smooth surfaces (Gaussian, mean and principal curvatures) have been widely used in 3D face recognition (FR). However, facial surfaces resulting from 3D sensors are discrete meshes. In this paper, we present a general framework and define three principal curvatures on discrete surfaces for the purpose of 3D FR. These principal curvatures are derived from the construction of asymptotic cones associated to any Borel subset of the discrete surface. They describe the local geometry of the underlying mesh. First two of them correspond to the classical principal curvatures in the smooth case. We isolate the third principal curvature that carries out meaningful geometric shape information. The three principal curvatures in different Borel subsets scales give multi-scale local facial surface descriptors. We combine the proposed principal curvatures with the LNP-based facial descriptor and SRC for recognition. The identification and verification experiments demonstrate the practicability and accuracy of the third principal curvature and the fusion of multi-scale Borel subset descriptors on 3D face from FRGC v2.0.
Robust estimation of adaptive tensors of curvature by tensor voting.
Tong, Wai-Shun; Tang, Chi-Keung
2005-03-01
Although curvature estimation from a given mesh or regularly sampled point set is a well-studied problem, it is still challenging when the input consists of a cloud of unstructured points corrupted by misalignment error and outlier noise. Such input is ubiquitous in computer vision. In this paper, we propose a three-pass tensor voting algorithm to robustly estimate curvature tensors, from which accurate principal curvatures and directions can be calculated. Our quantitative estimation is an improvement over the previous two-pass algorithm, where only qualitative curvature estimation (sign of Gaussian curvature) is performed. To overcome misalignment errors, our improved method automatically corrects input point locations at subvoxel precision, which also rejects outliers that are uncorrectable. To adapt to different scales locally, we define the RadiusHit of a curvature tensor to quantify estimation accuracy and applicability. Our curvature estimation algorithm has been proven with detailed quantitative experiments, performing better in a variety of standard error metrics (percentage error in curvature magnitudes, absolute angle difference in curvature direction) in the presence of a large amount of misalignment noise.
3D face recognition with asymptotic cones based principal curvatures
Tang, Yinhang
2015-05-01
The classical curvatures of smooth surfaces (Gaussian, mean and principal curvatures) have been widely used in 3D face recognition (FR). However, facial surfaces resulting from 3D sensors are discrete meshes. In this paper, we present a general framework and define three principal curvatures on discrete surfaces for the purpose of 3D FR. These principal curvatures are derived from the construction of asymptotic cones associated to any Borel subset of the discrete surface. They describe the local geometry of the underlying mesh. First two of them correspond to the classical principal curvatures in the smooth case. We isolate the third principal curvature that carries out meaningful geometric shape information. The three principal curvatures in different Borel subsets scales give multi-scale local facial surface descriptors. We combine the proposed principal curvatures with the LNP-based facial descriptor and SRC for recognition. The identification and verification experiments demonstrate the practicability and accuracy of the third principal curvature and the fusion of multi-scale Borel subset descriptors on 3D face from FRGC v2.0.
Cholera toxin B subunit induces local curvature on lipid bilayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pezeshkian, Weria; Nåbo, Lina J.; Ipsen, John H.
2017-01-01
B induces a local membrane curvature that is essential for its clathrin-independent uptake. Using all-atom molecular dynamics, we show that CTxB induces local curvature, with the radius of curvature around 36 nm. The main feature of the CTxB molecular structure that causes membrane bending is the protruding...... alpha helices in the middle of the protein. Our study points to a generic protein design principle for generating local membrane curvature through specific binding to their lipid anchors....
Hair curvature: a natural dialectic and review.
Nissimov, Joseph N; Das Chaudhuri, Asit Baran
2014-08-01
Although hair forms (straight, curly, wavy, etc.) are present in apparently infinite variations, each fibre can be reduced to a finite sequence of tandem segments of just three types: straight, bent/curly, or twisted. Hair forms can thus be regarded as resulting from genetic pathways that induce, reverse or modulate these basic curvature modes. However, physical interconversions between twists and curls demonstrate that strict one-to-one correspondences between them and their genetic causes do not exist. Current hair-curvature theories do not distinguish between bending and twisting mechanisms. We here introduce a multiple papillary centres (MPC) model which is particularly suitable to explain twisting. The model combines previously known features of hair cross-sectional morphology with partially/completely separated dermal papillae within single follicles, and requires such papillae to induce differential growth rates of hair cortical material in their immediate neighbourhoods. The MPC model can further help to explain other, poorly understood, aspects of hair growth and morphology. Separate bending and twisting mechanisms would be preferentially affected at the major or minor ellipsoidal sides of fibres, respectively, and together they exhaust the possibilities for influencing hair-form phenotypes. As such they suggest dialectic for hair-curvature development. We define a natural-dialectic (ND) which could take advantage of speculative aspects of dialectic, but would verify its input data and results by experimental methods. We use this as a top-down approach to first define routes by which hair bending or twisting may be brought about and then review evidence in support of such routes. In particular we consider the wingless (Wnt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathways as paradigm pathways for molecular hair bending and twisting mechanisms, respectively. In addition to the Wnt canonical pathway, the Wnt/Ca(2+) and planar cell polarity (PCP) pathways
FY 2016 Status Report: CIRFT Testing Data Analyses and Updated Curvature Measurements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2016-08-01
This report provides a detailed description of FY15 test result corrections/analysis based on the FY16 Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT) test program methodology update used to evaluate the vibration integrity of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) under normal transportation conditions. The CIRFT consists of a U-frame testing setup and a real-time curvature measurement method. The three-component U-frame setup of the CIRFT has two rigid arms and linkages to a universal testing machine. The curvature of rod bending is obtained through a three-point deflection measurement method. Three linear variable differential transformers (LVDTs) are used and clamped to the side connecting plates of the U-frame to capture the deformation of the rod. The contact-based measurement, or three-LVDT-based curvature measurement system, on SNF rods has been proven to be quite reliable in CIRFT testing. However, how the LVDT head contacts the SNF rod may have a significant effect on the curvature measurement, depending on the magnitude and direction of rod curvature. It has been demonstrated that the contact/curvature issues can be corrected by using a correction on the sensor spacing. The sensor spacing defines the separation of the three LVDT probes and is a critical quantity in calculating the rod curvature once the deflections are obtained. The sensor spacing correction can be determined by using chisel-type probes. The method has been critically examined this year and has been shown to be difficult to implement in a hot cell environment, and thus cannot be implemented effectively. A correction based on the proposed equivalent gauge-length has the required flexibility and accuracy and can be appropriately used as a correction factor. The correction method based on the equivalent gauge length has been successfully demonstrated in CIRFT data analysis for the dynamic tests conducted on Limerick (LMK) (17 tests), North Anna (NA) (6 tests), and Catawba mixed oxide (MOX
Hawking temperature of constant curvature black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cai Ronggen; Myung, Yun Soo
2011-01-01
The constant curvature (CC) black holes are higher dimensional generalizations of Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli black holes. It is known that these black holes have the unusual topology of M D-1 xS 1 , where D is the spacetime dimension and M D-1 stands for a conformal Minkowski spacetime in D-1 dimensions. The unusual topology and time-dependence for the exterior of these black holes cause some difficulties to derive their thermodynamic quantities. In this work, by using a globally embedding approach, we obtain the Hawking temperature of the CC black holes. We find that the Hawking temperature takes the same form when using both the static and global coordinates. Also, it is identical to the Gibbons-Hawking temperature of the boundary de Sitter spaces of these CC black holes.
Differential geometry connections, curvature, and characteristic classes
Tu, Loring W
2017-01-01
This text presents a graduate-level introduction to differential geometry for mathematics and physics students. The exposition follows the historical development of the concepts of connection and curvature with the goal of explaining the Chern–Weil theory of characteristic classes on a principal bundle. Along the way we encounter some of the high points in the history of differential geometry, for example, Gauss' Theorema Egregium and the Gauss–Bonnet theorem. Exercises throughout the book test the reader’s understanding of the material and sometimes illustrate extensions of the theory. Initially, the prerequisites for the reader include a passing familiarity with manifolds. After the first chapter, it becomes necessary to understand and manipulate differential forms. A knowledge of de Rham cohomology is required for the last third of the text. Prerequisite material is contained in author's text An Introduction to Manifolds, and can be learned in one semester. For the benefit of the reader and to establ...
Curvature radiation by bunches of particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Saggion, A.
1975-01-01
A bunch of relativistic particles moving on a curved trajectory is considered. The coherent emission of curvature radiation is described with particular regard to the role played by the 'shape' of the bunch as a function of its dimensions. It is found that the length of the bunch strongly affects the spectrum of the radiation emitted, with no effect on its polarization. For wavelengths shorter than the length of the bunch, the emitted intensity as a function of frequency shows recurrent maxima and minima, the height of the maxima being proportional to νsup(-5/3). The bunch dimensions perpendicular to the plane of the orbit affect both the spectral intensity and the polarization of the radiation. (orig./BJ) [de
Natural curvature for manifest T-duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poláček, Martin; Siegel, Warren
2014-01-01
We reformulate the manifestly T-dual description of the massless sector of the closed bosonic string, directly from the geometry associated with the (left and right) affine Lie algebra of the coset space Poincaré/Lorentz. This construction initially doubles not only the (spacetime) coordinates for translations but also those for Lorentz transformations (and their “dual”). As a result, the Lorentz connection couples directly to the string (as does the vielbein), rather than being introduced ad hoc to the covariant derivative as previously. This not only reproduces the old definition of T-dual torsion, but automatically gives a general, covariant definition of T-dual curvature (but still with some undetermined connections)
Nonminimal coupling of perfect fluids to curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolami, Orfeu; Lobo, Francisco S. N.; Paramos, Jorge
2008-01-01
In this work, we consider different forms of relativistic perfect fluid Lagrangian densities that yield the same gravitational field equations in general relativity (GR). A particularly intriguing example is the case with couplings of the form [1+f 2 (R)]L m , where R is the scalar curvature, which induces an extra force that depends on the form of the Lagrangian density. It has been found that, considering the Lagrangian density L m =p, where p is the pressure, the extra-force vanishes. We argue that this is not the unique choice for the matter Lagrangian density, and that more natural forms for L m do not imply the vanishing of the extra force. Particular attention is paid to the impact on the classical equivalence between different Lagrangian descriptions of a perfect fluid.
Topological photonic crystals with zero Berry curvature
Liu, Feng; Deng, Hai-Yao; Wakabayashi, Katsunori
2018-02-01
Topological photonic crystals are designed based on the concept of Zak's phase rather than the topological invariants such as the Chern number and spin Chern number, which rely on the existence of a nonvanishing Berry curvature. Our photonic crystals (PCs) are made of pure dielectrics and sit on a square lattice obeying the C4 v point-group symmetry. Two varieties of PCs are considered: one closely resembles the electronic two-dimensional Su-Schrieffer-Heeger model, and the other continues as an extension of this analogy. In both cases, the topological transitions are induced by adjusting the lattice constants. Topological edge modes (TEMs) are shown to exist within the nontrivial photonic band gaps on the termination of those PCs. The high efficiency of these TEMs transferring electromagnetic energy against several types of disorders has been demonstrated using the finite-element method.
A Field Theory with Curvature and Anticurvature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. I. Wanas
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The present work is an attempt to construct a unified field theory in a space with curvature and anticurvature, the PAP-space. The theory is derived from an action principle and a Lagrangian density using a symmetric linear parameterized connection. Three different methods are used to explore physical contents of the theory obtained. Poisson’s equations for both material and charge distributions are obtained, as special cases, from the field equations of the theory. The theory is a pure geometric one in the sense that material distribution, charge distribution, gravitational and electromagnetic potentials, and other physical quantities are defined in terms of pure geometric objects of the structure used. In the case of pure gravity in free space, the spherical symmetric solution of the field equations gives the Schwarzschild exterior field. The weak equivalence principle is respected only in the case of pure gravity in free space; otherwise it is violated.
On harmonic curvatures of a Frenet curve in Lorentzian space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuelahci, Mihriban; Bektas, Mehmet; Erguet, Mahmut
2009-01-01
In this paper, we consider curves of AW(k)-type, 1 ≤ k ≤ 3, in Lorentzian space. We give curvature conditions of these kind of curves. Furthermore, we study harmonic curvatures of curves of AW(k)-type. We investigate that under what conditions AW(k)-type curves are helix. Some related theorems and corollaries are also proved.
The scalar curvature problem on the four dimensional half sphere
Ben-Ayed, M; El-Mehdi, K
2003-01-01
In this paper, we consider the problem of prescribing the scalar curvature under minimal boundary conditions on the standard four dimensional half sphere. We provide an Euler-Hopf type criterion for a given function to be a scalar curvature for some metric conformal to the standard one. Our proof involves the study of critical points at infinity of the associated variational problem.
Statistical mechanics of surfaces with curvature dependent action
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jonsson, T.
1987-01-01
We review recent results about discretized random surfaces whose action (energy) depends on the extrinsic curvature. The surface tension scales to zero at an appropriate critical point if the coupling constant of the curvature term is taken to infinity. At this critical point one expects to be able to construct a continuum theory of smooth surfaces. (orig.)
Curvature of random walks and random polygons in confinement
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Diao, Y; Ernst, C; Montemayor, A; Ziegler, U
2013-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to study the curvature of equilateral random walks and polygons that are confined in a sphere. Curvature is one of several basic geometric properties that can be used to describe random walks and polygons. We show that confinement affects curvature quite strongly, and in the limit case where the confinement diameter equals the edge length the unconfined expected curvature value doubles from π/2 to π. To study curvature a simple model of an equilateral random walk in spherical confinement in dimensions 2 and 3 is introduced. For this simple model we derive explicit integral expressions for the expected value of the total curvature in both dimensions. These expressions are functions that depend only on the radius R of the confinement sphere. We then show that the values obtained by numeric integration of these expressions agrees with numerical average curvature estimates obtained from simulations of random walks. Finally, we compare the confinement effect on curvature of random walks with random polygons. (paper)
Curvature collineations for the field of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, K.P.; Singh, Gulab
1981-01-01
It has been shown that the space-times formed from a plane-fronted gravity wave and from a plane sandwich wave with constant polarisation admit proper curvature collineation in general. The curvature collineation vectors have been determined explicitly. (author)
Robust modal curvature features for identifying multiple damage in beams
Ostachowicz, Wiesław; Xu, Wei; Bai, Runbo; Radzieński, Maciej; Cao, Maosen
2014-03-01
Curvature mode shape is an effective feature for damage detection in beams. However, it is susceptible to measurement noise, easily impairing its advantage of sensitivity to damage. To deal with this deficiency, this study formulates an improved curvature mode shape for multiple damage detection in beams based on integrating a wavelet transform (WT) and a Teager energy operator (TEO). The improved curvature mode shape, termed the WT - TEO curvature mode shape, has inherent capabilities of immunity to noise and sensitivity to damage. The proposed method is experimentally validated by identifying multiple cracks in cantilever steel beams with the mode shapes acquired using a scanning laser vibrometer. The results demonstrate that the improved curvature mode shape can identify multiple damage accurately and reliably, and it is fairly robust to measurement noise.
INVESTIGATION OF CURVES SET BY CUBIC DISTRIBUTION OF CURVATURE
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. A. Ustenko
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Purpose. Further development of the geometric modeling of curvelinear contours of different objects based on the specified cubic curvature distribution and setpoints of curvature in the boundary points. Methodology. We investigate the flat section of the curvilinear contour generating under condition that cubic curvature distribution is set. Curve begins and ends at the given points, where angles of tangent slope and curvature are also determined. It was obtained the curvature equation of this curve, depending on the section length and coefficient c of cubic curvature distribution. The analysis of obtained equation was carried out. As well as, it was investigated the conditions, in which the inflection points of the curve are appearing. One should find such an interval of parameter change (depending on the input data and the section length, in order to place the inflection point of the curvature graph outside the curve section borders. It was determined the dependence of tangent slope of angle to the curve at its arbitrary point, as well as it was given the recommendations to solve a system of integral equations that allow finding the length of the curve section and the coefficient c of curvature cubic distribution. Findings. As the result of curves research, it is found that the criterion for their selection one can consider the absence of inflection points of the curvature on the observed section. Influence analysis of the parameter c on the graph of tangent slope angle to the curve showed that regardless of its value, it is provided the same rate of angle increase of tangent slope to the curve. Originality. It is improved the approach to geometric modeling of curves based on cubic curvature distribution with its given values at the boundary points by eliminating the inflection points from the observed section of curvilinear contours. Practical value. Curves obtained using the proposed method can be used for geometric modeling of curvilinear
Haptic perception of object curvature in Parkinson's disease.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jürgen Konczak
2008-07-01
Full Text Available The haptic perception of the curvature of an object is essential for adequate object manipulation and critical for our guidance of actions. This study investigated how the ability to perceive the curvature of an object is altered by Parkinson's disease (PD.Eight healthy subjects and 11 patients with mild to moderate PD had to judge, without vision, the curvature of a virtual "box" created by a robotic manipulandum. Their hands were either moved passively along a defined curved path or they actively explored the curved curvature of a virtual wall. The curvature was either concave or convex (bulging to the left or right and was judged in two locations of the hand workspace--a left workspace location, where the curved hand path was associated with curved shoulder and elbow joint paths, and a right workspace location in which these joint paths were nearly linear. After exploring the curvature of the virtual object, subjects had to judge whether the curvature was concave or convex. Based on these data, thresholds for curvature sensitivity were established. The main findings of the study are: First, 9 out 11 PD patients (82% showed elevated thresholds for detecting convex curvatures in at least one test condition. The respective median threshold for the PD group was increased by 343% when compared to the control group. Second, when distal hand paths became less associated with proximal joint paths (right workspace, haptic acuity was reduced substantially in both groups. Third, sensitivity to hand trajectory curvature was not improved during active exploration in either group.Our data demonstrate that PD is associated with a decreased acuity of the haptic sense, which may occur already at an early stage of the disease.
Dual curvature acoustically damped concentrating collector. Final technical report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, G.A.; Rausch, R.A.
1980-05-01
A development program was conducted to investigate the design and performance parameters of a novel, dual curvature, concentrating solar collector. The reflector of the solar collector is achieved with a stretched-film reflective surface that approximates a hyperbolic paraboloid and is capable of line-focusing at concentration ratios ranging from 10 to 20X. A prototype collector was designed based on analytical and experimental component trade-off activities as well as economic analyses of solar thermal heating and cooling systems incorporating this type of collector. A prototype collector incorporating six 0.66 x 1.22 m (2 x 4 ft) was fabricated and subjected to a limited thermal efficiency test program. A peak efficiency of 36% at 121/sup 0/C (250/sup 0/F) was achieved based upon the gross aperture area. Commercialization activities were conducted, including estimated production costs of $134.44/m/sup 2/ ($12.49/ft/sup 2/) for the collector assembly (including a local suntracker and controls) and $24.33/m/sup 2/ ($2.26/ft/sup 2/) for the reflector subassembly.
Magnetic vortices in nanocaps induced by curvature
Abdelgawad, Ahmed M.; Nambiar, Nikhil; Bapna, Mukund; Chen, Hao; Majetich, Sara A.
2018-05-01
Magnetic nanoparticles with room temperature remanent magnetic vortices stabilized by their curvature are very intriguing due to their potential use in biomedicine. In the present study, we investigate room temperature magnetic chirality in 100 nm diameter permalloy spherical caps with 10 nm and 30 nm thicknesses. Micromagnetic OOMMF simulations predict the equilibrium spin structure for these caps to form a vortex state. We fabricate the permalloy caps by sputtering permalloy on both close-packed and sparse arrays of polystyrene nanoparticles. Magnetic force microscopy scans show a clear signature of a vortex state in close-packed caps of both 10 nm and 30 nm thicknesses. Alternating gradient magnetometry measurements of the caps are consistent with a remnant vortex state in 30 nm thick caps and a transition to an onion state followed by a vortex state in 10 nm thick caps. Out-of-plane measurements supported by micromagnetic simulations shows that an out-of-plane field can stabilize a vortex state down to a diameter of 15 nm.
Face recognition based on depth maps and surface curvature
Gordon, Gaile G.
1991-09-01
This paper explores the representation of the human face by features based on the curvature of the face surface. Curature captures many features necessary to accurately describe the face, such as the shape of the forehead, jawline, and cheeks, which are not easily detected from standard intensity images. Moreover, the value of curvature at a point on the surface is also viewpoint invariant. Until recently range data of high enough resolution and accuracy to perform useful curvature calculations on the scale of the human face had been unavailable. Although several researchers have worked on the problem of interpreting range data from curved (although usually highly geometrically structured) surfaces, the main approaches have centered on segmentation by signs of mean and Gaussian curvature which have not proved sufficient in themselves for the case of the human face. This paper details the calculation of principal curvature for a particular data set, the calculation of general surface descriptors based on curvature, and the calculation of face specific descriptors based both on curvature features and a priori knowledge about the structure of the face. These face specific descriptors can be incorporated into many different recognition strategies. A system that implements one such strategy, depth template comparison, giving recognition rates between 80% and 90% is described.
Dynamic curvature sensing employing ionic-polymer–metal composite sensors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bahramzadeh, Yousef; Shahinpoor, Mohsen
2011-01-01
A dynamic curvature sensor is presented based on ionic-polymer–metal composite (IPMC) for curvature monitoring of deployable/inflatable dynamic space structures. Monitoring the curvature variation is of high importance in various engineering structures including shape monitoring of deployable/inflatable space structures in which the structural boundaries undergo a dynamic deployment process. The high sensitivity of IPMCs to the applied deformations as well as its flexibility make IPMCs a promising candidate for sensing of dynamic curvature changes. Herein, we explore the dynamic response of an IPMC sensor strip with respect to controlled curvature deformations subjected to different forms of input functions. Using a specially designed experimental setup, the voltage recovery effect, phase delay, and rate dependency of the output voltage signal of an IPMC curvature sensor are analyzed. Experimental results show that the IPMC sensor maintains the linearity, sensitivity, and repeatability required for curvature sensing. Besides, in order to describe the dynamic phenomena such as the rate dependency of the IPMC sensor, a chemo-electro-mechanical model based on the Poisson–Nernst–Planck (PNP) equation for the kinetics of ion diffusion is presented. By solving the governing partial differential equations the frequency response of the IPMC sensor is derived. The physical model is able to describe the dynamic properties of the IPMC sensor and the dependency of the signal on rate of excitations
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Profile curvature was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each raster cell using the ArcGIS 3D Analyst "Curvature" Tool. Profile curvature describes the rate...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Curvature was calculated from the bathymetry surface for each raster cell using the ArcGIS 3D Analyst "Curvature" Tool. Curvature describes the rate of change of...
Influence of Coanda surface curvature on performance of bladeless fan
Li, Guoqi; Hu, Yongjun; Jin, Yingzi; Setoguchi, Toshiaki; Kim, Heuy Dong
2014-10-01
The unique Coanda surface has a great influence on the performance of bladeless fan. However, there is few studies to explain the relationship between the performance and Coanda surface curvature at present. In order to gain a qualitative understanding of effect of the curvature on the performance of bladeless fan, numerical studies are performed in this paper. Firstly, three-dimensional numerical simulation is done by Fluent software. For the purpose to obtain detailed information of the flow field around the Coanda surface, two-dimensional numerical simulation is also conducted. Five types of Coanda surfaces with different curvature are designed, and the flow behaviour and the performance of them are analyzed and compared with those of the prototype. The analysis indicates that the curvature of Coanda surface is strongly related to blowing performance, It is found that there is an optimal curvature of Coanda surfaces among the studied models. Simulation result shows that there is a special low pressure region. With increasing curvature in Y direction, several low pressure regions gradually enlarged, then begin to merge slowly, and finally form a large area of low pressure. From the analyses of streamlines and velocity angle, it is found that the magnitude of the curvature affects the flow direction and reasonable curvature can induce fluid flow close to the wall. Thus, it leads to that the curvature of the streamlines is consistent with that of Coanda surface. Meanwhile, it also causes the fluid movement towards the most suitable direction. This study will provide useful information to performance improvements of bladeless fans.
Positive spatial curvature does not falsify the landscape
Horn, B.
2017-12-01
We present a simple cosmological model where the quantum tunneling of a scalar field rearranges the energetics of the matter sector, sending a stable static ancestor vacuum with positive spatial curvature into an inating solution with positive curvature. This serves as a proof of principle that an observation of positive spatial curvature does not falsify the hypothesis that our current observer patch originated from false vacuum tunneling in a string or field theoretic landscape. This poster submission is a summary of the work, and was presented at the 3rd annual ICPPA held in Moscow from October 2 to 5, 2017, by Prof. Rostislav Konoplich on behalf of the author.
Curvature perturbation and waterfall dynamics in hybrid inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Sasaki, Misao
2011-01-01
We investigate the parameter spaces of hybrid inflation model with special attention paid to the dynamics of waterfall field and curvature perturbations induced from its quantum fluctuations. Depending on the inflaton field value at the time of phase transition and the sharpness of the phase transition inflation can have multiple extended stages. We find that for models with mild phase transition the induced curvature perturbation from the waterfall field is too large to satisfy the COBE normalization. We investigate the model parameter space where the curvature perturbations from the waterfall quantum fluctuations vary between the results of standard hybrid inflation and the results obtained here
Curvature perturbation and waterfall dynamics in hybrid inflation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abolhasani, Ali Akbar [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Firouzjahi, Hassan [School of Physics, Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), P.O. Box 19395-5531, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: abolhasani@mail.ipm.ir, E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2011-10-01
We investigate the parameter spaces of hybrid inflation model with special attention paid to the dynamics of waterfall field and curvature perturbations induced from its quantum fluctuations. Depending on the inflaton field value at the time of phase transition and the sharpness of the phase transition inflation can have multiple extended stages. We find that for models with mild phase transition the induced curvature perturbation from the waterfall field is too large to satisfy the COBE normalization. We investigate the model parameter space where the curvature perturbations from the waterfall quantum fluctuations vary between the results of standard hybrid inflation and the results obtained here.
Geometry-specific scaling of detonation parameters from front curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackson, Scott I.; Short, Mark
2011-01-01
It has previously been asserted that classical detonation curvature theory predicts that the critical diameter and the diameter-effect curve of a cylindrical high-explosive charge should scale with twice the thickness of an analogous two-dimensional explosive slab. The varied agreement of experimental results with this expectation have led some to question the ability of curvature-based concepts to predict detonation propagation in non-ideal explosives. This study addresses such claims by showing that the expected scaling relationship (hereafter referred to d = 2w) is not consistent with curvature-based Detonation Shock Dynamics (DSD) theory.
Numerical studies of transverse curvature effects on transonic flow stability
Macaraeg, M. G.; Daudpota, Q. I.
1992-01-01
A numerical study of transverse curvature effects on compressible flow temporal stability for transonic to low supersonic Mach numbers is presented for axisymmetric modes. The mean flows studied include a similar boundary-layer profile and a nonsimilar axisymmetric boundary-layer solution. The effect of neglecting curvature in the mean flow produces only small quantitative changes in the disturbance growth rate. For transonic Mach numbers (1-1.4) and aerodynamically relevant Reynolds numbers (5000-10,000 based on displacement thickness), the maximum growth rate is found to increase with curvature - the maximum occurring at a nondimensional radius (based on displacement thickness) between 30 and 100.
Public and private space curvature in Robertson-Walker universes.
Rindler, W.
1981-05-01
The question is asked: what space curvature would a fundamental observer in an ideal Robertson-Walker universe obtain by direct local spatial measurements, i.e., without reference to the motion pattern of the other galaxies? The answer is that he obtains the curvatureK of his “private” space generated by all the geodesics orthogonal to his world line at the moment in question, and that ˜K is related to the usual curvatureK=k/R 2 of the “public” space of galaxies byK=K+H 2/c2, whereH is Hubble's parameter.
Higher Curvature Gravity from Entanglement in Conformal Field Theories
Haehl, Felix M.; Hijano, Eliot; Parrikar, Onkar; Rabideau, Charles
2018-05-01
By generalizing different recent works to the context of higher curvature gravity, we provide a unifying framework for three related results: (i) If an asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime computes the entanglement entropies of ball-shaped regions in a conformal field theory using a generalized Ryu-Takayanagi formula up to second order in state deformations around the vacuum, then the spacetime satisfies the correct gravitational equations of motion up to second order around the AdS background. (ii) The holographic dual of entanglement entropy in higher curvature theories of gravity is given by the Wald entropy plus a particular correction term involving extrinsic curvatures. (iii) Conformal field theory relative entropy is dual to gravitational canonical energy (also in higher curvature theories of gravity). Especially for the second point, our novel derivation of this previously known statement does not involve the Euclidean replica trick.
On the projective curvature tensor of generalized Sasakian-space ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
space-forms under some conditions regarding projective curvature tensor. All the results obtained in this paper are in the form of necessary and sufficient conditions. Keywords: Generalized Sasakian-space-forms; projectively flat; ...
Inverse curvature flows in asymptotically Robertson Walker spaces
Kröner, Heiko
2018-04-01
In this paper we consider inverse curvature flows in a Lorentzian manifold N which is the topological product of the real numbers with a closed Riemannian manifold and equipped with a Lorentzian metric having a future singularity so that N is asymptotically Robertson Walker. The flow speeds are future directed and given by 1 / F where F is a homogeneous degree one curvature function of class (K*) of the principal curvatures, i.e. the n-th root of the Gauss curvature. We prove longtime existence of these flows and that the flow hypersurfaces converge to smooth functions when they are rescaled with a proper factor which results from the asymptotics of the metric.
On a class of graphs with prescribed mean curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duong Minh Duc; Costa Salavessa, I.M. de
1989-11-01
We study a class of quasilinear elliptic equations on the unit ball of R n and apply these results to get the existence of graphs with prescribed mean curvature on n-hyperbolic spaces. (author). 18 refs
Higher-order curvature terms and extended inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Yun
1990-01-01
We consider higher-order curvature terms in context of the Brans-Dicke theory of gravity, and investigate the effects of these terms on extended inflationary theories. We find that the higher-order curvature terms tend to speed up inflation, although the original extended-inflation solutions are stable when these terms are small. Analytical solutions are found for two extreme cases: when the higher-order curvature terms are small, and when they dominate. A conformal transformation is employed in solving the latter case, and some of the subtleties in this technique are discussed. We note that percolation is less likely to occur when the higher-order curvature terms are present. An upper bound on α is expected if we are to avoid excessive and inadequate percolation of true-vacuum bubbles
Gauge and non-gauge curvature tensor copies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srivastava, P.P.
1982-10-01
A procedure for constructing curvature tensor copies is discussed using the anholonomic geometrical framework. The corresponding geometries are compared and the notion of gauge copy is elucidated. An explicit calculation is also made. (author)
Bacterial cell curvature through mechanical control of cell growth
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cabeen, M.; Charbon, Godefroid; Vollmer, W.
2009-01-01
The cytoskeleton is a key regulator of cell morphogenesis. Crescentin, a bacterial intermediate filament-like protein, is required for the curved shape of Caulobacter crescentus and localizes to the inner cell curvature. Here, we show that crescentin forms a single filamentous structure...... that collapses into a helix when detached from the cell membrane, suggesting that it is normally maintained in a stretched configuration. Crescentin causes an elongation rate gradient around the circumference of the sidewall, creating a longitudinal cell length differential and hence curvature. Such curvature...... can be produced by physical force alone when cells are grown in circular microchambers. Production of crescentin in Escherichia coli is sufficient to generate cell curvature. Our data argue for a model in which physical strain borne by the crescentin structure anisotropically alters the kinetics...
Constant scalar curvature hypersurfaces in extended Schwarzschild space-time
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pareja, M. J.; Frauendiener, J.
2006-01-01
We present a class of spherically symmetric hypersurfaces in the Kruskal extension of the Schwarzschild space-time. The hypersurfaces have constant negative scalar curvature, so they are hyperboloidal in the regions of space-time which are asymptotically flat
Translating Solitons of Mean Curvature Flow of Noncompact Submanifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Guanghan; Tian Daping; Wu Chuanxi
2011-01-01
We prove the existence and asymptotic behavior of rotationally symmetric solitons of mean curvature flow for noncompact submanifolds in Euclidean and Minkowski spaces, which generalizes part of the corresponding results for hypersurfaces of Jian.
Curvature and elasticity of substitution: what is the link?
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Matveenko, Andrei; Matveenko, V.
2014-01-01
Roč. 10, č. 2 (2014), s. 7-20 ISSN 1800-5845 Grant - others:UK(CZ) GAUK 308214 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : curvature * elasticity of substitution * production function Subject RIV: AH - Economics
Cosmic censorship, persistent curvature and asymptotic causal pathology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newman, R.P.A.C.
1984-01-01
The paper examines cosmic censorship in general relativity theory. Conformally flat space-times; persistent curvature; weakly asymptotically simple and empty asymptotes; censorship conditions; and the censorship theorem; are all discussed. (U.K.)
No Large Scale Curvature Perturbations during Waterfall of Hybrid Inflation
Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Firouzjahi, Hassan
2010-01-01
In this paper the possibility of generating large scale curvature perturbations induced from the entropic perturbations during the waterfall phase transition of standard hybrid inflation model is studied. We show that whether or not appreciable amounts of large scale curvature perturbations are produced during the waterfall phase transition depend crucially on the competition between the classical and the quantum mechanical back-reactions to terminate inflation. If one considers only the clas...
Existence of conformal metrics on spheres with prescribed Paneitz curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben Ayed, Mohamed; El Mehdi, Khalil
2003-07-01
In this paper we study the problem of prescribing a fourth order conformal invariant (the Paneitz curvature) on the n-spheres, with n ≥ 5. Using tools from the theory of critical points at infinity, we provide some topological conditions on the level sets of a given function defined on the sphere, under which we prove the existence of conformal metric with prescribed Paneitz curvature. (author)
Inflation in a shear-or curvature-dominated universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steigman, G.; Turner, M.S.
1983-01-01
We show that new inflation occurs even if the universe is shear-or (negative) curvature-dominated when the phase transition begins. In such situations the size of a causally coherent region, after inflation, is only slightly smaller (by powers, but not by exponential factors) than the usual result. The creation and evolution of density perturbations is unaffected. This result is marked contrast to 'old' inflation, where shear- or curvature-domination could quench inflation. (orig.)
Curvature-driven acceleration: a utopia or a reality?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Sudipta; Banerjee, Narayan; Dadhich, Naresh
2006-01-01
The present work shows that a combination of nonlinear contributions from the Ricci curvature in Einstein field equations can drive a late time acceleration of expansion of the universe. The transit from the decelerated to the accelerated phase of expansion takes place smoothly without having to resort to a study of asymptotic behaviour. This result emphasizes the need for thorough and critical examination of models with nonlinear contribution from the curvature
Curvature-driven acceleration: a utopia or a reality?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, Sudipta [Relativity and Cosmology Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta-700 032 (India); Banerjee, Narayan [Relativity and Cosmology Research Centre, Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Calcutta-700 032 (India); Dadhich, Naresh [Inter University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411 007 (India)
2006-06-21
The present work shows that a combination of nonlinear contributions from the Ricci curvature in Einstein field equations can drive a late time acceleration of expansion of the universe. The transit from the decelerated to the accelerated phase of expansion takes place smoothly without having to resort to a study of asymptotic behaviour. This result emphasizes the need for thorough and critical examination of models with nonlinear contribution from the curvature.
Existence of conformal metrics on spheres with prescribed Paneitz curvature
Ben-Ayed, M
2003-01-01
In this paper we study the problem of prescribing a fourth order conformal invariant (the Paneitz curvature) on the n-spheres, with n >= 5. Using tools from the theory of critical points at infinity, we provide some topological conditions on the level sets of a given function defined on the sphere, under which we prove the existence of conformal metric with prescribed Paneitz curvature.
Curvature effects in carbon nanomaterials: Exohedral versus endohedral supercapacitors
Huang, Jingsong; Bobby,; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Meunier, Vincent; Yushin, Gleb; Portet, Cristelle; Gogotsi, Yury
2010-01-01
Capacitive energy storage mechanisms in nanoporous carbon supercapacitors hinge on endohedral interactions in carbon materials with macro-, meso-, and micropores that have negative surface curvature. In this article, we show that because of the positive curvature found in zero-dimensional carbon onions or one-dimensional carbon nanotube arrays, exohedral interactions cause the normalized capacitance to increase with decreasing particle size or tube diameter, in sharp contrast to the behavior ...
Atomic fine structure in a space of constant curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bessis, N.; Bessis, G.; Shamseddine, R.
1982-01-01
As a contribution to a tentative formulation of atomic physics in a curved space, the determination of atomic fine structure energies in a space of constant curvature is investigated. Starting from the Dirac equation in a curved space-time, the analogue of the Pauli equation in a general coordinate system is derived. The theoretical curvature induced shifts and splittings of the fine structure energy levels are put in evidence and examined for the particular case of the hydrogenic n=2 levels. (author)
On $L_p$ Affine Surface Area and Curvature Measures
Zhao, Yiming
2015-01-01
The relationship between $L_p$ affine surface area and curvature measures is investigated. As a result, a new representation of the existing notion of $L_p$ affine surface area depending only on curvature measures is derived. Direct proofs of the equivalence between this new representation and those previously known are provided. The proofs show that the new representation is, in a sense, "polar" to that of Lutwak's and "dual" to that of Sch\\"utt & Werner's.
Curvature reduces bending strains in the quokka femur
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kyle McCabe
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This study explores how curvature in the quokka femur may help to reduce bending strain during locomotion. The quokka is a small wallaby, but the curvature of the femur and the muscles active during stance phase are similar to most quadrupedal mammals. Our hypothesis is that the action of hip extensor and ankle plantarflexor muscles during stance phase place cranial bending strains that act to reduce the caudal curvature of the femur. Knee extensors and biarticular muscles that span the femur longitudinally create caudal bending strains in the caudally curved (concave caudal side bone. These opposing strains can balance each other and result in less strain on the bone. We test this idea by comparing the performance of a normally curved finite element model of the quokka femur to a digitally straightened version of the same bone. The normally curved model is indeed less strained than the straightened version. To further examine the relationship between curvature and the strains in the femoral models, we also tested an extra-curved and a reverse-curved version with the same loads. There appears to be a linear relationship between the curvature and the strains experienced by the models. These results demonstrate that longitudinal curvature in bones may be a manipulable mechanism whereby bone can induce a strain gradient to oppose strains induced by habitual loading.
Novel tilt-curvature coupling in lipid membranes
Terzi, M. Mert; Deserno, Markus
2017-08-01
On mesoscopic scales, lipid membranes are well described by continuum theories whose main ingredients are the curvature of a membrane's reference surface and the tilt of its lipid constituents. In particular, Hamm and Kozlov [Eur. Phys. J. E 3, 323 (2000)] have shown how to systematically derive such a tilt-curvature Hamiltonian based on the elementary assumption of a thin fluid elastic sheet experiencing internal lateral pre-stress. Performing a dimensional reduction, they not only derive the basic form of the effective surface Hamiltonian but also express its emergent elastic couplings as trans-membrane moments of lower-level material parameters. In the present paper, we argue, though, that their derivation unfortunately missed a coupling term between curvature and tilt. This term arises because, as one moves along the membrane, the curvature-induced change of transverse distances contributes to the area strain—an effect that was believed to be small but nevertheless ends up contributing at the same (quadratic) order as all other terms in their Hamiltonian. We illustrate the consequences of this amendment by deriving the monolayer and bilayer Euler-Lagrange equations for the tilt, as well as the power spectra of shape, tilt, and director fluctuations. A particularly curious aspect of our new term is that its associated coupling constant is the second moment of the lipid monolayer's lateral stress profile—which within this framework is equal to the monolayer Gaussian curvature modulus, κ¯ m. On the one hand, this implies that many theoretical predictions now contain a parameter that is poorly known (because the Gauss-Bonnet theorem limits access to the integrated Gaussian curvature); on the other hand, the appearance of κ¯ m outside of its Gaussian curvature provenance opens opportunities for measuring it by more conventional means, for instance by monitoring a membrane's undulation spectrum at short scales.
Spinal curvature and characteristics of postural change in pregnant women.
Okanishi, Natsuko; Kito, Nobuhiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamamoto, Masako
2012-07-01
Pregnant women often report complaints due to physiological and postural changes. Postural changes during pregnancy may cause low back pain and pelvic girdle pain. This study aimed to compare the characteristics of postural changes in pregnant compared with non-pregnant women. Prospective case-control study. Pregnancy care center. Fifteen women at 17-34 weeks pregnancy comprised the study group, while 10 non-pregnant female volunteers comprised the control group. Standing posture was evaluated in the sagittal plane with static digital pictures. Two angles were measured by image analysis software: (1) between the trunk and pelvis; and (2) between the trunk and lower extremity. Spinal curvature was measured with Spinal Mouse® to calculate the means of sacral inclination, thoracic and lumbar curvature and inclination. The principal components were calculated until eigenvalues surpassed 1. Three distinct factors with eigenvalues of 1.00-2.49 were identified, consistent with lumbosacral spinal curvature and inclination, thoracic spine curvature, and inclination of the body. These factors accounted for 77.2% of the total variance in posture variables. Eleven pregnant women showed postural characteristics of lumbar kyphosis and sacral posterior inclination. Body inclination showed a variety of patterns compared with those in healthy women. Spinal curvature demonstrated a tendency for lumbar kyphosis in pregnant women. Pregnancy may cause changes in spinal curvature and posture, which may in turn lead to relevant symptoms. Our data provide a basis for investigating the effects of spinal curvature and postural changes on symptoms during pregnancy. © 2012 The Authors Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica© 2012 Nordic Federation of Societies of Obstetrics and Gynecology.
Sequence periodicity in nucleosomal DNA and intrinsic curvature.
Nair, T Murlidharan
2010-05-17
Most eukaryotic DNA contained in the nucleus is packaged by wrapping DNA around histone octamers. Histones are ubiquitous and bind most regions of chromosomal DNA. In order to achieve smooth wrapping of the DNA around the histone octamer, the DNA duplex should be able to deform and should possess intrinsic curvature. The deformability of DNA is a result of the non-parallelness of base pair stacks. The stacking interaction between base pairs is sequence dependent. The higher the stacking energy the more rigid the DNA helix, thus it is natural to expect that sequences that are involved in wrapping around the histone octamer should be unstacked and possess intrinsic curvature. Intrinsic curvature has been shown to be dictated by the periodic recurrence of certain dinucleotides. Several genome-wide studies directed towards mapping of nucleosome positions have revealed periodicity associated with certain stretches of sequences. In the current study, these sequences have been analyzed with a view to understand their sequence-dependent structures. Higher order DNA structures and the distribution of molecular bend loci associated with 146 base nucleosome core DNA sequence from C. elegans and chicken have been analyzed using the theoretical model for DNA curvature. The curvature dispersion calculated by cyclically permuting the sequences revealed that the molecular bend loci were delocalized throughout the nucleosome core region and had varying degrees of intrinsic curvature. The higher order structures associated with nucleosomes of C.elegans and chicken calculated from the sequences revealed heterogeneity with respect to the deviation of the DNA axis. The results points to the possibility of context dependent curvature of varying degrees to be associated with nucleosomal DNA.
The role of curvature in silica mesoporous crystals
Miyasaka, Keiichi; Bennett, Alfonso Garcia; Han, Lu; Han, Yu; Xiao, Changhong; Fujita, Nobuhisa; Castle, Toen; Sakamoto, Yasuhiro; Che, Shunai; Terasaki, Osamu
2012-01-01
Silica mesoporous crystals (SMCs) offer a unique opportunity to study micellar mesophases. Replication of non-equilibrium mesophases into porous silica structures allows the characterization of surfactant phases under a variety of chemical and physical perturbations, through methods not typically accessible to liquid crystal chemists. A poignant example is the use of electron microscopy and crystallography, as discussed herein, for the purpose of determining the fundamental role of amphiphile curvature, namely mean curvature and Gaussian curvature, which have been extensively studied in various fields such as polymer, liquid crystal, biological membrane, etc. The present work aims to highlight some current studies devoted to the interface curvature on SMCs, in which electron microscopy and electron crystallography (EC) are used to understand the geometry of silica wall surface in bicontinuous and cage-type mesostructures through the investigation of electrostatic potential maps. Additionally, we show that by altering the synthesis conditions during the preparation of SMCs, it is possible to isolate particles during micellar mesophase transformations in the cubic bicontinuous system, allowing us to view and study epitaxial relations under the specific synthesis conditions. By studying the relationship between mesoporous structure, interface curvature and micellar mesophases using electron microscopy and EC, we hope to bring new insights into the formation mechanism of these unique materials but also contribute a new way of understanding periodic liquid crystal systems. © 2012 The Royal Society.
The role of curvature in silica mesoporous crystals
Miyasaka, Keiichi
2012-02-08
Silica mesoporous crystals (SMCs) offer a unique opportunity to study micellar mesophases. Replication of non-equilibrium mesophases into porous silica structures allows the characterization of surfactant phases under a variety of chemical and physical perturbations, through methods not typically accessible to liquid crystal chemists. A poignant example is the use of electron microscopy and crystallography, as discussed herein, for the purpose of determining the fundamental role of amphiphile curvature, namely mean curvature and Gaussian curvature, which have been extensively studied in various fields such as polymer, liquid crystal, biological membrane, etc. The present work aims to highlight some current studies devoted to the interface curvature on SMCs, in which electron microscopy and electron crystallography (EC) are used to understand the geometry of silica wall surface in bicontinuous and cage-type mesostructures through the investigation of electrostatic potential maps. Additionally, we show that by altering the synthesis conditions during the preparation of SMCs, it is possible to isolate particles during micellar mesophase transformations in the cubic bicontinuous system, allowing us to view and study epitaxial relations under the specific synthesis conditions. By studying the relationship between mesoporous structure, interface curvature and micellar mesophases using electron microscopy and EC, we hope to bring new insights into the formation mechanism of these unique materials but also contribute a new way of understanding periodic liquid crystal systems. © 2012 The Royal Society.
Studying biomolecule localization by engineering bacterial cell wall curvature.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lars D Renner
Full Text Available In this article we describe two techniques for exploring the relationship between bacterial cell shape and the intracellular organization of proteins. First, we created microchannels in a layer of agarose to reshape live bacterial cells and predictably control their mean cell wall curvature, and quantified the influence of curvature on the localization and distribution of proteins in vivo. Second, we used agarose microchambers to reshape bacteria whose cell wall had been chemically and enzymatically removed. By combining microstructures with different geometries and fluorescence microscopy, we determined the relationship between bacterial shape and the localization for two different membrane-associated proteins: i the cell-shape related protein MreB of Escherichia coli, which is positioned along the long axis of the rod-shaped cell; and ii the negative curvature-sensing cell division protein DivIVA of Bacillus subtilis, which is positioned primarily at cell division sites. Our studies of intracellular organization in live cells of E. coli and B. subtilis demonstrate that MreB is largely excluded from areas of high negative curvature, whereas DivIVA localizes preferentially to regions of high negative curvature. These studies highlight a unique approach for studying the relationship between cell shape and intracellular organization in intact, live bacteria.
The speed-curvature power law of movements: a reappraisal.
Zago, Myrka; Matic, Adam; Flash, Tamar; Gomez-Marin, Alex; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2018-01-01
Several types of curvilinear movements obey approximately the so called 2/3 power law, according to which the angular speed varies proportionally to the 2/3 power of the curvature. The origin of the law is debated but it is generally thought to depend on physiological mechanisms. However, a recent paper (Marken and Shaffer, Exp Brain Res 88:685-690, 2017) claims that this power law is simply a statistical artifact, being a mathematical consequence of the way speed and curvature are calculated. Here we reject this hypothesis by showing that the speed-curvature power law of biological movements is non-trivial. First, we confirm that the power exponent varies with the shape of human drawing movements and with environmental factors. Second, we report experimental data from Drosophila larvae demonstrating that the power law does not depend on how curvature is calculated. Third, we prove that the law can be violated by means of several mathematical and physical examples. Finally, we discuss biological constraints that may underlie speed-curvature power laws discovered in empirical studies.
Waterfall field in hybrid inflation and curvature perturbation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Sasaki, Misao
2011-01-01
We study carefully the contribution of the waterfall field to the curvature perturbation at the end of hybrid inflation. In particular we clarify the parameter dependence analytically under reasonable assumptions on the model parameters. After calculating the mode function of the waterfall field, we use the δN formalism and confirm the previously obtained result that the power spectrum is very blue with the index 4 and is absolutely negligible on large scales. However, we also find that the resulting curvature perturbation is highly non-Gaussian and hence we calculate the bispectrum. We find that the bispectrum is at leading order independent of momentum and exhibits its peak at the equilateral limit, though it is unobservably small on large scales. We also present the one-point probability distribution function of the curvature perturbation
Waterfall field in hybrid inflation and curvature perturbation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gong, Jinn-Ouk [Instituut-Lorentz for Theoretical Physics, Universiteit Leiden, 2333 CA Leiden (Netherlands); Sasaki, Misao, E-mail: jgong@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: misao@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan)
2011-03-01
We study carefully the contribution of the waterfall field to the curvature perturbation at the end of hybrid inflation. In particular we clarify the parameter dependence analytically under reasonable assumptions on the model parameters. After calculating the mode function of the waterfall field, we use the δN formalism and confirm the previously obtained result that the power spectrum is very blue with the index 4 and is absolutely negligible on large scales. However, we also find that the resulting curvature perturbation is highly non-Gaussian and hence we calculate the bispectrum. We find that the bispectrum is at leading order independent of momentum and exhibits its peak at the equilateral limit, though it is unobservably small on large scales. We also present the one-point probability distribution function of the curvature perturbation.
Evolution of curvature perturbation in generalized gravity theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Tomohiro
2009-01-01
Using the cosmological perturbation theory in terms of the δN formalism, we find the simple formulation of the evolution of the curvature perturbation in generalized gravity theories. Compared with the standard gravity theory, a crucial difference appears in the end-boundary of the inflationary stage, which is due to the non-ideal form of the energy-momentum tensor that depends explicitly on the curvature scalar. Recent study shows that ultraviolet-complete quantum theory of gravity (Horava-Lifshitz gravity) can be approximated by using a generalized gravity action. Our paper may give an important step in understanding the evolution of the curvature perturbation during inflation, where the energy-momentum tensor may not be given by the ideal form due to the corrections from the fundamental theory.
On the scalar curvature of self-dual manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, J.
1992-08-01
We generalize LeBrun's explicit ''hyperbolic ansatz'' construction of self-dual metrics on connected sums of conformally flat manifolds and CP 2 's through a systematic use of the theory of hyperbolic geometry and Kleinian groups. (This construction produces, for example, all self-dual manifolds with semi-free S 1 -action and with either nonnegative scalar curvature or positive-definite intersection form.) We then point out a simple criterion for determining the sign of the scalar curvature of these conformal metrics. Exploiting this, we then show that the sign of the scalar curvature can change on connected components of the moduli space of self-dual metrics, thereby answering a question raised by King and Kotschick. (author). Refs
CURVATURE-DRIVEN MOLECULAR FLOW ON MEMBRANE SURFACE.
Mikucki, Michael; Zhou, Y C
2017-01-01
This work presents a mathematical model for the localization of multiple species of diffusion molecules on membrane surfaces. Morphological change of bilayer membrane in vivo is generally modulated by proteins. Most of these modulations are associated with the localization of related proteins in the crowded lipid environments. We start with the energetic description of the distributions of molecules on curved membrane surface, and define the spontaneous curvature of bilayer membrane as a function of the molecule concentrations on membrane surfaces. A drift-diffusion equation governs the gradient flow of the surface molecule concentrations. We recast the energetic formulation and the related governing equations by using an Eulerian phase field description to define membrane morphology. Computational simulations with the proposed mathematical model and related numerical techniques predict (i) the molecular localization on static membrane surfaces at locations with preferred mean curvatures, and (ii) the generation of preferred mean curvature which in turn drives the molecular localization.
Vibration Analysis of Circular Arch Element Using Curvature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H. Saffari
2008-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a finite element technique was used to determine the natural frequencies, and the mode shapes of a circular arch element was based on the curvature, which can fully represent the bending energy and by the equilibrium equations, the shear and axial strain energy were incorporated into the formulation. The treatment of general boundary conditions dose need a consideration when the element is incorporated by the curvature-based formula. This can be obtained by the introduction of a transformation matrix between nodal curvatures and nodal displacements. The equation of the motion for the element was obtained by the Lagrangian equation. Four examples are presented in order to verify the element formulation and its analytical capability.
Linearized curvatures for auxiliary fields in the de Sitter space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vasiliev, M A
1988-09-19
New consistent linearized curvatures in the de Sitter space are constructed. The sequence of actions, describing bosonic and fermionic gauge auxiliary fields, is found based on these curvatures. The proposed actions are parametrized by two integer parameters, n greater than or equal to 0 and m greater than or equal to 0. The simplest case n=m=0 corresponds in the flat limit to the auxiliary fields of 'new minimal' supergravity. The hamiltonian formulation is developed for the auxiliary fields suggested; hamiltonians and first- and second-class constraints are constructed. Using these results, it is shown that the systems of fields proposed possess no dynamical degrees of freedom in de Sitter and flat spaces. In addition the hamiltonian formalism is analysed for some free dynamical systems based on linearized higher-spin curvatures introduced previously.
Local divergence and curvature divergence in first order optics
Mafusire, Cosmas; Krüger, Tjaart P. J.
2018-06-01
The far-field divergence of a light beam propagating through a first order optical system is presented as a square root of the sum of the squares of the local divergence and the curvature divergence. The local divergence is defined as the ratio of the beam parameter product to the beam width whilst the curvature divergence is a ratio of the space-angular moment also to the beam width. It is established that the beam’s focusing parameter can be defined as a ratio of the local divergence to the curvature divergence. The relationships between the two divergences and other second moment-based beam parameters are presented. Their various mathematical properties are presented such as their evolution through first order systems. The efficacy of the model in the analysis of high power continuous wave laser-based welding systems is briefly discussed.
Model-independent Constraints on Cosmic Curvature and Opacity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Guo-Jian; Li, Zheng-Xiang; Xia, Jun-Qing; Zhu, Zong-Hong [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Wei, Jun-Jie, E-mail: gjwang@mail.bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: zxli918@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: xiajq@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: zhuzh@bnu.edu.cn, E-mail: jjwei@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)
2017-09-20
In this paper, we propose to estimate the spatial curvature of the universe and the cosmic opacity in a model-independent way with expansion rate measurements, H ( z ), and type Ia supernova (SNe Ia). On the one hand, using a nonparametric smoothing method Gaussian process, we reconstruct a function H ( z ) from opacity-free expansion rate measurements. Then, we integrate the H ( z ) to obtain distance modulus μ {sub H}, which is dependent on the cosmic curvature. On the other hand, distances of SNe Ia can be determined by their photometric observations and thus are opacity-dependent. In our analysis, by confronting distance moduli μ {sub H} with those obtained from SNe Ia, we achieve estimations for both the spatial curvature and the cosmic opacity without any assumptions for the cosmological model. Here, it should be noted that light curve fitting parameters, accounting for the distance estimation of SNe Ia, are determined in a global fit together with the cosmic opacity and spatial curvature to get rid of the dependence of these parameters on cosmology. In addition, we also investigate whether the inclusion of different priors for the present expansion rate ( H {sub 0}: global estimation, 67.74 ± 0.46 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}, and local measurement, 73.24 ± 1.74 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1}) exert influence on the reconstructed H ( z ) and the following estimations of the spatial curvature and cosmic opacity. Results show that, in general, a spatially flat and transparent universe is preferred by the observations. Moreover, it is suggested that priors for H {sub 0} matter a lot. Finally, we find that there is a strong degeneracy between the curvature and the opacity.
Some curvature properties of quarter symmetric metric connections
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rastogi, S.C.
1986-08-01
A linear connection Γ ji h with torsion tensor T j h P i -T i h P j , where T j h is an arbitrary (1,1) tensor field and P i is a 1-form, has been called a quarter-symmetric connection by Golab. Some properties of such connections have been studied by Rastogi, Mishra and Pandey, and Yano and Imai. In this paper based on the curvature tensor of quarter-symmetric metric connection we define a tensor analogous to conformal curvature tensor and study some properties of such a tensor. (author)
Vertex Normals and Face Curvatures of Triangle Meshes
Sun, Xiang
2016-08-12
This study contributes to the discrete differential geometry of triangle meshes, in combination with discrete line congruences associated with such meshes. In particular we discuss when a congruence defined by linear interpolation of vertex normals deserves to be called a ŉormal’ congruence. Our main results are a discussion of various definitions of normality, a detailed study of the geometry of such congruences, and a concept of curvatures and shape operators associated with the faces of a triangle mesh. These curvatures are compatible with both normal congruences and the Steiner formula.
Berry Curvature in Magnon-Phonon Hybrid Systems.
Takahashi, Ryuji; Nagaosa, Naoto
2016-11-18
We study theoretically the Berry curvature of the magnon induced by the hybridization with the acoustic phonons via the spin-orbit and dipolar interactions. We first discuss the magnon-phonon hybridization via the dipolar interaction, and show that the dispersions have gapless points in momentum space, some of which form a loop. Next, when both spin-orbit and dipolar interactions are considered, we show anisotropic texture of the Berry curvature and its divergence with and without gap closing. Realistic evaluation of the consequent anomalous velocity is given for yttrium iron garnet.
Prescribed curvature tensor in locally conformally flat manifolds
Pina, Romildo; Pieterzack, Mauricio
2018-01-01
A global existence theorem for the prescribed curvature tensor problem in locally conformally flat manifolds is proved for a special class of tensors R. Necessary and sufficient conditions for the existence of a metric g ¯ , conformal to Euclidean g, are determined such that R ¯ = R, where R ¯ is the Riemannian curvature tensor of the metric g ¯ . The solution to this problem is given explicitly for special cases of the tensor R, including the case where the metric g ¯ is complete on Rn. Similar problems are considered for locally conformally flat manifolds.
Black hole production in particle collisions and higher curvature gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rychkov, Vyacheslav S.
2004-01-01
The problem of black hole production in trans-Planckian particle collisions is revisited, in the context of large extra dimensions scenarios of TeV-scale gravity. The validity of the standard description of this process (two colliding Aichelburg-Sexl shock waves in classical Einstein gravity) is questioned. It is observed that the classical spacetime has large curvature along the transverse collision plane, as signaled by the curvature invariant (R μνλσ ) 2 . Thus quantum gravity effects, and in particular higher curvature corrections to the Einstein gravity, cannot be ignored. To give a specific example of what may happen, the collision is reanalyzed in the Einstein-Lanczos-Lovelock gravity theory, which modifies the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian by adding a particular 'Gauss-Bonnet' combination of curvature squared terms. The analysis uses a series of approximations, which reduce the field equations to a tractable second order nonlinear PDE of the Monge-Ampere type. It is found that the resulting spacetime is significantly different from the pure Einstein case in the future of the transverse collision plane. These considerations cast serious doubts on the geometric cross section estimate, which is based on the classical Einstein gravity description of the black hole production process
On conformal Paneitz curvature equations in higher dimensional spheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Mehdi, Khalil
2004-11-01
We study the problem of prescribing the Paneitz curvature on higher dimensional spheres. Particular attention is paid to the blow-up points, i.e. the critical points at infinity of the corresponding variational problem. Using topological tools and a careful analysis of the gradient flow lines in the neighborhood of such critical points at infinity, we prove some existence results. (author)
Continuous-Curvature Path Generation Using Fermat's Spiral
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anastasios M. Lekkas
2013-10-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel methodology, based on Fermat's spiral (FS, for constructing curvature-continuous parametric paths in a plane. FS has a zero curvature at its origin, a property that allows it to be connected with a straight line smoothly, that is, without the curvature discontinuity which occurs at the transition point between a line and a circular arc when constructing Dubins paths. Furthermore, contrary to the computationally expensive clothoids, FS is described by very simple parametric equations that are trivial to compute. On the downside, computing the length of an FS arc involves a Gaussian hypergeometric function. However, this function is absolutely convergent and it is also shown that it poses no restrictions to the domain within which the length can be calculated. In addition, we present an alternative parametrization of FS which eliminates the parametric speed singularity at the origin, hence making the spiral suitable for path-tracking applications. A detailed description of how to construct curvature-continuous paths with FS is given.
Eigenvalue estimates for submanifolds with bounded f-mean curvature
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
GUANGYUE HUANG
1College of Mathematics and Information Science, Henan Normal University,. Xinxiang 453007 ... submanifolds in a hyperbolic space with the norm of their mean curvature vector bounded above by a constant. ..... [2] Batista M, Cavalcante M P and Pyo J, Some isoperimetric inequalities and eigenvalue estimates in ...
Multiple spinal curvatures in a captive African dwarf crocodile ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
A 4 year old African dwarf crocodile that had been domiciled at the Zoological Gardens, University of Ibadan for 2 years was presented with a history of anorexia of two weeks' duration and reluctance to move for about a week prior to presentation. Physical examination revealed body curvatures and radiography was ...
Intracellular magnetophoresis of amyloplasts and induction of root curvature
Kuznetsov, O. A.; Hasenstein, K. H.
1996-01-01
High-gradient magnetic fields (HGMFs) were used to induce intracellular magnetophoresis of amyloplasts. The HGMFs were generated by placing a small ferromagnetic wedge into a uniform magnetic field or at the gap edge between two permanent magnets. In the vicinity of the tip of the wedge the dynamic factor of the magnetic field, delta(H2/2), was about 10(9) Oe2.cm-1, which subjected the amyloplasts to a force comparable to that of gravity. When roots of 2-d-old seedlings of flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) were positioned vertically and exposed to an HGMF, curvature away from the wedge was transient and lasted approximately 1 h. Average curvature obtained after placing magnets, wedge and seedlings on a 1-rpm clinostat for 2 h was 33 +/- 5 degrees. Roots of horizontally placed control seedlings without rotation curved about 47 +/- 4 degrees. The time course of curvature and changes in growth rate were similar for gravicurvature and for root curvature induced by HGMFs. Microscopy showed displacement of amyloplasts in vitro and in vivo. Studies with Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. showed that the wild type responded to HGMFs but the starchless mutant TC7 did not. The data indicate that a magnetic force can be used to study the gravisensing and response system of roots.
Zero mean curvature surfaces of mixed type in Minkowski space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klyachin, V A
2003-01-01
We investigate zero mean curvature surfaces in the Minkowski space R 3 1 such that their first fundamental quadratic form changes signature. Part of such a surface is space-like and part is time-like. We obtain complete information about the structure of the set of points where the surface changes type and prove the related existence and uniqueness theorems
On the Curvature and Heat Flow on Hamiltonian Systems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ohta Shin-ichi
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We develop the differential geometric and geometric analytic studies of Hamiltonian systems. Key ingredients are the curvature operator, the weighted Laplacian, and the associated Riccati equation.We prove appropriate generalizations of the Bochner-Weitzenböck formula and Laplacian comparison theorem, and study the heat flow.
The Paneitz curvature problem on lower dimensional spheres
Ben-Ayed, M
2003-01-01
In this paper we prescribe a fourth order conformal invariant (the Paneitz curvature) on the n-spheres, with n is an element of left brace 5, 6 right brace. Using dynamical and topological methods involving the study of critical points at infinity of the associated variational problem, we prove some existence results.
Forelimb bone curvature in terrestrial and arboreal mammals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Keith Henderson
2017-04-01
Full Text Available It has recently been proposed that the caudal curvature (concave caudal side observed in the radioulna of terrestrial quadrupeds is an adaptation to the habitual action of the triceps muscle which causes cranial bending strains (compression on cranial side. The caudal curvature is proposed to be adaptive because longitudinal loading induces caudal bending strains (increased compression on the caudal side, and these opposing bending strains counteract each other leaving the radioulna less strained. If this is true for terrestrial quadrupeds, where triceps is required for habitual elbow extension, then we might expect that in arboreal species, where brachialis is habitually required to maintain elbow flexion, the radioulna should instead be cranially curved. This study measures sagittal curvature of the ulna in a range of terrestrial and arboreal primates and marsupials, and finds that their ulnae are curved in opposite directions in these two locomotor categories. This study also examines sagittal curvature in the humerus in the same species, and finds differences that can be attributed to similar adaptations: the bone is curved to counter the habitual muscle action required by the animal’s lifestyle, the difference being mainly in the distal part of the humerus, where arboreal animals tend have a cranial concavity, thought to be in response the carpal and digital muscles that pull cranially on the distal humerus.
Axial Length/Corneal Radius of Curvature Ratio and Refractive ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2017-12-05
Dec 5, 2017 ... variously described as determined by the ocular biometric variables. There have been many studies on the relationship between refractive error and ocular axial length (AL), anterior chamber depth, corneal radius of curvature (CR), keratometric readings as well as other ocular biometric variables such as ...
GEOMETRY OF COMPLETE HYPERSURFACES EVOLVED BY MEAN CURVATURE FLOW
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
盛为民
2003-01-01
Some geometric behaviours of complete solutions to mean curvature flow before the singu-larities occur are studied. The author obtains the estimates of the rate of the distance betweentwo fixed points and the derivatives of the second fundamental form. By use of a new maximumprinciple, some geometric properties at infinity are obtained.
Cosmological models with positive scalar spatial curvature and Λ>0
Ponce de Leon, J.
1987-12-01
Some exact spherically symmetric solutions of the Einstein field equations with Λ>0 and positive three-curvature are given. They have reasonable physical properties and represent universes which do not undergo inflation but have a non-de Sitter behaviour for large times. This paper extends some previous results in the literature. Permanent address: Apartado 2816, Caracas 1010-A, Venezuela.
Critical dimension of strings with an extrinsic curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuki, T.; Viswanathan, K.S.
1988-01-01
The conformal anomaly is calculated by using the path-integral method to determine the critical dimension for a string theory with an extrinsic curvature by appropriately defining the first-order form of this Lagrangian. The critical dimension, defined by the vanishing of the Liouville kinetic term, is found to be D = 26, the same as for the ordinary bosonic string theory
Distributional curvature of time-dependent cosmic strings
Wilson, J P
1997-01-01
Colombeau's theory of generalised functions is used to calculate the contributions, at the rotation axis, to the distributional curvature for a time-dependent radiating cosmic string, and hence the mass per unit length of the string source. This mass per unit length is compared with the mass at null infinity, giving evidence for a global energy conservation law.
Automatic quantification of local and global articular cartilage surface curvature
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Folkesson, Jenny; Dam, Erik B; Olsen, Ole F
2008-01-01
The objective of this study was to quantitatively assess the surface curvature of the articular cartilage from low-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data, and to investigate its role in populations with varying radiographic signs of osteoarthritis (OA), cross-sectionally and longitudinally...
Directable weathering of concave rock using curvature estimation.
Jones, Michael D; Farley, McKay; Butler, Joseph; Beardall, Matthew
2010-01-01
We address the problem of directable weathering of exposed concave rock for use in computer-generated animation or games. Previous weathering models that admit concave surfaces are computationally inefficient and difficult to control. In nature, the spheroidal and cavernous weathering rates depend on the surface curvature. Spheroidal weathering is fastest in areas with large positive mean curvature and cavernous weathering is fastest in areas with large negative mean curvature. We simulate both processes using an approximation of mean curvature on a voxel grid. Both weathering rates are also influenced by rock durability. The user controls rock durability by editing a durability graph before and during weathering simulation. Simulations of rockfall and colluvium deposition further improve realism. The profile of the final weathered rock matches the shape of the durability graph up to the effects of weathering and colluvium deposition. We demonstrate the top-down directability and visual plausibility of the resulting model through a series of screenshots and rendered images. The results include the weathering of a cube into a sphere and of a sheltered inside corner into a cavern as predicted by the underlying geomorphological models.
Generalized Curvature-Matter Couplings in Modified Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tiberiu Harko
2014-07-01
Full Text Available In this work, we review a plethora of modified theories of gravity with generalized curvature-matter couplings. The explicit nonminimal couplings, for instance, between an arbitrary function of the scalar curvature R and the Lagrangian density of matter, induces a non-vanishing covariant derivative of the energy-momentum tensor, implying non-geodesic motion and, consequently, leads to the appearance of an extra force. Applied to the cosmological context, these curvature-matter couplings lead to interesting phenomenology, where one can obtain a unified description of the cosmological epochs. We also consider the possibility that the behavior of the galactic flat rotation curves can be explained in the framework of the curvature-matter coupling models, where the extra terms in the gravitational field equations modify the equations of motion of test particles and induce a supplementary gravitational interaction. In addition to this, these models are extremely useful for describing dark energy-dark matter interactions and for explaining the late-time cosmic acceleration.
Curvature-induced symmetry breaking in nonlinear Schrodinger models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gaididei, Yuri Borisovich; Mingaleev, S. F.; Christiansen, Peter Leth
2000-01-01
We consider a curved chain of nonlinear oscillators and show that the interplay of curvature and nonlinearity leads to a symmetry breaking when an asymmetric stationary state becomes energetically more favorable than a symmetric stationary state. We show that the energy of localized states...
Other Earths: Search for Life and the Constant Curvature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Khoshyaran M. M.
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to propose a search methodology for finding other exactly similar earth like planets (or sister earths. The theory is based on space consisting of Riemann curves or highways. A mathematical model based on constant curvature, a moving frame bundle, and gravitational dynamics is introduced.
Supported lipid bilayers with controlled curvature via colloidal lithography
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sundh, Maria; Manandhar, Michal; Svedhem, Sofia
2011-01-01
Supported lipid bilayers (SLBs) at surfaces provide a route to quantitatively study molecular interactions with and at lipid membranes via different surface-based analytical techniques. Here, a method to fabricate SLBs with controlled curvatures, in the nanometer regime over large areas, is prese...
Papapetrou's naked singularity is a strong curvature singularity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hollier, G.P.
1986-01-01
Following Papapetrou [1985, a random walk in General Relativity ed. J. Krishna-Rao (New Delhi: Wiley Eastern)], a spacetime with a naked singularity is analysed. This singularity is shown to be a strong curvature singularity and thus a counterexample to a censorship conjecture. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Hyeon Chang; Park, Jun Hyub
2005-01-01
In this study, residual stress distribution in multi-stacked film by MEMS (Micro-Electro Mechanical System) process is predicted using Finite Element Method (FEM). We develop a finite element program for REsidual Stress Analysis (RESA) in multi-stacked film. The RESA predicts the distribution of residual stress field in multi-stacked film. Curvatures of multi-stacked film and single layers which consist of the multi-stacked film are used as the input to the RESA. To measure those curvatures is easier than to measure a distribution of residual stress. To verify the RESA, mean stresses and stress gradients of single and multilayers are measured. The mean stresses are calculated from curvatures of deposited wafer by using Stoney's equation. The stress gradients are calculated from the vertical deflection at the end of cantilever beam. To measure the mean stress of each layer in multi-stacked film, we measure the curvature of wafer with the film after etching layer by layer in multi-stacked film
Remarks on the boundary curve of a constant mean curvature topological disc
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Lopéz, Rafael
2017-01-01
We discuss some consequences of the existence of the holomorphic quadratic Hopf differential on a conformally immersed constant mean curvature topological disc with analytic boundary. In particular, we derive a formula for the mean curvature as a weighted average of the normal curvature of the bo......We discuss some consequences of the existence of the holomorphic quadratic Hopf differential on a conformally immersed constant mean curvature topological disc with analytic boundary. In particular, we derive a formula for the mean curvature as a weighted average of the normal curvature...
The Quick Measure of a Nurbs Surface Curvature for Accurate Triangular Meshing
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Kniat Aleksander
2014-04-01
Full Text Available NURBS surfaces are the most widely used surfaces for three-dimensional models in CAD/ CAE programs. When a model for FEM calculation is prepared with a CAD program it is inevitable to mesh it finally. There are many algorithms for meshing planar regions. Some of them may be used for meshing surfaces but it is necessary to take the curvature of the surface under consideration to avoid poor quality mesh. The mesh must be denser in the curved regions of the surface. In this paper, instead of analysing a surface curvature, the method to assess how close is a mesh triangle to the surface to which its vertices belong, is presented. The distance between a mesh triangle and a parallel tangent plane through a point on a surface is the measure of the triangle quality. Finding the surface point whose projection is located inside the mesh triangle and which is the tangency point to the plane parallel to this triangle is an optimization problem. Mathematical description of the problem and the algorithm to find its solution are also presented in the paper.
Physical and Geometric Interpretations of the Riemann Tensor, Ricci Tensor, and Scalar Curvature
Loveridge, Lee C.
2004-01-01
Various interpretations of the Riemann Curvature Tensor, Ricci Tensor, and Scalar Curvature are described. Also, the physical meanings of the Einstein Tensor and Einstein's Equations are discussed. Finally a derivation of Newtonian Gravity from Einstein's Equations is given.
A 1 + 5-dimensional gravitational-wave solution. Curvature singularity and spacetime singularity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chen, Yu-Zhu [Tianjin University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Li, Wen-Du [Tianjin University, Department of Physics, Tianjin (China); Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Dai, Wu-Sheng [Nankai University, Theoretical Physics Division, Chern Institute of Mathematics, Tianjin (China); Nankai University and Tianjin University, LiuHui Center for Applied Mathematics, Tianjin (China)
2017-12-15
We solve a 1 + 5-dimensional cylindrical gravitational-wave solution of the Einstein equation, in which there are two curvature singularities. Then we show that one of the curvature singularities can be removed by an extension of the spacetime. The result exemplifies that the curvature singularity is not always a spacetime singularity; in other words, the curvature singularity cannot serve as a criterion for spacetime singularities. (orig.)
Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system
Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.
2014-01-01
The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation ‘silent’ surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature shows denaturation and concomitant coagulation. PMID:25341004
Extrinsic Isoperimetric Analysis on Submanifolds with Curvatures bounded from below
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Markvorsen, Steen; Palmer, Vicente
2010-01-01
and on the radial part of the intrinsic unit normals at the boundaries of the extrinsic spheres, respectively. In the same vein we also establish lower bounds on the mean exit time for Brownian motions in the extrinsic balls, i.e. lower bounds for the time it takes (on average) for Brownian particles to diffuse......We obtain upper bounds for the isoperimetric quotients of extrinsic balls of submanifolds in ambient spaces which have a lower bound on their radial sectional curvatures. The submanifolds are themselves only assumed to have lower bounds on the radial part of the mean curvature vector field...... within the extrinsic ball from a given starting point before they hit the boundary of the extrinsic ball. In those cases, where we may extend our analysis to hold all the way to infinity, we apply a capacity comparison technique to obtain a sufficient condition for the submanifolds to be parabolic, i...
Curvature effects on carbon nanomaterials: Exohedral versus endhohedral supercapacitors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, J; Sumpter, B. G.; Meunier, V.; Yushin, G.; Portet, C.; Gogotsi, Y.
2011-01-31
Capacitive energy storage mechanisms in nanoporous carbon supercapacitors hinge on endohedral interactions in carbon materials with macro-, meso-, and micropores that have negative surface curvature. In this article, we show that because of the positive curvature found in zero-dimensional carbon onions or one-dimensional carbon nanotube arrays, exohedral interactions cause the normalized capacitance to increase with decreasing particle size or tube diameter, in sharp contrast to the behavior of nanoporous carbon materials. This finding is in good agreement with the trend of recent experimental data. Our analysis suggests that electrical energy storage can be improved by exploiting the highly curved surfaces of carbon nanotube arrays with diameters on the order of 1 nm.
Non-linear realizations and higher curvature supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Farakos, F. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' Galileo Galilei' ' , Universita di Padova (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Italy); Ferrara, S. [Department of Theoretical Physics, Geneva (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati (Italy); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mani L. Bhaumik Institute for Theoretical Physics, U.C.L.A., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Kehagias, A. [Physics Division, National Technical University of Athens (Greece); Luest, D. [Arnold Sommerfeld Center for Theoretical Physics, Muenchen (Germany); Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany)
2017-12-15
We focus on non-linear realizations of local supersymmetry as obtained by using constrained superfields in supergravity. New constraints, beyond those of rigid supersymmetry, are obtained whenever curvature multiplets are affected as well as higher derivative interactions are introduced. In particular, a new constraint, which removes a very massive gravitino is introduced, and in the rigid limit it merely reduces to an explicit supersymmetry breaking. Higher curvature supergravities free of ghosts and instabilities are also obtained in this way. Finally, we consider direct coupling of the goldstino multiplet to the super Gauss-Bonnet multiplet and discuss the emergence of a new scalar degree of freedom. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Curvature properties of four-dimensional Walker metrics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaichi, M; Garcia-Rio, E; Matsushita, Y
2005-01-01
A Walker n-manifold is a semi-Riemannian manifold, which admits a field of parallel null r-planes, r ≤ n/2. In the present paper we study curvature properties of a Walker 4-manifold (M, g) which admits a field of parallel null 2-planes. The metric g is necessarily of neutral signature (+ + - -). Such a Walker 4-manifold is the lowest dimensional example not of Lorentz type. There are three functions of coordinates which define a Walker metric. Some recent work shows that a Walker 4-manifold of restricted type whose metric is characterized by two functions exhibits a large variety of symplectic structures, Hermitian structures, Kaehler structures, etc. For such a restricted Walker 4-manifold, we shall study mainly curvature properties, e.g., conditions for a Walker metric to be Einstein, Osserman, or locally conformally flat, etc. One of our main results is the exact solutions to the Einstein equations for a restricted Walker 4-manifold
Curvature effects in carbon nanomaterials: Exohedral versus endohedral supercapacitors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Huang, Jingsong [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Meunier, Vincent [ORNL; Gogotsi, Yury G. [Drexel University; Yushin, Gleb [Georgia Institute of Technology; Portet, Cristelle [Drexel University
2010-01-01
Capacitive energy storage mechanisms in nanoporous carbon supercapacitors hinge on endohedral interactions in carbon materials with macro-, meso-, and micropores that have negative surface curvature. In this article, we show that because of the positive curvature found in zero-dimensional carbon onions or one-dimensional carbon nanotube arrays, exohedral interactions cause the normalized capacitance to increase with decreasing particle size or tube diameter, in sharp contrast to the behavior of nanoporous carbon materials. This finding is in good agreement with the trend of recent experimental data. Our analysis suggests that electrical energy storage can be improved by exploiting the highly curved surfaces of carbon nanotube arrays with diameters on the order of 1 nm.
On M-theory fourfold vacua with higher curvature terms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grimm, Thomas W.; Pugh, Tom G.; Weißenbacher, Matthias
2015-01-01
We study solutions to the eleven-dimensional supergravity action, including terms quartic and cubic in the Riemann curvature, that admit an eight-dimensional compact space. The internal background is found to be a conformally Kähler manifold with vanishing first Chern class. The metric solution, however, is non-Ricci-flat even when allowing for a conformal rescaling including the warp factor. This deviation is due to the possible non-harmonicity of the third Chern-form in the leading order Ricci-flat metric. We present a systematic derivation of the background solution by solving the Killing spinor conditions including higher curvature terms. These are translated into first-order differential equations for a globally defined real two-form and complex four-form on the fourfold. We comment on the supersymmetry properties of the described solutions
Substrate Curvature Regulates Cell Migration -A Computational Study
He, Xiuxiu; Jiang, Yi
Cell migration in host microenvironment is essential to cancer etiology, progression and metastasis. Cellular processes of adhesion, cytoskeletal polymerization, contraction, and matrix remodeling act in concert to regulate cell migration, while local extracellular matrix architecture modulate these processes. In this work we study how stromal microenvironment with native and cell-derived curvature at micron-meter scale regulate cell motility pattern. We developed a 3D model of single cell migration on a curved substrate. Mathematical analysis of cell morphological adaption to the cell-substrate interface shows that cell migration on convex surfaces deforms more than on concave surfaces. Both analytical and simulation results show that curved surfaces regulate the cell motile force for cell's protruding front through force balance with focal adhesion and cell contraction. We also found that cell migration on concave substrates is more persistent. These results offer a novel biomechanical explanation to substrate curvature regulation of cell migration. NIH 1U01CA143069.
Glauber theory and the quantum coherence of curvature inhomogeneities
Giovannini, Massimo
2017-01-12
The curvature inhomogeneities are systematically scrutinized in the framework of the Glauber approach. The amplified quantum fluctuations of the scalar and tensor modes of the geometry are shown to be first-order coherent while the interference of the corresponding intensities is larger than in the case of Bose-Einstein correlations. After showing that the degree of second-order coherence does not suffice to characterize unambiguously the curvature inhomogeneities, we argue that direct analyses of the degrees of third and fourth-order coherence are necessary to discriminate between different correlated states and to infer more reliably the statistical properties of the large-scale fluctuations. We speculate that the moments of the multiplicity distributions of the relic phonons might be observationally accessible thanks to new generations of instruments able to count the single photons of the Cosmic Microwave Background in the THz region.
Generating ekpyrotic curvature perturbations before the big bang
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehners, Jean-Luc; Turok, Neil; McFadden, Paul; Steinhardt, Paul J.
2007-01-01
We analyze a general mechanism for producing a nearly scale-invariant spectrum of cosmological curvature perturbations during a contracting phase preceding a big bang, which can be entirely described using 4D effective field theory. The mechanism, based on first producing entropic perturbations and then converting them to curvature perturbations, can be naturally incorporated in cyclic and ekpyrotic models in which the big bang is modeled as a brane collision, as well as other types of cosmological models with a pre-big bang phase. We show that the correct perturbation amplitude can be obtained and that the spectral tilt n s tends to range from slightly blue to red, with 0.97 s <1.02 for the simplest models, a range compatible with current observations but shifted by a few percent towards the blue compared to the prediction of the simplest, large-field inflationary models
Quantum Deformations and Superintegrable Motions on Spaces with Variable Curvature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Orlando Ragnisco
2007-02-01
Full Text Available An infinite family of quasi-maximally superintegrable Hamiltonians with a common set of (2N-3 integrals of the motion is introduced. The integrability properties of all these Hamiltonians are shown to be a consequence of a hidden non-standard quantum sl(2,R Poisson coalgebra symmetry. As a concrete application, one of this Hamiltonians is shown to generate the geodesic motion on certain manifolds with a non-constant curvature that turns out to be a function of the deformation parameter z. Moreover, another Hamiltonian in this family is shown to generate geodesic motions on Riemannian and relativistic spaces all of whose sectional curvatures are constant and equal to the deformation parameter z. This approach can be generalized to arbitrary dimension by making use of coalgebra symmetry.
Imprint of spatial curvature on inflation power spectrum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masso, Eduard; Zsembinszki, Gabriel; Mohanty, Subhendra; Nautiyal, Akhilesh
2008-01-01
If the Universe had a large curvature before inflation there is a deviation from the scale invariant perturbations of the inflaton at the beginning of inflation. This may have some effect on the cosmic microwave background anisotropy at large angular scales. We calculate the density perturbations for both open and closed universe cases using the Bunch-Davies vacuum condition on the initial state. We use our power spectrum to calculate the temperature anisotropy spectrum and compare the results with the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy map five year data. We find that our power spectrum gives a lower quadrupole anisotropy when Ω-1>0, but matches the temperature anisotropy calculated from the standard Ratra-Peebles power spectrum at large l. The determination of spatial curvature from temperature anisotropy data is not much affected by the different power spectra which arise from the choice of different boundary conditions for the inflaton perturbation.
Thermodynamic curvature of soft-sphere fluids and solids
Brańka, A. C.; Pieprzyk, S.; Heyes, D. M.
2018-02-01
The influence of the strength of repulsion between particles on the thermodynamic curvature scalar R for the fluid and solid states is investigated for particles interacting with the inverse power (r-n) potential, where r is the pair separation and 1 /n is the softness. Exact results are obtained for R in certain limiting cases, and the R behavior determined for the systems in the fluid and solid phases. It is found that in such systems the thermodynamic curvature can be positive for very soft particles, negative for steeply repulsive (or large n ) particles across almost the entire density range, and can change sign between negative and positive at a certain density. The relationship between R and the form of the interaction potential is more complex than previously suggested, and it may be that R is an indicator of the relative importance of energy and entropy contributions to the thermodynamic properties of the system.
Reheating via a generalized nonminimal coupling of curvature to matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolami, Orfeu; Frazao, Pedro; Paramos, Jorge
2011-01-01
In this work, one shows that a generalized nonminimal coupling between geometry and matter is compatible with Starobinsky inflation and leads to a successful process of preheating, a reheating scenario based on the production of massive particles via parametric resonance. The model naturally extends the usual preheating mechanism, which resorts to an ad hoc scalar curvature-dependent mass term for a scalar field χ, and also encompasses a previously studied preheating channel based upon a nonstandard kinetic term.
On the concircular curvature tensor of Riemannian manifolds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rahman, M.S.; Lal, S.
1990-06-01
Definition of the concircular curvature tensor, Z hijk , along with Z-tensor, Z ij , is given and some properties of Z hijk are described. Tensors identical with Z hijk are shown. A necessary and sufficient condition that a Riemannian V n has zero Z-tensor is found. A number of theorems on concircular symmetric space, concircular recurrent space (Z n -space) and Z n -space with zero Z-tensor are deduced. (author). 6 refs
Investigating undergraduate students’ ideas about the curvature of the Universe
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kim Coble
2018-06-01
Full Text Available [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Astronomy Education Research.] As part of a larger project studying undergraduate students’ understanding of cosmology, we explored students’ ideas about the curvature of the Universe. We investigated preinstruction ideas held by introductory astronomy (ASTRO 101 students at three participating universities and postinstruction ideas at one. Through thematic analysis of responses to questions on three survey forms and preinstruction interviews, we found that prior to instruction a significant fraction of students said the Universe is round. Students’ reasoning for this included that the Universe contains round objects, therefore it must also be round, or an incorrect idea that the big bang theory describes an explosion from a central point. We also found that a majority of students think that astronomers use the term curvature to describe properties, such as dimensions, angles, or size, of the Universe or objects in the Universe, or that astronomers use the term curvature to describe the bending of space due to gravity. Students are skeptical that the curvature of the Universe can be measured, to a greater or lesser degree depending on question framing. Postinstruction responses to a multiple-choice exam question and interviews at one university indicate that students are more likely to correctly respond that the Universe as a whole is not curved postinstruction, though the idea that the Universe is round still persists for some students. While we see no evidence that priming with an elliptical or rectangular map of the cosmic microwave background on a postinstruction exam affects responses, students do cite visualizations such as diagrams among the reasons for their responses in preinstruction surveys.
Torsion and curvature in higher dimensional supergravity theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, A.W.; Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro
1983-01-01
This work is an extension of Dragon's theorems to higher dimensional space-time. It is shown that the first set of Bianchi identities allow us to express the curvature components in terms of torsion components and its covariant derivatives. It is also shown that the second set of Bianchi identities does not give any new information which is not already contained in the first one. (Author) [pt
Global and local curvature in density functional theory.
Zhao, Qing; Ioannidis, Efthymios I; Kulik, Heather J
2016-08-07
Piecewise linearity of the energy with respect to fractional electron removal or addition is a requirement of an electronic structure method that necessitates the presence of a derivative discontinuity at integer electron occupation. Semi-local exchange-correlation (xc) approximations within density functional theory (DFT) fail to reproduce this behavior, giving rise to deviations from linearity with a convex global curvature that is evidence of many-electron, self-interaction error and electron delocalization. Popular functional tuning strategies focus on reproducing piecewise linearity, especially to improve predictions of optical properties. In a divergent approach, Hubbard U-augmented DFT (i.e., DFT+U) treats self-interaction errors by reducing the local curvature of the energy with respect to electron removal or addition from one localized subshell to the surrounding system. Although it has been suggested that DFT+U should simultaneously alleviate global and local curvature in the atomic limit, no detailed study on real systems has been carried out to probe the validity of this statement. In this work, we show when DFT+U should minimize deviations from linearity and demonstrate that a "+U" correction will never worsen the deviation from linearity of the underlying xc approximation. However, we explain varying degrees of efficiency of the approach over 27 octahedral transition metal complexes with respect to transition metal (Sc-Cu) and ligand strength (CO, NH3, and H2O) and investigate select pathological cases where the delocalization error is invisible to DFT+U within an atomic projection framework. Finally, we demonstrate that the global and local curvatures represent different quantities that show opposing behavior with increasing ligand field strength, and we identify where these two may still coincide.
Reflectionlessness, kurtosis and top curvature of potential barriers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, Zafar
2006-01-01
Apart from the rectangular barrier, other barriers having a single maximum generally display reflectivity, R(E), as a smoothly decreasing function of energy. We conjecture that symmetric potential barriers with a single maximum entail zeros or sharp minima in R(E) provided they have either their coefficient of kurtosis lying in the range (1.8, 3.0), or their top curvature as zero, or both
Tachyonless models of relativistic particles with curvature and torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuznetsov, Yu.A.; Plyushchaj, M.S.
1992-01-01
The problem of construction (2+1)-dimensional tachyonless models of relativistic particles with an action depending on the world-trajectory curvature and torsion is investigated. The special class of models, described by maximum symmetric action and comprising only spin internal degrees of freedom is found. The examples of systems from the special class are given, whose classical and quantum spectra contain only massive states. 23 refs
Curvature of super Diff(S1)/S1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oh, P.; Ramond, P.
1987-01-01
Motivated by the work of Bowick and Rajeev, we calculate the curvature of the infinite-dimensional flag manifolds Diff(S 1 )/S 1 and Super Diff(S 1 )/S 1 using standard finite-dimensional coset space techniques. We regularize the infinite by ζ-function regularization and recover the conformal and superconformal anomalies respectively for a specific choice of the torsion. (orig.)
ON THE CURVATURE OF DUST LANES IN GALACTIC BARS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Comeron, Sebastien; MartInez-Valpuesta, Inma; Knapen, Johan H.; Beckman, John E.
2009-01-01
We test the theoretical prediction that the straightest dust lanes in bars are found in strongly barred galaxies, or more specifically, that the degree of curvature of the dust lanes is inversely proportional to the strength of the bar. The test uses archival images of barred galaxies for which a reliable nonaxisymmetric torque parameter (Q b ) and the radius at which Q b has been measured (r(Q b )) have been published in the literature. Our results confirm the theoretical prediction but show a large spread that cannot be accounted for by measurement errors. We simulate 238 galaxies with different bar and bulge parameters in order to investigate the origin of the spread in the dust lane curvature versus Q b relation. From these simulations, we conclude that the spread is greatly reduced when describing the bar strength as a linear combination of the bar parameters Q b and the quotient of the major and minor axes of the bar, a/b. Thus, we conclude that the dust lane curvature is predominantly determined by the parameters of the bar.
Curvature profiles as initial conditions for primordial black hole formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polnarev, Alexander G; Musco, Ilia
2007-01-01
This work is part of an ongoing research programme to study possible primordial black hole (PBH) formation during the radiation-dominated era of the early universe. Working within spherical symmetry, we specify an initial configuration in terms of a curvature profile, which represents initial conditions for the large amplitude metric perturbations, away from the homogeneous Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model, which are required for PBH formation. Using an asymptotic quasi-homogeneous solution, we relate the curvature profile with the density and velocity fields, which at an early enough time, when the length scale of the configuration is much larger than the cosmological horizon, can be treated as small perturbations of the background values. We present general analytic solutions for the density and velocity profiles. These solutions enable us to consider in a self-consistent way the formation of PBHs in a wide variety of cosmological situations with the cosmological fluid being treated as an arbitrary mixture of different components with different equations of state. We obtain the analytical solutions for the density and velocity profiles as functions of the initial time. We then use two different parametrizations for the curvature profile and follow numerically the evolution of initial configurations
Generic Properties of Curvature Sensing through Vision and Touch
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Birgitta Dresp-Langley
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Generic properties of curvature representations formed on the basis of vision and touch were examined as a function of mathematical properties of curved objects. Virtual representations of the curves were shown on a computer screen for visual scaling by sighted observers (experiment 1. Their physical counterparts were placed in the two hands of blindfolded and congenitally blind observers for tactile scaling. The psychophysical data show that curvature representations in congenitally blind individuals, who never had any visual experience, and in sighted observers, who rely on vision most of the time, are statistically linked to the same mathematical properties of the curves. The perceived magnitude of object curvature, sensed through either vision or touch, is related by a mathematical power law, with similar exponents for the two sensory modalities, to the aspect ratio of the curves, a scale invariant geometric property. This finding supports biologically motivated models of sensory integration suggesting a universal power law for the adaptive brain control and balance of motor responses to environmental stimuli from any sensory modality.
Finger vein extraction using gradient normalization and principal curvature
Choi, Joon Hwan; Song, Wonseok; Kim, Taejeong; Lee, Seung-Rae; Kim, Hee Chan
2009-02-01
Finger vein authentication is a personal identification technology using finger vein images acquired by infrared imaging. It is one of the newest technologies in biometrics. Its main advantage over other biometrics is the low risk of forgery or theft, due to the fact that finger veins are not normally visible to others. Extracting finger vein patterns from infrared images is the most difficult part in finger vein authentication. Uneven illumination, varying tissues and bones, and changes in the physical conditions and the blood flow make the thickness and brightness of the same vein different in each acquisition. Accordingly, extracting finger veins at their accurate positions regardless of their thickness and brightness is necessary for accurate personal identification. For this purpose, we propose a new finger vein extraction method which is composed of gradient normalization, principal curvature calculation, and binarization. As local brightness variation has little effect on the curvature and as gradient normalization makes the curvature fairly uniform at vein pixels, our method effectively extracts finger vein patterns regardless of the vein thickness or brightness. In our experiment, the proposed method showed notable improvement as compared with the existing methods.
Berry Curvature and Nonlocal Transport Characteristics of Antidot Graphene
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jie Pan
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Antidot graphene denotes a monolayer of graphene structured by a periodic array of holes. Its energy dispersion is known to display a gap at the Dirac point. However, since the degeneracy between the A and B sites is preserved, antidot graphene cannot be described by the 2D massive Dirac equation, which is suitable for systems with an inherent A/B asymmetry. From inversion and time-reversal-symmetry considerations, antidot graphene should therefore have zero Berry curvature. In this work, we derive the effective Hamiltonian of antidot graphene from its tight-binding wave functions. The resulting Hamiltonian is a 4×4 matrix with a nonzero intervalley scattering term, which is responsible for the gap at the Dirac point. Furthermore, nonzero Berry curvature is obtained from the effective Hamiltonian, owing to the double degeneracy of the eigenfunctions. The topological manifestation is shown to be robust against randomness perturbations. Since the Berry curvature is expected to induce a transverse conductance, we have experimentally verified this feature through nonlocal transport measurements, by fabricating three antidot graphene samples with a triangular array of holes, a fixed periodicity of 150 nm, and hole diameters of 100, 80, and 60 nm. All three samples display topological nonlocal conductance, with excellent agreement with the theory predictions.
Curvature-driven instabilities in the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, H.; Spong, D.A.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Tsang, K.T.; Nguyen, K.T.
1982-01-01
Curvature-driven instabilities are analyzed for an EBT configuration which consists of plasma interacting with a hot electron ring whose drift frequencies are larger than the growth rates predicted from conventional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. Stability criteria are obtained for five possible modes: the conventional hot electron interchange, a high-frequency hot electron interchange (at frequencies greater than the ion-cyclotron frequency), a compressional instability, a background plasma interchange, and an interacting pressure-driven interchange. A wide parameter regime for stable operation is found, which, however, severely deteriorates for a band of intermediate mode numbers. Finite Larmor radius effects can eliminate this deterioration; moreover, all short-wavelength curvature-driven modes are stabilized if the hot electron Larmor radius rho/sub h/ satisfies (kappa/sub perpendicular/rho/sub h/) 2 > 2Δ/[Rβ/sub h/(1 + P'/sub parallel//P'/sub perpendicular/)], where kappa/sub perpendicular/ is the transverse wavenumber, Δ is the ring half-width, R is the mid-plane radius of curvature, β/sub h/ is the hot electron beta value, and P' is the pressure gradient. Resonant wave-particle instabilities predicted by a new low frequency variational principle show that a variety of remnant instabilities may still persist
Factors affecting root curvature of mandibular first molar
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, Hang Moon; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Kim, Jung Hwa; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won
2006-01-01
To find the cause of root curvature by use of panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiograph. Twenty six 1st graders whose mandibular 1st molars just emerged into the mouth were selected. Panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiograph were taken at grade 1 and 6, longitudinally. In cephalometric radio graph, mandibular plane angle, ramus-occlusal place angle, gonial angle, and gonion-gnathion distance(Go-Gn distance) were measured. In panoramic radiograph, elongated root length and root angle were measured by means of digital subtraction radiography. Occlusal plane-tooth axis angle was measured, too. Pearson correlations were used to evaluate the relationships between root curvature and elongated length and longitudinal variations of all variables. Multiple regression equation using related variables was computed. The pearson correlation coefficient between curved angle and longitudinal variations of occlusal plane-tooth axis angle and ramus-occlusal plane angle was 0.350 and 0.401, respectively (p 1 +0.745X 2 (Y: root angle, X 1 : variation of occlusal plane-tooth axis angle, X 2 : variation of ramus-occlusal plane angle). It was suspected that the reasons of root curvature were change of tooth axis caused by contact with 2nd deciduous tooth and amount of mesial and superior movement related to change of occlusal plane
Holonomy Attractor Connecting Spaces of Different Curvature Responsible for ``Anomalies''
Binder, Bernd
2009-03-01
In this lecture paper we derive Magic Angle Precession (MAP) from first geometric principles. MAP can arise in situations, where precession is multiply related to spin, linearly by time or distance (dynamic phase, rolling, Gauss law) and transcendentally by the holonomy loop path (geometric phase). With linear spin-precession coupling, gyroscopes can be spun up and down to very high frequencies via low frequency holonomy control induced by external accelerations, which provides for extreme coupling strengths or "anomalies" that can be tested by the powerball or gyrotwister device. Geometrically, a gyroscopic manifold with spherical metric is tangentially aligned to a precession wave channel with conic or hyperbolic metric (like the relativistic Thomas precession). Transporting triangular spin/precession vector relations across the tangential boundary of contact with SO(3) Lorentz symmetry, we get extreme vector currents near the attractor fixed points in precession phase space, where spin currents remain intact while crossing the contact boundaries between regions of different curvature signature (-1, 0, +1). The problem can be geometrically solved by considering a curvature invariant triangular condition, which holds on surfaces with different curvature that are in contact and locally parallel. In this case two out of three angles are identical, whereas the third angle is different due to holonomy. If we require that the side length ratio corresponding to these angles are invariant we get a geodesic chaotic attractor, which is a cosine map cos(x)˜Mx in parameter space providing for fixed points, limit cycle bifurcations, and singularities. The situation could be quite natural and common in the context of vector currents in curved spacetime and gauge theories. MAP could even be part of the electromagnetic interaction, where the electric charge is the geometric U(1) precession spin current and gauge potential with magnetic effects given by extra rotations under the
An Improved Method to Measure the Cosmic Curvature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng, E-mail: jjwei@pmo.ac.cn [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)
2017-04-01
In this paper, we propose an improved model-independent method to constrain the cosmic curvature by combining the most recent Hubble parameter H ( z ) and supernovae Ia (SNe Ia) data. Based on the H ( z ) data, we first use the model-independent smoothing technique, Gaussian processes, to construct a distance modulus μ {sub H} ( z ), which is susceptible to the cosmic curvature parameter Ω{sub k}. In contrary to previous studies, the light-curve-fitting parameters, which account for the distance estimation of SN (μ {sub SN}( z )), are set free to investigate whether Ω {sub k} has a dependence on them. By comparing μ {sub H} ( z ) to μ {sub SN}(z), we put limits on Ω {sub k}. Our results confirm that Ω {sub k} is independent of the SN light-curve parameters. Moreover, we show that the measured Ω {sub k} is in good agreement with zero cosmic curvature, implying that there is no significant deviation from a flat universe at the current observational data level. We also test the influence of different H(z) samples and different Hubble constant H {sub 0} values, finding that different H(z) samples do not have a significant impact on the constraints. However, different H {sub 0} priors can affect the constraints of Ω {sub k} to some degree. The prior of H {sub 0} = 73.24 ± 1.74 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1} gives a value of Ω {sub k}, a little bit above the 1 σ confidence level away from 0, but H{sub 0} = 69.6 ± 0.7 km s{sup −1} Mpc{sup −1} gives it below 1 σ .
A Japanese Stretching Intervention Can Modify Lumbar Lordosis Curvature.
Kadono, Norio; Tsuchiya, Kazushi; Uematsu, Azusa; Kamoshita, Hiroshi; Kiryu, Kazunori; Hortobágyi, Tibor; Suzuki, Shuji
2017-08-01
Eighteen healthy male adults were assigned to either an intervention or control group. Isogai dynamic therapy (IDT) is one of Japanese stretching interventions and has been practiced for over 70 years. However, its scientific quantitative evidence remains unestablished. The objective of this study was to determine whether IDT could modify lumbar curvature in healthy young adults compared with stretching exercises used currently in clinical practice. None of previous studies have provided data that conventional stretching interventions could modify spinal curvatures. However, this study provides the first evidence that a specific form of a Japanese stretching intervention can acutely modify the spinal curvatures. We compared the effects of IDT, a Japanese stretching intervention (n=9 males), with a conventional stretching routine (n=9 males) used widely in clinics to modify pelvic tilt and lumbar lordosis (LL) angle. We measured thoracic kyphosis (TK) and LL angles 3 times during erect standing using the Spinal Mouse before and after each intervention. IDT consisted of: (1) hip joint correction, (2) pelvic tilt correction, (3) lumbar alignment correction, and (4) squat exercise stretch. The control group performed hamstring stretches while (1) standing and (2) sitting. IDT increased LL angle to 25.1 degrees (±5.9) from 21.2 degrees (±6.9) (P=0.047) without changing TK angle (pretest: 36.8 degrees [±6.9]; posttest: 36.1 degrees [±6.5]) (P=0.572). The control group showed no changes in TK (P=0.819) and LL angles (P=0.744). IDT can thus be effective for increasing LL angle, hence anterior pelvic tilt. Such modifications could ameliorate low back pain and improve mobility in old adults with an unfavorable pelvic position.
Curvature fluctuations as progenitors of large scale holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vittorio, N.; Santangelo, P.; Occhionero, F.
1984-01-01
The authors extend previous work to study the formation and evolution of deep holes, under the assumption that they arise from curvature or energy perturbations in the Hubble flow. Their algorithm, which makes use of the spherically symmetric and pressureless Tolman-Bondi solution, can embed a perturbation in any cosmological background. After recalling previous results on the central depth of the hole and its radial dimension, they give here specific examples of density and peculiar velocity profiles, which may have a bearing on whether galaxy formation is a dissipative or dissipationless process. (orig.)
Curvature effect on tearing modes in presence of neoclassical friction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maget, Patrick; Mellet, Nicolas; Meshcheriakov, Dmytro; Garbet, Xavier [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint Paul-lez-Durance (France); Lütjens, Hinrich [Centre de Physique Théorique, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS (France)
2013-11-15
Neoclassical physics (here associated to the poloidal variation of the magnetic field strength along field lines in a tokamak) is well known for driving self-generated plasma current and nonlinear magnetic islands associated to it in high performance, ITER relevant plasma discharges. It is demonstrated that the neoclassical friction between a magnetic perturbation and plasma flow already impacts magnetic islands in the linear regime, by inducing a weakening of curvature stabilization for tearing modes. This conclusion holds in particular for regimes where convection is influencing the pressure dynamics, as shown using a simple analytical model and confirmed in full Magneto-Hydro-Dynamics simulations.
The natural selection of metabolism explains curvature in allometric scaling
Witting, Lars
2016-01-01
I simulate the evolution of metabolism and mass to explain the curvature in the metabolic allometry for placental and marsupial mammals. I assume that the release of inter-specific competition by the extinction of dinosaurs 65 million years ago made it possible for each clade to diversity into a multitude of species across a wide range of niches. The natural selection of metabolism and mass was then fitted to explain the maximum observed body masses over time, as well as the current inter-spe...
The evolution of space curves by curvature and torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richardson, G; King, J R
2002-01-01
We apply Lie group based similarity methods to the study of a new, and widely relevant, class of objects, namely motions of a space curve. In particular, we consider the motion of a curve evolving with a curvature κ and torsion τ dependent velocity law. We systematically derive the Lie point symmetries of all such laws of motion and use these to catalogue all their possible similarity reductions. This calculation reveals special classes of law with high degrees of symmetry (and a correspondingly large number of similarity reductions). Of particular note is one class which is invariant under general linear transformations in space. This has potential applications in pattern and signal recognition
Rigid particle revisited: Extrinsic curvature yields the Dirac equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deriglazov, Alexei, E-mail: alexei.deriglazov@ufjf.edu.br [Depto. de Matemática, ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation); Nersessian, Armen, E-mail: arnerses@ysu.am [Yerevan State University, 1 Alex Manoogian St., Yerevan 0025 (Armenia); Laboratory of Mathematical Physics, Tomsk Polytechnic University, 634050 Tomsk, Lenin Ave. 30 (Russian Federation)
2014-03-01
We reexamine the model of relativistic particle with higher-derivative linear term on the first extrinsic curvature (rigidity). The passage from classical to quantum theory requires a number of rather unexpected steps which we report here. We found that, contrary to common opinion, quantization of the model in terms of so(3.2)-algebra yields massive Dirac equation. -- Highlights: •New way of canonical quantization of relativistic rigid particle is proposed. •Quantization made in terms of so(3.2) angular momentum algebra. •Quantization yields massive Dirac equation.
Field equations for gravity quadratic in the curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rose, B.
1992-01-01
Vacuum field equations for gravity are studied having their origin in a Lagrangian quadratic in the curvature. The motivation for this choice of the Lagrangian-namely the treating of gravity in a strict analogy to gauge theories of Yang-Mills type-is criticized, especially the implied view of connections as gauge potentials with no dynamical relation to the metric. The correct field equations with respect to variation of the connections and the metric independently are given. We deduce field equations which differs from previous ones by variation of the metric, the torsion, and the nonmetricity from which the connections are built. 6 refs
2008 ULTRASONIC BENCHMARK STUDIES OF INTERFACE CURVATURE--A SUMMARY
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmerr, L. W.; Huang, R.; Raillon, R.; Mahaut, S.; Leymarie, N.; Lonne, S.; Song, S.-J.; Kim, H.-J.; Spies, M.; Lupien, V.
2009-01-01
In the 2008 QNDE ultrasonic benchmark session researchers from five different institutions around the world examined the influence that the curvature of a cylindrical fluid-solid interface has on the measured NDE immersion pulse-echo response of a flat-bottom hole (FBH) reflector. This was a repeat of a study conducted in the 2007 benchmark to try to determine the sources of differences seen in 2007 between model-based predictions and experiments. Here, we will summarize the results obtained in 2008 and analyze the model-based results and the experiments.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yin Song
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Though the importance of curvature continuity on compressor blade performances has been realized, there are two major questions that need to be solved, i.e., the respective effects of curvature continuity at the leading-edge blend point and the main surface, and the contradiction between the traditional theory and experimental observations in the effect of those novel leading-edge shapes with smaller curvature discontinuity and sharper nose. In this paper, an optimization method to design continuous-curvature blade profiles which deviate little from datum blades is proposed, and numerical and theoretical analysis is carried out to investigate the continuous-curvature effect on blade performances. The results show that the curvature continuity at the leading-edge blend point helps to eliminate the separation bubble, thus improving the blade performance. The main-surface curvature continuity is also beneficial, although its effects are much smaller than those of the blend-point curvature continuity. Furthermore, it is observed that there exist two factors controlling the leading-edge spike, i.e., the curvature discontinuity at the blend point which dominates at small incidences, and the nose curvature which dominates at large incidences. To the authors’ knowledge, such mechanisms have not been reported before, and they can help to solve the sharp-leading-edge paradox.
Effect of Plate Curvature on Blast Response of Structural Steel Plates
Veeredhi, Lakshmi Shireen Banu; Ramana Rao, N. V.; Veeredhi, Vasudeva Rao
2018-04-01
In the present work an attempt is made, through simulation studies, to determine the effect of plate curvature on the blast response of a door structure made of ASTM A515 grade 50 steel plates. A door structure with dimensions of 5.142 m × 2.56 m × 10 mm having six different radii of curvatures is analyzed which is subjected to blast load. The radii of curvature investigated are infinity (flat plate), 16.63, 10.81, 8.26, 6.61 and 5.56 m. In the present study, a stand-off distance of 11 m is considered for all the cases. Results showed that the door structure with smallest radius of curvature experienced least plastic deformation and yielding when compared to a door with larger radius of curvature with same projected area. From the present Investigation, it is observed that, as the radius of curvature of the plate increases, the deformation mode gradually shifts from indentation mode to flexural mode. The plates with infinity and 16.63 m radius of curvature have undergone flexural mode of deformation and plates with 6.61 and 5.56 m radius of curvature undergo indentation mode of deformation. Whereas, mixed mode of deformation that consists of both flexural and indentation mode of deformations are seen in the plates with radius of curvature 10.81 and 8.26 m. As the radius of curvature of the plate decreases the ability of the plate to mitigate the effect the blast loads increased. It is observed that the plate with smaller radius of curvature deflects most of the blast energy and results in least indentation mode of deformation. The most significant observation made in the present investigation is that the strain energy absorbed by the steel plate gets reduced to 1/3 rd when the radius of curvature is approximately equal to the stand-off distance which could be the critical radius of curvature.
Memory for curvature of objects: haptic touch vs. vision.
Ittyerah, Miriam; Marks, Lawrence E
2007-11-01
The present study examined the role of vision and haptics in memory for stimulus objects that vary along the dimension of curvature. Experiment 1 measured haptic-haptic (T-T) and haptic-visual (T-V) discrimination of curvature in a short-term memory paradigm, using 30-second retention intervals containing five different interpolated tasks. Results showed poorest performance when the interpolated tasks required spatial processing or movement, thereby suggesting that haptic information about shape is encoded in a spatial-motor representation. Experiment 2 compared visual-visual (V-V) and visual-haptic (V-T) short-term memory, again using 30-second delay intervals. The results of the ANOVA failed to show a significant effect of intervening activity. Intra-modal visual performance and cross-modal performance were similar. Comparing the four modality conditions (inter-modal V-T, T-V; intra-modal V-V, T-T, by combining the data of Experiments 1 and 2), in a global analysis, showed a reliable interaction between intervening activity and experiment (modality). Although there appears to be a general tendency for spatial and movement activities to exert the most deleterious effects overall, the patterns are not identical when the initial stimulus is encoded haptically (Experiment 1) and visually (Experiment 2).
Characterizing Suspension Plasma Spray Coating Formation Dynamics through Curvature Measurements
Chidambaram Seshadri, Ramachandran; Dwivedi, Gopal; Viswanathan, Vaishak; Sampath, Sanjay
2016-12-01
Suspension plasma spraying (SPS) enables the production of variety of microstructures with unique mechanical and thermal properties. In SPS, a liquid carrier (ethanol/water) is used to transport the sub-micrometric feedstock into the plasma jet. Considering complex deposition dynamics of SPS technique, there is a need to better understand the relationships among spray conditions, ensuing particle behavior, deposition stress evolution and resultant properties. In this study, submicron yttria-stabilized zirconia particles suspended in ethanol were sprayed using a cascaded arc plasma torch. The stresses generated during the deposition of the layers (termed evolving stress) were monitored via the change in curvature of the substrate measured using an in situ measurement apparatus. Depending on the deposition conditions, coating microstructures ranged from feathery porous to dense/cracked deposits. The evolving stresses and modulus were correlated with the observed microstructures and visualized via process maps. Post-deposition bi-layer curvature measurement via low temperature thermal cycling was carried out to quantify the thermo-elastic response of different coatings. Lastly, preliminary data on furnace cycle durability of different coating microstructures were evaluated. This integrated study involving in situ diagnostics and ex situ characterization along with process maps provides a framework to describe coating formation mechanisms, process parametrics and microstructure description.
Constant curvature algebras and higher spin action generating functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hallowell, K.; Waldron, A.
2005-01-01
The algebra of differential geometry operations on symmetric tensors over constant curvature manifolds forms a novel deformation of the sl(2,R)-bar R 2 Lie algebra. We present a simple calculus for calculations in its universal enveloping algebra. As an application, we derive generating functions for the actions and gauge invariances of massive, partially massless and massless (for both Bose and Fermi statistics) higher spins on constant curvature backgrounds. These are formulated in terms of a minimal set of covariant, unconstrained, fields rather than towers of auxiliary fields. Partially massless gauge transformations are shown to arise as degeneracies of the flat, massless gauge transformation in one dimension higher. Moreover, our results and calculus offer a considerable simplification over existing techniques for handling higher spins. In particular, we show how theories of arbitrary spin in dimension d can be rewritten in terms of a single scalar field in dimension 2d where the d additional dimensions correspond to coordinate differentials. We also develop an analogous framework for spinor-tensor fields in terms of the corresponding superalgebra
Limited capacity for contour curvature in iconic memory.
Sakai, Koji
2006-06-01
We measured the difference threshold for contour curvature in iconic memory by using the cued discrimination method. The study stimulus consisting of 2 to 6 curved contours was briefly presented in the fovea, followed by two lines as cues. Subjects discriminated the curvature of two cued curves. The cue delays were 0 msec. and 300 msec. in Exps. 1 and 2, respectively, and 50 msec. before the study offset in Exp. 3. Analysis of data from Exps. 1 and 2 showed that the Weber fraction rose monotonically with the increase in set size. Clear set-size effects indicate that iconic memory has a limited capacity. Moreover, clear set-size effect in Exp. 3 indicates that perception itself has a limited capacity. Larger set-size effects in Exp. 1 than in Exp. 3 suggest that iconic memory after perceptual process has limited capacity. These properties of iconic memory at threshold level are contradictory to the traditional view that iconic memory has a high capacity both at suprathreshold and categorical levels.
Nonlinear quantum gravity on the constant mean curvature foliation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Charles H-T
2005-01-01
A new approach to quantum gravity is presented based on a nonlinear quantization scheme for canonical field theories with an implicitly defined Hamiltonian. The constant mean curvature foliation is employed to eliminate the momentum constraints in canonical general relativity. It is, however, argued that the Hamiltonian constraint may be advantageously retained in the reduced classical system to be quantized. This permits the Hamiltonian constraint equation to be consistently turned into an expectation value equation on quantization that describes the scale factor on each spatial hypersurface characterized by a constant mean exterior curvature. This expectation value equation augments the dynamical quantum evolution of the unconstrained conformal three-geometry with a transverse traceless momentum tensor density. The resulting quantum theory is inherently nonlinear. Nonetheless, it is unitary and free from a nonlocal and implicit description of the Hamiltonian operator. Finally, by imposing additional homogeneity symmetries, a broad class of Bianchi cosmological models are analysed as nonlinear quantum minisuperspaces in the context of the proposed theory
Conversion of radius of curvature to power (and vice versa)
Wickenhagen, Sven; Endo, Kazumasa; Fuchs, Ulrike; Youngworth, Richard N.; Kiontke, Sven R.
2015-09-01
Manufacturing optical components relies on good measurements and specifications. One of the most precise measurements routinely required is the form accuracy. In practice, form deviation from the ideal surface is effectively low frequency errors, where the form error most often accounts for no more than a few undulations across a surface. These types of errors are measured in a variety of ways including interferometry and tactile methods like profilometry, with the latter often being employed for aspheres and general surface shapes such as freeforms. This paper provides a basis for a correct description of power and radius of curvature tolerances, including best practices and calculating the power value with respect to the radius deviation (and vice versa) of the surface form. A consistent definition of the sagitta is presented, along with different cases in manufacturing that are of interest to fabricators and designers. The results make clear how the definitions and results should be documented, for all measurement setups. Relationships between power and radius of curvature are shown that allow specifying the preferred metric based on final accuracy and measurement method. Results shown include all necessary equations for conversion to give optical designers and manufacturers a consistent and robust basis for decision-making. The paper also gives guidance on preferred methods for different scenarios for surface types, accuracy required, and metrology methods employed.
Effect of nano-scale curvature on the intrinsic blood coagulation system
Kushida, Takashi; Saha, Krishnendu; Subramani, Chandramouleeswaran; Nandwana, Vikas; Rotello, Vincent M.
2014-11-01
The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation.The intrinsic coagulation activity of silica nanoparticles strongly depends on their surface curvature. Nanoparticles with higher surface curvature do not denature blood coagulation factor XII on its surface, providing a coagulation `silent' surface, while nanoparticles with lower surface curvature show denaturation and concomitant coagulation. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Physical properties and scanning electron micrographs (SEM) of silica NPs, intrinsic coagulation activity after 3 h. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04128c
Discrimination of curvature from motion during smooth pursuit eye movements and fixation.
Ross, Nicholas M; Goettker, Alexander; Schütz, Alexander C; Braun, Doris I; Gegenfurtner, Karl R
2017-09-01
Smooth pursuit and motion perception have mainly been investigated with stimuli moving along linear trajectories. Here we studied the quality of pursuit movements to curved motion trajectories in human observers and examined whether the pursuit responses would be sensitive enough to discriminate various degrees of curvature. In a two-interval forced-choice task subjects pursued a Gaussian blob moving along a curved trajectory and then indicated in which interval the curve was flatter. We also measured discrimination thresholds for the same curvatures during fixation. Motion curvature had some specific effects on smooth pursuit properties: trajectories with larger amounts of curvature elicited lower open-loop acceleration, lower pursuit gain, and larger catch-up saccades compared with less curved trajectories. Initially, target motion curvatures were underestimated; however, ∼300 ms after pursuit onset pursuit responses closely matched the actual curved trajectory. We calculated perceptual thresholds for curvature discrimination, which were on the order of 1.5 degrees of visual angle (°) for a 7.9° curvature standard. Oculometric sensitivity to curvature discrimination based on the whole pursuit trajectory was quite similar to perceptual performance. Oculometric thresholds based on smaller time windows were higher. Thus smooth pursuit can quite accurately follow moving targets with curved trajectories, but temporal integration over longer periods is necessary to reach perceptual thresholds for curvature discrimination. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Even though motion trajectories in the real world are frequently curved, most studies of smooth pursuit and motion perception have investigated linear motion. We show that pursuit initially underestimates the curvature of target motion and is able to reproduce the target curvature ∼300 ms after pursuit onset. Temporal integration of target motion over longer periods is necessary for pursuit to reach the level of precision found
Quantifying the Relationship Between Curvature and Electric Potential in Lipid Bilayers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bruhn, Dennis Skjøth; Lomholt, Michael Andersen; Khandelia, Himanshu
2016-01-01
Cellular membranes mediate vital cellular processes by being subject to curvature and transmembrane electrical potentials. Here we build upon the existing theory for flexoelectricity in liquid crystals to quantify the coupling between lipid bilayer curvature and membrane potentials. Using molecular...... dynamics simulations, we show that head group dipole moments, the lateral pressure profile across the bilayer and spontaneous curvature all systematically change with increasing membrane potentials. In particu- lar, there is a linear dependence between the bending moment (the product of bending rigidity...
Wasnik, Vaibhav; Wingreen, Ned; Mukhopadhyay, Ranjan
2012-02-01
Recent experiments suggest that in the bacterium, B. subtilis, the cue for the localization of small sporulation protein, SpoVM, that plays a central role in spore coat formation, is curvature of the bacterial plasma membrane. This curvature-dependent localization is puzzling given the orders of magnitude difference in lengthscale of an individual protein and radius of curvature of the membrane. Here we develop a minimal model to study the relationship between curvature-dependent membrane absorption of SpoVM and clustering of membrane-associated SpoVM and compare our results with experiments.
Measurement of curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital holography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Wen; Quan Chenggen; Cho Jui Tay
2008-01-01
Measurement of curvature and twist is an important aspect in the study of object deformation. In recent years, several methods have been proposed to determine curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital shearography. Here we propose a novel method to determine the curvature and twist of a deformed object using digital holography and a complex phasor. A sine/cosine transformation method and two-dimensional short time Fourier transform are proposed subsequently to process the wrapped phase maps. It is shown that high-quality phase maps corresponding to curvature and twist can be obtained. An experiment is conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlo Ciulla
2015-11-01
Full Text Available This research presents signal-image post-processing techniques called Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches with application to the diagnosis of human brain tumors detected through Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI. Post-processing of the MRI of the human brain encompasses the following model functions: (i bivariate cubic polynomial, (ii bivariate cubic Lagrange polynomial, (iii monovariate sinc, and (iv bivariate linear. The following Intensity-Curvature Measurement Approaches were used: (i classic-curvature, (ii signal resilient to interpolation, (iii intensity-curvature measure and (iv intensity-curvature functional. The results revealed that the classic-curvature, the signal resilient to interpolation and the intensity-curvature functional are able to add additional information useful to the diagnosis carried out with MRI. The contribution to the MRI diagnosis of our study are: (i the enhanced gray level scale of the tumor mass and the well-behaved representation of the tumor provided through the signal resilient to interpolation, and (ii the visually perceptible third dimension perpendicular to the image plane provided through the classic-curvature and the intensity-curvature functional.
A major QTL controls susceptibility to spinal curvature in the curveback guppy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dreyer Christine
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the genetic basis of heritable spinal curvature would benefit medicine and aquaculture. Heritable spinal curvature among otherwise healthy children (i.e. Idiopathic Scoliosis and Scheuermann kyphosis accounts for more than 80% of all spinal curvatures and imposes a substantial healthcare cost through bracing, hospitalizations, surgery, and chronic back pain. In aquaculture, the prevalence of heritable spinal curvature can reach as high as 80% of a stock, and thus imposes a substantial cost through production losses. The genetic basis of heritable spinal curvature is unknown and so the objective of this work is to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL affecting heritable spinal curvature in the curveback guppy. Prior work with curveback has demonstrated phenotypic parallels to human idiopathic-type scoliosis, suggesting shared biological pathways for the deformity. Results A major effect QTL that acts in a recessive manner and accounts for curve susceptibility was detected in an initial mapping cross on LG 14. In a second cross, we confirmed this susceptibility locus and fine mapped it to a 5 cM region that explains 82.6% of the total phenotypic variance. Conclusions We identify a major QTL that controls susceptibility to curvature. This locus contains over 100 genes, including MTNR1B, a candidate gene for human idiopathic scoliosis. The identification of genes associated with heritable spinal curvature in the curveback guppy has the potential to elucidate the biological basis of spinal curvature among humans and economically important teleosts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiang Shen
2017-03-01
Full Text Available This article presents computational algorithms for the design, analysis, and optimization of airfoil aerodynamic performance. The prescribed surface curvature distribution blade design (CIRCLE method is applied to a symmetrical airfoil NACA0012 and a non-symmetrical airfoil E387 to remove their surface curvature and slope-of-curvature discontinuities. Computational fluid dynamics analysis is used to investigate the effects of curvature distribution on aerodynamic performance of the original and modified airfoils. An inviscid–viscid interaction scheme is introduced to predict the positions of laminar separation bubbles. The results are compared with experimental data obtained from tests on the original airfoil geometry. The computed aerodynamic advantages of the modified airfoils are analyzed in different operating conditions. The leading edge singularity of NACA0012 is removed and it is shown that the surface curvature discontinuity affects aerodynamic performance near the stalling angle of attack. The discontinuous slope-of-curvature distribution of E387 results in a larger laminar separation bubble at lower angles of attack and lower Reynolds numbers. It also affects the inherent performance of the airfoil at higher Reynolds numbers. It is shown that at relatively high angles of attack, a continuous slope-of-curvature distribution reduces the skin friction by suppressing both laminar and turbulent separation, and by delaying laminar-turbulent transition. It is concluded that the surface curvature distribution has significant effects on the boundary layer behavior and consequently an improved curvature distribution will lead to higher aerodynamic efficiency.
Spectral combination of spherical gravitational curvature boundary-value problems
PitoÅák, Martin; Eshagh, Mehdi; Šprlák, Michal; Tenzer, Robert; Novák, Pavel
2018-04-01
Four solutions of the spherical gravitational curvature boundary-value problems can be exploited for the determination of the Earth's gravitational potential. In this article we discuss the combination of simulated satellite gravitational curvatures, i.e., components of the third-order gravitational tensor, by merging these solutions using the spectral combination method. For this purpose, integral estimators of biased- and unbiased-types are derived. In numerical studies, we investigate the performance of the developed mathematical models for the gravitational field modelling in the area of Central Europe based on simulated satellite measurements. Firstly, we verify the correctness of the integral estimators for the spectral downward continuation by a closed-loop test. Estimated errors of the combined solution are about eight orders smaller than those from the individual solutions. Secondly, we perform a numerical experiment by considering the Gaussian noise with the standard deviation of 6.5× 10-17 m-1s-2 in the input data at the satellite altitude of 250 km above the mean Earth sphere. This value of standard deviation is equivalent to a signal-to-noise ratio of 10. Superior results with respect to the global geopotential model TIM-r5 are obtained by the spectral downward continuation of the vertical-vertical-vertical component with the standard deviation of 2.104 m2s-2, but the root mean square error is the largest and reaches 9.734 m2s-2. Using the spectral combination of all gravitational curvatures the root mean square error is more than 400 times smaller but the standard deviation reaches 17.234 m2s-2. The combination of more components decreases the root mean square error of the corresponding solutions while the standard deviations of the combined solutions do not improve as compared to the solution from the vertical-vertical-vertical component. The presented method represents a weight mean in the spectral domain that minimizes the root mean square error
Surface Curvature in Island Groups and Discontinuous Cratonic Structures
McDowell, M. S.
2002-05-01
The Canadian Archipelago includes eight major islands and a host of smaller ones. They are separated by water bodies, of varying widths attributable to glacial activity and ocean currents. Land form varies from relatively rugged mountains (~2000 m) in eastern, glacial, islands, to low lying western, similar to the continental topography adjacent. The Arctic region is thought to have been low average elevation before the Pleistocene. To a picture puzzler, it all looks like it fit together. Experimentally cutting apart the islands from large scale maps shows that the rough edges match fairly well. However, when those independent pieces are sutured together, without restraint, as in free air, the fit is far better. Far more importantly, they consistently form a noticeably concave surface. This tendency is not at all apparent in flat surface or computer screen manipulation; the pieces need to be "hand joined" or on a molded surface to allow the assembly to freely form as it will. Fitting together the coastlines above 60 \\deg north, from 120 \\deg west to 45 \\deg east, and comparing the resulting contracted area to the original, obtains an 8 percent area reduction. The curvature "humps" a trial planar section of 15 cms by 1.6 cm, a substantial difference in the radius of curvature. If you rashly suggest applying that formula globally, the resulting sphere would have a surface area of 4.7 x108,(down from 5 x108), and therefore radius of 6117 km, down from 6400, which is a rather preposterous conclusion. As nobody would believe it, I tested the idea elsewhere. The Huronian succession of six named cratons is adjacent on the south. I cut this map apart, too, and fit it together, once again getting a curvature, this time more pronounced. I am trying it with the Indonesian Archipelago, although this area has volcanic complications, and with Precambrian Basins in western Australia and Nimibia, Africa. Indications are - an essentially similar pattern of fit, but non uniform
Converting entropy to curvature perturbations after a cosmic bounce
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fertig, Angelika; Lehners, Jean-Luc; Mallwitz, Enno; Wilson-Ewing, Edward [Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Albert Einstein Institute,14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany)
2016-10-04
We study two-field bouncing cosmologies in which primordial perturbations are created in either an ekpyrotic or a matter-dominated contraction phase. We use a non-singular ghost condensate bounce model to follow the perturbations through the bounce into the expanding phase of the universe. In contrast to the adiabatic perturbations, which on large scales are conserved across the bounce, entropy perturbations can grow significantly during the bounce phase. If they are converted into adiabatic/curvature perturbations after the bounce, they typically form the dominant contribution to the observed temperature fluctuations in the microwave background, which can have several beneficial implications. For ekpyrotic models, this mechanism loosens the constraints on the amplitude of the ekpyrotic potential while naturally suppressing the intrinsic amount of non-Gaussianity. For matter bounce models, the mechanism amplifies the scalar perturbations compared to the associated primordial gravitational waves.
Observational constraints on the primordial curvature power spectrum
Emami, Razieh; Smoot, George F.
2018-01-01
CMB temperature fluctuation observations provide a precise measurement of the primordial power spectrum on large scales, corresponding to wavenumbers 10‑3 Mpc‑1 lesssim k lesssim 0.1 Mpc‑1, [1-7, 11]. Luminous red galaxies and galaxy clusters probe the matter power spectrum on overlapping scales (0.02 Mpc‑1 lesssim k lesssim 0.7 Mpc‑1 [10, 12-20]), while the Lyman-alpha forest reaches slightly smaller scales (0.3 Mpc‑1 lesssim k lesssim 3 Mpc‑1 [22]). These observations indicate that the primordial power spectrum is nearly scale-invariant with an amplitude close to 2 × 10‑9, [5, 23-28]. These observations strongly support Inflation and motivate us to obtain observations and constraints reaching to smaller scales on the primordial curvature power spectrum and by implication on Inflation. We are able to obtain limits to much higher values of k lesssim 105 Mpc‑1 and with less sensitivity even higher k lesssim 1019‑ 1023 Mpc‑1 using limits from CMB spectral distortions and other limits on ultracompact minihalo objects (UCMHs) and Primordial Black Holes (PBHs). PBHs are one of the known candidates for the Dark Matter (DM). Due to their very early formation, they could give us valuable information about the primordial curvature perturbations. These are complementary to other cosmological bounds on the amplitude of the primordial fluctuations. In this paper, we revisit and collect all the published constraints on both PBHs and UCMHs. We show that unless one uses the CMB spectral distortion, PBHs give us a very relaxed bounds on the primordial curvature perturbations. UCMHs, on the other hand, are very informative over a reasonable k range (3 lesssim k lesssim 106 Mpc‑1) and lead to significant upper-bounds on the curvature spectrum. We review the conditions under which the tighter constraints on the UCMHs could imply extremely strong bounds on the fraction of DM that could be PBHs in reasonable models. Failure to satisfy these conditions would
Reachability by paths of bounded curvature in a convex polygon
Ahn, Heekap; Cheong, Otfried; Matoušek, Jiřǐ; Vigneron, Antoine E.
2012-01-01
Let B be a point robot moving in the plane, whose path is constrained to forward motions with curvature at most 1, and let P be a convex polygon with n vertices. Given a starting configuration (a location and a direction of travel) for B inside P, we characterize the region of all points of P that can be reached by B, and show that it has complexity O(n). We give an O(n2) time algorithm to compute this region. We show that a point is reachable only if it can be reached by a path of type CCSCS, where C denotes a unit circle arc and S denotes a line segment. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Constraints on amplitudes of curvature perturbations from primordial black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugaev, Edgar; Klimai, Peter
2009-01-01
We calculate the primordial black hole (PBH) mass spectrum produced from a collapse of the primordial density fluctuations in the early Universe using, as an input, several theoretical models giving the curvature perturbation power spectra P R (k) with large (∼10 -2 -10 -1 ) values at some scale of comoving wave numbers k. In the calculation we take into account the explicit dependence of gravitational (Bardeen) potential on time. Using the PBH mass spectra, we further calculate the neutrino and photon energy spectra in extragalactic space from evaporation of light PBHs, and the energy density fraction contained in PBHs today (for heavier PBHs). We obtain the constraints on the model parameters using available experimental data (including data on neutrino and photon cosmic backgrounds). We briefly discuss the possibility that the observed 511 keV line from the Galactic center is produced by annihilation of positrons evaporated by PBHs.
The metric and curvature properties of H-space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, R.O.; Newman, E.T.; Penrose, R.; Tod, K.P.
1978-01-01
The space H of asymptotically (left-) shear-free cuts of the future null infinity (good cuts) of an asymptotically flat space-time M is defined. The connection between this space and the asymptotic projective twistor space of M is discussed, and this relation is used to prove that H is four-complex-dimensional for sufficiently 'calm' gravitational radiation in M. The metric on H-space is defined by a simple contour integral expression and is found to be complex Riemannian. The good cut equation governing H-space is solved to three orders by a Taylor series and the solution is used to demonstrate that the curvature of H-space is always a self dual (left flat) solution of the Einstein vacuum equations. (author)
Generalized curvature and the equations of D=11 supergravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bandos, Igor A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valencia and IFIC (CSIC-UVEG), 46100-Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); Institute for Theoretical Physics, NSC ' Kharkov Institute of Physics and Technology' , UA-61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Azcarraga, Jose A. de [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valencia and IFIC (CSIC-UVEG), 46100-Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain)]. E-mail: j.a.de.azcarraga@ific.uv.es; Picon, Moises [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valencia and IFIC (CSIC-UVEG), 46100-Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-2535 (United States); Varela, Oscar [Departamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad de Valencia and IFIC (CSIC-UVEG), 46100-Burjassot (Valencia) (Spain); Michigan Center for Theoretical Physics, Randall Laboratory, Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1120 (United States)
2005-05-26
It is known that, for zero fermionic sector, {psi}{sub {mu}}{sup {alpha}}(x)=0, the bosonic equations of Cremmer-Julia-Scherk eleven-dimensional supergravity can be collected in a compact expression, Rab{alpha}{gamma}{gamma}b{gamma}{beta}=0, which is a condition on the curvature R{alpha}{beta} of the generalized connection w. In this Letter we show that the equation Rbc{alpha}{gamma}{gamma}abc{gamma}{beta}=4i((D-bar {psi}){sub bc}{gamma}{sup [abc{sub {beta}({psi}{sub d}{gamma}{sup d}]){sub {alpha}}), where D-bar is the covariant derivative for the generalized connection w, collects all the bosonic equations of D=11 supergravity when the gravitino is nonvanishing, {psi}{sub {mu}}{sup {alpha}}(x)<>0.
Curvature-driven morphing of non-Euclidean shells
Pezzulla, Matteo; Stoop, Norbert; Jiang, Xin; Holmes, D. P.
2017-05-01
We investigate how thin structures change their shape in response to non-mechanical stimuli that can be interpreted as variations in the structure's natural curvature. Starting from the theory of non-Euclidean plates and shells, we derive an effective model that reduces a three-dimensional stimulus to the natural fundamental forms of the mid-surface of the structure, incorporating expansion, or growth, in the thickness. Then, we apply the model to a variety of thin bodies, from flat plates to spherical shells, obtaining excellent agreement between theory and numerics. We show how cylinders and cones can either bend more or unroll, and eventually snap and rotate. We also study the nearly isometric deformations of a spherical shell and describe how this shape change is ruled by the geometry of a spindle. As the derived results stem from a purely geometrical model, they are general and scalable.
Higher-curvature corrections to holographic entanglement with momentum dissipation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanhayi, M.R. [Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch (IAUCTB), Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM), School of Physics, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Vazirian, R. [Islamic Azad University Central Tehran Branch (IAUCTB), Department of Physics, Faculty of Basic Science, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2018-02-15
We study the effects of Gauss-Bonnet corrections on some nonlocal probes (entanglement entropy, n-partite information and Wilson loop) in the holographic model with momentum relaxation. Higher-curvature terms as well as scalar fields make in fact nontrivial corrections to the coefficient of the universal term in entanglement entropy. We use holographic methods to study such corrections. Moreover, holographic calculation indicates that mutual and tripartite information undergo a transition beyond which they identically change their values. We find that the behavior of the transition curves depends on the sign of the Gauss-Bonnet coupling λ. The transition for λ > 0 takes place in larger separation of subsystems than that of λ < 0. Finally, we examine the behavior of modified part of the force between external point-like objects as a function of Gauss-Bonnet coupling and its sign. (orig.)
Canonical quantization of a relativistic particle with curvature and torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesterenko, V.V.
1991-01-01
A generalization of the relativistic particle action is considered. It contain, in addition to the length of the world trajectory, the integrals along the world curve of its curvature and torsion. The generalized Hamiltonian formalism for this model in the D-dimensional space-time is constructed. A complete set of the constraints in the phase space is obtained and their division into the first-class and the second-class constraints is accomplished. On this basis the canonical quantization of the model is fulfilled. For D=3 the mass spectrum is obtained in the sector without tachyonic states, the mass of the state being dependent on its spin. It is shown that in the framework of this model when D=3 the possibility to describe the states with integral, half-odd-integral and continuous spins is derived. Interaction with an external Abelian gauge field introduced in the geometrical way. 21 refs
The string model with the extrinsic curvature term
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Itoi, C.; Kubota, Hiroshi
1988-01-01
The string model with the extrinsic curvature is studied which is a gauge invariant field theory with higher order derivatives. We present an equivalent action without any higher order derivatives which keeps the gauge invariance. We point out the difficulty caused by the second class constraints in Dirac's canonical method. Following a new method for dynamical systems with second class constraints, we construct a equivalent model which has no second class constraints but has a new gauge invariance. This gauge invariance guarantees the equivalence between the original model and new one. We show that the model can be quantized in this formalism. In a simple model, we show the nilpotence of the BRST charge under certain conditions, and discuss the unitarity of the theory. (author)
Inflation in non-minimal matter-curvature coupling theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gomes, C.; Bertolami, O. [Departamento de Física e Astronomia and Centro de Física do Porto, Faculdade de Ciências da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Rosa, J.G., E-mail: claudio.gomes@fc.up.pt, E-mail: joao.rosa@ua.pt, E-mail: orfeu.bertolami@fc.up.pt [Departamento de Física da Universidade de Aveiro and CIDMA, Campus de Santiago, 3810-183 Aveiro (Portugal)
2017-06-01
We study inflationary scenarios driven by a scalar field in the presence of a non-minimal coupling between matter and curvature. We show that the Friedmann equation can be significantly modified when the energy density during inflation exceeds a critical value determined by the non-minimal coupling, which in turn may considerably modify the spectrum of primordial perturbations and the inflationary dynamics. In particular, we show that these models are characterised by a consistency relation between the tensor-to-scalar ratio and the tensor spectral index that can differ significantly from the predictions of general relativity. We also give examples of observational predictions for some of the most commonly considered potentials and use the results of the Planck collaboration to set limits on the scale of the non-minimal coupling.
Design of footbridge with double curvature made of UHPC
Kněž, P.; Tej, P.; Čítek, D.; Kolísko, J.
2017-09-01
This paper presents design of footbridge with double curvature made of UHPC. The structure is designed as a single-span bridge. The span of the bridge is 10.00 m, and the width of the deck is 1.50 m. The thickness of shell structure is 0.03 m for walls and 0.045 m for deck. The main structure of the bridge is one arch shell structure with sidewalls made of UHPC with dispersed steel fibers with conventional reinforcement only at anchoring areas. The structure was designed on the basis of the numerical model. Model was subsequently clarified on the basis of the first test elements. Paper presents detailed course on design of the bridge and presentation will contain also installation in landscape and results of static and dynamic loading tests.
Non-Gaussianities and curvature perturbations from hybrid inflation
Clesse, Sébastien; Garbrecht, Björn; Zhu, Yi
2014-03-01
For the original hybrid inflation as well as the supersymmetric F-term and D-term hybrid models, we calculate the level of non-Gaussianities and the power spectrum of curvature perturbations generated during the waterfall, taking into account the contribution of entropic modes. We focus on the regime of mild waterfall, in which inflation continues for more than about 60 e-folds N during the waterfall. We find that the associated fNL parameter goes typically from fNL≃-1/Nexit in the regime with N ≫60, where Nexit is the number of e-folds between the time of Hubble exit of a pivot scale and the end of inflation, down to fNL˜-0.3 when N ≳60, i.e., much smaller in magnitude than the current bound from Planck. Considering only the adiabatic perturbations, the power spectrum is red, with a spectral index ns=1-4/Nexit in the case N ≫60, whereas in the case N≳60, it increases up to unity. Including the contribution of entropic modes does not change observable predictions in the first case, and the spectral index is too low for this regime to be viable. In the second case, entropic modes are a relevant source for the power spectrum of curvature perturbations, of which the amplitude increases by several orders of magnitude. When spectral index values are consistent with observational constraints, the primordial spectrum amplitude is much larger than the observed value and can even lead to black hole formation. We conclude that, due to the important contribution of entropic modes, the parameter space leading to a mild waterfall phase is excluded by cosmic microwave background observations for all the considered models.
Nonlinear damping of drift waves by strong flow curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sidikman, K.L.; Carreras, B.A.; Garcia, L.; Diamond, P.H.
1993-01-01
A single-equation model has been used to study the effect of a fixed poloidal flow (V 0 ) on turbulent drift waves. The electron dynamics come from a laminar kinetic equation in the dissipative trapped-electron regime. In the past, the authors have assumed that the mode frequency is close to the drift-wave frequency. Trapped-electron density fluctuations are then related to potential fluctuations by an open-quotes iδclose quotes term. Flow shear (V 0 ') and curvature (V 0 double-prime) both have a stabilizing effect on linear modes for this open-quotes iδclose quotes model. However, in the nonlinear regime, single-helicity effects inhibit the flow damping. Neither V 0 ' nor V 0 double-prime produces a nonlinear damping effect. The above assumption on the frequency can be relaxed by including the electron time-response in the linear part of the evolution. In this time-dependent model, instability drive due to trapped electrons is reduced when mode frequency is greater than drift-wave frequency. Since V 0 double-prime produces such a frequency shift, its linear effect is enhanced. There is also nonlinear damping, since single-helicity effects do not eliminate the shift. Renormalized theory for this model predicts nonlinear stability for sufficiently large curvature. Single-helicity calculations have already shown nonlinear damping, and this strong V 0 double-prime regime is being explored. In the theory, the Gaussian shape of the nonlinear diffusivity is expanded to obtain a quadratic potential. The implications of this assumption will be tested by solving the full renormalized equation using a shooting method
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
van der Horst, Sander; van de Wiel, Jelmer E.; Ferreira, Carlos Simao
2016-01-01
Blades on a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine (VAWT) experience curved streamlines, caused by the rotation of the turbine. This phenomenon is known as flow curvature and has effects on the aerodynamic loading of the blades. Several authors have proposed methods to account for flow curvature, resulting...
Gigli, Nicola
2018-01-01
The author discusses in which sense general metric measure spaces possess a first order differential structure. Building on this, spaces with Ricci curvature bounded from below a second order calculus can be developed, permitting the author to define Hessian, covariant/exterior derivatives and Ricci curvature.
Protein shape and crowding drive domain formation and curvature in biological membranes
Frese, R.N.; Pamies, Josep C.; Olsen, John D.; Bahatyrova, S.; van der Weij-de Wit, Chantal D.; Aartsma, Thijs J.; Otto, Cornelis; Hunter, C. Neil; Frenkel, Daan; van Grondelle, Rienk
2007-01-01
Folding, curvature, and domain formation are characteristics of many biological membranes. Yet the mechanisms that drive both curvature and the formation of specialized domains enriched in particular protein complexes are unknown. For this reason, studies in membranes whose shape and organization
Measurements of the Curvature of Protrusions/Retrusions on Migrating Recrystallization Boundaries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Zhang, Yubin; Godfrey, A.; Juul Jensen, Dorte
2009-01-01
Two methods to quantify protrusions/retrusions and to estimate local boundary curvature from sample plane sections are proposed. The methods are used to evaluate the driving force due to curvature of the protrusions/retrusions for partially recrystallized pure nickel cold rolled to 96% reduction...
The zero curvature formulation of the KP and the sKP equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barcelos Neto, J.; Das, A.; Panda, S.; Roy, S.
1992-01-01
The Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation is derived from the zero curvature condition associated with the gauge group SL(2,R) in 2+1 dimensions. A fermionic extension of the KP equation is also obtained using the zero curvature condition of the super group OS p (2/1), which reduces upon appropriate restriction to the Kupershmidt equation. (author). 17 refs
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Folkesson, Jenny; Dam, Erik B; Olsen, Ole F
2007-01-01
for intersubject comparisons. Digital phantoms were created to establish the accuracy of the curvature estimation methods. RESULTS: A comparison of the two curvature estimation methods to ground truth yielded absolute pairwise differences of 1.1%, and 4.8%, respectively. The interscan reproducibility for the two...
Single Lipid Molecule Dynamics on Supported Lipid Bilayers with Membrane Curvature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philip P. Cheney
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The plasma membrane is a highly compartmentalized, dynamic material and this organization is essential for a wide variety of cellular processes. Nanoscale domains allow proteins to organize for cell signaling, endo- and exocytosis, and other essential processes. Even in the absence of proteins, lipids have the ability to organize into domains as a result of a variety of chemical and physical interactions. One feature of membranes that affects lipid domain formation is membrane curvature. To directly test the role of curvature in lipid sorting, we measured the accumulation of two similar lipids, 1,2-Dihexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine (DHPE and hexadecanoic acid (HDA, using a supported lipid bilayer that was assembled over a nanopatterned surface to obtain regions of membrane curvature. Both lipids studied contain 16 carbon, saturated tails and a head group tag for fluorescence microscopy measurements. The accumulation of lipids at curvatures ranging from 28 nm to 55 nm radii was measured and fluorescein labeled DHPE accumulated more than fluorescein labeled HDA at regions of membrane curvature. We then tested whether single biotinylated DHPE molecules sense curvature using single particle tracking methods. Similar to groups of fluorescein labeled DHPE accumulating at curvature, the dynamics of single molecules of biotinylated DHPE was also affected by membrane curvature and highly confined motion was observed.
Biharmonic Submanifolds with Parallel Mean Curvature Vector in Pseudo-Euclidean Spaces
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fu, Yu, E-mail: yufudufe@gmail.com [Dongbei University of Finance and Economics, School of Mathematics and Quantitative Economics (China)
2013-12-15
In this paper, we investigate biharmonic submanifolds in pseudo-Euclidean spaces with arbitrary index and dimension. We give a complete classification of biharmonic spacelike submanifolds with parallel mean curvature vector in pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We also determine all biharmonic Lorentzian surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector field in pseudo-Euclidean spaces.
Constant scalar curvature hypersurfaces in (3 + 1) -dimensional GHMC Minkowski spacetimes
Smith, Graham
2018-06-01
We prove that every (3 + 1) -dimensional flat GHMC Minkowski spacetime which is not a translation spacetime or a Misner spacetime carries a unique foliation by spacelike hypersurfaces of constant scalar curvature. In other words, we prove that every such spacetime carries a unique time function with isochrones of constant scalar curvature. Furthermore, this time function is a smooth submersion.
Biharmonic Submanifolds with Parallel Mean Curvature Vector in Pseudo-Euclidean Spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fu, Yu
2013-01-01
In this paper, we investigate biharmonic submanifolds in pseudo-Euclidean spaces with arbitrary index and dimension. We give a complete classification of biharmonic spacelike submanifolds with parallel mean curvature vector in pseudo-Euclidean spaces. We also determine all biharmonic Lorentzian surfaces with parallel mean curvature vector field in pseudo-Euclidean spaces
Amphipathic motifs in BAR domains are essential for membrane curvature sensing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bhatia, Vikram K; Madsen, Kenneth L; Bolinger, Pierre-Yves
2009-01-01
BAR (Bin/Amphiphysin/Rvs) domains and amphipathic alpha-helices (AHs) are believed to be sensors of membrane curvature thus facilitating the assembly of protein complexes on curved membranes. Here, we used quantitative fluorescence microscopy to compare the binding of both motifs on single...... nanosized liposomes of different diameters and therefore membrane curvature. Characterization of members of the three BAR domain families showed surprisingly that the crescent-shaped BAR dimer with its positively charged concave face is not able to sense membrane curvature. Mutagenesis on BAR domains showed...... that membrane curvature sensing critically depends on the N-terminal AH and furthermore that BAR domains sense membrane curvature through hydrophobic insertion in lipid packing defects and not through electrostatics. Consequently, amphipathic motifs, such as AHs, that are often associated with BAR domains...
Moore, Joan G.; Moore, John
1992-01-01
The flow in the NASA Low-Speed Impeller is affected by both curvature and rotation. The flow curves due to the following: (1) geometric curvature, e.g. the curvature of the hub and shroud profiles in the meridional plane and the curvature of the backswept impeller blades; and (2) secondary flow vortices, e.g. the tip leakage vortex. Changes in the turbulence and effective turbulent viscosity in the impeller are investigated. The effects of these changes on three-dimensional flow development are discussed. Two predictions of the flow in the impeller, one with, and one without modification to the turbulent viscosity due to rotation and curvature, are compared. Some experimental and theoretical background for the modified mixing length model of turbulent viscosity will also be presented.
The hybrid inflation waterfall and the primordial curvature perturbation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyth, David H.
2012-01-01
Without demanding a specific form for the inflaton potential, we obtain an estimate of the contribution to the curvature perturbation generated during the linear era of the hybrid inflation waterfall. The spectrum of this contribution peaks at some wavenumber k = k * , and goes like k 3 for k * , making it typically negligible on cosmological scales. The scale k * can be outside the horizon at the end of inflation, in which case ζ = −(g 2 −(g 2 )) with g gaussian. Taking this into account, the cosmological bound on the abundance of black holes is likely to be satisfied if the curvaton mass m much bigger than the Hubble parameter H, but is likely to be violated if m∼< H. Coming to the contribution to ζ from the rest of the waterfall, we are led to consider the use of the 'end-of-inflation' formula, giving the contribution to ζ generated during a sufficiently sharp transition from nearly-exponential inflation to non-inflation, and we state for the first time the criterion for the transition to be sufficiently sharp. Our formulas are applied to supersymmetric GUT inflation and to supernatural/running-mass inflation
Entropy bound and causality violation in higher curvature gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neupane, Ishwaree P; Dadhich, Naresh
2009-01-01
In any quantum theory of gravity we do expect corrections to Einstein gravity to occur. Yet, at a fundamental level, it is not apparent what the most relevant corrections are. We argue that the generic curvature square corrections present in the lower dimensional actions of various compactified string theories provide a natural passage between the classical and quantum realms of gravity. The Gauss-Bonnet and (Riemann) 2 gravities, in particular, provide concrete examples in which inconsistency of a theory, such as a violation of microcausality, and a classical limit on black hole entropy are correlated. In such theories the ratio of the shear viscosity to the entropy density, η/s, can be smaller than for a boundary conformal field theory with Einstein gravity dual. This result is interesting from the viewpoint that nuclear matter or quark-gluon plasma produced (such as at RHIC) under extreme densities and temperatures may violate the conjectured KSS bound η/s ≥ 1/4π, albeit marginally so.
Warps, grids and curvature in triple vector bundles
Flari, Magdalini K.; Mackenzie, Kirill
2018-06-01
A triple vector bundle is a cube of vector bundle structures which commute in the (strict) categorical sense. A grid in a triple vector bundle is a collection of sections of each bundle structure with certain linearity properties. A grid provides two routes around each face of the triple vector bundle, and six routes from the base manifold to the total manifold; the warps measure the lack of commutativity of these routes. In this paper we first prove that the sum of the warps in a triple vector bundle is zero. The proof we give is intrinsic and, we believe, clearer than the proof using decompositions given earlier by one of us. We apply this result to the triple tangent bundle T^3M of a manifold and deduce (as earlier) the Jacobi identity. We further apply the result to the triple vector bundle T^2A for a vector bundle A using a connection in A to define a grid in T^2A . In this case the curvature emerges from the warp theorem.
Higher curvature self-interaction corrections to Hawking radiation
Fairoos, C.; Sarkar, Sudipta; Yogendran, K. P.
2017-07-01
The purely thermal nature of Hawking radiation from evaporating black holes leads to the information loss paradox. A possible route to its resolution could be if (enough) correlations are shown to be present in the radiation emitted from evaporating black holes. A reanalysis of Hawking's derivation including the effects of self-interactions in general relativity shows that the emitted radiation does deviate from pure thermality; however no correlations exist between successively emitted Hawking quanta. We extend the calculations to Einstein-Gauss-Bonnet gravity and investigate if higher curvature corrections to the action lead to some new correlations in the Hawking spectra. The effective trajectory of a massless shell is determined by solving the constraint equations and the semiclassical tunneling probability is calculated. As in the case of general relativity, the radiation is no longer thermal and there is no correlation between successive emissions. The absence of any extra correlations in the emitted radiations even in Gauss-Bonnet gravity suggests that the resolution of the paradox is beyond the scope of semiclassical gravity.
Membrane curvature stress and antibacterial activity of lactoferricin derivatives.
Zweytick, Dagmar; Tumer, Sabine; Blondelle, Sylvie E; Lohner, Karl
2008-05-02
We have studied correlation of non-lamellar phase formation and antimicrobial activity of two cationic amphipathic peptides, termed VS1-13 and VS1-24 derived from a fragment (LF11) of human lactoferricin on Escherichia coli total lipid extracts. Compared to LF11, VS1-13 exhibits minor, but VS1-24 significantly higher antimicrobial activity. X-ray experiments demonstrated that only VS1-24 decreased the onset of cubic phase formation of dispersions of E. coli lipid extracts, significantly, down to physiological relevant temperatures. Cubic structures were identified to belong to the space groups Pn3m and Im3m. Formation of latter is enhanced in the presence of VS1-24. Additionally, the presence of this peptide caused membrane thinning in the fluid phase, which may promote cubic phase formation. VS1-24 containing a larger hydrophobic volume at the N-terminus than its less active counterpart VS1-13 seems to increase curvature stress in the bilayer and alter the behaviour of the membrane significantly enhancing disruption.
Cosmology of a holographic induced gravity model with curvature effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Errahmani, Ahmed; Ouali, Taoufiq
2011-01-01
We present a holographic model of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati scenario with a Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk. We concentrate on the solution that generalizes the normal Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati branch. It is well known that this branch cannot describe the late-time acceleration of the universe even with the inclusion of a Gauss-Bonnet term. Here, we show that this branch in the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet curvature effect and a holographic dark energy with the Hubble scale as the infrared cutoff can describe the late-time acceleration of the universe. It is worthwhile to stress that such an energy density component cannot do the same job on the normal Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati branch (without Gauss-Bonnet modifications) nor in a standard four-dimensional relativistic model. The acceleration on the brane is also presented as being induced through an effective dark energy which corresponds to a balance between the holographic one and geometrical effects encoded through the Hubble parameter.
Scalar brane backgrounds in higher order curvature gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charmousis, Christos; Davis, Stephen C.; Dufaux, Jean-Francois
2003-01-01
We investigate maximally symmetric brane world solutions with a scalar field. Five-dimensional bulk gravity is described by a general lagrangian which yields field equations containing no higher than second order derivatives. This includes the Gauss-Bonnet combination for the graviton. Stability and gravitational properties of such solutions are considered, and we particularly emphasise the modifications induced by the higher order terms. In particular it is shown that higher curvature corrections to Einstein theory can give rise to instabilities in brane world solutions. A method for analytically obtaining the general solution for such actions is outlined. Generically, the requirement of a finite volume element together with the absence of a naked singularity in the bulk imposes fine-tuning of the brane tension. A model with a moduli scalar field is analysed in detail and we address questions of instability and non-singular self-tuning solutions. In particular, we discuss a case with a normalisable zero mode but infinite volume element. (author)
The geometry of plane waves in spaces of constant curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tran, H.V.
1988-01-01
We examined the geometry of possible plane wave fronts in spaces of constant curvature for three cases in which the cosmological constant is positive, zero, or negative. The cosmological constant and a second-order invariant determined by a congruence of null rays were used in the investigation. We embedded the spaces under investigation in a flat five-dimensional space, and studied the null hyperplanes passing through the origin of the flat five-dimensional space. The embedded spaces are represented by quadrics in the five-dimensional space. The plane wave fronts are represented by the intersection of the quadric with null hyperplanes passing through the origin of the five-dimensional space. We concluded that in Minkowski spaces (zero cosmological constant), the plane-fronted waves will intersect if and only if the second-order invariant mentioned above is non-zero. For deSitter spaces (positive cosmological constant), plane-fronted waves will always intersect. For anti-deSitter spaces (negative cosmological constant), plane-fronted waves may but need not intersect
Phase separation in artificial vesicles driven by light and curvature
Rinaldin, Melissa; Pomp, Wim; Schmidt, Thomas; Giomi, Luca; Kraft, Daniela; Physics of Life Processes Team; Soft; Bio Mechanics Collaboration; Self-Assembly in Soft Matter Systems Collaboration
The role of phase-demixing in living cells, leading to the lipid-raft hypothesis, has been extensively studied. Lipid domains of higher lipid chain order are proposed to regulate protein spatial organization. Giant Unilamellar Vesicles provide an artificial model to study phase separation. So far temperature was used to initiate the process. Here we introduce a new methodology based on the induction of phase separation by light. To this aim, the composition of the lipid membrane is varied by photo-oxidation of lipids. The control of the process gained by using light allowed us to observe vesicle shape fluctuations during phase-demixing. The presence of fluctuations near the critical mixing point resembles features of a critical process. We quantitatively analyze these fluctuations using a 2d elastic model, from which we can estimate the material parameters such as bending rigidity and surface tension, demonstrating the non-equilibrium critical behaviour. Finally, I will describe recent attempts toward tuning the membrane composition by controlling the vesicle curvature.
The hybrid inflation waterfall and the primordial curvature perturbation
Lyth, David H.
2012-05-01
Without demanding a specific form for the inflaton potential, we obtain an estimate of the contribution to the curvature perturbation generated during the linear era of the hybrid inflation waterfall. The spectrum of this contribution peaks at some wavenumber k = k*, and goes like k3 for k Lt k*, making it typically negligible on cosmological scales. The scale k* can be outside the horizon at the end of inflation, in which case ζ = -(g2-langg2rang) with g gaussian. Taking this into account, the cosmological bound on the abundance of black holes is likely to be satisfied if the curvaton mass m much bigger than the Hubble parameter H, but is likely to be violated if mlsimH. Coming to the contribution to ζ from the rest of the waterfall, we are led to consider the use of the `end-of-inflation' formula, giving the contribution to ζ generated during a sufficiently sharp transition from nearly-exponential inflation to non-inflation, and we state for the first time the criterion for the transition to be sufficiently sharp. Our formulas are applied to supersymmetric GUT inflation and to supernatural/running-mass inflation. A preliminary version of this paper appeared as arXiv:1107.1681.
The speed-curvature power law in Drosophila larval locomotion.
Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco; Gomez-Marin, Alex
2016-10-01
We report the discovery that the locomotor trajectories of Drosophila larvae follow the power-law relationship between speed and curvature previously found in the movements of human and non-human primates. Using high-resolution behavioural tracking in controlled but naturalistic sensory environments, we tested the law in maggots tracing different trajectory types, from reaching-like movements to scribbles. For most but not all flies, we found that the law holds robustly, with an exponent close to three-quarters rather than to the usual two-thirds found in almost all human situations, suggesting dynamic effects adding on purely kinematic constraints. There are different hypotheses for the origin of the law in primates, one invoking cortical computations, another viscoelastic muscle properties coupled with central pattern generators. Our findings are consistent with the latter view and demonstrate that the law is possible in animals with nervous systems orders of magnitude simpler than in primates. Scaling laws might exist because natural selection favours processes that remain behaviourally efficient across a wide range of neural and body architectures in distantly related species. © 2016 The Authors.
The hybrid inflation waterfall and the primordial curvature perturbation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lyth, David H., E-mail: d.lyth@lancaster.ac.uk [Consortium for Fundamental Physics, Cosmology and Astroparticle Group, Department of Physics, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YB (United Kingdom)
2012-05-01
Without demanding a specific form for the inflaton potential, we obtain an estimate of the contribution to the curvature perturbation generated during the linear era of the hybrid inflation waterfall. The spectrum of this contribution peaks at some wavenumber k = k{sub *}, and goes like k{sup 3} for k << k{sub *}, making it typically negligible on cosmological scales. The scale k{sub *} can be outside the horizon at the end of inflation, in which case ζ = −(g{sup 2}−(g{sup 2})) with g gaussian. Taking this into account, the cosmological bound on the abundance of black holes is likely to be satisfied if the curvaton mass m much bigger than the Hubble parameter H, but is likely to be violated if m∼
Linear response to long wavelength fluctuations using curvature simulations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baldauf, Tobias; Zaldarriaga, Matias [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States); Seljak, Uroš [Physics Department, Astronomy Department and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Senatore, Leonardo, E-mail: baldauf@ias.edu, E-mail: useljak@berkeley.edu, E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu, E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA (United States)
2016-09-01
We study the local response to long wavelength fluctuations in cosmological N -body simulations, focusing on the matter and halo power spectra, halo abundance and non-linear transformations of the density field. The long wavelength mode is implemented using an effective curved cosmology and a mapping of time and distances. The method provides an alternative, more direct, way to measure the isotropic halo biases. Limiting ourselves to the linear case, we find generally good agreement between the biases obtained from the curvature method and the traditional power spectrum method at the level of a few percent. We also study the response of halo counts to changes in the variance of the field and find that the slope of the relation between the responses to density and variance differs from the naïve derivation assuming a universal mass function by approximately 8–20%. This has implications for measurements of the amplitude of local non-Gaussianity using scale dependent bias. We also analyze the halo power spectrum and halo-dark matter cross-spectrum response to long wavelength fluctuations and derive second order halo bias from it, as well as the super-sample variance contribution to the galaxy power spectrum covariance matrix.
Effects on Buildings of Surface Curvature Caused by Underground Coal Mining
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haifeng Hu
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Ground curvature caused by underground mining is one of the most obvious deformation quantities in buildings. To study the influence of surface curvature on buildings and predict the movement and deformation of buildings caused by ground curvature, a prediction model of the influence function on mining subsidence was used to establish the relationship between surface curvature and wall deformation. The prediction model of wall deformation was then established and the surface curvature was obtained from mining subsidence prediction software. Five prediction lines were set up in the wall from bottom to top and the predicted deformation of each line was used to calculate the crack positions in the wall. Thus, the crack prediction model was obtained. The model was verified by a case study from a coalmine in Shanxi, China. The results show that when the ground curvature is positive, the crack in the wall is shaped like a “V”; when the ground curvature is negative, the crack is shaped like a “∧”. The conclusion provides the basis for a damage evaluation method for buildings in coalmine areas.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehdi Safari
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this work, laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature is investigated experimentally and numerically. For laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature, a new and comprehensive method is proposed in this paper. This method contains simple linear irradiating lines and using an analytical method, required process parameters for laser forming of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is proposed. In this method, laser output power, laser scanning speed and laser beam diameter are selected based on laser machine and process limitations. As in the laser forming of a cylindrical surface, parallel irradiating lines are needed; therefore key parameter for production of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is the number of irradiating lines. Hence, in the proposed analytical method, the required number of irradiating lines for production of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is suggested. Performance of the proposed method for production of cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is verified with experimental tests. The results show that using proposed analytical method, cylindrical surfaces with any radius of curvature can be produced successfully.
Long-term Results of Ventral Penile Curvature Repair in Childhood.
Golomb, Dor; Sivan, Bezalel; Livne, Pinhas M; Nevo, Amihay; Ben-Meir, David
2018-02-01
To assess the postpubertal outcome of ventral penile curvature repaired in infancy in terms of recurrence and aesthetics. Postpubertal patients treated for hypospadias and ventral penile curvature in infancy at a tertiary medical center were invited to undergo assessment of the quality of the repair. Findings were compared between patients with a straight penis after skin release and patients who required dorsal plication. The cohort included 27 patients of mean age 16.5 years who were reported with straight penis after surgery. Postpubertal curvature was found in 6 of 14 patients (43%) successfully treated by skin release and 10 of 13 patients (77%) who underwent dorsal plication (P = .087). Significant curvature (≥30 degrees) was found in 1 of 14 patients in the skin-release group and 4 of 13 in the dorsal plication group (P = .16). Rates of redo urethroplasty were 2 of 14 (14%) and 5 of 10 (50%), respectively. Patient satisfaction with the appearance of the penis did not differ significantly. Ventral penile curvature repaired in infancy often recurs after puberty. The need for dorsal plication has a trend-level association with recurrence of penile curvature in puberty. It might also be related to the degree of postpubertal penile curvature and the need for redo urethroplasty. Procedure type does not affect patient satisfaction with the postpubertal appearance of the penis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Quantitative analysis and prediction of curvature in leucine-rich repeat proteins.
Hindle, K Lauren; Bella, Jordi; Lovell, Simon C
2009-11-01
Leucine-rich repeat (LRR) proteins form a large and diverse family. They have a wide range of functions most of which involve the formation of protein-protein interactions. All known LRR structures form curved solenoids, although there is large variation in their curvature. It is this curvature that determines the shape and dimensions of the inner space available for ligand binding. Unfortunately, large-scale parameters such as the overall curvature of a protein domain are extremely difficult to predict. Here, we present a quantitative analysis of determinants of curvature of this family. Individual repeats typically range in length between 20 and 30 residues and have a variety of secondary structures on their convex side. The observed curvature of the LRR domains correlates poorly with the lengths of their individual repeats. We have, therefore, developed a scoring function based on the secondary structure of the convex side of the protein that allows prediction of the overall curvature with a high degree of accuracy. We also demonstrate the effectiveness of this method in selecting a suitable template for comparative modeling. We have developed an automated, quantitative protocol that can be used to predict accurately the curvature of leucine-rich repeat proteins of unknown structure from sequence alone. This protocol is available as an online resource at http://www.bioinf.manchester.ac.uk/curlrr/.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamasaki, K; Iwayama, T; Yajima, T
2011-01-01
The Okubo-Weiss field, frequently used for partitioning incompressible two-dimensional (2D) fluids into coherent and incoherent regions, corresponds to the Gaussian curvature of the stream function. Therefore, we consider the differential geometric structures of stream functions and calculate the Gaussian curvatures of some basic flows. We find the following. (I) The vorticity corresponds to the mean curvature of the stream function. Thus, the stream-function surface for an irrotational flow and that for a parallel shear flow correspond to the minimal surface and a developable surface, respectively. (II) The relationship between the coherency and the magnitude of the vorticity is interpreted by the curvatures. (III) Using the Gaussian curvature, stability of single and double point vortex streets is analyzed. The results of this analysis are compared with the well-known linear stability analysis. (IV) Conformal mapping in fluid mechanics is the physical expression of the geometric fact that the sign of the Gaussian curvature does not change in conformal mapping. These findings suggest that the curvatures of stream functions are useful for understanding the geometric structure of an incompressible 2D flow.
Ohkitani, K.
2010-05-01
We study some of the key quantities arising in the theory of [Arnold "Sur la geometrie differentielle des groupes de Lie de dimension infinie et ses applications a l'hydrodynamique des fluides parfaits," Annales de l'institut Fourier 16, 319 (1966)] of the incompressible Euler equations both in two and three dimensions. The sectional curvatures for the Taylor-Green vortex and the ABC flow initial conditions are calculated exactly in three dimensions. We trace the time evolution of the Jacobi fields by direct numerical simulations and, in particular, see how the sectional curvatures get more and more negative in time. The spatial structure of the Jacobi fields is compared to the vorticity fields by visualizations. The Jacobi fields are found to grow exponentially in time for the flows with negative sectional curvatures. In two dimensions, a family of initial data proposed by Arnold (1966) is considered. The sectional curvature is observed to change its sign quickly even if it starts from a positive value. The Jacobi field is shown to be correlated with the passive scalar gradient in spatial structure. On the basis of Rouchon's physical-space based expression for the sectional curvature (1984), the origin of negative curvature is investigated. It is found that a "potential" αξ appearing in the definition of covariant time derivative plays an important role, in that a rapid growth in its gradient makes a major contribution to the negative curvature.
The Influence of Shoreline Curvature on Rates of Shoreline Change on Sandy Coasts
Murray, A. B.; Lauzon, R.; Cheng, S.; Liu, J.; Lazarus, E.
2017-12-01
The sandy, low-lying barrier islands which characterize much of the US East and Gulf coasts are popular spots to live and vacation, and are often heavily developed. However, sandy shorelines and barriers are also naturally mobile landforms, which are vulnerable to sea level rise and storms and can experience high rates of shoreline change. Many previous studies have attempted to understand and quantify the factors that contribute to those rates of shoreline change, such as grain size, underlying geology, sea level rise, and anthropogenic modification. Shoreline curvature has not been considered in such analyses, but previous research has demonstrated that subtle coastline curvature (and therefore alongshore variation in relative offshore wave angle) can result in gradients in net alongshore transport that cause significant shoreline erosion or accretion. Here we present the results of a spatially extensive analysis of the correlation between shoreline curvature and shoreline change rates for the sandy shorelines of the US East and Gulf coasts. We find that, for wave-dominated sandy coasts where nourishment and shoreline stabilization do not dominate the shoreline change signal (such as parts of Texas, North Carolina, and Florida), there is a significant negative correlation between shoreline curvature and shoreline change rates over 1 - 5 km and decadal to centurial space and time scales. This correlation indicates that a portion of the coastal erosion (and accretion) observed in these areas can be explained by the smoothing of subtle coastline curvature by gradients in alongshore transport, and suggests that shoreline curvature should be included in future attempts to understand historical and future rates of shoreline change. Shoreline stabilization, especially through beach nourishment, complicates the relationship between curvature and shoreline change. Beach construction during nourishment creates a seaward convex curvature in the part of the shoreline moves
Influence of firing time and framework thickness on veneered Y-TZP discs curvature.
Jakubowicz-Kohen, Boris D; Sadoun, Michaël J; Douillard, Thierry; Mainjot, Amélie K
2014-02-01
The objective of the present work was to study the curvature of very thinly, veneered Y-TZP discs of different framework thicknesses submitted to different firing times. Fifteen 20-mm-wide Y-TZP discs were produced in three different thicknesses: 0.75, 1, 1.5mm. One disc from each group was left unveneered while the others were layered with a 0.1mm veneering ceramic layer. All discs underwent five firing cycles for a total cumulative firing time of 30 min, 1, 2, 5 and 10h at 900°C. The curvature profile was measured using a profilometer after the veneering process and after each firing cycle respectively. A fitted curve was then used to estimate the, curvature radius. The coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) measurements were taken on veneering, ceramic and Y-TZP beam samples that underwent the same firing schedule. Those data were used to calculate the curvature generated by CTE variations over firing time. All bilayered samples exhibited a curvature that increased over firing time inversely to framework thickness. However non-veneered samples did not exhibit any curvature modification. The results of the present study reveal that even a very thin veneer layer (0.1mm) can induce a significant curvature of Y-TZP discs. The dilatometric results showed that Tg and CTE, variations are not sufficient to explain this curvature. A chemical-induced zirconia volume, augmentation located at the framework sub-surface near the interface could explain the sample, curvature and its increase with firing time. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Plan curvature and landslide probability in regions dominated by earth flows and earth slides
Ohlmacher, G.C.
2007-01-01
Damaging landslides in the Appalachian Plateau and scattered regions within the Midcontinent of North America highlight the need for landslide-hazard mapping and a better understanding of the geomorphic development of landslide terrains. The Plateau and Midcontinent have the necessary ingredients for landslides including sufficient relief, steep slope gradients, Pennsylvanian and Permian cyclothems that weather into fine-grained soils containing considerable clay, and adequate precipitation. One commonly used parameter in landslide-hazard analysis that is in need of further investigation is plan curvature. Plan curvature is the curvature of the hillside in a horizontal plane or the curvature of the contours on a topographic map. Hillsides can be subdivided into regions of concave outward plan curvature called hollows, convex outward plan curvature called noses, and straight contours called planar regions. Statistical analysis of plan-curvature and landslide datasets indicate that hillsides with planar plan curvature have the highest probability for landslides in regions dominated by earth flows and earth slides in clayey soils (CH and CL). The probability of landslides decreases as the hillsides become more concave or convex. Hollows have a slightly higher probability for landslides than noses. In hollows landslide material converges into the narrow region at the base of the slope. The convergence combined with the cohesive nature of fine-grained soils creates a buttressing effect that slows soil movement and increases the stability of the hillside within the hollow. Statistical approaches that attempt to determine landslide hazard need to account for the complex relationship between plan curvature, type of landslide, and landslide susceptibility. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
A high resolution electron microscopy investigation of curvature in carbon nanotubes
Weldon, D. N.; Blau, W. J.; Zandbergen, H. W.
1995-07-01
Evidence for heptagon inclusion in multi-walled carbon nanotubes was sought in arc-produced carbon deposits. Transmission electron microscopy revealed many curved nanotubes although their relative abundance was low. Close examination of the micrographs in the regions of expected heptagon inclusion shows that the curvature is accomplished by folding or fracture of the lattice planes. This observed phenomenon contradicts the theoretical modelling studies which predict stable structures with negative curvature accomplished by heptagon/pentagon pairs. A possible explanation for curvature in single-walled tubes is presented based on a molecular mechanics geometry optimisation study of spa inclusion in a graphite sheet.
Embedded positive constant r-mean curvature hypersurfaces in Mm × R
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng Xu
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Let M be an m-dimensional Riemannian manifold with sectional curvature bounded from below. We consider hypersurfaces in the (m + 1-dimensional product manifold M x R with positive constant r-mean curvature. We obtain height estimates of certain compact vertical graphs in M x R with boundary in M x {0}. We apply this to obtain topological obstructions for the existence of some hypersurfaces. We also discuss the rotational symmetry of some embedded complete surfaces in S² x R of positive constant 2-mean curvature.
Curvature contributions to the static electrical properties of push-pull molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Squitieri, Emilio
2005-01-01
Calculations of the curvature contribution to the diagonals components of the static dipole moment (μ), polarizability (α), first (β) and second (γ) hyperpolarizability of push-pull molecules are presented. This contribution was obtained from the analytical evaluation of electrical properties method using the harmonic zero-point energy. The valence-bond charge-transfer model was employed to obtain the field-dependent force constant and their derivates with respect to electric field. Our results show a relationship between the curvature and electronic contributions. We have also found that the curvature contribution is important in a numerical estimation of β and γ
Curvature effects in two-dimensional optical devices inspired by transformation optics
Yuan, Shuhao
2016-11-14
Light transport in curved quasi two-dimensional waveguides is considered theoretically. Within transformation optics and tensor theory, a concise description of curvature effects on transverse electric and magnetic waves is derived. We show that the curvature can induce light focusing and photonic crystal properties, which are confirmed by finite element simulations. Our results indicate that the curvature is an effective parameter for designing quasi two-dimensional optical devices in the fields of micro and nano photonics. Â© 2016 Author(s).
Shape discrimination by total curvature, with a view to cancer diagnostics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gardner, R.J.; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Eva Bjørn Vedel
2005-01-01
This paper investigates the use of total curvature for shape discrimination of objects via profiles of their planar sections (not assumed to be star shaped). Methods of estimating total curvature from observation of a finite number of points on the boundary of the object are investigated, includi...... a simple discrete approximation method and various interpolation methods. Total curvature is capable of revealing shape differences on a local scale, as demonstrated by the analysis of two data sets of malignant and normal or benign tumour cell nuclear profiles....
Influence of implant rod curvature on sagittal correction of scoliosis deformity.
Salmingo, Remel Alingalan; Tadano, Shigeru; Abe, Yuichiro; Ito, Manabu
2014-08-01
Deformation of in vivo-implanted rods could alter the scoliosis sagittal correction. To our knowledge, no previous authors have investigated the influence of implanted-rod deformation on the sagittal deformity correction during scoliosis surgery. To analyze the changes of the implant rod's angle of curvature during surgery and establish its influence on sagittal correction of scoliosis deformity. A retrospective analysis of the preoperative and postoperative implant rod geometry and angle of curvature was conducted. Twenty adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients underwent surgery. Average age at the time of operation was 14 years. The preoperative and postoperative implant rod angle of curvature expressed in degrees was obtained for each patient. Two implant rods were attached to the concave and convex side of the spinal deformity. The preoperative implant rod geometry was measured before surgical implantation. The postoperative implant rod geometry after surgery was measured by computed tomography. The implant rod angle of curvature at the sagittal plane was obtained from the implant rod geometry. The angle of curvature between the implant rod extreme ends was measured before implantation and after surgery. The sagittal curvature between the corresponding spinal levels of healthy adolescents obtained by previous studies was compared with the implant rod angle of curvature to evaluate the sagittal curve correction. The difference between the postoperative implant rod angle of curvature and normal spine sagittal curvature of the corresponding instrumented level was used to evaluate over or under correction of the sagittal deformity. The implant rods at the concave side of deformity of all patients were significantly deformed after surgery. The average degree of rod deformation Δθ at the concave and convex sides was 15.8° and 1.6°, respectively. The average preoperative and postoperative implant rod angle of curvature at the concave side was 33.6° and 17.8
Curvature perturbation spectra from waterfall transition, black hole constraints and non-Gaussianity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bugaev, Edgar; Klimai, Peter, E-mail: bugaev@pcbai10.inr.ruhep.ru, E-mail: pklimai@gmail.com [Institute for Nuclear Research, Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary Prospect 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)
2011-11-01
We carried out numerical calculations of a contribution of the waterfall field to the primordial curvature perturbation (on uniform density hypersurfaces) ζ, which is produced during waterfall transition in hybrid inflation scenario. The calculation is performed for a broad interval of values of the model parameters. We show that there is a strong growth of amplitudes of the curvature perturbation spectrum in the limit when the bare mass-squared of the waterfall field becomes comparable with the square of Hubble parameter. We show that in this limit the primordial black hole constraints on the curvature perturbations must be taken into account. It is shown that, in the same limit, peak values of the curvature perturbation spectra are far beyond horizon, and the spectra are strongly non-Gaussian.
Curvature perturbation spectra from waterfall transition, black hole constraints and non-Gaussianity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bugaev, Edgar; Klimai, Peter
2011-01-01
We carried out numerical calculations of a contribution of the waterfall field to the primordial curvature perturbation (on uniform density hypersurfaces) ζ, which is produced during waterfall transition in hybrid inflation scenario. The calculation is performed for a broad interval of values of the model parameters. We show that there is a strong growth of amplitudes of the curvature perturbation spectrum in the limit when the bare mass-squared of the waterfall field becomes comparable with the square of Hubble parameter. We show that in this limit the primordial black hole constraints on the curvature perturbations must be taken into account. It is shown that, in the same limit, peak values of the curvature perturbation spectra are far beyond horizon, and the spectra are strongly non-Gaussian
The effects of curvature on the flow field in rapidly rotating gas centrifuges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wood, H.G.; Jordan, J.A.
1984-01-01
The effects of curvature on the fluid dynamics of rapidly rotating gas centrifuges are studied. A governing system of a linear partial differential equation and boundary conditions is derived based on a linearization of the equations for viscous compressible flow. This system reduces to the Onsager pancake model if the effects of curvature are neglected. Approximations to the solutions of the governing equations with and without curvature terms are obtained via a finite-element method. Two examples are considered: first where the flow is driven by a thermal gradient at the wall of the centrifuge, and then for the flow being driven by the introduction and removal of mass through the ends of the centrifuge. Comparisons of the results obtained show that, especially for the second example, the inclusion of the terms due to curvature in the model can have an appreciable effect on the solution. (author)
A non-differential elastomer curvature sensor for softer-than-skin electronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Majidi, C; Kramer, R; Wood, R J
2011-01-01
We extend soft lithography microfabrication and design methods to introduce curvature sensors that are elastically soft (modulus 0.1–1 MPa) and stretchable (100–1000% strain). In contrast to existing curvature sensors that measure differential strain, sensors in this new class measure curvature directly and allow for arbitrary gauge factor and film thickness. Moreover, each sensor is composed entirely of a soft elastomer (PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) or Ecoflex ® ) and conductive liquid (eutectic gallium indium, eGaIn) and thus remains functional even when stretched to several times its natural length. The electrical resistance in the embedded eGaIn microchannel is measured as a function of the bending curvature for a variety of sensor designs. In all cases, the experimental measurements are in reasonable agreement with closed-form algebraic approximations derived from elastic plate theory and Ohm's law
A non-differential elastomer curvature sensor for softer-than-skin electronics
Majidi, C.; Kramer, R.; Wood, R. J.
2011-10-01
We extend soft lithography microfabrication and design methods to introduce curvature sensors that are elastically soft (modulus 0.1-1 MPa) and stretchable (100-1000% strain). In contrast to existing curvature sensors that measure differential strain, sensors in this new class measure curvature directly and allow for arbitrary gauge factor and film thickness. Moreover, each sensor is composed entirely of a soft elastomer (PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane) or Ecoflex®) and conductive liquid (eutectic gallium indium, eGaIn) and thus remains functional even when stretched to several times its natural length. The electrical resistance in the embedded eGaIn microchannel is measured as a function of the bending curvature for a variety of sensor designs. In all cases, the experimental measurements are in reasonable agreement with closed-form algebraic approximations derived from elastic plate theory and Ohm's law.
Phase-space curvature in spin-orbit-coupled ultracold atomic systems
Armaitis, J.; Ruseckas, J.; Anisimovas, E.
2017-04-01
We consider a system with spin-orbit coupling and derive equations of motion which include the effects of Berry curvatures. We apply these equations to investigate the dynamics of particles with equal Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling in one dimension. In our derivation, the adiabatic transformation is performed first and leads to quantum Heisenberg equations of motion for momentum and position operators. These equations explicitly contain position-space, momentum-space, and phase-space Berry curvature terms. Subsequently, we perform the semiclassical approximation and obtain the semiclassical equations of motion. Taking the low-Berry-curvature limit results in equations that can be directly compared to previous results for the motion of wave packets. Finally, we show that in the semiclassical regime, the effective mass of the equal Rashba-Dresselhaus spin-orbit-coupled system can be viewed as a direct effect of the phase-space Berry curvature.
Curvature effects on the electronic and transport properties of semiconductor films
Batista, F. F.; Chaves, Andrey; da Costa, D. R.; Farias, G. A.
2018-05-01
Within the effective mass approximation, we study the curvature effects on the electronic and transport properties of semiconductor films. We investigate how the geometry-induced potential resulting exclusively from periodic ripples in the film induces electronic confinement and a superlattice band structure. For fixed curvature parameters, such a confinement can be easily tuned by an external electric field, hence features of the superlattice band structure such as its energy gaps and band curvature can be controlled by an external parameter. We also show that, for some values of curvature and electric field, it is possible to obtain massless Dirac bands for a smooth curved structure. Moreover, we use a wave packet propagation method to demonstrate that the ripples are responsible for a significant inter-sub-band transition, specially for moderate values of the ripple height.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amilal Bhat
2010-01-01
Conclusions : Preputioplasty with TIP is feasible in proximal hypospadias with curvature without increasing the complication rate. Postoperative phimosis can be prevented by on-table testing of the adequacy of preputial skin by 3 stay sutures.
Spinal curvatures of children and adolescents – a cross-sectional study
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Grabara Małgorzata
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Study aim: The aim was to assess the spinal curvatures of primary and lower secondary male and female students from Silesia and to identify individual variations that can determine spinal posture.
The Lp Lp Lp-curvature images of convex bodies and Lp Lp Lp
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Associated with the Lp-curvature image defined by Lutwak, some inequali- ... theory. With it, Lutwak [10] generalized many affine isoperimetric inequalities from their ... For quick reference, we recall some basic properties of Lp-mixed and dual ...
The Explicit Construction of Einstein Finsler Metrics with Non-Constant Flag Curvature
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Enli Guo
2009-04-01
Full Text Available By using the Hawking Taub-NUT metric, this note gives an explicit construction of a 3-parameter family of Einstein Finsler metrics of non-constant flag curvature in terms of navigation representation.
New curvature-torsion relations through decomposition of the Bianchi identities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davies, J.B.
1988-01-01
The Bianchi Identities relating asymmetric curvature to torsion are obtained as a new set of equations governing second-order curvature tensors. The usual contribution of symmetric curvature to the gravitational field is found to be a subset of these identities though with an added contribution due to torsion gradients. The antisymmetric curvature two-tensor is shown to be related to the divergence of the torsion. Using a model of particle-antiparticle pair production, identification of certain torsion components with electroweak fields is proposed. These components obey equations, similar to Maxwell's that are subsets of these linear Bianchi identities. These results are shown to be consistent with gauge and other previous analyses
Remirez, Andria A.; Webster, Robert J.
2016-03-01
Many applications in medicine require flexible surgical manipulators and endoscopes capable of reaching tight curvatures. The maximum curvature these devices can achieve is often restricted either by a strain limit, or by a maximum actuation force that the device's components can tolerate without risking mechanical failure. In this paper we propose the use of precurvature to "bias" the workspace of the device in one direction. Combined with axial shaft rotation, biasing increases the size of the device's workspace, enabling it to reach tighter curvatures than a comparable device without biasing can achieve, while still being able to fully straighten. To illustrate this effect, we describe several example prototype devices which use flexible nitinol strips that can be pushed and pulled to generate bending. We provide a statics model that relates the manipulator curvature to actuation force, and validate it experimentally.
Curvature effects in two-dimensional optical devices inspired by transformation optics
Yuan, Shuhao; Zhang, Yongyou; Zhang, Qingyun; Zou, Bingsuo; Schwingenschlö gl, Udo
2016-01-01
Light transport in curved quasi two-dimensional waveguides is considered theoretically. Within transformation optics and tensor theory, a concise description of curvature effects on transverse electric and magnetic waves is derived. We show
Principal Curvature Measures Estimation and Application to 3D Face Recognition
Tang, Yinhang; Li, Huibin; Sun, Xiang; Morvan, Jean-Marie; Chen, Liming
2017-01-01
-based local shape descriptors using the sparse representation-based reconstruction method. The proposed method was evaluated on three public databases, i.e. FRGC v2.0, Bosphorus, and Gavab. Experimental results demonstrated that the three principle curvature
On the asymptotically Poincaré-Einstein 4-manifolds with harmonic curvature
Hu, Xue
2018-06-01
In this paper, we discuss the mass aspect tensor and the rigidity of an asymptotically Poincaré-Einstein (APE) 4-manifold with harmonic curvature. We prove that the trace-free part of the mass aspect tensor of an APE 4-manifold with harmonic curvature and normalized Einstein conformal infinity is zero. As to the rigidity, we first show that a complete noncompact Riemannian 4-manifold with harmonic curvature and positive Yamabe constant as well as a L2-pinching condition is Einstein. As an application, we then obtain that an APE 4-manifold with harmonic curvature and positive Yamabe constant is isometric to the hyperbolic space provided that the L2-norm of the traceless Ricci tensor or the Weyl tensor is small enough and the conformal infinity is a standard round 3-sphere.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Donghoon Kang
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This study is focused on the verification of the key idea of a newly developed steel-concrete composite bridge. The key idea of the proposed bridge is to reduce the design moment by applying vertical prestressing force to steel girders, so that a moment distribution of a continuous span bridge is formed in a simple span bridge. For the verification of the key technology, curvature changes of the bridge should be monitored sequentially at every construction stage. A pair of multiplexed FBG sensor arrays is proposed in order to measure curvature changes in this study. They are embedded in a full-scale test bridge and measured local strains, which are finally converted to curvatures. From the result of curvature changes, it is successfully ensured that the key idea of the proposed bridge, expected theoretically, is viable.
Measuring the composition-curvature coupling in binary lipid membranes by computer simulations
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Barragán Vidal, I. A., E-mail: vidal@theorie.physik.uni-goettingen.de; Müller, M., E-mail: mmueller@theorie.physik.uni-goettingen.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen (Germany); Rosetti, C. M., E-mail: carla@dqb.fcq.unc.edu.ar [Centro de Investigaciones en Química Biológica de Córdoba, Departamento de Química Biológica, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, Córdoba (Argentina); Pastorino, C., E-mail: pastor@cnea.gov.ar [Departamento de Física de la Materia Condensada, Centro Atómico Constituyentes, CNEA/CONICET, Av. Gral. Paz 1499, 1650 Pcia. de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2014-11-21
The coupling between local composition fluctuations in binary lipid membranes and curvature affects the lateral membrane structure. We propose an efficient method to compute the composition-curvature coupling in molecular simulations and apply it to two coarse-grained membrane models—a minimal, implicit-solvent model and the MARTINI model. Both the weak-curvature behavior that is typical for thermal fluctuations of planar bilayer membranes as well as the strong-curvature regime corresponding to narrow cylindrical membrane tubes are studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results are analyzed by using a phenomenological model of the thermodynamics of curved, mixed bilayer membranes that accounts for the change of the monolayer area upon bending. Additionally the role of thermodynamic characteristics such as the incompatibility between the two lipid species and asymmetry of composition are investigated.
Generalization of the swelling method to measure the intrinsic curvature of lipids
Barragán Vidal, I. A.; Müller, M.
2017-12-01
Via computer simulation of a coarse-grained model of two-component lipid bilayers, we compare two methods of measuring the intrinsic curvatures of the constituting monolayers. The first one is a generalization of the swelling method that, in addition to the assumption that the spontaneous curvature linearly depends on the composition of the lipid mixture, incorporates contributions from its elastic energy. The second method measures the effective curvature-composition coupling between the apposing leaflets of bilayer structures (planar bilayers or cylindrical tethers) to extract the spontaneous curvature. Our findings demonstrate that both methods yield consistent results. However, we highlight that the two-leaflet structure inherent to the latter method has the advantage of allowing measurements for mixed lipid systems up to their critical point of demixing as well as in the regime of high concentration (of either species).
The curvature and the algebra of Killing vectors in five-dimensional space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rcheulishvili, G.
1990-12-01
This paper presents the Killing vectors for a five-dimensional space with the line element. The algebras which are formed by these vectors are written down. The curvature two-forms are described. (author). 10 refs
Measuring the composition-curvature coupling in binary lipid membranes by computer simulations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barragán Vidal, I. A.; Müller, M.; Rosetti, C. M.; Pastorino, C.
2014-01-01
The coupling between local composition fluctuations in binary lipid membranes and curvature affects the lateral membrane structure. We propose an efficient method to compute the composition-curvature coupling in molecular simulations and apply it to two coarse-grained membrane models—a minimal, implicit-solvent model and the MARTINI model. Both the weak-curvature behavior that is typical for thermal fluctuations of planar bilayer membranes as well as the strong-curvature regime corresponding to narrow cylindrical membrane tubes are studied by molecular dynamics simulation. The simulation results are analyzed by using a phenomenological model of the thermodynamics of curved, mixed bilayer membranes that accounts for the change of the monolayer area upon bending. Additionally the role of thermodynamic characteristics such as the incompatibility between the two lipid species and asymmetry of composition are investigated
Curvature distribution within hillslopes and catchments and its effect on the hydrological response
Bogaart, P.W.; Troch, P.A.A.
2006-01-01
Topographic convergence and divergence are first order controls on the hillslope and catchment hydrological response, as evidenced by similarity parameter analyses. Hydrological models often do not take convergence as measured by contour curvature directly into account; instead they use comparable
Bhat, Amilal; Gandhi, Ajay; Saxena, Gajendra; Choudhary, Gautam Ram
2010-01-01
Aims : Objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and results of preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP) in patients of proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature. Materials and Methods : Twenty-seven patients of proximal hypospadias who underwent preputioplasty with TIP were evaluated retrospectively. Ventral curvature was corrected by mobilization of the urethral plate with the corpus spongiosum and the proximal urethra; dorsal plica...
Isometric surfaces with a common mean curvature and the problem of Bonnet pairs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sabitov, Idzhad Kh
2012-01-01
Simple methods are used to give new proofs, and sometimes to make them more precise, of basic theorems on isometric surfaces with a common mean curvature, which are usually called Bonnet pairs. The considerations are conducted under the assumption of minimally admissible smoothness of the objects in question, and certain necessary or sufficient criteria are given for the non-existence of Bonnet pairs with a common non-constant mean curvature among compact surfaces. Bibliography: 26 titles.
Asymmetric vibrations of shells of revolution having meridionally varying curvature and thickness
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kosawada, Tadashi; Miura, Kazuyuki.
1988-01-01
An exact method using power series expansions is presented for solving asymmetric free vibration problems for shells of revolution having meridionally varying curvature and thickness. The gaverning equations of motion and the boundary conditions are derived from the stationary conditions of the Lagrangian of the shells of revolution. The method is demonstrated for shells of revolution having elliptical, cycloidal, parabolical, catenary and hyperbolical meridional curvature. The natural frequencies are numerically calculated for these shells having second degree thickness variation. (author)
First contact: understanding the relationship between hominoid incisor curvature and diet.
Deane, Andrew
2009-03-01
Accurately interpreting fossil primate dietary behaviour is necessary to fully understand a species' ecology and connection to its environment. Traditional methods developed to infer diet from hominoid teeth successfully group taxa into broad dietary categories (i.e., folivore, frugivore) but often fail to represent the range of dietary variability characteristic of living apes. This oversimplification is not only a consequence of poor resolution, but may also reflect the use of similar fallback resources by closely related taxa with dissimilar diets. This study demonstrates that additional dietary specificity can be achieved using a morphometric approach to hominoid incisor curvature. High-resolution polynomial curve fitting (HR-PCF) was used to quantify the incisor curvatures of closely related hominoid taxa that have dissimilar diets but similar morphological adaptations to specific keystone resources (e.g., Gorilla gorilla beringei vs. G. g. gorilla). Given the key role of incisors in food processing, it is reasonable to assume that these teeth will be at least partially influenced by the unique selective pressures imposed by the mechanical loading specific to individual diets. Results from this study identify a strong correlation between hominoid dietary proportions and incisor linear dimensions and curvature, indicating that more pronounced incisor curvature is positively correlated with higher levels of frugivory. Hard-object frugivores have the greatest mesiodistal and cervico-incisal curvature and dedicated folivores have the least curved incisors. Mixed folivore/frugivores are morphological intermediates between dedicated folivores and hard- and soft-object frugivores. Mesiodistal curvature varied only in the degree of curvature; however, cervico-incisal curvature was shown to differ qualitatively between more frugivorous and more folivorous taxa. In addition to identifying a greater range of dietary variability among hominoids, this study also
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freund, L.B.; Floro, J.A.; Chason, E.
1999-01-01
Two main assumptions which underlie the Stoney formula relating substrate curvature to mismatch strain in a bonded thin film are that the film is very thin compared to the substrate, and the deformations are infinitesimally small. Expressions for the curvature - strain relationship are derived for cases in which these assumptions are relaxed, thereby providing a basis for interpretation of experimental observations for a broader class of film - substrate configurations. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Distal root curvatures in mandibular molars: analysis using digital panoramic X-rays.
Fuentes, R; Farfán, C; Astete, N; Navarro, P; Arias, A
2018-01-01
The aim of this study was to describe the degree of curvature in distal roots in the first and second permanent mandibular molars in a Chilean patient sample. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in which digital panoramic X-rays were analysed. Examinations of patients under 18 years, with signs of distortion or alteration in the contrast or the presence of pathologies that affected visualisation of the roots and pulp-chamber floor of the teeth to be analysed were excluded. Using the AutoCad software, an angle was drawn to represent the curve of the root in its different thirds, drawing lines inside the root canal from the pulp-chamber floor to the dental apex. Using the classic definition of dilaceration (root curvature > 90°), its prevalence was established. 412 teeth and roots were analysed, finding a dilaceration prevalence of 0.73% (n = 3). 84.72% of the roots presented some type of curvature. The middle third had the highest percentage of curvatures and the greatest average of angular curvature, whereas the cervical third was the straightest. No significant differences were found between the degree of curvature and the gender of the subjects, except for the apical third of tooth 3.6. The analysis of curvature by root third offers to the clinician a better perspective of the directional change of the roots and does not limit it to just the presence of curves in the apical third. The report of the angular degree of the curvatures, in addition to the prevalence of dilacerations, informs to the clinicians about the likelihood of finding difficulties when treating root canals. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 131-137).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sun Zong-Li; Kang Yan-Shuang
2011-01-01
Classical density functional theory is used to study the associating Lennard—Jones fluids in contact with spherical hard wall of different curvature radii. The interfacial properties including contact density and fluid-solid interfacial tension are investigated. The influences of associating energy, curvature of hard wall and the bulk density of fluids on these properties are analyzed in detail. The results may provide helpful clues to understand the interfacial properties of other complex fluids. (condensed matter: structure, mechanical and thermal properties)
Role of parallel flow curvature on the mitigation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarmah, D.; Sen, S.; Cairns, R.A.
2001-01-01
The effect of a radially varying parallel equilibrium flow on the stability of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) mode is studied analytically in the presence of a sheared magnetic field. It is shown that the parallel flow curvature can completely stabilize the RT mode. The flow curvature also has a robust effect on the radial structure of the mode. Possible implications of these theoretical findings to recent experiments are also discussed
ORNL Interim Progress Report on Static CIRFT Testing Curvature Data Update
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Jy-An John [ORNL; Wang, Hong [ORNL
2016-10-10
Since the CIRFT tests reported in NUREG-7198 were generated, a number of factors that influence the recorded curvature measurement data were identified. In 2016, a data reanalysis task was undertaken to implement the lessons learned. This letter report provides the revised results of previous CIRFT tests, after implementing the following data reanalysis procedures: (A) experimental data smoothing and LVDT reset, (B) LVDT probe contact and sensor spacing correction for curvature data, and (C) LVDT probe dynamic vibration adjustment procedure development.
No large scale curvature perturbations during the waterfall phase transition of hybrid inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abolhasani, Ali Akbar; Firouzjahi, Hassan
2011-01-01
In this paper the possibility of generating large scale curvature perturbations induced from the entropic perturbations during the waterfall phase transition of the standard hybrid inflation model is studied. We show that whether or not appreciable amounts of large scale curvature perturbations are produced during the waterfall phase transition depends crucially on the competition between the classical and the quantum mechanical backreactions to terminate inflation. If one considers only the classical evolution of the system, we show that the highly blue-tilted entropy perturbations induce highly blue-tilted large scale curvature perturbations during the waterfall phase transition which dominate over the original adiabatic curvature perturbations. However, we show that the quantum backreactions of the waterfall field inhomogeneities produced during the phase transition dominate completely over the classical backreactions. The cumulative quantum backreactions of very small scale tachyonic modes terminate inflation very efficiently and shut off the curvature perturbation evolution during the waterfall phase transition. This indicates that the standard hybrid inflation model is safe under large scale curvature perturbations during the waterfall phase transition.
Comparative effectiveness of metal ions in inducing curvature of primary roots of Zea mays
Hasenstein, K. H.; Evans, M. L.; Stinemetz, C. L.; Moore, R.; Fondren, W. M.; Koon, E. C.; Higby, M. A.; Smucker, A. J.
1988-01-01
We used five cultivars of Zea mays (Bear Hybrid WF9 * 38MS, B73 * Missouri 17, Yellow Dent, Merit, and Great Lakes Hybrid 422) to reinvestigate the specificity of metal ions for inducing root curvature. Of 17 cations tested, 6 (Al3+, Ba2+, Ca2+, Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+) induced curvature. Roots curved away from Al3+, Ba2+, and Cd2+. Roots curved away from low (0.1 millimolar) concentrations of Cu2+ but toward higher (1-5 millimolar) concentrations. Roots initially curved away from Zn2+ but the direction of the subsequent curvature was unpredictable. In most cases, roots of all cultivars curved towards calcium. However, in some tests there was no response to calcium or even (especially in the cultivars Merit and B73 * Missouri 17) substantial curvature away from calcium. The results indicate that the induction of root curvature is not specific for calcium. The results are discussed relative to the possible role of calmodulin as a mediator of ion-induced root curvature.
On the curvature of transmitted intensity plots in broad beam studies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Kateb, A.H.
2000-01-01
Transmission of a broad beam of gamma rays of 81- and 356-keV energies from 133 Ba is studied singly and dually. This study is the first to deal with the curvatures of the intensity plots. The targets are dextrose solutions of percentage concentrations up to 0.125 and soil containing water with concentrations up to 0.319. The logarithmic intensity plots are expressed in terms of a polynomial in the concentration. The curvatures of the plots are measured and calculated on the basis of the theoretical mass attenuation coefficients. The results are discussed in conjunction with buildup factors and the probability of photoelectric and Compton interactions. The curvatures show maxima when incoherent interaction prevails. This is evidently proved in case of the single 356-keV and of the dual 81- and 356-keV applied energies. Comparison is performed between the measured and calculated curvatures. The concept of curvature is applied and discussed for published results of narrow beam geometry. Correspondingly, this is the first search to introduce curvature instead of buildup as a measure for transmitted collided photons
A geometric construction of the Riemann scalar curvature in Regge calculus
McDonald, Jonathan R.; Miller, Warner A.
2008-10-01
The Riemann scalar curvature plays a central role in Einstein's geometric theory of gravity. We describe a new geometric construction of this scalar curvature invariant at an event (vertex) in a discrete spacetime geometry. This allows one to constructively measure the scalar curvature using only clocks and photons. Given recent interest in discrete pre-geometric models of quantum gravity, we believe is it ever so important to reconstruct the curvature scalar with respect to a finite number of communicating observers. This derivation makes use of a new fundamental lattice cell built from elements inherited from both the original simplicial (Delaunay) spacetime and its circumcentric dual (Voronoi) lattice. The orthogonality properties between these two lattices yield an expression for the vertex-based scalar curvature which is strikingly similar to the corresponding hinge-based expression in Regge calculus (deficit angle per unit Voronoi dual area). In particular, we show that the scalar curvature is simply a vertex-based weighted average of deficits per weighted average of dual areas.
A geometric construction of the Riemann scalar curvature in Regge calculus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McDonald, Jonathan R; Miller, Warner A
2008-01-01
The Riemann scalar curvature plays a central role in Einstein's geometric theory of gravity. We describe a new geometric construction of this scalar curvature invariant at an event (vertex) in a discrete spacetime geometry. This allows one to constructively measure the scalar curvature using only clocks and photons. Given recent interest in discrete pre-geometric models of quantum gravity, we believe is it ever so important to reconstruct the curvature scalar with respect to a finite number of communicating observers. This derivation makes use of a new fundamental lattice cell built from elements inherited from both the original simplicial (Delaunay) spacetime and its circumcentric dual (Voronoi) lattice. The orthogonality properties between these two lattices yield an expression for the vertex-based scalar curvature which is strikingly similar to the corresponding hinge-based expression in Regge calculus (deficit angle per unit Voronoi dual area). In particular, we show that the scalar curvature is simply a vertex-based weighted average of deficits per weighted average of dual areas
Moment-Curvature Behaviors of Concrete Beams Singly Reinforced by Steel-FRP Composite Bars
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zeyang Sun
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A steel-fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP composite bar (SFCB is a kind of rebar with inner steel bar wrapped by FRP, which can achieve a better anticorrosion performance than that of ordinary steel bar. The high ultimate strength of FRP can also provide a significant increase in load bearing capacity. Based on the adequate simulation of the load-displacement behaviors of concrete beams reinforced by SFCBs, a parametric analysis of the moment-curvature behaviors of concrete beams that are singly reinforced by SFCB was conducted. The critical reinforcement ratio for differentiating the beam’s failure mode was presented, and the concept of the maximum possible peak curvature (MPPC was proposed. After the ultimate curvature reached MPPC, it decreased with an increase in the postyield stiffness ratio (rsf, and the theoretical calculation method about the curvatures before and after the MPPC was derived. The influence of the reinforcement ratio, effective depth, and FRP ultimate strain on the ultimate point was studied by the dimensionless moment and curvature. By calculating the envelope area under the moment-curvature curve, the energy ductility index can obtain a balance between the bearing capacity and the deformation ability. This paper can provide a reference for the design of concrete beams that are reinforced by SFCB or hybrid steel bar/FRP bar.
Incorporating contact angles in the surface tension force with the ACES interface curvature scheme
Owkes, Mark
2017-11-01
In simulations of gas-liquid flows interacting with solid boundaries, the contact line dynamics effect the interface motion and flow field through the surface tension force. The surface tension force is directly proportional to the interface curvature and the problem of accurately imposing a contact angle must be incorporated into the interface curvature calculation. Many commonly used algorithms to compute interface curvatures (e.g., height function method) require extrapolating the interface, with defined contact angle, into the solid to allow for the calculation of a curvature near a wall. Extrapolating can be an ill-posed problem, especially in three-dimensions or when multiple contact lines are near each other. We have developed an accurate methodology to compute interface curvatures that allows for contact angles to be easily incorporated while avoiding extrapolation and the associated challenges. The method, known as Adjustable Curvature Evaluation Scale (ACES), leverages a least squares fit of a polynomial to points computed on the volume-of-fluid (VOF) representation of the gas-liquid interface. The method is tested by simulating canonical test cases and then applied to simulate the injection and motion of water droplets in a channel (relevant to PEM fuel cells).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackson, M.A.
1982-01-01
The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, this model is elaborated to produce the required program outputs; third, the resulting program is transformed to run efficiently in the execution environment. The first two stages deal in network structures of sequential processes; only the third is concerned with procedure hierarchies. (orig.)
Jackson, M A
1982-01-01
The programmer's task is often taken to be the construction of algorithms, expressed in hierarchical structures of procedures: this view underlies the majority of traditional programming languages, such as Fortran. A different view is appropriate to a wide class of problem, perhaps including some problems in High Energy Physics. The programmer's task is regarded as having three main stages: first, an explicit model is constructed of the reality with which the program is concerned; second, thi...
Young, L. M.; Evans, M. L.; Hertel, R.
1990-01-01
We compared the kinetics of auxin redistribution across the caps of primary roots of 2-day-old maize (Zea mays, cv Merit) seedlings with the time course of gravitropic curvature. [3H] indoleacetic acid was applied to one side of the cap in an agar donor and radioactivity moving across the cap was collected in an agar receiver applied to the opposite side. Upon gravistimulation the roots first curved upward slightly, then returned to the horizontal and began curving downward, reaching a final angle of about 67 degrees. Movement of label across the caps of gravistimulated roots was asymmetric with preferential downward movement (ratio downward/upward = ca. 1.6, radioactivity collected during the 90 min following beginning of gravistimulation). There was a close correlation between the development of asymmetric auxin movement across the root cap and the rate of curvature, with both values increasing to a maximum and then declining as the roots approached the final angle of curvature. In roots preadapted to gravity (alternate brief stimulation on opposite flanks over a period of 1 hour) the initial phase of upward curvature was eliminated and downward bending began earlier than for controls. The correlation between asymmetric auxin movement and the kinetics of curvature also held in comparisons between control and preadapted roots. Both downward auxin transport asymmetry and downward curvature occurred earlier in preadapted roots than in controls. These findings are consistent with suggestions that the root cap is not only the site of perception but also the location of the initial redistribution of effectors that ultimately leads to curvature.
Lee, J. S.; Evans, M. L.
1990-01-01
We tested the involvement of ethylene in maize (Zea mays L.) root gravitropism by measuring the kinetics of curvature and lateral auxin movement in roots treated with ethylene, inhibitors of ethylene synthesis, or inhibitors of ethylene action. In the presence of ethylene the latent period of gravitropic curvature appeared to be increased somewhat. However, ethylene-treated roots continued to curve after control roots had reached their final angle of curvature. Consequently, maximum curvature in the presence of ethylene was much greater in ethylene-treated roots than in controls. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action had effects on the kinetics of curvature opposite to that of ethylene, i.e. the latent period appeared to be shortened somewhat while total curvature was reduced relative to that of controls. Label from applied 3H-indole-3-acetic acid was preferentially transported toward the lower side of stimulated roots. In parallel with effects on curvature, ethylene treatment delayed the development of gravity-induced asymmetric auxin movement across the root but extended its duration once initiated. The auxin transport inhibitor, 1-N-naphthylphthalamic acid reduced both gravitropic curvature and the effect of ethylene on curvature. Since neither ethylene nor inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis or action prevented curvature, we conclude that ethylene does not mediate the primary differential growth response causing curvature. Because ethylene affects curvature and auxin transport in parallel, we suggest that ethylene modifies curvature by affecting gravity-induced lateral transport of auxin, perhaps by interfering with adaptation of the auxin transport system to the gravistimulus.
Anatomical study of the radius and center of curvature of the distal femoral condyle
Kosel, Jü rgen; Giouroudi, Ioanna; Scheffer, Cornie; Dillon, Edwin Mark; Erasmus, Pieter J.
2010-01-01
In this anatomical study, the anteroposterior curvature of the surface of 16 cadaveric distal femurs was examined in terms of radii and center point. Those two parameters attract high interest due to their significance for total knee arthroplasty. Basically, two different conclusions have been drawn in foregoing studies: (1) The curvature shows a constant radius and (2) the curvature shows a variable radius. The investigations were based on a new method combining three-dimensional laser-scanning and planar geometrical analyses. This method is aimed at providing high accuracy and high local resolution. The high-precision laser scanning enables the exact reproduction of the distal femurs - including their cartilage tissue - as a three-dimensional computer model. The surface curvature was investigated on intersection planes that were oriented perpendicularly to the surgical epicondylar line. Three planes were placed at the central part of each condyle. The intersection of either plane with the femur model was approximated with the help of a b-spline, yielding three b-splines on each condyle. The radii and center points of the circles, approximating the local curvature of the b-splines, were then evaluated. The results from all three b-splines were averaged in order to increase the reliability of the method. The results show the variation in the surface curvatures of the investigated samples of condyles. These variations are expressed in the pattern of the center points and the radii of the curvatures. The standard deviations of the radii for a 90 deg arc on the posterior condyle range from 0.6 mm up to 5.1 mm, with an average of 2.4 mm laterally and 2.2 mm medially. No correlation was found between the curvature of the lateral and medial condyles. Within the range of the investigated 16 samples, the conclusion can be drawn that the condyle surface curvature is not constant and different for all specimens when viewed along the surgical epicondylar axis. For the portion
Regional surface geometry of the rat stomach based on three-dimensional curvature analysis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao Donghua [Center of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark); Zhao Jingbo [Center of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark); Gregersen, Hans [Center of Excellence in Visceral Biomechanics and Pain, Aalborg Hospital, DK-9100 Aalborg (Denmark)
2005-01-21
A better understanding of gastric accommodation and gastric perception requires knowledge of regional gastric geometry and local gastric tension throughout the stomach. An analytic method based on medical imaging data was developed in this study to describe the three-dimensional (3D) rat stomach geometry and tension distribution. The surface principal radii of curvatures were simulated and the surface tension was calculated in the glandular and non-glandular region of the stomach at pressures from 0 Pa to 800 Pa. The radii of curvature and tension distribution in the stomach were non-homogeneous. The radii of curvature in the glandular stomach were larger than those in the non-glandular region at pressures less than 100 Pa (P < 0.001). When the pressure increased to more than 200 Pa, the radii of curvature in the non-glandular stomach was larger than in the glandular stomach (P < 0.05). The curvature and tension distribution mapping using medical imaging technology and 3D models can be used to characterize and distinguish the physical behaviour in separate regions of the stomach.
Regional surface geometry of the rat stomach based on three-dimensional curvature analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao Donghua; Zhao Jingbo; Gregersen, Hans
2005-01-01
A better understanding of gastric accommodation and gastric perception requires knowledge of regional gastric geometry and local gastric tension throughout the stomach. An analytic method based on medical imaging data was developed in this study to describe the three-dimensional (3D) rat stomach geometry and tension distribution. The surface principal radii of curvatures were simulated and the surface tension was calculated in the glandular and non-glandular region of the stomach at pressures from 0 Pa to 800 Pa. The radii of curvature and tension distribution in the stomach were non-homogeneous. The radii of curvature in the glandular stomach were larger than those in the non-glandular region at pressures less than 100 Pa (P < 0.001). When the pressure increased to more than 200 Pa, the radii of curvature in the non-glandular stomach was larger than in the glandular stomach (P < 0.05). The curvature and tension distribution mapping using medical imaging technology and 3D models can be used to characterize and distinguish the physical behaviour in separate regions of the stomach
The geometric curvature of the lumbar spine during restricted and unrestricted squats.
Hebling Campos, Mário; Furtado Alaman, Laizi I; Seffrin-Neto, Aldo A; Vieira, Carlos A; Costa de Paula, Marcelo; Barbosa de Lira, Claudio A
2017-06-01
The main purpose of this study was to analyze the behavior of the geometric curvature of the lumbar spine during restricted and unrestricted squats, using a novel investigative method. The rationale for our hypothesis is that the lumbar curvature has different patterns at different spine levels depending on the squat technique used. Spine motion was collected via stereo-photogrammetric analysis in nineteen participants (11 males, 8 females). The reconstructed spine points at the upright neutral position and at the deepest position of the squat exercise were projected onto the sagittal plane of the trunk, a polynomial was fitted to the data, and were quantified the two-dimensional geometric curvature at lower, central and higher lumbar levels, besides the inclination of trunk and lumbosacral region, the overall geometric curvature and overall angle of the lumbar spine. The mean values for each variable were analysed with paired t-test (Psquat techniques and these effects are also reduced in unrestricted squats. The data collected in the study are evidence that during barbell squats the lumbar curvature has different patterns at different spinal levels depending on the exercise technique. The lower lumbar spine appears to be less overloaded during unrestricted squats.
Kieokaew, Rungployphan; Foullon, Claire; Lavraud, Benoit
2018-01-01
Four-spacecraft missions are probing the Earth's magnetospheric environment with high potential for revealing spatial and temporal scales of a variety of in situ phenomena. The techniques allowed by these four spacecraft include the calculation of vorticity and the magnetic curvature analysis (MCA), both of which have been used in the study of various plasma structures. Motivated by curved magnetic field and vortical structures induced by Kelvin- Helmholtz (KH) waves, we investigate the robustness of the MCA and vorticity techniques when increasing (regular) tetrahedron sizes, to interpret real data. Here for the first time, we test both techniques on a 2.5-D MHD simulation of KH waves at the magnetopause. We investigate, in particular, the curvature and flow vorticity across KH vortices and produce time series for static spacecraft in the boundary layers. The combined results of magnetic curvature and vorticity further help us to understand the development of KH waves. In particular, first, in the trailing edge, the magnetic curvature across the magnetopause points in opposite directions, in the wave propagation direction on the magnetosheath side and against it on the magnetospheric side. Second, the existence of a "turnover layer" in the magnetospheric side, defined by negative vorticity for the duskside magnetopause, which persists in the saturation phase, is reminiscent of roll-up history. We found significant variations in the MCA measures depending on the size of the tetrahedron. This study lends support for cross-scale observations to better understand the nature of curvature and its role in plasma phenomena.
Awareness Becomes Necessary Between Adaptive Pattern Coding of Open and Closed Curvatures
Sweeny, Timothy D.; Grabowecky, Marcia; Suzuki, Satoru
2012-01-01
Visual pattern processing becomes increasingly complex along the ventral pathway, from the low-level coding of local orientation in the primary visual cortex to the high-level coding of face identity in temporal visual areas. Previous research using pattern aftereffects as a psychophysical tool to measure activation of adaptive feature coding has suggested that awareness is relatively unimportant for the coding of orientation, but awareness is crucial for the coding of face identity. We investigated where along the ventral visual pathway awareness becomes crucial for pattern coding. Monoptic masking, which interferes with neural spiking activity in low-level processing while preserving awareness of the adaptor, eliminated open-curvature aftereffects but preserved closed-curvature aftereffects. In contrast, dichoptic masking, which spares spiking activity in low-level processing while wiping out awareness, preserved open-curvature aftereffects but eliminated closed-curvature aftereffects. This double dissociation suggests that adaptive coding of open and closed curvatures straddles the divide between weakly and strongly awareness-dependent pattern coding. PMID:21690314
Experimental study of curvature effects on jet impingement heat transfer on concave surfaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ying Zhou
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Experimental study of the local and average heat transfer characteristics of a single round jet impinging on the concave surfaces was conducted in this work to gain in-depth knowledge of the curvature effects. The experiments were conducted by employing a piccolo tube with one single jet hole over a wide range of parameters: jet Reynolds number from 27000 to 130000, relative nozzle to surface distance from 3.3 to 30, and relative surface curvature from 0.005 to 0.030. Experimental results indicate that the surface curvature has opposite effects on heat transfer characteristics. On one hand, an increase of relative nozzle to surface distance (increasing jet diameter in fact enhances the average heat transfer around the surface for the same curved surface. On the other hand, the average Nusselt number decreases as relative nozzle to surface distance increases for a fixed jet diameter. Finally, experimental data-based correlations of the average Nusselt number over the curved surface were obtained with consideration of surface curvature effect. This work contributes to a better understanding of the curvature effects on heat transfer of a round jet impingement on concave surfaces, which is of high importance to the design of the aircraft anti-icing system.
Badial, Peres R; Cisneros-Àlvarez, Luis Emiliano; Brandão, Cláudia Valéria S; Ranzani, José Joaquim T; Tomaz, Mayana A R V; Machado, Vania M; Borges, Alexandre S
2015-09-01
The aim of this study was to compare ocular dimensions, corneal curvature, and corneal thickness between horses affected with hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia (HERDA) and unaffected horses. Five HERDA-affected quarter horses and five healthy control quarter horses were used. Schirmer's tear test, tonometry, and corneal diameter measurements were performed in both eyes of all horses prior to ophthalmologic examinations. Ultrasonic pachymetry was performed to measure the central, temporal, nasal, dorsal, and ventral corneal thicknesses in all horses. B-mode ultrasound scanning was performed on both eyes of each horse to determine the dimensions of the ocular structures and to calculate the corneal curvature. Each corneal region examined in this study was thinner in the affected group compared with the healthy control group. However, significant differences in corneal thickness were only observed for the central and dorsal regions. HERDA-affected horses exhibited significant increases in corneal curvature and corneal diameter compared with unaffected animals. The ophthalmologic examinations revealed mild corneal opacity in one eye of one affected horse and in both eyes of three affected horses. No significant between-group differences were observed for Schirmer's tear test, intraocular pressure, or ocular dimensions. Hereditary equine regional dermal asthenia-affected horses exhibit decreased corneal thickness in several regions of the cornea, increased corneal curvature, increased corneal diameter, and mild corneal opacity. Additional research is required to determine whether the increased corneal curvature significantly impacts the visual accuracy of horses with HERDA. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.
Berookhim, Boback M; Karpman, Edward; Carrion, Rafael
2015-11-01
The surgical treatment of comorbid erectile dysfunction and Peyronie's disease has long included the implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis as well as a number of adjuvant maneuvers to address residual curvature after prosthesis placement. To review the various surgical options for addressing curvature after prosthesis placement, with specific attention paid to an original article by Wilson et al. reporting on modeling over a penile prosthesis for the management of Peyronie's disease. A literature review was performed analyzing articles reporting the management of penile curvature in patients undergoing implantation of an inflatable penile prosthesis. Reported improvement in Peyronie's deformity as well as the complication rate associated with the various surgical techniques described. Modeling is a well-established treatment modality among patients with Peyronie's disease undergoing penile prosthesis implantation. A variety of other adjuvant maneuvers to address residual curvature when modeling alone is insufficient has been presented in the literature. Over 20 years of experience with modeling over a penile prosthesis have proven the efficacy and safety of this treatment option, providing the surgeon a simple initial step for the management of residual curvature after penile implantation which allows for the use of additional adjuvant maneuvers in those with significant deformities. © 2015 International Society for Sexual Medicine.
Scalar curvature in conformal geometry of Connes-Landi noncommutative manifolds
Liu, Yang
2017-11-01
We first propose a conformal geometry for Connes-Landi noncommutative manifolds and study the associated scalar curvature. The new scalar curvature contains its Riemannian counterpart as the commutative limit. Similar to the results on noncommutative two tori, the quantum part of the curvature consists of actions of the modular derivation through two local curvature functions. Explicit expressions for those functions are obtained for all even dimensions (greater than two). In dimension four, the one variable function shows striking similarity to the analytic functions of the characteristic classes appeared in the Atiyah-Singer local index formula, namely, it is roughly a product of the j-function (which defines the A ˆ -class of a manifold) and an exponential function (which defines the Chern character of a bundle). By performing two different computations for the variation of the Einstein-Hilbert action, we obtain deep internal relations between two local curvature functions. Straightforward verification for those relations gives a strong conceptual confirmation for the whole computational machinery we have developed so far, especially the Mathematica code hidden behind the paper.
Numerical Investigation on Fluid Flow in a 90-Degree Curved Pipe with Large Curvature Ratio
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yan Wang
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In order to understand the mechanism of fluid flows in curved pipes, a large number of theoretical and experimental researches have been performed. As a critical parameter of curved pipe, the curvature ratio δ has received much attention, but most of the values of δ are very small (δ<0.1 or relatively small (δ≤0.5. As a preliminary study and simulation this research studied the fluid flow in a 90-degree curved pipe of large curvature ratio. The Detached Eddy Simulation (DES turbulence model was employed to investigate the fluid flows at the Reynolds number range from 5000 to 20000. After validation of the numerical strategy, the pressure and velocity distribution, pressure drop, fluid flow, and secondary flow along the curved pipe were illustrated. The results show that the fluid flow in a curved pipe with large curvature ratio seems to be unlike that in a curved pipe with small curvature ratio. Large curvature ratio makes the internal flow more complicated; thus, the flow patterns, the separation region, and the oscillatory flow are different.
Frame-Covariant Formulation of Inflation in Scalar-Curvature Theories
Burns, Daniel; Pilaftsis, Apostolos
2016-01-01
We develop a frame-covariant formulation of inflation in the slow-roll approximation by generalizing the inflationary attractor solution for scalar-curvature theories. Our formulation gives rise to new generalized forms for the potential slow-roll parameters, which enable us to examine the effect of conformal transformations and inflaton reparameterizations in scalar-curvature theories. We find that cosmological observables, such as the power spectrum, the spectral indices and their runnings, can be expressed in a concise manner in terms of the generalized potential slow-roll parameters which depend on the scalar-curvature coupling function, the inflaton wavefunction, and the inflaton potential. We show how the cosmological observables of inflation are frame-invariant in this generalized potential slow-roll formalism, as long as the end-of-inflation condition is appropriately extended to become frame-invariant as well. We then apply our formalism to specific scenarios, such as the induced gravity inflation, H...
Keller, Brad M.; Reeves, Anthony P.; Barr, R. Graham; Yankelevitz, David F.; Henschke, Claudia I.
2010-03-01
CT scans allow for the quantitative evaluation of the anatomical bases of emphysema. Recently, a non-density based geometric measurement of lung diagphragm curvature has been proposed as a method for the quantification of emphysema from CT. This work analyzes variability of diaphragm curvature and evaluates the effectiveness of a compensation methodology for the reduction of this variability as compared to emphysema index. Using a dataset of 43 scan-pairs with less than a 100 day time-interval between scans, we find that the diaphragm curvature had a trend towards lower overall variability over emphysema index (95% CI:-9.7 to + 14.7 vs. -15.8 to +12.0), and that the variation of both measures was reduced after compensation. We conclude that the variation of the new measure can be considered comparable to the established measure and the compensation can reduce the apparent variation of quantitative measures successfully.
A curvature-based weighted fuzzy c-means algorithm for point clouds de-noising
Cui, Xin; Li, Shipeng; Yan, Xiutian; He, Xinhua
2018-04-01
In order to remove the noise of three-dimensional scattered point cloud and smooth the data without damnify the sharp geometric feature simultaneity, a novel algorithm is proposed in this paper. The feature-preserving weight is added to fuzzy c-means algorithm which invented a curvature weighted fuzzy c-means clustering algorithm. Firstly, the large-scale outliers are removed by the statistics of r radius neighboring points. Then, the algorithm estimates the curvature of the point cloud data by using conicoid parabolic fitting method and calculates the curvature feature value. Finally, the proposed clustering algorithm is adapted to calculate the weighted cluster centers. The cluster centers are regarded as the new points. The experimental results show that this approach is efficient to different scale and intensities of noise in point cloud with a high precision, and perform a feature-preserving nature at the same time. Also it is robust enough to different noise model.
Controllable soliton propagation based on phase-front curvature in asymmetrical nonlocal media
Zhang, Huafeng; Lü, Hua; Luo, Jianghua; Sun, Lihui
2016-08-01
The influence of phase-front curvature on the dynamical behavior of the fundamental mode soliton during its transmission in asymmetrical nonlocal media is studied in detail and the phase-front curvature can be imposed on the fundamental mode soliton by reshaping or phase imprinting technologies. By changing the phase-front curvature or its imposed position, controllable soliton propagation in asymmetrical nonlocal media can be achieved. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grants Nos. 11547007 and 11304024), the Innovation Personnel Training Plan for Excellent Youth of Guangdong University Project (Grant No. 2013LYM_0023), and the Yangtze Fund for Youth Teams of Science and Technology Innovation (Grant No. 2015cqt03).
Correlation Functions of the Energy Momentum Tensor on Spaces of Constant Curvature
Osborn, H
2000-01-01
An analysis of one and two point functions of the energy momentum tensor on homogeneous spaces of constant curvature is undertaken. The possibility of proving a c-theorem in this framework is discussed, in particular in relation to the coefficients c,a, which appear in the energy momentum tensor trace on general curved backgrounds in four dimensions. Ward identities relating the correlation functions are derived and explicit expressions are obtained for free scalar, spinor field theories in general dimensions and also free vector fields in dimension four. A natural geometric formalism which is independent of any choice of coordinates is used and the role of conformal symmetries on such constant curvature spaces is analysed. The results are shown to be constrained by the operator product expansion. For negative curvature the spectral representation, involving unitary positive energy representations of $O(d-1,2)$, for two point functions of vector currents is derived in detail and extended to the energy momentu...
Inﬂuence of implant rod curvature on sagittal correction of scoliosis deformity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salmingo, Remel A.; Tadano, Shigeru; Abe, Yuichiro
2014-01-01
of the implant rod’s angle of curvature during surgery and establish its influence on sagittal correction of scoliosis deformity. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective analysis of the preoperative and postoperative implant rod geometry and angle of curvature was conducted. PATIENT SAMPLE: Twenty adolescent idiopathic......BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Deformation of in vivo–implanted rods could alter the scoliosis sagittal correction. To our knowledge, no previous authors have investigated the influence of implanted-rod deformation on the sagittal deformity correction during scoliosis surgery. PURPOSE: To analyze the changes...... scoliosis patients underwent surgery. Average age at the time of operation was 14 years. OUTCOME MEASURES: The preoperative and postoperative implant rod angle of curvature expressed in degrees was obtained for each patient. METHODS: Two implant rods were attached to the concave and convex side...
Curvature vector smart sensing with a long-period fibre grating probed by artificial intelligence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Costa, R Z V; Possetti, G R C; De Arruda, L V R; Muller, M; Fabris, J L
2010-01-01
This work shows a curvature vector sensing device based on a single long-period grating written in a commercial photosensitive optical fibre. The sensing approach uses an artificial neural network based on multilayer perceptrons for data analysis. Curvatures from 0.00 to 3.13 m −1 and angular orientations from 0 to 180° were measured with the device, with combined standard uncertainties of 0.05 m −1 and 1.5°, respectively. The root mean square errors for curvature and angular orientation were 0.0008 m −1 and 0.3° in the training stage and 0.002 m −1 and 0.9° in the test stage, respectively
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catoni, Francesco; Cannata, Roberto; Zampetti, Paolo
2005-08-01
The Riemann and Lorentz constant curvature surfaces are investigated from an Euclidean point of view. The four surfaces (constant positive and constant negative curvatures with definite and non-definite fine elements) are represented as surfaces in a Riemannian or in a particular semi-Riemannian flat space and it is shown that the complex and the hyperbolic numbers allow to obtain the same equations for the corresponding Riemann and Lorentz surfaces, respectively. Moreover it is shown that the geodesics on the Lorentz surfaces states, from a physical point of view, a link between curvature and fields. This result is obtained just as a consequence of the space-time geometrical symmetry, without invoking the famous Einstein general relativity postulate [it
Higher curvature corrections to primordial fluctuations in slow-roll inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satoh, Masaki; Soda, Jiro
2008-01-01
We study higher curvature corrections to the scalar spectral index, the tensor spectral index, the tensor-to-scalar ratio, and the polarization of gravitational waves. We find that there are cases where the higher curvature corrections cannot be negligible in the dynamics of the scalar field, although they are always negligible energetically. Indeed, it turns out that the tensor-to-scalar ratio could be enhanced and the tensor spectral index could be blue due to the Gauss–Bonnet term. We estimate the degree of circular polarization of gravitational waves generated during the slow-roll inflation. We argue that the circular polarization could be observable with the help of both the Gauss–Bonnet and the parity violating terms. We also present several examples to reveal observational implications of higher curvature corrections for chaotic inflationary models
Lee, Jong-Ki; Ha, Byung-Hyun; Choi, Jeong-Ho; Heo, Seok-Mo; Perinpanayagam, Hiran
2006-10-01
In endodontic therapy, access and instrumentation are strongly affected by root canal curvature. However, the few studies that have actually measured curvature are mostly from two-dimensional radiographs. The purpose of this study was to measure the three-dimensional (3D) canal curvature in maxillary first molars using micro-computed tomography (microCT) and mathematical modeling. Extracted maxillary first molars (46) were scanned by microCT (502 image slices/tooth, 1024 X 1024 pixels, voxel size of 19.5 x 19.5 x 39.0 microm) and their canals reconstructed by 3D modeling software. The intersection of major and minor axes in the canal space of each image slice were connected to create an imaginary central axis for each canal. The radius of curvature of the tangential circle was measured and inverted as a measure of curvature using custom-made mathematical modeling software. Root canal curvature was greatest in the apical third and least in the middle third for all canals. The greatest curvatures were in the mesiobuccal (MB) canal (0.76 +/- 0.48 mm(-1)) with abrupt curves, and the least curvatures were in the palatal (P) canal (0.38 +/- 0.34 mm(-1)) with a gradual curve. This study has measured the 3D curvature of root canals in maxillary first molars and reinforced the value of microCT with mathematical modeling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Omid Bavi
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Mechanosensitive (MS channels are ubiquitous molecular force sensors that respond to a number of different mechanical stimuli including tensile, compressive and shear stress. MS channels are also proposed to be molecular curvature sensors gating in response to bending in their local environment. One of the main mechanisms to functionally study these channels is the patch clamp technique. However, the patch of membrane surveyed using this methodology is far from physiological. Here we use continuum mechanics to probe the question of how curvature, in a standard patch clamp experiment, at different length scales (global and local affects a model MS channel. Firstly, to increase the accuracy of the Laplace’s equation in tension estimation in a patch membrane and to be able to more precisely describe the transient phenomena happening during patch clamping, we propose a modified Laplace’s equation. Most importantly, we unambiguously show that the global curvature of a patch, which is visible under the microscope during patch clamp experiments, is of negligible energetic consequence for activation of an MS channel in a model membrane. However, the local curvature (RL < 50 and the direction of bending are able to cause considerable changes in the stress distribution through the thickness of the membrane. Not only does local bending, in the order of physiologically relevant curvatures, cause a substantial change in the pressure profile but it also significantly modifies the stress distribution in response to force application. Understanding these stress variations in regions of high local bending is essential for a complete understanding of the effects of curvature on MS channels.
Mean cortical curvature reflects cytoarchitecture restructuring in mild traumatic brain injury
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jace B. King
2016-01-01
Full Text Available In the United States alone, the number of persons living with the enduring consequences of traumatic brain injuries is estimated to be between 3.2 and 5 million. This number does not include individuals serving in the United States military or seeking care at Veterans Affairs hospitals. The importance of understanding the neurobiological consequences of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI has increased with the return of veterans from conflicts overseas, many of who have suffered this type of brain injury. However, identifying the neuroanatomical regions most affected by mTBI continues to prove challenging. The aim of this study was to assess the use of mean cortical curvature as a potential indicator of progressive tissue loss in a cross-sectional sample of 54 veterans with mTBI compared to 31 controls evaluated with MRI. It was hypothesized that mean cortical curvature would be increased in veterans with mTBI, relative to controls, due in part to cortical restructuring related to tissue volume loss. Mean cortical curvature was assessed in 60 bilateral regions (31 sulcal, 29 gyral. Of the 120 regions investigated, nearly 50% demonstrated significantly increased mean cortical curvature in mTBI relative to controls with 25% remaining significant following multiple comparison correction (all, pFDR < .05. These differences were most prominent in deep gray matter regions of the cortex. Additionally, significant relationships were found between mean cortical curvature and gray and white matter volumes (all, p < .05. These findings suggest potentially unique patterns of atrophy by region and indicate that changes in brain microstructure due to mTBI are sensitive to measures of mean curvature.
A high resolution electron microscopy investigation of curvature in multilayer graphite sheets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Zhenxia; Hu Jun; Wang Wenmin; Yu Guoqing
1998-01-01
Here the authors report a carbon sample generated by ultrasonic wave high oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) in ethanol, water or ethanol-water mixed solution. High resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) revealed many multilayer graphite sheets with a total curved angle that is multiples of θ 0 (= 30 degree C). Close examination of the micrographs showed that the curvature is accomplished by bending the lattice planes. A possible explanation for the curvature in multilayer graphite sheets is discussed based on the conformation of graphite symmetry axes and the formation of sp 3 -like line defects in the sp 2 graphitic network
Curvature tensors and unified field equations on SEX/sub n/
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, K.T.; Lee, I.L.
1988-01-01
We study the curvature tensors and field equations in the n-dimensional SE manifold SEX/sub n/. We obtain several basic properties of the vectors S/subλ/ and U/sub λ/ and then of the SE curvature tensor and its contractions, such as a generalized Ricci identity, a generalized Bianchi identity, and two variations of the Bianchi identity satisfied by the SE Einstein tensor. Finally, a system of field equations is discussed in SEX/sub n/ an done of its particular solutions is constructed and displayed
Curved nanocarbon materials: probing the curvature and topology effects using phonon spectra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saxena, Avadh Baheri [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gupta, Sanju [UNIV OF MISSOURI
2008-01-01
In spite of detailed structural characterization of nanoscale carbons, they still possess some features that are not entirely understood particularly in terms of topological characteristics. By means of resonance Raman spectroscopy, we elucidated the notion of global topology and curvature by determining the prominent Raman bands variation for various carbon nanostructures including tubular (single-, double- and multiwalled nanotubes, peapod), spherical (hypo- and hyperfullerenes, onion-like carbon) and complex (nanocones, nanohorns, nanodisks and nanorings) geometries. This knowledge points to an unprecedented emergent paradigm of global topology/curvature {yields} property {yields} functionality relationship.
On the non-Gaussian correlation of the primordial curvature perturbation with vector fields
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kumar Jain, Rajeev; Sloth, Martin Snoager
2013-01-01
We compute the three-point cross-correlation function of the primordial curvature perturbation generated during inflation with two powers of a vector field in a model where conformal invariance is broken by a direct coupling of the vector field with the inflaton. If the vector field is identified...... with the electromagnetic field, this correlation would be a non-Gaussian signature of primordial magnetic fields generated during inflation. We find that the signal is maximized for the flattened configuration where the wave number of the curvature perturbation is twice that of the vector field and in this limit...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolami, Orfeu; Paramos, Jorge
2011-01-01
The purpose of this study is to describe a perfect fluid matter distribution that leads to a constant curvature region, thanks to the effect of a nonminimal coupling. This distribution exhibits a density profile within the range found in the interstellar medium and an adequate matching of the metric components at its boundary. By identifying this constant curvature with the value of the cosmological constant and superimposing the spherical distributions arising from different matter sources throughout the universe, one is able to mimic a large-scale homogeneous cosmological constant solution.
Recursion Formulae for Obtaining Surfaces with Constant Mean Curvature in R2,1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tian Yongbo; Nan Zhijie; Tian Chou
2007-01-01
Though the Baecklund transformation on time-like surfaces with constant mean curvature surfaces in R 2,1 has been obtained, it is not easy to obtain corresponding surfaces because the procedure of solving the related integrable system cannot be avoided when the Baecklund transformation is used. For sake of this, in this article, some special work is done to reform the Baecklund transformation to a recursion formula, by which we can construct time-like surfaces with constant mean curvature form known ones just by quadrature procedure.
Induction of Plant Curvature by Magnetophoresis and Cytoskeletal Changes during Root Graviresponse
Hasenstein, Karl H.; Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Blancaflor, Eilson B.
1996-01-01
High gradient magnetic fields (HGMF) induce curvature in roots and shoots. It is considered that this response is likely to be based on the intracellular displacement of bulk starch (amyloplasts) by the ponderomotive force generated by the HGMF. This process is called magnetophoresis. The differential elongation during the curvature along the concave and convex flanks of growing organs may be linked to the microtubular and/or microfilament cytoskeleton. The possible existence of an effect of the HGMF on the cytoskeleton was tested for, but none was found. The application of cytoskeletal stabilizers or depolymerizers showed that neither microtubules, nor microfilaments, are involved in the graviresponse.
Prediction of the Critical Curvature for LX-17 with the Time of Arrival Data from DNS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao, Jin [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Fried, Laurence E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Moss, William C. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2017-01-10
We extract the detonation shock front velocity, curvature and acceleration from time of arrival data measured at grid points from direct numerical simulations of a 50mm rate-stick lit by a disk-source, with the ignition and growth reaction model and a JWL equation of state calibrated for LX-17. We compute the quasi-steady (D, κ) relation based on the extracted properties and predicted the critical curvatures of LX-17. We also proposed an explicit formula that contains the failure turning point, obtained from optimization for the (D, κ) relation of LX-17.
Convective mass transfer in helical pipes: effect of curvature and torsion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Litster, S.; Djilali, N. [University of Victoria, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Victoria, BC (Canada); Pharoah, J.G. [University of Victoria, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Victoria, BC (Canada); Queen' s University at Kingston, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Kingston, ON (Canada)
2006-03-01
A 3D numerical analysis of the flow and mass transfer in helical pipes is presented. The interpretation of the flow patterns and their impact on mass transfer is shown to require a non-orthogonal pseudo-stream function based visualization. The strong coupling between torsion and curvature effects, and the resulting secondary flow regimes are well characterized by a parameter combining both the Dean (Dn) and Germano numbers (Gn). For membrane separation applications, helical modules combining high curvature with low torsion would alleviate concentration polarization and yield appreciable flux improvement. (orig.)
Abdelsalam, D. G.; Shaalan, M. S.; Eloker, M. M.; Kim, Daesuk
2010-06-01
In this paper a method is presented to accurately measure the radius of curvature of different types of curved surfaces of different radii of curvatures of 38 000,18 000 and 8000 mm using multiple-beam interference fringes in reflection. The images captured by the digital detector were corrected by flat fielding method. The corrected images were analyzed and the form of the surfaces was obtained. A 3D profile for the three types of surfaces was obtained using Zernike polynomial fitting. Some sources of uncertainty in measurement were calculated by means of ray tracing simulations and the uncertainty budget was estimated within λ/40.
Asymmetric vibrations of thick shells of revolution having meridionally varying curvature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Suzuki, Katsuyoshi; Kosawada, Tadashi; Yachita, Takumi.
1988-01-01
An exact method using power series expansions is presented for solving asymmetric free vibration problems for thick shells of revolution having meridionally varying curvature. Based on the improved thick shell theory, the Lagrangian of the shells of revolution are obtained, and the equations of motion and the boundary conditions are derived from the stationary condition of the Lagrangian. The method is demonstrated for thick shells of revolution having elliptical, cycloidal, parabolical, catenary and hyperbolical meridional curvature. The results by the present method are compared with those by the thin shell theory and the effects of the rotatory inertia and the shear deformation upon the natural frequencies are clarified. (author)
Large-scale magnetic fields, curvature fluctuations, and the thermal history of the Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giovannini, Massimo
2007-01-01
It is shown that gravitating magnetic fields affect the evolution of curvature perturbations in a way that is reminiscent of a pristine nonadiabatic pressure fluctuation. The gauge-invariant evolution of curvature perturbations is used to constrain the magnetic power spectrum. Depending on the essential features of the thermodynamic history of the Universe, the explicit derivation of the bound is modified. The theoretical uncertainty in the constraints on the magnetic energy spectrum is assessed by comparing the results obtained in the case of the conventional thermal history with the estimates stemming from less conventional (but phenomenologically allowed) post-inflationary evolutions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Yeon Gun; Kim, Sin [Jeju National Univ., Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Jerng, Dong Wook [Chung Ang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2013-10-15
In this study, the effect of the transverse curvature on the condensation HTC on a vertical tube in the presence of air is preliminarily investigated by using the analysis of boundary layer for free convective heat transfer. The results indicate that the heat transfer performance can be enhanced as the outer diameter of condenser tubes is small. To confirm this curvature effect, an experimental program to obtain the condensation heat transfer data for various values of tube diameter is indispensable. Currently, by a joint research project of Jeju National University and Chung-Ang University, a condensation test facility is being designed and constructed to acquire the condensation HTC data as shown in Fig. 3. From a series of experiment on a single vertical tube, the effects of not only the tube diameter but the inclination, the existence of fins and the local velocity of a bulk mixture by natural circulation will be evaluated precisely. An empirical correlation for the condensation heat transfer of a steam-air mixture will also be developed for design optimization and performance evaluation of the PCCS. The Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) provides passive means to remove the decay heat and protect the integrity of the containment during severe accidents. Korea, in which all the NPPs employ the concrete containment, may adopt a PCCS using internal condensers. In the event of the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), steam released from the reactor coolant system is mixed with air inside the containment and condensed on the outer surface of inclined condenser tubes. It is noted that, among previous theoretical and empirical models for condensation on outer wall in the presence of non-condensable gas, no one took into account the effect of a tube diameter. Though the condensation heat transfer coefficient may vary with transverse curvature of condenser tubes, such a curvature effect has not been reported so far. In this study, a preliminary analysis is conducted
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Yeon Gun; Kim, Sin; Jerng, Dong Wook
2013-01-01
In this study, the effect of the transverse curvature on the condensation HTC on a vertical tube in the presence of air is preliminarily investigated by using the analysis of boundary layer for free convective heat transfer. The results indicate that the heat transfer performance can be enhanced as the outer diameter of condenser tubes is small. To confirm this curvature effect, an experimental program to obtain the condensation heat transfer data for various values of tube diameter is indispensable. Currently, by a joint research project of Jeju National University and Chung-Ang University, a condensation test facility is being designed and constructed to acquire the condensation HTC data as shown in Fig. 3. From a series of experiment on a single vertical tube, the effects of not only the tube diameter but the inclination, the existence of fins and the local velocity of a bulk mixture by natural circulation will be evaluated precisely. An empirical correlation for the condensation heat transfer of a steam-air mixture will also be developed for design optimization and performance evaluation of the PCCS. The Passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) provides passive means to remove the decay heat and protect the integrity of the containment during severe accidents. Korea, in which all the NPPs employ the concrete containment, may adopt a PCCS using internal condensers. In the event of the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), steam released from the reactor coolant system is mixed with air inside the containment and condensed on the outer surface of inclined condenser tubes. It is noted that, among previous theoretical and empirical models for condensation on outer wall in the presence of non-condensable gas, no one took into account the effect of a tube diameter. Though the condensation heat transfer coefficient may vary with transverse curvature of condenser tubes, such a curvature effect has not been reported so far. In this study, a preliminary analysis is conducted
de Haan, Seraphine; Reis, Cláudia; Ndlovu, Junior; Serrenho, Catarina; Akhtar, Ifrah; Garcia, José Antonio; Linde, Daniël; Thorskog, Martine; Franco, Loris; Hogg, Peter
2015-01-01
This review aims to identify strategies to optimise radiography practice using digital technologies, for full spine studies on paediatrics focusing particularly on methods used to diagnose and measure severity of spinal curvatures. The literature search was performed on different databases (PubMed,
Singh, Harkirat; Wahi, Pankaj
2017-08-01
The motion of a string in the presence of a doubly curved obstacle is investigated. A mathematical model has been developed for a general shape of the obstacle. However, detailed analysis has been performed for a shape relevant to the Indian stringed musical instruments like Tanpura and Sitar. In particular, we explore the effect of obstacle's curvature in the plane perpendicular to the string axis on its motion. This geometrical feature of the obstacle introduces a coupling between motions in mutually perpendicular directions over and above the coupling due to the stretching nonlinearity. We find that only one planar motion is possible for our system. Small amplitude planar motions are stable to perturbations in the perpendicular direction resulting in non-whirling motions while large amplitude oscillations lead to whirling motions. The critical amplitude of oscillations, across which there is a transition in the qualitative behavior of the non-planar trajectories, is determined using Floquet theory. Our analysis reveals that a small obstacle curvature in a direction perpendicular to the string axis leads to a considerable reduction in the critical amplitudes required for initiation of whirling motions. Hence, this obstacle curvature has a destabilizing effect on the planar motions in contrast to the curvature along the string axis which stabilizes planar motions.
Comprehensive Use of Curvature for Robust and Accurate Online Surface Reconstruction.
Lefloch, Damien; Kluge, Markus; Sarbolandi, Hamed; Weyrich, Tim; Kolb, Andreas
2017-12-01
Interactive real-time scene acquisition from hand-held depth cameras has recently developed much momentum, enabling applications in ad-hoc object acquisition, augmented reality and other fields. A key challenge to online reconstruction remains error accumulation in the reconstructed camera trajectory, due to drift-inducing instabilities in the range scan alignments of the underlying iterative-closest-point (ICP) algorithm. Various strategies have been proposed to mitigate that drift, including SIFT-based pre-alignment, color-based weighting of ICP pairs, stronger weighting of edge features, and so on. In our work, we focus on surface curvature as a feature that is detectable on range scans alone and hence does not depend on accurate multi-sensor alignment. In contrast to previous work that took curvature into consideration, however, we treat curvature as an independent quantity that we consistently incorporate into every stage of the real-time reconstruction pipeline, including densely curvature-weighted ICP, range image fusion, local surface reconstruction, and rendering. Using multiple benchmark sequences, and in direct comparison to other state-of-the-art online acquisition systems, we show that our approach significantly reduces drift, both when analyzing individual pipeline stages in isolation, as well as seen across the online reconstruction pipeline as a whole.
L2-Harmonic Forms on Incomplete Riemannian Manifolds with Positive Ricci Curvature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junya Takahashi
2018-05-01
Full Text Available We construct an incomplete Riemannian manifold with positive Ricci curvature that has non-trivial L 2 -harmonic forms and on which the L 2 -Stokes theorem does not hold. Therefore, a Bochner-type vanishing theorem does not hold for incomplete Riemannian manifolds.
Curvature-Continuous 3D Path-Planning Using QPMI Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seong-Ryong Chang
2015-06-01
Full Text Available It is impossible to achieve vertex movement and rapid velocity control in aerial robots and aerial vehicles because of momentum from the air. A continuous-curvature path ensures such robots and vehicles can fly with stable and continuous movements. General continuous path-planning methods use spline interpolation, for example B-spline and Bézier curves. However, these methods cannot be directly applied to continuous path planning in a 3D space. These methods use a subset of the waypoints to decide curvature and some waypoints are not included in the planned path. This paper proposes a method for constructing a curvature-continuous path in 3D space that includes every waypoint. The movements in each axis, x, y and z, are separated by the parameter u. Waypoint groups are formed, each with its own continuous path derived using quadratic polynomial interpolation. The membership function then combines each continuous path into one continuous path. The continuity of the path is verified and the curvature-continuous path is produced using the proposed method.
3D Facial Similarity Measure Based on Geodesic Network and Curvatures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Junli Zhao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Automated 3D facial similarity measure is a challenging and valuable research topic in anthropology and computer graphics. It is widely used in various fields, such as criminal investigation, kinship confirmation, and face recognition. This paper proposes a 3D facial similarity measure method based on a combination of geodesic and curvature features. Firstly, a geodesic network is generated for each face with geodesics and iso-geodesics determined and these network points are adopted as the correspondence across face models. Then, four metrics associated with curvatures, that is, the mean curvature, Gaussian curvature, shape index, and curvedness, are computed for each network point by using a weighted average of its neighborhood points. Finally, correlation coefficients according to these metrics are computed, respectively, as the similarity measures between two 3D face models. Experiments of different persons’ 3D facial models and different 3D facial models of the same person are implemented and compared with a subjective face similarity study. The results show that the geodesic network plays an important role in 3D facial similarity measure. The similarity measure defined by shape index is consistent with human’s subjective evaluation basically, and it can measure the 3D face similarity more objectively than the other indices.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fang Fang
2018-05-01
Full Text Available In geometrically frustrated clusters of polyhedra, gaps between faces can be closed without distorting the polyhedra by the long established method of discrete curvature, which consists of curving the space into a fourth dimension, resulting in a dihedral angle at the joint between polyhedra in 4D. An alternative method—the twist method—has been recently suggested for a particular case, whereby the gaps are closed by twisting the cluster in 3D, resulting in an angular offset of the faces at the joint between adjacent polyhedral. In this paper, we show the general applicability of the twist method, for local clusters, and present the surprising result that both the required angle of the twist transformation and the consequent angle at the joint are the same, respectively, as the angle of bending to 4D in the discrete curvature and its resulting dihedral angle. The twist is therefore not only isomorphic, but isogonic (in terms of the rotation angles to discrete curvature. Our results apply to local clusters, but in the discussion we offer some justification for the conjecture that the isomorphism between twist and discrete curvature can be extended globally. Furthermore, we present examples for tetrahedral clusters with three-, four-, and fivefold symmetry.
Gregory, A L; Agarwal, A; Lasenby, J
2017-11-01
We present a novel application of rotors in geometric algebra to represent the change of curvature tensor that is used in shell theory as part of the constitutive law. We introduce a new decomposition of the change of curvature tensor, which has explicit terms for changes of curvature due to initial curvature combined with strain, and changes in rotation over the surface. We use this decomposition to perform a scaling analysis of the relative importance of bending and stretching in flexible tubes undergoing self-excited oscillations. These oscillations have relevance to the lung, in which it is believed that they are responsible for wheezing. The new analysis is necessitated by the fact that the working fluid is air, compared to water in most previous work. We use stereographic imaging to empirically measure the relative importance of bending and stretching energy in observed self-excited oscillations. This enables us to validate our scaling analysis. We show that bending energy is dominated by stretching energy, and the scaling analysis makes clear that this will remain true for tubes in the airways of the lung.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. H. ELBATRAN
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Helical channels have a wide range of applications in petroleum engineering, nuclear, heat exchanger, chemical, mineral and polymer industries. They are used in the separation processes for fluids of different densities. The centrifugal force, free surface and geometrical effects of the helical channel make the flow pattern more complicated; hence it is very difficult to perform physical experiment to predict channel performance. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD can be suitable alternative for studying the flow pattern characteristics in helical channels. The different ranges of dimensional parameters, such as curvature and torsion, often cause various flow regimes in the helical channels. In this study, the effects of physical parameters such as curvature, torsion, Reynolds number, Froude number and Dean Number on the characteristics of the turbulent flow in helical rectangular channels have been investigated numerically, using a finite volume RANSE code Fluent of Ansys workbench 10.1 UTM licensed. The physical parameters were reported for range of curvature (δ of 0.16 to 0.51 and torsion (λ of 0.032 to 0.1 .The numerical results of this study showed that the decrease in the channel curvature and the increase in the channel torsion numbers led to the increase of the flow velocity inside the channel and the change in the shape of water free surface at given Dean, Reynolds and Froude numbers.
Patel, Ajay M.; Joshi, Anand Y.
2016-10-01
This paper deals with the nonlinear vibration analysis of a double walled carbon nanotube based mass sensor with curvature factor or waviness, which is doubly clamped at a source and a drain. Nonlinear vibrational behaviour of a double-walled carbon nanotube excited harmonically near its primary resonance is considered. The double walled carbon nanotube is harmonically excited by the addition of an excitation force. The modelling involves stretching of the mid plane and damping as per phenomenon. The equation of motion involves four nonlinear terms for inner and outer tubes of DWCNT due to the curved geometry and the stretching of the central plane due to the boundary conditions. The vibrational behaviour of the double walled carbon nanotube with different surface deviations along its axis is analyzed in the context of the time response, Poincaré maps and Fast Fourier Transformation diagrams. The appearance of instability and chaos in the dynamic response is observed as the curvature factor on double walled carbon nanotube is changed. The phenomenon of Periodic doubling and intermittency are observed as the pathway to chaos. The regions of periodic, sub-harmonic and chaotic behaviour are clearly seen to be dependent on added mass and the curvature factors in the double walled carbon nanotube. Poincaré maps and frequency spectra are used to explicate and to demonstrate the miscellany of the system behaviour. With the increase in the curvature factor system excitations increases and results in an increase of the vibration amplitude with reduction in excitation frequency.
Test of the FLRW Metric and Curvature with Strong Lens Time Delays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Liao, Kai [School of Science, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Li, Zhengxiang; Wang, Guo-Jian [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Fan, Xi-Long, E-mail: liaokai@whut.edu.cn, E-mail: xilong.fan@glasgow.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Mechanical and Electrical Engineering, Hubei University of Education, Wuhan 430205 (China)
2017-04-20
We present a new model-independent strategy for testing the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric and constraining cosmic curvature, based on future time-delay measurements of strongly lensed quasar-elliptical galaxy systems from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and supernova observations from the Dark Energy Survey. The test only relies on geometric optics. It is independent of the energy contents of the universe and the validity of the Einstein equation on cosmological scales. The study comprises two levels: testing the FLRW metric through the distance sum rule (DSR) and determining/constraining cosmic curvature. We propose an effective and efficient (redshift) evolution model for performing the former test, which allows us to concretely specify the violation criterion for the FLRW DSR. If the FLRW metric is consistent with the observations, then on the second level the cosmic curvature parameter will be constrained to ∼0.057 or ∼0.041 (1 σ ), depending on the availability of high-redshift supernovae, which is much more stringent than current model-independent techniques. We also show that the bias in the time-delay method might be well controlled, leading to robust results. The proposed method is a new independent tool for both testing the fundamental assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy in cosmology and for determining cosmic curvature. It is complementary to cosmic microwave background plus baryon acoustic oscillation analyses, which normally assume a cosmological model with dark energy domination in the late-time universe.
On the mean curvature of semi-Riemannian graphs in semi ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The study of the mean curvature of graph-like surfaces has a long history, but it is still a .... where, here and in the sequel, ∇h stands for the gradient of h on M, and ¯∇(¯h) the .... Then (1) follows by applying Proposition 17 of Chapter 4 in [12].
Curvature effect on nuclear 'pasta': Is it helpful for gyroid appearance?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakazato, Ken'ichiro; Iida, Kei; Oyamatsu, Kazuhiro
2011-01-01
In supernova cores and neutron star crusts, nuclei are thought to deform to rodlike and slablike shapes, which are often called nuclear pasta. We study the equilibrium properties of the nuclear pasta by using a liquid-drop model with curvature corrections. It is confirmed that the curvature effect acts to lower the transition densities between different shapes. We also examine the gyroid structure, which was recently suggested as a different type of nuclear pasta by analogy with the polymer systems. The gyroid structure investigated in this paper is approximately formulated as an extension of the periodic minimal surface whose mean curvature vanishes. In contrast to our expectations, we find, from the present approximate formulation, that the curvature corrections act to slightly disfavor the appearance of the gyroid structure. By comparing the energy corrections in the gyroid phase and the hypothetical phases composed of d-dimensional spheres, where d is a general dimensionality, we show that the gyroid is unlikely to belong to a family of the generalized dimensional spheres.
Wormholes and time-machines in nonminimally coupled matter-curvature theories of gravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bertolami, O.; Ferreira, R. Z.
2013-01-01
In this work we show the existence of traversable wormhole and time-machine solutions in a modified theory of gravity where matter and curvature are nonminimally coupled. Those solutions present a nontrivial redshift function and exist even in the presence of ordinary matter which satisfies...
Wormholes in higher dimensions with non-linear curvature terms from quantum gravity corrections
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
El-Nabulsi, Ahmad Rami [Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang, Sichuan (China)
2011-11-15
In this work, we discuss a 7-dimensional universe in the presence of a static traversable wormhole and a decaying cosmological constant and dominated by higher-order curvature effects expected from quantum gravity corrections. We confirmed the existence of wormhole solutions in the form of the Lovelock gravity. Many interesting and attractive features are discussed in some detail.
Wormholes and Time-Machines in Nonminimally Coupled Matter-Curvature Theories of Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bertolami Orfeu
2013-09-01
Full Text Available In this work we show the existence of traversable wormhole and time-machine solutions in a modified theory of gravity where matter and curvature are nonminimally coupled. Those solutions present a nontrivial redshift function and exist even in the presence of ordinary matter which satisfies the dominant energy condition.
Zhang, X. F.; Hu, S. D.; Tzou, H. S.
2014-12-01
Converting vibration energy to useful electric energy has attracted much attention in recent years. Based on the electromechanical coupling of piezoelectricity, distributed piezoelectric zero-curvature type (e.g., beams and plates) energy harvesters have been proposed and evaluated. The objective of this study is to develop a generic linear and nonlinear piezoelectric shell energy harvesting theory based on a double-curvature shell. The generic piezoelectric shell energy harvester consists of an elastic double-curvature shell and piezoelectric patches laminated on its surface(s). With a current model in the closed-circuit condition, output voltages and energies across a resistive load are evaluated when the shell is subjected to harmonic excitations. Steady-state voltage and power outputs across the resistive load are calculated at resonance for each shell mode. The piezoelectric shell energy harvesting mechanism can be simplified to shell (e.g., cylindrical, conical, spherical, paraboloidal, etc.) and non-shell (beam, plate, ring, arch, etc.) distributed harvesters using two Lamé parameters and two curvature radii of the selected harvester geometry. To demonstrate the utility and simplification procedures, the generic linear/nonlinear shell energy harvester mechanism is simplified to three specific structures, i.e., a cantilever beam case, a circular ring case and a conical shell case. Results show the versatility of the generic linear/nonlinear shell energy harvesting mechanism and the validity of the simplification procedures.
Membrane curvature enables N-Ras lipid anchor sorting to liquid-ordered membrane phases
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Larsen, Jannik Bruun; Jensen, Martin Borch; Bhatia, Vikram Kjøller
2015-01-01
Trafficking and sorting of membrane-anchored Ras GTPases are regulated by partitioning between distinct membrane domains. Here, in vitro experiments and microscopic molecular theory reveal membrane curvature as a new modulator of N-Ras lipid anchor and palmitoyl chain partitioning. Membrane...
On the model of the relativistic particle with curvature and torsion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesterenko, V.V.
1992-01-01
Two integrals along the world trajectory of its curvature and torsion are added to the standard action for the point-like spinless relativistic particle. This enables one to quantize the model canonically and to derive exactly the relation between the spin and mass of the states. 10 refs
Curvature histogram features for retrieval of images of smooth 3D objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhdanov, I; Scherbakov, O; Potapov, A; Peterson, M
2014-01-01
We consider image features on the base of histograms of oriented gradients (HOG) with addition of contour curvature histogram (HOG-CH), and also compare it with results of known scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) approach in application to retrieval of images of smooth 3D objects.
An optomechatronic curvature measurement array based on fiber Bragg gratings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, Hsing-Cheng; Lin, Shyan-Lung; Hung, San-Shan; Chang, I-Nan; Chen, Ya-Hui; Lin, Jung-Chih; Liu, Wen-Fung
2014-01-01
This study investigated an optomechatronic array-integrated signal processing module and a human–machine interface based on fiber Bragg grating sensing elements embedded in an elastic support matrix that involves using a self-located electromagnetic mechanism for curvature sensing and solid contour reconstruction. Using bilinear interpolation and average calculation methods, the smooth and accurate surface contours of convex and concave lenses are reconstructed in real-time. The elastic supporting optical sensing array is self-balanced to reduce operational errors. Compared with our previous single-head sensor, the sensitivity of the proposed array is improved by more than 15%. In the curvature range from −20.15 to +27.09 m −1 , the sensitivities are 3.53 pm m for the convex measurement and 2.15 pm m for the concave measurement with an error rate below 8.89%. The curvature resolutions are 0.283 and 0.465 m −1 for convex and concave lenses, respectively. This array could be applied in the curvature measurement of solar collectors to monitor energy conversion efficiency or could be used to monitor the wafer-level thin-film fabrication process. (paper)
Fractional charge and inter-Landau-level states at points of singular curvature.
Biswas, Rudro R; Son, Dam Thanh
2016-08-02
The quest for universal properties of topological phases is fundamentally important because these signatures are robust to variations in system-specific details. Aspects of the response of quantum Hall states to smooth spatial curvature are well-studied, but challenging to observe experimentally. Here we go beyond this prevailing paradigm and obtain general results for the response of quantum Hall states to points of singular curvature in real space; such points may be readily experimentally actualized. We find, using continuum analytical methods, that the point of curvature binds an excess fractional charge and sequences of quantum states split away, energetically, from the degenerate bulk Landau levels. Importantly, these inter-Landau-level states are bound to the topological singularity and have energies that are universal functions of bulk parameters and the curvature. Our exact diagonalization of lattice tight-binding models on closed manifolds demonstrates that these results continue to hold even when lattice effects are significant. An important technological implication of these results is that these inter-Landau-level states, being both energetically and spatially isolated quantum states, are promising candidates for constructing qubits for quantum computation.
Probing interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Miao; Li, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Shuang; Wang, Yi; Zhang, Xin
2009-01-01
In this paper we place observational constraints on the interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model. We consider three kinds of phenomenological interactions between holographic dark energy and matter, i.e., the interaction term Q is proportional to the energy densities of dark energy (ρ Λ ), matter (ρ m ), and matter plus dark energy (ρ m +ρ Λ ). For probing the interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model, we use the latest observational data including the type Ia supernovae (SNIa) Constitution data, the shift parameter of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) given by the five-year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP5) observations, and the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) measurement from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Our results show that the interaction and spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model are both rather small. Besides, it is interesting to find that there exists significant degeneracy between the phenomenological interaction and the spatial curvature in the holographic dark energy model
Test of the FLRW Metric and Curvature with Strong Lens Time Delays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liao, Kai; Li, Zhengxiang; Wang, Guo-Jian; Fan, Xi-Long
2017-01-01
We present a new model-independent strategy for testing the Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker (FLRW) metric and constraining cosmic curvature, based on future time-delay measurements of strongly lensed quasar-elliptical galaxy systems from the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope and supernova observations from the Dark Energy Survey. The test only relies on geometric optics. It is independent of the energy contents of the universe and the validity of the Einstein equation on cosmological scales. The study comprises two levels: testing the FLRW metric through the distance sum rule (DSR) and determining/constraining cosmic curvature. We propose an effective and efficient (redshift) evolution model for performing the former test, which allows us to concretely specify the violation criterion for the FLRW DSR. If the FLRW metric is consistent with the observations, then on the second level the cosmic curvature parameter will be constrained to ∼0.057 or ∼0.041 (1 σ ), depending on the availability of high-redshift supernovae, which is much more stringent than current model-independent techniques. We also show that the bias in the time-delay method might be well controlled, leading to robust results. The proposed method is a new independent tool for both testing the fundamental assumptions of homogeneity and isotropy in cosmology and for determining cosmic curvature. It is complementary to cosmic microwave background plus baryon acoustic oscillation analyses, which normally assume a cosmological model with dark energy domination in the late-time universe.
Curvature correction of retinal OCTs using graph-based geometry detection
Kafieh, Raheleh; Rabbani, Hossein; Abramoff, Michael D.; Sonka, Milan
2013-05-01
In this paper, we present a new algorithm as an enhancement and preprocessing step for acquired optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the retina. The proposed method is composed of two steps, first of which is a denoising algorithm with wavelet diffusion based on a circular symmetric Laplacian model, and the second part can be described in terms of graph-based geometry detection and curvature correction according to the hyper-reflective complex layer in the retina. The proposed denoising algorithm showed an improvement of contrast-to-noise ratio from 0.89 to 1.49 and an increase of signal-to-noise ratio (OCT image SNR) from 18.27 to 30.43 dB. By applying the proposed method for estimation of the interpolated curve using a full automatic method, the mean ± SD unsigned border positioning error was calculated for normal and abnormal cases. The error values of 2.19 ± 1.25 and 8.53 ± 3.76 µm were detected for 200 randomly selected slices without pathological curvature and 50 randomly selected slices with pathological curvature, respectively. The important aspect of this algorithm is its ability in detection of curvature in strongly pathological images that surpasses previously introduced methods; the method is also fast, compared to the relatively low speed of similar methods.
Curvature correction of retinal OCTs using graph-based geometry detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kafieh, Raheleh; Rabbani, Hossein; Abramoff, Michael D; Sonka, Milan
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present a new algorithm as an enhancement and preprocessing step for acquired optical coherence tomography (OCT) images of the retina. The proposed method is composed of two steps, first of which is a denoising algorithm with wavelet diffusion based on a circular symmetric Laplacian model, and the second part can be described in terms of graph-based geometry detection and curvature correction according to the hyper-reflective complex layer in the retina. The proposed denoising algorithm showed an improvement of contrast-to-noise ratio from 0.89 to 1.49 and an increase of signal-to-noise ratio (OCT image SNR) from 18.27 to 30.43 dB. By applying the proposed method for estimation of the interpolated curve using a full automatic method, the mean ± SD unsigned border positioning error was calculated for normal and abnormal cases. The error values of 2.19 ± 1.25 and 8.53 ± 3.76 µm were detected for 200 randomly selected slices without pathological curvature and 50 randomly selected slices with pathological curvature, respectively. The important aspect of this algorithm is its ability in detection of curvature in strongly pathological images that surpasses previously introduced methods; the method is also fast, compared to the relatively low speed of similar methods. (paper)
Csillik, O.; Evans, I. S.; Drăguţ, L.
2015-03-01
Automated procedures are developed to alleviate long tails in frequency distributions of morphometric variables. They minimize the skewness of slope gradient frequency distributions, and modify the kurtosis of profile and plan curvature distributions toward that of the Gaussian (normal) model. Box-Cox (for slope) and arctangent (for curvature) transformations are tested on nine digital elevation models (DEMs) of varying origin and resolution, and different landscapes, and shown to be effective. Resulting histograms are illustrated and show considerable improvements over those for previously recommended slope transformations (sine, square root of sine, and logarithm of tangent). Unlike previous approaches, the proposed method evaluates the frequency distribution of slope gradient values in a given area and applies the most appropriate transform if required. Sensitivity of the arctangent transformation is tested, showing that Gaussian-kurtosis transformations are acceptable also in terms of histogram shape. Cube root transformations of curvatures produced bimodal histograms. The transforms are applicable to morphometric variables and many others with skewed or long-tailed distributions. By avoiding long tails and outliers, they permit parametric statistics such as correlation, regression and principal component analyses to be applied, with greater confidence that requirements for linearity, additivity and even scatter of residuals (constancy of error variance) are likely to be met. It is suggested that such transformations should be routinely applied in all parametric analyses of long-tailed variables. Our Box-Cox and curvature automated transformations are based on a Python script, implemented as an easy-to-use script tool in ArcGIS.
Curvature-induced microswarming and clustering of self-propelled particles
Bruss, Isaac; Glotzer, Sharon
Non-equilibrium active matter systems exhibit many unique phenomena, such as motility-induced phase separation and swarming. However, little is known about how these behaviors depend on the geometry of the environment. To answer this question, we use Brownian dynamics simulations to study the effects of Gaussian curvature on self-propelled particles by confining them to the surface of a sphere. We find that a modest amount of curvature promotes phase separation by altering the shape of a cluster's boundary. Alternatively, particles on surfaces of high curvature experience reduced phase separation and instead form microswarms, where particles share a common orbit. We show that this novel flocking behavior is distinct from other previously studied examples, in that it is not explicitly incorporated into our model through Vicsek-like alignment rules nor torques. Rather, we find that microswarms emerge solely due to the geometric link between orientation and velocity, a property exclusive to surfaces with non-zero Gaussian curvature. These findings reveal the important role of local environment on the global emergent behavior of non-equilibrium systems. Center for Bio-Inspired Engineering (DOE Award # DE-SC0000989).
Papapetrou's naked singularity is a strong curvature singularity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hollier, G.P.
1986-11-01
Following Papapetrou (1985, a random walk in General Relativity ed. J. Krishna-Rao (New Delhi: Wiley Eastern)), a spacetime with a naked singularity is analysed. This singularity is shown to be a strong curvature singularity and thus a counterexample to a censorship conjecture.
He, Wei; Han, Meidong; Goudeau, Philippe; Bourhis, Eric Le; Renault, Pierre-Olivier; Wang, Shibin; Li, Lin-an
2018-03-01
Uniaxial tensile tests on polyimide-supported thin metal films are performed to respectively study the macroscopic strain transfer through an interface and the surface curvature evolution. With a dual digital image correlation (DIC) system, the strains of the film and the substrate can be simultaneously measured in situ during the tensile test. For the true strains below 2% (far beyond the films' elastic limit), a complete longitudinal strain transfer is present irrespective of the film thickness, residual stresses and microstructure. By means of an optical surface profiler, the three-dimensional (3D) topography of film surface can be obtained during straining. As expected, the profile of the specimen center remains almost flat in the tensile direction. Nevertheless, a relatively significant curvature evolution (of the same order with the initial curvature induced by residual stresses) is observed along the transverse direction as a result of a Poisson's ratio mismatch between the film and the substrate. Furthermore, finite element method (FEM) has been performed to simulate the curvature evolution considering the geometric nonlinearity and the perfect strain transfer at the interface, which agrees well with the experimental results.
Thermal correction of the radii of curvature of mirrors for GEO 600
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lueck, H; Freise, A; Gossler, S; Hild, S; Kawabe, K; Danzmann, K
2004-01-01
A mismatch of the radii of curvature of the mirrors in the arms of an interferometric gravitational-wave detector can be partly compensated by creating a thermal gradient inside the mirror. This paper shows how the interference quality at the output of the German/British GEO 600 gravitational-wave detector could be improved with a simple ring heater
Impact of geometrical parameters on the optical properties of negative curvature hollow-core fibers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alagashev, G K; Pryamikov, A D; Kosolapov, A F; Kolyadin, A N; Lukovkin, A Yu; Biriukov, A S
2015-01-01
We analyze the impact of geometrical parameters on such important optical characteristics of negative curvature hollow-core fibers (NCHCFs) as waveguide dispersion, waveguide losses and the structure of transmission bands. We consider both theoretically and experimentally the resonance effects and formation of band edges under bending in NCHCFs. (paper)
Curvature computation in volume-of-fluid method based on point-cloud sampling
Kassar, Bruno B. M.; Carneiro, João N. E.; Nieckele, Angela O.
2018-01-01
This work proposes a novel approach to compute interface curvature in multiphase flow simulation based on Volume of Fluid (VOF) method. It is well documented in the literature that curvature and normal vector computation in VOF may lack accuracy mainly due to abrupt changes in the volume fraction field across the interfaces. This may cause deterioration on the interface tension forces estimates, often resulting in inaccurate results for interface tension dominated flows. Many techniques have been presented over the last years in order to enhance accuracy in normal vectors and curvature estimates including height functions, parabolic fitting of the volume fraction, reconstructing distance functions, coupling Level Set method with VOF, convolving the volume fraction field with smoothing kernels among others. We propose a novel technique based on a representation of the interface by a cloud of points. The curvatures and the interface normal vectors are computed geometrically at each point of the cloud and projected onto the Eulerian grid in a Front-Tracking manner. Results are compared to benchmark data and significant reduction on spurious currents as well as improvement in the pressure jump are observed. The method was developed in the open source suite OpenFOAM® extending its standard VOF implementation, the interFoam solver.
Soliton surfaces via a zero-curvature representation of differential equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grundland, A M; Post, S
2012-01-01
The main aim of this paper is to introduce a new version of the Fokas–Gel’fand formula for immersion of soliton surfaces in Lie algebras. The paper contains a detailed exposition of the technique for obtaining exact forms of 2D surfaces associated with any solution of a given nonlinear ordinary differential equation which can be written in the zero-curvature form. That is, for any generalized symmetry of the zero-curvature condition of the associated integrable model, it is possible to construct soliton surfaces whose Gauss–Mainardi–Codazzi equations are equivalent to infinitesimal deformations of the zero-curvature representation of the considered model. Conversely, it is shown (proposition 1) that for a given immersion function of a 2D soliton surface in a Lie algebra, it is possible to derive the associated generalized vector field in the evolutionary form which characterizes all symmetries of the zero-curvature condition. The theoretical considerations are illustrated via surfaces associated with the Painlevé equations P1, P2 and P3, including transcendental functions, the special cases of the rational and Airy solutions of P2 and the classical solutions of P3. (paper)
Study of an ILC Main Linac that Follows the Earth Curvature
Eliasson, P; Poirier, F; Schulte, Daniel; Walker, N
2006-01-01
In the base line configuration, the tunnel of the ILC will follow the earth curvature. The emittance growth in a curved main linac has been studied including static and dynamic imperfections. These include effects due to current ripples in the power supplies of the steering coils and the impact of the beam position monitors scale errors.
Probability distribution for the Gaussian curvature of the zero level surface of a random function
Hannay, J. H.
2018-04-01
A rather natural construction for a smooth random surface in space is the level surface of value zero, or ‘nodal’ surface f(x,y,z) = 0, of a (real) random function f; the interface between positive and negative regions of the function. A physically significant local attribute at a point of a curved surface is its Gaussian curvature (the product of its principal curvatures) because, when integrated over the surface it gives the Euler characteristic. Here the probability distribution for the Gaussian curvature at a random point on the nodal surface f = 0 is calculated for a statistically homogeneous (‘stationary’) and isotropic zero mean Gaussian random function f. Capitalizing on the isotropy, a ‘fixer’ device for axes supplies the probability distribution directly as a multiple integral. Its evaluation yields an explicit algebraic function with a simple average. Indeed, this average Gaussian curvature has long been known. For a non-zero level surface instead of the nodal one, the probability distribution is not fully tractable, but is supplied as an integral expression.
Curvature and Strength of Ni-YSZ Solid Oxide Half-Cells After Redox Treatments
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Faes, Antonin; Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Pihlatie, Mikko
2010-01-01
One of the main drawbacks of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell technology is the limited capability to withstand reduction and oxidation (“RedOx”) of the Ni phase. This study compares the effect of RedOx cycles on curvature and strength of half-cells, composed of a nickel-yttria-stabilized-zi......One of the main drawbacks of anode-supported solid oxide fuel cell technology is the limited capability to withstand reduction and oxidation (“RedOx”) of the Ni phase. This study compares the effect of RedOx cycles on curvature and strength of half-cells, composed of a nickel...... it is calculated analytically from the force. In this calculation the thermal stresses are estimated from the curvature of the half-cell. For each treatment, more than 30 samples are tested. About 20 ball-on-ring samples are laser cut from one original 12×12 cm2 half-cell. Curvature and porosity are measured...
The effects of curvature on haptic judgments of extent in sighted and blind people
Heller, Morton A.; Kappers, Astrid M L; McCarthy, Melissa; Clark, Ashley; Riddle, Tara; Fulkerson, Erin; Wemple, Lindsay; Walk, Anne McClure; Basso, Andreana; Wanek, Crystal; Russler, Kristen
2008-01-01
A series of experiments was carried out to examine the effect of curvature on haptic judgments of extent in sighted and blind individuals. Experiment 1 showed that diameters connecting the endpoints of semicircular lines were underestimated with respect to straight lines, but failed to show an
Fermion localization in higher curvature and scalar-tensor theories of gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mitra, Joydip [Scottish Church College, Department of Physics, Kolkata (India); Paul, Tanmoy; SenGupta, Soumitra [Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Department of Theoretical Physics, Kolkata (India)
2017-12-15
It is well known that, in a braneworld model, the localization of fermions on a lower dimensional submanifold (say a TeV 3-brane) is governed by the gravity in the bulk, which also determines the corresponding phenomenology on the brane. Here we consider a five dimensional warped spacetime where the bulk geometry is governed by higher curvature like F(R) gravity. In such a scenario, we explore the role of higher curvature terms on the localization of bulk fermions which in turn determines the effective radion-fermion coupling on the brane. Our result reveals that, for appropriate choices of the higher curvature parameter, the profiles of the massless chiral modes of the fermions may get localized near the TeV brane, while those for massive Kaluza-Klein (KK) fermions localize towards the Planck brane. We also explore these features in the dual scalar-tensor model by appropriate transformations. The localization property turns out to be identical in the two models. This rules out the possibility of any signature of massive KK fermions in TeV scale collider experiments due to higher curvature gravity effects. (orig.)
A Theoretical Characterization of Curvature Controlled Adhesive Properties of Bio-Inspired Membranes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Afferante, Luciano; Heepe, Lars; Casdorff, Kirstin
2016-01-01
Some biological systems, such as the tree frog, Litoria caerulea, and the bush-cricket, Tettigonia viridissima, have developed the ability to control adhesion by changing the curvature of their pads. Active control systems of adhesion inspired by these biological models can be very attractive...
The Lp Lp Lp-curvature images of convex bodies and Lp Lp Lp ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Associated with the -curvature image defined by Lutwak, some inequalities for extended mixed -affine surface areas of convex bodies and the support functions of -projection bodies are established. As a natural extension of a result due to Lutwak, an -type affine isoperimetric inequality, whose special cases are ...
The Role of Membrane Curvature in Nanoscale Topography-Induced Intracellular Signaling.
Lou, Hsin-Ya; Zhao, Wenting; Zeng, Yongpeng; Cui, Bianxiao
2018-05-15
Over the past decade, there has been growing interest in developing biosensors and devices with nanoscale and vertical topography. Vertical nanostructures induce spontaneous cell engulfment, which enhances the cell-probe coupling efficiency and the sensitivity of biosensors. Although local membranes in contact with the nanostructures are found to be fully fluidic for lipid and membrane protein diffusions, cells appear to actively sense and respond to the surface topography presented by vertical nanostructures. For future development of biodevices, it is important to understand how cells interact with these nanostructures and how their presence modulates cellular function and activities. How cells recognize nanoscale surface topography has been an area of active research for two decades before the recent biosensor works. Extensive studies show that surface topographies in the range of tens to hundreds of nanometers can significantly affect cell functions, behaviors, and ultimately the cell fate. For example, titanium implants having rough surfaces are better for osteoblast attachment and host-implant integration than those with smooth surfaces. At the cellular level, nanoscale surface topography has been shown by a large number of studies to modulate cell attachment, activity, and differentiation. However, a mechanistic understanding of how cells interact and respond to nanoscale topographic features is still lacking. In this Account, we focus on some recent studies that support a new mechanism that local membrane curvature induced by nanoscale topography directly acts as a biochemical signal to induce intracellular signaling, which we refer to as the curvature hypothesis. The curvature hypothesis proposes that some intracellular proteins can recognize membrane curvatures of a certain range at the cell-to-material interface. These proteins then recruit and activate downstream components to modulate cell signaling and behavior. We discuss current technologies
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hawes Martha C
2006-03-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background This review summarizes what is known about the pathological processes (e.g. structural and functional changes, by which spinal curvatures develop and evolve into spinal deformities. Methods Comprehensive review of articles (English language only published on 'scoliosis,' whose content yielded data on the pathological changes associated with spinal curvatures. Medline, Science Citation Index and other searches yielded > 10,000 titles each of which was surveyed for content related to 'pathology' and related terms such as 'etiology,' 'inheritance,' 'pathomechanism,' 'signs and symptoms.' Additional resources included all books published on 'scoliosis' and available through the Arizona Health Sciences Library, Interlibrary Loan, or through direct contact with the authors or publishers. Results A lateral curvature of the spine–'scoliosis'–can develop in association with postural imbalance due to genetic defects and injury as well as pain and scarring from trauma or surgery. Irrespective of the factor that triggers its appearance, a sustained postural imbalance can result, over time, in establishment of a state of continuous asymmetric loading relative to the spinal axis. Recent studies support the longstanding hypothesis that spinal deformity results directly from such postural imbalance, irrespective of the primary trigger, because the dynamics of growth within vertebrae are altered by continuous asymmetric mechanical loading. These data suggest that, as long as growth potential remains, evolution of a spinal curvature into a spinal deformity can be prevented by reversing the state of continuous asymmetric loading. Conclusion Spinal curvatures can routinely be diagnosed in early stages, before pathological deformity of the vertebral elements is induced in response to asymmetric loading. Current clinical approaches involve 'watching and waiting' while mild reversible spinal curvatures develop into spinal deformities with
Quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D: application to CT images of normal spine
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo [University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Trzaska 25, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)
2008-04-07
The purpose of this study is to present a framework for quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D. In order to study the properties of such complex 3D structures, we propose two descriptors that capture the characteristics of spinal curvature in 3D. The descriptors are the geometric curvature (GC) and curvature angle (CA), which are independent of the orientation and size of spine anatomy. We demonstrate the two descriptors that characterize the spinal curvature in 3D on 30 computed tomography (CT) images of normal spine and on a scoliotic spine. The descriptors are determined from 3D vertebral body lines, which are obtained by two different methods. The first method is based on the least-squares technique that approximates the manually identified vertebra centroids, while the second method searches for vertebra centroids in an automated optimization scheme, based on computer-assisted image analysis. Polynomial functions of the fourth and fifth degree were used for the description of normal and scoliotic spinal curvature in 3D, respectively. The mean distance to vertebra centroids was 1.1 mm ({+-}0.6 mm) for the first and 2.1 mm ({+-}1.4 mm) for the second method. The distributions of GC and CA values were obtained along the 30 images of normal spine at each vertebral level and show that maximal thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracolumbar junction (TJ) and maximal lumbar lordosis (LL) on average occur at T3/T4, T12/L1 and L4/L5, respectively. The main advantage of GC and CA is that the measurements are independent of the orientation and size of the spine, thus allowing objective intra- and inter-subject comparisons. The positions of maximal TK, TJ and maximal LL can be easily identified by observing the GC and CA distributions at different vertebral levels. The obtained courses of the GC and CA for the scoliotic spine were compared to the distributions of GC and CA for the normal spines. The significant difference in values indicates that the descriptors of GC and
Quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D: application to CT images of normal spine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vrtovec, Tomaz; Likar, Bostjan; Pernus, Franjo
2008-01-01
The purpose of this study is to present a framework for quantitative analysis of spinal curvature in 3D. In order to study the properties of such complex 3D structures, we propose two descriptors that capture the characteristics of spinal curvature in 3D. The descriptors are the geometric curvature (GC) and curvature angle (CA), which are independent of the orientation and size of spine anatomy. We demonstrate the two descriptors that characterize the spinal curvature in 3D on 30 computed tomography (CT) images of normal spine and on a scoliotic spine. The descriptors are determined from 3D vertebral body lines, which are obtained by two different methods. The first method is based on the least-squares technique that approximates the manually identified vertebra centroids, while the second method searches for vertebra centroids in an automated optimization scheme, based on computer-assisted image analysis. Polynomial functions of the fourth and fifth degree were used for the description of normal and scoliotic spinal curvature in 3D, respectively. The mean distance to vertebra centroids was 1.1 mm (±0.6 mm) for the first and 2.1 mm (±1.4 mm) for the second method. The distributions of GC and CA values were obtained along the 30 images of normal spine at each vertebral level and show that maximal thoracic kyphosis (TK), thoracolumbar junction (TJ) and maximal lumbar lordosis (LL) on average occur at T3/T4, T12/L1 and L4/L5, respectively. The main advantage of GC and CA is that the measurements are independent of the orientation and size of the spine, thus allowing objective intra- and inter-subject comparisons. The positions of maximal TK, TJ and maximal LL can be easily identified by observing the GC and CA distributions at different vertebral levels. The obtained courses of the GC and CA for the scoliotic spine were compared to the distributions of GC and CA for the normal spines. The significant difference in values indicates that the descriptors of GC and CA
Principal Curvature Measures Estimation and Application to 3D Face Recognition
Tang, Yinhang
2017-04-06
This paper presents an effective 3D face keypoint detection, description and matching framework based on three principle curvature measures. These measures give a unified definition of principle curvatures for both smooth and discrete surfaces. They can be reasonably computed based on the normal cycle theory and the geometric measure theory. The strong theoretical basis of these measures provides us a solid discrete estimation method on real 3D face scans represented as triangle meshes. Based on these estimated measures, the proposed method can automatically detect a set of sparse and discriminating 3D facial feature points. The local facial shape around each 3D feature point is comprehensively described by histograms of these principal curvature measures. To guarantee the pose invariance of these descriptors, three principle curvature vectors of these principle curvature measures are employed to assign the canonical directions. Similarity comparison between faces is accomplished by matching all these curvature-based local shape descriptors using the sparse representation-based reconstruction method. The proposed method was evaluated on three public databases, i.e. FRGC v2.0, Bosphorus, and Gavab. Experimental results demonstrated that the three principle curvature measures contain strong complementarity for 3D facial shape description, and their fusion can largely improve the recognition performance. Our approach achieves rank-one recognition rates of 99.6, 95.7, and 97.9% on the neutral subset, expression subset, and the whole FRGC v2.0 databases, respectively. This indicates that our method is robust to moderate facial expression variations. Moreover, it also achieves very competitive performance on the pose subset (over 98.6% except Yaw 90°) and the occlusion subset (98.4%) of the Bosphorus database. Even in the case of extreme pose variations like profiles, it also significantly outperforms the state-of-the-art approaches with a recognition rate of 57.1%. The
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chen, Jin; Cheng, Jiangtao; Shen, Wenzhong
2013-01-01
Aerodynamic of airfoil performance is closely related to the continuity of its surface curvature, and airfoil profiles with a better aerodynamic performance plays an important role in the design of wind turbine. The surface curvature distribution along the chord direction and pressure distributio...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bhatia, Vikram Kjøller; Hatzakis, Nikos; Stamou, Dimitrios
2010-01-01
itself. We thus anticipate that membrane curvature will promote the redistribution of proteins that are anchored in membranes through any type of hydrophobic moiety, a thesis that broadens tremendously the implications of membrane curvature for protein sorting, trafficking and signaling in cell biology....
The Spatial Structure of Planform Migration - Curvature Relation of Meandering Rivers
Guneralp, I.; Rhoads, B. L.
2005-12-01
Planform dynamics of meandering rivers have been of fundamental interest to fluvial geomorphologists and engineers because of the intriguing complexity of these dynamics, the role of planform change in floodplain development and landscape evolution, and the economic and social consequences of bank erosion and channel migration. Improved understanding of the complex spatial structure of planform change and capacity to predict these changes are important for effective stream management, engineering and restoration. The planform characteristics of a meandering river channel are integral to its planform dynamics. Active meandering rivers continually change their positions and shapes as a consequence of hydraulic forces exerted on the channel banks and bed, but as the banks and bed change through sediment transport, so do the hydraulic forces. Thus far, this complex feedback between form and process is incompletely understood, despite the fact that the characteristics and the dynamics of meandering rivers have been studied extensively. Current theoretical models aimed at predicting planform dynamics relate rates of meander migration to local and upstream planform curvature where weighting of the influence of curvature on migration rate decays exponentially over distance. This theoretical relation, however, has not been rigorously evaluated empirically. Furthermore, although models based on exponential-weighting of curvature effects yield fairly realistic predictions of meander migration, such models are incapable of reproducing complex forms of bend development, such as double heading or compound looping. This study presents the development of a new methodology based on parametric cubic spline interpolation for the characterization of channel planform and the planform curvature of meandering rivers. The use of continuous mathematical functions overcomes the reliance on bend-averaged values or piece-wise discrete approximations of planform curvature - a major limitation
Bhat, Amilal; Gandhi, Ajay; Saxena, Gajendra; Choudhary, Gautam Ram
2010-10-01
Objective of this study was to assess the feasibility and results of preputial reconstruction and tubularized incised plate urethroplasty (TIP) in patients of proximal hypospadias with ventral penile curvature. Twenty-seven patients of proximal hypospadias who underwent preputioplasty with TIP were evaluated retrospectively. Ventral curvature was corrected by mobilization of the urethral plate with the corpus spongiosum and the proximal urethra; dorsal plication was added according to the severity of curvature. Feasibility of preputial reconstruction was assessed by applying 3 stay sutures-the first to fix the skin at the corona, the second at the junction of the inner and outer preputial skin for pulling up the skin over the glans, and the third stay on penile skin at the level of the corona for retracting the skin. Preputial reconstruction consisted of a standard 3 layered re-approximation of the margins of the dorsal hood. Age of the patients varied from 10 months to 21 years with an average of 6 years and 4 months. Ventral curvature (mild 10, moderate 13, and severe 4 cases) was corrected by the mobilization of the urethral plate and spongiosum in 14 patients, 11 cases had mobilization of the proximal urethra in addition and 2 patients required single stitch dorsal plication with the above-mentioned steps. Two patients developed urethral fistula and 1 had preputial dehiscence. Preputioplasty with TIP is feasible in proximal hypospadias with curvature without increasing the complication rate. Postoperative phimosis can be prevented by on-table testing of the adequacy of preputial skin by 3 stay sutures.
The influence of jaw's curvature on the results of the Brazilian disc test
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ch.F. Markides
2016-04-01
Full Text Available The general contact problem of a disc squeezed between jaws of arbitrary curvature is considered employing Muskhelishvili's complex potentials. Taking advantage of the general solution introduced, the closed-form expressions for the stresses along strategic loci (loaded rim, loaded diameter, disc's center are obtained, in terms of the ratio ρ of the disc's to the jaw's curvature. Then, the effect of ρ (as well as that of the relative stiffness of the disc's and jaw's materials dictating the contact arc on the stress distribution along these loci is explored. It is concluded that, for both smooth contact (zero friction and contact with friction, the role of the jaw's curvature is significant not only along the disc-jaw contact arc (as it could be expected, but also all along the loaded diameter. On the other hand, it is indicated that the stress field at the disc's center is more or less insensitive to the jaw's curvature assuming that ρ lies within the range (0, 0.67 or in other words within the limits defined by the two standardized suggestions, i.e. that of American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM (plane loading platens with ρ = 0 and that of International Society for Rock Mechanics (ISRM (curved jaws with ρ = 0.67. The upper limit of this range is a kind of compromise between the need to make the stress field at the disc's center independent of the boundary conditions while keeping at the same time the contact angle large enough to reduce the stress concentration and the risk for premature fracture initiation far from the disc's center. For jaws with radius of curvature exceeded by that suggested by ISRM, the stress field at the disc's center is significantly influenced. Especially for jaws with radius approaching that of the disc, the stress field at the disc's center is dramatically distorted rendering Hondros' formula inapplicable and the test results erroneous.
Hardness ratio evolutionary curves of gamma-ray bursts expected by the curvature effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin, Y.-P.; Su, C.-Y.; Fan, J. H.; Gupta, A. C.
2006-01-01
We have investigated the gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) pulses with a fast rise and an exponential decay phase, assumed to arise from relativistically expending fireballs, and found that the curvature effect influences the evolutionary curve of the corresponding hardness ratio (hereafter HRC). We find, due to the curvature effect, the evolutionary curve of the pure hardness ratio (when the background count is not included) would peak at the very beginning of the curve, and then would undergo a drop-to-rise-to-decay phase. In the case of the raw hardness ratio (when the background count is included), the curvature effect would give rise to several types of evolutionary curve, depending on the hardness of a burst. For a soft burst, an upside down pulse of its raw HRC would be observed; for a hard burst, its raw HRC shows a pulselike profile with a sinkage in its decaying phase; for a very hard burst, the raw HRC possesses a pulselike profile without a sinkage in its decaying phase. For a pulselike raw HRC as shown in the case of the hard and very hard bursts, its peak would appear in advance of that of the corresponding light curve, which was observed previously in some GRBs. For illustration, we have studied here the HRC of GRB 920216, GRB 920830, and GRB 990816 in detail. The features of the raw HRC expected in the hard burst are observed in these bursts. A fit to the three bursts shows that the curvature effect alone could indeed account for the predicted characteristics of HRCs. In addition, we find that the observed hardness ratio tends to be harder at the beginning of the pulses than what the curvature effect could predict and be softer at the late time of the pulses. We believe this is an evidence showing the existence of intrinsic hard-to-soft radiation which might be due to the acceleration-to-deceleration mode of shocks
A linearization time-domain CMOS smart temperature sensor using a curvature compensation oscillator.
Chen, Chun-Chi; Chen, Hao-Wen
2013-08-28
This paper presents an area-efficient time-domain CMOS smart temperature sensor using a curvature compensation oscillator for linearity enhancement with a -40 to 120 °C temperature range operability. The inverter-based smart temperature sensors can substantially reduce the cost and circuit complexity of integrated temperature sensors. However, a large curvature exists on the temperature-to-time transfer curve of the inverter-based delay line and results in poor linearity of the sensor output. For cost reduction and error improvement, a temperature-to-pulse generator composed of a ring oscillator and a time amplifier was used to generate a thermal sensing pulse with a sufficient width proportional to the absolute temperature (PTAT). Then, a simple but effective on-chip curvature compensation oscillator is proposed to simultaneously count and compensate the PTAT pulse with curvature for linearization. With such a simple structure, the proposed sensor possesses an extremely small area of 0.07 mm2 in a TSMC 0.35-mm CMOS 2P4M digital process. By using an oscillator-based scheme design, the proposed sensor achieves a fine resolution of 0.045 °C without significantly increasing the circuit area. With the curvature compensation, the inaccuracy of -1.2 to 0.2 °C is achieved in an operation range of -40 to 120 °C after two-point calibration for 14 packaged chips. The power consumption is measured as 23 mW at a sample rate of 10 samples/s.
Herring, Anna L.; Middleton, Jill; Walsh, Rick; Kingston, Andrew; Sheppard, Adrian
2017-09-01
We investigate capillary pressure-saturation (PC-S) relationships for drainage-imbibition experiments conducted with air (nonwetting phase) and brine (wetting phase) in Bentheimer sandstone cores. Three different flow rate conditions, ranging over three orders of magnitude, are investigated. X-ray micro-computed tomographic imaging is used to characterize the distribution and amount of fluids and their interfacial characteristics. Capillary pressure is measured via (1) bulk-phase pressure transducer measurements, and (2) image-based curvature measurements, calculated using a novel 3D curvature algorithm. We distinguish between connected (percolating) and disconnected air clusters: curvatures measured on the connected phase interfaces are used to validate the curvature algorithm and provide an indication of the equilibrium condition of the data; curvature and volume distributions of disconnected clusters provide insight to the snap-off processes occurring during drainage and imbibition under different flow rate conditions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Libu, M.; Susanth, S.; Vasanthakumari, K. G.; Dileep Kumar, C. J.; Raghu, N.
2012-01-01
Piezoelectric based bimorph mirrors (PBM) find extensive use in focusing of x-ray beams. Many optical instruments require use of PBM whose radii of curvature can be tuned precisely. The 100 mm and 300 mm PBMs were fabricated with varying piezoelectric to fused silica plate thicknesses. The radii of curvature of free standing mirrors were measured as a function of voltage and it was found to decrease with increasing voltage. For a given piezoelectric plate thickness, as the fused silica thickness increases, the radii of curvature was found to increase owing to increase in stiffness of the mirror. On the other hand, for a given fused silica plate thickness, when the piezoelectric plate thickness is increased, the radii of curvature are decreased for a given electric field, due to increase in generated force. This study brings out the influence of piezoceramic to fused silica plate thickness on the radii of curvature of PBM.
Quantifying the quality of hand movement in stroke patients through three-dimensional curvature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Osu Rieko
2011-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background To more accurately evaluate rehabilitation outcomes in stroke patients, movement irregularities should be quantified. Previous work in stroke patients has revealed a reduction in the trajectory smoothness and segmentation of continuous movements. Clinically, the Stroke Impairment Assessment Set (SIAS evaluates the clumsiness of arm movements using an ordinal scale based on the examiner's observations. In this study, we focused on three-dimensional curvature of hand trajectory to quantify movement, and aimed to establish a novel measurement that is independent of movement duration. We compared the proposed measurement with the SIAS score and the jerk measure representing temporal smoothness. Methods Sixteen stroke patients with SIAS upper limb proximal motor function (Knee-Mouth test scores ranging from 2 (incomplete performance to 4 (mild clumsiness were recruited. Nine healthy participant with a SIAS score of 5 (normal also participated. Participants were asked to grasp a plastic glass and repetitively move it from the lap to the mouth and back at a conformable speed for 30 s, during which the hand movement was measured using OPTOTRAK. The position data was numerically differentiated and the three-dimensional curvature was computed. To compare against a previously proposed measure, the mean squared jerk normalized by its minimum value was computed. Age-matched healthy participants were instructed to move the glass at three different movement speeds. Results There was an inverse relationship between the curvature of the movement trajectory and the patient's SIAS score. The median of the -log of curvature (MedianLC correlated well with the SIAS score, upper extremity subsection of Fugl-Meyer Assessment, and the jerk measure in the paretic arm. When the healthy participants moved slowly, the increase in the jerk measure was comparable to the paretic movements with a SIAS score of 2 to 4, while the MedianLC was distinguishable
Local curvature analysis for classifying breast tumors: Preliminary analysis in dedicated breast CT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Juhun; Nishikawa, Robert M.; Reiser, Ingrid; Boone, John M.; Lindfors, Karen K.
2015-01-01
Purpose: The purpose of this study is to measure the effectiveness of local curvature measures as novel image features for classifying breast tumors. Methods: A total of 119 breast lesions from 104 noncontrast dedicated breast computed tomography images of women were used in this study. Volumetric segmentation was done using a seed-based segmentation algorithm and then a triangulated surface was extracted from the resulting segmentation. Total, mean, and Gaussian curvatures were then computed. Normalized curvatures were used as classification features. In addition, traditional image features were also extracted and a forward feature selection scheme was used to select the optimal feature set. Logistic regression was used as a classifier and leave-one-out cross-validation was utilized to evaluate the classification performances of the features. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC, area under curve) was used as a figure of merit. Results: Among curvature measures, the normalized total curvature (C_T) showed the best classification performance (AUC of 0.74), while the others showed no classification power individually. Five traditional image features (two shape, two margin, and one texture descriptors) were selected via the feature selection scheme and its resulting classifier achieved an AUC of 0.83. Among those five features, the radial gradient index (RGI), which is a margin descriptor, showed the best classification performance (AUC of 0.73). A classifier combining RGI and C_T yielded an AUC of 0.81, which showed similar performance (i.e., no statistically significant difference) to the classifier with the above five traditional image features. Additional comparisons in AUC values between classifiers using different combinations of traditional image features and C_T were conducted. The results showed that C_T was able to replace the other four image features for the classification task. Conclusions: The normalized curvature measure
Lim, Ik Soo; Leek, E Charles
2012-07-01
Previous empirical studies have shown that information along visual contours is known to be concentrated in regions of high magnitude of curvature, and, for closed contours, segments of negative curvature (i.e., concave segments) carry greater perceptual relevance than corresponding regions of positive curvature (i.e., convex segments). Lately, Feldman and Singh (2005, Psychological Review, 112, 243-252) proposed a mathematical derivation to yield information content as a function of curvature along a contour. Here, we highlight several fundamental errors in their derivation and in its associated implementation, which are problematic in both mathematical and psychological senses. Instead, we propose an alternative mathematical formulation for information measure of contour curvature that addresses these issues. Additionally, unlike in previous work, we extend this approach to 3-dimensional (3D) shape by providing a formal measure of information content for surface curvature and outline a modified version of the minima rule relating to part segmentation using curvature in 3D shape. Copyright 2012 APA, all rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hye-Rim Yun
2012-05-01
Full Text Available Objectives The purpose of this study was to evaluate the buccolingual curvature at the apical one third in type II mesial canals of mandibular molars using the radius and angle of curvature. Materials and Methods Total 100 mandibular molars were selected. Following an endodontic access in the teeth, their distal roots were removed. #15 H- or K-files (Dentsply Maillefer were inserted into the mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals of the teeth. Radiographs of the teeth were taken for the proximal view. Among them, type II canals were selected and divided into two subgroups, IIa and IIb. In type IIa, two separate canals merged into one canal before reaching the apex and in type IIb, two separate canals merged into one canal within the apical foramen. The radius and angle of curvature of specimens were examined. Results In type II, mean radius of curvature in mesiolingual and mesiobuccal canals were 2.82 mm and 3.58 mm, respectively. The radius of the curvature of mesiolingual canals were significantly smaller than that of mesiobuccal canals in type II, and especially in type IIa. However, there were no statistically significant differences in radius of curvature between mesiobuccal and mesiolingual canals in type IIb and there were no significant differences in angle of curvature between type IIa and IIb. Conclusion In this study, type II mesial canals of mandibular molars showed severe curvature in the proximal view. Especially, mesiolingual canals of type IIa had more abrupt curvature than mesiobuccal canals at the apical one third.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malkov, V.B.; Agalakov, S.P.; Malkov, A.V.; Malkov, O.V.; Pushin, V.G.; Shul'gin, B.V.
2008-01-01
The research of resilient rotary curvature of hexagon selenium nanothin (80-100 nm) crystals grate the method of translucent electronic microscopy. In view of the fact that reasons of resilient rotary curvature of hexagon selenium nanothin crystals grate around [001] remained not found out, the analysis of models of resilient rotary curvature of hexagon selenium crystals grate is conducted.
Numerical study of the effects of curvature on the fluid dynamics of gas centrifuges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jordan, J.A.; Gunzburger, M.D.; Wood, H.G. III.
1983-06-01
A finite element method for the approximate solution of the flow in rapidly rotating gas centrifuges is presented. The Onsager model, as amended by Maslen, is used in deriving the model equations to be discretized. The pancake effects are not assumed in the model, i.e., curvature terms are retained. To show the effects of these terms on the hydrodynamics of a gas centrifuge, numerical examples done with and without these curvature terms are presented and compared. Two flow models are used for the examples, one for flow driven by a linear temperature gradient along the wall and the other for flow driven by axial mass fluxes through the end caps of the centrifuge
Gauss-Bonnet models with cosmological constant and non zero spatial curvature in D = 4
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armaleo, Juan Manuel [UBA, Departamento de Fisica, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Osorio Morales, Juliana; Santillan, Osvaldo P. [UBA CONICET, Departamento de Matematicas Luis Santalo (IMAS), Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2018-02-15
In the present paper the possibility of eternal universes in Gauss-Bonnet theories of gravity in four dimensions is analysed. It is shown that, for zero spatial curvature and zero cosmological constant, if the coupling is such that 0 < f{sup '}(φ) ≤ c exp((√(8))/(√(10))φ), then there are solutions that are eternal. Similar conclusions are found when a cosmological constant turned on. These conclusions are not generalized for the case when the spatial curvature is present, but we are able to find some general results about the possible nature of the singularities. The presented results correct some dubious arguments in Santillan (JCAP 7:008, 2017), although the same conclusions are reached. On the other hand, these past results are considerably generalized to a wide class of situations which were not considered in Santillan (JCAP 7:008, 2017). (orig.)
Annexin A4 and A6 induce membrane curvature and constriction during cell membrane repair
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Boye, Theresa Louise; Maeda, Kenji; Pezeshkian, Weria
2017-01-01
Efficient cell membrane repair mechanisms are essential for maintaining membrane integrity and thus for cell life. Here we show that the Ca2+- and phospholipid-binding proteins annexin A4 and A6 are involved in plasma membrane repair and needed for rapid closure of micron-size holes. We demonstrate...... that annexin A4 binds to artificial membranes and generates curvature force initiated from free edges, whereas annexin A6 induces constriction force. In cells, plasma membrane injury and Ca2+ influx recruit annexin A4 to the vicinity of membrane wound edges where its homo-trimerization leads to membrane...... that induction of curvature force around wound edges is an early key event in cell membrane repair....
Optics design for J-TEXT ECE imaging with field curvature adjustment lens
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhu, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Liu, W. D.; Xie, J., E-mail: jlxie@ustc.edu.cn [School of Physics, University of Science and Technology of China, Anhui 230026 (China); Hu, X.; Muscatello, C. M.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Chen, M.; Ren, X. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Tobias, B. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Zhuang, G.; Yang, Z. [College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)
2014-11-15
Significant progress has been made in the imaging and visualization of magnetohydrodynamic and microturbulence phenomena in magnetic fusion plasmas. Of particular importance has been microwave electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) for imaging T{sub e} fluctuations. Key to the success of ECEI is a large Gaussian optics system constituting a major portion of the focusing of the microwave radiation from the plasma to the detector array. Both the spatial resolution and observation range are dependent upon the imaging optics system performance. In particular, it is critical that the field curvature on the image plane is reduced to decrease crosstalk between vertical channels. The receiver optics systems for two ECEI on the J-TEXT device have been designed to ameliorate these problems and provide good performance with additional field curvature adjustment lenses with a meniscus shape to correct the aberrations from several spherical surfaces.
On the calculation of principle curvatures of the left-ventricular surfaces.
Claus, Piet; Choi, Hon Fai; D'hooge, Jan; Rademakers, Frank E
2008-01-01
A local description of the shape of the left ventricle is relevant in assessing the process of adverse ventricular remodeling, associated with most cardiac pathologies, and in monitoring reverse remodeling by therapy. To quantify local shape of the left ventricle, one can calculate the curvature of its epicardial or endocardial surface. The 3D geometry of the heart and especially the ventricles, can typically be described using finite element meshes. From a mathematical point of view these meshes provide a local parametrization of the surface in the 3-dimensional space. We discuss the analytic derivation of the principle curvatures of the left-ventricular surfaces given their smooth finite-element meshes and apply this derivation to assess the regional shape of the normal porcine left ventricle.
Gomes Leal-Junior, Arnaldo; Frizera-Neto, Anselmo; José Pontes, Maria; Rodrigues Botelho, Thomaz
2017-12-01
Polymer optical fiber (POF) curvature sensors present some advantages over conventional techniques for angle measurements, such as their light weight, compactness and immunity to electromagnetic fields. However, high hysteresis can occur in POF curvature sensors due to the polymer viscoelastic response. In order to overcome this limitation, this paper shows how the hysteresis sensor can be compensated by a calibration equation relating the measured output signal to the sensor’s angular velocity. The proposed method is validated using an exoskeleton with an active joint on the knee for flexion and extension rehabilitation exercises. The results show a decrease in sensor hysteresis and a decrease by more than two times in the error between the POF sensor and the potentiometer, which is employed for the angle measurement of the exoskeleton knee joint.
Anderson Localization from the Berry-Curvature Interchange in Quantum Anomalous Hall Systems
Han, Yulei; Qiao, Zhenhua
In this talk, we theoretically investigate the localization mechanism of the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the presence of spin-flip disorders. We show that the QAHE stays quantized at weak disorders, then enters a Berry-curvature mediated metallic phase at moderate disorders, and finally goes into the Anderson insulating phase at strong disorders. From the phase diagram, we find that at the charge neutrality point although the QAHE is most robust against disorders, the corresponding metallic phase is much easier to be localized into the Anderson insulating phase due to the interchange of Berry curvatures carried, respectively, by the conduction and valence bands. In the end, we provide a phenomenological picture related to the topological charges to better understand the underlying physical origin of the QAHE Anderson localization.
Geometric Thermodynamics: Black Holes and the Meaning of the Scalar Curvature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Miguel Ángel García-Ariza
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper we show that the vanishing of the scalar curvature of Ruppeiner-like metrics does not characterize the ideal gas. Furthermore, we claim through an example that flatness is not a sufficient condition to establish the absence of interactions in the underlying microscopic model of a thermodynamic system, which poses a limitation on the usefulness of Ruppeiner’s metric and conjecture. Finally, we address the problem of the choice of coordinates in black hole thermodynamics. We propose an alternative energy representation for Kerr-Newman black holes that mimics fully Weinhold’s approach. The corresponding Ruppeiner’s metrics become degenerate only at absolute zero and have non-vanishing scalar curvatures.
The motion of a vortex on a closed surface of constant negative curvature.
Ragazzo, C Grotta
2017-10-01
The purpose of this work is to present an algorithm to determine the motion of a single hydrodynamic vortex on a closed surface of constant curvature and of genus greater than one. The algorithm is based on a relation between the Laplace-Beltrami Green function and the heat kernel. The algorithm is used to compute the motion of a vortex on the Bolza surface. This is the first determination of the orbits of a vortex on a closed surface of genus greater than one. The numerical results show that all the 46 vortex equilibria can be explicitly computed using the symmetries of the Bolza surface. Some of these equilibria allow for the construction of the first two examples of infinite vortex crystals on the hyperbolic disc. The following theorem is proved: 'a Weierstrass point of a hyperellitic surface of constant curvature is always a vortex equilibrium'.
Zero curvature condition of OSp(2/2) and the associated supergravity theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, A.; Huang, W.J.; Roy, S.
1992-01-01
In this paper, the N = 2 fermionic extensions of the KdV equations are derived from the zero curvature condition associated with the graded Lie algebra of OSp(2/2). These equations lead to two bi-Hamiltonian systems, one of which is supersymmetric. The authors also derive the one-parameter family of N = 2 supersymmetric KdV equations without a bi-Hamiltonian structure in this approach. Following the authors' earlier proposal, the authors interpret the zero curvature conditions as a gauge anomaly equation which brings out the underlying current algebra for the corresponding 2D supergravity theory. This current algebra is then used to obtain the operator product expansions of various fields of this theory
Effect of Tension and Curvature of Skin on Insertion Characteristics of Microneedle Array
Tachikawa, Hiroto; Takano, Naoki; Nishiyabu, Kazuaki; Miki, Norihisa; Ami, Yoshimichi
Recent MEMS (micro electro mechanical system) fabrication techniques have made it possible to produce painless microneedles precisely enough to be inserted into epidermis layer penetrating the stratum corneum of human skin. This paper presents a testing procedure to evaluate the insertion characteristics of microneedle array using cultured human skin considering the tension and the curvature. First, the biaxial strain applied to the cultured human skin was measured by optical technique with image processing. It was found that almost constant strain could be successfully given within a certain area and that error factors in the experiment except the thickness variation of the cultured skin were negligible. Next, using a microneedle square array for brain machine interface (BMI) application, the effects of biaxial tension and the curvature on insertion characteristics were discussed. Within the above mentioned area with high strain, the needles were successfully inserted.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mermet, Jean-Michel
2010-01-01
Calibration is required to obtain analyte concentrations in atomic spectrometry. To take full benefit of it, the adequacy of the coefficient of determination r 2 is discussed, and its use is compared with the uncertainty due to the prediction bands of the regression. Also discussed from a tutorial point of view are the influence of the weighting procedure and of different weighting factors, and the comparison between linear and quadratic regression to cope with curvatures. They are illustrated with examples based on the use of ICP-AES with nebulization and laser ablation, and of LIBS. Use of a calibration graph over several orders of magnitude may be problematic as well as the use of a quadratic regression to cope with possible curvatures. Instrument softwares that allow reprocessing of the calibration by selecting standards around the expected analyte concentration are convenient for optimizing the calibration procedure.
Tubular bending and pull-out forces in high-curvature well bores
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dareing, D.W.; Ahlers, C.A.
1991-01-01
This paper is concerned with drag forces developed on tubulars in high-curvature well bores typically found in drainhole and horizontal drilling. The dog-leg severity of these types of boreholes are considerably higher than those typically found in conventional directional drilling. The objective of the study was to determine the significance of bending stiffness on drag forces in the pull-out mode. The method of analysis treats the tubular as a multi-spanned curved beam under tension and solves for radial displacements, slope, shear and bending moment over each span. Calculations show that bending stiffness is a minor factor provided there are no locally severe dog legs superimposed in the high-curvature well bore
A Numerical Study on the Impeller Meridional Curvature of High Pressure Multistage Pump
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Deok Su; Jean, Sang Gyu; Mamatov, Sanjar [Hyosung Goodsprings, Inc., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Warn Gyu [Pusan Nat’l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of)
2017-07-15
This paper presents the hydraulic design an impeller and radial diffuser of a high-pressure multistage pump for reverse osmosis. The flow distribution and hydraulic performance for the meridional design of the impeller were analyzed numerically. Optimization was conducted based on the response surface method by varying the hub and shroud meridional curvatures, while maintaining the impeller outlet diameter, outlet width, and eye diameter constant. The analysis results of the head and efficiency with the variation in the impeller meridional profile showed that angle of the front shroud near the impeller outlet (εDs) had the highest effect on head increase, while the hub inlet length (d1i) and shroud curvature (Rds) had the highest effect on efficiency. From the meridional profile variation, an approximately 0.5% increase in efficiency was observed compared with the base model (case 25).
Stability of the Horizontal Curvature of the LHC Cryodipoles During Cold Tests
Cano, E D Fernandez; García-Pérez, J; Jeanneret, Jean Bernard; Poncet, A; Seyvet, F; Tovar-Gonzalez, A; Wildner, E; IEEE Trans. Nucl. Sci.
2006-01-01
The LHC will be composed of 1232 horizontally curved, 15 meter long, superconducting dipole magnets cooled at 1.9 K. They are supported within their vacuum vessel by three Glass Fiber Reinforced Epoxy (GFRE) support posts. Each cryodipole is individually cold tested at CERN before its installation and interconnection in the LHC 27 km circumference tunnel. As the magnet geometry under cryogenic operation is extremely important for the LHC machine aperture, a new method has been developed at CERN in order to monitor the magnet curvature change between warm and cold states. It enabled us to conclude that there is no permanent horizontal curvature change of the LHC dipole magnet between warm and cold states, although a systematic horizontal transient deformation during cool-down was detected. This deformation generates loads in the dipole supporting system; further investigation permitted us to infer this behavior to the asymmetric thermal contraction of the rigid magnet thermal shield during cool-down. Controlli...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. K. Lian
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In classical mechanics, a nonrelativistic particle constrained on an N − 1 curved hypersurface embedded in N flat space experiences the centripetal force only. In quantum mechanics, the situation is totally different for the presence of the geometric potential. We demonstrate that the motion of the quantum particle is ”driven” by not only the centripetal force, but also a curvature induced force proportional to the Laplacian of the mean curvature, which is fundamental in the interface physics, causing curvature driven interface evolution.
Contribution of the hybrid inflation waterfall to the primordial curvature perturbation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyth, David H.
2011-01-01
A contribution ζ χ to the curvature perturbation will be generated during the waterfall that ends hybrid inflation, that may be significant on small scales. In particular, it may lead to excessive black hole formation. We here consider standard hybrid inflation, where the tachyonic mass of the waterfall field is much bigger than the Hubble parameter. We calculate ζ χ in the simplest case, and see why earlier calculations of ζ χ are incorrect
Kuang, Yubin; Stork, David G.; Kahl, Fredrik
2011-03-01
Underdrawings and pentimenti-typically revealed through x-ray imaging and infrared reflectography-comprise important evidence about the intermediate states of an artwork and thus the working methods of its creator.1 To this end, Shahram, Stork and Donoho introduced the De-pict algorithm, which recovers layers of brush strokes in paintings with open brush work where several layers are partially visible, such as in van Gogh's Self portrait with a grey felt hat.2 While that preliminary work served as a proof of concept that computer image analytic methods could recover some occluded brush strokes, the work needed further refinement before it could be a tool for art scholars. Our current work makes several steps to improve that algorithm. Specifically, we refine the inpainting step through the inclusion of curvature-based constraints, in which a mathematical curvature penalty biases the reconstruction toward matching the artist's smooth hand motion. We refine and test our methods using "ground truth" image data: passages of four layers of brush strokes in which the intermediate layers were recorded photographically. At each successive top layer (currently identified by the user), we used k-means clustering combined with graph cuts to obtain chromatically and spatially coherent segmentation of brush strokes. We then reconstructed strokes at the deeper layer with our new curvature-based inpainting algorithm based on chromatic level lines. Our methods are clearly superior to previous versions of the De-pict algorithm on van Gogh's works giving smoother, natural strokes that more closely match the shapes of unoccluded strokes. Our improved method might be applied to the classic drip paintings of Jackson Pollock, where the drip work is more open and the physics of splashing paint ensures that the curvature more uniform than in the brush strokes of van Gogh.
Damage assessment using flexibility and flexibility-based curvature for structural health monitoring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catbas, F N; Gul, M; Burkett, J L
2008-01-01
As a result of the recent advances in sensors, information technologies and material science, a considerable amount of research has been conducted in the area of smart infrastructures. While there are many important components of a smart infrastructure, an automated and continuous structural health monitoring (SHM) system is a critical one. SHM is typically used to track and evaluate the performance of a structure, symptoms of operational incidents, anomalies due to deterioration and damage during regular operation as well as after an extreme event. Successful health monitoring applications can be achieved by integrating experimental, analytical and information technologies on real-life operating structures. However, real-life investigations must be backed up by laboratory benchmark studies for validating theory, concepts, and new technologies. For this reason, a physical bridge model is developed to implement SHM methods and technologies. In this study, different aspects of model development are outlined in terms of design considerations, instrumentation, finite element modeling, and simulating damage scenarios. Different damage detection methods are evaluated using the numerical and the physical models. Modal parameter estimation studies are carried out to reliably identify the eigenvalues, eigenvectors and modal scaling from the measurement data. To assess the simulated damage, modal flexibility-based displacements and curvatures are employed. Structural behavior after damage is evaluated by inspecting the deflected shapes obtained using modal flexibility. More localized damage simulations such as stiffness reduction at a joint yield a very subtle stiffness decrease. In this case, the writers use a baseline to identify damage and also investigate the use of curvature as a complementary index. Curvature is advantageous for certain cases where the displacement results do not provide substantial changes. Issues related to using curvature as a damage identification
BRS cohomology of zero curvature systems I: the complete ladder case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carvalho, M.; Vilar, L.C.Q.; Sasaki, C.A.G.; Sorella, S.P.; Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ
1995-10-01
We present here the zero curvature formulation for a wide class of field theory models. This formalism, which relies on the existence of an operator δ which decomposes the exterior space-time derivative as a BRS commutator, turns out to be particularly useful in order to solve the Wess-Zumino consistency condition. The examples of the topological theories and of the B-C string ghost system are considered in detail. (author). 28 refs
BRS cohomology of zero curvature systems I: the complete ladder case
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Carvalho, M; Vilar, L C.Q.; Sasaki, C A.G. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Sorella, S P [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica
1995-10-01
We present here the zero curvature formulation for a wide class of field theory models. This formalism, which relies on the existence of an operator {delta} which decomposes the exterior space-time derivative as a BRS commutator, turns out to be particularly useful in order to solve the Wess-Zumino consistency condition. The examples of the topological theories and of the B-C string ghost system are considered in detail. (author). 28 refs.
The Relationship Between Surface Curvature and Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Wall Stress.
de Galarreta, Sergio Ruiz; Cazón, Aitor; Antón, Raúl; Finol, Ender A
2017-08-01
The maximum diameter (MD) criterion is the most important factor when predicting risk of rupture of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAAs). An elevated wall stress has also been linked to a high risk of aneurysm rupture, yet is an uncommon clinical practice to compute AAA wall stress. The purpose of this study is to assess whether other characteristics of the AAA geometry are statistically correlated with wall stress. Using in-house segmentation and meshing algorithms, 30 patient-specific AAA models were generated for finite element analysis (FEA). These models were subsequently used to estimate wall stress and maximum diameter and to evaluate the spatial distributions of wall thickness, cross-sectional diameter, mean curvature, and Gaussian curvature. Data analysis consisted of statistical correlations of the aforementioned geometry metrics with wall stress for the 30 AAA inner and outer wall surfaces. In addition, a linear regression analysis was performed with all the AAA wall surfaces to quantify the relationship of the geometric indices with wall stress. These analyses indicated that while all the geometry metrics have statistically significant correlations with wall stress, the local mean curvature (LMC) exhibits the highest average Pearson's correlation coefficient for both inner and outer wall surfaces. The linear regression analysis revealed coefficients of determination for the outer and inner wall surfaces of 0.712 and 0.516, respectively, with LMC having the largest effect on the linear regression equation with wall stress. This work underscores the importance of evaluating AAA mean wall curvature as a potential surrogate for wall stress.
Thermodynamic Curvature and Phase Transitions from Black Hole with a Coulomb-Like Field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Han Yiwen; Hong Yun; Bao Zhiqing
2011-01-01
In this paper, we first investigate the thermodynamic features of the black hole with a coulomb-like field. Moreover, we obtain the geometric description of the black hole thermodynamics. We find that for the black hole with a coulomb-like field the Weinhold geometry is flat, whereas its Ruppeiner geometry is curved. For the heat capacity and curvature calculation shows the Ruppeiner geometry has a transition point. (general)
Representation of symmetric metric connection via Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Selikhov, A.V.
1989-01-01
Bivector σ-bar μ ν ' which is the Jacoby matrix of the transformation to the Riemanian coordinates is considered in the paper. Basing on the dual nature of σ-bar μ ν ' the representation of metric connection (Christoffel symbols) have been obtained at the Riemanian coordinates via Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor; the covariant conserved four-momentum in the general theory of relativity have been constructed. 11 refs
Cyclic fatigue of nickel-titanium rotary instruments in a double (S-shaped) simulated curvature.
Al-Sudani, Dina; Grande, Nicola M; Plotino, Gianluca; Pompa, Giorgio; Di Carlo, Stefano; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca
2012-07-01
The goal of the present study was to test the fatigue resistance of nickel-titanium rotary files in a double curvature (S-shaped) artificial root canal and to compare those results with single curvature artificial root canals. Two nickel-titanium endodontic instruments consisting of identical instrument sizes (constant .06 taper and 0.25 tip diameter) were tested, ProFile instruments and Vortex instruments. Both instruments were tested for fatigue inside an artificial canal with a double curvature and inside a curved artificial canal with a single curvature. Ten instruments for each group were tested to fracture in continuous rotary motion at 300 rpm. Number of cycles to failure (NCF) was calculated to the nearest whole number, and the length of the fractured fragment was measured in millimeters. Data were statistically analyzed with a level of significance set at 95% confidence level. The NCF value was always statistically lower in the double curved artificial canal when compared with the single curve (P instruments of the same size of different brand only in the single curve; ProFile registered a mean of 633.5 ± 75.1 NCF, whereas Vortex registered a mean of 548 ± 48.9 NCF. Regardless of the differences between the instruments used in the present study, the results suggest that the more complex is the root canal, the more adverse are the effects on the cyclic fatigue resistance of the instruments. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Roman Urban
2004-12-01
Full Text Available We consider the Green functions for second-order left-invariant differential operators on homogeneous manifolds of negative curvature, being a semi-direct product of a nilpotent Lie group $N$ and $A=mathbb{R}^+$. We obtain estimates for mixed derivatives of the Green functions both in the coercive and non-coercive case. The current paper completes the previous results obtained by the author in a series of papers [14,15,16,19].
The role of magnetic fields for curvature effects in Josephson junction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jarmoliński, A.; Dobrowolski, T., E-mail: dobrow@up.krakow.pl
2017-06-01
The large area Josephson junction is considered. On the basis of Maxwell equations the influence of the magnetic field on fluxion dynamics is considered. The presented studies show that assumptions presumed in the literature do not restrict experimental settings adopted in the considerations of the fluxion movement in the Josephson junction. It is shown that the particular orientation of the magnetic fields is not needed in order to study physical effects of curvature and therefore they do not restrict the experimental arrangements.
Nap, Rikkert J; Gonzalez Solveyra, Estefania; Szleifer, Igal
2018-05-01
When engineering nanomaterials for application in biological systems, it is important to understand how multivalent ions, such as calcium, affect the structural and chemical properties of polymer-modified nanoconstructs. In this work, a recently developed molecular theory was employed to study the effect of surface curvature on the calcium-induced collapse of end-tethered weak polyelectrolytes. In particular, we focused on cylindrical and spherical nanoparticles coated with poly(acrylic acid) in the presence of different amounts of Ca2+ ions. We describe the structural changes that grafted polyelectrolytes undergo as a function of calcium concentration, surface curvature, and morphology. The polymer layers collapse in aqueous solutions that contain sufficient amounts of Ca2+ ions. This collapse, due to the formation of calcium bridges, is not only controlled by the calcium ion concentration but also strongly influenced by the curvature of the tethering surface. The transition from a swollen to a collapsed layer as a function of calcium concentration broadens and shifts to lower amounts of calcium ions as a function of the radius of cylindrical and spherical nanoparticles. The results show how the interplay between calcium binding and surface curvature governs the structural and functional properties of the polymer molecules. This would directly impact the fate of weak polyelectrolyte-coated nanoparticles in biological environments, in which calcium levels are tightly regulated. Understanding such interplay would also contribute to the rational design and optimization of smart interfaces with applications in, e.g., salt-sensitive and ion-responsive materials and devices.
Effects of curvature on rarefied gas flows between rotating concentric cylinders
Dongari, Nishanth; White, Craig; Scanlon, Thomas J.; Zhang, Yonghao; Reese, Jason M.
2013-05-01
The gas flow between two concentric rotating cylinders is considered in order to investigate non-equilibrium effects associated with the Knudsen layers over curved surfaces. We investigate the nonlinear flow physics in the near-wall regions using a new power-law (PL) wall-scaling approach. This PL model incorporates Knudsen layer effects in near-wall regions by taking into account the boundary limiting effects on the molecular free paths. We also report new direct simulation Monte Carlo results covering a wide range of Knudsen numbers and accommodation coefficients, and for various outer-to-inner cylinder radius ratios. Our simulation data are compared with both the classical slip flow theory and the PL model, and we find that non-equilibrium effects are not only dependent on Knudsen number and accommodation coefficient but are also significantly affected by the surface curvature. The relative merits and limitations of both theoretical models are explored with respect to rarefaction and curvature effects. The PL model is able to capture some of the nonlinear trends associated with Knudsen layers up to the early transition flow regime. The present study also illuminates the limitations of classical slip flow theory even in the early slip flow regime for higher curvature test cases, although the model does exhibit good agreement throughout the slip flow regime for lower curvature cases. Torque and velocity profile comparisons also convey that a good prediction of integral flow properties does not necessarily guarantee the accuracy of the theoretical model used, and it is important to demonstrate that field variables are also predicted satisfactorily.
Cosmological backreaction within the Szekeres model and emergence of spatial curvature
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bolejko, Krzysztof, E-mail: krzysztof.bolejko@sydney.edu.au [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics A28, The University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 2006 (Australia)
2017-06-01
This paper discusses the phenomenon of backreaction within the Szekeres model. Cosmological backreaction describes how the mean global evolution of the Universe deviates from the Friedmannian evolution. The analysis is based on models of a single cosmological environment and the global ensemble of the Szekeres models (of the Swiss-Cheese-type and Styrofoam-type). The obtained results show that non-linear growth of cosmic structures is associated with the growth of the spatial curvature Ω{sub R} (in the FLRW limit Ω{sub R} → Ω {sub k} ). If averaged over global scales the result depends on the assumed global model of the Universe. Within the Swiss-Cheese model, which does have a fixed background, the volume average follows the evolution of the background, and the global spatial curvature averages out to zero (the background model is the ΛCDM model, which is spatially flat). In the Styrofoam-type model, which does not have a fixed background, the mean evolution deviates from the spatially flat ΛCDM model, and the mean spatial curvature evolves from Ω{sub R} =0 at the CMB to Ω{sub R} ∼ 0.1 at 0 z =. If the Styrofoam-type model correctly captures evolutionary features of the real Universe then one should expect that in our Universe, the spatial curvature should build up (local growth of cosmic structures) and its mean global average should deviate from zero (backreaction). As a result, this paper predicts that the low-redshift Universe should not be spatially flat (i.e. Ω {sub k} ≠ 0, even if in the early Universe Ω {sub k} = 0) and therefore when analysing low- z cosmological data one should keep Ω {sub k} as a free parameter and independent from the CMB constraints.
Palmer, Antony L; Bradley, David A; Nisbet, Andrew
2015-03-08
This work considers a previously overlooked uncertainty present in film dosimetry which results from moderate curvature of films during the scanning process. Small film samples are particularly susceptible to film curling which may be undetected or deemed insignificant. In this study, we consider test cases with controlled induced curvature of film and with film raised horizontally above the scanner plate. We also evaluate the difference in scans of a film irradiated with a typical brachytherapy dose distribution with the film naturally curved and with the film held flat on the scanner. Typical naturally occurring curvature of film at scanning, giving rise to a maximum height 1 to 2 mm above the scan plane, may introduce dose errors of 1% to 4%, and considerably reduce gamma evaluation passing rates when comparing film-measured doses with treatment planning system-calculated dose distributions, a common application of film dosimetry in radiotherapy. The use of a triple-channel dosimetry algorithm appeared to mitigate the error due to film curvature compared to conventional single-channel film dosimetry. The change in pixel value and calibrated reported dose with film curling or height above the scanner plate may be due to variations in illumination characteristics, optical disturbances, or a Callier-type effect. There is a clear requirement for physically flat films at scanning to avoid the introduction of a substantial error source in film dosimetry. Particularly for small film samples, a compression glass plate above the film is recommended to ensure flat-film scanning. This effect has been overlooked to date in the literature.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandt, F.
1993-01-01
It is shown that Baecklund transformations (BTs) and zero-curvature representations (ZCRs) of systems of partial differential equations (PDEs) are closely related. The connection is established by nonlinear representations of the symmetry group underlying the ZCR which induce gauge transformations relating different BTs. This connection is used to construct BTs from ZCRs (and vice versa). Furthermore a procedure is outlined which allows a systematic search for ZCRs of a given system of PDEs. (orig.)
Ohkura, Yu; Haruta, Shusuke; Shindoh, Junichi; Tanaka, Tsuyoshi; Ueno, Masaki; Udagawa, Harushi
2017-05-25
For proximal gastric cancer invading the greater curvature, concomitant splenectomy is frequently performed to secure the clearance of lymph node metastases. However, prognostic impact of prophylactic splenectomy remains unclear. The aim of this study was to clarify the oncological significance of prophylactic splenectomy for advanced proximal gastric cancer invading the greater curvature. Retrospective review of 108 patients who underwent total or subtotal gastrectomy for advanced proximal gastric cancer involving the greater curvature was performed. Short-term and long-term outcomes were compared between the patients who underwent splenectomy (n = 63) and those who did not (n = 45). Patients who underwent splenectomy showed higher amount of blood loss (538 vs. 450 mL, p = 0.016) and morbidity rate (30.2 vs. 13.3, p = 0.041) compared with those who did not undergo splenectomy. In particular, pancreas-related complications were frequently observed among patients who received splenectomy (17.4 vs. 0%, p = 0.003). However, no significant improvement of long-term outcomes were confirmed in the cases with splenectomy (5-year recurrence-free rate, 60.2 vs. 67.3%; p = 0.609 and 5-year overall survival rates, 63.7 vs. 73.6%; p = 0.769). On the other hand, splenectomy was correlated with marginally better survival in patients with Borrmann type 1 or 2 gastric cancer (p = 0.072). For advanced proximal gastric cancer involving the greater curvature, prophylactic splenectomy may have no significant prognostic impact despite the increased morbidity rate after surgery. Such surgical procedure should be avoided as long as lymph node involvement is not evident.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Deppe
2014-01-01
Conclusion: Whole-brain-averaged cortical extrinsic curvature appears to be a specific and quantitative marker for a WMV–cortex disproportionality and allows us to assess “pure” WMA without being confounded by intracranial volume. WMA seems to be a characteristic symptom in early MS and can already occur in patients with CIS and should thus be considered in future MS research and clinical studies.
Non-singular black holes and the limiting curvature mechanism: a Hamiltonian perspective
Ben Achour, J.; Lamy, F.; Liu, H.; Noui, K.
2018-05-01
We revisit the non-singular black hole solution in (extended) mimetic gravity with a limiting curvature from a Hamiltonian point of view. We introduce a parameterization of the phase space which allows us to describe fully the Hamiltonian structure of the theory. We write down the equations of motion that we solve in the regime deep inside the black hole, and we recover that the black hole has no singularity, due to the limiting curvature mechanism. Then, we study the relation between such black holes and effective polymer black holes which have been introduced in the context of loop quantum gravity. As expected, contrary to what happens in the cosmological sector, mimetic gravity with a limiting curvature fails to reproduce the usual effective dynamics of spherically symmetric loop quantum gravity which are generically not covariant. Nonetheless, we exhibit a theory in the class of extended mimetic gravity whose dynamics reproduces the general shape of the effective corrections of spherically symmetric polymer models, but in an undeformed covariant manner. These covariant effective corrections are found to be always metric dependent, i.e. within the bar mu-scheme, underlying the importance of this ingredient for inhomogeneous polymer models. In that respect, extended mimetic gravity can be viewed as an effective covariant theory which naturally implements a covariant notion of point wise holonomy-like corrections. The difference between the mimetic and polymer Hamiltonian formulations provides us with a guide to understand the deformation of covariance in inhomogeneous polymer models.
Spin-curvature interaction from curved Dirac equation: Application to single-wall carbon nanotubes
Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Erhu; Chen, Huawei; Zhang, Shengli
2017-06-01
The spin-curvature interaction (SCI) and its effects are investigated based on curved Dirac equation. Through the low-energy approximation of curved Dirac equation, the Hamiltonian of SCI is obtained and depends on the geometry and spinor structure of manifold. We find that the curvature can be considered as field strength and couples with spin through Zeeman-like term. Then, we use dimension reduction to derive the local Hamiltonian of SCI for cylinder surface, which implies that the effective Hamiltonian of single-wall carbon nanotubes results from the geometry and spinor structure of lattice and includes two types of interactions: one does not break any symmetries of the lattice and only shifts the Dirac points for all nanotubes, while the other one does and opens the gaps except for armchair nanotubes. At last, analytical expressions of the band gaps and the shifts of their positions induced by curvature are given for metallic nanotubes. These results agree well with experiments and can be verified experimentally.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dongying Han
2017-01-01
Full Text Available For the damage identification of derrick steel structures, traditional methods often require high-order vibration information of structures to identify damage accurately. However, the high-order vibration information of structures is difficult to acquire. Based on the technology of signal feature extraction, only using the low-order vibration information, taking the right front leg as an example, we analyzed the selection of HHT marginal spectrum amplitude and the calculation process of its curvature in practical application, designed the damage conditions of a derrick steel structure, used the index and intrinsic mode function (IMF instantaneous energy curvature method to perform the damage simulation calculation and comparison, and verified the effect of identifying the damage location in a noisy environment. The results show that the index can accurately determine the location of the damage element and weak damage element and can be used to qualitatively analyze the damage degree of the element; under the impact load, the noise hardly affects the identification of the damage location. Finally, this method was applied to the ZJ70 derrick steel structure laboratory model and compared with the IMF instantaneous energy curvature method. We verified the feasibility of this method in the damage location simulation experiment.
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Xuehui Yin
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The traditional integer-order partial differential equations and gradient regularization based image denoising techniques often suffer from staircase effect, speckle artifacts, and the loss of image contrast and texture details. To address these issues, in this paper, a difference curvature driven fractional anisotropic diffusion for image noise removal is presented, which uses two new techniques, fractional calculus and difference curvature, to describe the intensity variations in images. The fractional-order derivatives information of an image can deal well with the textures of the image and achieve a good tradeoff between eliminating speckle artifacts and restraining staircase effect. The difference curvature constructed by the second order derivatives along the direction of gradient of an image and perpendicular to the gradient can effectively distinguish between ramps and edges. Fourier transform technique is also proposed to compute the fractional-order derivative. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed denoising model can avoid speckle artifacts and staircase effect and preserve important features such as curvy edges, straight edges, ramps, corners, and textures. They are obviously superior to those of traditional integral based methods. The experimental results also reveal that our proposed model yields a good visual effect and better values of MSSIM and PSNR.
Clinical Assessment of Lamina Cribrosa Curvature in Eyes with Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma.
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Yong Woo Kim
Full Text Available Quantitative evaluation of lamina cribrosa (LC posterior bowing in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG eyes using swept-source optical coherence tomography.Patients with POAG (n = 123 eyes and healthy individuals of a similar age (n = 92 eyes were prospectively recruited. Anterior laminar insertion depth (ALID was defined as the vertical distance between the anterior laminar insertion and a reference plane connecting the Bruch's membrane openings (BMO. The mean LC depth (mLCD was approximated by dividing the area enclosed by the anterior LC, the BMO reference plane, and the two vertical lines for ALID measurement by the length between those two vertical lines. The LC curvature index was defined as the difference between the mLCD and the ALID. The factors influencing the LC curvature index were evaluated.The ALID and mLCD were significantly larger in POAG eyes than in healthy controls (P -6 dB and moderate-to-advanced glaucoma (MD < -6 dB, P = 0.95.LC posterior bowing was increased in POAG eyes, and was significantly associated with structural optic nerve head (ONH changes but not with functional glaucoma severity. Quantitative evaluation of LC curvature can facilitate assessment of glaucomatous ONH change.
Stretchable Dual-Capacitor Multi-Sensor for Touch-Curvature-Pressure-Strain Sensing.
Jin, Hanbyul; Jung, Sungchul; Kim, Junhyung; Heo, Sanghyun; Lim, Jaeik; Park, Wonsang; Chu, Hye Yong; Bien, Franklin; Park, Kibog
2017-09-07
We introduce a new type of multi-functional capacitive sensor that can sense several different external stimuli. It is fabricated only with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) films and silver nanowire electrodes by using selective oxygen plasma treatment method without photolithography and etching processes. Differently from the conventional single-capacitor multi-functional sensors, our new multi-functional sensor is composed of two vertically-stacked capacitors (dual-capacitor). The unique dual-capacitor structure can detect the type and strength of external stimuli including curvature, pressure, strain, and touch with clear distinction, and it can also detect the surface-normal directionality of curvature, pressure, and touch. Meanwhile, the conventional single-capacitor sensor has ambiguity in distinguishing curvature and pressure and it can detect only the strength of external stimulus. The type, directionality, and strength of external stimulus can be determined based on the relative capacitance changes of the two stacked capacitors. Additionally, the logical flow reflected on a tree structure with its branches reaching the direction and strength of the corresponding external stimulus unambiguously is devised. This logical flow can be readily implemented in the sensor driving circuit if the dual-capacitor sensor is commercialized actually in the future.
Multi-Objective Optimization of Experiments Using Curvature and Fisher Information Matrix
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Erica Manesso
2017-11-01
Full Text Available The bottleneck in creating dynamic models of biological networks and processes often lies in estimating unknown kinetic model parameters from experimental data. In this regard, experimental conditions have a strong influence on parameter identifiability and should therefore be optimized to give the maximum information for parameter estimation. Existing model-based design of experiment (MBDOE methods commonly rely on the Fisher information matrix (FIM for defining a metric of data informativeness. When the model behavior is highly nonlinear, FIM-based criteria may lead to suboptimal designs, as the FIM only accounts for the linear variation in the model outputs with respect to the parameters. In this work, we developed a multi-objective optimization (MOO MBDOE, for which the model nonlinearity was taken into consideration through the use of curvature. The proposed MOO MBDOE involved maximizing data informativeness using a FIM-based metric and at the same time minimizing the model curvature. We demonstrated the advantages of the MOO MBDOE over existing FIM-based and other curvature-based MBDOEs in an application to the kinetic modeling of fed-batch fermentation of baker’s yeast.
Non-Euclidean geometry and curvature two-dimensional spaces, volume 3
Cannon, James W
2017-01-01
This is the final volume of a three volume collection devoted to the geometry, topology, and curvature of 2-dimensional spaces. The collection provides a guided tour through a wide range of topics by one of the twentieth century's masters of geometric topology. The books are accessible to college and graduate students and provide perspective and insight to mathematicians at all levels who are interested in geometry and topology. Einstein showed how to interpret gravity as the dynamic response to the curvature of space-time. Bill Thurston showed us that non-Euclidean geometries and curvature are essential to the understanding of low-dimensional spaces. This third and final volume aims to give the reader a firm intuitive understanding of these concepts in dimension 2. The volume first demonstrates a number of the most important properties of non-Euclidean geometry by means of simple infinite graphs that approximate that geometry. This is followed by a long chapter taken from lectures the author gave at MSRI, wh...
Curvature Induced by Amyloplast Magnetophoresis in Protonemata of the Moss Ceratodon purpureus1
Kuznetsov, Oleg A.; Schwuchow, Jochen; Sack, Fred D.; Hasenstein, Karl H.
1999-01-01
After gravistimulation of Ceratodon purpureus (Hedw.) Brid. protonemata in the dark, amyloplast sedimentation was followed by upward curvature in the wild-type (WT) and downward curvature in the wwr mutant (wrong way response). We used ponderomotive forces induced by high-gradient magnetic fields (HGMF) to simulate the effect of gravity and displace the presumptive statoliths. The field was applied by placing protonemata either between two permanent magnets at the edge of the gap, close to the edge of a magnetized ferromagnetic wedge, or close to a small (<1 mm) permanent magnet. Continuous application of an HGMF in all three configurations resulted in plastid displacement and induced curvature in tip cells of WT and wwr protonemata. WT cells curved toward the HGMF, and wwr cells curved away from the HGMF, comparable to gravitropism. Plastids isolated from protonemal cultures had densities ranging from 1.24 to 1.38 g cm−3. Plastid density was similar for both genotypes, but the mutant contained larger plastids than the WT. The size difference might explain the stronger response of the wwr protonemata to the HGMF. Our data support the plastid-based theory of gravitropic sensing and suggest that HGMF-induced ponderomotive forces can substitute for gravity. PMID:9952461
The curvature of sensitometric curves for Kodak XV-2 film irradiated with photon and electron beams.
van Battum, L J; Huizenga, H
2006-07-01
Sensitometric curves of Kodak XV-2 film, obtained in a time period of ten years with various types of equipment, have been analyzed both for photon and electron beams. The sensitometric slope in the dataset varies more than a factor of 2, which is attributed mainly to variations in developer conditions. In the literature, the single hit equation has been proposed as a model for the sensitometric curve, as with the parameters of the sensitivity and maximum optical density. In this work, the single hit equation has been translated into a polynomial like function as with the parameters of the sensitometric slope and curvature. The model has been applied to fit the sensitometric data. If the dataset is fitted for each single sensitometric curve separately, a large variation is observed for both fit parameters. When sensitometric curves are fitted simultaneously it appears that all curves can be fitted adequately with a sensitometric curvature that is related to the sensitometric slope. When fitting each curve separately, apparently measurement uncertainty hides this relation. This relation appears to be dependent only on the type of densitometer used. No significant differences between beam energies or beam modalities are observed. Using the intrinsic relation between slope and curvature in fitting sensitometric data, e.g., for pretreatment verification of intensity-modulated radiotherapy, will increase the accuracy of the sensitometric curve. A calibration at a single dose point, together with a predetermined densitometer-dependent parameter ODmax will be adequate to find the actual relation between optical density and dose.