Alsmirat, Mohammad Abdullah
Video streaming has recently grown dramatically in popularity over the Internet, Cable TV, and wire-less networks. Because of the resource demanding nature of video streaming applications, maximizing resource utilization in any video streaming system is a key factor to increase the scalability and decrease the cost of the system. Resources to…
Avgerakis, George; Waring, Becky
Corporate training, financial services, entertainment, and education are among the top applications for streaming video servers, which send video to the desktop without downloading the whole file to the hard disk, saving time and eliminating copyrights questions. Examines streaming video technology, lists ten tips for better net video, and ranks…
Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Shi, Yu-Qiang; Liao, Hao
Online popularity has a major impact on videos, music, news and other contexts in online systems. Characterizing online popularity dynamics is nature to explain the observed properties in terms of the already acquired popularity of each individual. In this paper, we provide a quantitative, large scale, temporal analysis of the popularity dynamics in two online video-provided websites, namely MovieLens and Netflix. The two collected data sets contain over 100 million records and even span a decade. We characterize that the popularity dynamics of online videos evolve over time, and find that the dynamics of the online video popularity can be characterized by the burst behaviors, typically occurring in the early life span of a video, and later restricting to the classic preferential popularity increase mechanism.
Ren, Zhuo-Ming; Shi, , Yu-Qiang; Liao, Hao
Online popularity has a major impact on videos, music, news and other contexts in online systems. Characterizing online popularity dynamics is nature to explain the observed properties in terms of the already acquired popularity of each individual. In this paper, we provide a quantitative, large scale, temporal analysis of the popularity dynamics in two online video-provided websites, namely MovieLens and Netflix. The two collected data sets contain over 100 million records and even span...
Fan, Jieyan; Wu, Dapeng; Nucci, Antonio; Keralapura, Ram; Gao, Lixin
Given the rising popularity of voice and video services over the Internet, accurately identifying voice and video traffic that traverse their networks has become a critical task for Internet service providers (ISPs). As the number of proprietary applications that deliver voice and video services to end users increases over time, the search for the one methodology that can accurately detect such services while being application independent still remains open. This problem becomes even more complicated when voice and video service providers like Skype, Microsoft, and Google bundle their voice and video services with other services like file transfer and chat. For example, a bundled Skype session can contain both voice stream and file transfer stream in the same layer-3/layer-4 flow. In this context, traditional techniques to identify voice and video streams do not work. In this paper, we propose a novel self-learning classifier, called VVS-I , that detects the presence of voice and video streams in flows with minimum manual intervention. Our classifier works in two phases: training phase and detection phase. In the training phase, VVS-I first extracts the relevant features, and subsequently constructs a fingerprint of a flow using the power spectral density (PSD) analysis. In the detection phase, it compares the fingerprint of a flow to the existing fingerprints learned during the training phase, and subsequently classifies the flow. Our classifier is not only capable of detecting voice and video streams that are hidden in different flows, but is also capable of detecting different applications (like Skype, MSN, etc.) that generate these voice/video streams. We show that our classifier can achieve close to 100% detection rate while keeping the false positive rate to less that 1%.
Hartsell, Taralynn; Yuen, Steve Chi-Yin
The use of video in teaching and learning is a common practice in education today. As learning online becomes more of a common practice in education, streaming video and audio will play a bigger role in delivering course materials to online learners. This form of technology brings courses alive by allowing online learners to use their visual and…
Full Text Available In the past few years there has been an explosion in the use of digital video data. Many people have personal computers at home, and with the help of the Internet users can easily share video files on their computer. This makes possible the unauthorized use of digital media, and without adequate protection systems the authors and distributors have no means to prevent it.Digital watermarking techniques can help these systems to be more effective by embedding secret data right into the video stream. This makes minor changes in the frames of the video, but these changes are almost imperceptible to the human visual system. The embedded information can involve copyright data, access control etc. A robust watermark is resistant to various distortions of the video, so it cannot be removed without affecting the quality of the host medium. In this paper I propose a video watermarking scheme that fulfills the requirements of a robust watermark.
Wolf, Mark J.P.
Video games have moved, possibly surpassing even movies, into a central role in American popular culture in a relatively short time, and today there is increasing evidence that the video game console –to some extent, as much as the personal computer– has emerged as a central media device through which “convergence culture” is taking place. In the world of massively multiplayer online games, new (and very real) economies and cultures have evolved with striking rapidity, while on a very differe...
This thesis presents high definition video streaming using H.264 codec implementation. The experiment carried out in this study was done for an offline streaming video but a model for live high definition streaming is introduced, as well. Prior to the actual experiment, this study describes digital media streaming. Also, the different technologies involved in video streaming are covered. These include streaming architecture and a brief overview on H.264 codec as well as high definition t...
Chen, Liang; Zhou, Yipeng; Chiu, Dah Ming
Bandwidth consumption is a significant concern for online video service providers. Practical video streaming systems usually use some form of HTTP streaming (progressive download) to let users download the video at a faster rate than the video bitrate. Since users may quit before viewing the complete video, however, much of the downloaded video will be "wasted". To the extent that users' departure behavior can be predicted, we develop smart streaming that can be used to improve user QoE with ...
Shahid, M.; Søgaard, Jacob; Pokhrel, J.
In order to cater for user’s quality of experience (QoE) re- quirements, HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) based solutions of video services have become popular recently. User QoE feedback can be instrumental in improving the capabilities of such services. Perceptual quality experiments that involve...... humans are considered to be the most valid method of the as- sessment of QoE. Besides lab-based subjective experiments, crowdsourcing based subjective assessment of video quality is gaining popularity as an alternative method. This paper presents insights into a study that investigates perceptual pref......- erences of various adaptive video streaming scenarios through crowdsourcing based subjective quality assessment....
I Made Oka Widyantara
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG-DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views
Videos and DVDs give the teachers more flexibility than slide projectors, filmstrips, and 16mm films but teachers and students are excited about a new technology called streaming. Streaming allows the educators to view videos on demand via the Internet, which works through the transfer of digital media like video, and voice data that is received…
Guruvadoo, Eranna K.
In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.
As Web-based courses using videos have become popular in recent years, the issue of managing audiovisual aids has become noteworthy. The contents of audiovisual aids may include a lecture, an interview, a featurette, an experiment, etc. The audiovisual aids of Web-based courses are transformed into the streaming format that can make the quality of…
This thesis explores the roles of popular music in video games. It draws on the analytical tools used in ludomusicology, film music studies and studies of music videos. Unlike other audiovisual media, video games are based on interactivity and a range of narrativity based on genre. Some games focus on gameplay and others are more inclined with telling a good story. Implementation of popular music in video games has history stretching all the way back to the 80's, and is currently becoming an ...
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A streaming video system was developed and implemented at SSC to support various propulsion projects at SSC. These projects included J-2X and AJ-26 rocket engine...
Calvelo Rios, J M
Peru developed its first use of video for training and education in rural areas over a decade ago. On completion of the project in 1986, over 400,000 peasants had attended video courses lasting from 5-20 days. The courses included rural health, family planning, reforestation, agriculture, animal husbandry, housing, nutrition, and water sanitation. There were 125 course packages made and 1,260 video programs from 10-18 minutes in length. There were 780 additional video programs created on human resource development, socioeconomic diagnostics and culture. 160 specialists were trained to produce audiovisual materials and run the programs. Also, 70 trainers from other countries were trained. The results showed many used the training in practical applications. To promote rural development 2 things are needed , capital and physical inputs, such as equipment, fertilizers, pesticides, etc. The video project provided peasants an additional input that would help them manage the financial and physical inputs more efficiently. Video was used because many farmers are illiterate or speak a language different from the official one. Printed guides that contained many illustrations and few words served as memory aids and group discussions reinforced practical learning. By seeing, hearing, and doing, the training was effective. There were 46% women which made fertility and family planning subjects more easily communicated. The production of teaching modules included field investigations, academic research, field recording, tape editing, and experimental application in the field. An agreement with the peasants was initiated before a course began to help insure full participation and to also make sure resources were available to use the knowledge gained. The courses were limited to 30 and the cost per participant was $34 per course.
Full Text Available Many algorithms for temporal video partitioning rely on the analysis of uncompressed video features. Since the information relevant to the partitioning process can be extracted directly from the MPEG compressed stream, higher efficiency can be achieved utilizing information from the MPEG compressed domain. This paper introduces a real-time algorithm for scene change detection that analyses the statistics of the macroblock features extracted directly from the MPEG stream. A method for extraction of the continuous frame difference that transforms the 3D video stream into a 1D curve is presented. This transform is then further employed to extract temporal units within the analysed video sequence. Results of computer simulations are reported.
Søgaard, Jacob; Shahid, Muhammad; Pokhrel, Jeevan
Video streaming services are offered over the Internet and since the service providers do not have full control over the network conditions all the way to the end user, streaming technologies have been developed to maintain the quality of service in these varying network conditions i.e. so called...... adaptive video streaming. In order to cater for users' Quality of Experience (QoE) requirements, HTTP based adaptive streaming solutions of video services have become popular. However, the keys to ensure the users a good QoE with this technology is still not completely understood. User QoE feedback...
Eirik Evert Elias Jungar
Full Text Available Streaming video games, that is, live broadcasting playing video games on the internet, is incredibly popular. Millions tune into twitch.tv daily to watch eSport tournaments, their favourite streamer, and chat with other viewers. But all is not rosy in the world of streaming games. Recently, some game developers have aggressively exercised their copyright to, firstly, claim part of the streamers’ revenue, and secondly, control the context in which their game is shown. The article analyzes whether game developers have, and should have, such rights under EU copyright law. Reaching the conclusion that video game streams infringe the game developer’s right to communicate their works to the public, I argue that freedom of expression can and should be used to rein in their rights in certain cases. Subjecting the lawfulness of streams to game developers’ good will risks stifling the expressions of streamers. The streamers, their audience, and even the copyright holders, would be worse off for it.
With the proliferation of mobile streaming multimedia, available battery capacity constrains the end-user experience. Since streaming applications tend to be long running, wireless network interface card's (WNIC) energy consumption is particularly an acute problem. In this work, we explore the WNIC energy consumption implications of popular multimedia streaming formats from Microsoft (Windows media), Real (Real media) and Apple (Quick Time). We investigate the energy consumption under varying stream bandwidth and network loss rates. We also explore history-based client-side strategies to reduce the energy consumed by transitioning the WNICs to a lower power consuming sleep state. We show that Microsoft media tends to transmit packets at regular intervals; streams optimized for 28.8 Kbps can save over 80% in energy consumption with 2% data loss. A high bandwidth stream (768 Kbps) can still save 57% in energy consumption with less than 0.3% data loss. For high bandwidth streams, Microsoft media exploits network-level packet fragmentation, which can lead to excessive packet loss (and wasted energy) in a lossy network. Real stream packets tend to be sent closer to each other, especially at higher bandwidths. Quicktime packets sometimes arrive in quick succession; most likely an application level fragmentation mechanism. Such packets are harder to predict at the network level without understanding the packet semantics.
Qin , Yan
This paper introduces the basic streaming media technology, the streaming media system structure, principles of streaming media technology; streaming media file formats and so on. After that, it discusses the use streaming media in distance education, broadband video on demand, Internet broadcasting, video conferences and a more detailed exposition in streaming media. As the existing technology has been unable to satisfy the increasing needs of the Internet users, the streaming media technol...
Lian Shiguo; Sun Jinsheng; Wang Jinwei; Wang Zhiquan
In this paper, a chaotic stream cipher is constructed and used to encrypt video data selectively. The stream cipher based on a discrete piecewise linear chaotic map satisfies the security requirement of cipher design. The video encryption scheme based on the stream cipher is secure in perception, efficient and format compliant, which is suitable for practical video protection. The video encryption scheme's performances prove the stream cipher's practicability
Duncan, Cheryl J
Creating a Streaming Video Collection for Your Library covers the main processes associated with streaming video, from licensing to access and evaluation, and will serve as a key reference and source of best practices for libraries adding streaming video titles to their collections.
Streaming audio and video present new challenges and opportunities for museums. Streaming media is easier to author and deliver to Internet audiences than ever before; digital video editing is commonplace now that the tools--computers, digital video cameras, and hard drives--are so affordable; the cost of serving video files across the Internet…
Zhao, H Vicky; Liu, K J Ray
Digital fingerprinting is an emerging technology to protect multimedia content from illegal redistribution, where each distributed copy is labeled with unique identification information. In video streaming, huge amount of data have to be transmitted to a large number of users under stringent latency constraints, so the bandwidth-efficient distribution of uniquely fingerprinted copies is crucial. This paper investigates the secure multicast of anticollusion fingerprinted video in streaming applications and analyzes their performance. We first propose a general fingerprint multicast scheme that can be used with most spread spectrum embedding-based multimedia fingerprinting systems. To further improve the bandwidth efficiency, we explore the special structure of the fingerprint design and propose a joint fingerprint design and distribution scheme. From our simulations, the two proposed schemes can reduce the bandwidth requirement by 48% to 87%, depending on the number of users, the characteristics of video sequences, and the network and computation constraints. We also show that under the constraint that all colluders have the same probability of detection, the embedded fingerprints in the two schemes have approximately the same collusion resistance. Finally, we propose a fingerprint drift compensation scheme to improve the quality of the reconstructed sequences at the decoder's side without introducing extra communication overhead.
Tavakoli, Samira; Brunnström, Kjell; Garcia, Narciso
The usage of HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) technology by content providers is increasing rapidly. Having available the video content in multiple qualities, using HAS allows to adapt the quality of downloaded video to the current network conditions providing smooth video-playback. However, the time-varying video quality by itself introduces a new type of impairment. The quality adaptation can be done in different ways. In order to find the best adaptation strategy maximizing users perceptual quality it is necessary to investigate about the subjective perception of adaptation-related impairments. However, the novelties of these impairments and their comparably long time duration make most of the standardized assessment methodologies fall less suited for studying HAS degradation. Furthermore, in traditional testing methodologies, the quality of the video in audiovisual services is often evaluated separated and not in the presence of audio. Nevertheless, the requirement of jointly evaluating the audio and the video within a subjective test is a relatively under-explored research field. In this work, we address the research question of determining the appropriate assessment methodology to evaluate the sequences with time-varying quality due to the adaptation. This was done by studying the influence of different adaptation related parameters through two different subjective experiments using a methodology developed to evaluate long test sequences. In order to study the impact of audio presence on quality assessment by the test subjects, one of the experiments was done in the presence of audio stimuli. The experimental results were subsequently compared with another experiment using the standardized single stimulus Absolute Category Rating (ACR) methodology.
Koch, Christian; Lode, Moritz; Stohr, Denny; Rizk, Amr; Steinmetz, Ralf
YouTube is one of the most popular platforms for streaming of user-generated video. Nowadays, professional YouTubers are organized in so called multi-channel networks (MCNs). These networks offer services such as brand deals, equipment, and strategic advice in exchange for a share of the YouTubers' revenue. A major strategy to gain more subscribers and, hence, revenue is collaborating with other YouTubers. Yet, collaborations on YouTube have not been studied in a detailed quantitative manner....
Tang, Ming; Pang, Haitian; Wang, Shou; Gao, Lin; Huang, Jianwei; Sun, Lifeng
Crowdsourced mobile video streaming enables nearby mobile video users to aggregate network resources to improve their video streaming performances. However, users are often selfish and may not be willing to cooperate without proper incentives. Designing an incentive mechanism for such a scenario is challenging due to the users' asynchronous downloading behaviors and their private valuations for multi-bitrate coded videos. In this work, we propose both single-object and multi-object multi-dime...
Diminished Reality is a new fascinating technology that removes real-world content from live video streams. This sensational live video manipulation actually removes real objects and generates a coherent video stream in real-time. Viewers cannot detect modified content. Existing approaches are restricted to moving objects and static or almost static cameras and do not allow real-time manipulation of video content. Jan Herling presents a new and innovative approach for real-time object removal with arbitrary camera movements.
Muhammad Audy Bazly
Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze Internet-based streaming video service in the communication media with variable bit rates. The proposed scheme on Dynamic Adaptive Streaming over HTTP (DASH using the internet network that adapts to the protocol Hyper Text Transfer Protocol (HTTP. DASH technology allows a video in the video segmentation into several packages that will distreamingkan. DASH initial stage is to compress the video source to lower the bit rate video codec uses H.26. Video compressed further in the segmentation using MP4Box generates streaming packets with the specified duration. These packages are assembled into packets in a streaming media format Presentation Description (MPD or known as MPEG-DASH. Streaming video format MPEG-DASH run on a platform with the player bitdash teritegrasi bitcoin. With this scheme, the video will have several variants of the bit rates that gave rise to the concept of scalability of streaming video services on the client side. The main target of the mechanism is smooth the MPEG-DASH streaming video display on the client. The simulation results show that the scheme based scalable video streaming MPEG- DASH able to improve the quality of image display on the client side, where the procedure bufering videos can be made constant and fine for the duration of video views
Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Rojas, Diego; McLauchlan, Lifford
Two synchronized cameras are utilized to obtain independent video streams to detect moving objects from two different viewing angles. The video frames are directly correlated in time. Moving objects in image frames from the two cameras are identified and tagged for tracking. One advantage of such a system involves overcoming effects of occlusions that could result in an object in partial or full view in one camera, when the same object is fully visible in another camera. Object registration is achieved by determining the location of common features in the moving object across simultaneous frames. Perspective differences are adjusted. Combining information from images from multiple cameras increases robustness of the tracking process. Motion tracking is achieved by determining anomalies caused by the objects' movement across frames in time in each and the combined video information. The path of each object is determined heuristically. Accuracy of detection is dependent on the speed of the object as well as variations in direction of motion. Fast cameras increase accuracy but limit the speed and complexity of the algorithm. Such an imaging system has applications in traffic analysis, surveillance and security, as well as object modeling from multi-view images. The system can easily be expanded by increasing the number of cameras such that there is an overlap between the scenes from at least two cameras in proximity. An object can then be tracked long distances or across multiple cameras continuously, applicable, for example, in wireless sensor networks for surveillance or navigation.
Liu, Yan; Wang, Xinheng; Zhao, Liqiang
In this paper, a video streaming system for education based on a wireless mesh network is proposed. A wireless mesh network is a self-organizing, self-managing and reliable intelligent network, which allows educators to deploy a network quickly. Video streaming plays an important role in this system for multimedia data transmission. This new…
Abdallah-Saleh, Saleh; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos
Recently, the concept of Mobile Cloud Computing (MCC) has been proposed to offload the resource requirements in computational capabilities, storage and security from mobile devices into the cloud. Internet video applications such as real-time streaming are expected to be ubiquitously deployed and supported over the cloud for mobile users, who typically encounter a range of wireless networks of diverse radio access technologies during their roaming. However, real-time video streaming for mobile cloud users across heterogeneous wireless networks presents multiple challenges. The network-layer quality of service (QoS) provision to support high-quality mobile video delivery in this demanding scenario remains an open research question, and this in turn affects the application-level visual quality and impedes mobile users' perceived quality of experience (QoE). In this paper, we devise a framework to support real-time video streaming in this new mobile video networking paradigm and evaluate the performance of the proposed framework empirically through a lab-based yet realistic testing platform. One particular issue we focus on is the effect of users' mobility on the QoS of video streaming over the cloud. We design and implement a hybrid platform comprising of a test-bed and an emulator, on which our concept of mobile cloud computing, video streaming and heterogeneous wireless networks are implemented and integrated to allow the testing of our framework. As representative heterogeneous wireless networks, the popular WLAN (Wi-Fi) and MAN (WiMAX) networks are incorporated in order to evaluate effects of handovers between these different radio access technologies. The H.264/AVC (Advanced Video Coding) standard is employed for real-time video streaming from a server to mobile users (client nodes) in the networks. Mobility support is introduced to enable continuous streaming experience for a mobile user across the heterogeneous wireless network. Real-time video stream packets
Full Text Available The general movement towards streaming or playing videos on the web has grown exponentially in the last decade. The combination of new streaming technologies and faster Internet connections continue to provide enhanced and robust user experience for video content. For many organizations, adding videos on their websites has transitioned from a “cool” feature to a mission critical service. Some of the benefits in putting videos online include: to engage and convert visitors, to raise awareness or drive interest, to share inspirational stories or recent unique events, etc. Along with the growth in the use and need for video content on the web; delivering videos online also remains a messy activity for developers and web teams. Examples of existing challenges include creating more accessible videos with captions and delivering content (using adaptive streaming for the diverse range of mobile and tablet devices. In this article, we report on the decision-making and early results in using the Kaltura video platform in two popular library platforms: CONTENTdm and DSpace.
Hiranaka, Takafumi; Nakanishi, Yuta; Fujishiro, Takaaki; Hida, Yuichi; Tsubosaka, Masanori; Shibata, Yosaku; Okimura, Kenjiro; Uemoto, Harunobu
Observation of surgical procedures performed by experts is extremely important for acquisition and improvement of surgical skills. Smart glasses are small computers, which comprise a head-mounted monitor and video camera, and can be connected to the internet. They can be used for remote observation of surgeries by video streaming. Although Google Glass is the most commonly used smart glasses for medical purposes, it is still unavailable commercially and has some limitations. This article reports the use of a different type of smart glasses, InfoLinker, for surgical video streaming. InfoLinker has been commercially available in Japan for industrial purposes for more than 2 years. It is connected to a video server via wireless internet directly, and streaming video can be seen anywhere an internet connection is available. We have attempted live video streaming of knee arthroplasty operations that were viewed at several different locations, including foreign countries, on a common web browser. Although the quality of video images depended on the resolution and dynamic range of the video camera, speed of internet connection, and the wearer's attention to minimize image shaking, video streaming could be easily performed throughout the procedure. The wearer could confirm the quality of the video as the video was being shot by the head-mounted display. The time and cost for observation of surgical procedures can be reduced by InfoLinker, and further improvement of hardware as well as the wearer's video shooting technique is expected. We believe that this can be used in other medical settings.
Celandroni, Nedo; Davoli, Franco; Ferro, Erina; Gotta, Alberto
In the near future, transportation media are likely to become "smart spaces", where sophisticated services are offered to the passengers. Among such services, we concentrate on video streaming provided on buses that move in urban, suburban, or highway environments. A contents' source utilizes a satellite DVB-S2 link for transmitting video streams to a bus, which, in its turn, relays it to its passengers' devices. A bus works in a smart mode taking advantage of the knowledge of the exact point...
Szczerba, Krzysztof; Forchhammer, Søren; Støttrup-Andersen, Jesper
This paper presents a novel approach to fast motion detection in H.264/MPEG-4 advanced video coding (AVC) compressed video streams for IP video surveillance systems. The goal is to develop algorithms which may be useful in a real-life industrial perspective by facilitating the processing of large...... on motion vectors embedded in the video stream without requiring a full decoding and reconstruction of video frames. To improve the robustness to noise, a confidence measure based on temporal and spatial clues is introduced to increase the probability of correct detection. The algorithm was tested on indoor...
Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Ørngreen, Rikke; Buus, Lillian
The Bachelor's Degree Programme of Biomedical Laboratory Science at VIA Faculty of Health Sciences offers a combination of live video-streamed and traditional teaching. It is the student’s individual choice whether to attend classes on-site or to attend classes from home via live video-stream. Our...... previous studies revealed that the live-streamed sessions compared to on-site teaching reduced interaction and dialogue between attendants, and that the main reasons were technological issues and the teacher’s choice of teaching methods. One of our goals therefore became to develop methods and implement...... transparency in the live video-streamed teaching sessions during a 5-year period of continuous development of technological and pedagogical solutions for live-streamed teaching. Data describing student’s experiences were gathered in a longitudinal study of four sessions from 2012 to 2017 using a qualitative...
Castro, J. M.; Pollock, M. M.; Lewallen, G.; Jordan, C.; Woodruff, K.
Have you watched YouTube lately? Did you notice the plethora of cute animal videos? Researchers, including members of our Beaver Restoration Research team, have been studying the restoration potential of beaver for decades, yet in the past few years, beaver have gained broad acclaim and some much deserved credit for restoration of aquatic systems in North America. Is it because people can now see these charismatic critters in action from the comfort of their laptops? While the newly released Beaver Restoration Guidebook attempts to answer many questions, sadly, this is not one of them. We do, however, address the use of beaver (Castor canadensis) in stream, wetland, and floodplain restoration and discuss the many positive effects of beaver on fluvial ecosystems. Our team, composed of researchers from NOAA National Marine Fisheries Service, US Fish and Wildlife Service, US Forest Service, and Portland State University, has developed a scientifically rigorous, yet accessible, practitioner's guide that provides a synthesis of the best available science for using beaver to improve ecosystem functions. Divided into two broad sections -- Beaver Ecology and Beaver Restoration and Management -- the guidebook focuses on the many ways in which beaver improve habitat, primarily through the construction of dams that impound water and retain sediment. In Beaver Ecology, we open with a discussion of the general effects that beaver dams have on physical and biological processes, and we close with "Frequently Asked Questions" and "Myth Busters". In Restoration and Management, we discuss common emerging restoration techniques and methods for mitigating unwanted beaver effects, followed by case studies from pioneering practitioners who have used many of these beaver restoration techniques in the field. The lessons they have learned will help guide future restoration efforts. We have also included a comprehensive beaver ecology library of over 1400 references from scientific journals
Full Text Available This paper presents effective quality-of-service renegotiating schemes for streaming video. The conventional network supporting quality of service generally allows a negotiation at a call setup. However, it is not efficient for the video application since the compressed video traffic is statistically nonstationary. Thus, we consider the network supporting quality-of-service renegotiations during the data transmission and study effective quality-of-service renegotiating schemes for streaming video. The token bucket model, whose parameters are token filling rate and token bucket size, is adopted for the video traffic model. The renegotiating time instants and the parameters are determined by analyzing the statistical information of compressed video traffic. In this paper, two renegotiating approaches, that is, fixed renegotiating interval case and variable renegotiating interval case, are examined. Finally, the experimental results are provided to show the performance of the proposed schemes.
Keenan, Daniel Stephen
In 2005, over 100,000 e-Learning courses were offered in over half of all U.S. postsecondary education institutions with nearly 90% of all community colleges and four year institutions offering online education. Streaming video is commonplace across the internet offering seamless video and sound anywhere connectivity is available effectively…
Leijen, Ali; Lam, Ineke; Wildschut, Liesbeth; Simons, P. Robert-Jan; Admiraal, Wilfried
This paper presents an evaluation case study that describes the experiences of 15 students and 2 teachers using a video-based learning environment, DiViDU, to facilitate students' daily reflection activities in a composition course and a ballet course. To support dance students' reflection processes streaming video was applied as follows: video…
Stok, van der P.D.V.; Jarnikov, D.; Kozlov, S.; Hartskamp, van M.A.; Lukkien, J.J.
High quality video streaming puts high demands on network and processor resources. The bandwidth of the communication medium and the timely arrival of the frames necessitate a tight resource allocation. Given the dynamic environment where videos are started and stopped and electro-magnetic
Gudumasu, Srinivas; Asbun, Eduardo; He, Yong; Ye, Yan
360° video is an emerging new format in the media industry enabled by the growing availability of virtual reality devices. It provides the viewer a new sense of presence and immersion. Compared to conventional rectilinear video (2D or 3D), 360° video poses a new and difficult set of engineering challenges on video processing and delivery. Enabling comfortable and immersive user experience requires very high video quality and very low latency, while the large video file size poses a challenge to delivering 360° video in a quality manner at scale. Conventionally, 360° video represented in equirectangular or other projection formats can be encoded as a single standards-compliant bitstream using existing video codecs such as H.264/AVC or H.265/HEVC. Such method usually needs very high bandwidth to provide an immersive user experience. While at the client side, much of such high bandwidth and the computational power used to decode the video are wasted because the user only watches a small portion (i.e., viewport) of the entire picture. Viewport dependent 360°video processing and delivery approaches spend more bandwidth on the viewport than on non-viewports and are therefore able to reduce the overall transmission bandwidth. This paper proposes a dual buffer segment scheduling algorithm for viewport adaptive streaming methods to reduce latency when switching between high quality viewports in 360° video streaming. The approach decouples the scheduling of viewport segments and non-viewport segments to ensure the viewport segment requested matches the latest user head orientation. A base layer buffer stores all lower quality segments, and a viewport buffer stores high quality viewport segments corresponding to the most recent viewer's head orientation. The scheduling scheme determines viewport requesting time based on the buffer status and the head orientation. This paper also discusses how to deploy the proposed scheduling design for various viewport adaptive video
Hiroshi Noborio; Hiroyuki Hisamatsu; Hiroki Oda
In recent years, video streaming services over TCP, such as YouTube, have become more and more popular. TCP NewReno, the current TCP standard, performs greedy congestion control, which increases the congestion window size until packet loss occurs. Therefore, because TCP transmits data at a much higher rate than the video playback rate, the probability of packet loss in the network increases, which in turn takes bandwidth from other network traffic. In this paper, we propose a new transport-la...
Welbourne, Dustin J; Grant, Will J
YouTube has become one of the largest websites on the Internet. Among its many genres, both professional and amateur science communicators compete for audience attention. This article provides the first overview of science communication on YouTube and examines content factors that affect the popularity of science communication videos on the site. A content analysis of 390 videos from 39 YouTube channels was conducted. Although professionally generated content is superior in number, user-generated content was significantly more popular. Furthermore, videos that had consistent science communicators were more popular than those without a regular communicator. This study represents an important first step to understand content factors, which increases the channel and video popularity of science communication on YouTube. © The Author(s) 2015.
With the development of wireless networks and intelligent terminals, video traffic has increased dramatically. Adaptive video streaming has become one of the most promising video transmission technologies. For this type of service, a good QoS (Quality of Service) of wireless network does not always guarantee that all customers have good experience. Thus, new quality metrics have been widely studies recently. Taking this into account, the objective of this paper is to investigate the quality metrics of wireless adaptive video streaming. In this paper, a wireless video streaming simulation platform with DASH mechanism and multi-rate video generator is established. Based on this platform, PSNR model, SSIM model and Quality Level model are implemented. Quality Level Model considers the QoE (Quality of Experience) factors such as image quality, stalling and switching frequency while PSNR Model and SSIM Model mainly consider the quality of the video. To evaluate the performance of these QoE models, three performance metrics (SROCC, PLCC and RMSE) which are used to make a comparison of subjective and predicted MOS (Mean Opinion Score) are calculated. From these performance metrics, the monotonicity, linearity and accuracy of these quality metrics can be observed.
Wulansari, Amalia Ayu; Lukmantoro, Triyono; Hasfi, Nurul
Representation of Popular Culture in Jokowi-Ahok's Video Parodyson Youtube During Pemilukada DKI Jakarta 2012AbstractPemilukada DKI Jakarta 2012 was marked by the rise of videos that related toGovernor and Vice Governor candidates of DKI Jakarta 2012 on internet mediaYoutube, such as videos which is purposely made for campaign, or videos withSARA (etnic, religion, race and inter-group) issue, that attack one of the pair'scabdidates. The interesting point is videos made by partisipants and vol...
Full Text Available The consumer demand for retrieving and delivering visual content through consumer electronic devices has increased rapidly in recent years. The quality of video in packet networks is susceptible to certain traffic characteristics: average bandwidth availability, loss, delay and delay variation (jitter. This paper presents a scheduling algorithm that modifies the stream of scalable video to combat jitter. The algorithm provides unequal look-ahead by safeguarding the base layer (without the need for overhead of the scalable video. The results of the experiments show that our scheduling algorithm reduces the number of frames with a violated deadline and significantly improves the continuity of the video stream without compromising the average Y Peek Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR.
ten Hove, Petra; van der Meij, Hans
Purpose: There is a tremendous growth in the production of instructional videos. This study investigates whether popular YouTube instructional videos for declarative knowledge development differ in their physical characteristics from unpopular and average ones. Method: Sampling followed a three-step
Sagatov, Evgeny S.; Sukhov, Andrei M.
In this paper technological solutions for improving the quality of video transfer along wireless networks are investigated. Tools have been developed to allow packets to be duplicated with key frames data. In the paper we tested video streams with duplication of all frames, with duplication of key frames, and without duplication. The experiments showed that the best results are obtained by duplication of packages which contain key frames. The paper also provides an overview of the coefficient...
Full Text Available This study aims at overcoming difficulty in learning language, both in Indonesian Language and English at international elementary school, especially in creative writing. Creative writing as part of human activity is creativity with language medium as prose (narrative, description, poem (old, new and modern, as well as drama (dialogue, role play, and sosio drama. Specific target to be achieved is the design of Video Streaming for all kinds of creative writing in the language of Indonesian and English. This investigation is a continuation of the previos investigation that has managed to make a video leaning in English for Math and Science as integrated learning to early class at international elementary school. The method used follow the principles of developmental reasearch. The firts stage is script writing video streaming through brainstorming with teachers, lecturers, teams of investigators Indonesia (UPI and Malaysia (USM. The second stage manuscript, making finalization Video Streaming, make the Web, media experts and creative writing material team investigators. The third stage, testing the Video Streaming, Web and dissemination of results into all the international elementary school in Indonesia and Malaysia.
Huo, Hongwen; Feng, Jufu
We present a novel online face recognition approach for video stream in this paper. Our method includes two stages: pre-training and online training. In the pre-training phase, our method observes interactions, collects batches of input data, and attempts to estimate their distributions (Box-Cox transformation is adopted here to normalize rough estimates). In the online training phase, our method incrementally improves classifiers' knowledge of the face space and updates it continuously with incremental eigenspace analysis. The performance achieved by our method shows its great potential in video stream processing.
Lev, Avram; Lasry, Amir; Loants, Maoz; Hadar, Ofer
Ideally, video streaming systems should provide the best quality video a user's device can handle without compromising on downloading speed. In this article, an improved video transmission system is presented which dynamically enhances the video quality based on a user's current network state and repairs errors from data lost in the video transmission. The system incorporates three main components: Scalable Video Coding (SVC) with three layers, multicast based on Receiver Layered Multicast (RLM) and an UnEqual Forward Error Correction (FEC) algorithm. The SVC provides an efficient method for providing different levels of video quality, stored as enhancement layers. In the presented system, a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller was implemented to dynamically adjust the video quality, adding or subtracting quality layers as appropriate. In addition, an FEC algorithm was added to compensate for data lost in transmission. A two dimensional FEC was used. The FEC algorithm came from the Pro MPEG code of practice #3 release 2. Several bit errors scenarios were tested (step function, cosine wave) with different bandwidth size and error values were simulated. The suggested scheme which includes SVC video encoding with 3 layers over IP Multicast with Unequal FEC algorithm was investigated under different channel conditions, variable bandwidths and different bit error rates. The results indicate improvement of the video quality in terms of PSNR over previous transmission schemes.
Full Text Available In this paper, error resilience is achieved by adaptive, application-layer rateless channel coding, which is used to protect H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC codec data-partitioned videos. A packetization strategy is an effective tool to control error rates and, in the paper, source-coded data partitioning serves to allocate smaller packets to more important compressed video data. The scheme for doing this is applied to real-time streaming across a broadband wireless link. The advantages of rateless code rate adaptivity are then demonstrated in the paper. Because the data partitions of a video slice are each assigned to different network packets, in congestion-prone wireless networks the increased number of packets per slice and their size disparity may increase the packet loss rate from buffer overflows. As a form of congestion resilience, this paper recommends packet-size dependent scheduling as a relatively simple way of alleviating the buffer-overflow problem arising from data-partitioned packets. The paper also contributes an analysis of data partitioning and packet sizes as a prelude to considering scheduling regimes. The combination of adaptive channel coding and prioritized packetization for error resilience with packet-size dependent packet scheduling results in a robust streaming scheme specialized for broadband wireless and real-time streaming applications such as video conferencing, video telephony, and telemedicine.
Jason J. Quinlan
Full Text Available When we couple the rise in video streaming with the growing number of portable devices (smart phones, tablets, laptops, we see an ever-increasing demand for high-definition video online while on the move. Wireless networks are inherently characterised by restricted shared bandwidth and relatively high error loss rates, thus presenting a challenge for the efficient delivery of high quality video. Additionally, mobile devices can support/demand a range of video resolutions and qualities. This demand for mobile streaming highlights the need for adaptive video streaming schemes that can adjust to available bandwidth and heterogeneity, and can provide a graceful changes in video quality, all while respecting viewing satisfaction. In this context, the use of well-known scalable/layered media streaming techniques, commonly known as scalable video coding (SVC, is an attractive solution. SVC encodes a number of video quality levels within a single media stream. This has been shown to be an especially effective and efficient solution, but it fares badly in the presence of datagram losses. While multiple description coding (MDC can reduce the effects of packet loss on scalable video delivery, the increased delivery cost is counterproductive for constrained networks. This situation is accentuated in cases where only the lower quality level is required. In this paper, we assess these issues and propose a new approach called Streaming Classes (SC through which we can define a key set of quality levels, each of which can be delivered in a self-contained manner. This facilitates efficient delivery, yielding reduced transmission byte-cost for devices requiring lower quality, relative to MDC and Adaptive Layer Distribution (ALD (42% and 76% respective reduction for layer 2, while also maintaining high levels of consistent quality. We also illustrate how selective packetisation technique can further reduce the effects of packet loss on viewable quality by
Full Text Available Video-linked lectures allow healthcare students across multiple sites, and between university and hospital bases, to come together for the purposes of shared teaching. Recording and streaming video-linked lectures allows students to view them at a later date and provides an additional resource to support student learning. As part of a UK Higher Education Academy-funded Pathfinder project, this study explored medical students' perceptions of video-linked lectures and video-streaming, and their impact on learning. The methodology involved semi-structured interviews with 20 undergraduate medical students across four sites and five year groups. Several key themes emerged from the analysis. Students generally preferred live lectures at the home site and saw interaction between sites as a major challenge. Students reported that their attendance at live lectures was not affected by the availability of streamed lectures and tended to be influenced more by the topic and speaker than the technical arrangements. These findings will inform other educators interested in employing similar video technologies in their teaching.Keywords: video-linked lecture; video-streaming; student perceptions; decisionmaking; cross-campus teaching.
Cappallo, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.; Wilson, R.C.; Hancock, E.R.; Smith, W.A.P.
Retrieval of live, user-broadcast video streams is an under-addressed and increasingly relevant challenge. The on-line nature of the problem requires temporal evaluation and the unforeseeable scope of potential queries motivates an approach which can accommodate arbitrary search queries. To account
The upcoming round of exemptions to the Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998 anticircumvention provision and the questions raised by the copyright infringement lawsuit filed against the against University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) for its streaming video practices illustrate the problematic state of the law concerning the digitization…
Full Text Available This paper proposes an advanced video streaming system based on scalable video coding in order to optimize resource utilization in wireless networks with retransmission mechanisms at radio protocol level. The key component of this system is a packet scheduling algorithm which operates on the different substreams of a main scalable video stream and which is implemented in a so-called media aware network element. The concerned type of transport channel is a dedicated channel subject to parameters (bitrate, loss rate variations on the long run. Moreover, we propose a combined scalability approach in which common temporal and SNR scalability features can be used jointly with a partitioning of the image into regions of interest. Simulation results show that our approach provides substantial quality gain compared to classical packet transmission methods and they demonstrate how ROI coding combined with SNR scalability allows to improve again the visual quality.
Venčkauskas, Algimantas; Morkevicius, Nerijus; Bagdonas, Kazimieras; Damaševičius, Robertas; Maskeliūnas, Rytis
The Internet of Things (IoT) introduces many new challenges which cannot be solved using traditional cloud and host computing models. A new architecture known as fog computing is emerging to address these technological and security gaps. Traditional security paradigms focused on providing perimeter-based protections and client/server point to point protocols (e.g., Transport Layer Security (TLS)) are no longer the best choices for addressing new security challenges in fog computing end devices, where energy and computational resources are limited. In this paper, we present a lightweight secure streaming protocol for the fog computing "Fog Node-End Device" layer. This protocol is lightweight, connectionless, supports broadcast and multicast operations, and is able to provide data source authentication, data integrity, and confidentiality. The protocol is based on simple and energy efficient cryptographic methods, such as Hash Message Authentication Codes (HMAC) and symmetrical ciphers, and uses modified User Datagram Protocol (UDP) packets to embed authentication data into streaming data. Data redundancy could be added to improve reliability in lossy networks. The experimental results summarized in this paper confirm that the proposed method efficiently uses energy and computational resources and at the same time provides security properties on par with the Datagram TLS (DTLS) standard.
Full Text Available Existing literature on education and technology has frequently highlighted the usefulness of online discussion forums for distance courses; however, the majority of such investigations have focused their attention only on text-based forums. The objective of this paper is to determine if the embedding of streamed videos in online discussion forums generates educational dialogue and consequently the feedback that students need in a Management Accounting Course. The findings suggest some interesting issues, such as: students prefer text answers except in complex questions, and videos never replace text commentaries and explanations, but rather complement them.
Full Text Available Video streaming service is one of the most popular applications for mobile users. However, mobile video streaming services consume a lot of energy, resulting in a reduced battery life. This is a critical problem that results in a degraded user’s quality of experience (QoE. Therefore, in this paper, a joint optimization scheme that controls both the central processing unit (CPU and wireless networking of the video streaming process for improved energy efficiency on mobile devices is proposed. For this purpose, the energy consumption of the network interface and CPU is analyzed, and based on the energy consumption profile a joint optimization problem is formulated to maximize the energy efficiency of the mobile device. The proposed algorithm adaptively adjusts the number of chunks to be downloaded and decoded in each packet. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can effectively improve the energy efficiency when compared with the existing algorithms.
problem can be addressed, near the network edge, by applying dynamic, in-network adaptation (e.g., transcoding of video streams to meet available connection bandwidth, machine characteristics, and client preferences. In this paper, we extrapolate from earlier work of Shorfuzzaman et al. 2006 in which we implemented and assessed an MPEG-1 transcoding system on the Intel IXP1200 network processor to consider the feasibility of in-network transcoding for other video formats and network processor architectures. The use of “on-the-fly” video adaptation near the edge of the network offers the promise of simpler support for a wide range of end devices with different display, and so forth, characteristics that can be used in different types of environments.
Ørngreen, Rikke; Levinsen, Karin Ellen Tweddell; Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus
. From here a number of general principles and perspective were derived for the specific program which can be useful to contemplate in general for similar educations. It is concluded that the blended class model using live video stream represents a viable pedagogical solution for the Bachelor Programme......The Bachelor Programme in Biomedical Laboratory Analysis at VIA's healthcare university college in Aarhus has established a blended class which combines traditional and live broadcast teaching (via an innovative choice of video conferencing system). On the so-called net-days, students have...... sheds light on the pedagogical challenges, the educational designs possible, the opportunities and constrains associated with video conferencing as a pedagogical practice, as well as the technological, structural and organisational conditions involved. In this paper a participatory action research...
satellite link for transmitting video streams to a bus, where they are relayed to passengers' devices. We say that a bus works in smart mode if it takes advantage of the knowledge of the exact points where fixed obstacles will prevent receiving the satellite signal for a certain time period. This information is sent to the hub via a return channel. The hub, in its turn, suspends the transmissions to that specific bus for the given time interval, thus avoiding information losses and unnecessary bandwidth occupation. Buffering video packets, without any quality of service (QoS degradation, seamlessly compensates channel blockages up to a given duration. We determine the most appropriate transmission parameters for video streaming with good video QoS in a mobile satellite environment; moreover, we evaluate how “smart” the system can be in terms of bandwidth saving, by comparing it with the situation where the bus does not exploit the description of its route, still maintaining the same QoS requirements.
Dupagne, Michel; Stacks, Don W.; Giroux, Valerie Manno
This study examines whether video streaming can reduce trait and state communication apprehension, as well as improve communication competence, in public speaking classes. Video streaming technology has been touted as the next generation of video feedback for public speaking students because it is not limited by time or space and allows Internet…
Liotta, A.; Druda, L.; Exarchakos, G.; Menkovski, V.; Khalil, I.
With the widespread adoption of mobile Internet, the process of streaming video has become varied and complex. A diversity of factors affect the way we perceive quality in video streaming (also known as 'quality of experience', or QoE), involving far more than the individual video and network
Full Text Available The real time fire detection in video stream is one of the most interesting problems in computer vision. In fact, in most cases it would be nice to have fire detection algorithm implemented in usual industrial cameras and/or to have possibility to replace standard industrial cameras with one implementing the fire detection algorithm. In this paper, we present new algorithm for detecting fire in video. The algorithm is based on tracking suspicious regions in time with statistical analysis of their trajectory. False alarms are minimized by combining multiple detection criteria: pixel brightness, trajectories of suspicious regions for evaluating characteristic fire flickering and persistence of alarm state in sequence of frames. The resulting implementation is fast and therefore can run on wide range of affordable hardware.
Haan, Hubertus; Feuchter, Timo; Münzberg, Mario; Fritze, Jörg; Schlemmer, Harry
The video output of thermal imagers stayed constant over almost two decades. When the famous Common Modules were employed a thermal image at first was presented to the observer in the eye piece only. In the early 1990s TV cameras were attached and the standard output was CCIR. In the civil camera market output standards changed to digital formats a decade ago with digital video streaming being nowadays state-of-the-art. The reasons why the output technique in the thermal world stayed unchanged over such a long time are: the very conservative view of the military community, long planning and turn-around times of programs and a slower growth of pixel number of TIs in comparison to consumer cameras. With megapixel detectors the CCIR output format is not sufficient any longer. The paper discusses the state-of-the-art compression and streaming solutions for TIs.
Torres Vega, M.; Mocanu, D.C.; Liotta, A.
Evaluating quality of experience in video streaming services requires a quality metric that works in real time and for a broad range of video types and network conditions. This means that, subjective video quality assessment studies, or complex objective video quality assessment metrics, which would
Gudumasu, Srinivas; Hamza, Ahmed; Asbun, Eduardo; He, Yong; Ye, Yan
This paper proposes a layer based buffer aware rate adaptation design which is able to avoid abrupt video quality fluctuation, reduce re-buffering latency and improve bandwidth utilization when compared to a conventional simulcast based adaptive streaming system. The proposed adaptation design schedules DASH segment requests based on the estimated bandwidth, dependencies among video layers and layer buffer fullness. Scalable HEVC video coding is the latest state-of-art video coding technique that can alleviate various issues caused by simulcast based adaptive video streaming. With scalable coded video streams, the video is encoded once into a number of layers representing different qualities and/or resolutions: a base layer (BL) and one or more enhancement layers (EL), each incrementally enhancing the quality of the lower layers. Such layer based coding structure allows fine granularity rate adaptation for the video streaming applications. Two video streaming use cases are presented in this paper. The first use case is to stream HD SHVC video over a wireless network where available bandwidth varies, and the performance comparison between proposed layer-based streaming approach and conventional simulcast streaming approach is provided. The second use case is to stream 4K/UHD SHVC video over a hybrid access network that consists of a 5G millimeter wave high-speed wireless link and a conventional wired or WiFi network. The simulation results verify that the proposed layer based rate adaptation approach is able to utilize the bandwidth more efficiently. As a result, a more consistent viewing experience with higher quality video content and minimal video quality fluctuations can be presented to the user.
Jensen, Ole Riis; Forchhammer, Søren
interaktiv tjeneste baseret på realtidsfremvisning af videotrailere, såkaldt streaming video og audio, og hvor brugeren kan få information om en film der tænkes udbudt på en pay-per-view kanal. Der i arbejdets forløb blevet opbygget en demo, der implementerer en sådan tjeneste.......Som et led i Tele Danmark Kabel TV's markedsføring ønsker man at kunne præsentere filmtrailere og andet materiale i form af levende billeder til kunderne via Wold Wide Web (WWW). Dette projekts hovedformål er at undersøge eksisterende metoder og udvikle redskaber til at præsentere en tilsvarende...
Lee, Kyung-Jun; Suh, Doug-Young; Park, Gwang-Hoon; Huh, Jae-Doo
This letter proposes a QoS control method for video streaming service over wireless networks. Based on statistical analysis, the time-varying MAC parameters highly related to channel condition are selected to predict available bitrate. Adaptive bitrate control of scalably-encoded video guarantees continuity in streaming service even if the channel condition changes abruptly.
Lin, W Sabrina; Liu, K J Ray
Mobile phones are among the most popular consumer devices, and the recent developments of 3G networks and smart phones enable users to watch video programs by subscribing data plans from service providers. Due to the ubiquity of mobile phones and phone-to-phone communication technologies, data-plan subscribers can redistribute the video content to nonsubscribers. Such a redistribution mechanism is a potential competitor for the mobile service provider and is very difficult to trace given users' high mobility. The service provider has to set a reasonable price for the data plan to prevent such unauthorized redistribution behavior to protect or maximize his/her own profit. In this paper, we analyze the optimal price setting for the service provider by investigating the equilibrium between the subscribers and the secondary buyers in the content-redistribution network. We model the behavior between the subscribers and the secondary buyers as a noncooperative game and find the optimal price and quantity for both groups of users. Based on the behavior of users in the redistribution network, we investigate the evolutionarily stable ratio of mobile users who decide to subscribe to the data plan. Such an analysis can help the service provider preserve his/her profit under the threat of the redistribution networks and can improve the quality of service for end users.
Søgaard, Jacob; Krasula, Lukás; Shahid, Muhammad
Objective video quality metrics are designed to estimate the quality of experience of the end user. However, these objective metrics are usually validated with video streams degraded under common distortion types. In the presented work, we analyze the performance of published and known full......-reference and noreference quality metrics in estimating the perceived quality of adaptive bit-rate video streams knowingly out of scope. Experimental results indicate not surprisingly that state of the art objective quality metrics overlook the perceived degradations in the adaptive video streams and perform poorly...
Shehabi, Arman; Walker, Ben; Masanet, Eric
The rapid growth of streaming video entertainment has recently received attention as a possibly less energy intensive alternative to the manufacturing and transportation of digital video discs (DVDs). This study utilizes a life-cycle assessment approach to estimate the primary energy use and greenhouse-gas emissions associated with video viewing through both traditional DVD methods and online video streaming. Base-case estimates for 2011 video viewing energy and CO 2 (e) emission intensities indicate video streaming can be more efficient than DVDs, depending on DVD viewing method. Video streaming benefits from relatively more efficient end-user devices than DVD viewing, though much of that savings is lost when accounting for the additional energy from network data transmission. Video streaming appears distinctly favorable when compared against any DVD viewing that includes consumer driving, which significantly increases the energy and CO 2 (e) emissions per viewing hour. Total US 2011 video viewing required about 192 PJ of primary energy and emitted about 10.5 billion kg of CO 2 (e). Shifting all 2011 DVD viewing to video streaming reduces the total primary energy use to about 162 PJ and the CO 2 (e) emissions to about 8.6 billion kg, representing a savings equivalent to the primary energy used to meet the electricity demand of nearly 200 000 US households each year. Sensitivity analysis indicates that results are most influenced by the end-user DVD player power demand, data transmission energy, and consumer travel for store DVDs. Data center energy use—both operational and embodied within the IT equipment—account for <1% of the total video streaming energy use. Results from this study indicate that designers and policy makers should focus on the efficiency of end-user devices and network transmission energy to curb future increases in energy use from the proliferation of video streaming. (letters)
Ozcelebi, T.; Sunay, M.O.; Tekalp, A.M.; Civanlar, M.R.
We present a cross-layer optimized video rate adaptation and user scheduling scheme for multi-user wireless video streaming aiming for maximum quality of service (QoS) for each user,, maximum system video throughput, and QoS fairness among users. These objectives are jointly optimized using a
Bridge, Patrick D.; Jackson, Matt; Robinson, Leah
Information technology helps meet today’s medical students’ needs by providing multiple curriculum delivery methods. Video streaming is an e-learning technology that uses the Internet to deliver curriculum while giving the student control of the content’s delivery. There have been few studies conducted on the effectiveness of streaming video in medical schools. A 5-year retrospective study was conducted using three groups of students (n_1736) to determine if the availability of streaming vide...
Anggelina I Diwi
Full Text Available Streaming adalah salah satu bentuk teknologi yang memperkenankan file digunakan secara langsung tanpa menunggu selesainya unggahan (download dan berlangsung secara kontinyu tanpa interupsi. Untuk mengaplikasikan video streaming kedalam jaringan, diperlukan pertama-tama untuk mengkalkulasi bandwidth yang tersedia, untuk mendukung transmisi data. Bandwidth merupakan parameter penting untuk streaming di dalam jaringan. Makin besar bandwidth yang tersedia, makin baik kualitas video yang ditampilkan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui kebutuhan bandwidth untuk layanan video live streaming; metode yang digunakan di dalam penelitian ini adalah dengan mengadakan pengukuran unjuk kerja jaringan secara langsung di lapangan, yaitu LAN di lingkungan Universitas Telkom. Implementasi media streaming server-client di dalam penelitian ini menggunakan file video yang berbeda, berdasarkan jumlah frame yang dikirim (fps. Skenario video streaming ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan latar belakang trafik yang bervariasi, untuk melihat pengaruhnya terhadap parameter QoS jaringan. Pengujian performansi Quality of Service (QoS dalam implementasi video live streaming ini menggunakan software network analyzer Wireshark. Hasil penilitian menunjukkan, bahwa video dengan laju frame lebih besar dari 15 fps, memberikan jitter dan throughput yang besar pula.
A. O. Adeyemi-Ejeye
Full Text Available Ultrahigh definition video streaming has been explored in recent years. Most recently the possibility of 4kUHD video streaming over wireless 802.11n was presented, using preencoded video. Live encoding for streaming using x264 has proven to be very slow. The use of parallel encoding has been explored to speed up the process using CUDA. However there hasnot been a parallel implementation for video streaming. We therefore present for the first time a novel implementation of 4kUHD live encoding for streaming over a wireless network at low bitrate indoors, using CUDA for parallel H264 encoding. Our experimental results are used to verify our claim.
Ammar, M.; Mitrea, M.; Hasnaoui, M.; Le Callet, P.
Visual saliency maps already proved their efficiency in a large variety of image/video communication application fields, covering from selective compression and channel coding to watermarking. Such saliency maps are generally based on different visual characteristics (like color, intensity, orientation, motion,…) computed from the pixel representation of the visual content. This paper resumes and extends our previous work devoted to the definition of a saliency map solely extracted from the MPEG-4 AVC stream syntax elements. The MPEG-4 AVC saliency map thus defined is a fusion of static and dynamic map. The static saliency map is in its turn a combination of intensity, color and orientation features maps. Despite the particular way in which all these elementary maps are computed, the fusion techniques allowing their combination plays a critical role in the final result and makes the object of the proposed study. A total of 48 fusion formulas (6 for combining static features and, for each of them, 8 to combine static to dynamic features) are investigated. The performances of the obtained maps are evaluated on a public database organized at IRCCyN, by computing two objective metrics: the Kullback-Leibler divergence and the area under curve.
Chernov, Timofey S.; Razumnuy, Nikita P.; Kozharinov, Alexander S.; Nikolaev, Dmitry P.; Arlazarov, Vladimir V.
Recognition and machine vision systems have long been widely used in many disciplines to automate various processes of life and industry. Input images of optical recognition systems can be subjected to a large number of different distortions, especially in uncontrolled or natural shooting conditions, which leads to unpredictable results of recognition systems, making it impossible to assess their reliability. For this reason, it is necessary to perform quality control of the input data of recognition systems, which is facilitated by modern progress in the field of image quality evaluation. In this paper, we investigate the approach to designing optical recognition systems with built-in input image quality estimation modules and feedback, for which the necessary definitions are introduced and a model for describing such systems is constructed. The efficiency of this approach is illustrated by the example of solving the problem of selecting the best frames for recognition in a video stream for a system with limited resources. Experimental results are presented for the system for identity documents recognition, showing a significant increase in the accuracy and speed of the system under simulated conditions of automatic camera focusing, leading to blurring of frames.
Jones, Rachel; Lacroix, Lorraine J
Love, Sex, and Choices is a 12-episode soap opera video series created as an intervention to reduce HIV sex risk. The effect on women's HIV risk behavior was evaluated in a randomized controlled trial in 238 high risk, predominately African American young adult women in the urban Northeast. To facilitate on-demand access and privacy, the episodes were streamed to study-provided smartphones. Here, we discuss the development of a mobile platform to deliver the 12-weekly video episodes or weekly HIV risk reduction written messages to smartphones, including; the technical requirements, development, and evaluation. Popularity of the smartphone and use of the Internet for multimedia offer a new channel to address health disparities in traditionally underserved populations. This is the first study to report on streaming a serialized video-based intervention to a smartphone. The approach described here may provide useful insights in assessing advantages and disadvantages of smartphones to implement a video-based intervention.
Bampis, Christos G; Li, Zhi; Katsavounidis, Ioannis; Bovik, Alan C
Streaming video services represent a very large fraction of global bandwidth consumption. Due to the exploding demands of mobile video streaming services, coupled with limited bandwidth availability, video streams are often transmitted through unreliable, low-bandwidth networks. This unavoidably leads to two types of major streaming-related impairments: compression artifacts and/or rebuffering events. In streaming video applications, the end-user is a human observer; hence being able to predict the subjective Quality of Experience (QoE) associated with streamed videos could lead to the creation of perceptually optimized resource allocation strategies driving higher quality video streaming services. We propose a variety of recurrent dynamic neural networks that conduct continuous-time subjective QoE prediction. By formulating the problem as one of time-series forecasting, we train a variety of recurrent neural networks and non-linear autoregressive models to predict QoE using several recently developed subjective QoE databases. These models combine multiple, diverse neural network inputs, such as predicted video quality scores, rebuffering measurements, and data related to memory and its effects on human behavioral responses, using them to predict QoE on video streams impaired by both compression artifacts and rebuffering events. Instead of finding a single time-series prediction model, we propose and evaluate ways of aggregating different models into a forecasting ensemble that delivers improved results with reduced forecasting variance. We also deploy appropriate new evaluation metrics for comparing time-series predictions in streaming applications. Our experimental results demonstrate improved prediction performance that approaches human performance. An implementation of this work can be found at https://github.com/christosbampis/NARX_QoE_release.
Klaassen, Marleen J E; Peter, Jochen
Although Internet pornography is widely consumed and researchers have started to investigate its effects, we still know little about its content. This has resulted in contrasting claims about whether Internet pornography depicts gender (in)equality and whether this depiction differs between amateur and professional pornography. We conducted a content analysis of three main dimensions of gender (in)equality (i.e., objectification, power, and violence) in 400 popular pornographic Internet videos from the most visited pornographic Web sites. Objectification was depicted more often for women through instrumentality, but men were more frequently objectified through dehumanization. Regarding power, men and women did not differ in social or professional status, but men were more often shown as dominant and women as submissive during sexual activities. Except for spanking and gagging, violence occurred rather infrequently. Nonconsensual sex was also relatively rare. Overall, amateur pornography contained more gender inequality at the expense of women than professional pornography did.
Liang, C.; Hu, S.
Recent advances in software-defined mobile networks (SDMNs), in-network caching, and mobile edge computing (MEC) can have great effects on video services in next generation mobile networks. In this paper, we jointly consider SDMNs, in-network caching, and MEC to enhance the video service in next generation mobile networks. With the objective of maximizing the mean measurement of video quality, an optimization problem is formulated. Due to the coupling of video data rate, computing resource, a...
Torres Vega, M.; Mocanu, D.C.; Famaey, J.; Stavrou, S.; Liotta, A.
Video content providers put stringent requirements on the quality assessment methods realized on their services. They need to be accurate, real-time, adaptable to new content, and scalable as the video set grows. In this letter, we introduce a novel automated and computationally efficient video
de Boer, Jelle; Kommers, Piet A. M.; de Brock, Bert
Improving the effectiveness of learning when students observe video lectures becomes urgent with the rising advent of (web-based) video materials. Vital questions are how students differ in their learning preferences and what patterns in viewing video can be detected in log files. Our experiments
Ballesteros, Luis Guillermo Martinez; Ickin, Selim; Fiedler, Markus
In this paper, we study the influence of video stalling on QoE. We provide QoE models that are obtained in realistic scenarios on the smartphone, and provide energy-saving approaches for smartphone by leveraging the proposed QoE models in relation to energy. Results show that approximately 5J...... is saved in a 3 minutes video clip with an acceptable Mean Opinion Score (MOS) level when the video frames are skipped. If the video frames are not skipped, then it is suggested to avoid freezes during a video stream as the freezes highly increase the energy waste on the smartphones....
Bridge, Patrick D; Jackson, Matt; Robinson, Leah
Information technology helps meet today's medical students' needs by providing multiple curriculum delivery methods. Video streaming is an e-learning technology that uses the Internet to deliver curriculum while giving the student control of the content's delivery. There have been few studies conducted on the effectiveness of streaming video in medical schools. A 5-year retrospective study was conducted using three groups of students (n = 1736) to determine if the availability of streaming video in Years 1-2 of the basic science curriculum affected overall Step 1 scores for first-time test-takers. The results demonstrated a positive effect on program outcomes as streaming video became more readily available to students. Based on these findings, streaming video technology seems to be a viable tool to complement in-class delivery methods, to accommodate the needs of medical students, and to provide options for meeting the challenges of delivering the undergraduate medical curriculum. Further studies need to be conducted to continue validating the effectiveness of streaming video technology.
Full Text Available High-quality real-time video streaming to users in mobile networks is challenging due to the dynamically changing nature of the network paths, particularly the limited bandwidth and varying end-to-end delay. In this paper, we empirically investigate the performance of multipath streaming in the context of multihomed mobile networks. Existing schemes that make use of the aggregated bandwidth of multiple paths can overcome bandwidth limitations on a single path but suffer an efficiency penalty caused by retransmission of lost packets in reliable transport schemes or path switching overheads in unreliable transport schemes. This work focuses on the evaluation of schemes to permit concurrent use of multiple paths to deliver video streams. A comprehensive streaming framework for concurrent multipath video streaming is proposed and experimentally evaluated, using current state-of-the-art H.264 Scalable Video Coding (H.264/SVC and the next generation High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC standards. It provides a valuable insight into the benefit of using such schemes in conjunction with encoder specific packet prioritisation mechanisms for quality-aware packet scheduling and scalable streaming. The remaining obstacles to deployment of concurrent multipath schemes are identified, and the challenges in realising HEVC based concurrent multipath streaming are highlighted.
Doulamis, Anastasios; Doulamis, Nikolaos; Bertini, Marco
.g., thematic parks, critical public infrastructures), crisis management in public service areas (e.g., train stations, airports), security (detection of abnormal behaviors in surveillance videos), semantic characterization, and annotation of video streams in various domains (e.g., broadcast or user...
Dev, P; Rindfleisch, T C; Kush, S J; Stringer, J R
Usage of streaming digital video of lectures in preclinical courses was measured by analysis of the data in the log file maintained on the web server. We observed that students use the video when it is available. They do not use it to replace classroom attendance but rather for review before examinations or when a class has been missed. Usage of video has not increased significantly for any course within the 18 month duration of this project.
Kaul, Manohar; Khosla, Rajiv; Mitsukura, Y
of this intelligent traffic-shaping algorithm on the underlying network real time packet traffic and the eradication of unwanted abruption in the streaming video qualiy. This paper concluded from the end results of the simulation that neural networks are a very superior means of modeling real-time traffic......This paper proposes a traffic shaping algorithm based on neural networks, which adapts to a network over which streaming video is being transmitted. The purpose of this intelligent shaper is to eradicate all traffic congestion and improve the end-user's video quality. It possesses the capability...
Ravattu, Radha; Balasetty, Prudhviraj
Online digital videos have made a revolutionary evolution since the social networking sites such as YouTube and Hulu have emerged. These websites facilitate video accessable and only a click away. Ever increasing internet traffic and a very significant increase in the use of videos in social networking has led to the problem of network congestion. Consequently, it becomes essential and imperative to analyze the traffic flow and comprehend how it is being delivered from the server. If the flow...
Kotevski, Zoran; Mitrevski, Pece
Peer to Peer (P2P) live streaming is relatively new paradigm that aims at streaming live video to large number of clients at low cost. Many such applications already exist in the market, but, prior to creating such system it is necessary to analyze its performance via representative model that can provide good insight in the system’s behavior. Modeling and performance analysis of P2P live video streaming systems is challenging task which requires addressing many properties and issues of P2P s...
Schlosser, Sarah Elizabeth
Students often struggle with learning complex chemistry concepts. In today's society with the advances in multimedia technology, educators have a variety of tools available to help students learn these concepts. These tools include demonstrations, videos in the popular media, and animations; referred to collectively as multimethods. With the…
Full Text Available Video streaming over wireless networks faces challenges of time-varying packet loss rate and fluctuating bandwidth. In this paper, we focus on streaming precoded video that is both source and channel coded. Dynamic rate shaping has been proposed to shape the precompressed video to adapt to the fluctuating bandwidth. In our earlier work, rate shaping was extended to shape the channel coded precompressed video, and to take into account the time-varying packet loss rate as well as the fluctuating bandwidth of the wireless networks. However, prior work on rate shaping can only adjust the rate oarsely. In this paper, we propose fine-grained rate shaping (FGRS to allow for bandwidth adaptation over a wide range of bandwidth and packet loss rate in fine granularities. The video is precoded with fine granularity scalability (FGS followed by channel coding. Utilizing the fine granularity property of FGS and channel coding, FGRS selectively drops part of the precoded video and still yields decodable bit-stream at the decoder. Moreover, FGRS optimizes video streaming rather than achieves heuristic objectives as conventional methods. A two-stage rate-distortion (RD optimization algorithm is proposed for FGRS. Promising results of FGRS are shown.
Kwon, Dongwoo; Je, Huigwang; Kim, Hyeonwoo; Ju, Hongtaek; An, Donghyeok
Recently, smart mobile devices and wireless communication technologies such as WiFi, third generation (3G), and long-term evolution (LTE) have been rapidly deployed. Many smart mobile device users can access the Internet wirelessly, which has increased mobile traffic. In 2014, more than half of the mobile traffic around the world was devoted to satisfying the increased demand for the video streaming. In this paper, we propose a scalable video streaming relay scheme. Because many collisions degrade the scalability of video streaming, we first separate networks to prevent excessive contention between devices. In addition, the member device controls the video download rate in order to adapt to video playback. If the data are sufficiently buffered, the member device stops the download. If not, it requests additional video data. We implemented apps to evaluate the proposed scheme and conducted experiments with smart mobile devices. The results showed that our scheme improves the scalability of video streaming in a wireless local area network (WLAN).
Kwon, Dongwoo; Je, Huigwang; Kim, Hyeonwoo; Ju, Hongtaek; An, Donghyeok
Recently, smart mobile devices and wireless communication technologies such as WiFi, third generation (3G), and long-term evolution (LTE) have been rapidly deployed. Many smart mobile device users can access the Internet wirelessly, which has increased mobile traffic. In 2014, more than half of the mobile traffic around the world was devoted to satisfying the increased demand for the video streaming. In this paper, we propose a scalable video streaming relay scheme. Because many collisions degrade the scalability of video streaming, we first separate networks to prevent excessive contention between devices. In addition, the member device controls the video download rate in order to adapt to video playback. If the data are sufficiently buffered, the member device stops the download. If not, it requests additional video data. We implemented apps to evaluate the proposed scheme and conducted experiments with smart mobile devices. The results showed that our scheme improves the scalability of video streaming in a wireless local area network (WLAN). PMID:27907113
Belyaev, Evgeny; Moreschini, Sergio; Vinel, Alexey
Real-time video delivery in Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) scenario enables a variety of multimedia vehicular services. We conduct experiments with Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) transceivers located in the mutual proximity and exchanging Skype video calls traffic. We demonstrate...
E. A. Pakulova
Full Text Available The paper deals with video data transmission in format H.264/SVC standard with QoS requirements satisfaction. The Sender-Side Path Scheduling (SSPS algorithm and Sender-Side Video Adaptation (SSVA algorithm were developed. SSPS algorithm gives the possibility to allocate video traffic among several interfaces while SSVA algorithm dynamically changes the quality of video sequence in relation to QoS requirements. It was shown that common usage of two developed algorithms enables to aggregate throughput of access networks, increase parameters of Quality of Experience and decrease losses in comparison with Round Robin algorithm. For evaluation of proposed solution, the set-up was made. The trace files with throughput of existing public networks were used in experiments. Based on this information the throughputs of networks were limited and losses for paths were set. The results of research may be used for study and transmission of video data in heterogeneous wireless networks.
Alhaisoni, M.; Ghanbari, M.; Liotta, A.
Peer-to-Peer streaming has been increasingly deployed recently. This comes out from its ability to convey the stream over the IP network to a large number of end-users (or peers). However, due to the heterogeneous nature among the peers, some of them will not be capable to relay or upload the
Liu, Hao; Lu, Jiwen; Feng, Jianjiang; Zhou, Jie
In this paper, we propose a two-stream transformer networks (TSTN) approach for video-based face alignment. Unlike conventional image-based face alignment approaches which cannot explicitly model the temporal dependency in videos and motivated by the fact that consistent movements of facial landmarks usually occur across consecutive frames, our TSTN aims to capture the complementary information of both the spatial appearance on still frames and the temporal consistency information across frames. To achieve this, we develop a two-stream architecture, which decomposes the video-based face alignment into spatial and temporal streams accordingly. Specifically, the spatial stream aims to transform the facial image to the landmark positions by preserving the holistic facial shape structure. Accordingly, the temporal stream encodes the video input as active appearance codes, where the temporal consistency information across frames is captured to help shape refinements. Experimental results on the benchmarking video-based face alignment datasets show very competitive performance of our method in comparisons to the state-of-the-arts.
Chen, Chao; Choi, Lark Kwon; de Veciana, Gustavo; Caramanis, Constantine; Heath, Robert W; Bovik, Alan C
Newly developed hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP)-based video streaming technologies enable flexible rate-adaptation under varying channel conditions. Accurately predicting the users' quality of experience (QoE) for rate-adaptive HTTP video streams is thus critical to achieve efficiency. An important aspect of understanding and modeling QoE is predicting the up-to-the-moment subjective quality of a video as it is played, which is difficult due to hysteresis effects and nonlinearities in human behavioral responses. This paper presents a Hammerstein-Wiener model for predicting the time-varying subjective quality (TVSQ) of rate-adaptive videos. To collect data for model parameterization and validation, a database of longer duration videos with time-varying distortions was built and the TVSQs of the videos were measured in a large-scale subjective study. The proposed method is able to reliably predict the TVSQ of rate adaptive videos. Since the Hammerstein-Wiener model has a very simple structure, the proposed method is suitable for online TVSQ prediction in HTTP-based streaming.
Almowuena, Saleh Abdullah
The demand for multimedia streaming over mobile networks has been steadily increasing in the past several years. For instance, it has become common for mobile users to stream full TV episodes, sports events, and movies while on the go. Unfortunately, this growth in demand has strained the wireless networks despite the significant increase in their capacities with recent generations. It has also caused a significant increase in the energy consumption at mobile terminals. To overcome these chal...
Jones, Rachel; Hoover, Donald R; Lacroix, Lorraine J
Love, Sex, and Choices (LSC) is a soap opera video series created to reduce HIV sex risk in women. LSC was compared to text messages in a randomized trial in 238 high-risk mostly Black young urban women. 117 received 12-weekly LSC videos, 121 received 12-weekly HIV prevention messages on smartphones. Changes in unprotected sex with high risk partners were compared by mixed models. Unprotected sex with high risk men significantly declined over 6 months post-intervention for both arms, from 21-22 acts to 5-6 (p video over the text arm, though this difference was not statistically significant. However, the LSC was highly popular and viewers wanted the series to continue. This is the first study to report streaming soap opera video episodes to reduce HIV risk on smartphones. LSC holds promise as an Internet intervention that could be scaled-up and combined with HIV testing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nestor Michael Caños Tiglao
Full Text Available In large scale IP Television (IPTV and Mobile TV distributions, the video signal is typically encoded and transmitted using several quality streams, over IP Multicast channels, to several groups of receivers, which are classified in terms of their reception rate. As the number of video streams is usually constrained by both the number of TV channels and the maximum capacity of the content distribution network, it is necessary to find the selection of video stream transmission rates that maximizes the overall user satisfaction. In order to efficiently solve this problem, this paper proposes the Dynamic Programming Multi-rate Optimization (DPMO algorithm. The latter was comparatively evaluated considering several user distributions, featuring different access rate patterns. The experimental results reveal that DPMO is significantly more efficient than exhaustive search, while presenting slightly higher execution times than the non-optimal Multi-rate Step Search (MSS algorithm.
Fuller, Maren Y; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjay; Gardner, Jerad M
Periscope is a live video-streaming smartphone application (app) that allows any individual with a smartphone to broadcast live video simultaneously to multiple smartphone users around the world. The aim of this review is to describe the potential of this emerging technology for global pathology education. To our knowledge, since the launch of the Periscope app (2015), only a handful of educational presentations by pathologists have been streamed as live video via Periscope. This review includes links to these initial attempts, a step-by-step guide for those interested in using the app for pathology education, and a summary of the pros and cons, including ethical/legal issues. We hope that pathologists will appreciate the potential of Periscope for sharing their knowledge, expertise, and research with a live (and potentially large) audience without the barriers associated with traditional video equipment and standard classroom/conference settings.
Chen Homer H
Full Text Available The paradigm shift of network design from performance-centric to constraint-centric has called for new signal processing techniques to deal with various aspects of resource-constrained communication and networking. In this paper, we consider the computational constraints of a multimedia communication system and propose a video adaptation mechanism for live video streaming of multiple channels. The video adaptation mechanism includes three salient features. First, it adjusts the computational resource of the streaming server block by block to provide a fine control of the encoding complexity. Second, as far as we know, it is the first mechanism to allocate the computational resource to multiple channels. Third, it utilizes a complexity-distortion model to determine the optimal coding parameter values to achieve global optimization. These techniques constitute the basic building blocks for a successful application of wireless and Internet video to digital home, surveillance, IPTV, and online games.
Full Text Available This paper presents a framework of content-adaptive packetization scheme for streaming of 3D wavelet-based video content over lossy IP networks. The tradeoff between rate and distortion is controlled by jointly adapting scalable source coding rate and level of forward error correction (FEC protection. A content dependent packetization mechanism with data-interleaving and Reed-Solomon protection for wavelet-based video codecs is proposed to provide unequal error protection. This paper also tries to answer an important question for scalable video streaming systems: given extra bandwidth, should one increase the level of channel protection for the most important packets, or transmit more scalable source data? Experimental results show that the proposed framework achieves good balance between quality of the received video and level of error protection under bandwidth-varying lossy IP networks.
Lu, Meng-Ting; Yao, Jason J.; Chen, Homer H.
The paradigm shift of network design from performance-centric to constraint-centric has called for new signal processing techniques to deal with various aspects of resource-constrained communication and networking. In this paper, we consider the computational constraints of a multimedia communication system and propose a video adaptation mechanism for live video streaming of multiple channels. The video adaptation mechanism includes three salient features. First, it adjusts the computational resource of the streaming server block by block to provide a fine control of the encoding complexity. Second, as far as we know, it is the first mechanism to allocate the computational resource to multiple channels. Third, it utilizes a complexity-distortion model to determine the optimal coding parameter values to achieve global optimization. These techniques constitute the basic building blocks for a successful application of wireless and Internet video to digital home, surveillance, IPTV, and online games.
Petrovic, Goran; Farin, Dirk; de With, Peter H. N.
3D-Video systems allow a user to perceive depth in the viewed scene and to display the scene from arbitrary viewpoints interactively and on-demand. This paper presents a prototype implementation of a 3D-video streaming system using an IP network. The architecture of our streaming system is layered, where each information layer conveys a single coded video signal or coded scene-description data. We demonstrate the benefits of a layered architecture with two examples: (a) stereoscopic video streaming, (b) monoscopic video streaming with remote multiple-perspective rendering. Our implementation experiments confirm that prototyping 3D-video streaming systems is possible with today's software and hardware. Furthermore, our current operational prototype demonstrates that highly heterogeneous clients can coexist in the system, ranging from auto-stereoscopic 3D displays to resource-constrained mobile devices.
Full Text Available With the proliferation of high-performance, large-screen mobile devices, users’ expectations of having access to high-resolution video content in smooth network environments are steadily growing. To guarantee such stable streaming, a high cellular network bandwidth is required; yet network providers often charge high prices for even limited data plans. Moreover, the costs of smoothly streaming high-resolution videos are not merely monetary; the device’s battery life must also be accounted for. To resolve these problems, we design an optimal multi-interface selection system for streaming video over HTTP/TCP. An optimization problem including battery life and LTE data constraints is derived and then solved using binary integer programming. Additionally, the system is designed with an adoption of split-layer scalable video coding, which provides direct adaptations of video quality and prevents out-of-order packet delivery problems. The proposed system is evaluated using a prototype application in a real, iOS-based device as well as through experiments conducted in heterogeneous mobile scenarios. Results show that the system not only guarantees the highest-possible video quality, but also prevents reckless consumption of LTE data and battery life.
Emoto, Masahiko; Yamamoto, Takashi; Yoshida, Masanobu; Nagayama, Yoshio; Hasegawa, Makoto
In order to accomplish smooth cooperation research, remote participation plays an important role. For this purpose, the authors have been developing various applications for remote participation for the LHD (Large Helical Device) experiments, such as Web interface for visualization of acquired data. The video streaming system is one of them. It is useful to grasp the status of the ongoing experiment remotely, and we provide the video images displayed in the control room to the remote users. However, usual streaming servers cannot send video images without delay. The delay changes depending on how to send the images, but even a little delay might become critical if the researchers use the images to adjust the diagnostic devices. One of the main causes of delay is the procedure of compressing and decompressing the images. Furthermore, commonly used video compression method is lossy; it removes less important information to reduce the size. However, lossy images cannot be used for physical analysis because the original information is lost. Therefore, video images for remote participation should be sent without compression in order to minimize the delay and to supply high quality images durable for physical analysis. However, sending uncompressed video images requires large network bandwidth. For example, sending 5 frames of 16bit color SXGA images a second requires 100Mbps. Furthermore, the video images must be sent to several remote sites simultaneously. It is hard for a server PC to handle such a large data. To cope with this problem, the authors adopted IP multicast to send video images to several remote sites at once. Because IP multicast packets are sent only to the network on which the clients want the data; the load of the server does not depend on the number of clients and the network load is reduced. In this paper, the authors discuss the feasibility of high bandwidth video streaming system using IP multicast. (author)
Radiation workers have to receive the radiation safety training every year. It is very hard for them to receive the training within a limited chance of training. Then, we developed the new training system using the video streaming technique and opened the web page for the training on our homepage. Every worker is available to receive the video lecture at any time and at any place by using his PC via internet. After watching the video, the worker should receive the completion examination. It he can pass the examination, he was registered as a radiation worker by the database system for radiation control. (author)
Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Pan, Janice; Bovik, Alan C.
Over-the-top mobile video streaming is invariably influenced by volatile network conditions which cause playback interruptions (stalling events), thereby impairing users' quality of experience (QoE). Developing models that can accurately predict users' QoE could enable the more efficient design of quality-control protocols for video streaming networks that reduce network operational costs while still delivering high-quality video content to the customers. Existing objective models that predict QoE are based on global video features, such as the number of stall events and their lengths, and are trained and validated on a small pool of ad hoc video datasets, most of which are not publicly available. The model we propose in this work goes beyond previous models as it also accounts for the fundamental effect that a viewer's recent level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction has on their overall viewing experience. In other words, the proposed model accounts for and adapts to the recency, or hysteresis effect caused by a stall event in addition to accounting for the lengths, frequency of occurrence, and the positions of stall events - factors that interact in a complex way to affect a user's QoE. On the recently introduced LIVE-Avvasi Mobile Video Database, which consists of 180 distorted videos of varied content that are afflicted solely with over 25 unique realistic stalling events, we trained and validated our model to accurately predict the QoE, attaining standout QoE prediction performance.
Full Text Available The Internet of Things is predicted to consist of over 50 billion devices aiming to solve problems in most areas of our digital society. A large part of the data communicated is expected to consist of various multimedia contents, such as live audio and video. This article presents a solution for the communication of high definition video in low-delay scenarios (<200 ms under the constraints of devices with limited hardware resources, such as the Raspberry Pi. We verify that it is possible to enable low delay video streaming between Raspberry Pi devices using a distributed Internet of Things system called the SensibleThings platform. Specifically, our implementation transfers a 6 Mbps H.264 video stream of 1280 × 720 pixels at 25 frames per second between devices with a total delay of 181 ms on the public Internet, of which the overhead of the distributed Internet of Things communication platform only accounts for 18 ms of this delay. We have found that the most significant bottleneck of video transfer on limited Internet of Things devices is the video coding and not the distributed communication platform, since the video coding accounts for 90% of the total delay.
an image descriptor and online nonlinear classification method. We introduce the covariance matrix of the optical flow and image intensity as a descriptor encoding moving information. The nonlinear online support vector machine (SVM firstly learns a limited set of the training frames to provide a basic reference model then updates the model and detects abnormal events in the current frame. We finally apply the method to detect abnormal events on a benchmark video surveillance dataset to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.
Full Text Available This paper envisions coding with side information to design a highly scalable video codec. To achieve fine-grained scalability in terms of resolution, quality, and spatial access as well as temporal access to individual frames, the JPEG 2000 coding algorithm has been considered as the reference algorithm to encode INTRA information, and coding with side information has been envisioned to refresh the blocks that change between two consecutive images of a video sequence. One advantage of coding with side information compared to conventional closed-loop hybrid video coding schemes lies in the fact that parity bits are designed to correct stochastic errors and not to encode deterministic prediction errors. This enables the codec to support some desynchronization between the encoder and the decoder, which is particularly helpful to adapt on the fly pre-encoded content to fluctuating network resources and/or user preferences in terms of regions of interest. Regarding the coding scheme itself, to preserve both quality scalability and compliance to the JPEG 2000 wavelet representation, a particular attention has been devoted to the definition of a practical coding framework able to exploit not only the temporal but also spatial correlation among wavelet subbands coefficients, while computing the parity bits on subsets of wavelet bit-planes. Simulations have shown that compared to pure INTRA-based conditional replenishment solutions, the addition of the parity bits option decreases the transmission cost in terms of bandwidth, while preserving access flexibility.
Taal, Jacco R.; Langendoen, Koen; van der Schaaf, Arjen; van Dijk, H.W.; Lagendijk, R. (Inald) L.
Video streaming over wireless links is a non-trivial problem due to the large and frequent changes in the quality of the underlying radio channel combined with latency constraints. We believe that every layer in a mobile system must be prepared to adapt its behavior to its environment. Thus layers
Ahmadi, Mehdi; Gross, Warren J; Kadoury, Samuel
Ultrasound is a viable imaging technology in remote and resources-limited areas. Ultrasonography is a user-dependent skill which depends on a high degree of training and hands-on experience. However, there is a limited number of skillful sonographers located in remote areas. In this work, we aim to develop a real-time video streaming platform which allows specialist physicians to remotely monitor ultrasound exams. To this end, an ultrasound stream is captured and transmitted through a wireless network into remote computers, smart-phones and tablets. In addition, the system is equipped with a camera to track the position of the ultrasound probe. The main advantage of our work is using an open source platform for video streaming which gives us more control over streaming parameters than the available commercial products. The transmission delays of the system are evaluated for several ultrasound video resolutions and the results show that ultrasound videos close to the high-definition (HD) resolution can be received and displayed on an Android tablet with the delay of 0.5 seconds which is acceptable for accurate real-time diagnosis.
Abdous, M'hammed; He, Wu
Because of their capacity to sift through large amounts of data, text mining and data mining are enabling higher education institutions to reveal valuable patterns in students' learning behaviours without having to resort to traditional survey methods. In an effort to uncover live video streaming (LVS) students' technology related-problems and to…
Schot, Nick J.; Velthuis, Paul J.E.; Postema, Björn Frits; Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Remke, A.K.I.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Haverkort, B.R.H.M.
Many new data centres have been built in recent years in order to keep up with the rising demand for server capacity. These data centres require a lot of electrical energy and cooling. Big data and video streaming are two heavily used applications in data centres. This paper experimentally
Harned, D. A.; Moorman, M.; Fitzpatrick, F. A.; McMahon, G.
The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) provides information about (1) water-quality conditions and how those conditions vary locally, regionally, and nationally, (2) water-quality trends, and (3) factors that affect those conditions. As part of the NAWQA Program, the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE) study examined the vulnerability and resilience of streams to urbanization. Completion of the EUSE study has resulted in over 20 scientific publications. Video podcasts are being used in addition to these publications to communicate the relevance of these scientific findings to more general audiences such as resource managers, educational groups, public officials, and the general public. An example of one of the podcasts is a film examining effects of urbanization on stream habitat. "Habitat Connections in Urban Streams" explores how urbanization changes some of the physical features that provide in-stream habitat and examines examples of stream restoration projects designed to improve stream form and function. The "connections" theme is emphasized, including the connection of in-stream habitats from the headwaters to the stream mouth; connections between stream habitat and the surrounding floodplains, wetlands and basin; and connections between streams and people-- resource managers, public officials, scientists, and the general public. Examples of innovative stream restoration projects in Baltimore Maryland; Milwaukee, Wisconsin; and Portland Oregon are shown with interviews of managers, engineers, scientists, and others describing the projects. The film is combined with a website with links to extended film versions of the stream-restoration project interviews. The website and films are an example of USGS efforts aimed at improving science communication to a general audience. The film is available for access from the EUSE website: http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/urban/html/podcasts.html. Additional films are
Full Text Available To enable clients to view real-time video of the involved instruments during a remote experiment, two real-time video streaming systems are devised. One is for the remote experiments which instruments locate in one geographic spot and the other is for those which instruments scatter over different places. By means of running concurrent streaming processes at a server, multiple instruments can be monitored simultaneously by different clients. The proposed systems possess excellent extensibility, that is, the systems can easily add new digital cameras for instruments without modifying any software. Also they are well-manageable, meaning that an administrator can conveniently adjust the quality of the real-time video depending on system load and visual requirements. Finally, some evaluation concerning CPU utilization and bandwidth consumption of the systems have been evaluated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed solutions.
Ghadiyaram, Deepti; Pan, Janice; Bovik, Alan C
Over-the-top adaptive video streaming services are frequently impacted by fluctuating network conditions that can lead to rebuffering events (stalling events) and sudden bitrate changes. These events visually impact video consumers' quality of experience (QoE) and can lead to consumer churn. The development of models that can accurately predict viewers' instantaneous subjective QoE under such volatile network conditions could potentially enable the more efficient design of quality-control protocols for media-driven services, such as YouTube, Amazon, Netflix, and so on. However, most existing models only predict a single overall QoE score on a given video and are based on simple global video features, without accounting for relevant aspects of human perception and behavior. We have created a QoE evaluator, called the time-varying QoE Indexer, that accounts for interactions between stalling events, analyzes the spatial and temporal content of a video, predicts the perceptual video quality, models the state of the client-side data buffer, and consequently predicts continuous-time quality scores that agree quite well with human opinion scores. The new QoE predictor also embeds the impact of relevant human cognitive factors, such as memory and recency, and their complex interactions with the video content being viewed. We evaluated the proposed model on three different video databases and attained standout QoE prediction performance.
Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos
The rapid growth in the use of video streaming over IP networks has outstripped the rate at which new network infrastructure has been deployed. These bandwidth-hungry applications now comprise a significant part of all Internet traffic and present major challenges for network service providers. The situation is more acute in mobile networks where the available bandwidth is often limited. Work towards the standardisation of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC), the next generation video coding scheme, is currently on track for completion in 2013. HEVC offers the prospect of a 50% improvement in compression over the current H.264 Advanced Video Coding standard (H.264/AVC) for the same quality. However, there has been very little published research on HEVC streaming or the challenges of delivering HEVC streams in resource-constrained network environments. In this paper we consider the problem of adapting an HEVC encoded video stream to meet the bandwidth limitation in a mobile networks environment. Video sequences were encoded using the Test Model under Consideration (TMuC HM6) for HEVC. Network abstraction layers (NAL) units were packetized, on a one NAL unit per RTP packet basis, and transmitted over a realistic hybrid wired/wireless testbed configured with dynamically changing network path conditions and multiple independent network paths from the streamer to the client. Two different schemes for the prioritisation of RTP packets, based on the NAL units they contain, have been implemented and empirically compared using a range of video sequences, encoder configurations, bandwidths and network topologies. In the first prioritisation method the importance of an RTP packet was determined by the type of picture and the temporal switching point information carried in the NAL unit header. Packets containing parameter set NAL units and video coding layer (VCL) NAL units of the instantaneous decoder refresh (IDR) and the clean random access (CRA) pictures were given the
Jullien, Graham A.; Li, QiuPing; Hajimowlana, S. Hossain; Morvay, J.; Conflitti, D.; Roberts, James W.; Doody, Brian C.
Automated machine vision systems are now widely used for industrial inspection tasks where video-stream data information is taken in by the camera and then sent out to the inspection system for future processing. In this paper we describe a prototype system for on-line programming of arbitrary real-time video data stream bandwidth reduction algorithms; the output of the camera only contains information that has to be further processed by a host computer. The processing system is built into a DALSA CCD camera and uses a microcontroller interface to download bit-stream data to a XILINXTM FPGA. The FPGA is directly connected to the video data-stream and outputs data to a low bandwidth output bus. The camera communicates to a host computer via an RS-232 link to the microcontroller. Static memory is used to both generate a FIFO interface for buffering defect burst data, and for off-line examination of defect detection data. In addition to providing arbitrary FPGA architectures, the internal program of the microcontroller can also be changed via the host computer and a ROM monitor. This paper describes a prototype system board, mounted inside a DALSA camera, and discusses some of the algorithms currently being implemented for web inspection applications.
This paper introduces a MAC-layer active dropping scheme to achieve effective resource utilization, which can satisfy the application-layer delay for real-time video streaming in time division multiple access based 4G broadband wireless access networks. When a video frame is not likely to be reconstructed within the application-layer delay bound at a receiver for the minimum decoding requirement, the MAC-layer protocol data units of such video frame will be proactively dropped before the transmission. An analytical model is developed to evaluate how confident a video frame can be delivered within its application-layer delay bound by jointly considering the effects of time-varying wireless channel, minimum decoding requirement of each video frame, data retransmission, and playback buffer. Extensive simulations with video traces are conducted to prove the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. When compared to conventional cross-layer schemes using prioritized-transmission/retransmission, the proposed scheme is practically implementable for more effective resource utilization, avoiding delay propagation, and achieving better video qualities under certain conditions.
Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents intelligent early packet discards (I-EPD for real-time video streaming over a multihop wireless ad hoc network. In a multihop wireless ad hoc network, the quality of transferring real-time video streams could be seriously degraded, since every intermediate node (IN functionally like relay device does not possess large buffer and sufficient bandwidth. Even worse, a selected relay node could leave or power off unexpectedly, which breaks the route to destination. Thus, a stale video frame is useless even if it can reach destination after network traffic becomes smooth or failed route is reconfigured. In the proposed I-EPD, an IN can intelligently determine whether a buffered video packet should be early discarded. For the purpose of validation, we implement the I-EPD on Linux-based embedded systems. Via the comparisons of performance metrics (packet/frame discards ratios, PSNR, etc., we demonstrate that video quality over a wireless ad hoc network can be substantially improved and unnecessary bandwidth wastage is greatly reduced.
Yang, Qinghua; Sangalang, Angeline; Rooney, Molly; Maloney, Erin; Emery, Sherry; Cappella, Joseph N
The purpose of the study is to investigate how vaping marijuana, a novel but emerging risky health behavior, is portrayed on YouTube, and how the content and features of these YouTube videos influence their popularity and retransmission. A content analysis of vaping marijuana YouTube videos published between July 2014 to June 2015 (n = 214) was conducted. Video genre, valence, promotional and warning arguments, emotional appeals, message sensation value, presence of misinformation and misleading information, and user-generated statistics, including number of views, comments, shares, likes and dislikes, were coded. The results showed that these videos were predominantly pro-marijuana-vaping, with the most frequent videos being user-sharing. The genre and message features influenced the popularity, evaluations, and retransmission of vaping marijuana YouTube videos. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Gooding, Lori F; Mori-Inoue, Satoko
The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of video exposure on music therapy students' perceptions of clinical applications of popular music in the field of music therapy. Fifty-one participants were randomly divided into two groups and exposed to a popular song in either audio-only or music video format. Participants were asked to indicate clinical applications; specifically, participants chose: (a) possible population(s), (b) most appropriate population(s), (c) possible age range(s), (d) most appropriate age ranges, (e) possible goal area(s) and (f) most appropriate goal area. Data for each of these categories were compiled and analyzed, with no significant differences found in the choices made by the audio-only and video groups. Three items, (a) selection of the bereavement population, (b) selection of bereavement as the most appropriate population and (c) selection of the age ranges of pre teen/mature adult, were additionally selected for further analysis due to their relationship to the video content. Analysis results revealed a significant difference between the video and audio-only groups for the selection of these specific items, with the video group's selections more closely aligned to the video content. Results of this pilot study suggest that music video exposure to popular music can impact how students choose to implement popular songs in the field of music therapy.
Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos
In recent years video traffic has become the dominant application on the Internet with global year-on-year increases in video-oriented consumer services. Driven by improved bandwidth in both mobile and fixed networks, steadily reducing hardware costs and the development of new technologies, many existing and new classes of commercial and industrial video applications are now being upgraded or emerging. Some of the use cases for these applications include areas such as public and private security monitoring for loss prevention or intruder detection, industrial process monitoring and critical infrastructure monitoring. The use of video is becoming commonplace in defence, security, commercial, industrial, educational and health contexts. Towards optimal performances, the design or optimisation in each of these applications should be context aware and task oriented with the characteristics of the video stream (frame rate, spatial resolution, bandwidth etc.) chosen to match the use case requirements. For example, in the security domain, a task-oriented consideration may be that higher resolution video would be required to identify an intruder than to simply detect his presence. Whilst in the same case, contextual factors such as the requirement to transmit over a resource-limited wireless link, may impose constraints on the selection of optimum task-oriented parameters. This paper presents a novel, conceptually simple and easily implemented method of assessing video quality relative to its suitability for a particular task and dynamically adapting videos streams during transmission to ensure that the task can be successfully completed. Firstly we defined two principle classes of tasks: recognition tasks and event detection tasks. These task classes are further subdivided into a set of task-related profiles, each of which is associated with a set of taskoriented attributes (minimum spatial resolution, minimum frame rate etc.). For example, in the detection class
Boujut, H.; Benois-Pineau, J.; Hadar, O.; Ahmed, T.; Bonnet, P.
Human vision system is very complex and has been studied for many years specifically for purposes of efficient encoding of visual, e.g. video content from digital TV. There have been physiological and psychological evidences which indicate that viewers do not pay equal attention to all exposed visual information, but only focus on certain areas known as focus of attention (FOA) or saliency regions. In this work, we propose a novel based objective quality assessment metric, for assessing the perceptual quality of decoded video sequences affected by transmission errors and packed loses. The proposed method weights the Mean Square Error (MSE), Weighted-MSE (WMSE), according to the calculated saliency map at each pixel. Our method was validated trough subjective quality experiments.
Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Ørngreen, Rikke; Thorsen, Jonas
teaching. This paper describes a work-in-progress project focused on developing possibilities for a more dialogue-based approach to live video-streamed teaching. We present our new setup and argue for educational designs which this is believed to support, and we outline the research design for collecting...... and analysing data. The first analysis and interpretations will be discussed at the ECEL 2015 conference poster session....
Benmoussa , Yahia; Boukhobza , Jalil; Hadjadj-Aoul , Yassine; Lagadec , Loïc; Benazzouz , Djamel
National audience; Nowadays, the use of mobile applications and terminals faces fundamental challenges related to energy constraint. This is due to the limited battery lifetime as compared to the increasing hardware evolution. Video streaming is one of the most energy consuming applications in a mobile system because of its intensive use of bandwidth, memory and processing power. In this work, we aim to propose a methodology for building and validating a high level global power consumption mo...
In this thesis I investigate innovation processes on innovation platforms, and look at the role played by content release for innovation in digital distribution of home entertainment. I argue that innovation platforms rely on several aspects of innovation in order to succeed, and this thesis is concerned with one of these, namely release of digital entertainment content. I use the American video streaming service Netflix as a case and example of such an innovation platform. By using techno...
R. Arockia Xavier Annie
Full Text Available Recently, many video applications like video telephony, video conferencing, Video-on-Demand (VoD, and so forth have produced heterogeneous consumers in the Internet. In such a scenario, media servers play vital role when a large number of concurrent requests are sent by heterogeneous users. Moreover, the server and distributed client systems participating in the Internet communication have to provide suitable resources to heterogeneous users to meet their requirements satisfactorily. The challenges in providing suitable resources are to analyze the user service pattern, bandwidth and buffer availability, nature of applications used, and Quality of Service (QoS requirements for the heterogeneous users. Therefore, it is necessary to provide suitable techniques to handle these challenges. In this paper, we propose a framework for peer-to-peer- (P2P- based VoD service in order to provide effective video streaming. It consists of four functional modules, namely, Quality Preserving Multivariate Video Model (QPMVM for efficient server management, tracker for efficient peer management, heuristic-based content distribution, and light weight incentivized sharing mechanism. The first two of these modules are confined to a single entity of the framework while the other two are distributed across entities. Experimental results show that the proposed framework avoids overloading the server, increases the number of clients served, and does not compromise on QoS, irrespective of the fact that the expected framework is slightly reduced.
Full Text Available Cross-layer design has been used in streaming video over the wireless channels to optimize the overall system performance. In this paper, we extend our previous work on joint design of source rate control and congestion control for video streaming over the wired channel, and propose a cross-layer design approach for wireless video streaming. First, we extend the QoS-aware congestion control mechanism (TFRCC proposed in our previous work to the wireless scenario, and provide a detailed discussion about how to enhance the overall performance in terms of rate smoothness and responsiveness of the transport protocol. Then, we extend our previous joint design work to the wireless scenario, and a thorough performance evaluation is conducted to investigate its performance. Simulation results show that by cross-layer design of source rate control at application layer and congestion control at transport layer, and by taking advantage of the MAC layer information, our approach can avoid the throughput degradation caused by wireless link error, and better support the QoS requirements of the application. Thus, the playback quality is significantly improved, while good performance of the transport protocol is still preserved.
Full Text Available Abstract We consider the problem of packet scheduling for the transmission of multiple video streams over a wireless local area network (WLAN. A cross-layer optimization framework is proposed to minimize the wireless transceiver energy consumption while meeting the user required visual quality constraints. The framework relies on the IEEE 802.11 standard and on the embedded bitstream structure of the scalable video coding scheme. It integrates an application-level video quality metric as QoS constraint (instead of a communication layer quality metric with energy consumption optimization through link layer scaling and sleeping. Both energy minimization and min-max energy optimization strategies are discussed. Simulation results demonstrate significant energy gains compared to the state-of-the-art approaches.
Full Text Available This paper examines the threat to video streaming from slow and fast fading, traffic congestion, and channel packet drops. The proposed response is a combination of: rateless channel coding, which is adaptively applied; data-partitioned source coding to exploit prioritized packetization; and duplicate slice provision, which is the focus of the evaluation in this paper. The paper also considers the distribution of intra-refresh macroblocks as a means of avoiding sudden data rate increases. When error bursts occur, this paper shows that duplicate slices are certainly necessary but this provision is more effective for medium quality video than it is for high quality video. The percentage of intra-refresh macroblocks can be low and still reduce the impact of temporal error propagation.
Full Text Available Video scalability is a recent video coding technology that allows content providers to offer multiple quality versions from a single encoded video file in order to target different kinds of end-user devices and networks. One form of scalability utilizes the region-of-interest concept, that is, the possibility to mark objects or zones within the video as more important than the surrounding area. The scalable video coder ensures that these regions-of-interest are received by an end-user device before the surrounding area and preferably in higher quality. In this paper, novel algorithms are presented making it possible to automatically track the marked objects in the regions of interest. Our methods detect the overall motion of a designated object by retrieving the motion vectors calculated during the motion estimation step of the video encoder. Using this knowledge, the region-of-interest is translated, thus following the objects within. Furthermore, the proposed algorithms allow adequate resizing of the region-of-interest. By using the available information from the video encoder, object tracking can be done in the compressed domain and is suitable for real-time and streaming applications. A time-complexity analysis is given for the algorithms proving the low complexity thereof and the usability for real-time applications. The proposed object tracking methods are generic and can be applied to any codec that calculates the motion vector field. In this paper, the algorithms are implemented within MPEG-4 fine-granularity scalability codec. Different tests on different video sequences are performed to evaluate the accuracy of the methods. Our novel algorithms achieve a precision up to 96.4 .
Rik Van de Walle
Full Text Available Video scalability is a recent video coding technology that allows content providers to offer multiple quality versions from a single encoded video file in order to target different kinds of end-user devices and networks. One form of scalability utilizes the region-of-interest concept, that is, the possibility to mark objects or zones within the video as more important than the surrounding area. The scalable video coder ensures that these regions-of-interest are received by an end-user device before the surrounding area and preferably in higher quality. In this paper, novel algorithms are presented making it possible to automatically track the marked objects in the regions of interest. Our methods detect the overall motion of a designated object by retrieving the motion vectors calculated during the motion estimation step of the video encoder. Using this knowledge, the region-of-interest is translated, thus following the objects within. Furthermore, the proposed algorithms allow adequate resizing of the region-of-interest. By using the available information from the video encoder, object tracking can be done in the compressed domain and is suitable for real-time and streaming applications. A time-complexity analysis is given for the algorithms proving the low complexity thereof and the usability for real-time applications. The proposed object tracking methods are generic and can be applied to any codec that calculates the motion vector field. In this paper, the algorithms are implemented within MPEG-4 fine-granularity scalability codec. Different tests on different video sequences are performed to evaluate the accuracy of the methods. Our novel algorithms achieve a precision up to 96.4%.
Sowan, Azizeh K
Streaming videos (SVs) are commonly used multimedia applications in clinical health education. However, there are several negative aspects related to the production and delivery of SVs. Only a few published studies have included sufficient descriptions of the videos and the production process and design innovations. This paper describes the production of innovative SVs for medication administration skills for undergraduate nursing students at a public university in Jordan and focuses on the ethical and cultural issues in producing this type of learning resource. The curriculum development committee approved the modification of educational techniques for medication administration procedures to include SVs within an interactive web-based learning environment. The production process of the videos adhered to established principles for "protecting patients' rights when filming and recording" and included: preproduction, production and postproduction phases. Medication administration skills were videotaped in a skills laboratory where they are usually taught to students and also in a hospital setting with real patients. The lab videos included critical points and Do's and Don'ts and the hospital videos fostered real-world practices. The range of time of the videos was reasonable to eliminate technical difficulty in access. Eight SVs were produced that covered different types of the medication administration skills. The production of SVs required the collaborative efforts of experts in IT, multimedia, nursing and informatics educators, and nursing care providers. Results showed that the videos were well-perceived by students, and the instructors who taught the course. The process of producing the videos in this project can be used as a valuable framework for schools considering utilizing multimedia applications in teaching. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Li, Jia; Tian, Yonghong; Gao, Wen
In recent years, the amount of streaming video has grown rapidly on the Web. Often, retrieving these streaming videos offers the challenge of indexing and analyzing the media in real time because the streams must be treated as effectively infinite in length, thus precluding offline processing. Generally speaking, captions are important semantic clues for video indexing and retrieval. However, existing caption detection methods often have difficulties to make real-time detection for streaming video, and few of them concern on the differentiation of captions from scene texts and scrolling texts. In general, these texts have different roles in streaming video retrieval. To overcome these difficulties, this paper proposes a novel approach which explores the inter-frame correlation analysis and wavelet-domain modeling for real-time caption detection in streaming video. In our approach, the inter-frame correlation information is used to distinguish caption texts from scene texts and scrolling texts. Moreover, wavelet-domain Generalized Gaussian Models (GGMs) are utilized to automatically remove non-text regions from each frame and only keep caption regions for further processing. Experiment results show that our approach is able to offer real-time caption detection with high recall and low false alarm rate, and also can effectively discern caption texts from the other texts even in low resolutions.
Kinsner, M; Capson, D; Spence, A
Multi-scale image processing techniques enable extraction of features where the size of a feature is either unknown or changing, but the requirement to process image data at multiple scale levels imposes a substantial computational load. This paper describes the architecture and emerging results from the implementation of a GPGPU-accelerated scale-space feature detection framework for video processing. A discrete scale-space representation is generated for image frames within a video stream, and multi-scale feature detection metrics are applied to detect ridges and Gaussian blobs at video frame rates. A modular structure is adopted, in which common feature extraction tasks such as non-maximum suppression and local extrema search may be reused across a variety of feature detectors. Extraction of ridge and blob features is achieved at faster than 15 frames per second on video sequences from a machine vision system, utilizing an NVIDIA GTX 480 graphics card. By design, the framework is easily extended to additional feature classes through the inclusion of feature metrics to be applied to the scale-space representation, and using common post-processing modules to reduce the required CPU workload. The framework is scalable across multiple and more capable GPUs, and enables previously intractable image processing at video frame rates using commodity computational hardware.
Full Text Available Durante mucho tiempo -dice Arlindo Machado-, los teóricos de la comunicación nos acostumbraron a encarar la televisión como un medio popular, de masa (en su peor sentido, opacando la atención que se pudiera tener sobre algunas manifestaciones televisivas interesantes, singulares y significativas para definir el estatuto de este medio en el panorama cultural contemporáneo. Y es justamente en el lugar privilegiado de la expresión contemporánea de la luz, es decir, en la pantalla del televisor, donde se ubican los objetos de refl exión de la presente investigación, es decir, los video clips de música popular, donde se indaga su dimensión estética en la relación de sus elementos constitutivos: el cantante y toda su parafernalia gestual, sus ropajes y los escenarios donde se desenvuelve en la historia narrada, y presenta una manera específica de estar en el espacio o deco-gramma; la relación de los recursos tecnológicos que permiten establecer una manera particular de registro, es decir, un tecno-gramma; una imagen facturada en la improvisación de un género que en la región del Eje Cafetero, en Colombia, si bien es producido y difundido de manera casi industrial, está generando una dinámica de mercadeo y exposición de los cantantes antes nunca vista. Es pues, un escrito sobre la música popular que circula en el medio más popular de todos: la televisión.
Full Text Available Nowdays, several streaming servers are available to provide a variety of multimedia applications such as Video on Demand in cloud computing environments. These environments have the business potential because of the pay-per-use model, as well as the advantages of easy scalability and, up-to-date of the packages and programs. This paper uses hierarchical modeling and different sensitivity analysis techniques to determine the parameters that cause the greatest impact on the availability of a Video on Demand. The results show that distinct approaches provide similar results regarding the sensitivity ranking, with specific exceptions. A combined evaluation indicates that system availability may be improved effectively by focusing on a reduced set of factors that produce large variation on the measure of interest.
Full Text Available Nowadays, there is a quickly growing demand for the transmission of voice, video and data over an IP based network. Multimedia, whether we are talking about broadcast, audio and video transmission and others, from a global perspective is growing exponentially with time. With incoming requests from users, new technologies for data transfer are continually developing. Data must be delivered reliably and with the fewest losses at such high speed. Video quality as part of multimedia technology has a very important role nowadays. It is influenced by several factors, where each of them can have many forms and processing. Network performance is the major degradation effect that influences the quality of resulting image. Poor network performance (lack of link capacity, high network loadâ€¦ causes data packet losses or different delivery time for each packet. This work focuses exactly on these network phenomena. It examines the impact of different delays and packet losses on the quality parameters of triple play services, to evaluate the results using objective methods. The aim of this work is to bring a detailed view on the performance of video streaming over IP-based networks.
Stock, Jonathan P. J.
This article analyses the music video of ‘Little Apple’ by Wang Taili and Xiao Yang, also known as the Chopstick Brothers, one of China’s most successful productions in 2014, and one that exemplifies certain emerging trends in Chinese popular music more generally. The music video draws on K-pop models but also on Western inspirations (biblical, historical and contemporary) and has proven hard to reduce to a single, definitive narrative or interpretation. The analysis proceeds by introducing t...
Guillette, Lauren M; Healy, Susan D
Determining the role that social learning plays in construction behaviours, such as nest building or tool manufacture, could be improved if more experimental control could be gained over the exact public information that is provided by the demonstrator, to the observing individual. Using video playback allows the experimenter to choose what information is provided, but will only be useful in determining the role of social learning if observers attend to, and learn from, videos in a manner that is similar to live demonstration. The goal of the current experiment was to test whether live-streamed video presentations of nest building by zebra finches Taeniopygia guttata would lead observers to copy the material choice demonstrated to them. Here, males that had not previously built a nest were given an initial preference test between materials of two colours. Those observers then watched live-stream footage of a familiar demonstrator building a nest with material of the colour that the observer did not prefer. After this experience, observers were given the chance to build a nest with materials of the two colours. Although two-thirds of the observer males preferred material of the demonstrated colour after viewing the demonstrator build a nest with material of that colour more than they had previously, their preference for the demonstrated material was not as strong as that of observers that had viewed live demonstrator builders in a previous experiment. Our results suggest researchers should proceed with caution before using video demonstration in tests of social learning. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
M. Yu. Katayev
Full Text Available This article describes an approach to the assessment of motion activity of man in after-stroke period, allowing the doctor to get new information to give a more informed recommendations on rehabilitation treatment than in traditional approaches. Consider description of the hardware-software complex for determination and analysis of motion activity after-stroke patient for the video stream. The article provides a description of the complex, its algorithmic filling and the results of the work on the example of processing of the actual data. The algorithms and technology to significantly accelerate the gait analysis and improve the quality of diagnostics post-stroke patients.
Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus; Bendsen, Thomas; Thorsen, Jonas
Abstract: The bachelor programme in biomedical laboratory analysis at VIA University College in Aarhus has established a blended class concept which combines traditional and live broadcast teaching. 1-2 days a week students have the choice either to attend teaching sessions in the traditional way...... or to work from home via the Internet. In live video-streamed teaching classes teachers tend to choose one-way communication instead of dialogue. We know from our early findings that technology issues are one of the main reasons for this, since the same teachers use dialogue and discussions in traditional...
Sevcik, L.; Uhrin, D.; Frnda, J.; Voznak, M.; Toral-Cruz, Homer; Mikulec, M.; Jakovlev, Sergej
Nowadays, the interest in real-time services, like audio and video, is growing. These services are mostly transmitted over packet networks, which are based on IP protocol. It leads to analyses of these services and their behavior in such networks which are becoming more frequent. Video has become the significant part of all data traffic sent via IP networks. In general, a video service is one-way service (except e.g. video calls) and network delay is not such an important factor as in a voice service. Dominant network factors that influence the final video quality are especially packet loss, delay variation and the capacity of the transmission links. Analysis of video quality concentrates on the resistance of video codecs to packet loss in the network, which causes artefacts in the video. IPsec provides confidentiality in terms of safety, integrity and non-repudiation (using HMAC-SHA1 and 3DES encryption for confidentiality and AES in CBC mode) with an authentication header and ESP (Encapsulating Security Payload). The paper brings a detailed view of the performance of video streaming over an IP-based network. We compared quality of video with packet loss and encryption as well. The measured results demonstrated the relation between the video codec type and bitrate to the final video quality.
There has been little focus on nonverbal communication in social media advertising campaigns. We propose that specific patterns of facial expressions predict the popularity of YouTube videos among users of social media. To test that proposition, we used a neuromarketing tool—FaceReader—to code facial videos of professional speakers who participated in the YouTube social media campaigns of 2 large commercial banks. We analyzed more than 25,000 video frames of 16 speakers’ 6 basic facial expres...
Patti, Andrew; Tan, Wai-tian; Shen, Bo
Streaming video in consumer homes over wireless IEEE 802.11 networks is becoming commonplace. Wireless 802.11 networks pose unique difficulties for streaming high definition (HD), low latency video due to their error-prone physical layer and media access procedures which were not designed for real-time traffic. HD video streaming, even with sophisticated H.264 encoding, is particularly challenging due to the large number of packet fragments per slice. Cross-layer design strategies have been proposed to address the issues of video streaming over 802.11. These designs increase streaming robustness by imposing some degree of monitoring and control over 802.11 parameters from application level, or by making the 802.11 layer media-aware. Important contributions are made, but none of the existing approaches directly take the 802.11 queuing into account. In this paper we take a different approach and propose a cross-layer design allowing direct, expedient control over the wireless packet queue, while obtaining timely feedback on transmission status for each packet in a media flow. This method can be fully implemented on a media sender with no explicit support or changes required to the media client. We assume that due to congestion or deteriorating signal-to-noise levels, the available throughput may drop substantially for extended periods of time, and thus propose video source adaptation methods that allow matching the bit-rate to available throughput. A particular H.264 slice encoding is presented to enable seamless stream switching between streams at multiple bit-rates, and we explore using new computationally efficient transcoding methods when only a high bit-rate stream is available.
Full Text Available Real-time streaming media over wireless networks is a challenging proposition due to the characteristics of video data and wireless channels. In this paper, we propose a set of cross-layer techniques for adaptive real-time video streaming over wireless networks. The adaptation is done with respect to both channel and data. The proposed novel packetization scheme constructs the application layer packet in such a way that it is decomposed exactly into an integer number of equal-sized radio link protocol (RLP packets. FEC codes are applied within an application packet at the RLP packet level rather than across different application packets and thus reduce delay at the receiver. A priority-based ARQ, together with a scheduling algorithm, is applied at the application layer to retransmit only the corrupted RLP packets within an application layer packet. Our approach combines the flexibility and programmability of application layer adaptations, with low delay and bandwidth efficiency of link layer techniques. Socket-level simulations are presented to verify the effectiveness of our approach.
Sowan, Azizeh K; Idhail, Jamila Abu
Nursing students should exhibit competence in nursing skills in order to provide safe and quality patient care. This study describes the design and students' response to an interactive web-based course using streaming video technology tailored to students' needs and the course objectives of the fundamentals of nursing skills clinical course. A mixed-methodology design was used to describe the experience of 102 first-year undergraduate nursing students at a school of nursing in Jordan who were enrolled in the course. A virtual course with streaming videos was designed to demonstrate medication administration fundamental skills. The videos recorded the ideal lab demonstration of the skills, and real-world practice performed by registered nurses for patients in a hospital setting. After course completion, students completed a 30-item satisfaction questionnaire, 8 self-efficacy scales, and a 4-item scale solicited their preferences of using the virtual course as a substitute or a replacement of the lab demonstration. Students' grades in the skill examination of the procedures were measured. Relationships between the main variables and predictors of satisfaction and self-efficacy were examined. Students were satisfied with the virtual course (3.9 ± 0.56, out of a 5-point scale) with a high-perceived overall self-efficacy (4.38 ± 0.42, out of a 5-point scale). Data showed a significant correlation between student satisfaction, self-efficacy and achievement in the virtual course (r = 0.45-0.49, p students accessed the course from home and some faced technical difficulties. Significant predictors of satisfaction were ease of access the course and gender (B = 0.35, 0.25, CI = 0.12-0.57, 0.02-0.48 respectively). The mean achievement score of students in the virtual class (7.5 ± 0.34) was significantly higher than that of a previous comparable cohort who was taught in the traditional method (6.0 ± 0.23) (p students believed that the virtual course is a sufficient
There has been little focus on nonverbal communication in social media advertising campaigns. We propose that specific patterns of facial expressions predict the popularity of YouTube videos among users of social media. To test that proposition, we used a neuromarketing tool—FaceReader—to code
Exploring spatiotemporal patterns of moving objects are essential to Earth Observation missions, such as tracking, modeling and predicting movement of clouds, dust, plumes and harmful algal blooms. Those missions involve high-volume, multi-source, and multi-modal imagery data analysis. Analytical models intend to reveal inner structure, dynamics, and relationship of things. However, they are not necessarily intuitive to humans. Conventional scientific visualization methods are intuitive but limited by manual operations, such as area marking, measurement and alignment of multi-source data, which are expensive and time-consuming. A new development of video analytics platform has been in progress, which integrates the video game engine with satellite and in-situ data streams. The system converts Earth Observation data into articulated objects that are mapped from a high-dimensional space to a 3D space. The object tracking and augmented reality algorithms highlight the objects' features in colors, shapes and trajectories, creating visual cues for observing dynamic patterns. The head and gesture tracker enable users to navigate the data space interactively. To validate our design, we have used NASA SeaWiFS satellite images of oceanographic remote sensing data and NOAA's in-situ cell count data. Our study demonstrates that the video game system can reduce the size and cost of traditional CAVE systems in two to three orders of magnitude. This system can also be used for satellite mission planning and public outreaching.
Leny, Marc; Prêteux, Françoise; Nicholson, Didier
Compressed video is the digital raw material provided by video-surveillance systems and used for archiving and indexing purposes. Multimedia standards have therefore a direct impact on such systems. If MPEG-2 used to be the coding standard, MPEG-4 (part 2) has now replaced it in most installations, and MPEG-4 AVC/H.264 solutions are now being released. Finely analysing the complex and rich MPEG-4 streams is a challenging issue addressed in that paper. The system we designed is based on five modules: low-resolution decoder, motion estimation generator, object motion filtering, low-resolution object segmentation, and cooperative decision. Our contributions refer to as the statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of the motion vectors, the computation of DCT-based confidence maps, the automatic motion activity detection in the compressed file and a rough indexation by dedicated descriptors. The robustness and accuracy of the system are evaluated on a large corpus (hundreds of hours of in-and outdoor videos with pedestrians and vehicles). The objective benchmarking of the performances is achieved with respect to five metrics allowing to estimate the error part due to each module and for different implementations. This evaluation establishes that our system analyses up to 200 frames (720x288) per second (2.66 GHz CPU).
Faruq Ibn Ibrahimy, Abdullah; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Anwar, Farhat; Ibn Ibrahimy, Muhammad
The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper.
Ibrahimy, Abdullah Faruq Ibn; Rafiqul, Islam Md; Anwar, Farhat; Ibrahimy, Muhammad Ibn
The live video data is streaming usually in a tree-based overlay network or in a mesh-based overlay network. In case of departure of a peer with additional upload bandwidth, the overlay network becomes very vulnerable to churn. In this paper, a two dimensional array-based overlay network is proposed for streaming the live video stream data. As there is always a peer or a live video streaming server to upload the live video stream data, so the overlay network is very stable and very robust to churn. Peers are placed according to their upload and download bandwidth, which enhances the balance of load and performance. The overlay network utilizes the additional upload bandwidth of peers to minimize chunk delivery delay and to maximize balance of load. The procedure, which is used for distributing the additional upload bandwidth of the peers, distributes the additional upload bandwidth to the heterogeneous strength peers in a fair treat distribution approach and to the homogeneous strength peers in a uniform distribution approach. The proposed overlay network has been simulated by Qualnet from Scalable Network Technologies and results are presented in this paper
Bouma, Henri; van der Mark, Wannes; Eendebak, Pieter T.; Landsmeer, Sander H.; van Eekeren, Adam W. M.; ter Haar, Frank B.; Wieringa, F. Pieter; van Basten, Jean-Paul
Compared to open surgery, minimal invasive surgery offers reduced trauma and faster recovery. However, lack of direct view limits space perception. Stereo-endoscopy improves depth perception, but is still restricted to the direct endoscopic field-of-view. We describe a novel technology that reconstructs 3D-panoramas from endoscopic video streams providing a much wider cumulative overview. The method is compatible with any endoscope. We demonstrate that it is possible to generate photorealistic 3D-environments from mono- and stereoscopic endoscopy. The resulting 3D-reconstructions can be directly applied in simulators and e-learning. Extended to real-time processing, the method looks promising for telesurgery or other remote vision-guided tasks.
Taubman, David; Thie, Johnson
This paper shows how the priority encoding transmission (PET) framework may be leveraged to exploit both unequal error protection and limited retransmission for RD-optimized delivery of streaming media. Previous work on scalable media protection with PET has largely ignored the possibility of retransmission. Conversely, the PET framework has not been harnessed by the substantial body of previous work on RD optimized hybrid forward error correction/automatic repeat request schemes. We limit our attention to sources which can be modeled as independently compressed frames (e.g., video frames), where each element in the scalable representation of each frame can be transmitted in one or both of two transmission slots. An optimization algorithm determines the level of protection which should be assigned to each element in each slot, subject to transmission bandwidth constraints. To balance the protection assigned to elements which are being transmitted for the first time with those which are being retransmitted, the proposed algorithm formulates a collection of hypotheses concerning its own behavior in future transmission slots. We show how the PET framework allows for a decoupled optimization algorithm with only modest complexity. Experimental results obtained with Motion JPEG2000 compressed video demonstrate that substantial performance benefits can be obtained using the proposed framework.
Mueller, M.; Groch, A.; Baumhauer, M.; Maier-Hein, L.; Teber, D.; Rassweiler, J.; Meinzer, H.-P.; Wegner, In.
Augmented Reality (AR) is a convenient way of porting information from medical images into the surgical field of view and can deliver valuable assistance to the surgeon, especially in laparoscopic procedures. In addition, high definition (HD) laparoscopic video devices are a great improvement over the previously used low resolution equipment. However, in AR applications that rely on real-time detection of fiducials from video streams, the demand for efficient image processing has increased due to the introduction of HD devices. We present an algorithm based on the well-known Conditional Density Propagation (CONDENSATION) algorithm which can satisfy these new demands. By incorporating a prediction around an already existing and robust segmentation algorithm, we can speed up the whole procedure while leaving the robustness of the fiducial segmentation untouched. For evaluation purposes we tested the algorithm on recordings from real interventions, allowing for a meaningful interpretation of the results. Our results show that we can accelerate the segmentation by a factor of 3.5 on average. Moreover, the prediction information can be used to compensate for fiducials that are temporarily occluded or out of scope, providing greater stability.
Achmad Zakaria Azhar
Full Text Available Evolved High Speed Packet Access (HSPA+ is a mobile telecommunication system technology and the evolution of HSPA technology. This technology has a packet data based service with downlink speeds up to 21.1 Mbps and uplink speed up to 11.5 Mbps on the bandwidth 5MHz. This technology is expected to fulfill and support the needs for information that involves all aspects of multimedia such as video and audio, especially live video streaming. By utilizing this technology it will facilitate communicating the information, for example to monitoring the situation of the house, the news coverage at some certain area, and other events in real time. This thesis aims to identify and test the Quality of Service (QoS performance on the network that is used for live video streaming with the parameters of throughput, delay, jitter and packet loss. The software used for monitoring the data traffic of the live video streaming network is wireshark network analyzer. From the test results it is obtained that the average throughput of provider B is 5,295 Kbps bigger than the provider A, the average delay of provider B is 0.618 ms smaller than the provider A, the average jitter of provider B is 0.420 ms smaller than the provider A and the average packet loss of provider B is 0.451% smaller than the provider A.
Alinejad, Ali; Philip, Nada Y; Istepanian, Robert S H
It is well known that the evolution of 4G-based mobile multimedia network systems will contribute significantly to future mobile healthcare (m-health) applications that require high bandwidth and fast data rates. Central to the success of such emerging applications is the compatibility of broadband networks, such as mobile Worldwide Interoperability For Microwave Access (WiMAX) and High-Speed Uplink Packet Access (HSUPA), and especially their rate adaption issues combined with the acceptable real-time medical quality of service requirements. In this paper, we address the relevant challenges of cross-layer design requirements for real-time rate adaptation of ultrasound video streaming in mobile WiMAX and HSUPA networks. A comparative performance analysis of such approach is validated in two experimental m-health test bed systems for both mobile WiMAX and HSUPA networks. The experimental results have shown an improved performance of mobile WiMAX compared to the HSUPA using the same cross-layer optimization approach.
Kiedrowski, Mirosław; Mróz, Andrzej; Gajewska, Danuta; Nurzyński, Paweł; Deptała, Andrzej
Celiac disease affects about 1% of the population. Since most Polish households have a broadband Internet connection, a lot of people use web resources to learn about health and disease. YouTube service (www.youtube.com) offers a lot of videos concerning celiac disease. However, the credibility of the Polish videos available on YouTube and concerning celiac disease has never been analyzed. The aim of the study was to determine whether the YouTube service offers valuable content for Polish people affected by celiac disease. One hundred and fifty-four unique videos devoted to celiac disease and available in the Polish language were identified and critically assessed. Each video was categorized due to its topic(s), and evaluated for its credibility by two independent researchers. In general, 127 (82.5%) videos were found to be credible. The most credible categories of content presented organizations and events related to celiac disease/celiac society, followed by culinary recipes (100.0, 100.0, and 95.6% of credible videos, respectively). The least trustworthy categories were devoted to pathobiology and advertisements (55.6 and 54.3% of credible videos, respectively). YouTube service can serve as a supplementary source of knowledge for people affected by celiac disease, after careful selection of trustworthy content.
J.W.M. Kleinrouweler (Jan Willem); S. Cabrero Barros (Sergio); R.D. van der Mei (Rob); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)
textabstractHTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) has become the dominant technology for streaming video over the Internet. It gained popularity because of its ability to adapt the video quality to the current network conditions and other appealing properties such as usage of off-the-shelf HTTP servers and
Kleinrouweler, Jan Willem; Cabrero, Sergio; van der Mei, Rob; Cesar Garcia, P.S.
HTTP adaptive streaming (HAS) has become the dominant technology for streaming video over the Internet. It gained popularity because of its ability to adapt the video quality to the current network conditions and other appealing properties such as usage of off-the-shelf HTTP servers and easy
Tan, Yow-Yiong Edwin; Philip, Nada; Istepanian, Robert H
This paper presents some of the fragility issues of a medical video streaming over 802.11e-WLAN in m-health applications. In particular, we present a medical channel-adaptive fair allocation (MCAFA) scheme for enhanced QoS support for IEEE 802.11 (WLAN), as a modification for the standard 802.11e enhanced distributed coordination function (EDCF) is proposed for enhanced medical data performance. The medical channel-adaptive fair allocation (MCAFA) proposed extends the EDCF, by halving the contention window (CW) after zeta consecutive successful transmissions to reduce the collision probability when channel is busy. Simulation results show that MCAFA outperforms EDCF in-terms of overall performance relevant to the requirements of high throughput of medical data and video streaming traffic in 3G/WLAN wireless environments.
Full Text Available Abstract Bluetooth enhanced data rate wireless channel can support higher-quality video streams compared to previous versions of Bluetooth. Packet loss when transmitting compressed data has an effect on the delivered video quality that endures over multiple frames. To reduce the impact of radio frequency noise and interference, this paper proposes adaptive modulation based on content type at the video frame level and content importance at the macroblock level. Because the bit rate of protected data is reduced, the paper proposes buffer management to reduce the risk of buffer overflow. A trizone buffer is introduced, with a varying unequal protection policy in each zone. Application of this policy together with adaptive modulation results in up to 4 dB improvement in objective video quality compared to fixed rate scheme for an additive white Gaussian noise channel and around 10 dB for a Gilbert-Elliott channel. The paper also reports a consistent improvement in video quality over a scheme that adapts to channel conditions by varying the data rate without accounting for the video frame packet type or buffer congestion.
Full Text Available Bluetooth enhanced data rate wireless channel can support higher-quality video streams compared to previous versions of Bluetooth. Packet loss when transmitting compressed data has an effect on the delivered video quality that endures over multiple frames. To reduce the impact of radio frequency noise and interference, this paper proposes adaptive modulation based on content type at the video frame level and content importance at the macroblock level. Because the bit rate of protected data is reduced, the paper proposes buffer management to reduce the risk of buffer overflow. A trizone buffer is introduced, with a varying unequal protection policy in each zone. Application of this policy together with adaptive modulation results in up to 4Ã¢Â€Â‰dB improvement in objective video quality compared to fixed rate scheme for an additive white Gaussian noise channel and around 10Ã¢Â€Â‰dB for a Gilbert-Elliott channel. The paper also reports a consistent improvement in video quality over a scheme that adapts to channel conditions by varying the data rate without accounting for the video frame packet type or buffer congestion.
Skin color can be an important feature when tracking skin-colored objects. Particularly this is the case for computer-vision-based human-computer interfaces (HCI). Humans have a highly developed feeling of space and, therefore, it is reasonable to support this within intelligent HCI, where the importance of augmented reality can be foreseen. Joining human-like interaction techniques within multimodal HCI could, or will, gain a feature for modern mobile telecommunication devices. On the other hand, real-time processing plays an important role in achieving more natural and physically intuitive ways of human-machine interaction. The main scope of this work is the development of a stereoscopic computer-vision hardware-accelerated framework for real-time skin feature identification in the sense of a single-pass image segmentation process. The hardware-accelerated preprocessing stage is presented with the purpose of color and spatial filtering, where the skin color model within the hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space is given with a polyhedron of threshold values representing the basis of the filter model. An adaptive filter management unit is suggested to achieve better segmentation results. This enables the adoption of filter parameters to the current scene conditions in an adaptive way. Implementation of the suggested hardware structure is given at the level of filed programmable system level integrated circuit (FPSLIC) devices using an embedded microcontroller as their main feature. A stereoscopic clue is achieved using a time-sequential video stream, but this shows no difference for real-time processing requirements in terms of hardware complexity. The experimental results for the hardware-accelerated preprocessing stage are given by efficiency estimation of the presented hardware structure using a simple motion-detection algorithm based on a binary function.
Barekatain, Behrang; Khezrimotlagh, Dariush; Aizaini Maarof, Mohd; Ghaeini, Hamid Reza; Salleh, Shaharuddin; Quintana, Alfonso Ariza; Akbari, Behzad; Cabrera, Alicia Triviño
In recent years, Random Network Coding (RNC) has emerged as a promising solution for efficient Peer-to-Peer (P2P) video multicasting over the Internet. This probably refers to this fact that RNC noticeably increases the error resiliency and throughput of the network. However, high transmission overhead arising from sending large coefficients vector as header has been the most important challenge of the RNC. Moreover, due to employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination method, considerable computational complexity can be imposed on peers in decoding the encoded blocks and checking linear dependency among the coefficients vectors. In order to address these challenges, this study introduces MATIN which is a random network coding based framework for efficient P2P video streaming. The MATIN includes a novel coefficients matrix generation method so that there is no linear dependency in the generated coefficients matrix. Using the proposed framework, each peer encapsulates one instead of n coefficients entries into the generated encoded packet which results in very low transmission overhead. It is also possible to obtain the inverted coefficients matrix using a bit number of simple arithmetic operations. In this regard, peers sustain very low computational complexities. As a result, the MATIN permits random network coding to be more efficient in P2P video streaming systems. The results obtained from simulation using OMNET++ show that it substantially outperforms the RNC which uses the Gauss-Jordan elimination method by providing better video quality on peers in terms of the four important performance metrics including video distortion, dependency distortion, End-to-End delay and Initial Startup delay.
Full Text Available In recent years, Random Network Coding (RNC has emerged as a promising solution for efficient Peer-to-Peer (P2P video multicasting over the Internet. This probably refers to this fact that RNC noticeably increases the error resiliency and throughput of the network. However, high transmission overhead arising from sending large coefficients vector as header has been the most important challenge of the RNC. Moreover, due to employing the Gauss-Jordan elimination method, considerable computational complexity can be imposed on peers in decoding the encoded blocks and checking linear dependency among the coefficients vectors. In order to address these challenges, this study introduces MATIN which is a random network coding based framework for efficient P2P video streaming. The MATIN includes a novel coefficients matrix generation method so that there is no linear dependency in the generated coefficients matrix. Using the proposed framework, each peer encapsulates one instead of n coefficients entries into the generated encoded packet which results in very low transmission overhead. It is also possible to obtain the inverted coefficients matrix using a bit number of simple arithmetic operations. In this regard, peers sustain very low computational complexities. As a result, the MATIN permits random network coding to be more efficient in P2P video streaming systems. The results obtained from simulation using OMNET++ show that it substantially outperforms the RNC which uses the Gauss-Jordan elimination method by providing better video quality on peers in terms of the four important performance metrics including video distortion, dependency distortion, End-to-End delay and Initial Startup delay.
She, James; Hou, Fen; Shihada, Basem; Ho, Pin-Han
-transmission/retransmission, the proposed scheme is practically implementable for more effective resource utilization, avoiding delay propagation, and achieving better video qualities under certain conditions.
Full Text Available Based on the analysis of real mobile ad hoc network (MANET traces, we derive in this paper an optimal wireless JPEG 2000 compliant forward error correction (FEC rate allocation scheme for a robust streaming of images and videos over MANET. The packet-based proposed scheme has a low complexity and is compliant to JPWL, the 11th part of the JPEG 2000 standard. The effectiveness of the proposed method is evaluated using a wireless Motion JPEG 2000 client/server application; and the ability of the optimal scheme to guarantee quality of service (QoS to wireless clients is demonstrated.
Asif Ali Laghari
Full Text Available Video sharing on social clouds is popular among the users around the world. High-Definition (HD videos have big file size so the storing in cloud storage and streaming of videos with high quality from cloud to the client are a big problem for service providers. Social clouds compress the videos to save storage and stream over slow networks to provide quality of service (QoS. Compression of video decreases the quality compared to original video and parameters are changed during the online play as well as after download. Degradation of video quality due to compression decreases the quality of experience (QoE level of end users. To assess the QoE of video compression, we conducted subjective (QoE experiments by uploading, sharing, and playing videos from social clouds. Three popular social clouds, Facebook, Tumblr, and Twitter, were selected to upload and play videos online for users. The QoE was recorded by using questionnaire given to users to provide their experience about the video quality they perceive. Results show that Facebook and Twitter compressed HD videos more as compared to other clouds. However, Facebook gives a better quality of compressed videos compared to Twitter. Therefore, users assigned low ratings for Twitter for online video quality compared to Tumblr that provided high-quality online play of videos with less compression.
Acevedo Clavijo Edwin Jovanny
Full Text Available Esta propuesta tiene como objetivo estudiar varias alternativas de servidores Streaming para determinar la mejor herramienta para el desarrollo de la publicación de material audiovisual educativo. Se evaluaron las plataformas más utilizadas teniendo en cuenta sus características y beneficios que tiene cada servidor entre las los cuales están: Hélix Universal Server, Windows Media Server de Microsoft, Peer Cast y Darwin Server. implementando un servidor con mayores capacidades y beneficios para la publicación de videos con fines académicos a través de la intranet de la Universidad Cooperativa de Colombia seccional Barrancabermeja This proposal has as an principal objective to study different alternatives for streaming servers to determine the best tool in the project’s development. Platforms most used were evaluated features and benefits in each served such as: Helix Universal Server, Microsoft Windows Media Server, Peer Cast and Darwin Server. Implementing a server with more capabilities and benefits for the publication of videos for academic purposes through the intranet of the Cooperative University of Colombia Barrancabermeja’s sectional
Gao, Peng; Liu, Tao; Chen, Yanming; Wu, Xingyao; El-Khatib, Yehia; Edwards, Christopher
Most of the work on grid technology in video area has been generally restricted to aspects of resource scheduling and replica management. The traffic of such service has a lot of characteristics in common with that of the traditional video service. However the architecture and user behavior in Grid networks are quite different from those of traditional Internet. Considering the potential of grid networks and video sharing services, measuring and analyzing P2P IPTV traffic are important and fundamental works in the field grid networks.
Continuous media applications over packet-switched networks are becoming more and more popular. Radio stations, for example, already use streaming technology to disseminate their content to users on the Internet, and video streaming services are expected to experience similar popularity. In contrast to traditional television and radio broadcast systems, however, prevalent Internet streaming solutions are based on unicast communication and raise scalability and efficiency issues. Multicast com...
Rut Martínez Borda
Full Text Available The general aim of this presentation is to explore how video games, supported by conversations and theatrical performances in the classroom, contribute to the development of narrative thought as present in written compositions. Given that one of the primary ecological influences on children is the mass media, we need to consider how media messages create an environment that can teach people about society’s rules, attitudes, values and norms (Bakhtin, 1981; Gee, 2003, 2004; Jenkins, 2004. From a methodological point of view we assumed an ethnographical and action research perspective. An inductive approach to the data was taken, in order to define analytical categories that consider participants’ activities in specific contexts. Main results show that children’s reconstruction of computer games stories is dependent on specific contexts.
Full Text Available Research in the field of video quality assessment relies on the availability of subjective scores, collected by means of experiments in which groups of people are asked to rate the quality of video sequences. The availability of subjective scores is fundamental to enable validation and comparative benchmarking of the objective algorithms that try to predict human perception of video quality by automatically analyzing the video sequences, in a way to support reproducible and reliable research results. In this paper, a publicly available database of subjective quality scores and corrupted video sequences is described. The scores refer to 156 sequences at CIF and 4CIF spatial resolutions, encoded with H.264/AVC and corrupted by simulating the transmission over an error-prone network. The subjective evaluation has been performed by 40 subjects at the premises of two academic institutions, in standard-compliant controlled environments. In order to support reproducible research in the field of full-reference, reduced-reference, and no-reference video quality assessment algorithms, both the uncompressed files and the H.264/AVC bitstreams, as well as the packet loss patterns, have been made available to the research community.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The video data in this accession was captured during the Islands in the Stream mission of 2001. Islands in the Stream was a three-month scientific expedition to...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The video data in this accession was captured during the Islands in the Stream mission of 2001. Islands in the Stream was a three-month scientific expedition to...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The video data in this accession was captured during the Islands in the Stream mission of 2001. Islands in the Stream was a three-month scientific expedition to...
Full Text Available Recent growth in popularity of mobile video services raises a demand for one of the most popular and convenient methods of delivering multimedia data, video streaming. However, heterogeneity of currently existing mobile devices involves an issue of separate video transcoding for each type of mobile devices such as smartphones, tablet PCs, and smart TVs. As a result additional burden comes to media servers, which pretranscode multimedia data for number of clients. Regarding even higher increase of video data in the Internet in the future, the problem of media servers overload is impending. To struggle against the problem an offloading method is introduced in this paper. By the use of SorTube offloading framework video transcoding process is shifted from the centralized media server to the local offloading server. Thus, clients can receive personally customized video stream; meanwhile the overload of centralized servers is reduced.
Santos-González, Iván; Rivero-García, Alexandra; Molina-Gil, Jezabel; Caballero-Gil, Pino
Communication media have become the primary way of interaction thanks to the discovery and innovation of many new technologies. One of the most widely used communication systems today is video streaming, which is constantly evolving. Such communications are a good alternative to face-to-face meetings, and are therefore very useful for coping with many problems caused by distance. However, they suffer from different issues such as bandwidth limitation, network congestion, energy efficiency, cost, reliability and connectivity. Hence, the quality of service and the quality of experience are considered the two most important issues for this type of communication. This work presents a complete comparative study of two of the most used protocols of video streaming, Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP) and the Web Real-Time Communication (WebRTC). In addition, this paper proposes two new mobile applications that implement those protocols in Android whose objective is to know how they are influenced by the aspects that most affect the streaming quality of service, which are the connection establishment time and the stream reception time. The new video streaming applications are also compared with the most popular video streaming applications for Android, and the experimental results of the analysis show that the developed WebRTC implementation improves the performance of the most popular video streaming applications with respect to the stream packet delay.
Gleue, Alan D.; Depcik, Chris; Peltier, Ted
Last school year, I had a web link emailed to me entitled "A Dashboard Physics Lesson." The link, created and posted by Dale Basier on his "Lab Out Loud" blog, illustrates video of a car's speedometer synchronized with video of the road. These two separate video streams are compiled into one video that students can watch and analyze. After seeing…
Full Text Available an architecture which supports ubiquitous live streaming for university or campus networks using a modified bluetooth inquiry mechanism with extended ID, integrated end-user device usage and adaptation to heterogeneous networks. Riding on that architecture...
Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Jaffar, M. Arfan; Khan, Muhammad A.; Jan, Zahoor; Mirza, Anwar M.
With the advent of internet, every aspect of life is going online. From online working to watching videos, everything is now available on the internet. With the greater business benefits, increased availability and other online business advantages, there is a major challenge of security and ownership of data. Videos downloaded from an online store can easily be shared among non-intended or unauthorized users. Invisible watermarking is used to hide copyright protection information in the videos. The existing methods of watermarking are less robust and imperceptible and also the computational complexity of these methods does not suit low power devices. In this paper, we have proposed a new method to address the problem of robustness and imperceptibility. Experiments have shown that our method has better robustness and imperceptibility as well as our method is computationally efficient than previous approaches in practice. Hence our method can easily be applied on low power devices.
Razavi, Rouzbeh; Fleury, Martin; Ghanbari, Mohammed
Wireless communication of video, with Bluetooth as an example, represents a compromise between channel conditions, display and decode deadlines, and energy constraints. This paper proposes fuzzy logic control (FLC) of automatic repeat request (ARQ) as a way of reconciling these factors, with a 40% saving in power in the worst channel conditions from economizing on transmissions when channel errors occur. Whatever the channel conditions are, FLC is shown to outperform the default Bluetooth scheme and an alternative Bluetooth-adaptive ARQ scheme in terms of reduced packet loss and delay, as well as improved video quality.
Oddone Â Welcome Mark Ratner Â Nano 201: A Gentle Introduction to Nanotechnology and Nanoscience Marsha Physical Sciences Neil Kelleher Â How a Chemist Needs Computer Science, Biology, and Engineering to Push Incorporating Nanotechnology into the Curriculum (streamed session not available) Rich Marvin Â Using
S. Matilda; B. Palaniappan
Video streaming is gaining importance, with the wide popularity of multimedia rich applications in the Internet. Video streams are delay sensitive and require seamless flow for continuous visualization. Properly designed buffers offer a solution to queuing delay. The diagonally opposite QoS metrics associated with video traffic poses an optimization problem, in the design of buffers. This paper is a continuation of our previous work  and deals with the design of buffers. It aims at finding...
Bornoe, Nis; Barkhuus, Louise
Microblogging is a recently popular phenomenon and with the increasing trend for video cameras to be built into mobile phones, a new type of microblogging has entered the arena of electronic communication: video microblogging. In this study we examine video microblogging, which is the broadcasting...... of short videos. A series of semi-structured interviews offers an understanding of why and how video microblogging is used and what the users post and broadcast....
Hajduková jr., M.; Koten, Pavel; Kornoš, L.; Toth, J.
Roč. 143, SI (2017), s. 89-98 ISSN 0032-0633. [Meteoroids 2016. Nordwijk, 06.06.2016-10.06.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-25251S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : meteors * meteoroid orbits * meteoroid streams Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science ) Impact factor: 1.892, year: 2016
In recent years, the proliferation of available video content and the popularity of the Internet have encouraged service providers to develop new ways of distributing content to clients. Increasing video scaling ratios and advanced digital signal processing techniques have led to Internet Video-on-Demand applications, but these currently lack efficiency and quality. Scalable Video on Demand: Adaptive Internet-based Distribution examines how current video compression and streaming can be used to deliver high-quality applications over the Internet. In addition to analysing the problems
Full Text Available The performance of wireless local area networks supporting video streaming applications, based on MPEG-2 video codec, in the presence of interference is here dealt with. IEEE 802.11g standard wireless networks, that do not support QoS in according with IEEE 802.11e standard, are, in particular, accounted for and Bluetooth signals, additive white Gaussian noise, and competitive data traffic are considered as sources of interference. The goal is twofold: from one side, experimentally assessing and correlating the values that some performance metrics assume at the same time at different layers of an IEEE 802.11g WLAN delivering video streaming in the presence of in-channel interference; from the other side, deducing helpful and practical hints for designers and technicians, in order to efficiently assess and enhance the performance of an IEEE 802.11g WLAN supporting video streaming in some suitable setup conditions and in the presence of interference. To this purpose, an experimental analysis is planned following a cross-layer measurement approach, and a proper testbed within a semianechoic chamber is used. Valuable results are obtained in terms of signal-to-interference ratio, packet loss ratio, jitter, video quality, and interference data rate; helpful hints for designers and technicians are finally gained.
Full Text Available We design, implement, and evaluate CovertCast, a censorship circumvention system that broadcasts the content of popular websites in real-time, encrypted video streams on common live-streaming services such as YouTube. CovertCast does not require any modifications to the streaming service and employs the same protocols, servers, and streaming software as any other user of the service. Therefore, CovertCast cannot be distinguished from other live streams by IP address filtering or protocol fingerprinting, raising the bar for censors.
This international bestseller and essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide. This is by far the most informative analog and digital video reference available, includes the hottest new trends and cutting-edge developments in the field. Video Demystified, Fourth Edition is a "one stop" reference guide for the various digital video technologies. The fourth edition is completely updated with all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video (Video over DSL, Ethernet, etc.), as well as discussions of the latest standards throughout. The accompanying CD-ROM is updated to include a unique set of video test files in the newest formats. *This essential reference is the "bible" for digital video engineers and programmers worldwide *Contains all new chapters on MPEG-4, H.264, SDTV/HDTV, ATSC/DVB, and Streaming Video *Completely revised with all the latest and most up-to-date industry standards.
ECT Team, Purdue
Akamai offers world-class streaming media services that enable Internet content providers and enterprises to succeed in today's Web-centric marketplace. They deliver live event Webcasts (complete with video production, encoding, and signal acquisition services), streaming media on demand, 24/7 Webcasts and a variety of streaming application services based upon their EdgeAdvantage.
Liteplo, Andrew S; Noble, Vicki E; Attwood, Ben H C
As the use of point-of-care sonography spreads, so too does the need for remote expert over-reading via telesonogrpahy. We sought to assess the feasibility of using familiar, widespread, and cost-effective existent technology to allow remote over-reading of sonograms in real time and to compare 4 different methods of transmission and communication for both the feasibility of transmission and image quality. Sonographic video clips were transmitted using 2 different connections (WiFi and 3G) and via 2 different videoconferencing modalities (iChat [Apple Inc, Cupertino, CA] and Skype [Skype Software Sàrl, Luxembourg]), for a total of 4 different permutations. The clips were received at a remote location and recorded and then scored by expert reviewers for image quality, resolution, and detail. Wireless transmission of sonographic clips was feasible in all cases when WiFi was used and when Skype was used over a 3G connection. Images transmitted via a WiFi connection were statistically superior to those transmitted via 3G in all parameters of quality (average P = .031), and those sent by iChat were superior to those sent by Skype but not statistically so (average P = .057). Wireless transmission of sonographic video clips using inexpensive hardware, free videoconferencing software, and domestic Internet networks is feasible with retention of image quality sufficient for interpretation. WiFi transmission results in greater image quality than transmission by a 3G network.
This paper presents a flexible model, ‘STREAM’, for transforming higher science education into blended and online learning. The model is inspired by ideas of active and collaborative learning and builds on feedback strategies well-known from Just-in-Time Teaching, Flipped Classroom, and Peer...... Instruction. The aim of the model is to provide both a concrete and comprehensible design toolkit for adopting and implementing educational technologies in higher science teaching practice and at the same time comply with diverse ambitions. As opposed to the above-mentioned feedback strategies, the STREAM...... model supports a relatively diverse use of educational technologies and may also be used to transform teaching into completely online learning. So far both teachers and educational developers have positively received the model and the initial design experiences show promise....
Chaves, Rafael Oliveira; de Oliveira, Pedro Armando Valente; Rocha, Luciano Chaves; David, Joacy Pedro Franco; Ferreira, Sanmari Costa; Santos, Alex de Assis Santos Dos; Melo, Rômulo Müller Dos Santos; Yasojima, Edson Yuzur; Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques
In order to engage medical students and residents from public health centers to utilize the telemedicine features of surgery on their own smartphones and tablets as an educational tool, an innovative streaming system was developed with the purpose of streaming live footage from open surgeries to smartphones and tablets, allowing the visualization of the surgical field from the surgeon's perspective. The current study aims to describe the results of an evaluation on level 1 of Kirkpatrick's Model for Evaluation of the streaming system usage during gynecological surgeries, based on the perception of medical students and gynecology residents. Consisted of a live video streaming (from the surgeon's point of view) of gynecological surgeries for smartphones and tablets, one for each volunteer. The volunteers were able to connect to the local wireless network, created by the streaming system, through an access password and watch the video transmission on a web browser on their smartphones. Then, they answered a Likert-type questionnaire containing 14 items about the educational applicability of the streaming system, as well as comparing it to watching an in loco procedure. This study is formally approved by the local ethics commission (Certificate No. 53175915.7.0000.5171/2016). Twenty-one volunteers participated, totalizing 294 items answered, in which 94.2% were in agreement with the items affirmative, 4.1% were neutral, and only 1.7% answers corresponded to negative impressions. Cronbach's α was .82, which represents a good reliability level. Spearman's coefficients were highly significant in 4 comparisons and moderately significant in the other 20 comparisons. This study presents a local streaming video system of live surgeries to smartphones and tablets and shows its educational utility, low cost, and simple usage, which offers convenience and satisfactory image resolution, thus being potentially applicable in surgical teaching.
The emerging Fog paradigm has been attracting increasing interests from both academia and industry, due to the low-latency, resilient, and cost-effective services it can provide. Many Fog applications such as video mining and event monitoring, rely on data stream processing and analytics, which are very popular in the Cloud, but have not been comprehensively investigated in the context of Fog architecture. In this article, we present the general models and architecture of Fog data streaming, ...
Pires , Karine; SIMON , Gwendal
International audience; User-Generated live video streaming systems are services that allow anybody to broadcast a video stream over the Internet. These Over-The-Top services have recently gained popularity, in particular with e-sport, and can now be seen as competitors of the traditional cable TV. In this paper, we present a dataset for further works on these systems. This dataset contains data on the two main user-generated live streaming systems: Twitch and the live service of YouTube. We ...
Full Text Available Digital Subscriber Line (DSL network access is subject to error bursts, which, for interactive video, can introduce unacceptable latencies if video packets need to be re-sent. If the video packets are protected against errors with Forward Error Correction (FEC, calculation of the application-layer channel codes themselves may also introduce additional latency. This paper proposes Low-Density Generator Matrix (LDGM codes rather than other popular codes because they are more suitable for interactive video streaming, not only for their computational simplicity but also for their licensing advantage. The paper demonstrates that a reduction of up to 4 dB in video distortion is achievable with LDGM Application Layer (AL FEC. In addition, an extension to the LDGM scheme is demonstrated, which works by rearranging the columns of the parity check matrix so as to make it even more resilient to burst errors. Telemedicine and video conferencing are typical target applications.
Full Text Available Japanese popular culture has arrived on American college campuses as never before. Student interest in Japanese manga (comic books, anime (animated films and television shows, and video games drives much of the enrollment in Japanese courses and Japanese majors and minors. In response to student interest, as well as the establishment of popular culture as a topic of serious academic scholarship, the demand for courses on Japanese popular culture has never been higher. Yet the number of scholars specializing in the study of popular culture is still relatively small. This can potentially create problems, as faculty teach outside their expertise, and perhaps face an uncomfortable situation in which the students know more about the topic than the professor. In this article, I will offer some suggestions and advice for faculty creating a popular culture course for the first time, based on my experiences teaching undergraduates at the University of Notre Dame. The course I developed reflects my background in Japanese literature and film, and is but one example of many possible approaches to the topic. The sample syllabus and list of resources at the end of this article provide citations for all text and media sources mentioned.
Barais , Olivier; Bourcier , Johann; Bromberg , Yérom-David; Dion , Christophe
International audience; The increasing popularity of videos over Internet, combined with the wide heterogeneity of various kinds of end users' devices, imposes strong requirements on the underlying infrastructure and computing resources to meet the users expectations. In particular, designing an adequate transcoding workflow in the cloud to stream videos at large scale is: (i) costly, and (ii) complex. By inheriting key concepts from the software engineering domain, such as separation of conc...
Moezzi, Saied; Katkere, Arun L.; Jain, Ramesh C.
Interactive video and television viewers should have the power to control their viewing position. To make this a reality, we introduce the concept of Immersive Video, which employs computer vision and computer graphics technologies to provide remote users a sense of complete immersion when viewing an event. Immersive Video uses multiple videos of an event, captured from different perspectives, to generate a full 3D digital video of that event. That is accomplished by assimilating important information from each video stream into a comprehensive, dynamic, 3D model of the environment. Using this 3D digital video, interactive viewers can then move around the remote environment and observe the events taking place from any desired perspective. Our Immersive Video System currently provides interactive viewing and `walkthrus' of staged karate demonstrations, basketball games, dance performances, and typical campus scenes. In its full realization, Immersive Video will be a paradigm shift in visual communication which will revolutionize television and video media, and become an integral part of future telepresence and virtual reality systems.
Funk, Jeanne B
The video game industry insists that it is doing everything possible to provide information about the content of games so that parents can make informed choices; however, surveys indicate that ratings may not reflect consumer views of the nature of the content. This article describes some of the currently popular video games, as well as developments that are on the horizon, and discusses the status of research on the positive and negative impacts of playing video games. Recommendations are made to help parents ensure that children play games that are consistent with their values.
Akrout, Nabil M.; Gordon, Howard; Palisson, Patrice M.; Prost, Remy; Goutte, Robert
Facing a world undergoing fundamental and rapid change, healthcare organizations are seeking ways to increase innovation, quality, productivity, and patient value, keys to more effective care. Individual clinics acting alone can respond in only a limited way, so re- engineering the process key which services are delivered demands real-time collaborative technology that provides immediate information sharing, improving the management and coordination of information in cross-functional teams. StreamWorks is a development stage architecture that uses a distribution technique to deliver an advanced information management system for telemedicine. The challenge of StreamWorks in telemedicine is to enable equity of the quality of Health Care of Telecommunications and Information Technology also to patients in less favored regions, like India or China, where the quality of medical care varies greatly by region, but where there are some very current communications facilities.
Acevedo Clavijo Edwin Jovanny; Parra Toloza Dina Julieth; Winlker Hernadez Walter
Esta propuesta tiene como objetivo estudiar varias alternativas de servidores Streaming para determinar la mejor herramienta para el desarrollo de la publicación de material audiovisual educativo. Se evaluaron las plataformas más utilizadas teniendo en cuenta sus características y beneficios que tiene cada servidor entre las los cuales están: Hélix Universal Server, Windows Media Server de Microsoft, Peer Cast y Darwin Server. implementando un servidor con mayores capacidades y beneficios par...
José Soto Vázquez
Full Text Available Resumen: La incorporación de las nuevas tecnologías en las aulas ha supuesto una nueva concepción del modelo educativo en el que el docente juega un papel determinante. No obstante, la diversidad de herramientas didácticas es tan amplia que necesita de trabajos parciales que enfoquen la utilidad de cada una de ellas. En este sentido, la enseñanza de las lenguas tiene en V Streaming una pieza fundamental que permite estudiar la lengua oral actual, a la vez que alienta el uso de las nuevas tecnologías.Summary: The incorporation of new technologies into the classroom has meant a new conception of the educational model where the teacher plays an important role. Nevertheless, the diversity of didactic tools is so wide that partial works are required to focus the utility of each of them. In this respect, the teaching of languages have in V Streaming a fundamental piece that allows studying current oral language, as well as encouraging the use of new technologies.
Full Text Available Modeling background and segmenting moving objects are significant techniques for computer vision applications. Mixture-of-Gaussians (MoG background model is commonly used in foreground extraction in video steam. However considering the case that the objects enter the scenery and stay for a while, the foreground extraction would fail as the objects stay still and gradually merge into the background. In this paper, we adopt a blob tracking method to cope with this situation. To construct the MoG model more quickly, we add frame difference method to the foreground extracted from MoG for very crowded situations. What is more, a new shadow removal method based on RGB color space is proposed.
Figueiredo, Flavio; Almeida, Jussara M.; Gonçalves, Marcos André; Benevenuto, Fabrício
Understanding the factors that impact the popularity dynamics of social media can drive the design of effective information services, besides providing valuable insights to content generators and online advertisers. Taking YouTube as case study, we analyze how video popularity evolves since upload, extracting popularity trends that characterize groups of videos. We also analyze the referrers that lead users to videos, correlating them, features of the video and early popularity measures with ...
Belonging to the wider academic field of computer vision, video analytics has aroused a phenomenal surge of interest since the current millennium. Video analytics is intended to solve the problem of the incapability of exploiting video streams in real time for the purpose of detection or anticipation. It involves analyzing the videos using algorithms that detect and track objects of interest over time and that indicate the presence of events or suspect behavior involving these objects.The aims of this book are to highlight the operational attempts of video analytics, to identify possi
Moshirnia, Andrew; Israel, Maya
Despite the increasing popularity of many commercial video games, this popularity is not shared by educational video games. Modified video games, however, can bridge the gap in quality between commercial and education video games by embedding educational content into popular commercial video games. This study examined how different information…
Mat Kiah, M L; Al-Bakri, S H; Zaidan, A A; Zaidan, B B; Hussain, Muzammil
One of the applications of modern technology in telemedicine is video conferencing. An alternative to traveling to attend a conference or meeting, video conferencing is becoming increasingly popular among hospitals. By using this technology, doctors can help patients who are unable to physically visit hospitals. Video conferencing particularly benefits patients from rural areas, where good doctors are not always available. Telemedicine has proven to be a blessing to patients who have no access to the best treatment. A telemedicine system consists of customized hardware and software at two locations, namely, at the patient's and the doctor's end. In such cases, the video streams of the conferencing parties may contain highly sensitive information. Thus, real-time data security is one of the most important requirements when designing video conferencing systems. This study proposes a secure framework for video conferencing systems and a complete management solution for secure video conferencing groups. Java Media Framework Application Programming Interface classes are used to design and test the proposed secure framework. Real-time Transport Protocol over User Datagram Protocol is used to transmit the encrypted audio and video streams, and RSA and AES algorithms are used to provide the required security services. Results show that the encryption algorithm insignificantly increases the video conferencing computation time.
Columbus, Peter J; Boerger, Michael A
Popular Iconic Metaphor is added to the cognitive linguistic lexicon of figurative language. Popular Iconic Metaphors employ real or fictional celebrities of popular culture as source domains in figurative discourse. Some borders of Popular Iconic Metaphor are identified, and Elvis Presley is offered as a prototype example of a popular iconic source domain, due to his ubiquity in American popular culture, which affords his figurative usage in ways consistent with decision heuristics in everyday life. Further study of Popular Iconic Metaphors may serve to illuminate how figurative expressions emerge in their localized contexts, structure conduct and experience, and affect mediation of cultural and personal meanings.
This article is dealing with a practical method of hiding secret information in video stream. Method is dedicated for MPEG-2 stream. The algorithm takes to consider not only MPEG video coding scheme described in standard but also bits PES-packets encapsulation in MPEG-2 Program Stream (PS). This modification give higher capacity and more effective bit rate control for output stream than previously proposed methods.
Priyambudi, Henry Okta
Multimedia streaming menggunakanmedia video, sebagai cara penyampaian informasi yanglebih baik dibandingkan dengan teks atau suara. Salahsatu jenis multimedia streaming adalah Video OnDemand (VOD). Pada sistem video on demand, file videotelah disimpan terlebih dahulu di dalam server. Clientmerequest file video yang diinginkan dan prosesstreaming dapat dilakukan.. Salah satu kelemahan darivideo on demand adalah tidak ada sistem authentifikasipada client. Setiap client dapat melakukan streaming...
Mit Hilfe der IP-Technologie erbrachte Multimedia-Dienste wie IPTV oder Video-on-Demand sind zur Zeit ein gefragtes Thema. Technisch werden solche Dienste unter dem Begriff "Streaming" eingeordnet. Ein Server sendet Mediendaten kontinuierlich an Empfänger, welche die Daten sofort weiterverarbeiten und anzeigen. Über einen Rückkanal hat der Kunde die Möglichkeit der Einflussnahme auf die Wiedergabe. Eine Weiterentwicklung dieser Streaming-Dienste ist die Möglichkeit, gemeinsam mit anderen dens...
Goldfarb, Steven [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Collaboration: ATLAS Collaboration
I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.
I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at the web portals, using the CERN SSO system.
Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration
I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using digital signage software. The system is robust and flexible, utilizing scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intra-screen divisibility. Information is published via the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video tool. Authorisation is enforced at the level of the streaming and at th...
Goldfarb, S; The ATLAS collaboration
I report on a pilot project launched in 2010 focusing on facilitating communication and information exchange within the ATLAS Collaboration, through the combination of digital signage software and webcasting. The project, called ATLAS Live, implements video streams of information, ranging from detailed detector and data status to educational and outreach material. The content, including text, images, video and audio, is collected, visualised and scheduled using the SCALA digital signage software system. The system is robust and flexible, allowing for the usage of scripts to input data from remote sources, such as the CERN Document Server, Indico, or any available URL, and to integrate these sources into professional-quality streams, including text scrolling, transition effects, inter and intrascreen divisibility. The video is made available to the collaboration or public through the encoding and webcasting of standard video streams, viewable on all common platforms, using a web browser or other common video t...
Full Text Available The article deals with the problems of the communication of popular culture. It considers the more specialized meaning of popular culture, which primarily encompasses the works of artistic forms which have a popular character - easily understandable and entertaining contents and wide audience. The aesthetic communication of the popular through popular literature, film, pop and rock music is examined. The paper is divided into three parts. The first parts deals with the aesthetics of the communication of popular culture. It contains the analysis of the major formal-aesthetic procedures embedded in the creative expression of the popular. In the part which is dedicated to social aspects of the communication of popular art, the author examines the industrial, market and commercial principles upon which this whole culture is based. It is a time of new technologies and mass consumption, which represent, in the words of Eric Hobsbawm, a 'cultural landscape' that has transformed the manner in which a new audience experiences the artistic. Finally, popular culture stars are observed as communicators. The author adds them as a new, even crucial, link in the already known chain of communication comprising the author, the work and the audience. Stars (film, popular music are active factors of communication as well as its bearers. They are the intermediaries through which the audience establishes relationships with the authors (writers, directors, composers and the works in which those stars appear. Stars as 'new Olympians' (Morin are, indeed, another significant category that distinguishes the communication of popular culture.
Describes efforts of Serveis de Cultura Popular, a nonprofit foundation in Barcelona (Spain), in the coproduction of educational videos. Highlights include contests that awarded prizes for completed videos, video scripts, or ideas for videos; coproduction with educational television; coproduction of an interactive videodisc; and international…
OFarrell, Zachary L.
Aegis Video Player is the name of the video over IP system for the Telemetry and Communications group of the Launch Services Program. Aegis' purpose is to display video streamed over a network connection to be viewed during launches. To accomplish this task, a VLC ActiveX plug-in was used in C# to provide the basic capabilities of video streaming. The program was then customized to be used during launches. The VLC plug-in can be configured programmatically to display a single stream, but for this project multiple streams needed to be accessed. To accomplish this, an easy to use, informative menu system was added to the program to enable users to quickly switch between videos. Other features were added to make the player more useful, such as watching multiple videos and watching a video in full screen.
Full Text Available Owing to the growth of high performance network technologies, multimedia applications over the Internet are increasing exponentially. Applications like video conferencing, video-on-demand, and pay-per-view depend upon encryption algorithms for providing confidentiality. Video communication is characterized by distinct features such as large volume, high redundancy between adjacent frames, video codec compliance, syntax compliance, and application specific requirements. Naive approaches for video encryption encrypt the entire video stream with conventional text based cryptographic algorithms. Although naive approaches are the most secure for video encryption, the computational cost associated with them is very high. This research work aims at enhancing the speed of naive approaches through chaos based S-box design. Chaotic equations are popularly known for randomness, extreme sensitivity to initial conditions, and ergodicity. The proposed methodology employs two-dimensional discrete Henon map for (i generation of dynamic and key-dependent S-box that could be integrated with symmetric algorithms like Blowfish and Data Encryption Standard (DES and (ii generation of one-time keys for simple substitution ciphers. The proposed design is tested for randomness, nonlinearity, avalanche effect, bit independence criterion, and key sensitivity. Experimental results confirm that chaos based S-box design and key generation significantly reduce the computational cost of video encryption with no compromise in security.
De Groot, Jerome
This interdisciplinary collection considers public and popular history within a global framework, seeking to understand considerations of local, domestic histories and the ways they interact with broader discourses. Grounded in particular local and national situations, the book addresses the issues associated with popular history in a globalised cultural world, such as: how the study of popular history might work in the future; new ways in which the terms 'popular' and 'public' might inform one another and nuance scholarship; transnational, intercultural models of 'pastness'; cultural translat
Marc Palaus; Elena M. Marron; Raquel Viejo-Sobera; Raquel Viejo-Sobera; Diego Redolar-Ripoll
Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video ga...
Palaus, Marc; Marron, Elena M.; Viejo-Sobera, Raquel; Redolar-Ripoll, Diego
Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games. We aim ...
Much of the existing research on video games seems to stall over the issue of whether or not violence in games is as innocent as is alleged. Scientists are still divided as to whether or not there is a causal link between the behavior of young people and violence in video gaming. Much less
Johnson, Mark M.
The Smithsonian American Art Museum has created and will tour an exhibition on a most unusual but extremely popular art form--"The Art of Video Games." As one of the largest and first of its type, this exhibition will document and explore a 40-year evolution of video games as an artistic medium, with a focus on striking visual effects and the…
Khan, Kashif A.; Wang, Qi; Luo, Chunbo; Wang, Xinheng; Grecos, Christos
The latest trend to access mobile cloud services through wireless network connectivity has amplified globally among both entrepreneurs and home end users. Although existing public cloud service vendors such as Google, Microsoft Azure etc. are providing on-demand cloud services with affordable cost for mobile users, there are still a number of challenges to achieve high-quality mobile cloud based video applications, especially due to the bandwidth-constrained and errorprone mobile network connectivity, which is the communication bottleneck for end-to-end video delivery. In addition, existing accessible clouds networking architectures are different in term of their implementation, services, resources, storage, pricing, support and so on, and these differences have varied impact on the performance of cloud-based real-time video applications. Nevertheless, these challenges and impacts have not been thoroughly investigated in the literature. In our previous work, we have implemented a mobile cloud network model that integrates localized and decentralized cloudlets (mini-clouds) and wireless mesh networks. In this paper, we deploy a real-time framework consisting of various existing Internet cloud networking architectures (Google Cloud, Microsoft Azure and Eucalyptus Cloud) and a cloudlet based on Ubuntu Enterprise Cloud over wireless mesh networking technology for mobile cloud end users. It is noted that the increasing trend to access real-time video streaming over HTTP/HTTPS is gaining popularity among both research and industrial communities to leverage the existing web services and HTTP infrastructure in the Internet. To study the performance under different deployments using different public and private cloud service providers, we employ real-time video streaming over the HTTP/HTTPS standard, and conduct experimental evaluation and in-depth comparative analysis of the impact of different deployments on the quality of service for mobile video cloud users. Empirical
have large influence on their own teaching, learning and curriculum. The programme offers streamed videos in combination with other learning resources. It is a concept which offers video as pure presentation - video lectures - but also as an instructional tool which gives the students the possibility...... to construct their knowledge, collaboration and communication. In its first years the programme has used Skype video communication for collaboration and communication within and between groups, group members and their facilitators. Also exams have been mediated with the help of Skype and have for all students......, examiners and external examiners been a challenge and opportunity and has brought new knowledge and experience. This paper brings results from a questionnaire focusing on how the students experience the video examination....
The purpose of this Thesis is to study women as video game consumers through the games that they play. This was done by case studies on the content of five video games from genres that statistically are popular amongst women. To introduce the topic and to build the theoretical framework, the key terms and the video game industry are introduced. The reader is acquainted with theories on consumer behaviour, buying processes and factors that influence our consuming habits. These aspects are...
Marks, Peter E. L.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Crick, Nicki R.
This study aimed to support the theory of popularity contagion, which posits that popularity spreads among friends spontaneously and regardless of behavioral changes. Peer nominations of status and behavior were collected annually between 6th and 12th grades from a total of 1062 adolescents. Longitudinal hypotheses were mostly supported using path…
van Venrooij, A.; Schmutz, V.; Wright, J.D.
The categorical system of popular music, such as genre categories, is a highly differentiated and dynamic classification system. In this article we present work that studies different aspects of these categorical systems in popular music. Following the work of Paul DiMaggio, we focus on four
Otte, Andreas Roed
a sense of place in popular music. The second probes different strategies for co-branding popular music and Greenland. The third is concerned with music consumption patterns among Greenlandic youth. And the fourth article engages with an alternative form of nationalism found within the Nuuk underground...
Prot, Sara; McDonald, Katelyn A; Anderson, Craig A; Gentile, Douglas A
Video games are a pervasive pastime among children and adolescents. The growing popularity of video games has instigated a debate among parents, researchers, video game producers, and policymakers concerning potential harmful and helpful effects of video games on children. This article provides an overview of research findings on the positive and negative effects of video games, thus providing an empirical answer to the question, are video games good or bad? The article also provides some guidelines to help pediatricians, parents, and other caregivers protect children from negative effects and to maximize positive effects of video games. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Much of the existing research on video games seems to stall over the issue of whether or not violence in games is as innocent as is alleged. Scientists are still divided as to whether or not there is a causal link between the behavior of young people and violence in video gaming. Much less discussion is devoted to how cultural and political engagement finds new channels in video games to confront dominant opinions and perceptions in society. However, a more recent body of scientific work cons...
Five years ago in the February, 2007, issue of LLT, I wrote about developments in digital video of potential interest to language teachers. Since then, there have been major changes in options for video capture, editing, and delivery. One of the most significant has been the rise in popularity of video-based storytelling, enabled largely by…
The Emergency Medical Video Multiplexing Transport System (EMTS) is designed to support prehospital cares by delivering high quality live video streams of patients in an ambulance to emergency doctors in a remote hospital via satellite communications. The important feature is that EMTS divides a patient's live video scene into four pieces and transports the four video streams on four separate network channels. By multiplexing four video streams, EMTS is able to transport high quality videos through low data transmission rate networks such as satellite communications and cellular phone networks. In order to transport live video streams constantly, EMTS adopts Real-time Transport Protocol/Real-time Control Protocol as a network protocol and video stream data are compressed by Moving Picture Experts Group 4 format. As EMTS combines four video streams with checking video frame numbers, it uses a refresh packet that initializes server's frame numbers to synchronize the four video streams.
the collapse of the Soviet Union: What present trends can be observed? How has the Soviet context influenced the popular music of today? How is music performed and consumed? How has the interrelationship between cultural industry and performers developed? How are nationalist sensibilities affecting popular......Fifteen years after the collapse of the Soviet Union, popular music is thriving in the former Soviet territories and covers a broad variety of genres. Among these are rock bands formed in the Soviet era, surviving legends of Soviet pop, and younger bands and performers of the 1990s and 2000s....... Local and foreign musics blend as new impulses arrive from without and arise from within the region. Thanks to the most recent wave of Russian emigrants, these popular musics have also spread to various localities around the world, as exemplified by the phenomenon of "Russendisko" in Berlin...
Popular sovereignty requires that citizens perceive themselves as being able to act and implement decisions and be causally connected to mechanisms of decision-making. I argue that the two most common understandings of the exercise of popular sovereignty — which centre on direct decision making...... by the people as a whole and the indirect exercise of democratic agency by elected representatives, respectively — are inadequate in this respect, and go on to suggest a complementary account that stresses the central role of internally democratic and participatory political parties in actualising popular...... sovereignty. The argument defended contends that popular sovereignty ceases to be a mere fiction only when the people are active makers of decisions and not just passive recipients of the decisions of others; and they can only be active decision-makers when they engage in internally democratic parties...
Maria Brendalí Costa; EST
From the early 1960s, the Popular Church organized and influenced the actions, ideas and objectives of the Brazilian civil society. From the Feminist Theology, the article reflects on the different ways which this praxis influenced, through principles, worldviews and methodologies, the actions performed by women in the 1980s who engaged in the Urban Popular Church in suburbs of cities which belonged to the diocese of Caxias do Sul. The study is bibliographic, documental and is analyzed throug...
Gommans, R.; Müller, C.M.; Stevens, G.W.J.M.; Cillessen, A.H.N.; Bogt, T.F.M. ter
Previous studies have convincingly shown associations between popularity and adolescent drinking. This study examined whether the popularity composition of the peer group and the relative difference in popularity between adolescents and their peers are also associated with adolescent drinking.
Constructing the popular: challenges of archiving ugandan 'popular' music. ... on the intention of the one defining, the popular is also time- and culture-specific. ... in Uganda is commercially determined – by the media and the music industry.
Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...
Full Text Available En este artículo se lleva a cabo, en primer lugar, una propuesta metodológica de cómo abordar el estudio del arte popular desde un punto de vista feminista. A continuación se realiza un acercamiento a un ejemplo específico de arte popular mexicano que se halla en estrecha relación con el arte elitista y se puede considerar que se trata de un proceso de sincretismo cultural un tanto sui generis: las friditas de Josefina Aguilar como recreaciones de la obra plástica de Frida Kahlo. Con base en este “close up” se intenta mostrar un posible método para conocer el arte popular contemplando las divisiones sociales por género, etnia y clase.
Winther, Christian Dahl
This paper focuses on two firms' optimal entry strategies in an emerging market characterized by word-of-mouth effects. Consumers can be of two types depending on which firm's brand they prefer. Firms are asymmetric in their popularity as given by the probability of meeting a fan of its brand. Word......-of-mouth communication influences popularity in the two periods of competition by increasing the likelihood of the late consumer having an affinity towards the brand adopted at the first stage. In this environment firms strategically choose their timing of product introduction knowing that fast introduction is costly. I...... study the subgame perfect equilibria of the game to observe how they connect to firms' popularities, strength of word-ofmouth network effects, and the level of product differentiation. The model shows under what conditions asymmetries in the duopoly should be expected to increase or decrease over time...
Dańda, Jacek; Juszkiewicz, Krzysztof; Leszczuk, Mikołaj; Loziak, Krzysztof; Papir, Zdzisław; Sikora, Marek; Watza, Rafal
The paper discusses two implementation options for a Digital Video Library, a repository used for archiving, accessing, and browsing of video medical records. Two crucial issues to be decided on are a video compression format and a video streaming platform. The paper presents numerous decision factors that have to be taken into account. The compression formats being compared are DICOM as a format representative for medical applications, both MPEGs, and several new formats targeted for an IP networking. The comparison includes transmission rates supported, compression rates, and at least options for controlling a compression process. The second part of the paper presents the ISDN technique as a solution for provisioning of tele-consultation services between medical parties that are accessing resources uploaded to a digital video library. There are several backbone techniques (like corporate LANs/WANs, leased lines or even radio/satellite links) available, however, the availability of network resources for hospitals was the prevailing choice criterion pointing to ISDN solutions. Another way to provide access to the Digital Video Library is based on radio frequency domain solutions. The paper describes possibilities of both, wireless and cellular network's data transmission service to be used as a medical video server transport layer. For the cellular net-work based solution two communication techniques are used: Circuit Switched Data and Packet Switched Data.
Al Hadhrami, Tawfik; Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Grecos, Christos; Kehtarnavaz, Nasser
Video streaming and other multimedia applications account for an ever increasing proportion of all network traffic. The recent adoption of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) as the H.265 standard provides many opportunities for new and improved services multimedia services and applications in the consumer domain. Since the delivery of version one of H.265, the Joint Collaborative Team on Video Coding have been working towards standardisation of a scalable extension (SHVC) to the H.265 standard and a series of range extensions and new profiles. As these enhancements are added to the standard the range of potential applications and research opportunities will expend. For example the use of video is also growing rapidly in other sectors such as safety, security, defence and health with real-time high quality video transmission playing an important role in areas like critical infrastructure monitoring and disaster management. Each of which may benefit from the application of enhanced HEVC/H.265 and SHVC capabilities. The majority of existing research into HEVC/H.265 transmission has focussed on the consumer domain addressing issues such as broadcast transmission and delivery to mobile devices with the lack of freely available tools widely cited as an obstacle to conducting this type of research. In this paper we present a toolset which facilitates the transmission and evaluation of HEVC/H.265 and SHVC encoded video on the popular open source NCTUns simulator. Our toolset provides researchers with a modular, easy to use platform for evaluating video transmission and adaptation proposals on large scale wired, wireless and hybrid architectures. The toolset consists of pre-processing, transmission, SHVC adaptation and post-processing tools to gather and analyse statistics. It has been implemented using HM15 and SHM5, the latest versions of the HEVC and SHVC reference software implementations to ensure that currently adopted proposals for scalable and range extensions to
Popular education, with its agenda for social change, often lacks access to traditional financial support. Strategies for resource development include volunteers, small proportion of public funding, an umbrella organization to distribute funds, and collaboration with adult educators in mainstream institutions. (SK)
Egilmez, Eda; Naylor-Tincknell, Janett
Popularity, as a manifestation of social status, has been widely researched and determined by group members. Prosocial behaviors are actions with intention of benefiting others or society as whole with little or no personal gain and may include helping, cooperating, and other voluntary works. Altruism is a type of prosocial behavior that could…
Yu, Yiqing; Liu, Huayong; Wang, Hongbin; Zhou, Dongru
In this paper, we propose content-based video retrieval, which is a kind of retrieval by its semantical contents. Because video data is composed of multimodal information streams such as video, auditory and textual streams, we describe a strategy of using multimodal analysis for automatic parsing sports video. The paper first defines the basic structure of sports video database system, and then introduces a new approach that integrates visual stream analysis, speech recognition, speech signal processing and text extraction to realize video retrieval. The experimental results for TV sports video of football games indicate that the multimodal analysis is effective for video retrieval by quickly browsing tree-like video clips or inputting keywords within predefined domain.
Nielsen, Jesper Stern; Larsen, Joachim Westergaard; Larsen, Trine Bork
Live streaming from bird nests has become increasingly popular for educational purposes, but may also hold a research potential by enabling direct observations of food provisioning and social interactions. We used video recordings from an Eagle Owl nest to investigate diet composition and prey...... delivery patterns as a function of date, time of day and weather. A total of 72 deliveries were observed with 41 prey items (57%) being identified to species and 18 (25%) to a higher taxonomic group. Birds accounted for 22 individuals (37%) and mammals for 37 individuals (63%). We found a significant...
Gommans, Rob; Müller, Christoph M; Stevens, Gonneke W J M; Cillessen, Antonius H N; Ter Bogt, Tom F M
Previous studies have convincingly shown associations between popularity and adolescent drinking. This study examined whether the popularity composition of the peer group and the relative difference in popularity between adolescents and their peers are also associated with adolescent drinking. Participants were 800 adolescents (M age = 14.73; SD age = 1.00; 51.6 % girls) from 31 classrooms who completed peer ratings of popularity and self-reports of alcohol consumption. Results showed that drinking was higher among popular than unpopular adolescents, higher among popular adolescents surrounded by less popular classmates, and lower in classrooms with more variability in popularity. Thus, beyond individual popularity, peer group popularity composition also should be taken into account when investigating antisocial and health risk behaviors in adolescence such as drinking.
The wide-ranging texts in this book take as their premise the idea that sound is a subject through which popular culture can be analyzed in an innovative way. From an infant’s gurgles over a baby monitor to the roar of the crowd in a stadium to the sub-bass frequencies produced by sound systems...... in the disco era, sound—not necessarily aestheticized as music—is inextricably part of the many domains of popular culture. Expanding the view taken by many scholars of cultural studies, the contributors consider cultural practices concerning sound not merely as semiotic or signifying processes but as material......, physical, perceptual, and sensory processes that integrate a multitude of cultural traditions and forms of knowledge. The chapters discuss conceptual issues as well as terminologies and research methods; analyze historical and contemporary case studies of listening in various sound cultures; and consider...
Williams, Glenn L.
When video replaces film the digitized video data accumulates very rapidly, leading to a difficult and costly data storage problem. One solution exists for cases when the video images represent continuously repetitive 'static scenes' containing negligible activity, occasionally interrupted by short events of interest. Minutes or hours of redundant video frames can be ignored, and not stored, until activity begins. A new, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term or short term changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pretrigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable for archiving the digital stream from only the significant video images.
Full Text Available Video streaming is gaining importance, with the wide popularity of multimedia rich applications in the Internet. Video streams are delay sensitive and require seamless flow for continuous visualization. Properly designed buffers offer a solution to queuing delay. The diagonally opposite QoS metrics associated with video traffic poses an optimization problem, in the design of buffers. This paper is a continuation of our previous work  and deals with the design of buffers. It aims at finding the optimum buffer size for enhancing QoS offered to video traffic. Network-centric QoS provisioning approach, along with hybrid transport layer protocol approach is adopted, to arrive at an optimum size which is independent of RTT. In this combinational approach, buffers of routers and end devices are designed to satisfy the various QoS parameters at the transport layer. OPNET Modeler is used to simulate environments for testing the design. Based on the results of simulation it is evident that the hybrid transport layer protocol approach is best suited for transmitting video traffic as it supports the economical design.
Bavelier, Daphne; Green, C Shawn; Han, Doug Hyun; Renshaw, Perry F; Merzenich, Michael M; Gentile, Douglas A
The popular press is replete with stories about the effects of video and computer games on the brain. Sensationalist headlines claiming that video games 'damage the brain' or 'boost brain power' do not do justice to the complexities and limitations of the studies involved, and create a confusing overall picture about the effects of gaming on the brain. Here, six experts in the field shed light on our current understanding of the positive and negative ways in which playing video games can affect cognition and behaviour, and explain how this knowledge can be harnessed for educational and rehabilitation purposes. As research in this area is still in its early days, the contributors of this Viewpoint also discuss several issues and challenges that should be addressed to move the field forward.
Länsitie, Janne; Stevenson, Blair; Männistö, Riku; Karjalainen, Tommi; Karjalainen, Asko
The short film is an introduction to the concept of video pedagogy. The five categories of video pedagogy further elaborate how videos can be used as a part of instruction and learning process. Most pedagogical videos represent more than one category. A video itself doesn’t necessarily define the category – the ways in which the video is used as a part of pedagogical script are more defining factors. What five categories did you find? Did you agree with the categories, or are more...
Kearney, Matthew; Jones, Glynis; Roberts, Lynn
This paper describes an emerging learning design for a popular genre of learner-generated video projects: "Ideas Videos" or "iVideos." These advocacy-style videos are short, two-minute, digital videos designed "to evoke powerful experiences about educative ideas" (Wong, Mishra, Koehler & Siebenthal, 2007, p1). We…
Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Physical measurements and attributes of stream crossing structures and adjacent stream reaches which are used to provide a relative rating of aquatic organism...
Full Text Available Peer-to-peer (P2P systems are becoming a popular means of streaming audio and video content but they are prone to bandwidth starvation if selfish peers do not contribute bandwidth to other peers. We prove that an incentive mechanism can be created for a live streaming P2P protocol while preserving the asymptotic properties of randomized gossip-based streaming. In order to show the utility of our result, we adapt a distributed incentive scheme from P2P file storage literature to the live streaming scenario. We provide simulation results that confirm the ability to achieve a constant download rate (in time, per peer that is needed for streaming applications on peers. The incentive scheme fairly differentiates peers' download rates according to the amount of useful bandwidth they contribute back to the P2P system, thus creating a powerful quality-of-service incentive for peers to contribute bandwidth to other peers. We propose a functional architecture and protocol format for a gossip-based streaming system with incentive mechanisms, and present evaluation data from a real implementation of a P2P streaming application.
Raja, Gulistan; Khan, Awais
High definition video (HDV) is becoming popular day by day. This paper describes the performance analysis of latest upcoming video standard known as High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC). HEVC is designed to fulfil all the requirements for future high definition videos. In this paper, three configurations (intra only, low delay and random access) of HEVC are analyzed using various 480p, 720p and 1080p high definition test video sequences. Simulation results show the superior objective and subjective quality of HEVC
Frith, Simon; Cloonan, Martin
This special issue of Popular Music has its origins in a seminar organised at the University of Stirling in 2004. This meeting, one of a series on cultural policy, brought together researchers from a number of European countries who were asked to describe state music policy in their respective countries and to reflect on what differences, if any, such policies had made to recent national music history. As the seminar’s organisers, we were interested in a couple of issues: first, how policy ap...
Blasco Fernando Checa Montúfar
Full Text Available El CIESPAL desarrolló un estudio sobre los usos y preferencias de los medios de información y de los mensajes en algunos sectores populares del Ecuador. La mayoría de los campesinos escuchan la radio pero aman la televisión. El Comercio de Quito y el Universo de Guayaquil son los diarios preferidos. En Quito se leen menos periódicos que en Guayaquil y las redes comunitarias funcionan muy bien en la costa del país.
Sílvia Maria Azevedo
Full Text Available O presente trabalho focaliza a figura do diabo participando de duas expressões da chamada cultura popular medieval. Por meio de espetáculos como o Carnaval, a Festa dos Loucos, a Festa do Asno, procurei aprender, através da figura demoníaca, o intercâmbio entre duas formas de cultura - uma, séria, religiosa, feudal - relacionada com o mundo das instituições medievais - outra, cômica, irreverente, profana - ligada ao mundo medieval não institucionalizado.
Brunie, Lionel; Favory, Loic; Gelas, J. P.; Lefevre, Laurent; Mostefaoui, Ahmed; Nait-Abdesselam, F.
Video databases became an active field of research during the last decade. The main objective in such systems is to provide users with capabilities to friendly search, access and playback distributed stored video data in the same way as they do for traditional distributed databases. Hence, such systems need to deal with hard issues : (a) video documents generate huge volumes of data and are time sensitive (streams must be delivered at a specific bitrate), (b) contents of video data are very hard to be automatically extracted and need to be humanly annotated. To cope with these issues, many approaches have been proposed in the literature including data models, query languages, video indexing etc. In this paper, we present SIRSALE : a set of video databases management tools that allow users to manipulate video documents and streams stored in large distributed repositories. All the proposed tools are based on generic models that can be customized for specific applications using ad-hoc adaptation modules. More precisely, SIRSALE allows users to : (a) browse video documents by structures (sequences, scenes, shots) and (b) query the video database content by using a graphical tool, adapted to the nature of the target video documents. This paper also presents an annotating interface which allows archivists to describe the content of video documents. All these tools are coupled to a video player integrating remote VCR functionalities and are based on active network technology. So, we present how dedicated active services allow an optimized video transport for video streams (with Tamanoir active nodes). We then describe experiments of using SIRSALE on an archive of news video and soccer matches. The system has been demonstrated to professionals with a positive feedback. Finally, we discuss open issues and present some perspectives.
D. R. Marković
Full Text Available From the perspective of average viewer, high definition video streams such as HD (High Definition and UHD (Ultra HD are increasing their internet presence year over year. This is not surprising, having in mind expansion of HD streaming services, such as YouTube, Netflix etc. Therefore, high definition video streams are starting to challenge network resource allocation with their bandwidth requirements and statistical characteristics. Need for analysis and modeling of this demanding video traffic has essential importance for better quality of service and experience support. In this paper we use an easy-to-apply statistical model for prediction of 4K video traffic. Namely, seasonal autoregressive modeling is applied in prediction of 4K video traffic, encoded with HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding. Analysis and modeling were performed within R programming environment using over 17.000 high definition video frames. It is shown that the proposed methodology provides good accuracy in high definition video traffic modeling.
Mortensen, Mark; Schlieve, Paul; Young, Jon
Describes streaming media, an audio/video presentation that is delivered across a network so that it is viewed while being downloaded onto the user's computer, including a continuous stream of video that can be pre-recorded or live. Discusses its use for nontraditional students in higher education and reports on implementation experiences. (LRW)
Kratzwald, Bernhard; Huang, Zhiwu; Paudel, Danda Pani; Dinesh, Acharya; Van Gool, Luc
In this paper, we aim to improve the state-of-the-art video generative adversarial networks (GANs) with a view towards multi-functional applications. Our improved video GAN model does not separate foreground from background nor dynamic from static patterns, but learns to generate the entire video clip conjointly. Our model can thus be trained to generate - and learn from - a broad set of videos with no restriction. This is achieved by designing a robust one-stream video generation architectur...
Full Text Available Video is a popular and a motivating potential medium in schools. Using video in the language classroom helps the language teachers in many different ways. Video, for instance, brings the outside world into the language classroom, providing the class with many different topics and reasons to talk about. It can provide comprehensible input to the learners through contextualised models of language use. It also offers good opportunities to introduce native English speech into the language classroom. Through this article I will try to show what the benefits of using video are and, at the end, I present an instrument to select and classify video materials.
Gommans, Rob; M?ller, Christoph M.; Stevens, Gonneke W. J. M.; Cillessen, Antonius H. N.; Ter Bogt, Tom F. M.
Previous studies have convincingly shown associations between popularity and adolescent drinking. This study examined whether the popularity composition of the peer group and the relative difference in popularity between adolescents and their peers are also associated with adolescent drinking. Participants were 800 adolescents (M age?=?14.73; SDage?=?1.00; 51.6?% girls) from 31 classrooms who completed peer ratings of popularity and self-reports of alcohol consumption. Results showed that dri...
Hollingdale, Jack; Greitemeyer, Tobias
BACKGROUND: In recent years the video game industry has surpassed both the music and video industries in sales. Currently violent video games are among the most popular video games played by consumers, most specifically First-Person Shooters (FPS). Technological advancements in game play experience including the ability to play online has accounted for this increase in popularity. Previous research, utilising the General Aggression Model (GAM), has identified that violent video games increase...
Exarchakos, G.; Druda, L.; Menkovski, V.; Bellavista, P.; Liotta, A.
Skype is one of the most popular video call services in the current Internet world. One of its strengths is the use of an adaptive mechanism to match the constraints of the underlying network. This work is focused on how this mechanism can maximize the video quality as perceived by the viewers using
Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin
Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.
Li, Huiying; Forchhammer, Søren
MPEG coded video may be processed for quality assessment or postprocessed to reduce coding artifacts or transcoded. Utilizing information about the MPEG stream may be useful for these tasks. This paper deals with estimating MPEG parameter information from the decoded video stream without access t...
Exarchakos, G.; Menkovski, V.; Liotta, A.
Skype nodes generate a substantial part of real-time bi-directional video traffic nowadays. Employing a range of adaptive mechanisms, the application configures video streaming to meet the requirements of the communication and constraints of the underlying network. While other related works focus on
Full Text Available This Research Paper examines the Iraqi Popular Mobilization Unit’s (PMU messaging on the organisation’s website and social media platforms through early January 2017 to develop a more nuanced understanding of the PMU’s outlook, both present and future. After providing an overview of the PMU’s media presence online, the paper discusses how the organisation promotes its core narrative: that it is a cross-confessional and patriotic force for the defence of all Iraqis against a brutal and evil IS. The paper then addresses the PMU’s use of messaging to refute the sectarian portrayal of the organisation in some quarters before turning to the way the PMU approaches regional and international states in its media. Finally, the paper summarises the PMU’s messaging strategy and discusses how this strategy implies a less threatening future for the organisation than is often anticipated.
Kowalczyk, Marcin; Maksymiuk, Lukasz; Siuzdak, Jerzy
The article was focused on presentation the achievements in a scope of experimental research on transmission of digital video streams in the frame of specially realized for this purpose ROF (Radio over Fiber) network. Its construction was based on the merge of wireless IEEE 802.11 network, popularly referred as Wi-Fi, with a passive optical network PON based on multimode fibers MMF. The proposed approach can constitute interesting proposal in area of solutions in the scope of the systems monitoring extensive, within which is required covering of a large area with ensuring of a relatively high degree of immunity on the interferences transmitted signals from video IP cameras to the monitoring center and a high configuration flexibility (easily change the deployment of cameras) of such network.
Banik, Subhadeep; Isobe, Takanori
Spritz is a stream cipher proposed by Rivest and Schuldt at the rump session of CRYPTO 2014. It is intended to be a replacement of the popular RC4 stream cipher. In this paper we propose distinguishing attacks on the full Spritz, based on a short-term bias in the first two bytes of a keystream an...
Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Thelwall, Mike; Larivière, Vincent; Tsou, Andrew; Mongeon, Philippe; Macaluso, Benoit
The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) conference and associated website of recorded conference presentations (TED Talks) is a highly successful disseminator of science-related videos, claiming over a billion online views. Although hundreds of scientists have presented at TED, little information is available regarding the presenters, their academic credentials, and the impact of TED Talks on the general population. This article uses bibliometric and webometric techniques to gather data on the characteristics of TED presenters and videos and analyze the relationship between these characteristics and the subsequent impact of the videos. The results show that the presenters were predominately male and non-academics. Male-authored videos were more popular and more liked when viewed on YouTube. Videos by academic presenters were more commented on than videos by others and were more liked on YouTube, although there was little difference in how frequently they were viewed. The majority of academic presenters were senior faculty, males, from United States-based institutions, were visible online, and were cited more frequently than average for their field. However, giving a TED presentation appeared to have no impact on the number of citations subsequently received by an academic, suggesting that although TED popularizes research, it may not promote the work of scientists within the academic community. PMID:23638069
Cassidy R Sugimoto
Full Text Available The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design conference and associated website of recorded conference presentations (TED Talks is a highly successful disseminator of science-related videos, claiming over a billion online views. Although hundreds of scientists have presented at TED, little information is available regarding the presenters, their academic credentials, and the impact of TED Talks on the general population. This article uses bibliometric and webometric techniques to gather data on the characteristics of TED presenters and videos and analyze the relationship between these characteristics and the subsequent impact of the videos. The results show that the presenters were predominately male and non-academics. Male-authored videos were more popular and more liked when viewed on YouTube. Videos by academic presenters were more commented on than videos by others and were more liked on YouTube, although there was little difference in how frequently they were viewed. The majority of academic presenters were senior faculty, males, from United States-based institutions, were visible online, and were cited more frequently than average for their field. However, giving a TED presentation appeared to have no impact on the number of citations subsequently received by an academic, suggesting that although TED popularizes research, it may not promote the work of scientists within the academic community.
Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Thelwall, Mike; Larivière, Vincent; Tsou, Andrew; Mongeon, Philippe; Macaluso, Benoit
The TED (Technology, Entertainment, Design) conference and associated website of recorded conference presentations (TED Talks) is a highly successful disseminator of science-related videos, claiming over a billion online views. Although hundreds of scientists have presented at TED, little information is available regarding the presenters, their academic credentials, and the impact of TED Talks on the general population. This article uses bibliometric and webometric techniques to gather data on the characteristics of TED presenters and videos and analyze the relationship between these characteristics and the subsequent impact of the videos. The results show that the presenters were predominately male and non-academics. Male-authored videos were more popular and more liked when viewed on YouTube. Videos by academic presenters were more commented on than videos by others and were more liked on YouTube, although there was little difference in how frequently they were viewed. The majority of academic presenters were senior faculty, males, from United States-based institutions, were visible online, and were cited more frequently than average for their field. However, giving a TED presentation appeared to have no impact on the number of citations subsequently received by an academic, suggesting that although TED popularizes research, it may not promote the work of scientists within the academic community.
Lobato, Ramon; Meese, James; Rasch, Mirjam
How do global audiences use streaming platforms like YouTube, Netflix and iPlayer? How does the experience of digital video change according to location? What strategies do people use to access out-of-region content? What are the commercial and governmental motivations behind geoblocking?
Lobato, Ramon; Meese, James; Rasch, Mirjam
How do global audiences use streaming platforms like YouTube, Netflix and iPlayer? How does the experience of digital video change according to location? What strategies do people use to access out-of-region content? What are the commercial and governmental motivations behind geoblocking?
Van Horn, Royal
Several years after the first audiovisual Macintosh computer appeared, most educators are still oblivious of this technology. Almost every other economic sector (including the porn industry) makes abundant use of digital and streaming video. Desktop movie production is so easy that primary grade students can do it. Tips are provided. (MLH)
Through continuous advancements in streaming and Web technologies over the past decade, the Web has become a platform for media delivery. Web standards like HTML5 have been designed accordingly, allowing for the delivery of applications, high-quality streaming video, and hooks for interoperable content protection. Efficient video encoding algorithms such as AVC/HEVC and streaming protocols such as MPEG-DASH have served as additional triggers for this evolution. Users now employ...
S. Gunkel (Simon); A.J. Jansen (Jack); I. Kegel; D.C.A. Bulterman (Dick); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)
htmlabstractWith the growing popularity of video communication systems, more people are using group video chat, rather than only one-to-one video calls. In such multi-party sessions, remote participants compete for the available screen space and bandwidth. A common solution is showing the current
David I. King; Richard M. DeGraaf; Paul J. Champlin; Tracey B. Champlin
Video monitoring of active bird nests is gaining popularity among researchers because it eliminates many of the biases associated with reliance on incidental observations of predation events or use of artificial nests, but the expense of video systems may be prohibitive. Also, the range and efficiency of current video monitoring systems may be limited by the need to...
Parks, Nancy S.
Art education has been in the midst of a transformation shaped by several factors, including changes in contemporary art theories, political and economic factors, and technological developments. Film, music videos, advertisements, video games and other forms of popular culture are shaping how students learn today. Discussions about video gaming…
Zhang, Luming; Jing, Peiguang; Su, Yuting; Zhang, Chao; Shaoz, Ling
Leisure tourism is an indispensable activity in urban people's life. Due to the popularity of intelligent mobile devices, a large number of photos and videos are recorded during a trip. Therefore, the ability to vividly and interestingly display these media data is a useful technique. In this paper, we propose SnapVideo, a new method that intelligently converts a personal album describing of a trip into a comprehensive, aesthetically pleasing, and coherent video clip. The proposed framework contains three main components. The scenic spot identification model first personalizes the video clips based on multiple prespecified audience classes. We then search for some auxiliary related videos from YouTube 1 according to the selected photos. To comprehensively describe a scenery, the view generation module clusters the crawled video frames into a number of views. Finally, a probabilistic model is developed to fit the frames from multiple views into an aesthetically pleasing and coherent video clip, which optimally captures the semantics of a sightseeing trip. Extensive user studies demonstrated the competitiveness of our method from an aesthetic point of view. Moreover, quantitative analysis reflects that semantically important spots are well preserved in the final video clip. 1 https://www.youtube.com/.
Full Text Available Film culture in Nigeria has become very popular among Nigerian and transnational audiences especially in Africa to the extent that there is hardly a day people do not look for new films produced by Nollywood. In the same light, there is hardly a street in the country where one cannot find at least a video shop that distributes these films. Young and old people especially those in the rural areas are often found hanging around these shops to catch a glimpse of any of the films advertised by retail outlets. This has therefore proven the popularity of Nollywood productions among the people, who see in these films issues of culture that engage their attention and also try to give them awareness about socio-cultural practices that are common in the society. A major problem of concern is that although these films expose and treat cultural issues that affect the society, their promotion of a true national identity is questionable. In this regard, this paper is an attempt to examine how the films produced by Nollywood have been able to promote national identity vis-à-vis showcasing the cultural values of the people that can be cherished in the Nigerian society and beyond. Arguments on this will be done through qualitative (interview method and supported by Kantian morality theory, which will help in concluding that as popular culture, Nigerian films have created among Nigerians and the world some cultural practices that tend to give the Nigerian people a negative identity.
Increased reliance on mobile devices and streaming of video content are two of the most recent changes that have led those in the video distribution industry to be concerned about the shifting or erosion of traditional advertising revenues. Infrastructure providers also need to position themselves to take advantage of these trends. Mobile Video with Mobile IPv6provides an overview of the current mobile landscape, then delves specifically into the capabilities and operational details of IPv6. The book also addresses 3G and 4G services, the application of Mobile IPv6 to streaming and other mobil
Full Text Available This paper presents about the transmission of Digital Video Broadcasting system with streaming video resolution 640x480 on different IQ rate and modulation. In the video transmission, distortion often occurs, so the received video has bad quality. Key frames selection algorithm is flexibel on a change of video, but on these methods, the temporal information of a video sequence is omitted. To minimize distortion between the original video and received video, we aimed at adding methodology using sequential distortion minimization algorithm. Its aim was to create a new video, better than original video without significant loss of content between the original video and received video, fixed sequentially. The reliability of video transmission was observed based on a constellation diagram, with the best result on IQ rate 2 Mhz and modulation 8 QAM. The best video transmission was also investigated using SEDIM (Sequential Distortion Minimization Method and without SEDIM. The experimental result showed that the PSNR (Peak Signal to Noise Ratio average of video transmission using SEDIM was an increase from 19,855 dB to 48,386 dB and SSIM (Structural Similarity average increase 10,49%. The experimental results and comparison of proposed method obtained a good performance. USRP board was used as RF front-end on 2,2 GHz.
This thesis is based on a detailed analysis of various topics related to the question of whether video games can be art. In the first place it analyzes the current academic discussion on this subject and confronts different opinions of both supporters and objectors of the idea, that video games can be a full-fledged art form. The second point of this paper is to analyze the properties, that are inherent to video games, in order to find the reason, why cultural elite considers video games as i...
Jack E. Williams; Gordon H. Reeves
Restored, high-quality streams provide innumerable benefits to society. In the Pacific Northwest, high-quality stream habitat often is associated with an abundance of salmonid fishes such as chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and steelhead (O. mykiss). Many other native...
Full Text Available the popular DL-Lite family, and study the logic foundations of prediction and explanation over DL-Lite data streams, i.e., reasoning from finite segments of streaming data to conjectures about the content of the streams in the future or in the past. We propose...
E. Liarou (Erietta); R.A. Goncalves (Romulo); S. Idreos (Stratos)
textabstractStream applications gained significant popularity over the last years that lead to the development of specialized stream engines. These systems are designed from scratch with a different philosophy than nowadays database engines in order to cope with the stream applications
Kellems, Ryan O.; Edwards, Sean
Practitioners are constantly searching for evidence-based practices that are effective in teaching academic skills to students with learning disabilities (LD). Video modeling (VM) and video prompting have become popular instructional interventions for many students across a wide range of different disability classifications, including those with…
Mainhart, Robert; Gerraughty, James; Anderson, Kristine M.
Concisely defined, "streaming media" is moving video and/or audio transmitted over the Internet for immediate viewing/listening by an end user. However, at Saint Francis University's Center of Excellence for Remote and Medically Under-Served Areas (CERMUSA), streaming media is approached from a broader perspective. The working definition includes…
Dette kapitel har fokus på metodiske problemstillinger, der opstår i forhold til at bruge (digital) video i forbindelse med forskningskommunikation, ikke mindst online. Video har længe været benyttet i forskningen til dataindsamling og forskningskommunikation. Med digitaliseringen og internettet ...
Kallio, Alexis Anja
Despite many music classrooms welcoming popular musics in striving towards an inclusive and democratic education, there has been relatively little research into teachers' decisions regarding which popular musics are included and which are excluded from classroom activities. This is of particular interest taking into account arguments that the…
Video games are very popular among children in the Western world. This study was done in order to investigate if video games had an effect on 49 Swedish students‟ comprehension of English words (grades 7-8). The investigation was based on questionnaire and word test data. The questionnaire aimed to measure with which frequency students were playing video games, and the word test aimed to measure their word comprehension in general. In addition, data from the word test were used to investigate...
In the popular press, most of the reported effects of video games appear to centre upon the alleged negative consequences such as increased aggression, medical consequences of excessive play, and addiction. Although in extreme cases, video game playing can be addictive, there are many benefts that children and adolescents can get from playing video games. These can be educational, social, and/or therapeutic. This paper examines various issues about the use of video games in the classroom. Thi...
... description services for television are provided on a secondary audio stream, and typically a consumer can... box. The Commission recently adopted rules requiring apparatus that is designed to receive, play back, or record video programming transmitted simultaneously with sound to make secondary audio streams...
Obrusnikova, Iva; Rattigan, Peter J.
Video-based modeling is becoming increasingly popular for teaching fundamental motor skills to children in physical education. Two frequently used video-based instructional strategies that incorporate modeling are video prompting (VP) and video modeling (VM). Both strategies have been used across multiple disciplines and populations to teach a…
Although Edward Said, generally known as one of the founders of postcolonial studies, has written extensively on music, he almost completely ignores popular music. However, the few moments in which he does reflect on popular music are highly revealing. In this article I provide a comprehensive
Marshall, Elizabeth, Ed.; Sensoy, Ozlem, Ed.
"Rethinking Popular Culture and Media" is a provocative collection of articles that begins with the idea that the "popular" in classrooms and in the everyday lives of teachers and students is fundamentally political. This anthology includes outstanding articles by elementary and secondary public school teachers, scholars, and activists who…
Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital representation of the map accompanying the "Kansas stream and river fishery resource evaluation" (R.E. Moss and K. Brunson, 1981.U.S. Fish and Wildlife...
Evensen, Kristian; Kupka, Tomas; Riiser, Haakon; Ni, Pengpeng; Eg, Ragnhild; Griwodz, Carsten; Halvorsen, Pål
Video streaming is predicted to become the dominating traffic in mobile broadband networks. At the same time, adaptive HTTP streaming is developing into the preferred way of streaming media over the Internet. In this paper, we evaluate how different components of a streaming system can be optimized when serving content to mobile devices in particular. We first analyze the media traffic from a Norwegian network and media provider. Based on our findings, we outline benefits and chal...
Nortvig, Anne Mette; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm
This project’s aim was to support and facilitate master’s students’ preparation and collaboration by making video podcasts of short lectures available on YouTube prior to students’ first face-to-face seminar. The empirical material stems from group interviews, from statistical data created through...... YouTube analytics and from surveys answered by students after the seminar. The project sought to explore how video podcasts support learning and reflection online and how students use and reflect on the integration of online activities in the videos. Findings showed that students engaged actively...
Kreitmair, Thomas; Coman, Cristian
This paper presents the results of a study of the impact of network transmission channel parameters on the quality of streaming video data. A common practice for estimating the interpretability of video information is to use the Motion Imagery Quality Equation (MIQE). MIQE combines a few technical features of video images (such as: ground sampling distance, relative edge response, modulation transfer function, gain and signal-to-noise ratio) to estimate the interpretability level. One observation of this study is that the MIQE does not fully account for video-specific parameters such as spatial and temporal encoding, which are relevant to appreciating degradations caused by the streaming process. In streaming applications the main artifacts impacting the interpretability level are related to distortions in the image caused by lossy decompression of video data (due to loss of information and in some cases lossy re-encoding by the streaming server). One parameter in MIQE that is influenced by network transmission errors is the Relative Edge Response (RER). The automated calculation of RER includes the selection of the best edge in the frame, which in case of network errors may be incorrectly associated with a blocked region (e.g. low resolution areas caused by loss of information). A solution is discussed in this document to address this inconsistency by removing corrupted regions from the image analysis process. Furthermore, a recommendation is made on how to account for network impairments in the MIQE, such that a more realistic interpretability level is estimated in case of streaming applications.
Full Text Available The literature on the popular music museum has primarily focused on the study of heritage and cultural memory with a secondary focus on tourism. Given the unprecedented expansion of the museum sector worldwide in recent decades, which has produced an increasing number of major museums dedicated to popular music, it is an opportune time to expand this range of analytical concerns. Specifically, the development of popular music museums has not yet been closely examined within the broader historical trajectory of the so-called ‘new museum.’ This article seeks to outline the range of exhibitionary types commonly used in a range of high-profile popular music museums in pursuit of this line of inquiry. The goal is not simply to produce a generic survey or typology of displays, but to place the use of different forms of museum display within the specific historical trajectory that has produced steadily larger numbers of these kinds of museums in recent years. I organize these exhibitionary types into two broad streams of museum exhibition practice implied in the historical survey presented here: a populist-vernacular stream of museum display and an institutional-educational one. I seek to place the exhibitionary practices of contemporary popular music museums in a broader and longer trajectory of similar practices in order to get a more grounded sense of the more important characteristics of these kinds of museums.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Islands in the Stream is a three-month scientific expedition to marine protected areas and other habitats being considered for protection from offshore of Belize in...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Islands in the Stream is a three-month scientific expedition to marine protected areas and other habitats being considered for protection from offshore of Belize in...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Islands in the Stream is a three-month scientific expedition to marine protected areas and other habitats being considered for protection from offshore of Belize in...
Full Text Available Human motion sensing technology gains tremendous popularity nowadays with practical applications such as video surveillance for security, hand signing, and smart-home and gaming. These applications capture human motions in real-time from video sensors, the data patterns are nonstationary and ever changing. While the hardware technology of such motion sensing devices as well as their data collection process become relatively mature, the computational challenge lies in the real-time analysis of these live feeds. In this paper we argue that traditional data mining methods run short of accurately analyzing the human activity patterns from the sensor data stream. The shortcoming is due to the algorithmic design which is not adaptive to the dynamic changes in the dynamic gesture motions. The successor of these algorithms which is known as data stream mining is evaluated versus traditional data mining, through a case of gesture recognition over motion data by using Microsoft Kinect sensors. Three different subjects were asked to read three comic strips and to tell the stories in front of the sensor. The data stream contains coordinates of articulation points and various positions of the parts of the human body corresponding to the actions that the user performs. In particular, a novel technique of feature selection using swarm search and accelerated PSO is proposed for enabling fast preprocessing for inducing an improved classification model in real-time. Superior result is shown in the experiment that runs on this empirical data stream. The contribution of this paper is on a comparative study between using traditional and data stream mining algorithms and incorporation of the novel improved feature selection technique with a scenario where different gesture patterns are to be recognized from streaming sensor data.
The Video Comparator is a comparative gage that uses electronic images from two sources, a standard and an unknown. Two matched video cameras are used to obtain the electronic images. The video signals are mixed and displayed on a single video receiver (CRT). The video system is manufactured by ITP of Chatsworth, CA and is a Tele-Microscope II, Model 148. One of the cameras is mounted on a toolmaker's microscope stand and produces a 250X image of a cast. The other camera is mounted on a stand and produces an image of a 250X template. The two video images are mixed in a control box provided by ITP and displayed on a CRT. The template or the cast can be moved to align the desired features. Vertical reference lines are provided on the CRT, and a feature on the cast can be aligned with a line on the CRT screen. The stage containing the casts can be moved using a Boeckleler micrometer equipped with a digital readout, and a second feature aligned with the reference line and the distance moved obtained from the digital display
A HTTP based video transmission system has been built upon the p2p(peer to peer) network structure utilizing the Java technologies. This makes the video monitoring available to any host which has been connected to the World Wide Web in any method, including those hosts behind firewalls or in isolated sub-networking. In order to achieve this, a video source peer has been developed, together with the client video playback peer. The video source peer can respond to the video stream request in HTTP protocol. HTTP based pipe communication model is developed to speeding the transmission of video stream data, which has been encoded into fragments using the JPEG codec. To make the system feasible in conveying video streams between arbitrary peers on the web, a HTTP protocol based relay peer is implemented as well. This video monitoring system has been applied in a tele-robotic system as a visual feedback to the operator.
In Canada, astronomy has a longer history than most other sciences. The European settlers had to master the rudiments of astronomical practice, while the natural setting promoted geophysical observations of all kinds. In the nineteenth century, astronomy was part of natural theology and a resource for timekeepers and cartographers, but was increasingly pursued for its own sake by laymen. The creation of the Royal Astronomical Society of Canada marks a turning point. Though it appeared to unite professionals and amateurs, it became early on a conduit for the knowledge of the former to flow to the latter, supplementing the purely academic stream. It followed upon the success of new publications meant to acquaint readers with the facts of astronomy, for the hitherto unsuspected pleasures they might bring. In fact, some Canadian works of this kind reached a wide audience, in Canada and abroad, and the post-WWII period saw an almost complete disjunction between the formerly utilitarian aspects of popularization a nd the catering to interested laypeople, distinct from the professionals. By 1976, the transformation was complete. The science mastered by explorers and appealed to by believers had become both a field for professional investigations and a widely popularized corpus of star lore
Full Text Available Designing an effective and high performance network requires an accurate characterization and modeling of network traffic. The modeling of video frame sizes is normally applied in simulation studies and mathematical analysis and generating streams for testing and compliance purposes. Besides, video traffic assumed as a major source of multimedia traffic in future heterogeneous network. Therefore, the statistical distribution of video data can be used as the inputs for performance modeling of networks. The finding of this paper comprises the theoretical definition of distribution which seems to be relevant to the video trace in terms of its statistical properties and finds the best distribution using both the graphical method and the hypothesis test. The data set used in this article consists of layered video traces generating from Scalable Video Codec (SVC video compression technique of three different movies.
Berger, Jonah; Packard, Grant
Why do some cultural items become popular? Although some researchers have argued that success is random, we suggest that how similar items are to each other plays an important role. Using natural language processing of thousands of songs, we examined the relationship between lyrical differentiation (i.e., atypicality) and song popularity. Results indicated that the more different a song's lyrics are from its genre, the more popular it becomes. This relationship is weaker in genres where lyrics matter less (e.g., dance) or where differentiation matters less (e.g., pop) and occurs for lyrical topics but not style. The results shed light on cultural dynamics, why things become popular, and the psychological foundations of culture more broadly.
Nielsen, Rasmus Kleis; Vaccari, Cristian
The number of website visits, Facebook friends, or Twitter followers that politicians attract varies greatly, but little is known about what drives politicians' online popularity. In this article, we use data from a systematic tracking of congressional candidates' popularity on four web platforms...... in the 112 most competitive congressional districts in the 2010 U.S. midterm elections to address that question. Using multivariate regression models, we show that while district-level socioeconomic characteristics have little effect on candidates' online popularity, challengers and candidates in open......-seat races tend to attract larger audiences online, as do candidates who are more visible on political blogs. Surprisingly, how intensely candidates are covered in news media, how popular they are in opinion polls, and how much money they spend during the campaign show no significant effect. These findings...
Young, Darrell L.
The advancement in video compression technology can result in more sensitivity to bit errors. Bit errors can propagate causing sustained loss of interpretability. In the worst case, the decoder "freezes" until it can re-synchronize with the stream. Detection of artifacts enables downstream processes to avoid corrupted frames. A simple template approach to detect block stripes and a more advanced cascade approach to detect compression artifacts was shown to correlate to the presence of artifacts and decoder messages.
Ton-That, Vinh; Vong, Chi-Tai; Nguyen-Dao, Xuan-Truong; Tran, Minh-Triet
At DAVIS-2016 Challenge, many state-of-art video segmentation methods achieve potential results, but they still much depend on annotated frames to distinguish between background and foreground. It takes a lot of time and efforts to create these frames exactly. In this paper, we introduce a method to segment objects from video based on keywords given by user. First, we use a real-time object detection system - YOLOv2 to identify regions containing objects that have labels match with the given keywords in the first frame. Then, for each region identified from the previous step, we use Pyramid Scene Parsing Network to assign each pixel as foreground or background. These frames can be used as input frames for Object Flow algorithm to perform segmentation on entire video. We conduct experiments on a subset of DAVIS-2016 dataset in half the size of its original size, which shows that our method can handle many popular classes in PASCAL VOC 2012 dataset with acceptable accuracy, about 75.03%. We suggest widely testing by combining other methods to improve this result in the future.
Williams, Glenn L.
Long-duration, on-orbit microgravity experiments require a combination of high resolution and high frame rate video data acquisition. The digitized high-rate video stream presents a difficult data storage problem. Data produced at rates of several hundred million bytes per second may require a total mission video data storage requirement exceeding one terabyte. A NASA-designed, VLSI-based, highly parallel digital state machine generates a digital trigger signal at the onset of a video event. High capacity random access memory storage coupled with newly available fuzzy logic devices permits the monitoring of a video image stream for long term (DC-like) or short term (AC-like) changes caused by spatial translation, dilation, appearance, disappearance, or color change in a video object. Pre-trigger and post-trigger storage techniques are then adaptable to archiving only the significant video images.
Ismail Amin Ali
Full Text Available A compressed video bitstream can be partitioned according to the coding priority of the data, allowing prioritized wireless communication or selective dropping in a congested channel. Known as data partitioning in the H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC codec, this paper introduces a further sub-partition of one of the H.264/AVC codec’s three data-partitions. Results show a 5 dB improvement in Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR through this innovation. In particular, the data partition containing intra-coded residuals is sub-divided into data from: those macroblocks (MBs naturally intra-coded, and those MBs forcibly inserted for non-periodic intra-refresh. Interactive user-to-user video streaming can benefit, as then HTTP adaptive streaming is inappropriate and the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC codec is too energy demanding.
George Nauck of ENCORE!!! invented and markets the Advanced Range Performance (ARPM) Video Golf System for measuring the result of a golf swing. After Nauck requested their assistance, Marshall Space Flight Center scientists suggested video and image processing/computing technology, and provided leads on commercial companies that dealt with the pertinent technologies. Nauck contracted with Applied Research Inc. to develop a prototype. The system employs an elevated camera, which sits behind the tee and follows the flight of the ball down range, catching the point of impact and subsequent roll. Instant replay of the video on a PC monitor at the tee allows measurement of the carry and roll. The unit measures distance and deviation from the target line, as well as distance from the target when one is selected. The information serves as an immediate basis for making adjustments or as a record of skill level progress for golfers.
This article investigates the distribution of Italian horror cinema in the age of video streaming, analyzing its presence and categorization on the platform Lovefilm Instant UK, in order to investigate the importance of ‘niche’ in what is known as the long tail of online distribution and the online availability of exploitation films. I argue that looking at the streaming presence of Italian horror and comparing it to its prior distribution on home video formats (in particular VHS and DVD) we ...
Young, Jeffrey R.
This article takes a look at the rising popularity of professors as the latest YouTube stars. The popularity of their appearances on YouTube and other video-sharing sites is making it possible for classrooms to be opened up and making teaching--which once took place behind closed doors--a more public art. Web video has generated a new form of…
Tuna, Tayfun; Subhlok, Jaspal; Barker, Lecia; Shah, Shishir; Johnson, Olin; Hovey, Christopher
Videos of classroom lectures have proven to be a popular and versatile learning resource. A key shortcoming of the lecture video format is accessing the content of interest hidden in a video. This work meets this challenge with an advanced video framework featuring topical indexing, search, and captioning (ICS videos). Standard optical character recognition (OCR) technology was enhanced with image transformations for extraction of text from video frames to support indexing and search. The images and text on video frames is analyzed to divide lecture videos into topical segments. The ICS video player integrates indexing, search, and captioning in video playback providing instant access to the content of interest. This video framework has been used by more than 70 courses in a variety of STEM disciplines and assessed by more than 4000 students. Results presented from the surveys demonstrate the value of the videos as a learning resource and the role played by videos in a students learning process. Survey results also establish the value of indexing and search features in a video platform for education. This paper reports on the development and evaluation of ICS videos framework and over 5 years of usage experience in several STEM courses.
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, ceramics, fashion magazines and folk art as both products and as processes of design, manufacture, distribution, appreciation and use, which must all be taken into account. Precisely because popular cultural forms are both cultural products and commodities, they reveal the complementary nature of the two...... categories of culture and the economy. The paper outlines and analyses the different ways in which social, cultural, symbolic and economic capital are converted by those participating in advertising, ceramic, fashion magazine and folk art worlds, and suggests that popular culture may best be seen as a name...
Waldomiro O. Piazza
Full Text Available Antes de tudo, é preciso ter presente que religiosidade popular não é o mesmo que fenomenologia religiosa, embora estejam intimamente vinculadas entre si. A fenomenologia religiosa é uma ciência que estuda o significado profundo das várias atitudes religiosas que o homem toma motivado por uma experiência religiosa. A religiosidade popular é o complexo destas atitudes condicionadas por alguma estrutura cultural, como a dos primitivos, que se dedicavam à caça, à pesca, à coleta de frutos, ou a dos povos sedentários, dedicados às técnicas agrárias e industriais.
Alhaisoni, M.; Liotta, A.; Ghanbari, M.
P2P TV has emerged as a powerful alternative solution for multimedia streaming over the traditional client-server paradigm. It has proven to be a valid substitute for online applications which offer video-on-demand and real-time video. This is mainly due to the scalability and resiliency that P2P
Popular culture experience in video games creates avenues to practice information literacy skills and model research in a real-world setting. Video games create a unique popular culture experience where players can invest dozens of hours on one game, create characters to identify with, organize skill sets and plot points, collaborate with people…
van Den Broek, Nina; Deutz, Marike H F; Schoneveld, Elke A.; Burk, William J.; Cillessen, Antonius H N
Little is known about individual differences in adolescents’ motivation to achieve and maintain popularity. This study examined the moderating effects of prioritizing popularity on the associations between popularity and adjustment outcomes in late adolescence. Participants were 314 Dutch
Kissel, Brian T.
This article describes how 2 classrooms of 4-year-old children incorporated popular media (cartoons, television shows, video games, movies, and music) into their conversations with peers during writing. The findings assert that (a) children naturally incorporate popular culture into their writing, (b) children include popular culture in their…
Diaz de Chumaceiro, Cora L.
Notes that the popularity of Jane Austen adaptations in theaters, television, and videos increases the probability that patients and therapists may recall these movies in treatment. Underscores excerpts from a comparison of an Austen novel with the psychoanalytic process and highlights available film adaptations in video format. (SC)
Sherer, Pamela; Shea, Timothy
Online videos are used increasingly in higher education teaching as part of the explosion of Web 2.0 tools that are now available. YouTube is one popular example of a video-sharing resource that both faculty and students can use effectively, both inside and outside of the classroom, to engage students in their learning, energize classroom…
Whether a population level increase in physical activity (PA) is critical to reduce obesity in youth. Video games are highly popular and active video games (AVGs) have the potential to play a role in promoting youth PA. Studies on AVG play energy expenditure (EE) and maintenance of play in youth wer...
Ray, Beverly B.; Powell, Angiline; Jacobsen, Brenda
Despite their popularity with learners, many K-12 teachers are reluctant to use video games as learning tools. Addressing issues surrounding this reluctance is important since the educational use of video games is supported by learning theory and an emerging research base. Specifically, this study adopts exploratory research as a means to examine…
Dixon, Peter; Bortolussi, Marisa
This research examined readers' knowledge of popular genres. Participants wrote short essays on fantasy, science fiction, or romance. The similarities among the essays were measured using latent semantic analysis (LSA) and were then analyzed using multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. The clusters and scales were interpreted by searching…
Ortiz, Pedro P.
Reflexiones sobre la relación entre la educación popular con el individuo, la sociedad, la moral, la religión, la industria y la riqueza pública - La educación i el individuo - La educación i la sociedad
Marhuenda Hurtado, Francisco; Ortuño Ortín, Ignacio Isidro
The popular support obtained by two parties who propose two qualitatively different tax schernes is analyzed. We show that if the median voter is below the mean, then any progressive proposal always wins over a regressive one, provided it leaves the poorest agent at least as well off as the latter does.
... patterns of communication among scientists, popular communication to the public and science in literature and drama. This three-part framework shows how historical and cultural factors operate in today's complex communication landscape, and should be actively considered when designing and evaluating science communication. Ideal for students and p...
to persist in gathering Olympic Games information. In other words, does the relationship between demographics and knowledge about the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games differ according to the use of mobile phones among migrant workers? Results indicate that television became the primary source of Olympic Games news...... of people to enjoy the Olympic Games, and popularizing knowledge....
to persist in gathering Olympic Games information. In other words, does the relationship between demographics and knowledge about the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games differ according to the use of mobile phones among migrant workers? Results indicate that television became the primary source of Olympic Games news...... of people to enjoy the Olympic Games, and popularizing knowledge....
de Melo Neto, José Francisco; da Costa, Francisco Xavier Pereira
This article seeks to show the relation between popular education and solidarity economy in experiences of solidarity economy enterprises in Brazil. It is based on diverse experiences which have occurred in various sectors of this economy, highlighting those experiences which took place in João Pessoa with the creation of a Cooperative of Workers…
Already for more than a decade, consumer electronic devices have been available for entertainment, educational, or telecommunication tasks based on multimedia streaming applications, i.e., applications that process streams of audio and video samples in digital form. Multimedia capabilities are
Full Text Available A novel technique is proposed for watermarking of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 compressed video streams. The proposed scheme is applied directly in the domain of MPEG-1 system streams and MPEG-2 program streams (multiplexed streams. Perceptual models are used during the embedding process in order to avoid degradation of the video quality. The watermark is detected without the use of the original video sequence. A modified correlation-based detector is introduced that applies nonlinear preprocessing before correlation. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed scheme is able to withstand several common attacks. The resulting watermarking system is very fast and therefore suitable for copyright protection of compressed video.
Childers, Chad; Rizzo, Frank; Bangert, Linda
This paper discusses streaming media for World Wide Web-based training (WBT). The first section addresses WBT in the 21st century, including the Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL) standard that allows multimedia content such as text, pictures, sound, and video to be synchronized for a coherent learning experience. The second…
Hansen, Morten; Sørensen, Helge Bjarup Dissing; Birkemark, Christian M.
This paper concerns automatic video surveillance of outdoor scenes using a single camera. The first step in automatic interpretation of the video stream is activity detection based on background subtraction. Usually, this process will generate a large number of false alarms in outdoor scenes due...
Blankenbeckler, Logan Bryan
Over the past few decades, video games have become a popular avenue for dissemination of information and publicity about video games is word-of-mouth sharing. Thus, it is imperative for researchers to examine the social, and individual processes that guide this behavior. Focusing on prerelease sharing behavior specifically, this pair of studies aimed to identify predictors and dimensions of video game information sharing, and explore the impact content characteristics have on individuals' ...
Evans, Michael A.; Jones, Brett D.; Akalin, Sehmuz
Because video games are so popular with young people, researchers have explored ways to use game play to engage students in school subjects (Peppler & Kafai, 2007; Rockwell & Kee, 2011; Small, 2011). Motivating students in science is especially important because of declines both in the number of young people who choose science careers and…
An expert on the sociology of video games highlights the power of this medium to popularize violence among children. But few are aware that some of the most technologically potent products are violent war games now being produced at taxpayer expense. These are provided free as a recruiting tool by the United States military. The author contends…
Full Text Available In recent years, data streams have become an increasingly important area of research for the computer science, database and statistics communities. Data streams are ordered and potentially unbounded sequences of data points created by a typically non-stationary data generating process. Common data mining tasks associated with data streams include clustering, classification and frequent pattern mining. New algorithms for these types of data are proposed regularly and it is important to evaluate them thoroughly under standardized conditions. In this paper we introduce stream, a research tool that includes modeling and simulating data streams as well as an extensible framework for implementing, interfacing and experimenting with algorithms for various data stream mining tasks. The main advantage of stream is that it seamlessly integrates with the large existing infrastructure provided by R. In addition to data handling, plotting and easy scripting capabilities, R also provides many existing algorithms and enables users to interface code written in many programming languages popular among data mining researchers (e.g., C/C++, Java and Python. In this paper we describe the architecture of stream and focus on its use for data stream clustering research. stream was implemented with extensibility in mind and will be extended in the future to cover additional data stream mining tasks like classification and frequent pattern mining.
Bouten, Niels; Latré, Steven; Famaey, Jeroen; Van Leekwijck, W; De Turck, Filip
HTTP Adaptive Streaming (HAS) is becoming the de-facto standard for Over-The-Top video streaming services. Video content is temporally split into segments which are offered at multiple qualities to the clients. These clients autonomously select the quality layer matching the current state of the network through a quality selection heuristic. Recently, academia and industry have begun evaluating the feasibility of adopting layered video coding for HAS. Instead of downloading one file for a cer...
Full Text Available A green ciliate Paramecium bursaria, bearing several hundreds of endosymbiotic algae, demonstrates rotational microtubule-based cytoplasmic streaming, in which cytoplasmic granules and endosymbiotic algae flow in a constant direction. However, its physiological significance is still unknown. We investigated physiological roles of cytoplasmic streaming in P. bursaria through host cell cycle using video-microscopy. Here, we found that cytoplasmic streaming was arrested in dividing green paramecia and the endosymbiotic algae proliferated only during the arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. Interestingly, arrest of cytoplasmic streaming with pressure or a microtubule drug also induced proliferation of endosymbiotic algae independently of host cell cycle. Thus, cytoplasmic streaming may control the algal proliferation in P. bursaria. Furthermore, confocal microscopic observation revealed that a division septum was formed in the constricted area of a dividing paramecium, producing arrest of cytoplasmic streaming. This is a first report to suggest that cytoplasmic streaming controls proliferation of eukaryotic cells.
using a Markov Chain approach leading to a method for approximating the packet delay distribution. Based on the resulting distribution, it is discussed how the video encoding rate can be chosen in order to reduce the expected distortion of streams transmitted through Broadcast Channels.
Hmayda, Mounira; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad
Automatic identification of television programs in the TV stream is an important task for operating archives. This article proposes a new spatio-temporal approach to identify the programs in TV stream into two main steps: First, a reference catalogue for video features visual jingles built. We operate the features that characterize the instances of the same program type to identify the different types of programs in the flow of television. The role of video features is to represent the visual invariants for each visual jingle using appropriate automatic descriptors for each television program. On the other hand, programs in television streams are identified by examining the similarity of the video signal for visual grammars in the catalogue. The main idea of the identification process is to compare the visual similarity of the video signal features in the flow of television to the catalogue. After presenting the proposed approach, the paper overviews encouraging experimental results on several streams extracted from different channels and compounds of several programs.
Rúrion Soares Melo
Full Text Available Nossa música, rica e moderna, não pode ser integralmente enquadrada em tipologias. Este artigo destaca a importância do material musical e da autonomia nos procedimentos composicionais, e propõe que a compreensão das obras de Egberto Gismonti não pode se restringir aos elementos propriamente "brasileiros" do "nacional-popular".Brazilian music, rich and modern, cannot be integrally fit in typologies. This article detaches the importance of the musical material and the autonomy in the compositional procedures, and considers that the understanding of the work of Egberto Gismonti cannot be restricted to strictly "Brazilian" elements of the "nacional-popular".
Paulo J. Krischke
Full Text Available This paper discusses some interfaces between the approaches to political learning, and their reference to situations of social exclusion, conflict and popular organization. The first part of the paper discusses the approach to the study of political learning among the elites; the second part examines approaches to research of political culture among the masses; and the third part outlines an alternative approach to political learning derived from Jürgen Habermass theory of communicative action. In the paper these approaches are applied to the study of a territory of exclusion, conflict, and popular organisation (a group of favelas in downtown Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil. Finally, the paper outlines some procedures to achieve a more general understanding of political learning
... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION [DA 10-2320] Video Programming and Emergency Access Advisory... appointment of members of the Video Programming and Emergency Access Advisory Committee (``Committee'' or... change of the Committee's popular name to the Video Programming Accessibility Advisory Committee (``VPAAC...
The US has moved from representative democracy to popular democracy and public scrutiny is unrelenting. Any hope of success on their part in resolving the nuclear waste question hinges on their ability to condition themselves to operate in a popular democracy environment. Those opposed to the siting of high- and low-level waste repositories have already developed a set of recurring themes: (1) the siting criteria are fatally flawed; (2) the criteria are not adequate; (3) the process is driven by politics not science; (4) unrealistic deadlines lead to dangerous shortcuts; (5) transportation experience is lacking; (6) the scientific community does not really know how to dispose of the wastes. They must continue to tell the public that if science has brought us problems, then the answer can be only more knowledge - not less. Failure by their profession to recognize that popular democracy is a fact and that nuclear issues need to be addressed in humanistic terms raises the question of whether America is philosophically suited for the expanded use of nuclear power in the future - or for that matter for leadership in the world of tomorrow
We present queueing-based algorithms to calculate the bandwidth required for a video stream so that the three main Quality of Service constraints, i.e., end-to-end delay, jitter and packet loss, are ensured. Conversational and streaming video-based applications are becoming a major part of the everyday Internet usage. The quality of these applications (QoS), as experienced by the user, depends on three main metrics of the underlying network, namely, end-to-end delay, jitter and packet loss. These metrics are, in turn, directly related to the capacity of the links that the video traffic trave
van den Broek, Nina; Deutz, Marike H F; Schoneveld, Elke A; Burk, William J; Cillessen, Antonius H N
Little is known about individual differences in adolescents' motivation to achieve and maintain popularity. This study examined the moderating effects of prioritizing popularity on the associations between popularity and adjustment outcomes in late adolescence. Participants were 314 Dutch eleventh-grade students (M age = 16.83 years; 52 % male) who completed measures of popularity, prioritizing popularity, and prosocial, antisocial, and risk behaviors. It was hypothesized that associations between popularity and adjustment outcomes are stronger for adolescents who prioritize popularity. The results indicate that the combination of being popular and valuing popularity was strongly related to antisocial and risk behaviors, but not to prosocial behaviors. Adolescents' social status motivations thus play an important role in the association of popularity with antisocial and risk behaviors in late adolescence.
Huang, Xin; Ukhanova, Ann; Belyaev, Evgeny
The problem of the multimedia scalable video streaming is a current topic of interest. There exist many methods for scalable video coding. This paper is focused on the scalable extension of H.264/AVC (H.264/SVC) and distributed video coding (DVC). The paper presents an efficiency comparison of SV...
Stephen Robert NAGY
Full Text Available Japanese martial arts, here after Japanese budō, are popular cultural icons that are found in films, comics, video games and books. Teaching Japanese budō at university offers a novel way to teach about East Asian and in particular Japanese culture, history, and philosophy while including ideas about the globalization and the localization of culture. Question though remains as to how and what should we teach about the popular culture of Japanese budō at the university level? This paper found that a comprehensive approach to teaching about budō was effective. By using many kinds of materials and the incorporation of opportunities to experience budō and to try budō, students were better able to grasp the historical, cultural and religious characteristics of budō.
Kienzle, Martin G.; Dan, Asit; Sitaram, Dinkar; Tetzlaff, William H.
Video servers need to assign a fixed set of resources to each video stream in order to guarantee on-time delivery of the video data. If a server has insufficient resources to guarantee the delivery, it must reject the stream request rather than slowing down all existing streams. Large scale video servers are being built as clusters of smaller components, so as to be economical, scalable, and highly available. This paper uses a blocking model developed for telephone systems to evaluate video server cluster topologies. The goal is to achieve high utilization of the components and low per-stream cost combined with low blocking probability and high user satisfaction. The analysis shows substantial economies of scale achieved by larger server images. Simple distributed server architectures can result in partitioning of resources with low achievable resource utilization. By comparing achievable resource utilization of partitioned and monolithic servers, we quantify the cost of partitioning. Next, we present an architecture for a distributed server system that avoids resource partitioning and results in highly efficient server clusters. Finally, we show how, in these server clusters, further optimizations can be achieved through caching and batching of video streams.
Full Text Available Ambient Video is an emergent cultural phenomenon, with roots that go deeply into the history of experimental film and video art. Ambient Video, like Brian Eno's ambient music, is video that "must be as easy to ignore as notice" . This minimalist description conceals the formidable aesthetic challenge that faces this new form. Ambient video art works will hang on the walls of our living rooms, corporate offices, and public spaces. They will play in the background of our lives, living video paintings framed by the new generation of elegant, high-resolution flat-panel display units. However, they cannot command attention like a film or television show. They will patiently play in the background of our lives, yet they must always be ready to justify our attention in any given moment. In this capacity, ambient video works need to be equally proficient at rewarding a fleeting glance, a more direct look, or a longer contemplative gaze. This paper connects a series of threads that collectively illuminate the aesthetics of this emergent form: its history as a popular culture phenomenon, its more substantive artistic roots in avant-garde cinema and video art, its relationship to new technologies, the analysis of the viewer's conditions of reception, and the work of current artists who practice within this form.
Sharma, Shubhankar; Singh, K. John; Priya, M.
From the past two decades the extreme evolution of the Internet has lead a massive rise in video technology and significantly video consumption over the Internet which inhabits the bulk of data traffic in general. Clearly, video consumes that so much data size on the World Wide Web, to reduce the burden on the Internet and deduction of bandwidth consume by video so that the user can easily access the video data.For this, many video codecs are developed such as HEVC/H.265 and V9. Although after seeing codec like this one gets a dilemma of which would be improved technology in the manner of rate distortion and the coding standard.This paper gives a solution about the difficulty for getting low delay in video compression and video application e.g. ad-hoc video conferencing/streaming or observation by surveillance. Also this paper describes the benchmark of HEVC and V9 technique of video compression on subjective oral estimations of High Definition video content, playback on web browsers. Moreover, this gives the experimental ideology of dividing the video file into several segments for compression and putting back together to improve the efficiency of video compression on the web as well as on the offline mode.
Bildsten, L.; Fryer, C.; Kulkarni, S.
MOTIVATION & PURPOSE: This informal two day workshop is intended to bring together astronomers who monitor the sky for transient phenomena - a field which is poised to take off in the optical band, thanks to the exponential growth in the availability of giga pixel detectors, rapid computing and communication. For somewhat similar technological reasons, decimeter and decameter radio astronomy is also poised to grow in this area. The workshop will focus on astronomical opportunities with ongoing searches and discuss the possibilities with planned facilities in the near term. We hope to rapidly review the status of 'popular' sources (e.g. GRB afterglows, Supernovae, Machos), less popular events (e.g. Novae, geysers and gushers) and then move onto 'odd' but not hopelessly rare events. The spirit is to anticipate some of the discoveries by extending the astrophysical parameter space of known (or knowable) classes of transients. This workshop is part of the ongoing KITP Program "The Supernova Gamma Ray Burst Connection" and has received funding Los Alamos National Laboratory. We will follow the well honed KITP tradition of having fewer talks at the expense of long discussions. All talks will be recorded (per KITP tradition) and made available on the web for enjoyment, education and posterity. In lieu of a traditional poster sessions with old-fashioned easels we offer the Virtual Presence (organized by J. Bloom).
Garcia-Milian, Rolando; Norton, Hannah F; Tennant, Michele R
Social networks such as Facebook allow libraries to be proactive in reaching their users. While some libraries have popular Facebook pages, it remains unclear what attracts users to these pages. This study evaluates relationships between libraries' Facebook page content and popularity. An analysis of 72 academic health sciences libraries' Facebook pages showed positive correlations between number of library fans and number of tabs, photos, events, and wall posts on Facebook. Libraries posting videos had significantly more fans than libraries without them. This study contributes to an understanding of correlations between content and popularity on Facebook, with implications for library outreach.
J.W.M. Kleinrouweler (Jan Willem); S. Cabrero Barros (Sergio); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)
textabstractDynamic adaptive streaming over HTTP (DASH) is a simple, but effective, technology for video streaming over the Internet. It provides adaptive streaming while being highly scalable at the side of the content providers. However, the mismatch between TCP and the adaptive bursty nature of
Moorman, M.; Harned, D. A.; Cuffney, T.; Qian, S.
The U.S Geological Survey (USGS) National Water-Quality Assessment Program (NAWQA) provides information about (1) water-quality conditions and how those conditions vary locally, regionally, and nationally, (2) water-quality trends, and (3) factors that affect those conditions. As part of the NAWQA Program, the Effects of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystems (EUSE) study examined the vulnerability and resilience of streams to urbanization. Completion of the EUSE study has resulted in over 20 scientific publications. Video podcasts are being used in addition to these publications to communicate the relevance of these scientific findings to more general audiences such as resource managers, educational groups, public officials, and the general public. An example of one of the podcasts is a film about the results of modeling the effects urbanization on stream ecology. The film describes some of the results of the EUSE ecological modeling effort and the advantages of the Bayesian and multi-level statistical modeling approaches, while relating the science to fly fishing. The complex scientific discussion combined with the lighter, more popular activity of fly fishing leads to an entertaining forum while educating viewers about a complex topic. This approach is intended to represent the scientists as interesting people with diverse interests. Video can be an effective scientific communication tool for presenting scientific findings to a broad audience. The film is available for access from the EUSE website (http://water.usgs.gov/nawqa/urban/html/podcasts.html). Additional films are planned to be released in 2012 on other USGS project results and programs.
Rodriguez, Arturo A.; Morse, Ken
Software-only video codecs can provide good playback performance in desktop computers with a 486 or 68040 CPU running at 33 MHz without special hardware assistance. Typically, playback of compressed video can be categorized into three tasks: the actual decoding of the video stream, color conversion, and the transfer of decoded video data from system RAM to video RAM. By current standards, good playback performance is the decoding and display of video streams of 320 by 240 (or larger) compressed frames at 15 (or greater) frames-per- second. Software-only video codecs have evolved by modifying and tailoring existing compression methodologies to suit video playback in desktop computers. In this paper we examine the characteristics used to evaluate software-only video codec algorithms, namely: image fidelity (i.e., image quality), bandwidth (i.e., compression) ease-of-decoding (i.e., playback performance), memory consumption, compression to decompression asymmetry, scalability, and delay. We discuss the tradeoffs among these variables and the compromises that can be made to achieve low numerical complexity for software-only playback. Frame- differencing approaches are described since software-only video codecs typically employ them to enhance playback performance. To complement other papers that appear in this session of the Proceedings, we review methods derived from binary pattern image coding since these methods are amenable for software-only playback. In particular, we introduce a novel approach called pixel distribution image coding.
Full Text Available Big data makes cloud computing more and more popular in various fields. Video resources are very useful and important to education, security monitoring, and so on. However, issues of their huge volumes, complex data types, inefficient processing performance, weak security, and long times for loading pose challenges in video resource management. The Hadoop Distributed File System (HDFS is an open-source framework, which can provide cloud-based platforms and presents an opportunity for solving these problems. This paper presents video resource management architecture based on HDFS to provide a uniform framework and a five-layer model for standardizing the current various algorithms and applications. The architecture, basic model, and key algorithms are designed for turning video resources into a cloud computing environment. The design was tested by establishing a simulation system prototype.
Jun Steed Huang
Full Text Available This paper reports on the design of an OPNET simulation platform to test the performance of sending real-time safety video over VANET (Vehicular Adhoc NETwork using the WiMAX technology. To provide a more realistic environment for streaming real-time video, a video model was created based on the study of video traffic traces captured from a realistic vehicular camera, and different design considerations were taken into account. A practical controller over real-time streaming protocol is implemented to control data traffic congestion for future road safety development. Our driving video model was then integrated with the WiMAX OPNET model along with a mobility model based on real road maps. Using this simulation platform, different mobility cases have been studied and the performance evaluated in terms of end-to-end delay, jitter and visual experience.
Coelho, Joseph R
The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility.
Joseph R. Coelho
Full Text Available The occurrence of noninsect arthropods in popular music was examined in order to explore human attitudes toward these species, especially as compared to insects. Crustaceans were the most commonly referenced taxonomic group in artist names, album titles and cover art, followed by spiders and scorpions. The surprising prevalence of crustaceans may be related to the palatability of many of the species. Spiders and scorpions were primarily used for shock value, as well as totemic qualities of strength and ferocity. Spiders were the most abundant group among song titles, perhaps because of their familiarity to the general public. Three noninsect arthropod album titles were found from the early 1970s, then none appear until 1990. Older albums are difficult to find unless they are quite popular, and the resurgence of albums coincides with the rise of the internet. After 1990, issuance of such albums increased approximately linearly. Giant and chimeric album covers were the most common of themes, indicating the use of these animals to inspire fear and surprise. The lyrics of select songs are presented to illustrate the diversity of sentiments present, from camp spookiness to edibility.
Krupp, Edwin C.
Broad public embrace of archaic astronomy probably began in the eighteenth century with awareness of the summer solstice sunrise's affiliation with Stonehenge. Since that time, Stonehenge has retained an astronomical mystique that attracts crowds mobilized by the monument's supposed cosmic purpose. They are committed to witness prehistoric heritage operating in real time and with enduring function. More recently, mass media have intermittently thrown a spotlight on new archaeoastronomical discoveries. While the details, ambiguities, and nuances of disciplined study of astronomy in antiquity do not usually infiltrate popular culture, some astronomical alignments, celestial events, sky-tempered symbols, and astral narratives have become well known and referenced in popular culture. Places and relics that command public interest with astronomical connotations are transformed into cultural icons and capture visitors on a quest for the authenticity the past is believed to possess. Monuments and ideas that successfully forge a romantic bond with the past and inspire an imagined sense of sharing the experience, perspective, and wisdom of antiquity persist in the cultural landscape.
Macleod, Catriona; Moodley, Dale; Young, Lisa Saville
This paper compares two forms of sexual socialisation to which learners are exposed: the sexuality education components of the Life Orientation (LO) manuals and the lyrical content and videos of popular songs. We performed a textual analysis of the sexual subject positions made available in, first, the LO manuals used in Grade 10 classes and,…
The messages students receive through popular media such as movies, television, the internet, and music videos have a powerful influence and can shape their thinking. A national survey of media use by 8- to 18-year-olds found the average adolescent spends over seven and a half hours daily with entertainment media (KFF 2010). Rather than viewing…
Seo, Chan-Won; Han, Jong-Ki; Nguyen, Truong Q
Multimedia data delivered to mobile devices over wireless channels or the Internet are complicated by bandwidth fluctuation and the variety of mobile devices. Scalable video coding has been developed as an extension of H.264/AVC to solve this problem. Since scalable video codec provides various scalabilities to adapt the bitstream for the channel conditions and terminal types, scalable codec is one of the useful codecs for wired or wireless multimedia communication systems, such as IPTV and streaming services. In such scalable multimedia communication systems, video quality fluctuation degrades the visual perception significantly. It is important to efficiently use the target bits in order to maintain a consistent video quality or achieve a small distortion variation throughout the whole video sequence. The scheme proposed in this paper provides a useful function to control video quality in applications supporting scalability, whereas conventional schemes have been proposed to control video quality in the H.264 and MPEG-4 systems. The proposed algorithm decides the quantization parameter of the enhancement layer to maintain a consistent video quality throughout the entire sequence. The video quality of the enhancement layer is controlled based on a closed-form formula which utilizes the residual data and quantization error of the base layer. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm controls the frame quality of the enhancement layer in a simple operation, where the parameter decision algorithm is applied to each frame.
Li, Sheng-Nan; Guo, Qiang; Yang, Kai; Liu, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Yi-Cheng
Understanding the popularity dynamics of online application(App) is significant for the online social systems. In this paper, by dividing the Facebook Apps into different groups in terms of their popularities, we empirically investigate the popularity dynamics for different kinds of Facebook Apps. Then, taking into account the influence of cumulative and recent popularities on the user choice, we present a model to regenerate the growth of popularity for different App groups. The experimental results of 917 Facebook Apps show that as the popularities of Facebook Apps increase, the recent popularity plays more important role. Specifically, the recent popularity plays more important role in regenerating the popularity dynamics for more popular Apps, and the cumulative popularity plays more important role for unpopular Apps. We also conduct temporal analysis on the growth characteristic of individual App by comparing the increment at each time with the average of historical records. The results show that the growth of more popular App tends to fluctuate more greatly. Our work may shed some lights for deeply understanding the popularity mechanism for online applications.
Lin, Lin; Lee, Jennifer; Robertson, Tip
Media multitasking, or engaging in multiple media and tasks simultaneously, is becoming an increasingly popular phenomenon with the development and engagement in social media. This study examines to what extent video content affects students' reading comprehension in media multitasking environments. One hundred and thirty university students were…
Xing, Xinyu; Ahn, Junho; Lee, Wenke; Han, Richard; Mishra, Shivakant
Recently, online video chat services are becoming increasingly popular. While experiencing tremendous growth, online video chat services have also become yet another spamming target. Unlike spam propagated via traditional medium like emails and social networks, we find that spam propagated via online video chat services is able to draw much larger attention from the users. We have conducted several experiments to investigate spam propagation on Chatroulette - the largest online video chat web...
Xu, Chaoying S.; Chen, Jessica S.; Adelman, Ron A.
Video games have surged in popularity due to their entertainment factor and, with recent innovation, their use in health care. This review explores the dual facets of video games in treating vision impairment in amblyopia as well as their potential for overuse and addiction. Specifically, this review examines video game addiction from a biopsychosocial perspective and relates the addictive qualities of video games with their use as a therapeutic treatment for amblyopia. Current literature sup...
Bartlett, Brent D.; Rodriguez, Mikel D.
As the number of pixels continue to grow in consumer and scientific imaging devices, it has become feasible to collect the incident light field. In this paper, an imaging device developed around light field imaging is used to collect multispectral and polarimetric imagery in a snapshot fashion. The sensor is described and a video data set is shown highlighting the advantage of snapshot spectral imaging. Several novel computer vision approaches are applied to the video cubes to perform scene characterization and target identification. It is shown how the addition of spectral and polarimetric data to the video stream allows for multi-target identification and tracking not possible with traditional RGB video collection.
The DARPA Airborne Video Surveillance (AVS) program was established to develop and promote technologies to make airborne video more useful, providing capabilities that achieve a UAV force multiplier...
Full Text Available The term "popular culture" is mostly used to describe either cultural practices or products that are widespread and available for mass consumption or those practices that belong to the cultural sphere of "ordinary" people. The use of this concept in scholarly research and debate, however, is far from concise and often lacks the analytical clarity needed for sound and convincing knowledge production. Lacking a precise and viable definition for this concept, this essay argues for abolishing it in favor of the concept of "culture", which in itself can be operationalized so as to accommodate all forms and practices that can be perceived as cultural. The central argument consists of a critique of the inherent classifications of culture through respective adjectives that inevitably lead to normative assumptions and presuppose specific research questions or methods.
Juan Carlos Rodríguez
Full Text Available Suele decirse que casi todo el mundo del llamado pensamiento alternativo (o pensamiento crítico al menos anda buscando en los textos de Gramsci la solución a los problemas políticos y culturales que nos acucian. Sobre todo a través de dos cuestiones claves en Gramsci: la noción de hegemonía y la noción de la cultura popular. Ahora bien: me temo que se busca en Gramsci lo que Gramsci no nos puede dar sino a través de una larga investigación. Quiero decir, que se trata de categorías o nociones que no están servidas en bandeja, ya plenas y absolutamente consolidadas. Como canapés que pudieran tomarse directamente de la bandeja.
Gurman, J. B.
The Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope on board SOHO, designed and built by Principal Investigator Jean-Pierre Delaboudiniere and his French/Belgan/US team, has produced numerous scientific breakthroughs, and has become both the standard coronal finder telescope and the determinant of whether halo coronal mass ejections are earthward-directed. Due to the dramatic nature of the images produced by EIT over the last nearly ten years, those images have been adopted worldwide in a manner no one could have foreseen before the launch of SOHO. I examine a small sample of the many scientific, commercial, and cultural uses of EIT imagery from the last decade in order to demonstrate how well-visualized, scientific imagery can first penetrate and then become an accepted part of the popular imagination.
Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul
Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.
MacLean, Sarah A; Basch, Corey H; Reeves, Rachel; Basch, Charles E
Individuals often search the Internet for information about their medical conditions, such as generalized anxiety disorder (GAD), a common mental health disorder. To describe the content of the most popular videos on YouTube™ related to GAD. Videos with at least 50,000 views in October 2016 were coded for information regarding symptoms, treatments and causes for GAD. Associations of content with factors such as popularity and focus on a personal experience were examined. The search returned 95 videos, which had been collectively viewed 37,044,555 times. Most (65%) were uploaded by consumers and 56% were about a personal experience. The most common symptoms mentioned were worry or panic (72%) and social anxiety (46%). Many videos (63%) mentioned at least one treatment, but only 26% mentioned any cause of anxiety. Videos that focused on a personal experience were significantly less likely to mention other phobias ( p = .036), panic disorder ( p = .033) and sleep issues ( p = .016). The majority of the most popular videos on YouTube ™ related to GAD were produced by consumers. Improved understanding about what information is available and popular online can assist mental health professionals in aiding their patients and in producing media that is likely to be viewed.
Childress, C. Clayton
Recent work in the sociology of music suggests a declining importance of genre categories. Yet other work in this research stream and in the sociology of classification argues for the continued prevalence of genres as a meaningful tool through which creators, critics and consumers focus their attention in the topology of available works. Building from work in the study of categories and categorization we examine how boundary strength and internal differentiation structure the genre pairings of some 3 million musicians and groups. Using a range of network-based and statistical techniques, we uncover three musical “complexes,” which are collectively constituted by 16 smaller genre communities. Our analysis shows that the musical universe is not monolithically organized but rather composed of multiple worlds that are differently structured—i.e., uncentered, single-centered, and multi-centered. PMID:27203852
Silver, Daniel; Lee, Monica; Childress, C Clayton
Recent work in the sociology of music suggests a declining importance of genre categories. Yet other work in this research stream and in the sociology of classification argues for the continued prevalence of genres as a meaningful tool through which creators, critics and consumers focus their attention in the topology of available works. Building from work in the study of categories and categorization we examine how boundary strength and internal differentiation structure the genre pairings of some 3 million musicians and groups. Using a range of network-based and statistical techniques, we uncover three musical "complexes," which are collectively constituted by 16 smaller genre communities. Our analysis shows that the musical universe is not monolithically organized but rather composed of multiple worlds that are differently structured-i.e., uncentered, single-centered, and multi-centered.
Rissover, Fredric; Birch, David C.
This anthology consists of journalistic essays on each of these popular arts: advertising, journalism, cartoons, radio and television, photography and motion pictures, popular literature, popular music, and public education. Examples of most of the art forms are also included. The book is aimed at junior college students. Its purpose is to…
Lonergan, David; Ayers, Meredith
Popular culture is extremely influential in both academe and society at large. However, formal disciplinary study of popular culture lags far behind that influence. Anthropology, film studies, history, musicology, and sociology are only some of the disciplines that frequently include popular culture as a research focus. This article advises on how…
We currently live in a world filled with videos. There are videos on YouTube, feature movies and even videos recorded with our own cameras and smartphones. These videos present an excellent opportunity to not only explore physical concepts, but also inspire others to investigate physics ideas. With video analysis, we can explore the fantasy world in science-fiction films. We can also look at online videos to determine if they are genuine or fake. Video analysis can be used in the introductory physics lab and it can even be used to explore the make-believe physics embedded in video games. This book covers the basic ideas behind video analysis along with the fundamental physics principles used in video analysis. The book also includes several examples of the unique situations in which video analysis can be used.
Full Text Available ... YouTube Videos » NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Listen NEI YouTube Videos YouTube Videos Home Age-Related Macular Degeneration ... Retinopathy of Prematurity Science Spanish Videos Webinars NEI YouTube Videos: Amblyopia Embedded video for NEI YouTube Videos: ...
Unattended video surveillance systems are particularly vulnerable to the substitution of false video images into the cable that connects the camera to the video recorder. New technology has made it practical to insert a solid state video memory into the video cable, freeze a video image from the camera, and hold this image as long as desired. Various techniques, such as line supervision and sync detection, have been used to detect video cable tampering. The video authentication technique described in this paper uses the actual video image from the camera as the basis for detecting any image substitution made during the transmission of the video image to the recorder. The technique, designed for unattended video systems, can be used for any video transmission system where a two-way digital data link can be established. The technique uses similar microprocessor circuitry at the video camera and at the video recorder to select sample points in the video image for comparison. The gray scale value of these points is compared at the recorder controller and if the values agree within limits, the image is authenticated. If a significantly different image was substituted, the comparison would fail at a number of points and the video image would not be authenticated. The video authentication system can run as a stand-alone system or at the request of another system
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In recent years the video game industry has surpassed both the music and video industries in sales. Currently violent video games are among the most popular video games played by consumers, most specifically First-Person Shooters (FPS. Technological advancements in game play experience including the ability to play online has accounted for this increase in popularity. Previous research, utilising the General Aggression Model (GAM, has identified that violent video games increase levels of aggression. Little is known, however, as to the effect of playing a violent video game online. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Participants (N = 101 were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions; neutral video game--offline, neutral video game--online, violent video game--offline and violent video game--online. Following this they completed questionnaires to assess their attitudes towards the game and engaged in a chilli sauce paradigm to measure behavioural aggression. The results identified that participants who played a violent video game exhibited more aggression than those who played a neutral video game. Furthermore, this main effect was not particularly pronounced when the game was played online. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings suggest that both playing violent video games online and offline compared to playing neutral video games increases aggression.
Hollingdale, Jack; Greitemeyer, Tobias
In recent years the video game industry has surpassed both the music and video industries in sales. Currently violent video games are among the most popular video games played by consumers, most specifically First-Person Shooters (FPS). Technological advancements in game play experience including the ability to play online has accounted for this increase in popularity. Previous research, utilising the General Aggression Model (GAM), has identified that violent video games increase levels of aggression. Little is known, however, as to the effect of playing a violent video game online. Participants (N = 101) were randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions; neutral video game--offline, neutral video game--online, violent video game--offline and violent video game--online. Following this they completed questionnaires to assess their attitudes towards the game and engaged in a chilli sauce paradigm to measure behavioural aggression. The results identified that participants who played a violent video game exhibited more aggression than those who played a neutral video game. Furthermore, this main effect was not particularly pronounced when the game was played online. These findings suggest that both playing violent video games online and offline compared to playing neutral video games increases aggression.
Hata, Toshihiko; Boh, Satoru; Tsukada, Akihiro; Ozaki, Minoru
These days fewer people, who must carry out their tasks quickly and precisely, are required in industrial surveillance and monitoring applications such as plant control or building security. Utilizing multimedia technology is a good approach to meet this need, and we previously developed Media Controller, which is designed for the applications and provides realtime recording and retrieval of digital video data in a distributed environment. In this paper, we propose a user interface for such a distributed video surveillance system in which 3D models of buildings and facilities are connected to the surveillance video. A novel method of synchronizing camera field data with each frame of a video stream is considered. This method records and reads the camera field data similarity to the video data and transmits it synchronously with the video stream. This enables the user interface to have such useful functions as comprehending the camera field immediately and providing clues when visibility is poor, for not only live video but also playback video. We have also implemented and evaluated the display function which makes surveillance video and 3D model work together using Media Controller with Java and Virtual Reality Modeling Language employed for multi-purpose and intranet use of 3D model.
Jensen, Karsten; Juhl, Jens
The project presented in this article aims to develop software so that close-range photogrammetry with sufficient accuracy can be used to point out the most frequent foot mal positions and monitor the effect of the traditional treatment. The project is carried out as a cooperation between...... and the calcaneus angle during gait. In the introductory phase of the project the task has been to select, purchase and draw up hardware, select and purchase software concerning video streaming and to develop special software concerning automated registration of the position of the foot during gait by Multi Video...
Leonardia Acynthia Putri
Full Text Available Abstract: This literature study researched Adbusters, the anti-commercial organization, and described the organizationâ€™s activities and media usage, mainly in the period of 2007-2010, which critized the populer culture. Adbusters is an organization which performs â€œCulture Jammingâ€; a rebellious act reacting towards commercialism domination in many aspects including popular culture. Compared to other similar organizations, Adbusters has been executing more various activisms using several media which other organizations do not use. This study used the Adbustersâ€™ official website and blogs as main data sources. The data of Adbustersâ€™ activities and media usage were categorized and analyzed, thus the tendency of its development can be described. This study also analyzed Adbustersâ€™ activity using Media Hegemony Theory and Political Economy Media Theory. The media has been dominated by a certain group that owns politic and economic power, so the information flow has been dominated by them. Media and its contents have been commercialized, thus capitalism and commercialism have been considered as a common system that should run the world. Adbusters has been trying to stop the domination and change the societyâ€™s way of thinking into a more critical way of thinking. Â Abstrak: Studi literatur ini meneliti tentang Adbusters, sebuah organisasi anti komersial, dengan mendeskripsikan aktivitas serta penggunaan media organisasi tersebut dari tahun 2007-2010 dalam mengkritisi budaya populer. Adbusters adalah organisasi yang melakukan Culture Jamming, aksi perlawanan terhadap dominasi komersialisme di segala aspek termasuk popular culture. Dibandingkan dengan organisasi lain yang serupa, aktivitas Adbusters lebih bervariasi dan menggunakan media-media yang tidak biasa digunakan organisasi lain. Penelitian ini menggunakan situs online resmi Adbusters sebagai sumber data utama. Data mengenai aktivitas dan
Full Text Available We have analyzed the popularization activities undertaken by ten thousand CNRS researchers by means of their annual reports for the years 2004, 2005 and 2006. This is the first time that such an extensive statistical study on science popularization practices is carried out. Our main findings are : - the majority of researchers is not involved in popularization (51% has not done any popularization over the three-year period, two thirds have been involved in no more than one popularization action. - popularization practices are extremely diverse, both at the individual level (we have identified three subpopulations that feature distinctive attitudes towards popularization, and at the level of scientific disciplines (researchers in Humanities are twice as active as the average, as well as in laboratories or geographical regions. - the number of actions reported in 2005 greatly increased compared to 2004 (+ 26%, while they slightly diminished in 2006.
Yu, Bei; Chen, Miao; Kwok, Linchi
Popularity of social marketing messages indicates the effectiveness of the corresponding marketing strategies. This research aims to discover the characteristics of social marketing messages that contribute to different level of popularity. Using messages posted by a sample of restaurants on Facebook as a case study, we measured the message popularity by the number of "likes" voted by fans, and examined the relationship between the message popularity and two properties of the messages: (1) content, and (2) media type. Combining a number of text mining and statistics methods, we have discovered some interesting patterns correlated to "more popular" and "less popular" social marketing messages. This work lays foundation for building computational models to predict the popularity of social marketing messages in the future.
Buch, Shyamal; Escorcia, Victor; Shen, Chuanqi; Ghanem, Bernard; Niebles, Juan Carlos
Our paper presents a new approach for temporal detection of human actions in long, untrimmed video sequences. We introduce Single-Stream Temporal Action Proposals (SST), a new effective and efficient deep architecture for the generation of temporal action proposals. Our network can run continuously in a single stream over very long input video sequences, without the need to divide input into short overlapping clips or temporal windows for batch processing. We demonstrate empirically that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art on the task of temporal action proposal generation, while achieving some of the fastest processing speeds in the literature. Finally, we demonstrate that using SST proposals in conjunction with existing action classifiers results in improved state-of-the-art temporal action detection performance.
Our paper presents a new approach for temporal detection of human actions in long, untrimmed video sequences. We introduce Single-Stream Temporal Action Proposals (SST), a new effective and efficient deep architecture for the generation of temporal action proposals. Our network can run continuously in a single stream over very long input video sequences, without the need to divide input into short overlapping clips or temporal windows for batch processing. We demonstrate empirically that our model outperforms the state-of-the-art on the task of temporal action proposal generation, while achieving some of the fastest processing speeds in the literature. Finally, we demonstrate that using SST proposals in conjunction with existing action classifiers results in improved state-of-the-art temporal action detection performance.
Sánchez Bocanegra, Carlos Luis
Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) is a portal web where contains videos from Youtube including all details from 12 channels of Youtube. Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) es un portal web que contiene los vídeos de Youtube incluyendo todos los detalles de 12 canales de Youtube. Rare Disease Video Portal (RD Video) és un portal web que conté els vídeos de Youtube i que inclou tots els detalls de 12 Canals de Youtube.
Healthcare systems are organized following one of two basic models: social security systems, which link access to health services to labor status, and national health systems, which grant access to health as a citizen's right. Mexico adopted, since the institutionalization of social security and healthcare services in 1943, a mixed system. Social security institutions covered the salaried workers and public assistance was granted to the remaining of the population. At the beginning of the XXI century the Mexican health system entered a crisis as the conditions to expand health coverage through social security were not met and public assistance services were insufficient. In order to address these developments, the Healthcare Social Protection System was founded (2004) as a mechanism to effectively guarantee every person's right to health as established after the constitutional amendment of article fourth in 1983. Seguro Popular is the mechanism that through federal and states' contributions seeks to financially protect the population without access to social security's health services, and thus prevent impoverishment due to out of pocket and catastrophic health expenditures.
Full Text Available Este artículo analiza las interacciones entre el gobierno actual y el movimiento anti-minero para el periodo 2006-2009, bajo la hipótesis de que el modelo neo-desarrollista adoptado por el primero ha generado un nuevo escenario de conflictividad social, donde la correlación de fuerzas está signada por la abrumadora popularidad del gobierno, por un lado y por el otro, por los problemas de organización, direccionalidad y estrategias que han dificultado la consolidación y fortaleza del movimiento anti-minero.This article analyses the interactions between the current government and the anti-mining movement between 2006 and 2009. The main hypothesis of the article holds that the neo-developmentalist model adopted by the government has given way to new forms of social conflict. On the one hand, the nature of this social conflict is marked by the overwhelming popularity of the government. On the other hand however, the anti-mining movement has been weakened by problems related to its organisation, leadership and strategies, which have, in turn, prevented its consolidation.
Video games are a popular form of entertainment. Serious video games for health attempt to use entertainment to promote health behavior change. When designed within a framework informed by behavioral science and supported by commercial game-design principles, serious video games for health have the ...
Full Text Available In recent years, an interest in multimedia services has become a global trend and this trend is still rising. The video quality is a very significant part from the bundle of multimedia services, which leads to a requirement for quality assessment in the video domain. Video quality of a streamed video across IP networks is generally influenced by two factors “transmission link imperfection and efficiency of compression standards. This paper deals with subjective video quality assessment and the impact of the compression standards H.264, H.265 and VP9 on perceived video quality of these compression standards. The evaluation is done for four full HD sequences, the difference of scenes is in the content“ distinction is based on Spatial (SI and Temporal (TI Index of test sequences. Finally, experimental results follow up to 30% bitrate reducing of H.265 and VP9 compared with the reference H.264.
Søgaard, Jacob; Forchhammer, Søren; Korhonen, Jari
types of videos, estimating the level of quantization used in the I-frames, and exploiting this information to assess the video quality. In order to do this for H.264/AVC, the distribution of the DCT-coefficients after intra-prediction and deblocking are modeled. To obtain VQA features for H.264/AVC, we......A no-reference video quality assessment (VQA) method is presented for videos distorted by H.264/AVC and MPEG-2. The assessment is performed without access to the bit-stream. Instead we analyze and estimate coefficients based on decoded pixels. The approach involves distinguishing between the two...... propose a novel estimation method of the quantization in H.264/AVC videos without bitstream access, which can also be used for Peak Signalto-Noise Ratio (PSNR) estimation. The results from the MPEG-2 and H.264/AVC analysis are mapped to a perceptual measure of video quality by Support Vector Regression...
Salmistraro, Matteo; Raket, Lars Lau; Zamarin, Marco
We consider distributed video coding in a monoview video-plus-depth scenario, aiming at coding textures jointly with their corresponding depth stream. Distributed Video Coding (DVC) is a video coding paradigm in which the complexity is shifted from the encoder to the decoder. The Side Information...... components) is strongly correlated, so the additional depth information may be used to generate more accurate SI for the texture stream, increasing the efficiency of the system. In this paper we propose various methods for accurate texture SI generation, comparing them with other state-of-the-art solutions...
Full Text Available Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games.Objectives: We aim to understand the relationship between the use of video games and their neural correlates, taking into account the whole variety of cognitive factors that they encompass.Methods: A systematic review was conducted using standardized search operators that included the presence of video games and neuro-imaging techniques or references to structural or functional brain changes. Separate categories were made for studies featuring Internet Gaming Disorder and studies focused on the violent content of video games.Results: A total of 116 articles were considered for the final selection. One hundred provided functional data and 22 measured structural brain changes. One-third of the studies covered video game addiction, and 14% focused on video game related violence.Conclusions: Despite the innate heterogeneity of the field of study, it has been possible to establish a series of links between the neural and cognitive aspects, particularly regarding attention, cognitive control, visuospatial skills, cognitive workload, and reward processing. However, many aspects could be improved. The lack of standardization in the different aspects of video game related research, such as the participants' characteristics, the features of each video game genre and the diverse study goals could contribute to discrepancies in many related studies.
Palaus, Marc; Marron, Elena M.; Viejo-Sobera, Raquel; Redolar-Ripoll, Diego
Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games. Objectives: We aim to understand the relationship between the use of video games and their neural correlates, taking into account the whole variety of cognitive factors that they encompass. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using standardized search operators that included the presence of video games and neuro-imaging techniques or references to structural or functional brain changes. Separate categories were made for studies featuring Internet Gaming Disorder and studies focused on the violent content of video games. Results: A total of 116 articles were considered for the final selection. One hundred provided functional data and 22 measured structural brain changes. One-third of the studies covered video game addiction, and 14% focused on video game related violence. Conclusions: Despite the innate heterogeneity of the field of study, it has been possible to establish a series of links between the neural and cognitive aspects, particularly regarding attention, cognitive control, visuospatial skills, cognitive workload, and reward processing. However, many aspects could be improved. The lack of standardization in the different aspects of video game related research, such as the participants' characteristics, the features of each video game genre and the diverse study goals could contribute to discrepancies in many related studies. PMID:28588464
Palaus, Marc; Marron, Elena M; Viejo-Sobera, Raquel; Redolar-Ripoll, Diego
Background: Video gaming is an increasingly popular activity in contemporary society, especially among young people, and video games are increasing in popularity not only as a research tool but also as a field of study. Many studies have focused on the neural and behavioral effects of video games, providing a great deal of video game derived brain correlates in recent decades. There is a great amount of information, obtained through a myriad of methods, providing neural correlates of video games. Objectives: We aim to understand the relationship between the use of video games and their neural correlates, taking into account the whole variety of cognitive factors that they encompass. Methods: A systematic review was conducted using standardized search operators that included the presence of video games and neuro-imaging techniques or references to structural or functional brain changes. Separate categories were made for studies featuring Internet Gaming Disorder and studies focused on the violent content of video games. Results: A total of 116 articles were considered for the final selection. One hundred provided functional data and 22 measured structural brain changes. One-third of the studies covered video game addiction, and 14% focused on video game related violence. Conclusions: Despite the innate heterogeneity of the field of study, it has been possible to establish a series of links between the neural and cognitive aspects, particularly regarding attention, cognitive control, visuospatial skills, cognitive workload, and reward processing. However, many aspects could be improved. The lack of standardization in the different aspects of video game related research, such as the participants' characteristics, the features of each video game genre and the diverse study goals could contribute to discrepancies in many related studies.
Dawes, Molly; Xie, Hongling
The effect of popularity goal on the use of 3 popularity-related behaviors and later popularity status was examined in a diverse sample of 314 6th-grade students (176 girls and 138 boys) in both fall (Time 1) and spring (Time 2) semesters. Popularity goal and the use of popularity-driven behaviors (e.g., "I change the way I dress in order to…
Full Text Available OBJETIVO: investigar aspectos do histórico, hábitos e comportamentos vocais de cantores populares, conforme o sexo e as categorias profissional e amador. MÉTODO: entrevista com 47 cantores, 25 homens e 22 mulheres. RESULTADOS: significância estatística nos seguintes achados: MASCULINO - microfone nos ensaios, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de orientações sobre higiene vocal, dor ou desconforto após cantar, ausência de alergias e problemas respiratórios; FEMININO - aulas de canto e conhecimento sobre postura; AMADOR - não cantar dançando, não imitar vozes, ausência de avaliação otorrinolaringológica, ausência de problemas vocais diagnosticados, ausência de terapia fonoaudiológica, ausência de orientações de anatomofisiologia vocal e não utilização de álcool nos ensaios; PROFISSIONAL - rouquidão, conhecimento sobre articulação, álcool durante os shows, "garganta suja" ou pigarro, dor após cantar. CONCLUSÕES: a comparação entre os sexos evidenciou que os homens utilizavam microfone no ensaio, não apresentavam problemas alérgicos ou respiratórios, nem problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas apresentavam sensação de dor ou desconforto após o canto e não possuíam noções sobre higiene vocal; e que as mulheres realizavam aulas de canto e possuíam orientações de postura. A comparação entre amadores e profissionais mostrou que os amadores não cantavam dançando, não imitavam vozes, não utilizavam álcool nos ensaios, e não apresentavam problemas vocais diagnosticados, mas não possuíam avaliação otorrinolaringológica, não realizavam terapia fonoaudiológica, e não possuíam conhecimento sobre anatomofisiologia vocal; e os profissionais apresentavam queixa de rouquidão, de "garganta suja" ou pigarro e de dor após cantar, e usavam álcool durante os shows, apesar de possuir conhecimento sobre articulação.PURPOSE: to investigate aspects of vocal history, vocal habits and
Fullwood, M Dottington; Kecojevic, Aleksandar; Basch, Corey H
The popularity of synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) is increasing the chance for adverse health issues in the United States. Moreover, social media platforms such as YouTube that provided a platform for user-generated content can convey misinformation or glorify use of SCBs. The aim of this study was to fill this gap by describing the content of the most popular YouTube videos containing content related to the SCBs. Videos with at least 1000 or more views found under the search terms "K2" and "spice" included in the analysis. The collective number of views was over 7.5 million. Nearly half of videos were consumer produced (n=42). The most common content in the videos was description of K2 (n=69), followed by mentioning dangers of using K2 (n=47), mentioning side effects (n=38) and showing a person using K2 (n=37). One-third of videos (n=34) promoted use of K2, while 22 videos mentioned risk of dying as a consequence of using K2. YouTube could be used as a surveillance tool to combat this epidemic, but instead, the most widely videos related to SCBs are uploaded by consumers. The content of these consumer videos on YouTube often provide the viewer with access to view a wide array of uploaders describing, encouraging, participating and promoting use.
LA CONSTRUCCIÓN/DECONSTRUCCIÓN DE LA MEMORIA NACIONAL A TRAVÉS DE LA CULTURA POPULAR. EL CASO DEL PROGRAMA ARGENTINO, 'PETER CAPUSOTTO Y SUS VIDEOS' Y DEL MÚSICO APÓCRIFO, 'BOMBITA RODRÍGUEZ, EL PALITO ORTEGA MONTONERO'
María Elizondo Oviedo
Full Text Available El presente artículo aborda las aristas del complejo signo televisivo a través del análisis del programa argentino Peter Capusotto y sus vídeos. Aquí observamos de qué manera el humor es utilizado como herramienta para desmontar oposiciones binarias jerárquicas (políticas y sociales. La propuesta se presenta como un programa de música y humor donde se ponen en juego los conceptos de cultura popular y cultura de masas a través de la presentación de varios músicos apócrifos. Centramos nuestra reflexión en el personaje Bombita Rodríguez, el Palito Ortega montonero por la controversia que ha generado en la escena cultural al tocar temas de la reciente historia argentina.
Ogunrinade D O A
Full Text Available There is no gainsaying that most of the recent forms of contemporary popular music produced, packaged, made available for public consumption constitute grave danger and serious threat to moral uprightness in Nigerian society. This has exposed the Nigerian society to a wide variety of insecurity and violence. This is evident as seen from series of moral decadence and dissipation that infiltrated the lives of the citizenry - especially the youths (the leaders of tomorrow ranging from, sexual abuse, money mongering, indiscipline, examination malpractice and indecent dressing to mention but a few. Music is a powerful tool and a force for mobilization which brings about either reformation or deformation of character due to the type of rhythm, melody, harmony and principally the lyrics of the songs. This paper examines the new trend of contemporary popular music in Nigeria with a view to assess its negative and pessimistic impacts on the character molding of the citizenry in Nigerian society. Live performances of contemporary popular music were observed and audio and video tape materials relating to the said music were also analyzed based on their educational and moral values of such songs. It was discovered that contemporary popular music as we have it today in Nigeria communicates vulgarity and coarseness to the listeners and this poses a lot of negative effects on the attitude of the youths. Musicians employ indecent words to attract the youth thus creating negative influence on the character of the leaders of tomorrow (the youth to engage in various debauchery. The paper therefore, suggested that relevant agencies should be put in place to ensure that apart from entertainment, music should convey positive character building messages rather than music that egg on and motivate illicit acts. Likewise, musicians should compose songs in the spirit of societal reformation so as to impact moral virtues on the younger generation thus
Full Text Available In the last few years, a new type of synchronous social networking services (SNSs has emerged—social live streaming services (SLSSs. Studying SLSSs is a new and exciting research field in information science. What information behaviors do users of live streaming platforms exhibit? In our empirical study we analyzed information production behavior (i.e., broadcasting as well as information reception behavior (watching streams and commenting on them. We conducted two quantitative investigations, namely an online survey with YouNow users (N = 123 and observations of live streams on YouNow (N = 434. YouNow is a service with video streams mostly made by adolescents for adolescents. YouNow users like to watch streams, to chat while watching, and to reward performers by using emoticons. While broadcasting, there is no anonymity (as in nearly all other WWW services. Synchronous SNSs remind us of the film The Truman Show, as anyone has the chance to consciously broadcast his or her own life real-time.
Ibosiola, Damilola; Steer, Benjamin; Garcia-Recuero, Alvaro; Stringhini, Gianluca; Uhlig, Steve; Tyson, Gareth
Online video piracy (OVP) is a contentious topic, with strong proponents on both sides of the argument. Recently, a number of illegal websites, called streaming cyberlockers, have begun to dominate OVP. These websites specialise in distributing pirated content, underpinned by third party indexing services offering easy-to-access directories of content. This paper performs the first exploration of this new ecosystem. It characterises the content, as well the streaming cyberlockers' individual ...
Young, Jeffrey R.
This article takes a look at how professors are becoming the latest YouTube stars. The popularity of their appearances on YouTube and other video-sharing sites end up opening the classroom and making teaching--which once took place behind closed doors--a more public art. Web videos open a new form of public intellectualism to scholars looking to…
This paper explores the movement of feminism into academic life in general and the study of popular culture in particular. Assumptioms about the effects of popular culture on women had been a commonsense of second-wave feminism; however, by the mid-1970’s, questions about how gendered identities were culturally produced and reproduced became the topic of much more in-depth feminist research and discussion. This essay examines two main ways in which feminist research into popular culture enter...
D. Geerts (David); I. Vaishnavi (Ishan); R.N. Mekuria (Rufael); M.O. van Deventer (Oskar); P.S. Cesar Garcia (Pablo Santiago)
htmlabstractSynchronization between locations is an important factor for enabling remote shared experiences. Still, experimental data on what is the acceptable synchronization level is scarce. This paper discusses the synchronization requirements for watching online videos together - a popular set
In the article I reexamine the traditional aesthetical and political critiques of popular culture and reevaluate the social and communicative potential of bestselling cultural artifacts such as highly popular television series. First, I sketch the alleged aesthetic and social problems of popular...... and the exclusions of the public sphere. I argue that the ideals of a pure aesthetic and a public sphere neglect issues that are crucial to the type of commonality at stake in popular cultural artifacts: personal issues, social conflicts, and what is pleasurable to the senses or has to do with emotions. Third, I...
Gonzalez-Estrada, Alexei; Cuervo-Pardo, Lyda; Ghosh, Bitan; Smith, Martin; Pazheri, Foussena; Zell, Katrina; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Lang, David M
Asthma affects >300 million people globally, including 25 million in the United States. Patients with asthma frequently use the Internet as a source of information. YouTube is one of the three most popular Web sites. To determine the educational quality of YouTube videos for asthma. We performed a YouTube search by using the keyword "asthma." The 200 most frequently viewed relevant videos were included in the study. Asthma videos were analyzed for characteristics, source, and content. Source was further classified as asthma health care provider, other health care provider, patient, pharmaceutical company, and professional society and/or media. A scoring system was created to evaluate quality (-10 to 30 points). Negative points were assigned for misleading information. Two hundred videos were analyzed, with a median of 18,073.5 views, 31.5 likes, and 2 dislikes, which spanned a median of 172 seconds. More video presenters were male (60.5%). The most common type of video source was other health care providers (34.5%). The most common video content was alternative treatments (38.0%), including live-fish ingestion; reflexology; acupressure and/or acupuncture; Ayurveda; yoga; raw food, vegan, gluten-free diets; marijuana; Buteyko breathing; and salt therapy. Scores for videos supplied by asthma health care providers were statistically significantly different from other sources (p YouTube videos of asthma were frequently viewed but were a poor source of accurate health care information. Videos by asthma health care providers were rated highest in quality. The allergy/immunology community has a clear opportunity to enhance the value of educational material on YouTube.
Yuan, Chun; Zhong, Yuzhuo; Yang, Shiqiang
It is accepted that stream cryptosystem can achieve good real-time performance and flexibility which implements encryption by selecting few parts of the block data and header information of the compressed video stream. Chaotic random number generator, for example Logistics Map, is a comparatively promising substitute, but it is easily attacked by nonlinear dynamic forecasting and geometric information extracting. In this paper, we present a hyperchaotic cryptography scheme to encrypt the compressed video, which integrates Logistics Map with Z(232 - 1) field linear congruential algorithm to strengthen the security of the mono-chaotic cryptography, meanwhile, the real-time performance and flexibility of the chaotic sequence cryptography are maintained. It also integrates with the dissymmetrical public-key cryptography and implements encryption and identity authentification on control parameters at initialization phase. In accord with the importance of data in compressed video stream, encryption is performed in layered scheme. In the innovative hyperchaotic cryptography, the value and the updating frequency of control parameters can be changed online to satisfy the requirement of the network quality, processor capability and security requirement. The innovative hyperchaotic cryprography proves robust security by cryptoanalysis, shows good real-time performance and flexible implement capability through the arithmetic evaluating and test.
A. A. Alimov
Full Text Available MPEG-2 uses video compression with loses based on the use of discrete cosine transformation (DCT to small blocks of encoded image. As a result, there is range of factors, each of which corresponds to a frequency index of the encoded block. The human eye, due to natural approximation, does not perceive the difference when the high-frequency DCT coefficients change. The investigated algorithm uses this feature of the human vision to embed required data in video stream invisibly.
Awobuluyi, Olatunde; Nightingale, James; Wang, Qi; Alcaraz Calero, Jose Maria; Grecos, Christos
Software Defined Networks (SDN), when combined with Network Function Virtualization (NFV) represents a paradigm shift in how future networks will behave and be managed. SDN's are expected to provide the underpinning technologies for future innovations such as 5G mobile networks and the Internet of Everything. The SDN architecture offers features that facilitate an abstracted and centralized global network view in which packet forwarding or dropping decisions are based on application flows. Software Defined Networks facilitate a wide range of network management tasks, including the adaptation of real-time video streams as they traverse the network. SHVC, the scalable extension to the recent H.265 standard is a new video encoding standard that supports ultra-high definition video streams with spatial resolutions of up to 7680×4320 and frame rates of 60fps or more. The massive increase in bandwidth required to deliver these U-HD video streams dwarfs the bandwidth requirements of current high definition (HD) video. Such large bandwidth increases pose very significant challenges for network operators. In this paper we go substantially beyond the limited number of existing implementations and proposals for video streaming in SDN's all of which have primarily focused on traffic engineering solutions such as load balancing. By implementing and empirically evaluating an SDN enabled Media Adaptation Network Entity (MANE) we provide a valuable empirical insight into the benefits and limitations of SDN enabled video adaptation for real time video applications. The SDN-MANE is the video adaptation component of our Video Quality Assurance Manager (VQAM) SDN control plane application, which also includes an SDN monitoring component to acquire network metrics and a decision making engine using algorithms to determine the optimum adaptation strategy for any real time video application flow given the current network conditions. Our proposed VQAM application has been implemented and
Alshina, Elena; Zakharchenko, Vladyslav
Advances in display technologies both for head mounted devices and television panels demand resolution increase beyond 4K for source signal in virtual reality video streaming applications. This poses a problem of content delivery trough a bandwidth limited distribution networks. Considering a fact that source signal covers entire surrounding space investigation reviled that compression efficiency may fluctuate 40% in average depending on origin selection at the conversion stage from 3D space to 2D projection. Based on these knowledge the origin selection algorithm for video compression applications has been proposed. Using discontinuity entropy minimization function projection origin rotation may be defined to provide optimal compression results. Outcome of this research may be applied across various video compression solutions for omnidirectional content.
to the Master’s programme. The programme offers streamed videos in combination with other learning resources. Oral exams have been mediated with the help of Skype and later with Adobe Connect Professional. It has for all participants - students, examiners and external examiners – been both a challenge...... and an opportunity which has brought about new knowledge and experience. All students in the MPBL Master’s programme responded to a questionnaire  that they did not cheat or receive any help from outside. It was also shown that the more experience the respondents had with video exams, the more satisfied they were...... with the exams. Almost all respondents thought that video exams gave the external examiner the possibility to ensure that the demands were in accordance with the defined outcomes and see to that the exams were completed in accordance with the rules. This paper presents results from a questionnaire focusing...
Full Text Available Abstract Many lecture recording and presentation systems transmit slides or chalkboard content along with a small video of the instructor. As a result, two areas of the screen are competing for the viewer's attention, causing the widely known split-attention effect. Face and body gestures, such as pointing, do not appear in the context of the slides or the board. To eliminate this problem, this article proposes to extract the lecturer from the video stream and paste his or her image onto the board or slide image. As a result, the lecturer acting in front of the board or slides becomes the center of attention. The entire lecture presentation becomes more human-centered. This article presents both an analysis of the underlying psychological problems and an explanation of signal processing techniques that are applied in a concrete system. The presented algorithm is able to extract and overlay the lecturer online and in real time at full video resolution.
Full Text Available Many lecture recording and presentation systems transmit slides or chalkboard content along with a small video of the instructor. As a result, two areas of the screen are competing for the viewer's attention, causing the widely known split-attention effect. Face and body gestures, such as pointing, do not appear in the context of the slides or the board. To eliminate this problem, this article proposes to extract the lecturer from the video stream and paste his or her image onto the board or slide image. As a result, the lecturer acting in front of the board or slides becomes the center of attention. The entire lecture presentation becomes more human-centered. This article presents both an analysis of the underlying psychological problems and an explanation of signal processing techniques that are applied in a concrete system. The presented algorithm is able to extract and overlay the lecturer online and in real time at full video resolution.
Hoeynck, Michael; Auweiler, Thorsten; Wellhausen, Jens
The huge amount of multimedia data produced worldwide requires annotation in order to enable universal content access and to provide content-based search-and-retrieval functionalities. Since manual video annotation can be time consuming, automatic annotation systems are required. We review recent approaches to content-based indexing and annotation of videos for different kind of sports and describe our approach to automatic annotation of equestrian sports videos. We especially concentrate on MPEG-7 based feature extraction and content description, where we apply different visual descriptors for cut detection. Further, we extract the temporal positions of single obstacles on the course by analyzing MPEG-7 edge information. Having determined single shot positions as well as the visual highlights, the information is jointly stored with meta-textual information in an MPEG-7 description scheme. Based on this information, we generate content summaries which can be utilized in a user-interface in order to provide content-based access to the video stream, but further for media browsing on a streaming server.
Riad I. Hammoud
Full Text Available We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER. VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1 a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2 an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs and targets of interest (TOIs by movement type and geolocation; and (3 a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV. VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.
Hammoud, Riad I; Sahin, Cem S; Blasch, Erik P; Rhodes, Bradley J; Wang, Tao
We describe two advanced video analysis techniques, including video-indexed by voice annotations (VIVA) and multi-media indexing and explorer (MINER). VIVA utilizes analyst call-outs (ACOs) in the form of chat messages (voice-to-text) to associate labels with video target tracks, to designate spatial-temporal activity boundaries and to augment video tracking in challenging scenarios. Challenging scenarios include low-resolution sensors, moving targets and target trajectories obscured by natural and man-made clutter. MINER includes: (1) a fusion of graphical track and text data using probabilistic methods; (2) an activity pattern learning framework to support querying an index of activities of interest (AOIs) and targets of interest (TOIs) by movement type and geolocation; and (3) a user interface to support streaming multi-intelligence data processing. We also present an activity pattern learning framework that uses the multi-source associated data as training to index a large archive of full-motion videos (FMV). VIVA and MINER examples are demonstrated for wide aerial/overhead imagery over common data sets affording an improvement in tracking from video data alone, leading to 84% detection with modest misdetection/false alarm results due to the complexity of the scenario. The novel use of ACOs and chat Sensors 2014, 14 19844 messages in video tracking paves the way for user interaction, correction and preparation of situation awareness reports.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...
Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)
A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.
Discusses popular music, the role of the musical performer as a creator, and the styles of jazz and popular music. Describes the pop ensemble at the college level, focusing on improvisation, rehearsals, recording, and performance. Argues that pop ensembles be used in junior and senior high school. (CMK)
Serrano, Isabel Garcia-Longoria
This article features the Spanish Popular Universities, which are defined as "a project of cultural development that acts in the municipality, whose objective is to promote social participation, education, training, and culture in order to improve life quality" (Federation of Popular Education Universities, 2000). A century of history of…
Geist, Christopher D.
Discusses the furor created when Walt Disney Studios announced plans to develop a "historic amusement park" near the Manassas (Virginia) National Battlefield Park. Maintains that the public debate over the popular understanding of history reflects an ongoing tension between academic historians and the purveyors of popular history. (CFR)
Feng, Ling; Nielsen, Andreas Brinch; Hansen, Lars Kai
This paper explores the vocal and non-vocal music classification problem within popular songs. A newly built labeled database covering 147 popular songs is announced. It is designed for classifying signals from 1sec time windows. Features are selected for this particular task, in order to capture...
Plate, L.; Smelik, A.M.
This volume pursues a new line of research in cultural memory studies by understanding memory as a performative act in art and popular culture. The authors take their cue from the observation that art and popular culture enact memory and generate processes of memory. They do memory, and in this
Lefevere, J.; De Swert, K.; Walgrave, S.
Common people that are apparently randomly selected by journalists to illustrate a news story (popular exemplars) have a substantial effect on what the audience think about the issue. This effect may be partly due to the mere fact that popular exemplars attract attention and act as attention
Popular culture provides many opportunities to develop quantitative reasoning. This article describes a junior-level, interdisciplinary, quantitative reasoning course that uses examples from movies, cartoons, television, magazine advertisements, and children's literature. Some benefits from and cautions to using popular culture to teach…
Abbas, Khushnood; Shang, Mingsheng; Abbasi, Alireza; Luo, Xin; Xu, Jian Jun; Zhang, Yu-Xia
Network science plays a big role in the representation of real-world phenomena such as user-item bipartite networks presented in e-commerce or social media platforms. It provides researchers with tools and techniques to solve complex real-world problems. Identifying and predicting future popularity and importance of items in e-commerce or social media platform is a challenging task. Some items gain popularity repeatedly over time while some become popular and novel only once. This work aims to identify the key-factors: popularity and novelty. To do so, we consider two types of novelty predictions: items appearing in the popular ranking list for the first time; and items which were not in the popular list in the past time window, but might have been popular before the recent past time window. In order to identify the popular items, a careful consideration of macro-level analysis is needed. In this work we propose a model, which exploits item level information over a span of time to rank the importance of the item. We considered ageing or decay effect along with the recent link-gain of the items. We test our proposed model on four various real-world datasets using four information retrieval based metrics.
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Mridha, Sankar Kumar; Sarkar, Braznev; Chatterjee, Sujoy; Bhattacharyya, Malay
Due to the significant growth of social networking and human activities through the web in recent years, attention to analyzing big data using real-time crowdsourcing has increased. This data may appear in the form of streaming images, audio or videos. In this paper, we address the problem of deciding the appropriateness of streaming videos in public media with the help of crowdsourcing in real-time.
This book focuses on the problem of video streaming over emerging cognitive radio (CR) networks. The book discusses the problems and techniques for scalable video streaming over cellular cognitive radio networks, ad hoc CR networks, cooperative CR networks, and femtocell CR networks. The author formulates these problems and proposes optimal algorithms to solve these problems. Also, the book analyzes the proposed algorithms and validates the algorithms with simulations.
Hinhin Agung Daryana
Full Text Available The study focuses on the impact of the karinding popularity on Bandung society. In trying to understand its focus, the study uses interdisciplinary approaches including soci- ology and anthropology. It employs qualitative research method including data collection from oral and wri!en sources. Since being played by a band called Karinding A!ack, karin- ding became popular in Bandung. Further, the popularity of karinding gave some impacts on Bandung people, both its practitioners and its audience. Some programs and activities considered as the result of the popularity of karinding include multiple activities such as tourism activities, networking development, educational activities, revitalization of tradi- tional arts other than karinding, music development, literacy development, and the develop- ment of the creative economy. Keywords: impact, popularity, karinding, Bandung, interdisciplinary approach
Full Text Available Given the popularity of video games and the influences they may pose on individuals’ psychology and behavior, the present study analyses whether video game playing among university students can be correlated with traits associated with an entrepreneur’s profile, which may, in turn, lead to an entrepreneurial intent. The results of the study reveal that students who do play video games show a higher entrepreneurial intent, this relationship being mediated by several psychological and cognitive characteristics. With regards to the psychological and cognitive factors studied, the results also suggest that a favorable attitude towards playing videogames fosters students’ entrepreneurial potential and has a positive effect on the entrepreneurial intent.
Video games are one of the most popular pasttimes of children and youth alike. The research on effects of playing video games reaches back only two decades, and is marred by suboptimal methodologies and conflicting evidence. Still, some cautious conclusions can be drawn from current research. Violent video games increase aggression, but the effect is significantly lower than with tv violence. More recent studies show a larger effect than older ones, suggesting that newer video games with ...
Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan
We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable
Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.
We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas
Smith, Rachel Charlotte; Christensen, Kasper Skov; Iversen, Ole Sejer
We introduce Video Design Games to train educators in teaching design. The Video Design Game is a workshop format consisting of three rounds in which participants observe, reflect and generalize based on video snippets from their own practice. The paper reports on a Video Design Game workshop...... in which 25 educators as part of a digital fabrication and design program were able to critically reflect on their teaching practice....
Ducey, Richard V.
This report examines a growing submarket, the children's video marketplace, which comprises broadcast, cable, and video programming for children 2 to 11 years old. A description of the tremendous growth in the availability and distribution of children's programming is presented, the economics of the children's video marketplace are briefly…
Buggey, Tom; Ogle, Lindsey
Video self-modeling (VSM) first appeared on the psychology and education stage in the early 1970s. The practical applications of VSM were limited by lack of access to tools for editing video, which is necessary for almost all self-modeling videos. Thus, VSM remained in the research domain until the advent of camcorders and VCR/DVD players and,…
Shi, Qisen; Song, Jianxin
With the rapid development of mobile live business, transcoding HD video is often a challenge for mobile devices due to their limited processing capability and bandwidth-constrained network connection. For live service providers, it's wasteful for resources to delay lots of transcoding server because some of them are free to work sometimes. To deal with this issue, this paper proposed an Openstack-based flexible transcoding framework to achieve real-time video adaption for mobile device and make computing resources used efficiently. To this end, we introduced a special method of video stream splitting and VMs resource scheduling based on access pressure prediction,which is forecasted by an AR model.
VASUKI BALASUBRAMANIAM, KARTHIKEYAN
The evolution of big data processing and analysis has led to data-parallel frameworks such as Hadoop, MapReduce, Spark, and Hive, which are capable of analyzing large streams of data such as server logs, web transactions, and user reviews. Videos are one of the biggest sources of data and dominate the Internet traffic. Video processing on a large scale is critical and challenging as videos possess spatial and temporal features, which are not taken into account by the existing data-parallel fr...
Yoon, Jong-Chul; Lee, In-Kwon; Byun, Siwoo
The expansion of the home video market has created a requirement for video editing tools to allow ordinary people to assemble videos from short clips. However, professional skills are still necessary to create a music video, which requires a stream to be synchronized with pre-composed music. Because the music and the video are pre-generated in separate environments, even a professional producer usually requires a number of trials to obtain a satisfactory synchronization, which is something that most amateurs are unable to achieve.
Full Text Available Abstract This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.
Full Text Available This paper examines the burgeoning impact of peer-to-peer (P2P traffic IP video traffic. High-quality IPTV or Internet TV has high-bandwidth requirements, and P2P IP video could severely strain broadband networks. A model for the popularity of video titles is given, showing that some titles are very popular and will often be available locally; making localized P2P attractive for video titles. The bandwidth impacts of localizing P2P video to try and keep traffic within a broadband access network area or within a broadband access aggregation network area are examined. Results indicate that such highly localized P2P video can greatly lower core bandwidth usage.
Desbien, Dwain M.
The use of probe ware and computers has become quite common in introductory physics classrooms. Video analysis is also becoming more popular and is available to a wide range of students through commercially available and/or free software.2,3 Video analysis allows for the study of motions that cannot be easily measured in the traditional lab setting and also allows real-world situations to be analyzed. Many motions are too fast to easily be captured at the standard video frame rate of 30 frames per second (fps) employed by most video cameras. This paper will discuss using a consumer camera that can record high-frame-rate video in a college-level conceptual physics class. In particular this will involve the use of model rockets to determine the acceleration during the boost period right at launch and compare it to a simple model of the expected acceleration.
Lynch, Jeremy; Aughwane, Paul; Hammond, Toby M
Surgical training is rapidly evolving because of reduced training hours and the reduction of training opportunities due to patient safety concerns. There is a popular conception that video game usage might be linked to improved operating ability especially those techniques involving endoscopic modalities. If true this might suggest future directions for training. A search was made of the MEDLINE databases for the MeSH term, "Video Games," combined with the terms "Surgical Procedures, Operative," "Endoscopy," "Robotics," "Education," "Learning," "Simulators," "Computer Simulation," "Psychomotor Performance," and "Surgery, Computer-Assisted,"encompassing all journal articles before November 2009. References of articles were searched for further studies. Twelve relevant journal articles were discovered. Video game usage has been studied in relationship to laparoscopic, gastrointestinal endoscopic, endovascular, and robotic surgery. Video game users acquire endoscopic but not robotic techniques quicker, and training on video games appears to improve performance. Copyright (c) 2010 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The current trend of digital convergence leads to the need of the video encoder/decoder (codec that should support multiple video standards on a single platform as it is expensive to use dedicated video codec chip for each standard. The paper presents a high performance circuit shared architecture that can perform the quantization of five popular video codecs such as H.264/AVC, AVS, VC-1, MPEG-2/4, and JPEG. The proposed quantizer architecture is completely division-free as the division operation is replaced by shift and addition operations for all the standards. The design is implemented on FPGA and later synthesized in CMOS 0.18 μm technology. The results show that the proposed design satisfies the requirement of all five codecs with a maximum decoding capability of 60 fps at 187 MHz on Xilinx FPGA platform for 1080 p HD video.
Ozcelebi, T.; Radovanovic, I.; Crisan, M.
Introduction Multimedia services such as video, gaming and music marked the close of the last century and have become inextricably linked with our lives in the current century. The success and popularity of these services was fuelled by the explosive expansion of the Internet and the furious
In this study of 109 adolescents from the eighth grade of seven public elementary schools in Canada, the relationship between adolescents' violent video game playing patterns, habits and attitudes, and their levels of moral reasoning was investigated. The results suggested that playing violent video games in general was a very popular activity…