WorldWideScience

Sample records for streamflow-gaging station network

  1. Streamflow Gaging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This map layer shows selected streamflow gaging stations of the United States, Puerto Rico, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, in 2013. Gaging stations, or gages, measure...

  2. Streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter E in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter E of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, to provide an update of statewide streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana. Streamflow characteristics are presented for 408 streamflow-gaging stations in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high streamflow, the magnitude and probability of low streamflow for three seasons (March–June, July–October, and November–February), streamflow duration statistics for monthly and annual periods, and mean streamflows for monthly and annual periods. Streamflow is considered to be regulated at streamflow-gaging stations where dams or other large-scale human modifications affect 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for streamflow-gaging stations with sufficient data.

  3. Application of AFINCH as a tool for evaluating the effects of streamflow-gaging-network size and composition on the accuracy and precision of streamflow estimates at ungaged locations in the southeast Lake Michigan hydrologic subregion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltun, G.F.; Holtschlag, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Bootstrapping techniques employing random subsampling were used with the AFINCH (Analysis of Flows In Networks of CHannels) model to gain insights into the effects of variation in streamflow-gaging-network size and composition on the accuracy and precision of streamflow estimates at ungaged locations in the 0405 (Southeast Lake Michigan) hydrologic subregion. AFINCH uses stepwise-regression techniques to estimate monthly water yields from catchments based on geospatial-climate and land-cover data in combination with available streamflow and water-use data. Calculations are performed on a hydrologic-subregion scale for each catchment and stream reach contained in a National Hydrography Dataset Plus (NHDPlus) subregion. Water yields from contributing catchments are multiplied by catchment areas and resulting flow values are accumulated to compute streamflows in stream reaches which are referred to as flow lines. AFINCH imposes constraints on water yields to ensure that observed streamflows are conserved at gaged locations.  Data from the 0405 hydrologic subregion (referred to as Southeast Lake Michigan) were used for the analyses. Daily streamflow data were measured in the subregion for 1 or more years at a total of 75 streamflow-gaging stations during the analysis period which spanned water years 1971–2003. The number of streamflow gages in operation each year during the analysis period ranged from 42 to 56 and averaged 47. Six sets (one set for each censoring level), each composed of 30 random subsets of the 75 streamflow gages, were created by censoring (removing) approximately 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 75 percent of the streamflow gages (the actual percentage of operating streamflow gages censored for each set varied from year to year, and within the year from subset to subset, but averaged approximately the indicated percentages).Streamflow estimates for six flow lines each were aggregated by censoring level, and results were analyzed to assess (a) how the

  4. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for selected streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North basin, North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macek-Rowland, Kathleen M.; Dressler, Valerie M.

    2002-01-01

    The quantity and quality of current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are concerns of people who reside within the basin. Additional water resources are needed because of recent growth in population, industry, and agriculture. How the management of current and future water-resources will impact water quality within the basin is a critical issue. Water-quality data, particularly for surface-water sources, will help water-resources managers make decisions about current and future water resources in the Red River of the North Basin. Statistical summaries of water-quality data for 43 streamflow-gaging stations in the Red River of the North Basin in North Dakota, Minnesota, and South Dakota are presented in this report. Statistical summaries include sample size, maximum, minimum, mean, and values for the 95th, 75th, 50th, 25th, and 5th percentiles.

  5. Low-flow analysis and selected flow statistics representative of 1930-2002 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Jeffrey B.

    2006-01-01

    Five time periods between 1930 and 2002 are identified as having distinct patterns of annual minimum daily mean flows (minimum flows). Average minimum flows increased around 1970 at many streamflow-gaging stations in West Virginia. Before 1930, however, there might have been a period of minimum flows greater than any period identified between 1930 and 2002. The effects of climate variability are probably the principal causes of the differences among the five time periods. Comparisons of selected streamflow statistics are made between values computed for the five identified time periods and values computed for the 1930-2002 interval for 15 streamflow-gaging stations. The average difference between statistics computed for the five time periods and the 1930-2002 interval decreases with increasing magnitude of the low-flow statistic. The greatest individual-station absolute difference was 582.5 percent greater for the 7-day 10-year low flow computed for 1970-1979 compared to the value computed for 1930-2002. The hydrologically based low flows indicate approximately equal or smaller absolute differences than biologically based low flows. The average 1-day 3-year biologically based low flow (1B3) and 4-day 3-year biologically based low flow (4B3) are less than the average 1-day 10-year hydrologically based low flow (1Q10) and 7-day 10-year hydrologic-based low flow (7Q10) respectively, and range between 28.5 percent less and 13.6 percent greater. Seasonally, the average difference between low-flow statistics computed for the five time periods and 1930-2002 is not consistent between magnitudes of low-flow statistics, and the greatest difference is for the summer (July 1-September 30) and fall (October 1-December 31) for the same time period as the greatest difference determined in the annual analysis. The greatest average difference between 1B3 and 4B3 compared to 1Q10 and 7Q10, respectively, is in the spring (April 1-June 30), ranging between 11.6 and 102.3 percent

  6. Peak-flow frequency analyses and results based on data through water year 2011 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter C in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter C of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Transportation and the Montana Department of Natural Resources, to provide an update of statewide peak-flow frequency analyses and results for Montana. The purpose of this report chapter is to present peak-flow frequency analyses and results for 725 streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana based on data through water year 2011. The 725 streamflow-gaging stations included in this study represent nearly all streamflowgaging stations in Montana (plus some from adjacent states or Canadian Provinces) that have at least 10 years of peak-flow records through water year 2011. For 29 of the 725 streamflow-gaging stations, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for both unregulated and regulated conditions. Thus, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for a total of 754 analyses. Estimates of peak-flow magnitudes for 66.7-, 50-, 42.9-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities are reported. These annual exceedance probabilities correspond to 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals.

  7. Analysis of flood-magnitude and flood-frequency data for streamflow-gaging stations in the Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roland, Mark A.; Stuckey, Marla H.

    2007-01-01

    The Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins in Pennsylvania experienced severe flooding as a result of intense rainfall during June 2006. The height of the flood waters on the rivers and tributaries approached or exceeded the peak of record at many locations. Updated flood-magnitude and flood-frequency data for streamflow-gaging stations on tributaries in the Delaware and North Branch Susquehanna River Basins were analyzed using data through the 2006 water year to determine if there were any major differences in the flood-discharge data. Flood frequencies for return intervals of 2, 5, 10, 50, 100, and 500 years (Q2, Q5, Q10, Q50, Q100, and Q500) were determined from annual maximum series (AMS) data from continuous-record gaging stations (stations) and were compared to flood discharges obtained from previously published Flood Insurance Studies (FIS) and to flood frequencies using partial-duration series (PDS) data. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was performed to determine any statistically significant differences between flood frequencies computed from updated AMS station data and those obtained from FIS. Percentage differences between flood frequencies computed from updated AMS station data and those obtained from FIS also were determined for the 10, 50, 100, and 500 return intervals. A Mann-Kendall trend test was performed to determine statistically significant trends in the updated AMS peak-flow data for the period of record at the 41 stations. In addition to AMS station data, PDS data were used to determine flood-frequency discharges. The AMS and PDS flood-frequency data were compared to determine any differences between the two data sets. An analysis also was performed on AMS-derived flood frequencies for four stations to evaluate the possible effects of flood-control reservoirs on peak flows. Additionally, flood frequencies for three stations were evaluated to determine possible effects of urbanization on peak flows. The results of the Wilcoxon signed

  8. Ten years of real-time streamflow gaging of turkey creek - where we have been and where we are going

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul Conrads; Devendra Amatya

    2016-01-01

    The Turkey Creek watershed is a third-order coastal plain stream system draining an area of approximately 5,240 hectares of the Francis Marion National Forest and located about 37 miles northwest of Charleston near Huger, South Carolina. The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service maintained a streamflow gaging station on Turkey Creek from 1964 to 1981....

  9. UMTS Network Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, C.

    2010-09-01

    The weakness of small island electrical grids implies a handicap for the electrical generation with renewable energy sources. With the intention of maximizing the installation of photovoltaic generators in the Canary Islands, arises the need to develop a solar forecasting system that allows knowing in advance the amount of PV generated electricity that will be going into the grid, from the installed PV power plants installed in the island. The forecasting tools need to get feedback from real weather data in "real time" from remote weather stations. Nevertheless, the transference of this data to the calculation computer servers is very complicated with the old point to point telecommunication systems that, neither allow the transfer of data from several remote weather stations simultaneously nor high frequency of sampling of weather parameters due to slowness of the connection. This one project has developed a telecommunications infrastructure that allows sensorizadas remote stations, to send data of its sensors, once every minute and simultaneously, to the calculation server running the solar forecasting numerical models. For it, the Canary Islands Institute of Technology has added a sophisticated communications network to its 30 weather stations measuring irradiation at strategic sites, areas with high penetration of photovoltaic generation or that have potential to host in the future photovoltaic power plants connected to the grid. In each one of the stations, irradiance and temperature measurement instruments have been installed, over inclined silicon cell, global radiation on horizontal surface and room temperature. Mobile telephone devices have been installed and programmed in each one of the weather stations, which allow the transfer of their data taking advantage of the UMTS service offered by the local telephone operator. Every minute the computer server running the numerical weather forecasting models receives data inputs from 120 instruments distributed

  10. Streamflow characteristics at hydrologic bench-mark stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, C.L.

    1987-01-01

    The Hydrologic Bench-Mark Network was established in the 1960's. Its objectives were to document the hydrologic characteristics of representative undeveloped watersheds nationwide and to provide a comparative base for studying the effects of man on the hydrologic environment. The network, which consists of 57 streamflow gaging stations and one lake-stage station in 39 States, is planned for permanent operation. This interim report describes streamflow characteristics at each bench-mark site and identifies time trends in annual streamflow that have occurred during the data-collection period. The streamflow characteristics presented for each streamflow station are (1) flood and low-flow frequencies, (2) flow duration, (3) annual mean flow, and (4) the serial correlation coefficient for annual mean discharge. In addition, Kendall's tau is computed as an indicator of time trend in annual discharges. The period of record for most stations was 13 to 17 years, although several stations had longer periods of record. The longest period was 65 years for Merced River near Yosemite, Calif. Records of flow at 6 of 57 streamflow sites in the network showed a statistically significant change in annual mean discharge over the period of record, based on computations of Kendall's tau. The values of Kendall's tau ranged from -0.533 to 0.648. An examination of climatological records showed that changes in precipitation were most likely the cause for the change in annual mean discharge.

  11. Surface-water data and statistics from U.S. Geological Survey data-collection networks in New Jersey on the World Wide Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiser, Robert G.; Watson, Kara M.; Chang, Ming; Nieswand, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with other Federal, State, and local agencies, operates and maintains a variety of surface-water data-collection networks throughout the State of New Jersey. The networks include streamflow-gaging stations, low-flow sites, crest-stage gages, tide gages, tidal creststage gages, and water-quality sampling sites. Both real-time and historical surface-water data for many of the sites in these networks are available at the USGS, New Jersey District, web site (http://nj.usgs.gov/), and water-quality data are available at the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) web site (http://waterdata.usgs.gov/nwis/). These data are an important source of information for water managers, engineers, environmentalists, and private citizens.

  12. DMA Reference Base Station Network Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data (15,904 records documenting 9,090 worldwide gravity base stations) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of...

  13. Impact of Electric Vehicle Charging Station Load on Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanchari Deb

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent concerns about environmental pollution and escalating energy consumption accompanied by the advancements in battery technology have initiated the electrification of the transportation sector. With the universal resurgence of Electric Vehicles (EVs the adverse impact of the EV charging loads on the operating parameters of the power system has been noticed. The detrimental impact of EV charging station loads on the electricity distribution network cannot be neglected. The high charging loads of the fast charging stations results in increased peak load demand, reduced reserve margins, voltage instability, and reliability problems. Further, the penalty paid by the utility for the degrading performance of the power system cannot be neglected. This work aims to investigate the impact of the EV charging station loads on the voltage stability, power losses, reliability indices, as well as economic losses of the distribution network. The entire analysis is performed on the IEEE 33 bus test system representing a standard radial distribution network for six different cases of EV charging station placement. It is observed that the system can withstand placement of fast charging stations at the strong buses up to a certain level, but the placement of fast charging stations at the weak buses of the system hampers the smooth operation of the power system. Further, a strategy for the placement of the EV charging stations on the distribution network is proposed based on a novel Voltage stability, Reliability, and Power loss (VRP index. The results obtained indicate the efficacy of the VRP index.

  14. Resilient design of recharging station networks for electric transportation vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kris Villez; Akshya Gupta; Venkat Venkatasubramanian

    2011-08-01

    As societies shift to 'greener' means of transportation using electricity-driven vehicles one critical challenge we face is the creation of a robust and resilient infrastructure of recharging stations. A particular issue here is the optimal location of service stations. In this work, we consider the placement of battery replacing service station in a city network for which the normal traffic flow is known. For such known traffic flow, the service stations are placed such that the expected performance is maximized without changing the traffic flow. This is done for different scenarios in which roads, road junctions and service stations can fail with a given probability. To account for such failure probabilities, the previously developed facility interception model is extended. Results show that service station failures have a minimal impact on the performance following robust placement while road and road junction failures have larger impacts which are not mitigated easily by robust placement.

  15. Propagation Characteristics of International Space Station Wireless Local Area Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sham, Catherine C.; Hwn, Shian U.; Loh, Yin-Chung

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the application of the Uniform Geometrical Theory of Diffraction (UTD) for Space Station Wireless Local Area Networks (WLANs) indoor propagation characteristics analysis. The verification results indicate good correlation between UTD computed and measured signal strength. It is observed that the propagation characteristics are quite different in the Space Station modules as compared with those in the typical indoor WLANs environment, such as an office building. The existing indoor propagation models are not readily applicable to the Space Station module environment. The Space Station modules can be regarded as oversized imperfect waveguides. Two distinct propagation regions separated by a breakpoint exist. The propagation exhibits the guided wave characteristics. The propagation loss in the Space Station, thus, is much smaller than that in the typical office building. The path loss model developed in this paper is applicable for Space Station WLAN RF coverage and link performance analysis.

  16. REDISTRIBUTION OF BASE STATIONS LOAD IN MOBILE COMMUNICATION NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ruban

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The subject matter of the article is the processes of load distribution in mobile communication networks. The object of research is the handover. The goal is to develop a method for redistributing the load between neighboring areas for mobile nodes. The considered base stations are supposed to have the signal-to-noise ratios that are equal or close. The methods that are used: methods of system analysis, methods of digital signal processing. The following results are obtained. The method that allows mobile nodes, whose signal-to-noise ratios are equal or close, to switch to a less loaded base station. This method allows the base station to launch the handover process enabling more even distribution of the load from mobile nodes among neighboring base stations in wireless and mobile networks. In the suggested modification of the method, the function assessing the bandwidth of the uplink channel is added to the base stations, as well a threshold value for using its bandwidth. Thus, when the current value of bandwidth reaches the threshold, the base station starts sending out a message to all mobile nodes and verifies free neighboring areas for switching over mobile nodes. If there are adjacent areas with a lower load, the base station notifies all potential candidates about the necessity of their switching over. The handover process is launched when the available bandwidth of the base station decreases below a certain threshold. Therefore, it is possible to optimize the operation of the WiMAX network with respect to the criterion of the total bandwidth capacity of the base stations. Besides, the results of the comparative analysis of the handover process in networks based on the WiMAX technology that are obtained using the OpNet simulation environment are presented. Conclusions.The suggested approach can be used to improve the basic software of mobile communication networks. When moving a node from one area to another one in access servers, the

  17. Implementation of Biogas Stations into Smart Heating and Cooling Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milčák, P.; Konvička, J.; Jasenská, M.

    2016-10-01

    The paper is aimed at the description of implementation of a biogas station into software environment for the "Smart Heating and Cooling Networks". The aim of this project is creation of a software tool for preparation of operation and optimization of treatment of heat/cool in small regions. In this case, the biogas station represents a kind of renewable energy source, which, however, has its own operational specifics which need to be taken into account at the creation of an implementation project. For a specific biogas station, a detailed computational model was elaborated, which is parameterized in particular for an optimization of the total computational time.

  18. Greening radio access networks using distributed base station architectures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kardaras, Georgios; Soler, José; Dittmann, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Several actions for developing environmentally friendly technologies have been taken in most industrial fields. Significant resources have also been devoted in mobile communications industry. Moving towards eco-friendly alternatives is primarily a social responsibility for network operators....... However besides this, increasing energy efficiency represents a key factor for reducing operating expenses and deploying cost effective mobile networks. This paper presents how distributed base station architectures can contribute in greening radio access networks. More specifically, the advantages...... energy saving. Different subsystems have to be coordinated real-time and intelligent network nodes supporting complicated functionalities are necessary. Distributed base station architectures are ideal for this purpose mainly because of their high degree of configurability and self...

  19. Deploying temporary networks for upscaling of sparse network stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coopersmith, Evan J.; Cosh, Michael H.; Bell, Jesse E.; Kelly, Victoria; Hall, Mark; Palecki, Michael A.; Temimi, Marouane

    2016-10-01

    Soil observations networks at the national scale play an integral role in hydrologic modeling, drought assessment, agricultural decision support, and our ability to understand climate change. Understanding soil moisture variability is necessary to apply these measurements to model calibration, business and consumer applications, or even human health issues. The installation of soil moisture sensors as sparse, national networks is necessitated by limited financial resources. However, this results in the incomplete sampling of the local heterogeneity of soil type, vegetation cover, topography, and the fine spatial distribution of precipitation events. To this end, temporary networks can be installed in the areas surrounding a permanent installation within a sparse network. The temporary networks deployed in this study provide a more representative average at the 3 km and 9 km scales, localized about the permanent gauge. The value of such temporary networks is demonstrated at test sites in Millbrook, New York and Crossville, Tennessee. The capacity of a single U.S. Climate Reference Network (USCRN) sensor set to approximate the average of a temporary network at the 3 km and 9 km scales using a simple linear scaling function is tested. The capacity of a temporary network to provide reliable estimates with diminishing numbers of sensors, the temporal stability of those networks, and ultimately, the relationship of the variability of those networks to soil moisture conditions at the permanent sensor are investigated. In this manner, this work demonstrates the single-season installation of a temporary network as a mechanism to characterize the soil moisture variability at a permanent gauge within a sparse network.

  20. Radio-location of mobile stations in third generation networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Manojle Šunjevarić

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Mobile station localization in mobile networks started with simple methods (e.g. Cell-ID method which required only slight modifications of network infrastructures. Principally, it was about network localization by which a localization service became available to all types of mobile phones. Due to low precision, the initiated development of more sophisticated methods has not been finished yet. Among the advanced location-based methods are those based on the measurement of location parameters in the time domain. In this paper the general consideration of radio location methods in 3G (UMTS radio networks is presented. The use of time based measurement methods was analysed in detail. Due to the limited article length, the use of other locating methods in 3G networks (based on power measurements, on radio direction measurement, and on cells identification – Cell ID and global positioning system - GPS are not described. Introduction Mobile station localization within modern cellular networks increases the level of user security and opens wide opportunities for commercial operators who provide this service. The major obstacle for the implementation of this service, which also prevents its practical usage, is the modification of the existing network infrastructure. In general, depending on the infrastructure used, positioning methods can be divided into two groups: integrated and independent. Integrated methods are primarily created for communication networks. A possibility to locate users represents just an additional service within a radio network. Independent methods are totally detached from the communication network in which the user whose location is being determined is. Radio location methods Determining the location of a mobile radio station is performed by determining the intersection of two or more lines of position. These lines represent the position of the set of points at which the mobile station may be located. These lines can be: (a

  1. Federated Ground Station Network Model and Interface Specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    of-sight of a small portion of the ground at any moment due to the geometry of a satellite in LEO above a planet of Earth’s size. The portion of the...Subnetwork 3 started out as a lone network in which there was a single CA and a number of ground stations. Then Subnetwork 3 joined with SA 1 and its

  2. Space station common module network topology and hardware development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P.; Braunagel, L.; Chwirka, S.; Fishman, M.; Freeman, K.; Eason, D.; Landis, D.; Lech, L.; Martin, J.; Mccorkle, J.

    1990-01-01

    Conceptual space station common module power management and distribution (SSM/PMAD) network layouts and detailed network evaluations were developed. Individual pieces of hardware to be developed for the SSM/PMAD test bed were identified. A technology assessment was developed to identify pieces of equipment requiring development effort. Equipment lists were developed from the previously selected network schematics. Additionally, functional requirements for the network equipment as well as other requirements which affected the suitability of specific items for use on the Space Station Program were identified. Assembly requirements were derived based on the SSM/PMAD developed requirements and on the selected SSM/PMAD network concepts. Basic requirements and simplified design block diagrams are included. DC remote power controllers were successfully integrated into the DC Marshall Space Flight Center breadboard. Two DC remote power controller (RPC) boards experienced mechanical failure of UES 706 stud-mounted diodes during mechanical installation of the boards into the system. These broken diodes caused input to output shorting of the RPC's. The UES 706 diodes were replaced on these RPC's which eliminated the problem. The DC RPC's as existing in the present breadboard configuration do not provide ground fault protection because the RPC was designed to only switch the hot side current. If ground fault protection were to be implemented, it would be necessary to design the system so the RPC switched both the hot and the return sides of power.

  3. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarei, Esmaeil; Azadeh, Ali; Khakzad, Nima; Aliabadi, Mostafa Mirzaei; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Dynamic cause-consequence analysis of the regulator system failure using BN. - Highlights: • A dynamic and comprehensive QRA (DCQRA) framework is proposed for safety assessment of CGSs. • Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed for accident scenario modeling. • Critical basic events and minimal cut sets are identified using probability updating. - Abstract: Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations. In this approach, a FMEA is used for hazard analysis while a Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed to model the worst-case accident scenario and to assess the risks. The results have indicated that the failure of the regulator system was the worst-case accident scenario with the human error as the most contributing factor. Thus, in risk management plan of natural gas stations, priority should be given to the most probable root events and main contribution factors, which have identified in the present study, in order to reduce the occurrence probability of the accident scenarios and thus alleviate the risks.

  4. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarei, Esmaeil, E-mail: smlzarei65@gmail.com [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Azadeh, Ali [School of Industrial and Systems Engineering, Center of Excellence for Intelligent-Based Experimental Mechanic, College of Engineering, University of Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khakzad, Nima [Safety and Security Science Section, Delft University of Technology, Delft (Netherlands); Aliabadi, Mostafa Mirzaei [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mohammadfam, Iraj, E-mail: mohammadfam@umsha.ac.ir [Center of Excellence for Occupational Health Engineering, Research Center for Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2017-01-05

    Graphical abstract: Dynamic cause-consequence analysis of the regulator system failure using BN. - Highlights: • A dynamic and comprehensive QRA (DCQRA) framework is proposed for safety assessment of CGSs. • Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed for accident scenario modeling. • Critical basic events and minimal cut sets are identified using probability updating. - Abstract: Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been developed for risk analysis of gas transportation systems, a comprehensive methodology for risk analysis is still lacking, especially in natural gas stations. The present work is aimed at developing a dynamic and comprehensive quantitative risk analysis (DCQRA) approach for accident scenario and risk modeling of natural gas stations. In this approach, a FMEA is used for hazard analysis while a Bow-tie diagram and Bayesian network are employed to model the worst-case accident scenario and to assess the risks. The results have indicated that the failure of the regulator system was the worst-case accident scenario with the human error as the most contributing factor. Thus, in risk management plan of natural gas stations, priority should be given to the most probable root events and main contribution factors, which have identified in the present study, in order to reduce the occurrence probability of the accident scenarios and thus alleviate the risks.

  5. From the shadows into the limelight: Intelligent local network stations; Vom Schattendasein ins Rampenlicht. Intelligente Ortsnetzstationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opitsch, Bruno [Siemens AG, Energy Sektor, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2011-03-21

    Local network stations ought to receive greater attention in view of increasing consumption, increasing supply from decentral power stations, load management and new functions relating to increasing electromobility in individual traffic. Higher efficiency should be the central goal in making local network stations fit for the 21st century.

  6. Discharge measurements at gaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnipseed, D. Phil; Sauer, Vernon B.

    2010-01-01

    The techniques and standards for making discharge measurements at streamflow gaging stations are described in this publication. The vertical axis rotating-element current meter, principally the Price current meter, has been traditionally used for most measurements of discharge; however, advancements in acoustic technology have led to important developments in the use of acoustic Doppler current profilers, acoustic Doppler velocimeters, and other emerging technologies for the measurement of discharge. These new instruments, based on acoustic Doppler theory, have the advantage of no moving parts, and in the case of the acoustic Doppler current profiler, quickly and easily provide three-dimensional stream-velocity profile data through much of the vertical water column. For much of the discussion of acoustic Doppler current profiler moving-boat methodology, the reader is referred to U.S. Geological Survey Techniques and Methods 3-A22 (Mueller and Wagner, 2009). Personal digital assistants (PDAs), electronic field notebooks, and other personal computers provide fast and efficient data-collection methods that are more error-free than traditional hand methods. The use of portable weirs and flumes, floats, volumetric tanks, indirect methods, and tracers in measuring discharge are briefly described.

  7. LambdaStation: Exploiting Advance Networks In Data Intensive High Energy Physics Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harvey B. Newman

    2009-09-11

    Lambda Station software implements selective, dynamic, secure path control between local storage & analysis facilities, and high bandwidth, wide-area networks (WANs). It is intended to facilitate use of desirable, alternate wide area network paths which may only be intermittently available, or subject to policies that restrict usage to specified traffic. Lambda Station clients gain awareness of potential alternate network paths via Clarens-based web services, including path characteristics such as bandwidth and availability. If alternate path setup is requested and granted, Lambda Station will configure the local network infrastructure to properly forward designated data flows via the alternate path. A fully functional implementation of Lambda Station, capable of dynamic alternate WAN path setup and teardown, has been successfully developed. A limited Lambda Station-awareness capability within the Storage Resource Manager (SRM) product has been developed. Lambda Station has been successfully tested in a number of venues, including Super Computing 2008. LambdaStation software, developed by the Fermilab team, enables dynamic allocation of alternate network paths for high impact traffic and to forward designated flows across LAN. It negotiates with reservation and provisioning systems of WAN control planes, be it based on SONET channels, demand tunnels, or dynamic circuit networks. It creates End-To-End circuit between single hosts, computer farms or networks with predictable performance characteristics, preserving QoS if supported in LAN and WAN and tied security policy allowing only specific traffic to be forwarded or received through created path. Lambda Station project also explores Network Awareness capabilities.

  8. Large scale network management. Condition indicators for network stations, high voltage power conductions and cables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggen, Arnt Ove; Rolfseng, Lars; Langdal, Bjoern Inge

    2006-02-01

    In the Strategic Institute Programme (SIP) 'Electricity Business enters e-business (eBee)' SINTEF Energy research has developed competency that can help the energy business employ ICT systems and computer technology in an improved way. Large scale network management is now a reality, and it is characterized by large entities with increasing demands on efficiency and quality. These are goals that can only be reached by using ICT systems and computer technology in a more clever way than what is the case today. At the same time it is important that knowledge held by experienced co-workers is consulted when formal rules for evaluations and decisions in ICT systems are developed. In this project an analytical concept for evaluation of networks based information in different ICT systems has been developed. The method estimating the indicators to describe different conditions in a network is general, and indicators can be made to fit different levels of decision and network levels, for example network station, transformer circuit, distribution network and regional network. Moreover, the indicators can contain information about technical aspects, economy and HSE. An indicator consists of an indicator name, an indicator value, and an indicator colour based on a traffic-light analogy to indicate a condition or a quality for the indicator. Values on one or more indicators give an impression of important conditions in the network, and make up the basis for knowing where more detailed evaluations have to be conducted before a final decision on for example maintenance or renewal is made. A prototype has been developed for testing the new method. The prototype has been developed in Excel, and especially designed for analysing transformer circuits in a distribution network. However, the method is a general one, and well suited for implementation in a commercial computer system (ml)

  9. The central monitoring station of Indian Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network (IERMON): the architecture and functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, Saurabh; Ratheesh, M.P.; Mukundan, T.; Patel, M.D.; Nair, C.K.G.; Puranik, V.D.

    2010-01-01

    The Indian Environmental Radiation Monitoring Network (IERMON) is being established across the country by the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai. The network consists of stations with automated systems for environmental radiation monitoring with online data communication facility. Currently about 100 stations are operational and additional 500 stations are expected to be installed by March, 2012. The network is established with different objectives, the main objective being the detection and reporting of any nuclear emergency anywhere in the country. The central monitoring station of the network is established in Mumbai. This paper describes the architecture and functions of IERMON Central Station. The Central Station consists of server room for online data collection from remote stations and maintenance of databases for various applications; central monitoring room for user interaction with database and IERMON website maintenance and development room for the development of new applications. The functions of IERMON Central Station include detection and reporting of nuclear emergency, maintenance of remote stations, enhancement of public awareness on environmental radiation through public display systems and website, etc. The details on system layout and data protocols can be found in the paper. (author)

  10. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2006-05-01

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2005' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  11. Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004. Measurement stations of air quality monitoring network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2005-07-01

    In this Appendix to the report 'Air pollution assessment in the Slovak Republic in 2004' the main characteristics of measurement stations of air quality monitoring network of the Slovak Republic are presented

  12. VFM Discrimination Results from a Ten Station Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Chiang Mai , Thailand (CHTO) from a presumed explosion in eastern Kazakhstan .................... 24 5. Seismogram written at Tatalina, Alaska, for the same...results for the station located at Chiang Mai , Thailand (CHTO) ... .......... . 55 15c. VFM results for the station located at Zongo Valley, Bolivia...seismogram written at the Seismic Research Observatory (SRO) in Chiang Mai , Thailand (CHTO) from a presumed explosion in eastern Kazakhstan. The top is the

  13. Managing Recurrent Congestion of Subway Network in Peak Hours with Station Inflow Control

    OpenAIRE

    Qingru Zou; Xiangming Yao; Peng Zhao; Fei Dou; Taoyuan Yang

    2018-01-01

    Station inflow control (SIC) is an important and effective method for reducing recurrent congestion during peak hours in the Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou subway systems. This work proposes a practical and efficient method for establishing a static SIC scheme in normal weekdays for large-scale subway networks. First, a traffic assignment model without capacity constraint is utilized to determine passenger flow distributions on the network. An internal relationship between station inflows a...

  14. IPTV based on IP network and streaming media service station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jifeng; Gao, Songbo

    2007-11-01

    IPTV can be a new service performed on the Internet in that network transmission and streaming media technologies are getting mature. In this paper, IPTV system infrastructure of UTStarcom, key technologies deployed, and applications will be discussed and evaluated. The key technologies to achieve IPTV services include 1) codec and compression; 2) streaming media; and 3) broadband networks and access to such networks. The implementation of Media Switch IPTV system in Harbin CNC city network is also discussed.

  15. Service offerings and interfaces for the ACTS network of earth stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coney, T. A.; Dobyns, T. R.; Chitre, D. M.; Lindstrom, R.

    1988-01-01

    The NASA Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) will use a network of about 20 earth stations to operate as a Mode 1 network. This network will support two ACTS program objectives: to verify the technical performance of ACTS Mode 1 operation in GEO and to demonstrate the types and quality of services that can be provided by an ACTS Mode 1 communications system. The terrestrial interface design is a critical element in assuring that these network earth stations will meet the objectives. In this paper, the applicable terrestrial interface design requirements, the resulting interface specifications, and the associated terrestrial input/output hardware are discussed. A functional block diagram of a network earth station is shown.

  16. Optimal Base Station Density of Dense Network: From the Viewpoint of Interference and Load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jianyuan; Feng, Zhiyong

    2017-09-11

    Network densification is attracting increasing attention recently due to its ability to improve network capacity by spatial reuse and relieve congestion by offloading. However, excessive densification and aggressive offloading can also cause the degradation of network performance due to problems of interference and load. In this paper, with consideration of load issues, we study the optimal base station density that maximizes the throughput of the network. The expected link rate and the utilization ratio of the contention-based channel are derived as the functions of base station density using the Poisson Point Process (PPP) and Markov Chain. They reveal the rules of deployment. Based on these results, we obtain the throughput of the network and indicate the optimal deployment density under different network conditions. Extensive simulations are conducted to validate our analysis and show the substantial performance gain obtained by the proposed deployment scheme. These results can provide guidance for the network densification.

  17. On the effectiveness of single and multiple base station sleep modes in cellular networks

    OpenAIRE

    Marsan, Marco Ajmone; Chiaraviglio, Luca; Ciullo, Delia; Meo, Michela

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we study base station sleep modes that, by reducing power consumption in periods of low traffic, improve the energy efficiency of cellular access networks. We assume that when some base stations enter sleep mode, radio coverage and service provisioning are provided by the base stations that remain active, so as to guarantee that service is available over the whole area at all times. This may be an optimistic assumption in the case of the sparse base station layouts typical of ru...

  18. Optimal base station placement for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Jianjun; Shi, Yi; Ding, Xu; Wei, Zhenchun

    2015-01-14

    We consider the base station placement problem for wireless sensor networks with successive interference cancellation (SIC) to improve throughput. We build a mathematical model for SIC. Although this model cannot be solved directly, it enables us to identify a necessary condition for SIC on distances from sensor nodes to the base station. Based on this relationship, we propose to divide the feasible region of the base station into small pieces and choose a point within each piece for base station placement. The point with the largest throughput is identified as the solution. The complexity of this algorithm is polynomial. Simulation results show that this algorithm can achieve about 25% improvement compared with the case that the base station is placed at the center of the network coverage area when using SIC.

  19. A super base station based centralized network architecture for 5G mobile communication systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manli Qian

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available To meet the ever increasing mobile data traffic demand, the mobile operators are deploying a heterogeneous network with multiple access technologies and more and more base stations to increase the network coverage and capacity. However, the base stations are isolated from each other, so different types of radio resources and hardware resources cannot be shared and allocated within the overall network in a cooperative way. The mobile operators are thus facing increasing network operational expenses and a high system power consumption. In this paper, a centralized radio access network architecture, referred to as the super base station (super BS, is proposed, as a possible solution for an energy-efficient fifth-generation (5G mobile system. The super base station decouples the logical functions and physical entities of traditional base stations, so different types of system resources can be horizontally shared and statistically multiplexed among all the virtual base stations throughout the entire system. The system framework and main functionalities of the super BS are described. Some key technologies for system implementation, i.e., the resource pooling, real-time virtualization, adaptive hardware resource allocation are also highlighted.

  20. Dynamic safety assessment of natural gas stations using Bayesian network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zarei, Esmaeil; Azadeh, Ali; Khakzad Rostami, N.; Mirzaei Aliabadi, Mostafa; Mohammadfam, Iraj

    2017-01-01

    Pipelines are one of the most popular and effective ways of transporting hazardous materials, especially natural gas. However, the rapid development of gas pipelines and stations in urban areas has introduced a serious threat to public safety and assets. Although different methods have been

  1. Optimization of municipal pressure pumping station layout and sewage pipe network design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiandong; Cheng, Jilin; Gong, Yi

    2018-03-01

    Accelerated urbanization places extraordinary demands on sewer networks; thus optimization research to improve the design of these systems has practical significance. In this article, a subsystem nonlinear programming model is developed to optimize pumping station layout and sewage pipe network design. The subsystem model is expanded into a large-scale complex nonlinear programming system model to find the minimum total annual cost of the pumping station and network of all pipe segments. A comparative analysis is conducted using the sewage network in Taizhou City, China, as an example. The proposed method demonstrated that significant cost savings could have been realized if the studied system had been optimized using the techniques described in this article. Therefore, the method has practical value for optimizing urban sewage projects and provides a reference for theoretical research on optimization of urban drainage pumping station layouts.

  2. Probabilistic Harmonic Calculation in Distribution Networks with Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxue Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Integrating EV charging station into power grid will bring impacts on power system, among which the most significant one is the harmonic pollution on distribution networks. Due to the uncertainty of the EV charging process, the harmonic currents brought by EV charging stations have a random nature. This paper proposed a mathematical simulation method for studying the working status of charging stations, which considers influencing factors including random leaving factor, electricity price, and waiting time. Based on the proposed simulation method, the probability distribution of the harmonic currents of EV charging stations is obtained and used in the calculation of the probability harmonic power flow. Then the impacts of EVs and EV charging stations on distribution networks can be analyzed. In the case study, the proposed simulation and analysis method is implemented on the IEEE-34 distribution network. The influences of EV arrival rates, the penetration rate, and the accessing location of EV charging station are also investigated. Results show that this research has good potential in guiding the planning and construction of charging station.

  3. Lambda Station: Alternate network path forwarding for production SciDAC applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigoriev, Maxim; Bobyshev, Andrey; Crawford, Matt; DeMar, Phil; Grigaliunas, Vyto; Moibenko, Alexander; Petravick, Don; Newman, Harvey; Steenberg, Conrad; Thomas, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The LHC era will start very soon, creating immense data volumes capable of demanding allocation of an entire network circuit for task-driven applications. Circuit-based alternate network paths are one solution to meeting the LHC high bandwidth network requirements. The Lambda Station project is aimed at addressing growing requirements for dynamic allocation of alternate network paths. Lambda Station facilitates the rerouting of designated traffic through site LAN infrastructure onto so-called 'high-impact' wide-area networks. The prototype Lambda Station developed with Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) approach in mind will be presented. Lambda Station has been successfully integrated into the production version of the Storage Resource Manager (SRM), and deployed at US CMS Tier1 center at Fermilab, as well as at US-CMS Tier-2 site at Caltech. This paper will discuss experiences using the prototype system with production SciDAC applications for data movement between Fermilab and Caltech. The architecture and design principles of the production version Lambda Station software, currently being implemented as Java based web services, will also be presented in this paper

  4. Locations of Sampling Stations for Water Quality Monitoring in Water Distribution Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Shweta; Gupta, Rajesh

    2014-04-01

    Water quality is required to be monitored in the water distribution networks (WDNs) at salient locations to assure the safe quality of water supplied to the consumers. Such monitoring stations (MSs) provide warning against any accidental contaminations. Various objectives like demand coverage, time for detection, volume of water contaminated before detection, extent of contamination, expected population affected prior to detection, detection likelihood and others, have been independently or jointly considered in determining optimal number and location of MSs in WDNs. "Demand coverage" defined as the percentage of network demand monitored by a particular monitoring station is a simple measure to locate MSs. Several methods based on formulation of coverage matrix using pre-specified coverage criteria and optimization have been suggested. Coverage criteria is defined as some minimum percentage of total flow received at the monitoring stations that passed through any upstream node included then as covered node of the monitoring station. Number of monitoring stations increases with the increase in the value of coverage criteria. Thus, the design of monitoring station becomes subjective. A simple methodology is proposed herein which priority wise iteratively selects MSs to achieve targeted demand coverage. The proposed methodology provided the same number and location of MSs for illustrative network as an optimization method did. Further, the proposed method is simple and avoids subjectivity that could arise from the consideration of coverage criteria. The application of methodology is also shown on a WDN of Dharampeth zone (Nagpur city WDN in Maharashtra, India) having 285 nodes and 367 pipes.

  5. Channel coding in the space station data system network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healy, T.

    1982-01-01

    A detailed discussion of the use of channel coding for error correction, privacy/secrecy, channel separation, and synchronization is presented. Channel coding, in one form or another, is an established and common element in data systems. No analysis and design of a major new system would fail to consider ways in which channel coding could make the system more effective. The presence of channel coding on TDRS, Shuttle, the Advanced Communication Technology Satellite Program system, the JSC-proposed Space Operations Center, and the proposed 30/20 GHz Satellite Communication System strongly support the requirement for the utilization of coding for the communications channel. The designers of the space station data system have to consider the use of channel coding.

  6. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0–1 integer programming to describe passengers’ responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated. PMID:27935963

  7. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haodong Yin

    Full Text Available A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1 A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2 An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1, the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated.

  8. Modeling and Simulating Passenger Behavior for a Station Closure in a Rail Transit Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Haodong; Han, Baoming; Li, Dewei; Wu, Jianjun; Sun, Huijun

    2016-01-01

    A station closure is an abnormal operational situation in which the entrances or exits of a rail transit station have to be closed for some time due to an unexpected incident. A novel approach is developed to estimate the impacts of the alternative station closure scenarios on both passenger behavioral choices at the individual level and passenger demand at the disaggregate level in a rail transit network. Therefore, the contributions of this study are two-fold: (1) A basic passenger behavior optimization model is mathematically constructed based on 0-1 integer programming to describe passengers' responses to alternative origin station closure scenarios and destination station closure scenarios; this model also considers the availability of multi-mode transportation and the uncertain duration of the station closure; (2) An integrated solution algorithm based on the passenger simulation is developed to solve the proposed model and to estimate the effects of a station closure on passenger demand in a rail transit network. Furthermore, 13 groups of numerical experiments based on the Beijing rail transit network are performed as case studies with 2,074,267 records of smart card data. The comparisons of the model outputs and the manual survey show that the accuracy of our proposed behavior optimization model is approximately 80%. The results also show that our model can be used to capture the passenger behavior and to quantitatively estimate the effects of alternative closure scenarios on passenger flow demand for the rail transit network. Moreover, the closure duration and its overestimation greatly influence the individual behavioral choices of the affected passengers and the passenger demand. Furthermore, if the rail transit operator can more accurately estimate the closure duration (namely, as g approaches 1), the impact of the closure can be somewhat mitigated.

  9. Detecting earthquakes over a seismic network using single-station similarity measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergen, Karianne J.; Beroza, Gregory C.

    2018-06-01

    New blind waveform-similarity-based detection methods, such as Fingerprint and Similarity Thresholding (FAST), have shown promise for detecting weak signals in long-duration, continuous waveform data. While blind detectors are capable of identifying similar or repeating waveforms without templates, they can also be susceptible to false detections due to local correlated noise. In this work, we present a set of three new methods that allow us to extend single-station similarity-based detection over a seismic network; event-pair extraction, pairwise pseudo-association, and event resolution complete a post-processing pipeline that combines single-station similarity measures (e.g. FAST sparse similarity matrix) from each station in a network into a list of candidate events. The core technique, pairwise pseudo-association, leverages the pairwise structure of event detections in its network detection model, which allows it to identify events observed at multiple stations in the network without modeling the expected moveout. Though our approach is general, we apply it to extend FAST over a sparse seismic network. We demonstrate that our network-based extension of FAST is both sensitive and maintains a low false detection rate. As a test case, we apply our approach to 2 weeks of continuous waveform data from five stations during the foreshock sequence prior to the 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique earthquake. Our method identifies nearly five times as many events as the local seismicity catalogue (including 95 per cent of the catalogue events), and less than 1 per cent of these candidate events are false detections.

  10. Study on the three-station typical network deployments of workspace Measurement and Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Zhi; Zhu, J. G.; Xue, B.; Ye, Sh. H.; Xiong, Y.

    2013-10-01

    As a novel network coordinate measurement system based on multi-directional positioning, workspace Measurement and Positioning System (wMPS) has outstanding advantages of good parallelism, wide measurement range and high measurement accuracy, which makes it to be the research hotspots and important development direction in the field of large-scale measurement. Since station deployment has a significant impact on the measurement range and accuracy, and also restricts the use-cost, the optimization method of station deployment was researched in this paper. Firstly, positioning error model was established. Then focusing on the small network consisted of three stations, the typical deployments and error distribution characteristics were studied. Finally, through measuring the simulated fuselage using typical deployments at the industrial spot and comparing the results with Laser Tracker, some conclusions are obtained. The comparison results show that under existing prototype conditions, I_3 typical deployment of which three stations are distributed in a straight line has an average error of 0.30 mm and the maximum error is 0.50 mm in the range of 12 m. Meanwhile, C_3 typical deployment of which three stations are uniformly distributed in the half-circumference of an circle has an average error of 0.17 mm and the maximum error is 0.28 mm. Obviously, C_3 typical deployment has a higher control effect on precision than I_3 type. The research work provides effective theoretical support for global measurement network optimization in the future work.

  11. Streamflow Characteristics for Selected Stations In and Near the Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison National Forests, Southwestern Colorado

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kuhn, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    The U.S Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Grand Mesa, Uncompahgre, and Gunnison National Forests, began a study in 2000 to develop selected streamflow characteristics for 60 streamflow-gaging...

  12. A collaborative network middleware project by Lambda Station, TeraPaths, and Phoebus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobyshev, A.; Bradley, S.; Crawford, M.; DeMar, P.; Katramatos, D.; Shroff, K.; Swany, M.; Yu, D.

    2010-01-01

    The TeraPaths, Lambda Station, and Phoebus projects, funded by the US Department of Energy, have successfully developed network middleware services that establish on-demand and manage true end-to-end, Quality-of-Service (QoS) aware, virtual network paths across multiple administrative network domains, select network paths and gracefully reroute traffic over these dynamic paths, and streamline traffic between packet and circuit networks using transparent gateways. These services improve network QoS and performance for applications, playing a critical role in the effective use of emerging dynamic circuit network services. They provide interfaces to applications, such as dCache SRM, translate network service requests into network device configurations, and coordinate with each other to setup up end-to-end network paths. The End Site Control Plane Subsystem (ESCPS) builds upon the success of the three projects by combining their individual capabilities into the next generation of network middleware. ESCPS addresses challenges such as cross-domain control plane signalling and interoperability, authentication and authorization in a Grid environment, topology discovery, and dynamic status tracking. The new network middleware will take full advantage of the perfSONAR monitoring infrastructure and the Inter-Domain Control plane efforts and will be deployed and fully vetted in the Large Hadron Collider data movement environment.

  13. Single-frequency receivers as master permanent stations in GNSS networks: precision and accuracy of the positioning in mixed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabove, Paolo; Manzino, Ambrogio Maria

    2015-04-01

    The use of GPS/GNSS instruments is a common practice in the world at both a commercial and academic research level. Since last ten years, Continuous Operating Reference Stations (CORSs) networks were born in order to achieve the possibility to extend a precise positioning more than 15 km far from the master station. In this context, the Geomatics Research Group of DIATI at the Politecnico di Torino has carried out several experiments in order to evaluate the achievable precision obtainable with different GNSS receivers (geodetic and mass-market) and antennas if a CORSs network is considered. This work starts from the research above described, in particular focusing the attention on the usefulness of single frequency permanent stations in order to thicken the existing CORSs, especially for monitoring purposes. Two different types of CORSs network are available today in Italy: the first one is the so called "regional network" and the second one is the "national network", where the mean inter-station distances are about 25/30 and 50/70 km respectively. These distances are useful for many applications (e.g. mobile mapping) if geodetic instruments are considered but become less useful if mass-market instruments are used or if the inter-station distance between master and rover increases. In this context, some innovative GNSS networks were developed and tested, analyzing the performance of rover's positioning in terms of quality, accuracy and reliability both in real-time and post-processing approach. The use of single frequency GNSS receivers leads to have some limits, especially due to a limited baseline length, the possibility to obtain a correct fixing of the phase ambiguity for the network and to fix the phase ambiguity correctly also for the rover. These factors play a crucial role in order to reach a positioning with a good level of accuracy (as centimetric o better) in a short time and with an high reliability. The goal of this work is to investigate about the

  14. Present day geodynamics in Iceland monitored by a permanent network of continuous GPS stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Völksen, Christof; Árnadóttir, Thóra; Geirsson, Halldór; Valsson, Guðmundur

    2009-12-01

    Iceland is located on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge and thereby offers a rare opportunity to study crustal movements at a divergent plate boundary. Iceland is not only characterized by the divergence of the Eurasian and North American Plates, as several active volcanoes are located on the island. Moderate size earthquakes occur in the transform zones, causing measurable crustal deformation. In 1999 the installation of a permanent network of continuous GPS stations (ISGPS) was initiated in order to observe deformation due to unrest in the Hengill volcanic system and at the Katla volcano. The ISGPS network has been enlarged over the years and consists today of more than 25 CGPS stations. Most of the stations are located along the plate boundary, where most of the active deformation takes place. Uplift due to post-glacial rebound due to the melting of the largest glacier in Europe, Vatnajökull, is also detected by the ISGPS network. This study presents results from analysis of 9 years of data from the ISGPS network, in the global reference frame PDR05, which has been evaluated by the Potsdam-Dresden-Reprocessing group with reprocessed GPS data only. We thus determine subsidence or land uplift in a global frame. The horizontal station velocities clearly show spreading across the plate boundary of about 20 mm/a. Stations in the vicinity of the glacier Vatnajökull indicate uplift in the range of 12 mm/a, while a station in the central part of Iceland shows uplift rates of about 25 mm/a. Tide gauge readings in Reykjavik and current subsidence rates observed with CGPS agree also quite well.

  15. REDUCING THE BOOSTER STATIONS ENERGY CONSUMPTION BY WAY OF ELIMINATING OVERPRESSURE IN THE WATER SUPPLY NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. N. Zdor

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy efficiency improvement of the city housing-and-utilities infrastructure and watersupply and water-disposal systems poses an occurrent problem. The water-supply systems energy consumption sizable share falls on the pump plants. The article deals with the issues of the operating regime management of the existing booster stations equipped with a group of pumping units regulated with frequency converters. One of the optimization directions of their energy consumption is the reduction of over-pressure in the water-distribution network and its sustentation within the regulatory values. The authors offer the structure and methodology of the data collection-and-analysis automated system utilization for revealing and eliminating the overpressure in the water-supply network. This system is designed for the group management of booster-stations operating regimes on the ground of data obtained from the pressure controlling devices at the consumers. The data exchange in the system is realized via GSM.The paper presents results of the tests carried out at the booster stations in some major cities of the Republic of Belarus. The authors analyze dependence of overpressure in the network on the methods of the plant output pressure sustentation (daily graph or constant pressure. The authors study the elimination effect of over-pressure in the water distribution network on changing the booster station pumping units operation regimes. The study shows that eliminating over pressure in the water distributing network leads to lowering the booster station pressure. This in its turn decreases its energy consumption by 15–20 % depending on the over pressure fixed level.

  16. Evaluation of Integration Degree of the ASG-EUPOS Polish Reference Networks With Ukrainian GeoTerrace Network Stations in the Border Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siejka, Zbigniew

    2017-09-01

    GNSS systems are currently the basic tools for determination of the highest precision station coordinates (e.g. basic control network stations or stations used in the networks for geodynamic studies) as well as for land, maritime and air navigation. All of these tasks are carried out using active, large scale, satellite geodetic networks which are complex, intelligent teleinformatic systems offering post processing services along with corrections delivered in real-time for kinematic measurements. Many countries in the world, also in Europe, have built their own multifunctional networks and enhance them with their own GNSS augmentation systems. Nowadays however, in the era of international integration, there is a necessity to consider collective actions in order to build a unified system, covering e.g. the whole Europe or at least some of its regions. Such actions have already been undertaken in many regions of the world. In Europe such an example is the development for EUPOS which consists of active national networks built in central eastern European countries. So far experience and research show, that the critical areas for connecting these networks are border areas, in which the positioning accuracy decreases (Krzeszowski and Bosy, 2011). This study attempts to evaluate the border area compatibility of Polish ASG-EUPOS (European Position Determination System) reference stations and Ukrainian GeoTerrace system reference stations in the context of their future incorporation into the EUPOS. The two networks analyzed in work feature similar hardware parameters. In the ASG-EUPOS reference stations network, during the analyzed period, 2 stations (WLDW and CHEL) used only one system (GPS), while, in the GeoTerrace network, all the stations were equipped with both GPS and GLONASS receivers. The ASG EUPOS reference station network (95.6%) has its average completeness greater by about 6% when compared to the GeoTerrace network (89.8%).

  17. Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs for flood forecasting at Dongola Station in the River Nile, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulafa Hag Elsafi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Heavy seasonal rains cause the River Nile in Sudan to overflow and flood the surroundings areas. The floods destroy houses, crops, roads, and basic infrastructure, resulting in the displacement of people. This study aimed to forecast the River Nile flow at Dongola Station in Sudan using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN as a modeling tool and validated the accuracy of the model against actual flow. The ANN model was formulated to simulate flows at a certain location in the river reach, based on flow at upstream locations. Different procedures were applied to predict flooding by the ANN. Readings from stations along the Blue Nile, White Nile, Main Nile, and River Atbara between 1965 and 2003 were used to predict the likelihood of flooding at Dongola Station. The analysis indicated that the ANN provides a reliable means of detecting the flood hazard in the River Nile.

  18. Magnetic Repeat Station Network on the Baltic Sea — Why So Needed?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welker Elżbieta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of navigation systems requires more and more accurate base data. Currently, attention is paid to utilization of geophysical fields — gravitational and magnetic ones — for navigation purposes. The Earth’s magnetic field distribution — both onshore and offshore — is complicated and variable in time. Hence, it is essential to precisely know the secular variations in the area of interest. In the case of Baltic Sea, this involves establishing (re-establishing of a marine network of secular points (repeat stations and regular magnetic measurements of the three independent components of the Earth’s magnetic field. Such measurements require equipment that ensures not only high stability, but also information about sensors’ orientation in relation to geographic north and to the level. This article presents a new project of the Baltic network of repeat stations and gives a solution for the instruments usable for quasi-absolute magnetic measurements.

  19. Output power distributions of mobile radio base stations based on network measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombi, D; Thors, B; Persson, T; Törnevik, C; Wirén, N; Larsson, L-E

    2013-01-01

    In this work output power distributions of mobile radio base stations have been analyzed for 2G and 3G telecommunication systems. The approach is based on measurements in selected networks using performance surveillance tools part of the network Operational Support System (OSS). For the 3G network considered, direct measurements of output power levels were possible, while for the 2G networks, output power levels were estimated from measurements of traffic volumes. Both voice and data services were included in the investigation. Measurements were conducted for large geographical areas, to ensure good overall statistics, as well as for smaller areas to investigate the impact of different environments. For high traffic hours, the 90th percentile of the averaged output power was found to be below 65% and 45% of the available output power for the 2G and 3G systems, respectively.

  20. Output power distributions of mobile radio base stations based on network measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombi, D.; Thors, B.; Persson, T.; Wirén, N.; Larsson, L.-E.; Törnevik, C.

    2013-04-01

    In this work output power distributions of mobile radio base stations have been analyzed for 2G and 3G telecommunication systems. The approach is based on measurements in selected networks using performance surveillance tools part of the network Operational Support System (OSS). For the 3G network considered, direct measurements of output power levels were possible, while for the 2G networks, output power levels were estimated from measurements of traffic volumes. Both voice and data services were included in the investigation. Measurements were conducted for large geographical areas, to ensure good overall statistics, as well as for smaller areas to investigate the impact of different environments. For high traffic hours, the 90th percentile of the averaged output power was found to be below 65% and 45% of the available output power for the 2G and 3G systems, respectively.

  1. DESIGN AND ENGINEERING BACKGROUND FOR STATION NETWORKS OF VERTICAL IONOSPHERE SOUNDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Y. Grishentsev

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysis of the network stations structure for ionosphere vertical sounding. Design features and creation principle of the program complexes for automated processing, analysis and storage of ionosphere sounding are considered. Conceptual model of complex database control system is created. The results of work are used in research practice of leading national organizations to study the ionosphere. Obtained application results of suggested algorithms and programs for automated processing and analysis of ionosphere vertical sounding are shown.

  2. The network architecture and site test of DCIS in Lungmen nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C. K.

    2006-01-01

    The Lungmen Nuclear Power Station (LMNPS) is located in North-Eastern Seashore of Taiwan. LMNPP has two units. Each unit generates 1350 Megawatts. It is the first ABWR Plant in Taiwan and is under-construction now. Due to contractual arrangement, there are seven large I and C suppliers/designers, which are GE NUMAC, DRS, Invensys, GEIS, Hitachi, MHI, and Stone and Webster company. The Distributed Control and Information System (DCIS) in Lungmen are fully integrated with the state-of-the-art computer and network technology. General Electric is the leading designer for integration of DCIS. This paper presents Network Architecture and the Site Test of DCIS. The network architectures are follows. GE NUMAC System adopts the point to point architecture, DRS System adopts Ring type architecture with SCRAMNET protocol, Inevnsys system adopts IGiga Byte Backbone mesh network with Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol, GEIS adopts Ethernet network with EGD protocol, Hitachi adopts ring type network with proprietary protocol. MHI adopt Ethernet network with UDP. The data-links are used for connection between different suppliers. The DCIS architecture supports the plant automation, the alarm prioritization and alarm suppression, and uniform MMI screen for entire plant. The Test Program regarding the integration of different network architectures and Initial DCIS architecture Setup for 161KV Energization will be discussed. Test tool for improving site test schedule, and lessons learned from FAT will be discussed too. And conclusions are at the end of this paper. (authors)

  3. The network architecture and site test of DCIS in Lungmen nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, C. K. [Instrument and Control Section, Lungmen Nuclear Power Station, Taiwan Power Company, Taipei County Taiwan (China)

    2006-07-01

    The Lungmen Nuclear Power Station (LMNPS) is located in North-Eastern Seashore of Taiwan. LMNPP has two units. Each unit generates 1350 Megawatts. It is the first ABWR Plant in Taiwan and is under-construction now. Due to contractual arrangement, there are seven large I and C suppliers/designers, which are GE NUMAC, DRS, Invensys, GEIS, Hitachi, MHI, and Stone and Webster company. The Distributed Control and Information System (DCIS) in Lungmen are fully integrated with the state-of-the-art computer and network technology. General Electric is the leading designer for integration of DCIS. This paper presents Network Architecture and the Site Test of DCIS. The network architectures are follows. GE NUMAC System adopts the point to point architecture, DRS System adopts Ring type architecture with SCRAMNET protocol, Inevnsys system adopts IGiga Byte Backbone mesh network with Rapid Spanning Tree Protocol, GEIS adopts Ethernet network with EGD protocol, Hitachi adopts ring type network with proprietary protocol. MHI adopt Ethernet network with UDP. The data-links are used for connection between different suppliers. The DCIS architecture supports the plant automation, the alarm prioritization and alarm suppression, and uniform MMI screen for entire plant. The Test Program regarding the integration of different network architectures and Initial DCIS architecture Setup for 161KV Energization will be discussed. Test tool for improving site test schedule, and lessons learned from FAT will be discussed too. And conclusions are at the end of this paper. (authors)

  4. Network hydraulics inclusion in water quality event detection using multiple sensor stations data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliker, Nurit; Ostfeld, Avi

    2015-09-01

    Event detection is one of the current most challenging topics in water distribution systems analysis: how regular on-line hydraulic (e.g., pressure, flow) and water quality (e.g., pH, residual chlorine, turbidity) measurements at different network locations can be efficiently utilized to detect water quality contamination events. This study describes an integrated event detection model which combines multiple sensor stations data with network hydraulics. To date event detection modelling is likely limited to single sensor station location and dataset. Single sensor station models are detached from network hydraulics insights and as a result might be significantly exposed to false positive alarms. This work is aimed at decreasing this limitation through integrating local and spatial hydraulic data understanding into an event detection model. The spatial analysis complements the local event detection effort through discovering events with lower signatures by exploring the sensors mutual hydraulic influences. The unique contribution of this study is in incorporating hydraulic simulation information into the overall event detection process of spatially distributed sensors. The methodology is demonstrated on two example applications using base runs and sensitivity analyses. Results show a clear advantage of the suggested model over single-sensor event detection schemes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of Fast Charging Station Network for Electrified Ride-Hailing Services

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Eric W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Rames, Clement L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kontou, Eleftheria [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Motoaki, Yutaka [Idaho National Laboratory; Smart, John [Idaho National Laboratory; Zhou, Zhi [Argonne National Laboratory

    2018-04-03

    Today's electric vehicle (EV) owners charge their vehicles mostly at home and seldom use public direct current fast charger (DCFCs), reducing the need for a large deployment of DCFCs for private EV owners. However, due to the emerging interest among transportation network companies to operate EVs in their fleet, there is great potential for DCFCs to be highly utilized and become economically feasible in the future. This paper describes a heuristic algorithm to emulate operation of EVs within a hypothetical transportation network company fleet using a large global positioning system data set from Columbus, Ohio. DCFC requirements supporting operation of EVs are estimated using the Electric Vehicle Infrastructure Projection tool. Operation and installation costs were estimated using real-world data to assess the economic feasibility of the recommended fast charging stations. Results suggest that the hypothetical transportation network company fleet increases daily vehicle miles traveled per EV with less overall down time, resulting in increased demand for DCFC. Sites with overhead service lines are recommended for hosting DCFC stations to minimize the need for trenching underground service lines. A negative relationship was found between cost per unit of energy and fast charging utilization, underscoring the importance of prioritizing utilization over installation costs when siting DCFC stations. Although this preliminary analysis of the impacts of new mobility paradigms on alternative fueling infrastructure requirements has produced several key results, the complexity of the problem warrants further investigation.

  6. Occurrence and transport of selected constituents in streams near the Stibnite mining area, Central Idaho, 2012–14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etheridge, Alexandra B.

    2015-12-07

    Mining of stibnite (antimony sulfide), tungsten, gold, silver, and mercury near the town of Stibnite in central Idaho has left a legacy of trace element contamination in local streams. Water-quality and streamflow monitoring data from a network of five streamflow-gaging stations were used to estimate trace-element and suspended-sediment loads and flow-weighted concentrations in the Stibnite mining area between 2012 and 2014. Measured concentrations of arsenic exceeded human health-based water-quality criteria at each streamflow-gaging station, except for Meadow Creek (site 2), which was selected to represent background conditions in the study area. Measured concentrations of antimony exceeded human health-based water-quality criteria at sites 3, 4, and 5.

  7. Base Station Placement Algorithm for Large-Scale LTE Heterogeneous Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seungseob; Lee, SuKyoung; Kim, Kyungsoo; Kim, Yoon Hyuk

    2015-01-01

    Data traffic demands in cellular networks today are increasing at an exponential rate, giving rise to the development of heterogeneous networks (HetNets), in which small cells complement traditional macro cells by extending coverage to indoor areas. However, the deployment of small cells as parts of HetNets creates a key challenge for operators' careful network planning. In particular, massive and unplanned deployment of base stations can cause high interference, resulting in highly degrading network performance. Although different mathematical modeling and optimization methods have been used to approach various problems related to this issue, most traditional network planning models are ill-equipped to deal with HetNet-specific characteristics due to their focus on classical cellular network designs. Furthermore, increased wireless data demands have driven mobile operators to roll out large-scale networks of small long term evolution (LTE) cells. Therefore, in this paper, we aim to derive an optimum network planning algorithm for large-scale LTE HetNets. Recently, attempts have been made to apply evolutionary algorithms (EAs) to the field of radio network planning, since they are characterized as global optimization methods. Yet, EA performance often deteriorates rapidly with the growth of search space dimensionality. To overcome this limitation when designing optimum network deployments for large-scale LTE HetNets, we attempt to decompose the problem and tackle its subcomponents individually. Particularly noting that some HetNet cells have strong correlations due to inter-cell interference, we propose a correlation grouping approach in which cells are grouped together according to their mutual interference. Both the simulation and analytical results indicate that the proposed solution outperforms the random-grouping based EA as well as an EA that detects interacting variables by monitoring the changes in the objective function algorithm in terms of system

  8. Managing Recurrent Congestion of Subway Network in Peak Hours with Station Inflow Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingru Zou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Station inflow control (SIC is an important and effective method for reducing recurrent congestion during peak hours in the Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou subway systems. This work proposes a practical and efficient method for establishing a static SIC scheme in normal weekdays for large-scale subway networks. First, a traffic assignment model without capacity constraint is utilized to determine passenger flow distributions on the network. An internal relationship between station inflows and section flows is then constructed. Second, capacity bottlenecks are identified by considering the transport capacity of each section. Then, a feedback-based bottleneck elimination strategy is established to search target control stations and determine their control time and control strength. To validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a decision support system coded in the C# programming language was developed, and the Beijing subway was used as a case study. The results indicate that the proposed method and tool are capable of practical applications, and the generated SIC plan has better performance over the existing SIC plan. This study provides a practical and useful method for operation agencies to construct SIC schemes in the subway system.

  9. Predicting PM10 concentration in Seoul metropolitan subway stations using artificial neural network (ANN).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sechan; Kim, Minjeong; Kim, Minhae; Namgung, Hyeong-Gyu; Kim, Ki-Tae; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Kwon, Soon-Bark

    2018-01-05

    The indoor air quality of subway systems can significantly affect the health of passengers since these systems are widely used for short-distance transit in metropolitan urban areas in many countries. The particles generated by abrasion during subway operations and the vehicle-emitted pollutants flowing in from the street in particular affect the air quality in underground subway stations. Thus the continuous monitoring of particulate matter (PM) in underground station is important to evaluate the exposure level of PM to passengers. However, it is difficult to obtain indoor PM data because the measurement systems are expensive and difficult to install and operate for significant periods of time in spaces crowded with people. In this study, we predicted the indoor PM concentration using the information of outdoor PM, the number of subway trains running, and information on ventilation operation by the artificial neural network (ANN) model. As well, we investigated the relationship between ANN's performance and the depth of underground subway station. ANN model showed a high correlation between the predicted and actual measured values and it was able to predict 67∼80% of PM at 6 subway station. In addition, we found that platform shape and depth influenced the model performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Breadth of Scientific Activities and Network Station Specifications in the International GPS Service (IGS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, A. W.; Neilan, R. E.; Springer, T. A.; Reigber, Ch.

    2000-01-01

    A strong multipurpose aspect of the International GPS Service (IGS) is revealed by a glance at the titles of current projects and working groups within the IGS: IGS/BIPM Time Transfer Project; Ionosphere Working Group; Troposphere Working Group; International GLONASS Experiment; Working Group on Low-Earth Orbiter Missions; and Tide Gauges, CGPS, and the IGS. The IGS network infrastructure, in large part originally commissioned for geodynamical investigations, has proved to be a valuable asset in developing application-oriented subnetworks whose requirements overlap the characteristics of existing IGS stations and future station upgrades. Issues encountered thus far in the development of multipurpose or multitechnique IGS projects as well as future possibilities will be reviewed.

  11. Base Station Ordering for Emergency Call Localization in Ultra-dense Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elsawy, Hesham

    2017-10-04

    This paper proposes the base station ordering localization technique (BoLT) for emergency call localization in cellular networks. Exploiting the foreseen ultra-densification of the next-generation (5G and beyond) cellular networks, we utilize higher-order Voronoi tessellations to provide ubiquitous localization services that are in compliance to the public safety standards in cellular networks. The proposed localization algorithm runs at the base stations (BSs) and requires minimal operation from agents (i.e., mobile users). Particularly, BoLT requires each agent to feedback a neighbor cell list (NCL) that contains the order of neighboring BSs based on the received signal power in the pilots sent from these BSs. Moreover, this paper utilizes stochastic geometry to develop a tractable mathematical model to assess the performance of BoLT in a general network setting. The goal of this paper is to answer the following two fundamental questions: i) how many BSs should be ordered and reported by the agent to achieve a desirable localization accuracy? and ii) what is the localization error probability given that the pilot signals are subject to shadowing? Assuming that the BSs are deployed according to a Poisson point process (PPP), we answer these two questions via characterizing the tradeoff between the area of location region (ALR) and the localization error probability in terms of the number of BSs ordered by the agent. The results show that reporting the order of six neighboring BSs is sufficient to localize the agent within 10% of the cell area. Increasing the number of reported BSs to ten confines the location region to 1% of the cell area. This would translate to the range of a few meters to decimeters in the foreseen ultra-dense 5G networks.

  12. Base Station Ordering for Emergency Call Localization in Ultra-dense Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Elsawy, Hesham; Dai, Wenhan; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim; Win, Moe Z.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes the base station ordering localization technique (BoLT) for emergency call localization in cellular networks. Exploiting the foreseen ultra-densification of the next-generation (5G and beyond) cellular networks, we utilize higher-order Voronoi tessellations to provide ubiquitous localization services that are in compliance to the public safety standards in cellular networks. The proposed localization algorithm runs at the base stations (BSs) and requires minimal operation from agents (i.e., mobile users). Particularly, BoLT requires each agent to feedback a neighbor cell list (NCL) that contains the order of neighboring BSs based on the received signal power in the pilots sent from these BSs. Moreover, this paper utilizes stochastic geometry to develop a tractable mathematical model to assess the performance of BoLT in a general network setting. The goal of this paper is to answer the following two fundamental questions: i) how many BSs should be ordered and reported by the agent to achieve a desirable localization accuracy? and ii) what is the localization error probability given that the pilot signals are subject to shadowing? Assuming that the BSs are deployed according to a Poisson point process (PPP), we answer these two questions via characterizing the tradeoff between the area of location region (ALR) and the localization error probability in terms of the number of BSs ordered by the agent. The results show that reporting the order of six neighboring BSs is sufficient to localize the agent within 10% of the cell area. Increasing the number of reported BSs to ten confines the location region to 1% of the cell area. This would translate to the range of a few meters to decimeters in the foreseen ultra-dense 5G networks.

  13. Improving Energy Efficiency of Cooperative Femtocell Networks via Base Station Switching Off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woongsup Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, energy efficiency (EE of cellular networks has become an important performance metric, and several techniques have been proposed to increase the EE. Among them, turning off base stations (BSs when not needed is considered as one of the most powerful techniques due to its simple operation and effectiveness. Herein, we propose a novel BS switching-off technique for cooperative femtocell networks where multiple femtocell BSs (FBSs simultaneously send packets to the same mobile station (MS. Unlike conventional schemes, cooperative operation of FBSs, also known as coordinated multipoint (CoMP transmission, is considered to determine which BSs are turned off in the proposed technique. We first formulate the optimization problem to find the optimal set of FBSs to be turned off. Then, we propose a suboptimal scheme operating in a distributed manner in order to reduce the computational complexity of the optimal scheme. The suboptimal scheme is based on throughput ratio (TR which specifies the importance of a particular FBS for the cooperative transmission. Through simulations, we show that the energy consumption can be greatly reduced with the proposed technique, compared with conventional schemes. Moreover, we show that the suboptimal scheme also achieves the near-optimal performance even without the excessive computations.

  14. Design of FPGA Based Neural Network Controller for Earth Station Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Automation of generating hardware description language code from neural networks models can highly decrease time of implementation those networks into a digital devices, thus significant money savings. To implement the neural network into hardware designer, it is required to translate generated model into device structure. VHDL language is used to describe those networks into hardware. VHDL code has been proposed to implement ANNs as well as to present simulation results with floating point arithmetic of the earth station and the satellite power systems using ModelSim PE 6.6 simulator tool. Integration between MATLAB and VHDL is used to save execution time of computation. The results shows that a good agreement between MATLAB and VHDL and a fast/flexible feed forward NN which is capable of dealing with floating point arithmetic operations; minimum number of CLB slices; and good speed of performance. FPGA synthesis results are obtained with view RTL schematic and technology schematic from Xilinix tool. Minimum number of utilized resources is obtained by using Xilinix VERTIX5.

  15. Delay/Disruption Tolerance Networking (DTN) Implementation and Utilization Options on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holbrook, Mark; Pitts, Robert Lee; Gifford, Kevin K.; Jenkins, Andrew; Kuzminsky, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) is in an operational configuration and nearing final assembly. With its maturity and diverse payloads onboard, the opportunity exists to extend the orbital lab into a facility to exercise and demonstrate Delay/Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN). DTN is an end-to-end network service providing communications through environments characterized by intermittent connectivity, variable delays, high bit error rates, asymmetric links and simplex links. The DTN protocols, also known as bundle protocols, provide a store-and-forward capability to accommodate end-to-end network services. Key capabilities of the bundling protocols include: the Ability to cope with intermittent connectivity, the Ability to take advantage of scheduled and opportunistic connectivity (in addition to always up connectivity), Custody Transfer, and end-to-end security. Colorado University at Boulder and the Huntsville Operational Support Center (HOSC) have been developing a DTN capability utilizing the Commercial Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (CGBA) payload resources onboard the ISS, at the Boulder Payload Operations Center (POC) and at the HOSC. The DTN capability is in parallel with and is designed to augment current capabilities. The architecture consists of DTN endpoint nodes on the ISS and at the Boulder POC, and a DTN node at the HOSC. The DTN network is composed of two implementations; the Interplanetary Overlay Network (ION) and the open source DTN2 implementation. This paper presents the architecture, implementation, and lessons learned. By being able to handle the types of environments described above, the DTN technology will be instrumental in extending networks into deep space to support future missions to other planets and other solar system points of interest. Thus, this paper also discusses how this technology will be applicable to these types of deep space exploration missions.

  16. Networked simulation for team training of Space Station astronauts, ground controllers, and scientists - A training and development environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajare, Ankur R.; Wick, Daniel T.; Bovenzi, James J.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe plans for the Space Station Training Facility (SSTF) which has been designed to meet the envisioned training needs for Space Station Freedom. To meet these needs, the SSTF will integrate networked simulators with real-world systems in five training modes: Stand-Alone, Combined, Joint-Combined, Integrated, and Joint-Integrated. This paper describes the five training modes within the context of three training scenaries. In addition, this paper describes an authoring system which will support the rapid integration of new real-world system changes in the Space Station Freedom Program.

  17. Base Station Activation and Linear Transceiver Design for Optimal Resource Management in Heterogeneous Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wei-Cheng; Hong, Mingyi; Liu, Ya-Feng; Luo, Zhi-Quan

    2014-08-01

    In a densely deployed heterogeneous network (HetNet), the number of pico/micro base stations (BS) can be comparable with the number of the users. To reduce the operational overhead of the HetNet, proper identification of the set of serving BSs becomes an important design issue. In this work, we show that by jointly optimizing the transceivers and determining the active set of BSs, high system resource utilization can be achieved with only a small number of BSs. In particular, we provide formulations and efficient algorithms for such joint optimization problem, under the following two common design criteria: i) minimization of the total power consumption at the BSs, and ii) maximization of the system spectrum efficiency. In both cases, we introduce a nonsmooth regularizer to facilitate the activation of the most appropriate BSs. We illustrate the efficiency and the efficacy of the proposed algorithms via extensive numerical simulations.

  18. Optimal location of emergency stations in underground mine networks using a multiobjective mathematical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotfian, Reza; Najafi, Mehdi

    2018-02-26

    Background Every year, many mining accidents occur in underground mines all over the world resulting in the death and maiming of many miners and heavy financial losses to mining companies. Underground mining accounts for an increasing share of these events due to their special circumstances and the risks of working therein. Thus, the optimal location of emergency stations within the network of an underground mine in order to provide medical first aid and transport injured people at the right time, plays an essential role in reducing deaths and disabilities caused by accidents Objective The main objective of this study is to determine the location of emergency stations (ES) within the network of an underground coal mine in order to minimize the outreach time for the injured. Methods A three-objective mathematical model is presented for placement of ES facility location selection and allocation of facilities to the injured in various stopes. Results Taking into account the radius of influence for each ES, the proposed model is capable to reduce the maximum time for provision of emergency services in the event of accident for each stope. In addition, the coverage or lack of coverage of each stope by any of the emergency facility is determined by means of Floyd-Warshall algorithm and graph. To solve the problem, a global criterion method using GAMS software is used to evaluate the accuracy and efficiency of the model. Conclusions 7 locations were selected from among 46 candidates for the establishment of emergency facilities in Tabas underground coal mine. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. The RING and Seismic Network: Data Acquisition of Co-located Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falco, L.; Avallone, A.; Cattaneo, M.; Cecere, G.; Cogliano, R.; D'Agostino, N.; D'Ambrosio, C.; D'Anastasio, E.; Selvaggi, G.

    2007-12-01

    The plate boundary between Africa and Eurasia represents an interesting geodynamical region characterized by a complex pattern of deformation. First-order scientific problems regarding the existence of rigid blocks within the plate boundary, the present-day activity of the Calabrian subduction zone and the modes of release of seismic deformation are still awaiting for a better understanding. To address these issues, the INGV (Istituto Nazionale Geofisica e Vulcanlogia) deployed a permanent, integrated and real-time monitoring GPS network (RING) all over Italy. RING is now constituted by about 120 stations. The CGPS sites, acquiring at 1Hz and 30s sampling rate, are integrated either with broad band or very broad band seismometers and accelerometers for an improved definition of the seismically active regions. Most of the sites are connected to the acquisition centre (located in Rome and duplicated in Grottaminarda) through a satellite system (VSAT), while the remaining sites transmit data by Internet and classical phone connections. The satellite data transmission and the integration with seismic instruments makes this network one of the most innovative CGPS networks in Europe. The heterogeneity of the installed instrumentation, the transmission types and the increasing number of stations needed a central monitoring and acquisition system. A central acquisition system has been developed in Grottaminarda in southern Italy. Regarding the seismic monitoring we chose to use the open source system Earthworm, developed by USGS, with which we store waveforms and implement automatic localization of the seismic events occurring in the area. As most of the GPS sites are acquired by means of Nanometrics satellite technology, we developed a specific software (GpsView), written in Java, to monitor the state of health of those CGPS. This software receives GPS data from NaqsServer (Nanometrics acquisition system) and outputs information about the sites (i.e. approx position

  20. A System to Produce Precise Global GPS Network Solutions for all Geodetic GPS Stations in the World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blewitt, G.; Kreemer, C. W.

    2010-12-01

    We have developed an end-to-end system that automatically seeks and routinely retrieves geodetic GPS data from ~5000 stations (currently) around the globe, reduces the data into unique, daily global network solutions, and produces high precision time series for station coordinates ready for time-series analysis, geophysical modeling and interpretation. Moreover, “carrier range” data are produced for all stations, enabling epoch-by-epoch tracking of individual station motions by precise point positioning for investigation of sub-daily processes, such as post-seismic after-slip and ocean tidal loading. Solutions are computed in a global reference frame aligned to ITRF, and optionally in user-specified continental-scale reference frames that can filter out common-mode signals to enhance regional strain anomalies. We describe the elements of this system, the underlying signal processing theory, the products, operational statistics, and scientific applications of our system. The system is fundamentally based on precise point positioning using JPL's GIPSY OASIS II software, coupled with ambiguity resolution and a global network adjustment of ~300,000 parameters per day using our newly developed Ambizap3 software. The system is designed to easily and efficiently absorb stations that deliver data very late, by recycling prior computations in the network adjustment, such that the resulting network solution is identical to starting from scratch. Thus, it becomes possible to trawl continuously the Internet for late arriving data, or for newly discovered data, and seamlessly update all GPS station time series using the new information content. As new stations are added to the processing archive, automated e-mail requests are made to H.-G. Scherneck's server at Chalmers University to compute ocean loading coefficients used by the station motion model. Rinex file headers are parsed and compared with alias tables in order to infer the correct receiver type and antenna

  1. Data communications method for mobile network in fourth generation communications system, involves delivering decoded data to mobile station from relay station, where mobile station receives data from both relay and base stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2008-01-01

    The method involves utilizing a base station (BS) (100) to transmit data to a relay station (RS) (110) and a mobile station (MS) (120), where the data includes two messages. The BS is utilized to transmit the two messages by utilizing a linear combination method, and the data is received in the RS...

  2. Gas expanders at M/R Stations in the natural gas distribution network. Pre-project, subreport; Gasexpandere paa distributionsnettets M/R-stationer. Forprojekt, delrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, Niels Bjarne

    2010-05-15

    Danish Gas Technology Centre has been carrying out a feasibility project to clarify the possibilities of installing gas expanders at M/R-stations (Measuring and Regulating) in the Distribution system of the natural gas grid. A large number of such expanders are installed around the world. The novelty of this project is to use a heat pump to perform the necessary heating of the gas before the expander, and to ''export'' to the electricity grid the remaining electricity from the generator connected to the expander. The present project includes the small M/R-stations at the gas Distribution grid where pressure is reduced from 40 or 20 bar to 4 bar. The preliminary project (year 1 of project) has investigated whether components for such smaller systems can be found, and it has investigated prices for different quantities. A technical feasibility study has been done. Also, preliminary calculations of payback times has been carried out. A large potential of CO{sub 2}-reduction is present with this technology based on saving of natural gas combustion and on new electricity production displacing existing production without any use of primary energy. The main results and conclusions are: 1) There are component suppliers for expander systems suitable to the size of distribution network M/R stations. 2) Pressure regulators provided at the stations are laid out with significant overcapacity, enabling a simplified installation of the expander systems. 3) If the system is being rolled out across the Danish distribution grid, the realistic saving potential is approx. 2.3 million Nm3 of gas per year and a production of almost 40 million kWh of electricity. 4) If the price is 0.60 DKK/kWh for electricity sold, the simple pay-back is 6-7 years on average, covering a variation from 3 to 16 years at the various stations. The smallest stations are omitted. The best stations covering more than half of the gas flow have a pay-back time between 3 and 6 years. 5) The

  3. Identification of Homogeneous Stations for Quality Monitoring Network of Mashhad Aquifer Based on Nitrate Pollution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moslem Akbarzadeh

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: For water resources monitoring, Evaluation of groundwater quality obtained via detailed analysis of pollution data. The most fundamental analysis is to identify the exact measurement of dangerous zones and homogenous station identification in terms of pollution. In case of quality evaluation, the monitoring improvement could be achieved via identifying homogenous wells in terms of pollution. Presenting a method for clustering is essential in large amounts of quality data for aquifer monitoring and quality evaluation, including identification of homogeneous stations of monitoring network and their clustering based on pollution. In this study, with the purpose of Mashhad aquifer quality evaluation, clustering have been studied based on Euclidean distance and Entropy criteria. Cluster analysis is the task of grouping a set of objects in such a way that objects in the same group (called a cluster are more similar (in some sense or another to each other than to those in other groups (clusters. SNI as a combined entropy measure for clustering calculated from dividing mutual information of two values (pollution index values to the joint entropy. These measures apply as similar distance criteria for monitoring stations clustering. Materials and Methods: First, nitrate data (as pollution index and electrical conductivity (EC (as covariate collected from the related locational situation of 287 wells in statistical period 2002 to 2011. Having identified the outlying data and estimating non-observed points by spatial-temporal Kriging method and then standardizes them, the clustering process was carried out. A similar distance of wells calculated through a clustering process based on Euclidean distance and Entropy (SNI criteria. This difference explained by characteristics such as the location of wells (longitude & latitude and the pollution index (nitrate. Having obtained a similar distance of each well to others, the hierarchical clustering

  4. New Network of Automatic Stations integrated in the CSNs Environmental Radiological Surveillance Network; Nueva Red de Estaciones Automaticas integrada en la Red de Vigilancia Radiologica Ambiental del CSN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parages Perez del Yerro, C.; Garcia Cadierno, J. P.; Calvin Cuartero, M.

    2016-05-01

    In 1992, the Council put into operation a network comprising 25 automatic stations for continuous monitoring of the radiological quality of the air and the detection of anomalous situations. It has now decided to undertake the renewal and modernisation of these installations, incorporating sensors and automatic connection and communication systems based on the best technology currently available. (Author)

  5. Towards a network of Urban Forest Eddy Covariance stations: a unique case study in Naples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidolotti, Gabriele; Pallozzi, Emanuele; Esposito, Raffaela; Mattioni, Michele; Calfapietra, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Urban forests are by definition integrated in highly human-made areas, and interact with different components of our cities. Thanks to those interactions, urban forests provide to people and to the urban environment a number of ecosystem services, including the absorption of CO2 and air pollutants thus influencing the local air quality. Moreover, in urban areas a relevant role is played by the photochemical pollution which is strongly influenced by the interactions between volatile organic compounds (VOC) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). In several cities, a high percentage of VOC is of biogenic origin mainly emitted from the urban trees. Despite their importance, experimental sites monitoring fluxes of trace gases fluxes in urban forest ecosystems are still scarce. Here we show the preliminary results of an innovative experimental site located in the Royal Park of Capodimonte within the city of Naples (40°51'N-14°15'E, 130 m above sea level). The site is mainly characterised by Quercus ilex with some patches of Pinus pinea and equipped with an eddy-covariance tower measuring the exchange of CO2, H2O, N2O, CH4, O3, PM, VOCs and NOx using state-of-the art instrumentations; it is running since the end of 2014 and it is part of the large infrastructural I-AMICA project. We suggest that the experience gained with research networks such as Fluxnet and ICOS should be duplicated for urban forests. This is crucial for carbon as there is now the ambition to include urban forests in the carbon stocks accounting system. This is even more important to understand the difficult interactions between anthropogenic and biogenic sources that often have negative implications for urban air quality. Urban environment can thus become an extraordinary case study and a network of such kind of stations might represent an important strategy both from the scientific and the applicative point of view.

  6. Trends in Surface-Water Quality at Selected Ambient-Monitoring Network Stations in Kentucky, 1979-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Angela S.; Martin, Gary R.

    2009-01-01

    Increasingly complex water-management decisions require water-quality monitoring programs that provide data for multiple purposes, including trend analyses, to detect improvement or deterioration in water quality with time. Understanding surface-water-quality trends assists resource managers in identifying emerging water-quality concerns, planning remediation efforts, and evaluating the effectiveness of the remediation. This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Kentucky Energy and Environment Cabinet-Kentucky Division of Water, to analyze and summarize long-term water-quality trends of selected properties and water-quality constituents in selected streams in Kentucky's ambient stream water-quality monitoring network. Trends in surface-water quality for 15 properties and water-quality constituents were analyzed at 37 stations with drainage basins ranging in size from 62 to 6,431 square miles. Analyses of selected physical properties (temperature, specific conductance, pH, dissolved oxygen, hardness, and suspended solids), for major ions (chloride and sulfate), for selected metals (iron and manganese), for nutrients (total phosphorus, total nitrogen, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate), and for fecal coliform were compiled from the Commonwealth's ambient water-quality monitoring network. Trend analyses were completed using the S-Plus statistical software program S-Estimate Trend (S-ESTREND), which detects trends in water-quality data. The trend-detection techniques supplied by this software include the Seasonal Kendall nonparametric methods for use with uncensored data or data censored with only one reporting limit and the Tobit-regression parametric method for use with data censored with multiple reporting limits. One of these tests was selected for each property and water-quality constituent and applied to all station records so that results of the trend procedure could be compared among

  7. Floods of Selected Streams in Arkansas, Spring 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funkhouser, Jaysson E.; Eng, Ken

    2009-01-01

    Floods can cause loss of life and extensive destruction to property. Monitoring floods and understanding the reasons for their occurrence are the responsibility of many Federal agencies. The National Weather Service, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the U.S. Geological Survey are among the most visible of these agencies. Together, these three agencies collect and analyze floodflow information to better understand the variety of mechanisms that cause floods, and how the characteristics and frequencies of floods vary with time and location. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has monitored and assessed the quantity of streamflow in our Nation's streams since the agency's inception in 1879. Because of ongoing collection and assessment of streamflow data, the USGS can provide information about a range of surface-water issues including the suitability of water for public supply and irrigation and the effects of agriculture and urbanization on streamflow. As part of its streamflow-data collection activities, the USGS measured streamflow in multiple streams during extreme flood events in Arkansas in the spring of 2008. The analysis of streamflow information collected during flood events such as these provides a scientific basis for decision making related to resource management and restoration. Additionally, this information can be used by water-resource managers to better define flood-hazard areas and to design bridges, culverts, dams, levees, and other structures. Water levels (stage) and streamflow (discharge) currently are being monitored in near real-time at approximately 150 locations in Arkansas. The streamflow-gaging stations measure and record hydrologic data at 15-minute or hourly intervals; the data then are transmitted through satellites to the USGS database and displayed on the internet every 1 to 4 hours. Streamflow-gaging stations in Arkansas are part of a network of over 7,500 active streamflow-gaging stations operated by the USGS throughout the United

  8. Using stochastic activity networks to study the energy feasibility of automatic weather stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassano, Luca [Dipartimento di Elettronica, Informatica e Bioingegneria, Politecnico di Milano (Italy); Cesarini, Daniel [Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa (Italy); Avvenuti, Marco [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell’Informazione, University of Pisa (Italy)

    2015-03-10

    Automatic Weather Stations (AWSs) are systems equipped with a number of environmental sensors and communication interfaces used to monitor harsh environments, such as glaciers and deserts. Designing such systems is challenging, since designers have to maximize the amount of sampled and transmitted data while considering the energy needs of the system that, in most cases, is powered by rechargeable batteries and exploits energy harvesting, e.g., solar cells and wind turbines. To support designers of AWSs in the definition of the software tasks and of the hardware configuration of the AWS we designed and implemented an energy-aware simulator of such systems. The simulator relies on the Stochastic Activity Networks (SANs) formalism and has been developed using the Möbius tool. In this paper we first show how we used the SAN formalism to model the various components of an AWS, we then report results from an experiment carried out to validate the simulator against a real-world AWS and we finally show some examples of usage of the proposed simulator.

  9. Forecasting Method for Urban Rail Transit Ridership at Station Level Using Back Propagation Neural Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfang Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Direct forecasting method for Urban Rail Transit (URT ridership at the station level is not able to reflect nonlinear relationship between ridership and its predictors. Also, population is inappropriately expressed in this method since it is not uniformly distributed by area. In this paper, a new variable, population per distance band, is considered and a back propagation neural network (BPNN model which can reflect nonlinear relationship between ridership and its predictors is proposed to forecast ridership. Key predictors are obtained through partial correlation analysis. The performance of the proposed model is compared with three other benchmark models, which are linear model with population per distance band, BPNN model with total population, and linear model with total population, using four measures of effectiveness (MOEs, maximum relative error (MRE, smallest relative error (SRE, average relative error (ARE, and mean square root of relative error (MSRRE. Also, another model for contribution rate of population per distance band to ridership is formulated based on the BPNN model with nonpopulation variables fixed. Case studies with Japanese data show that BPNN model with population per distance band outperforms other three models and the contribution rate of population within special distance band to ridership calculated through the contribution rate model is 70%~92.9% close to actual statistical value. The result confirms the effectiveness of models proposed in this paper.

  10. A Dynamic Programming Approach for Base Station Sleeping in Cellular Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jie; Zhou, Sheng; Niu, Zhisheng

    The energy consumption of the information and communication technology (ICT) industry, which has become a serious problem, is mostly due to the network infrastructure rather than the mobile terminals. In this paper, we focus on reducing the energy consumption of base stations (BSs) by adjusting their working modes (active or sleep). Specifically, the objective is to minimize the energy consumption while satisfying quality of service (QoS, e.g., blocking probability) requirement and, at the same time, avoiding frequent mode switching to reduce signaling and delay overhead. The problem is modeled as a dynamic programming (DP) problem, which is NP-hard in general. Based on cooperation among neighboring BSs, a low-complexity algorithm is proposed to reduce the size of state space as well as that of action space. Simulations demonstrate that, with the proposed algorithm, the active BS pattern well meets the time variation and the non-uniform spatial distribution of system traffic. Moreover, the tradeoff between the energy saving from BS sleeping and the cost of switching is well balanced by the proposed scheme.

  11. Performance analysis of PPP ambiguity resolution with UPD products estimated from different scales of reference station networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Siyao; Li, Bofeng; Li, Xingxing; Zang, Nan

    2018-01-01

    Integer ambiguity fixing with uncalibrated phase delay (UPD) products can significantly shorten the initialization time and improve the accuracy of precise point positioning (PPP). Since the tracking arcs of satellites and the behavior of atmospheric biases can be very different for the reference networks with different scales, the qualities of corresponding UPD products may be also various. The purpose of this paper is to comparatively investigate the influence of different scales of reference station networks on UPD estimation and user ambiguity resolution. Three reference station networks with global, wide-area and local scales are used to compute the UPD products and analyze their impact on the PPP-AR. The time-to-first-fix, the unfix rate and the incorrect fix rate of PPP-AR are analyzed. Moreover, in order to further shorten the convergence time for obtaining precise positioning, a modified partial ambiguity resolution (PAR) and corresponding validation strategy are presented. In this PAR method, the ambiguity subset is determined by removing the ambiguity one by one in the order of ascending elevations. Besides, for static positioning mode, a coordinate validation strategy is employed to enhance the reliability of the fixed coordinate. The experiment results show that UPD products computed by smaller station network are more accurate and lead to a better coordinate solution; the PAR method used in this paper can shorten the convergence time and the coordinate validation strategy can improve the availability of high precision positioning.

  12. Reference Climatological Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Reference Climatological Stations (RCS) network represents the first effort by NOAA to create and maintain a nationwide network of stations located only in areas...

  13. Water Level Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Images contain station history information for 175 stations in the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON). The NWLON is a network of long-term,...

  14. Coastal meteorological and water temperature data from National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) and Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) stations of the NOAA Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON) is a network of long-term water level stations operated and maintained by CO-OPS. NWLON stations are located on...

  15. Experimental investigations of overvoltages in 6kV station service cable networks of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelja, P.I.; Naumov, R.M.; Drobnjak, G.V.; Mrvic, J.D. [Nikola Tesla Inst., Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the results of experimental investigations of overvoltages on 6kV isolated neutral station service cable networks of thermal power plants. The overvoltages were recorded with capacitive voltage measurement systems made at the Nikola Tesla Institute. Wideband capacitive voltage measurement systems recorded a flat response from below power frequencies to 10MHz. Investigations of overvoltages were performed for appearance and interruption of metal earth faults, intermittent earth faults, switching operation of HV motors switchgear, switching operation of transformers switchgear, and transfer of the network supply from one transformer to another. On the basis of these investigations, certain measures are proposed for limiting overvoltages and for the reliability of station service of thermal power plants.

  16. Neural network based inspection of voids and karst conduits in hydro-electric power station tunnels using GPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilic, Gokhan; Eren, Levent

    2018-04-01

    This paper reports on the fundamental role played by Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), alongside advanced processing and presentation methods, during the tunnel boring project at a Dam and Hydro-Electric Power Station. It identifies from collected GPR data such issues as incomplete grouting and the presence of karst conduits and voids and provides full details of the procedures adopted. In particular, the application of collected GPR data to the Neural Network (NN) method is discussed.

  17. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, Damiano; Romanelli, Marco; Barnaba, Carla; Bragato, Pier Luigi; Durì, Giorgio

    2013-04-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Center) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data center in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of Northeastern Italy. The southwestern edge of the OGS seismic network stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML=5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on May 20, 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the Northeastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of the Ferrara VBB

  18. Artificial neural network application for space station power system fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Oliver, Walter E.; Dias, Lakshman G.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for fault diagnosis using a Two-Stage Artificial Neural Network Clustering Algorithm. Previously, SPICE models of a 5-bus DC power distribution system with assumed constant output power during contingencies from the DDCU were used to evaluate the ANN's fault diagnosis capabilities. This on-going study uses EMTP models of the components (distribution lines, SPDU, TPDU, loads) and power sources (DDCU) of Space Station Alpha's electrical Power Distribution System as a basis for the ANN fault diagnostic tool. The results from the two studies are contrasted. In the event of a major fault, ground controllers need the ability to identify the type of fault, isolate the fault to the orbital replaceable unit level and provide the necessary information for the power management expert system to optimally determine a degraded-mode load schedule. To accomplish these goals, the electrical power distribution system's architecture can be subdivided into three major classes: DC-DC converter to loads, DC Switching Unit (DCSU) to Main bus Switching Unit (MBSU), and Power Sources to DCSU. Each class which has its own electrical characteristics and operations, requires a unique fault analysis philosophy. This study identifies these philosophies as Riddles 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The results of the on-going study addresses Riddle-1. It is concluded in this study that the combination of the EMTP models of the DDCU, distribution cables and electrical loads yields a more accurate model of the behavior and in addition yielded more accurate fault diagnosis using ANN versus the results obtained with the SPICE models.

  19. Non-Coop Station History

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Primarily National Weather Service stations assigned WBAN station IDs. Other...

  20. Operational radio interferometry observation network (ORION) mobile VLBI station. [for NASA Crustal Dynamics Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renzetti, N. A.; Vegos, C. J.; Parks, G. S.; Sniffin, R. W.; Gannon, D. L.; Nishimura, H. G.; Clements, P. A.; Mckinney, R. P.; Menninger, F. J.; Vandenberg, N. R.

    1983-01-01

    The design and current status of the ORION mobile VLBI station is described. The station consists of a five-meter antenna, a receiving and recording system installed in a mobile antenna transporter, and an electronics transporter. The station is designed for field operation by a two-person crew at the rate of two sites per week. The various subsystems are described in detail, including the antenna, housing facilities for electronics and crew, microwave equipment, receiver, data acquisition subsystem, frequency and timing subsystem, phase calibration, monitoring and control, water vapor radiometer, and communications.

  1. Research on Fault Diagnosis for Pumping Station Based on T-S Fuzzy Fault Tree and Bayesian Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuqing Bi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the characteristics of fault diagnosis for pumping station, such as the complex structure, multiple mappings, and numerous uncertainties, a new approach combining T-S fuzzy gate fault tree and Bayesian network (BN is proposed. On the one hand, traditional fault tree method needs the logical relationship between events and probability value of events and can only represent the events with two states. T-S fuzzy gate fault tree method can solve these disadvantages but still has weaknesses in complex reasoning and only one-way reasoning. On the other hand, the BN is suitable for fault diagnosis of pumping station because of its powerful ability to deal with uncertain information. However, it is difficult to determine the structure and conditional probability tables of the BN. Therefore, the proposed method integrates the advantages of the two methods. Finally, the feasibility of the method is verified through a fault diagnosis model of the rotor in the pumping unit, the accuracy of the method is verified by comparing with the methods based on traditional Bayesian network and BP neural network, respectively, when the historical data is sufficient, and the results are more superior to the above two when the historical data is insufficient.

  2. Design of a Base Station for MEMS CCR Localization in an Optical Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Gook Park

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a design and implementation of a base station, capable of positioning sensor nodes using an optical scheme. The base station consists of a pulse laser module, optical detectors and beam splitter, which are mounted on a rotation-stage, and a Time to Digital Converter (TDC. The optical pulse signal transmitted to the sensor node with a Corner Cube Retro-reflector (CCR is reflected to the base station, and the Time of Flight (ToF data can be obtained from the two detectors. With the angle and flight time data, the position of the sensor node can be calculated. The performance of the system is evaluated by using a commercial CCR. The sensor nodes are placed at different angles from the base station and scanned using the laser. We analyze the node position error caused by the rotation and propose error compensation methods, namely the outlier sample exception and decreasing the confidence factor steadily using the recursive least square (RLS methods. Based on the commercial CCR results, the MEMS CCR is also tested to demonstrate the compatibility between the base station and the proposed methods. The result shows that the localization performance of the system can be enhanced with the proposed compensation method using the MEMS CCR.

  3. Design of a base station for MEMS CCR localization in an optical sensor network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chan Gook; Jeon, Hyun Cheol; Kim, Hyoun Jin; Kim, Jae Yoon

    2014-05-08

    This paper introduces a design and implementation of a base station, capable of positioning sensor nodes using an optical scheme. The base station consists of a pulse laser module, optical detectors and beam splitter, which are mounted on a rotation-stage, and a Time to Digital Converter (TDC). The optical pulse signal transmitted to the sensor node with a Corner Cube Retro-reflector (CCR) is reflected to the base station, and the Time of Flight (ToF) data can be obtained from the two detectors. With the angle and flight time data, the position of the sensor node can be calculated. The performance of the system is evaluated by using a commercial CCR. The sensor nodes are placed at different angles from the base station and scanned using the laser. We analyze the node position error caused by the rotation and propose error compensation methods, namely the outlier sample exception and decreasing the confidence factor steadily using the recursive least square (RLS) methods. Based on the commercial CCR results, the MEMS CCR is also tested to demonstrate the compatibility between the base station and the proposed methods. The result shows that the localization performance of the system can be enhanced with the proposed compensation method using the MEMS CCR.

  4. Radio Capacity Estimation for Millimeter Wave 5G Cellular Networks Using Narrow Beamwidth Antennas at the Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AlMuthanna Turki Nassar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents radio frequency (RF capacity estimation for millimeter wave (mm-wave based fifth-generation (5G cellular networks using field-level simulations. It is shown that, by reducing antenna beamwidth from 65° to 30°, we can enhance the capacity of mm-wave cellular networks roughly by 3.0 times at a distance of 220 m from the base station (BS. This enhancement is far much higher than the corresponding enhancement of 1.2 times observed for 900 MHz and 2.6 GHz microwave networks at the same distance from the BS. Thus the use of narrow beamwidth transmitting antennas has more pronounced benefits in mm-wave networks. Deployment trials performed on an LTE TDD site operating on 2.6 GHz show that 6-sector site with 27° antenna beamwidth enhances the quality of service (QoS roughly by 40% and more than doubles the overall BS throughput (while enhancing the per sector throughput 1.1 times on average compared to a 3-sector site using 65° antenna beamwidth. This agrees well with our capacity simulations. Since mm-wave 5G networks will use arbitrary number of beams, with beamwidth much less than 30°, the capacity enhancement expected in 5G system when using narrow beamwidth antennas would be much more than three times observed in our simulations.

  5. SCaN Network Ground Station Receiver Performance for Future Service Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estabrook, Polly; Lee, Dennis; Cheng, Michael; Lau, Chi-Wung

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Examine the impact of providing the newly standardized CCSDS Low Density Parity Check (LDPC) codes to the SCaN return data service on the SCaN SN and DSN ground stations receivers: SN Current Receiver: Integrated Receiver (IR). DSN Current Receiver: Downlink Telemetry and Tracking (DTT) Receiver. Early Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) prototype of the SN User Service Subsystem Component Replacement (USS CR) Narrow Band Receiver. Motivate discussion of general issues of ground station hardware design to enable simple and cheap modifications for support of future services.

  6. OGS improvements in 2012 in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: the Ferrara VBB borehole seismic station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesaresi, D.; Romanelli, M.; Barnaba, C.; Bragato, P. L.; Durì, G.

    2014-07-01

    The Centro di Ricerche Sismologiche (CRS, Seismological Research Centre) of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS, Italian National Institute for Oceanography and Experimental Geophysics) in Udine (Italy) after the strong earthquake of magnitude M=6.4 occurred in 1976 in the Italian Friuli-Venezia Giulia region, started to operate the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network: it currently consists of 17 very sensitive broad band and 18 simpler short period seismic stations, all telemetered to and acquired in real time at the OGS-CRS data centre in Udine. Real time data exchange agreements in place with other Italian, Slovenian, Austrian and Swiss seismological institutes lead to a total number of about 100 seismic stations acquired in real time, which makes the OGS the reference institute for seismic monitoring of North-eastern Italy. The south-western edge of the OGS seismic network (Fig. 1) stands on the Po alluvial basin: earthquake localization and characterization in this area is affected by the presence of soft alluvial deposits. OGS ha already experience in running a local seismic network in high noise conditions making use of borehole installations in the case of the micro-seismicity monitoring of a local gas storage site for a private company. Following the ML = 5.9 earthquake that struck the Emilia region around Ferrara in Northern Italy on 20 May 2012 at 02:03:53 UTC, a cooperation of Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, OGS, the Comune di Ferrara and the University of Ferrara lead to the reinstallation of a previously existing very broad band (VBB) borehole seismic station in Ferrara. The aim of the OGS intervention was on one hand to extend its real time seismic monitoring capabilities toward South-West, including Ferrara and its surroundings, and on the other hand to evaluate the seismic response at the site. We will describe improvements in running the North-eastern Italy Seismic Network, including details of

  7. A Methodology for the Optimization of Flow Rate Injection to Looped Water Distribution Networks through Multiple Pumping Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian León-Celi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The optimal function of a water distribution network is reached when the consumer demands are satisfied using the lowest quantity of energy, maintaining the minimal pressure required at the same time. One way to achieve this is through optimization of flow rate injection based on the use of the setpoint curve concept. In order to obtain that, a methodology is proposed. It allows for the assessment of the flow rate and pressure head that each pumping station has to provide for the proper functioning of the network while the minimum power consumption is kept. The methodology can be addressed in two ways: the discrete method and the continuous method. In the first method, a finite set of combinations is evaluated between pumping stations. In the continuous method, the search for the optimal solution is performed using optimization algorithms. In this paper, Hooke–Jeeves and Nelder–Mead algorithms are used. Both the hydraulics and the objective function used by the optimization are solved through EPANET and its Toolkit. Two case studies are evaluated, and the results of the application of the different methods are discussed.

  8. Overview of runoff of March 11, 1995, in Fortymile Wash and Amargosa River, Southern Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, D.A.; Glancy, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Yucca Mountain, approximately 120 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, is being studied by the US Department of Energy as a potential repository for long-term storage of the Nation's high-level nuclear waste. This site-characterization study includes elements pertaining to surface-water runoff, including the potential for flooding. The US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is monitoring streamflow in southern Nevada through a network of stream-flow gaging stations and miscellaneous streamflow measurements in support of the site-characterization effort

  9. Could the IMS Infrasound Stations Support a Global Network of Small Aperture Seismic Arrays?

    OpenAIRE

    Kværna, Tormod; Gibbons, Steven; Mykkeltveit, Svein

    2017-01-01

    The IMS infrasound arrays have up to 15 sites with apertures up to 3 km. They are distributed remarkably uniformly over the globe, providing excellent coverage of South America, Africa, and Antarctica. Therefore, many infrasound arrays are in regions thousands of kilometers from the closest seismic array. Existing 3-component seismic stations, co-located with infrasound arrays, show how typical seismic signals look at these locations. We estimate a theoretical array response assuming a seismo...

  10. Space station common module power system network topology and hardware development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landis, D. M.

    1985-01-01

    Candidate power system newtork topologies for the space station common module are defined and developed and the necessary hardware for test and evaluation is provided. Martin Marietta's approach to performing the proposed program is presented. Performance of the tasks described will assure systematic development and evaluation of program results, and will provide the necessary management tools, visibility, and control techniques for performance assessment. The plan is submitted in accordance with the data requirements given and includes a comprehensive task logic flow diagram, time phased manpower requirements, a program milestone schedule, and detailed descriptions of each program task.

  11. Green Networking in Cellular HetNets: A Unified Radio Resource Management Framework with Base Station ON/OFF Switching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2016-12-07

    In this paper, the problem of energy efficiency in cellular heterogeneous networks (HetNets) is investigated using radio resource and power management combined with the base station (BS) ON/OFF switching. The objective is to minimize the total power consumption of the network while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) requirements of each connected user. We consider the case of co-existing macrocell BS, small cell BSs, and private femtocell access points (FAPs). Three different network scenarios are investigated, depending on the status of the FAPs, i.e., HetNets without FAPs, HetNets with closed FAPs, and HetNets with semi-closed FAPs. A unified framework is proposed to simultaneously allocate spectrum resources to users in an energy efficient manner and switch off redundant small cell BSs. The high complexity dual decomposition technique is employed to achieve optimal solutions for the problem. A low complexity iterative algorithm is also proposed and its performances are compared to those of the optimal technique. The particularly interesting case of semi-closed FAPs, in which the FAPs accept to serve external users, achieves the highest energy efficiency due to increased degrees of freedom. In this paper, a cooperation scheme between FAPs and mobile operator is also investigated. The incentives for FAPs, e.g., renewable energy sharing and roaming prices, enabling cooperation are discussed to be considered as a useful guideline for inter-operator agreements.

  12. Green Networking in Cellular HetNets: A Unified Radio Resource Management Framework with Base Station ON/OFF Switching

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Farooq, Muhammad Junaid; Alsharoa, Ahmad; Yaacoub, Elias; Kadri, Abdullah; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the problem of energy efficiency in cellular heterogeneous networks (HetNets) is investigated using radio resource and power management combined with the base station (BS) ON/OFF switching. The objective is to minimize the total power consumption of the network while satisfying the quality of service (QoS) requirements of each connected user. We consider the case of co-existing macrocell BS, small cell BSs, and private femtocell access points (FAPs). Three different network scenarios are investigated, depending on the status of the FAPs, i.e., HetNets without FAPs, HetNets with closed FAPs, and HetNets with semi-closed FAPs. A unified framework is proposed to simultaneously allocate spectrum resources to users in an energy efficient manner and switch off redundant small cell BSs. The high complexity dual decomposition technique is employed to achieve optimal solutions for the problem. A low complexity iterative algorithm is also proposed and its performances are compared to those of the optimal technique. The particularly interesting case of semi-closed FAPs, in which the FAPs accept to serve external users, achieves the highest energy efficiency due to increased degrees of freedom. In this paper, a cooperation scheme between FAPs and mobile operator is also investigated. The incentives for FAPs, e.g., renewable energy sharing and roaming prices, enabling cooperation are discussed to be considered as a useful guideline for inter-operator agreements.

  13. Workgroup report: base stations and wireless networks-radiofrequency (RF) exposures and health consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valberg, Peter A; van Deventer, T Emilie; Repacholi, Michael H

    2007-03-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) waves have long been used for different types of information exchange via the air waves--wireless Morse code, radio, television, and wireless telephone (i.e., construction and operation of telephones or telephone systems). Increasingly larger numbers of people rely on mobile telephone technology, and health concerns about the associated RF exposure have been raised, particularly because the mobile phone handset operates in close proximity to the human body, and also because large numbers of base station antennas are required to provide widespread availability of service to large populations. The World Health Organization convened an expert workshop to discuss the current state of cellular-telephone health issues, and this article brings together several of the key points that were addressed. The possibility of RF health effects has been investigated in epidemiology studies of cellular telephone users and workers in RF occupations, in experiments with animals exposed to cell-phone RF, and via biophysical consideration of cell-phone RF electric-field intensity and the effect of RF modulation schemes. As summarized here, these separate avenues of scientific investigation provide little support for adverse health effects arising from RF exposure at levels below current international standards. Moreover, radio and television broadcast waves have exposed populations to RF for > 50 years with little evidence of deleterious health consequences. Despite unavoidable uncertainty, current scientific data are consistent with the conclusion that public exposures to permissible RF levels from mobile telephone and base stations are not likely to adversely affect human health.

  14. Development of low cost wireless radiation monitoring station using GSM network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Aira Abd Rahman; Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Nor Arymaswati Abdullah; Roslan Md Dan

    2006-01-01

    SMS or Short Message Service is a mean of GSM wireless communication that allow text messages to be sent to and from mobile cell phones. While SMS communication is mainly utilized at personal level or person to person basis; the usage of SMS can be extended into nuclear application specifically in radiation monitoring. This paper explains the development of a wireless station assembled by using a recycled Siemens M50 cell phone as substitutes to GSM modem, a PIC micro controller, and MINT-ISG home made digital survey meter at the remote transmitting site. While at the receiving end; an online monitoring system is set-up by using a Bluetooth enabled cell phone, a Bluetooth dongle, and a PC with Labview 8.0 software written as the Data logger which also served as the PC-Bluetooth interface platform. Wireless station at the remote area operates by continuously sending SMS in every 3 minutes to a predefined cellular number located at the monitoring system. The SMS consists of 6 data which individually is a survey meter readings recorded at each 30 seconds duration. At the receiver, Data logger program will retrieve the SMS from the cell phone via Bluetooth and extract the original 6 readings to be displayed on PC. The system has been successfully tested to detect and log radiation data for extended period of time. (Author)

  15. Analyzing the impact of relay station characteristics on uplink performance in cellular network

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitrova, D.C.; van den Berg, Hans Leo; Heijenk, Geert

    2009-01-01

    Uplink users in cellular networks, such as UMTS/ HSPA, located at the edge of the cell generally suffer from poor channel conditions. Deploying intermediate relay nodes is seen as a promising approach towards extending cell coverage. This paper focuses on the role of packet scheduling in cellular

  16. Examination about the Spatial Representation of PM2.5 Obtained from Limited Stations Using a Network Observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, X.; Zhao, C.

    2017-12-01

    Haze aerosol pollution has been a focus issue in China, and its characteristics is highly demanded. With limited observation sites, aerosol properties obtained from a single site is frequently used to represent the haze condition over a large domain, such as tens of kilometers. This could result in high uncertainties in the haze characteristics due to their spatial variation. Using a network observation from November 2015 to February 2016 over an urban city in North China with high spatial resolution, this study examines the spatial representation of ground site observations. A method is first developed to determine the representative area of measurements from limited stations. The key idea of this method is to determine the spatial variability of particulate matter with diameters less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5) concentration using a variance function in 2km x 2km grids. Based on the high spatial resolution (0.5km x 0.5km) measurements of PM2.5, the grids in which PM2.5 have high correlations and weak value differences are determined as the representation area of measurements at these grids. Note that the size representation area is not exactly a circle region. It shows that the size representation are for the study region and study period ranges from 0.25 km2 to 16.25 km2. The representation area varies with locations. For the 20 km x 20 km study region, 10 station observations would have a good representation of the PM2.5 observations obtained from current 169 stations at the four-month time scale.

  17. Design and implementation of an integrated safety management system for compressed natural gas stations using ubiquitous sensor network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jae Mo; Ko, Byung Seok; Park, Chulhwan; Ko, Jae Wook; Yoo, Byungtae; Shin, Dongil

    2014-01-01

    To increase awareness of safety in facilities where hazards may exist, operators, managers, and executive officers on the site should be able to monitor such facilities. However, most compressed natural gas (CNG) service stations in Korea use only local-mode monitoring, with only on-site operators to monitor the facility. To complement this local-mode monitoring, an online safety management system called Ubiquitous-gas safety management system (U-GSMS) was developed. The U-GSMS consists largely of software and hardware. The software consists of systems that can manage safety and operations, while the hardware consists of sensors installed in the gas facility and wireless communication systems using a ubiquitous sensor network (USN) technology that facilitates communication between sensors as well as between sensors and other devices. As these systems are web-based, on-site operators as well as managers and executive officers at the headquarters can more effectively and efficiently perform monitoring and safety management

  18. Design and implementation of an integrated safety management system for compressed natural gas stations using ubiquitous sensor network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Jae Mo; Ko, Byung Seok; Park, Chulhwan; Ko, Jae Wook [Kwangwoon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Byungtae [National Disaster Management Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Dongil [Myongji University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    To increase awareness of safety in facilities where hazards may exist, operators, managers, and executive officers on the site should be able to monitor such facilities. However, most compressed natural gas (CNG) service stations in Korea use only local-mode monitoring, with only on-site operators to monitor the facility. To complement this local-mode monitoring, an online safety management system called Ubiquitous-gas safety management system (U-GSMS) was developed. The U-GSMS consists largely of software and hardware. The software consists of systems that can manage safety and operations, while the hardware consists of sensors installed in the gas facility and wireless communication systems using a ubiquitous sensor network (USN) technology that facilitates communication between sensors as well as between sensors and other devices. As these systems are web-based, on-site operators as well as managers and executive officers at the headquarters can more effectively and efficiently perform monitoring and safety management.

  19. Integrated planning of electric vehicles routing and charging stations location considering transportation networks and power distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Arias

    2018-09-01

    Full Text Available Electric Vehicles (EVs represent a significant option that contributes to improve the mobility and reduce the pollution, leaving a future expectation in the merchandise transportation sector, which has been demonstrated with pilot projects of companies operating EVs for products delivering. In this work a new approach of EVs for merchandise transportation considering the location of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations (EVCSs and the impact on the Power Distribution System (PDS is addressed. This integrated planning is formulated through a mixed integer non-linear mathematical model. Test systems of different sizes are designed to evaluate the model performance, considering the transportation network and PDS. The results show a trade-off between EVs routing, PDS energy losses and EVCSs location.

  20. The Channel Estimation and Modeling in High Altitude Platform Station Wireless Communication Dynamic Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to analyze the channel estimation performance of near space high altitude platform station (HAPS in wireless communication system, the structure and formation of HAPS are studied in this paper. The traditional Least Squares (LS channel estimation method and Singular Value Decomposition-Linear Minimum Mean-Squared (SVD-LMMS channel estimation method are compared and investigated. A novel channel estimation method and model are proposed. The channel estimation performance of HAPS is studied deeply. The simulation and theoretical analysis results show that the performance of the proposed method is better than the traditional methods. The lower Bit Error Rate (BER and higher Signal Noise Ratio (SNR can be obtained by the proposed method compared with the LS and SVD-LMMS methods.

  1. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S. [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1993-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  2. European experience on air and water pollution control: monitoring network and warning station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aflalo, Sergio S [Groupe Environnement S.A., Poissy (France)

    1994-12-31

    After a review of the energy consumption and pollutants emitted in the European Community, especially those concerning the `green house effect`, the author proceeded a summary of the actual legislation and Europeans directives, and also, the Best Available Technology for reducing air pollution is discussed. Original Air Quality monitoring networks performed by Environnement SA are described including measurements obtained around Paris and other areas of France. 7 refs., 11 figs.

  3. Trends in surface-water quality at selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations, in Michigan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Atiq U.; Fogarty, Lisa R.

    2005-01-01

    To demonstrate the value of long-term, water-quality monitoring, the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), initiated a study to evaluate potential trends in water-quality constituents for selected National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) stations in Michigan. The goal of this study is to assist the MDEQ in evaluating the effectiveness of water-pollution control efforts and the identification of water-quality concerns. The study included a total of nine NASQAN stations in Michigan. Approximately 28 constituents were analyzed for trend tests. Station selection was based on data availability, land-use characteristics, and station priority for the MDEQ Water Chemistry Monitoring Project. Trend analyses were completed using the uncensored Seasonal Kendall Test in the computer program Estimate Trend (ESTREND), a software program for the detection of trends in water-quality data. The parameters chosen for the trend test had (1) at least a 5-year period of record (2) about 5 percent of the observations censored at a single reporting limit, and (3) 40 percent of the values within the beginning one-fifth and ending one-fifth of the selected period. In this study, a negative trend indicates a decrease in concentration of a particular constituent, which generally means an improvement in water quality; whereas a positive trend means an increase in concentration and possible degradation of water quality. The results of the study show an overall improvement in water quality at the Clinton River at Mount Clemens, Manistee River at Manistee, and Pigeon River near Caseville. The detected trend for these stations show decreases in concentrations of various constituents such as nitrogen compounds, conductance, sulfate, fecal coliform bacteria, and fecal streptococci bacteria. The negative trend may indicate an overall improvement in agricultural practices, municipal and industrial wastewater

  4. Data management problems with a distributed computer network on nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, I.

    1980-01-01

    It is generally accepted within the Central Electricity Generating Board that the centralized process computers at some nuclear power plants are going to be replaced with distributed systems. Work on the theoretical considerations involved in such a replacement, including the allocation of data within the system, is going on with the goal of developing a simple, pragmatic approach to the determination of the required system resilience. A flexible network architecture which can accomodate expansions in the future and can be understood by non-computer specialists can thus be built up. (LL)

  5. Optimization of Cognitive Radio Secondary Information Gathering Station Positioning and Operating Channel Selection for IoT Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyi Wen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The Internet of Things (IoT is the interconnection of different objects through the internet using different communication technologies. The objects are equipped with sensors and communications modules. The cognitive radio network is a key technique for the IoT and can effectively address spectrum-related issues for IoT applications. In our paper, a novel method for IoT sensor networks is proposed to obtain the optimal positions of secondary information gathering stations (SIGSs and to select the optimal operating channel. Our objective is to maximize secondary system capacity while protecting the primary system. In addition, we propose an appearance probability matrix for secondary IoT devices (SIDs to maximize the supportable number of SIDs that can be installed in a car, in wearable devices, or for other monitoring devices, based on optimal deployment and probability. We derive fitness functions based on the above objectives and also consider signal to interference-plus-noise ratio (SINR and position constraints. The particle swarm optimization (PSO technique is used to find the best position and operating channel for the SIGSs. In a simulation study, the performance of the proposed method is evaluated and compared with a random resources allocation algorithm (parts of this paper were presented at the ICTC2017 conference (Wen et al., 2017.

  6. Station Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    the probability of conflicts and the minimum headway times into account. The last method analyzes how optimal platform tracks are used by examining the arrival and departure pattern of the trains. The developed methods can either be used separately to analyze specific characteristics of the capacity of a station......Stations are often limiting the capacity of railway networks. This is due to extra need of tracks when trains stand still, trains turning around, and conflicting train routes. Although stations are often the capacity bottlenecks, most capacity analysis methods focus on open line capacity. Therefore...... for platform tracks and the probability that arriving trains will not get a platform track immediately at arrival. The third method is a scalable method that analyzes the conflicts in the switch zone(s). In its simplest stage, the method just analyzes the track layout while the more advanced stages also take...

  7. The Worldwide Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) Stations (WIPSS) Network October 2016 Observing Campaign: Initial WIPSS Data Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, M. M.; Fallows, R. A.; Jackson, B. V.; Tokumaru, M.; Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; Morgan, J.; Chashei, I. V.; Mejia-Ambriz, J.; Tyul'bashev, S. A.; Manoharan, P. K.; De la Luz, V.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Yu, H. S.; Barnes, D.; Chang, O.; Odstrcil, D.; Fujiki, K.; Shishov, V.

    2017-12-01

    Interplanetary Scintillation (IPS) allows for the determination of velocity and a proxy for plasma density to be made throughout the corona and inner heliosphere. Where sufficient observations are undertaken, the results can be used as input to the University of California, San Diego (UCSD) three-dimensional (3-D) time-dependent tomography suite to allow for the full 3-D reconstruction of both velocity and density throughout the inner heliosphere. By combining IPS results from multiple observing locations around the planet, we can increase both the temporal and spatial coverage across the whole of the inner heliosphere and hence improve forecast capability. During October 2016, a unique opportunity arose whereby the European-based LOw Frequency ARray (LOFAR) radio telescope was used to make nearly four weeks of continuous observations of IPS as a heliospheric space-weather trial campaign. This was expanded into a global effort to include observations of IPS from the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) in Western Australia and many more observations from various IPS-dedicated WIPSS Network systems. LOFAR is a next-generation low-frequency radio interferometer capable of observing in the radio frequency range 10-250 MHz, nominally with up to 80 MHz bandwidth at a time. MWA in Western Australia is capable of observing in the 80-300 MHz frequency range nominally using up to 32 MHz of bandwidth. IPS data from LOFAR, ISEE, the MEXican Array Radio Telescope (MEXART), and, where possible, other WIPSS Network systems (such as LPI-BSA and Ooty), will be used in this study and we will present some initial findings for these data sets. We also make a first attempt at the 3-D reconstruction of multiple pertinent WIPSS results in the UCSD tomography. We will also try to highlight some of the potential future tools that make LOFAR a very unique system to be able to test and validate a whole plethora of IPS analysis methods with the same set of IPS data.

  8. Data reduction and tying in regional gravity surveys—results from a new gravity base station network and the Bouguer gravity anomaly map for northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Cardador, Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    Since 1947 Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has conducted oil exploration projects using potential field methods. Geophysical exploration companies under contracts with Pemex carried out gravity anomaly surveys that were referred to different floating data. Each survey comprises observations of gravity stations along highways, roads and trails at intervals of about 500 m. At present, 265 separate gravimeter surveys that cover 60% of the Mexican territory (mainly in the oil producing regions of Mexico) are available. This gravity database represents the largest, highest spatial resolution information, and consequently has been used in the geophysical data compilations for the Mexico and North America gravity anomaly maps. Regional integration of gravimeter surveys generates gradients and spurious anomalies in the Bouguer anomaly maps at the boundaries of the connected surveys due to the different gravity base stations utilized. The main objective of this study is to refer all gravimeter surveys from Pemex to a single new first-order gravity base station network, in order to eliminate problems of gradients and spurious anomalies. A second objective is to establish a network of permanent gravity base stations (BGP), referred to a single base from the World Gravity System. Four regional loops of BGP covering eight States of Mexico were established to support the tie of local gravity base stations from each of the gravimeter surveys located in the vicinity of these loops. The third objective is to add the gravity constants, measured and calculated, for each of the 265 gravimeter surveys to their corresponding files in the Pemex and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo database. The gravity base used as the common datum is the station SILAG 9135-49 (Latin American System of Gravity) located in the National Observatory of Tacubaya in Mexico City. We present the results of the installation of a new gravity base network in northeastern Mexico, reference of the 43 gravimeter surveys

  9. Evaluation of NVE's snow station network; Subreport in R et D project 302H15 Good snow data; Evaluering av NVE sitt snoestasjonsnettverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ree, Bjoerg Lirhus; Landroe, Hilde; Trondsen, Elise; Moeen, Knut M.

    2011-03-15

    NVE has measured snow water equivalent of snow pillow in forty years. Our snow station network has risen since 1997 from 6 to 25 stations. It was therefore absolutely necessary to do a review and quality assurance of NVE's snow data. This report discusses the snow data measured continuously - snow water equivalent and snow depth. Each station and the parameters it measures are described and evaluated. It is concluded in relation to whether stations should be continued or not. Stations technical solutions are well described, both of NVE's standard stations and the two test stations, Filefjell and Svarttjoernbekken. It has been o importance to bring out what problems the instruments have or may have and provide suggestions for solutions to them. Problems related to measure the water equivalent under Norwegian conditions, with the challenges and winter rain and re-freezing provides, is also reviewed. Alternatives to water equivalent measurements with a snow pillow, which is the traditional way in this country, are presented. Some of the alternative methods NVE tests out, for the others only description and our opinion is given. (Author)

  10. INTERACT Station Catalogue - 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    INTERACT stations are located in all major environmental envelopes of the Arctic providing an ideal platform for studying climate change and its impact on the environment and local communities. Since alpine environments face similar changes and challenges as the Arctic, the INTERACT network also ...... catalogue includes descriptions of 73 research stations included in the network at the time of printing....

  11. Evolution of the Concordia seismological observatory station CCD (GEOSCOPE network): a new post-hole installation on Antarctica inlandsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zigone, D.; Danecek, P.; Bès de Berc, M.; Maggi, A.; Thore, J. Y.; Leveque, J. J.; Vallee, M.; Bernard, A.; Sayadi, J.; Morelli, A.; Delladio, A.; Chappellaz, J. A.; Alemany, O.; Possenti, P.; Stutzmann, E.; Bonaime, S.; Pesqueira, F.; Pardo, C.; Vincent, D.

    2017-12-01

    Concordia (75°S 123°E) is a scientific base operated by French polar institute IPEV (Institut Paul-Emile Victor) and Italian Antarctic Program PNRA (Programma Nazionale di Ricerche in Antartide), and is located at Dome C, on the ice sheet of the East Antarctica plateau. It hosts a seismological observatory (CCD), which is jointly operated by EOST (Strasbourg) and INGV (Roma). The highly strategic location and remoteness is the key strength of our program, which has provided observatory quality data since 2000. The station has been integrated into the GEOSCOPE network in 2008 and the data are now available in real time through GEOSCOPE and IRIS. The observatory is located at distance of 1km from the base. The current installation is placed at a depth of 12m in an artificial vault constructed from two shipping containers and buried in the snow. The vault is thermally very stable, but the relatively close proximity to the base causes increased diurnal noise ( 40 dB) at frequencies above 1Hz, especially during the summer season. The uppermost 100 m thick firn (snow) layer forms a waveguide, where anthropic noise from the base is trapped and easily picked up by the seismometers (T240 and STS2). Another limitation comes from the hydrostatic pressure of the snow which is continuously deforming the metallic structures: we record container cracking events on the seismograms, and we see visual evidence of structural deformations inside the tunnel and the vault. We propose an evolution of the CCD station towards a post-hole installation. Placing a sensor at a depth of approximately 130 meters, will reduce noise from thermal effects, from tilting and from anthropogenic activity, because it would be located below the firn layer waveguide and the ice pinch-out depth. In order to operate the borehole station for several years, we intend to keep the hole open and the sensor accessible, while ensuring good coupling between the sensor and the surrounding hard ice. To achieve these

  12. Application of Statistical, Fuzzy and Perceptron Neural Networks in Drought Forecasting (Case Study: Gonbad-e Kavous Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Hosseini-Moghari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Due to economic, social, and environmental perplexities associated with drought, it is considered as one of the most complex natural hazards. To investigate the beginning along with analyzing the direct impacts of drought; the significance of drought monitoring must be highlighted. Regarding drought management and its consequences alleviation, drought forecasting must be taken into account (11. The current research employed multi-layer perceptron (MLP, adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS, radial basis function (RBF and general regression neural network (GRNN. It is interesting to note that, there has not been any record of applying GRNN in drought forecasting. Materials and Methods: Throughout this paper, Standard Precipitation Index (SPI was the basis of drought forecasting. To do so, the precipitation data of Gonbad Kavous station during the period of 1972-73 to 2006-07 were used. To provide short-term, mid-term, and long-term drought analysis; SPI for 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, and 24 months was evaluated. SPI evaluation benefited from four statistical distributions, namely, Gamma, Normal, Log-normal, and Weibull along with Kolmogrov-Smirnov (K-S test. Later, to compare the capabilities of four utilized neural networks for drought forecasting; MLP, ANFIS, RBF, and GRNN were applied. MLP as a multi-layer network, which has a sigmoid activation function in hidden layer plus linear function in output layer, can be considered as a powerful regressive tool. ANFIS besides adaptive neuro networks, employed fuzzy logic. RBF, the foundation of radial basis networks, is a three-layer network with Gaussian function in its hidden layer, and a linear function in the output layer. GRNN is another type of RBF which is used for radial basis regressive problems. The performance criteria of the research were as follows: Correlation (R2, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, Mean Absolute Error (MAE. Results Discussion: According to statistical distribution

  13. Sources of high frequency seismic noise: insights from a dense network of ~250 stations in northern Alsace (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergne, Jerome; Blachet, Antoine; Lehujeur, Maximilien

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring local or regional seismic activity requires stations having a low level of background seismic noise at frequencies higher than few tenths of Hertz. Network operators are well aware that the seismic quality of a site depends on several aspects, among them its geological setting and the proximity of roads, railways, industries or trees. Often, the impact of each noise source is only qualitatively known which precludes estimating the quality of potential future sites before they are tested or installed. Here, we want to take advantage of a very dense temporary network deployed in Northern Alsace (France) to assess the effect of various kinds of potential sources on the level of seismic noise observed in the frequency range 0.2-50 Hz. In September 2014, more than 250 seismic stations (FairfieldNodal@ Zland nodes with 10Hz vertical geophone) have been installed every 1.5 km over a ~25km diameter disc centred on the deep geothermal sites of Soultz-sous-Forêts and Rittershoffen. This region exhibits variable degrees of human imprints from quite remote areas to sectors with high traffic roads and big villages. It also encompasses both the deep sedimentary basin of the Rhine graben and the piedmont of the Vosges massif with exposed bedrock. For each site we processed the continuous data to estimate probability density functions of the power spectral densities. At frequencies higher than 1 Hz most sites show a clear temporal modulation of seismic noise related to human activity with the well-known variations between day and night and between weekdays and weekends. Moreover we observe a clear evolution of the spatial distribution of seismic noise levels with frequency. Basically, between 0.5 and 4 Hz the geological setting modulates the level of seismic noise. At higher frequencies, the amplitude of seismic noise appears mostly related to the distance to nearby roads. Based on road maps and traffic estimation, a forward approach is performed to model the induced

  14. Uncertainty estimation of the velocity model for stations of the TrigNet GPS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, M.; Malservisi, R.; Hugentobler, U.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite based geodetic techniques - above all GPS - provide an outstanding tool to measure crustal motions. They are widely used to derive geodetic velocity models that are applied in geodynamics to determine rotations of tectonic blocks, to localize active geological features, and to estimate rheological properties of the crust and the underlying asthenosphere. However, it is not a trivial task to derive GPS velocities and their uncertainties from positioning time series. In general time series are assumed to be represented by linear models (sometimes offsets, annual, and semi-annual signals are included) and noise. It has been shown that error models accounting only for white noise tend to underestimate the uncertainties of rates derived from long time series and that different colored noise components (flicker noise, random walk, etc.) need to be considered. However, a thorough error analysis including power spectra analyses and maximum likelihood estimates is computationally expensive and is usually not carried out for every site, but the uncertainties are scaled by latitude dependent factors. Analyses of the South Africa continuous GPS network TrigNet indicate that the scaled uncertainties overestimate the velocity errors. So we applied a method similar to the Allan Variance that is commonly used in the estimation of clock uncertainties and is able to account for time dependent probability density functions (colored noise) to the TrigNet time series. Comparisons with synthetic data show that the noise can be represented quite well by a power law model in combination with a seasonal signal in agreement with previous studies, which allows for a reliable estimation of the velocity error. Finally, we compared these estimates to the results obtained by spectral analyses using CATS. Small differences may originate from non-normal distribution of the noise.

  15. Innovation in monitoring: The U.S. Geological Survey Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta, California, flow-station network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burau, Jon; Ruhl, Cathy; Work, Paul A.

    2016-01-29

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) installed the first gage to measure the flow of water into California’s Sacramento–San Joaquin River Delta from the Sacramento River in the late 1800s. Today, a network of 35 hydro-acoustic meters measure flow throughout the delta. This region is a critical part of California’s freshwater supply and conveyance system. With the data provided by this flow-station network—sampled every 15 minutes and updated to the web every hour—state and federal water managers make daily decisions about how much freshwater can be pumped for human use, at which locations, and when. Fish and wildlife scientists, working with water managers, also use this information to protect fish species affected by pumping and loss of habitat. The data are also used to help determine the success or failure of efforts to restore ecosystem processes in what has been called the “most managed and highly altered” watershed in the country.

  16. Technical note: The US Dobson station network data record prior to 2015, re-evaluation of NDACC and WOUDC archived records with WinDobson processing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert D.; Petropavlovskikh, Irina; McClure-Begley, Audra; McConville, Glen; Quincy, Dorothy; Miyagawa, Koji

    2017-10-01

    The United States government has operated Dobson ozone spectrophotometers at various sites, starting during the International Geophysical Year (1 July 1957 to 31 December 1958). A network of stations for long-term monitoring of the total column content (thickness of the ozone layer) of the atmosphere was established in the early 1960s and eventually grew to 16 stations, 14 of which are still operational and submit data to the United States of America's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Seven of these sites are also part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC), an organization that maintains its own data archive. Due to recent changes in data processing software the entire dataset was re-evaluated for possible changes. To evaluate and minimize potential changes caused by the new processing software, the reprocessed data record was compared to the original data record archived in the World Ozone and UV Data Center (WOUDC) in Toronto, Canada. The history of the observations at the individual stations, the instruments used for the NOAA network monitoring at the station, the method for reducing zenith-sky observations to total ozone, and calibration procedures were re-evaluated using data quality control tools built into the new software. At the completion of the evaluation, the new datasets are to be published as an update to the WOUDC and NDACC archives, and the entire dataset is to be made available to the scientific community. The procedure for reprocessing Dobson data and the results of the reanalysis on the archived record are presented in this paper. A summary of historical changes to 14 station records is also provided.

  17. Technical note: The US Dobson station network data record prior to 2015, re-evaluation of NDACC and WOUDC archived records with WinDobson processing software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Evans

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The United States government has operated Dobson ozone spectrophotometers at various sites, starting during the International Geophysical Year (1 July 1957 to 31 December 1958. A network of stations for long-term monitoring of the total column content (thickness of the ozone layer of the atmosphere was established in the early 1960s and eventually grew to 16 stations, 14 of which are still operational and submit data to the United States of America's National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA. Seven of these sites are also part of the Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC, an organization that maintains its own data archive. Due to recent changes in data processing software the entire dataset was re-evaluated for possible changes. To evaluate and minimize potential changes caused by the new processing software, the reprocessed data record was compared to the original data record archived in the World Ozone and UV Data Center (WOUDC in Toronto, Canada. The history of the observations at the individual stations, the instruments used for the NOAA network monitoring at the station, the method for reducing zenith-sky observations to total ozone, and calibration procedures were re-evaluated using data quality control tools built into the new software. At the completion of the evaluation, the new datasets are to be published as an update to the WOUDC and NDACC archives, and the entire dataset is to be made available to the scientific community. The procedure for reprocessing Dobson data and the results of the reanalysis on the archived record are presented in this paper. A summary of historical changes to 14 station records is also provided.

  18. Using a neural network approach and time series data from an international monitoring station in the Yellow Sea for modeling marine ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yingying; Wang, Juncheng; Vorontsov, A M; Hou, Guangli; Nikanorova, M N; Wang, Hongliang

    2014-01-01

    The international marine ecological safety monitoring demonstration station in the Yellow Sea was developed as a collaborative project between China and Russia. It is a nonprofit technical workstation designed as a facility for marine scientific research for public welfare. By undertaking long-term monitoring of the marine environment and automatic data collection, this station will provide valuable information for marine ecological protection and disaster prevention and reduction. The results of some initial research by scientists at the research station into predictive modeling of marine ecological environments and early warning are described in this paper. Marine ecological processes are influenced by many factors including hydrological and meteorological conditions, biological factors, and human activities. Consequently, it is very difficult to incorporate all these influences and their interactions in a deterministic or analysis model. A prediction model integrating a time series prediction approach with neural network nonlinear modeling is proposed for marine ecological parameters. The model explores the natural fluctuations in marine ecological parameters by learning from the latest observed data automatically, and then predicting future values of the parameter. The model is updated in a "rolling" fashion with new observed data from the monitoring station. Prediction experiments results showed that the neural network prediction model based on time series data is effective for marine ecological prediction and can be used for the development of early warning systems.

  19. A Precipitation-Runoff Model for the Blackstone River Basin, Massachusetts and Rhode Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbaro, Jeffrey R.; Zarriello, Phillip J.

    2007-01-01

    Survey cooperative streamflow-gaging network, and at seven partial-record stations installed in 2004 for this study. Because the model-calibration period preceded data collection at the partial-record stations, a continuous streamflow record was estimated at these stations by correlation with flows at nearby continuous-record stations to provide additional streamflow data for model calibration. Water-use information was compiled for 1996-2001 and included municipal and commercial/industrial withdrawals, private residential withdrawals, golf-course withdrawals, municipal wastewater-return flows, and on-site septic effluent return flows. Streamflow depletion was computed for all time-varying ground-water withdrawals prior to simulation. Water-use data were included in the model to represent the net effect of water use on simulated hydrographs. Consequently, the calibrated values of the hydrologic parameters better represent the hydrologic response of the basin to precipitation. The model was calibrated for 1997-2001 to coincide with the land-use and water-use data compiled for the study. Four long-term stations (Nipmuc River near Harrisville, Rhode Island; Quinsigamond River at North Grafton, Massachusetts; Branch River at Forestdale, Rhode Island; and Blackstone River at Woonsocket, Rhode Island) that monitor flow at 3.3, 5.4, 19, and 88 percent of the total basin area, respectively, provided the primary model-calibration points. Hydrographs, scatter plots, and flow-duration curves of observed and simulated discharges, along with various model-fit statistics, indicated that the model performed well over a range of hydrologic conditions. For example, the total runoff volume for the calibration period simulated at the Nipmuc River near Harrisville, Rhode Island; Quinsigamond River at North Grafton, Massachusetts; Branch River at Forestdale, Rhode Island; and Blackstone River at Woonsocket, Rhode Island streamflow-gaging stations differed from the observed runoff v

  20. The injection of biomethane produced from sludge from sewage stations into the French natural gas distribution network. Scientific and technical support report. Scientific and technical support related to the problem of injection of biomethane produced from sludges from sewage stations into the French natural gas distribution network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zdanevitch, Isabelle; Jaeg, Jean-Philippe; Leroux, Carole; Pernelet-Joly, Valerie; Solal, Cecilia; Saddoki, Sophia

    2013-04-01

    This report aimed at producing an assessment of health risks (for consumers as well as for professionals) related to the injection of biogas produced from water treatment stations into the natural gas transport and distribution network. Data on the chemical composition of raw bio-gases produced by sewage stations and of biomethane produced from sludge from these stations have been obtained from different sources and measurements. After a recall of works performed in answer to a first expertise mission which comprised an approach to the assessment of microbiological risks, this report presents the various data and their sources. It discusses the characterisation (i.e. the various components) of raw bio-gases and of biomethane produced from sludge from sewage stations, and of natural gas. The last part proposes an identification of risks through a qualitative approach

  1. Active Marine Station Metadata

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Active Marine Station Metadata is a daily metadata report for active marine bouy and C-MAN (Coastal Marine Automated Network) platforms from the National Data...

  2. USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Regional Climate Reference Network (USRCRN) installations in 2009. Installations documented are for USRCRN pilot project stations in...

  3. Mobile environmental radiation monitoring station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assido, H.; Shemesh, Y.; Mazor, T.; Tal, N.; Barak, D.

    1997-01-01

    A mobile environmental radiation monitoring station has been developed and established for the Israeli Ministry of Environment. The radiation monitoring station is ready for immediate placing in any required location, or can be operated from a vehicle. The station collects data Tom the detector and transfers it via cellular communication network to a Computerized Control Center for data storage, processing, and display . The mobile station is fully controlled from the. Routinely, the mobile station responses to the data request accumulated since the last communication session. In case of fault or alarm condition in the mobile station, a local claim is activated and immediately initiates communication with the via cellular communication network. (authors)

  4. Non-Coop Station History (Unindexed)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Station history documentation for stations outside the US Cooperative Observer network. Documents should be compared with those in the Non-Coop Station History...

  5. Analysis of antenna position measurements and weather station network data during the ALMA long baseline campaign of 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Todd R.; Lucas, Robert; Broguière, Dominique; Fomalont, Ed B.; Dent, William R. F.; Phillips, Neil; Rabanus, David; Vlahakis, Catherine

    2016-07-01

    In a radio interferometer, the geometrical antenna positions are determined from measurements of the observed delay to each antenna from observations across the sky of many point sources whose positions are known to high accuracy. The determination of accurate antenna positions relies on accurate calibration of the dry and wet delay of the atmosphere above each antenna. For the Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array (ALMA), with baseline lengths up to 15 kilometers, the geography of the site forces the height above mean sea level of the more distant antenna pads to be significantly lower than the central array. Thus, both the ground level meteorological values and the total water column can be quite different between antennas in the extended configurations. During 2015, a network of six additional weather stations was installed to monitor pressure, temperature, relative humidity and wind velocity, in order to test whether inclusion of these parameters could improve the repeatability of antenna position determinations in these configurations. We present an analysis of the data obtained during the ALMA Long Baseline Campaign of October through November 2015. The repeatability of antenna position measurements typically degrades as a function of antenna distance. Also, the scatter is more than three times worse in the vertical direction than in the local tangent plane, suggesting that a systematic effect is limiting the measurements. So far we have explored correcting the delay model for deviations from hydrostatic equilibrium in the measured air pressure and separating the partial pressure of water from the total pressure using water vapor radiometer (WVR) data. Correcting for these combined effects still does not provide a good match to the residual position errors in the vertical direction. One hypothesis is that the current model of water vapor may be too simple to fully remove the day-to-day variations in the wet delay. We describe possible new avenues of

  6. Real-time clock and orbit calculation of the GPS satellite constellation based on observation data of RTIGS-station network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaler, G.

    2011-01-01

    Due to the development of faster communication networks and improving computer technology beside postprocessing techniques real-time applications and services are more and more created and used in the eld of precise positioning and navigation using global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) like GPS. Data formats like RTCM (NTRIP) or RTIGS serve in this manner as basic tool to transmit real-time GNSS observation data to a eld of users. To handle this trend to real-time, the International GNSS Service (IGS) or more precisely the Real-Time Working Group (RTWG) of the IGS started to establish a global GNSS station network several years ago. These reference stations (RTIGS stations) transmit their observation data in real-time via the open internet to registerd users to support the development of potential new real-time products and services. One example for such a new real-time application based on the observations of the RTIGS network is the software RTIGU-Control developed within this PHD thesis. RTIGU-Control fulls 2 main tasks. The rst task is the monitoring (integrity) of the predicted IGS orbit and clock products (IGU products) using real-time observations from the station network. The second task deals with calculating more precise satellite and station clock corrections compared to the predicted values of the IGU solutions based on the already very precise IGU orbit solutions. In a rst step RTIGU-Control calculates based on the IGU orbit predictions together with code-smoothed station observations precise values for the satellite and station clock corrections.The code-smoothed observations are additionally corrected for several corrections eecting the GNSS observations (for example the delay of the signal propagation time due to the atmosphere, relativistic eects, etc.). The second calculation step deals with monitoring the IGU predicted orbits using the calculated clock solution in the calculation step before and again the corrected real-time observations

  7. Sea Levels Online: Sea Level Variations of the United States Derived from National Water Level Observation Network Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Water level records are a combination of the fluctuations of the ocean and the vertical land motion at the location of the station. Monthly mean sea level (MSL)...

  8. The Remote Monitoring of Earth’s Atmosphere Based on Operative Processing GNSS Data in the UA-EUPOS/ZAKPOS Network of Active Reference Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataliya Kablak

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The system of remote monitoring of atmosphere is designed to obtain information about the state of atmosphere. The principle of the remote monitoring of atmosphere is based on registering and processing GLONASS/GPS radio signals. Modern networks of active reference stations allow us to solve both practical problems of geodesy, navigation, and purely scientific problems that are important in all geosciences. The paper investigates a spatiotemporal instability in the atmosphere, based on 845 temporal measurements of tropospheric delay over the territory covered by 20 active reference stations of the UA-EUPOS/ZAKPOS network. The method elaborated by the authors for the determination of tropospheric delay in the UA-EUPOS/ZAKPOS network in real time takes relief of the region into account. The results are very good, since mapping tropospheric delay can be made with an average RMSE of 1.5 mm. The method developed in this research can be used to improve the quality of weather forecasts and the prevention of natural disasters.

  9. Framework for developing a spatial walkability index (SWI) for the light-rail transit (LRT) stations in Kuala Lumpur city centre using analytical network process (ANP) and GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naharudin, Nabilah; Ahamad, Mohd Sanusi S.; Sadullah, Ahmad Farhan Mohd

    2017-10-01

    In support to the nation's goal of developing a liveable city, Malaysian government aims to improve the mobility in Kuala Lumpur by providing good quality transit services across the city. However, the public starts to demand for more than just a connectivity between two points. They want their transit journey to be comfortable and pleasant from the very first mile. The key here is the first and last mile (FLM) of the transit service which defines their journey to access the station itself. The question is, does the existing transit services' FLM satisfy public's needs? Therefore, many studies had emerged in attempt to assess the pedestrian-friendliness. While most of them did base on the pedestrian's perceptions, there were also studies that spatially measured the connectivity and accessibility to various landuses and point of interests. While both can be a good method, their integration could actually produce a better assessment. However, till date, only a few studies had attempted to do so. This paper proposes a framework to develop a Spatial Walkability Index (SWI) by integrating a multicriteria evaluation technique, Analytical Network Process (ANP) and network analysis on geographical information system (GIS) platform. First, ANP will aggregate the degree of importance for each walkability criteria based on the pedestrian's perceptions. Then, the network analysis will use the weighted criteria as attributes to find the walkable routes within half mile radius from each station. The index will be calculated by rationing the total length of walkable routes in respect to the available footpath. The final outcome is a percentage of walkable FLM transit routes for each station which will be named as the SWI. It is expected that the developed framework can be applied in other cities across the globe. It can also be improvised to suit the demand and purpose there.

  10. Displacement back analysis for a high slope of the Dagangshan Hydroelectric Power Station based on BP neural network and particle swarm optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhengzhao; Gong, Bin; Tang, Chunan; Zhang, Yongbin; Ma, Tianhui

    2014-01-01

    The right bank high slope of the Dagangshan Hydroelectric Power Station is located in complicated geological conditions with deep fractures and unloading cracks. How to obtain the mechanical parameters and then evaluate the safety of the slope are the key problems. This paper presented a displacement back analysis for the slope using an artificial neural network model (ANN) and particle swarm optimization model (PSO). A numerical model was established to simulate the displacement increment results, acquiring training data for the artificial neural network model. The backpropagation ANN model was used to establish a mapping function between the mechanical parameters and the monitoring displacements. The PSO model was applied to initialize the weights and thresholds of the backpropagation (BP) network model and determine suitable values of the mechanical parameters. Then the elastic moduli of the rock masses were obtained according to the monitoring displacement data at different excavation stages, and the BP neural network model was proved to be valid by comparing the measured displacements, the displacements predicted by the BP neural network model, and the numerical simulation using the back-analyzed parameters. The proposed model is useful for rock mechanical parameters determination and instability investigation of rock slopes.

  11. Displacement Back Analysis for a High Slope of the Dagangshan Hydroelectric Power Station Based on BP Neural Network and Particle Swarm Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zhengzhao; Gong, Bin; Tang, Chunan; Zhang, Yongbin; Ma, Tianhui

    2014-01-01

    The right bank high slope of the Dagangshan Hydroelectric Power Station is located in complicated geological conditions with deep fractures and unloading cracks. How to obtain the mechanical parameters and then evaluate the safety of the slope are the key problems. This paper presented a displacement back analysis for the slope using an artificial neural network model (ANN) and particle swarm optimization model (PSO). A numerical model was established to simulate the displacement increment results, acquiring training data for the artificial neural network model. The backpropagation ANN model was used to establish a mapping function between the mechanical parameters and the monitoring displacements. The PSO model was applied to initialize the weights and thresholds of the backpropagation (BP) network model and determine suitable values of the mechanical parameters. Then the elastic moduli of the rock masses were obtained according to the monitoring displacement data at different excavation stages, and the BP neural network model was proved to be valid by comparing the measured displacements, the displacements predicted by the BP neural network model, and the numerical simulation using the back-analyzed parameters. The proposed model is useful for rock mechanical parameters determination and instability investigation of rock slopes. PMID:25140345

  12. 47 CFR 25.135 - Licensing provisions for earth station networks in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. 25.135 Section 25.135 Telecommunication...-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service. (a) Each applicant for a blanket earth station license in the non-voice, non-geostationary mobile-satellite service shall demonstrate that transceiver...

  13. Base station MAC with APRMA protocol for broadband multimedia ATM in micro/pico-cellular mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Khanh Hoang; Nielsen, Søren Nørskov; Dittmann, Lars

    1998-01-01

    The concept for a wireless ATM access system that enables seamless mobile connectivity to the B-ISDN is presented. It is based on small, low cost and intelligent base stations running a medium access control (MAC) protocol using adaptive packet reservation multiple access (APRMA). Both...

  14. Operations of electric taxis to serve advance reservations by trip chaining: Sensitivity analysis on network size, customer demand and number of charging stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This research investigated the performance of an Electric Taxi (ET fleet that catered solely for customers with advance reservations. In a previously related research, a customized Paired Pickup and Delivery Problem with Time Window and Charging Station (PPDPTWCS had been formulated to solve for the minimum number of taxis that would serve a fixed set of customer demand. The concept behind this fleet optimization was to chain multiple customer trips and trips to Charging Stations (CSs to form a route and assigned to a taxi driver. In this paper the sensitivity of the ET fleet’s operations with respect to network sizes, customer demand densities and number of CSs have been investigated. It also analyzed the market shares of the CSs and the occupancy of a CS over time. The results showed that, (1 the expansion of network size or the increase in customer demand density led to increase in fleet size, number of trips to the CSs and maximum occupancies at the CSs but these performance measures grew at different rates; (2 when the network size and number of CSs were fixed, an increase in customer demand density led to a better utilization of taxis in terms of more customers served per taxi and higher average revenue per taxi; (3 given the same network size and demand density, the ET fleet’s performance was relatively insensitive to the number of CSs; and (4 the usage of individual CS was affected by the number of CS and their locations; and (5 when all the ETs were fully charged at the beginning of the same shift hour, they visited the CSs in bunches when their batteries were about to run out. These findings contribute to a better understanding of the operations of the ET fleet and the CSs. They could be used for making better decisions in the planning of ET operations.

  15. Return to normal streamflows and water levels: summary of hydrologic conditions in Georgia, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaak, Andrew E.; Caslow, Kerry; Peck, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) South Atlantic Water Science Center (SAWSC) Georgia office, in cooperation with local, State, and other Federal agencies, maintains a long-term hydrologic monitoring network of more than 340 real-time continuous-record streamflow-gaging stations (streamgages), including 10 real-time lake-level monitoring stations, 67 real-time surface-water-quality monitors, and several water-quality sampling programs. Additionally, the SAWSC Georgia office operates more than 180 groundwater monitoring wells, 39 of which are real-time. The wide-ranging coverage of streamflow, reservoir, and groundwater monitoring sites allows for a comprehensive view of hydrologic conditions across the State. One of the many benefits of this monitoring network is that the analyses of the data provide a spatially distributed overview of the hydrologic conditions of creeks, rivers, reservoirs, and aquifers in Georgia.

  16. The Ongoing Addition of Infrasound Sensors and the Flexette Wind-Noise Reducing System to Global Seismic Network Stations Operated by Project IDA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebeling, C. W.; Coon, C.

    2017-12-01

    Infrasound sensors are now being installed at Global Seismic Network (GSN) stations meeting certain infrastructure criteria. Manufactured by Hyperion Technology Group, Inc., these instruments (model IFS-3312) have a nominal sensitivity of 140 mV/Pa (at 1 Hz), a full-scale range of ±100 Pa, and a dynamic range of 120 dB. Low power consumption (750 mW at 12 VDC) and small size (153 mm x 178 mm) ease incorporation into the mix of existing GSN instrumentation. The accompanying flexible rosette ("Flexette") acoustic wind-noise reducing system, designed by Project IDA (International Deployment of Accelerometers-IDA), optimally includes 24 inlets, 4 secondary manifolds, and a single primary manifold. Each secondary manifold is connected to 6 inlets and to the primary manifold by 10-ft air hoses, thus eliminating stresses and the greater potential for leaks associated with the use of pipe. While the main design goal was to maximize the reduction of acoustic wind-noise over the widest range of wind speeds possible, consideration of additional criteria resulted in a Flexette base design easily tailored to meet individual station constraints and restrictions, made up of inexpensive (total cost Marshall Islands), in August 2017. During the next 6 months infrasound capability will be extended to IDA GSN stations BORG (Borganes, Iceland), EFI (Mount Kent, East Falkland Islands), and SACV (Santiago Island, Cape Verde).As with other data from GSN stations, real-time infrasound data are freely available from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology-Data Management Center (IRIS-DMC).

  17. Dynamic Wireless Sensor Network Based on Mobile Base Station%基于移动基站的动态无线传感器网络

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周小佳; 吴侠; 闫斌

    2011-01-01

    针对无线传感器网络(WSN)中的“路由热点”问题,提出了在簇头移动的前提下基于事件驱动的基站簇头混合移动策略BS-CH HMS(base station-cluster head hybrid mobile strategy).该策略根据CH(cluster head)移动时的能量损耗确定CH的移动轨迹,制定基站的协作移动策略.理论分析和仿真结果表明:采用所提出的混合移动策略,簇头的能量消耗比采用单独移动CH的路由策略节省30%,提高了移动簇头的能量效率,延长了网络的生命周期.%In order to investigate the route hotspot problem in wireless sensor network ( WSN), a BS-CH (base station-cluster head) hybrid mobile strategy based on event-driven, BS-CH HMS (base station-cluster head hybrid mobile strategy) , was proposed on the assumption of CH mobility. In this strategy, the mobile path of CH ( cluster head ) is determined and the cooperative mobile strategy of the base station is designed in light of the energy consumption of moving CH. The theoretical analysis and simulation results show that using the BS-CH HMS compared with using a single CH mobile strategy, CH energy consumption is decreased by 30% to enhance the energy efficiency of moving CH and prolong the lifetime of WSN.

  18. A systematic analysis of directional site effects at stations of the Italian Seismic Network to test the role of local topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pischiutta, Marta; Cianfarra, Paola; Salvini, Francesco; Cara, Fabrizio; Vannoli, Paola

    2018-03-01

    Directional site effects observed at seismological stations on pronounced relief are analyzed. We investigate the ground motion properties calculating horizontal-to-vertical spectral ratios and horizontal polarization of both ambient vibrations and earthquake records using broadband seismograms of the Italian Seismic Network. We find that a subset of 47 stations with pronounced relief, results in a significant (>2) directional amplification of the horizontal component, with a well defined, site-specific direction of motion. However, the horizontal spectral response of sites is not uniform, varying from an isolated (resonant) frequency peak to a broadband amplification, interesting frequency bands as large as 1-10 Hz in many cases. Using the 47 selected stations, we have tried to establish a relation between directional amplification and topography geometry in a 2D-vision, when applicable, through a morphological analysis of the Digital Elevation Model using Geographic Information Systems. The procedure computes the parameters that characterize the geometry of topographic irregularities (size and slope), in combination with a principal component analysis that automatically yields the orientation of the elongated ridges. In seeking a relation between directional amplification and the surface morphology, we have found that it is impossible to fit the variety of observations with a resonant topography model as well as to identify common features in the ground motion behavior for stations with similar topography typologies. We conclude that, rather than the shape of the topography, local structural complexities and details of the near-surface structure must play a predominant role in controlling ground motion properties at sites with pronounced relief.

  19. Water shortage and drought monitoring in Bačka region (Vojvodina, North Serbia: Setting-up measurement stations network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Mlađen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Water shortage and drought, as the most important hydro-climatic hazards, cause significant damages in case of most continents including SE Europe. An experimental field established in Bačka region (Vojvodina Autonomous Province, North Serbia for the purpose of droughts/water shortage monitoring and remote sensing under ongoing IPA project 'Water shortage hazard and adaptive water management strategies in the Hungarian-Serbian cross-border region' (WAHASTRAT. The main objective of this project is to determine water shortage con­flicts on a local and regional level, and to reveal the frequency, extent and severity of future hydro-cli­matic hazards. The locations of eight measurement stations selected on the principle of representativeness in term of terrain configuration and soil cover. An area in which measurement stations were placed, covers about 1000 km2 (12% of total area of Bačka and includes geomorphic units which reliable represent the relief of the whole Bačka region. Measurement stations were placed on 4 out of 5 most common soil types in the Bačka and Vojvodina: chernozem, alluvial soils, smonitza and saline and alkali soils. A measurement equipment system was constructed for the requirements of the WAHASTRAT project. The aim was to design a user-friendly and affordable IT solution, which would enable continuous re­mote monitoring of meteorological parameters and soil moisture. Independent solar-powered meas­urement stations are able to automatically measure air temperature, air humidity, wind speed, wind di­rection, precipitation and soil moisture.

  20. Optimization of waste heat utilization in cold end system of thermal power station based on neural network algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zenghui

    2018-04-01

    At present, the flue gas waste heat utilization projects of coal-fired boilers are often limited by low temperature corrosion problems and conventional PID control. The flue gas temperature cannot be reduced to the best efficiency temperature of wet desulphurization, resulting in the failure of heat recovery to be the maximum. Therefore, this paper analyzes, researches and solves the remaining problems of the cold end system of thermal power station, so as to provide solutions and theoretical support for energy saving and emission reduction and upgrading and the improvement of the comprehensive efficiency of the units.

  1. A Mathematical Study of Accessibility and Cohesion Degree in a High-Speed Rail Station Connected to an Urban Bus Transport Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mota Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last twenty years, the implementation of High-Speed Rail (HSR has been one of the major strategies for territorial structuring used by various countries. This model has enhanced the development of countries such as France, Spain, Germany and Japan. At present, the United States and China are also starting to implement this model. Nevertheless, the lack of social and economic profitability of several networks is being increasingly analysed. Many networks located in particular regions serve populations that are not large enough to recover the initial investment. For this reason, it is necessary to evaluate the population served by this transport mode, beyond the number of users. In this sense, it is essential to identify the deficiencies and potentials of implementing a network linked to other secondary networks in a specific territory which can compensate for the so-called tunnel effect. This article proposes to apply a mathematical approach based on graph theory to measure the Degree Accessibility Node (DAN in a constrained Geographic Information System (GIS model. Hence, it would be possible to compare regions, especially medium-sized cities, where the implementation of HSR could represent a qualitative leap due to incorporation into large transport networks. The DAN function uses static and dynamic studies to evaluate the level of connection of stations to secondary transport networks—local public transport in this case. Thus, the impact of high-speed trains could be spread to greater territorial and population ranges. Four cases have been studied, two in Germany (one of them, Fulda, is analysed in depth throughout this article and two in Spain. These two countries were selected since HSR was implemented in the same relative period of time, in comparison with other European countries. Results show relevant differences, suggesting a review of inappropriate policies of transport integration in a city that could weaken the expansion of

  2. A Mathematical Study of Accessibility and Cohesion Degree in a High-Speed Rail Station Connected to an Urban Bus Transport Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mota, Carmen; López, Miguel A.; Martínez-Rodrigo, Arturo

    2017-04-01

    In the last twenty years, the implementation of High-Speed Rail (HSR) has been one of the major strategies for territorial structuring used by various countries. This model has enhanced the development of countries such as France, Spain, Germany and Japan. At present, the United States and China are also starting to implement this model. Nevertheless, the lack of social and economic profitability of several networks is being increasingly analysed. Many networks located in particular regions serve populations that are not large enough to recover the initial investment. For this reason, it is necessary to evaluate the population served by this transport mode, beyond the number of users. In this sense, it is essential to identify the deficiencies and potentials of implementing a network linked to other secondary networks in a specific territory which can compensate for the so-called tunnel effect. This article proposes to apply a mathematical approach based on graph theory to measure the Degree Accessibility Node (DAN) in a constrained Geographic Information System (GIS) model. Hence, it would be possible to compare regions, especially medium-sized cities, where the implementation of HSR could represent a qualitative leap due to incorporation into large transport networks. The DAN function uses static and dynamic studies to evaluate the level of connection of stations to secondary transport networks—local public transport in this case. Thus, the impact of high-speed trains could be spread to greater territorial and population ranges. Four cases have been studied, two in Germany (one of them, Fulda, is analysed in depth throughout this article) and two in Spain. These two countries were selected since HSR was implemented in the same relative period of time, in comparison with other European countries. Results show relevant differences, suggesting a review of inappropriate policies of transport integration in a city that could weaken the expansion of the positive

  3. Site classification for National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) stations in China using an empirical H/V spectral ratio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Kun; Ren, Yefei; Wen, Ruizhi

    2017-10-01

    Reliable site classification of the stations of the China National Strong Motion Observation Network System (NSMONS) has not yet been assigned because of lacking borehole data. This study used an empirical horizontal-to-vertical (H/V) spectral ratio (hereafter, HVSR) site classification method to overcome this problem. First, according to their borehole data, stations selected from KiK-net in Japan were individually assigned a site class (CL-I, CL-II, or CL-III), which is defined in the Chinese seismic code. Then, the mean HVSR curve for each site class was computed using strong motion recordings captured during the period 1996-2012. These curves were compared with those proposed by Zhao et al. (2006a) for four types of site classes (SC-I, SC-II, SC-III, and SC-IV) defined in the Japanese seismic code (JRA, 1980). It was found that an approximate range of the predominant period Tg could be identified by the predominant peak of the HVSR curve for the CL-I and SC-I sites, CL-II and SC-II sites, and CL-III and SC-III + SC-IV sites. Second, an empirical site classification method was proposed based on comprehensive consideration of peak period, amplitude, and shape of the HVSR curve. The selected stations from KiK-net were classified using the proposed method. The results showed that the success rates of the proposed method in identifying CL-I, CL-II, and CL-III sites were 63%, 64%, and 58% respectively. Finally, the HVSRs of 178 NSMONS stations were computed based on recordings from 2007 to 2015 and the sites classified using the proposed method. The mean HVSR curves were re-calculated for three site classes and compared with those from KiK-net data. It was found that both the peak period and the amplitude were similar for the mean HVSR curves derived from NSMONS classification results and KiK-net borehole data, implying the effectiveness of the proposed method in identifying different site classes. The classification results have good agreement with site classes

  4. Network control stations in the smart grid. Process and information knots for business intelligence applications; Netzleitstellen im Smart Grid. Prozess- und Informationsknoten fuer Business Intelligence Applikationen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kautsch, Stephan; Kroll, Meinhard [ABB AG, Mannheim (Germany); Schoellhorn, Daniel [EnBW Regional AG, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    The degree of automation in the distribution will increase, whereas a more extensive monitoring is possible. Smart metering in the local network station replaces the drag pointers. This allows the pre-determined load flows to be precise and it can be determined and valuable data can be collected about how resources, for example the transformers in the secondary substations, are actually utilized. The amount of information available is increasing steadily, not least because of the increasing expansion of smart meters, that also provide valuable information for the operation of the distribution networks. This ''flood'' of data that is processed by the system, filtered, and analyzed must be prepared for the user in order to make sense, but can also be used to support and optimize many business processes. Although these tasks mentioned are usually not yet allocated within the grid operator organization, they offer themselves to be placed close to the network control centers as they propose new challenges but also opportunities. (orig.)

  5. The Optimization Based Dynamic and Cyclic Working Strategies for Rechargeable Wireless Sensor Networks with Multiple Base Stations and Wireless Energy Transfer Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xu; Han, Jianghong; Shi, Lei

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the optimal working schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices are proposed. The wireless energy transfer devices also work as data gatherers while charging sensor nodes. The wireless sensor network is firstly divided into sub networks according to the concept of Voronoi diagram. Then, the entire energy replenishing procedure is split into the pre-normal and normal energy replenishing stages. With the objective of maximizing the sojourn time ratio of the wireless energy transfer device, a continuous time optimization problem for the normal energy replenishing cycle is formed according to constraints with which sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices should comply. Later on, the continuous time optimization problem is reshaped into a discrete multi-phased optimization problem, which yields the identical optimality. After linearizing it, we obtain a linear programming problem that can be solved efficiently. The working strategies of both sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices in the pre-normal replenishing stage are also discussed in this paper. The intensive simulations exhibit the dynamic and cyclic working schemes for the entire energy replenishing procedure. Additionally, a way of eliminating “bottleneck” sensor nodes is also developed in this paper. PMID:25785305

  6. The optimization based dynamic and cyclic working strategies for rechargeable wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xu; Han, Jianghong; Shi, Lei

    2015-03-16

    In this paper, the optimal working schemes for wireless sensor networks with multiple base stations and wireless energy transfer devices are proposed. The wireless energy transfer devices also work as data gatherers while charging sensor nodes. The wireless sensor network is firstly divided into sub networks according to the concept of Voronoi diagram. Then, the entire energy replenishing procedure is split into the pre-normal and normal energy replenishing stages. With the objective of maximizing the sojourn time ratio of the wireless energy transfer device, a continuous time optimization problem for the normal energy replenishing cycle is formed according to constraints with which sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices should comply. Later on, the continuous time optimization problem is reshaped into a discrete multi-phased optimization problem, which yields the identical optimality. After linearizing it, we obtain a linear programming problem that can be solved efficiently. The working strategies of both sensor nodes and wireless energy transfer devices in the pre-normal replenishing stage are also discussed in this paper. The intensive simulations exhibit the dynamic and cyclic working schemes for the entire energy replenishing procedure. Additionally, a way of eliminating "bottleneck" sensor nodes is also developed in this paper.

  7. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  8. Earthquakes Sources Parameter Estimation of 20080917 and 20081114 Near Semangko Fault, Sumatra Using Three Components of Local Waveform Recorded by IA Network Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madlazim

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The 17/09/2008 22:04:80 UTC and 14/11/2008 00:27:31.70 earthquakes near Semangko fault were analyzed to identify the fault planes. The two events were relocated to assess physical insight against the hypocenter uncertainty. The datas used to determine source parameters of both earthquakes were three components of local waveform recorded by Geofon broadband IA network stations, (MDSI, LWLI, BLSI and RBSI for the event of 17/09/2008 and (MDSI, LWLI, BLSI and KSI for the event of 14/11/2008. Distance from the epicenter to all station was less than 5°. Moment tensor solution of two events was simultaneously analyzed by determination of the centroid position. Simultaneous analysis covered hypocenter position, centroid position and nodal planes of two events indicated Semangko fault planes. Considering that the Semangko fault zone is a high seismicity area, the identification of the seismic fault is important for the seismic hazard investigation in the region.

  9. Designing Optimal LNG Station Network for U.S. Heavy-Duty Freight Trucks using Temporally and Spatially Explicit Supply Chain Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Allen

    The recent natural gas boom has opened much discussion about the potential of natural gas and specifically Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) in the United States transportation sector. The switch from diesel to natural gas vehicles would reduce foreign dependence on oil, spur domestic economic growth, and potentially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. LNG provides the most potential for the medium to heavy-duty vehicle market partially due to unstable oil prices and stagnant natural gas prices. As long as the abundance of unconventional gas in the United States remains cheap, fuel switching to natural gas could provide significant cost savings for long haul freight industry. Amid a growing LNG station network and ever increasing demand for freight movement, LNG heavy-duty truck sales are less than anticipated and the industry as a whole is less economic than expected. In spite of much existing and mature natural gas infrastructure, the supply chain for LNG is different and requires explicit and careful planning. This thesis proposes research to explore the claim that the largest obstacle to widespread LNG market penetration is sub-optimal infrastructure planning. No other study we are aware of has explicitly explored the LNG transportation fuel supply chain for heavy-duty freight trucks. This thesis presents a novel methodology that links a network infrastructure optimization model (represents supply side) with a vehicle stock and economic payback model (represents demand side). The model characterizes both a temporal and spatial optimization model of future LNG transportation fuel supply chains in the United States. The principal research goal is to assess the economic feasibility of the current LNG transportation fuel industry and to determine an optimal pathway to achieve ubiquitous commercialization of LNG vehicles in the heavy-duty transport sector. The results indicate that LNG is not economic as a heavy-duty truck fuel until 2030 under current market conditions

  10. Results of Joint Observations of Jupiter's Atmosphere by Juno and a Network of Earth-Based Observing Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Glenn; Momary, Thomas; Bolton, Scott; Levin, Steven; Hansen, Candice; Janssen, Michael; Adriani, Alberto; Gladstone, G. Randall; Bagenal, Fran; Ingersoll, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    The Juno mission has promoted and coordinated a network of Earth-based observations, including both Earth-proximal and ground-based facilities, to extend and enhance observations made by the Juno mission. The spectral region and timeline of all of these observations are summarized in the web site: https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/planned-observations. Among the earliest of these were observation of Jovian auroral phenomena at X-ray, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths and measurements of Jovian synchrotron radiation from the Earth simultaneously with the measurement of properties of the upstream solar wind. Other observations of significance to the magnetosphere measured the mass loading from Io by tracking its observed volcanic activity and the opacity of its torus. Observations of Jupiter's neutral atmosphere included observations of reflected sunlight from the near-ultraviolet through the near-infrared and thermal emission from 5 μm through the radio region. The point of these measurements is to relate properties of the deep atmosphere that are the focus of Juno's mission to the state of the "weather layer" at much higher atmospheric levels. These observations cover spectral regions not included in Juno's instrumentation, provide spatial context for Juno's often spatially limited coverage of Jupiter, and they describe the evolution of atmospheric features in time that are measured only once by Juno. We will summarize the results of measurements during the approach phase of the mission that characterized the state of the atmosphere, as well as observations made by Juno and the supporting campaign during Juno's perijoves 1 (2016 August 27), 3 (2016 December 11), 4 (2017 February 2) and possibly "early" results from 5 (2017 March 27). Besides a global network of professional astronomers, the Juno mission also benefited from the enlistment of a network of dedicated amateur astronomers who provided a quasi-continuous picture of the evolution of features observed by

  11. Amtrak Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  12. Results from Joint Observations of Jupiter's Atmosphere by Juno and a Network of Earth-Based Observing Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, G. S.; Bolton, S. J.; Levin, S.; Hansen, C. J.; Janssen, M. A.; Adriani, A.; Gladstone, R.; Bagenal, F.; Ingersoll, A. P.; Momary, T.; Payne, A.

    2016-12-01

    The Juno mission has promoted and coordinated a network of Earth-based observations, including both space- and ground-based facilities, to extend and enhance observations made by the Juno mission. The spectral region and timeline of all of these observations are summarized in the web site: https://www.missionjuno.swri.edu/planned-observations. Among the earliest of these were observation of Jovian auroral phenomena at X-ray, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths and measurements of Jovian synchrotron radiation from the Earth simultaneously with the measurement of properties of the upstream solar wind described elsewhere in this meeting. Other observations of significance to the magnetosphere measured the mass loading from Io by tracking its observed volcanic activity and the opacity of its torus. Observations of Jupiter's neutral atmosphere included observations of reflected sunlight from the near-ultraviolet through the near-infrared and thermal emission from 5 microns through the radio region. The point of these measurements is to relate properties of the deep atmosphere that are the focus of Juno's mission to the state of the "weather layer" at much higher atmospheric levels. These observations cover spectral regions not included in Juno's instrumentation, provide spatial context for Juno's often spatially limited coverage of Jupiter, and they describe the evolution of atmospheric features in time that are measured only once by Juno. We will summarize the results of measurements during the approach phase of the mission that characterized the state of the atmosphere, as well as observations made by Juno and the supporting campaign during Juno's perijoves 1 (August 27), 2 (October 19), 3 (November 2), 4 (November 15), and 5 (November 30). The Juno mission also benefited from the enlistment of a network of dedicated amateur astronomers who, besides providing input needed for public operation of the JunoCam visible camera, tracked the evolution of features in Jupiter

  13. RadNet Air Quality (Fixed Station) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — RadNet is a national network of monitoring stations that regularly collect air for analysis of radioactivity. The RadNet network, which has stations in each State,...

  14. Floods in Central Texas, September 7-14, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Karl E.

    2012-01-01

    Severe flooding occurred near the Austin metropolitan area in central Texas September 7–14, 2010, because of heavy rainfall associated with Tropical Storm Hermine. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Upper Brushy Creek Water Control and Improvement District, determined rainfall amounts and annual exceedance probabilities for rainfall resulting in flooding in Bell, Williamson, and Travis counties in central Texas during September 2010. We documented peak streamflows and the annual exceedance probabilities for peak streamflows recorded at several streamflow-gaging stations in the study area. The 24-hour rainfall total exceeded 12 inches at some locations, with one report of 14.57 inches at Lake Georgetown. Rainfall probabilities were estimated using previously published depth-duration frequency maps for Texas. At 4 sites in Williamson County, the 24-hour rainfall had an annual exceedance probability of 0.002. Streamflow measurement data and flood-peak data from U.S. Geological Survey surface-water monitoring stations (streamflow and reservoir gaging stations) are presented, along with a comparison of September 2010 flood peaks to previous known maximums in the periods of record. Annual exceedance probabilities for peak streamflow were computed for 20 streamflow-gaging stations based on an analysis of streamflow-gaging station records. The annual exceedance probability was 0.03 for the September 2010 peak streamflow at the Geological Survey's streamflow-gaging stations 08104700 North Fork San Gabriel River near Georgetown, Texas, and 08154700 Bull Creek at Loop 360 near Austin, Texas. The annual exceedance probability was 0.02 for the peak streamflow for Geological Survey's streamflow-gaging station 08104500 Little River near Little River, Texas. The lack of similarity in the annual exceedance probabilities computed for precipitation and streamflow might be attributed to the small areal extent of the heaviest rainfall over these and the other gaged

  15. A Conflict-Free Low-Jitter Guaranteed-Rate MAC Protocol for Base-Station Communications in Wireless Mesh Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szymanski, T. H.

    A scheduling algorithm and MAC protocol which provides low-jitter guaranteed-rate (GR) communications between base-stations (BS) in a Wireless Mesh Network (WMN) is proposed. The protocol can provision long-term multimedia services such as VOIP, IPTV, or Video-on-Demand. The time-axis is partitioned into scheduling frames with F time-slots each. A directional antennae scheme is used to provide each directed link with a fixed transmission rate. A protocol such as IntServ is used to provision resources along an end-to-end path of BSs for GR sessions. The Guaranteed Rates between the BSs are then specified in a doubly stochastic traffic rate matrix, which is recursively decomposed to yield a low-jitter GR frame transmission schedule. In the resulting schedule, the end-to-end delay and jitter are small and bounded, and the cell loss rate due to primary scheduling conflicts is zero. For dual-channel WMNs, the MAC protocol can achieve 100% utilization, as well as near-minimal queueing delays and near minimal delay jitter. The scheduling time complexity is O(NFlogNF), where N is the number of BSs. Extensive simulation results are presented.

  16. Design, Development and Pre-Flight Testing of the Communications, Navigation, and Networking Reconfigurable Testbed (Connect) to Investigate Software Defined Radio Architecture on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Over, Ann P.; Barrett, Michael J.; Reinhart, Richard C.; Free, James M.; Cikanek, Harry A., III

    2011-01-01

    The Communication Navigation and Networking Reconfigurable Testbed (CoNNeCT) is a NASA-sponsored mission, which will investigate the usage of Software Defined Radios (SDRs) as a multi-function communication system for space missions. A softwaredefined radio system is a communication system in which typical components of the system (e.g., modulators) are incorporated into software. The software-defined capability allows flexibility and experimentation in different modulation, coding and other parameters to understand their effects on performance. This flexibility builds inherent redundancy and flexibility into the system for improved operational efficiency, real-time changes to space missions and enhanced reliability/redundancy. The CoNNeCT Project is a collaboration between industrial radio providers and NASA. The industrial radio providers are providing the SDRs and NASA is designing, building and testing the entire flight system. The flight system will be integrated on the Express Logistics Carrier (ELC) on the International Space Station (ISS) after launch on the H-IIB Transfer Vehicle in 2012. This paper provides an overview of the technology research objectives, payload description, design challenges and pre-flight testing results.

  17. Do cities deserve more railway stations? The choice of a departure railway station in a multiple-station region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Givoni, M.; Rietveld, P.

    2014-01-01

    Promoting the use of rail is an important element in sustainable transport policy. One of the most important decisions to make in planning the railway network is on the number of stations to provide. Stations are the access points to rail services and while each additional station increases rail's

  18. Power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cawte, H.; Philpott, E.F.

    1980-01-01

    The object is to provide a method of operating a dual purpose power station so that the steam supply system is operated at a high load factor. The available steam not required for electricity generation is used to provide process heat and the new feature is that the process plant capacity is determined to make the most economic use of the steam supply system, and not to match the passout capacity of the turbine of the turbogenerator. The product of the process plant should, therefore, be capable of being stored. A dual-purpose power station with a nuclear-powered steam source, turbogenerating means connected to the steam source and steam-powered process plant susceptible to wide variation in its rate of operation is described. (U.K.)

  19. Methodology for Estimation of Flood Magnitude and Frequency for New Jersey Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Kara M.; Schopp, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Methodologies were developed for estimating flood magnitudes at the 2-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year recurrence intervals for unregulated or slightly regulated streams in New Jersey. Regression equations that incorporate basin characteristics were developed to estimate flood magnitude and frequency for streams throughout the State by use of a generalized least squares regression analysis. Relations between flood-frequency estimates based on streamflow-gaging-station discharge and basin characteristics were determined by multiple regression analysis, and weighted by effective years of record. The State was divided into five hydrologically similar regions to refine the regression equations. The regression analysis indicated that flood discharge, as determined by the streamflow-gaging-station annual peak flows, is related to the drainage area, main channel slope, percentage of lake and wetland areas in the basin, population density, and the flood-frequency region, at the 95-percent confidence level. The standard errors of estimate for the various recurrence-interval floods ranged from 48.1 to 62.7 percent. Annual-maximum peak flows observed at streamflow-gaging stations through water year 2007 and basin characteristics determined using geographic information system techniques for 254 streamflow-gaging stations were used for the regression analysis. Drainage areas of the streamflow-gaging stations range from 0.18 to 779 mi2. Peak-flow data and basin characteristics for 191 streamflow-gaging stations located in New Jersey were used, along with peak-flow data for stations located in adjoining States, including 25 stations in Pennsylvania, 17 stations in New York, 16 stations in Delaware, and 5 stations in Maryland. Streamflow records for selected stations outside of New Jersey were included in the present study because hydrologic, physiographic, and geologic boundaries commonly extend beyond political boundaries. The StreamStats web application was developed

  20. Capacity at Railway Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landex, Alex

    2011-01-01

    zone(s) the possible conflicts with other trains (also in the opposite direction) are taken into account leading to more trustworthy results. Although the UIC 406 methodology proposes that the railway network should be divided into line sections when trains turn around and when the train order...... is changed, this paper recommends that the railway lines are not always be divided. In case trains turn around on open (single track) line, the capacity consumption may be too low if a railway line is divided. The same can be the case if only few trains are overtaken at an overtaking station. For dead end...

  1. Open System of Agile Ground Stations, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is an opportunity to build the HETE-2/TESS network of ground stations into an innovative and powerful Open System of Agile Stations, by developing a low-cost...

  2. Application of an Elman neural network to the problem of predicting the throughput of a petroleum collecting station; Previsao da vazao de uma estacao coletora de petroleo utilizando redes neurais de Elman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paula, Wesley R. de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Curso de Pos-Graduacao em Informatica; Sousa, Andre G. de [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil). Curso de Ciencia da Computacao; Gomes, Herman M.; Galvao, Carlos de O. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to present an initial study on the application of an Elman Neural Network to the problem of predicting the throughput of a petroleum collecting station. This study is part of a wider project, which aims at producing an automatic real-time system to remotely control a petroleum distribution pipeline, in such a way that optimum efficiency can be assured in terms of: (I) maximizing the volume of oil transported; and (II) minimizing energy consumption, risks of failures and damages to the environment. Experiments were carried out to determine the neural network parameters and to examine its performance under varying prediction times in the future. Promising results (with low MSE) have been obtained for predictions obtained up to 10 minutes in the future. (author)

  3. Wireless Sensor Networks Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M.

    2003-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation provides information on hardware and software configurations for a network architecture for sensors. The hardware configuration uses a central station and remote stations. The software configuration uses the 'lost station' software algorithm. The presentation profiles a couple current examples of this network architecture in use.

  4. UK 2009-2010 repeat station report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas J.G. Shanahan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The British Geological Survey is responsible for conducting the UK geomagnetic repeat station programme. Measurements made at the UK repeat station sites are used in conjunction with the three UK magnetic observatories: Hartland, Eskdalemuir and Lerwick, to produce a regional model of the local field each year. The UK network of repeat stations comprises 41 stations which are occupied at approximately 3-4 year intervals. Practices for conducting repeat station measurements continue to evolve as advances are made in survey instrumentation and as the usage of the data continues to change. Here, a summary of the 2009 and 2010 UK repeat station surveys is presented, highlighting the measurement process and techniques, density of network, reduction process and recent results.

  5. Establishment of Karadeniz Technical University Permanent GNSS Station as Reactivated of TRAB IGS Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazancı Selma Zengin

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS have gained great importance in terms of the benefi ts it provides such as precise geodetic point positioning, determining crustal deformations, navigation, vehicle monitoring systems and meteorological applications etc. As in Turkey, for this purpose, each country has set up its own GNSS station networks like Turkish National Permanent RTK Network analyzed precise station coordinates and velocities together with the International GNSS Service, Turkish National Fundamental GPS Network and Turkish National Permanent GNSS Network (TNPGN stations not only are utilized as precise positioning but also GNSS meteorology studies so total number of stations are increased. This work is related to the reactivated of the TRAB IGS station which was established in Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Geomatics Engineering. Within the COST ES1206 Action (GNSS4SWEC KTU analysis center was established and Trop-NET system developed by Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP, RIGTC in order to troposphere monitoring. The project titled “Using Regional GNSS Networks to Strengthen Severe Weather Prediction” was accepted to the scientifi c and technological research council of Turkey (TUBITAK. With this project, we will design 2 new constructed GNSS reference station network. Using observation data of network, we will compare water vapor distribution derived by GNSS Meteorology and GNSS Tomography. At this time, KTU AC was accepted as E-GVAP Analysis Centre in December 2016. KTU reference station is aimed to be a member of the EUREF network with these studies.

  6. Establishment of Karadeniz Technical University Permanent GNSS Station as Reactivated of TRAB IGS Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazancı, Selma Zengin; Kayıkçı, Emine Tanır

    2017-12-01

    In recent years, Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have gained great importance in terms of the benefi ts it provides such as precise geodetic point positioning, determining crustal deformations, navigation, vehicle monitoring systems and meteorological applications etc. As in Turkey, for this purpose, each country has set up its own GNSS station networks like Turkish National Permanent RTK Network analyzed precise station coordinates and velocities together with the International GNSS Service, Turkish National Fundamental GPS Network and Turkish National Permanent GNSS Network (TNPGN) stations not only are utilized as precise positioning but also GNSS meteorology studies so total number of stations are increased. This work is related to the reactivated of the TRAB IGS station which was established in Karadeniz Technical University, Department of Geomatics Engineering. Within the COST ES1206 Action (GNSS4SWEC) KTU analysis center was established and Trop-NET system developed by Geodetic Observatory Pecny (GOP, RIGTC) in order to troposphere monitoring. The project titled "Using Regional GNSS Networks to Strengthen Severe Weather Prediction" was accepted to the scientifi c and technological research council of Turkey (TUBITAK). With this project, we will design 2 new constructed GNSS reference station network. Using observation data of network, we will compare water vapor distribution derived by GNSS Meteorology and GNSS Tomography. At this time, KTU AC was accepted as E-GVAP Analysis Centre in December 2016. KTU reference station is aimed to be a member of the EUREF network with these studies.

  7. Sources of the wind power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudivani, J.; Huettner, L.

    2012-01-01

    The paper deals with problems of the wind power stations. Describes the basic properties of wind energy. Shows and describes the different types of electrical machines used as a source of electricity in the wind power stations. Shows magnetic fields synchronous generator with salient poles and permanent magnets in the program FEMM. Describes methods for assessing of reversing the effects of the wind power stations on the distribution network. (Authors)

  8. A Novel Methodology for Charging Station Deployment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhonghao; Zhao, Yunwei; He, Yueying; Li, Mingzhe

    2018-02-01

    Lack of charging stations has been a main obstacle to the promotion of electric vehicles. This paper studies deploying charging stations in traffic networks considering grid constraints to balance the charging demand and grid stability. First, we propose a statistical model for charging demand. Then we combine the charging demand model with power grid constraints and give the formulation of the charging station deployment problem. Finally, we propose a theoretical solution for the problem by transforming it to a Markov Decision Process.

  9. Solar radiation observation stations updated to 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, E.A.; Cristina, J.R.; Williams, B.B.

    1979-04-01

    The type of sensing and recording equipment for 420 stations in the US are listed alphabetically by states. The stations are divided according to whether or not they are in the basic National Weather Service, NOAA, network. Reports of summarized solar radiation data are listed in an appendix. (MHR)

  10. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  11. Hybrid Off-Grid SPV/WTG Power System for Remote Cellular Base Stations Towards Green and Sustainable Cellular Networks in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Alsharif

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the sustainability of power resources and environmental conditions for telecommunication base stations (BSs at off-grid sites. Accordingly, this study examined the feasibility of using a hybrid solar photovoltaic (SPV/wind turbine generator (WTG system to feed the remote Long Term Evolution-macro base stations at off-grid sites of South Korea the energy necessary to minimise both the operational expenditure and greenhouse gas emissions. Three key aspects have been discussed: (i optimal system architecture; (ii energy yield analysis; and (iii economic analysis. In addition, this study compares the feasibility of using a hybrid SPV/WTG system vs. a diesel generator. The simulation results show that by applying the proposed SPV/WTG system scheme to the cellular system, the total operational expenditure can be up to 48.52% more efficient and sustainability can be ensured with better planning by providing cleaner energy.

  12. Networking

    OpenAIRE

    Rauno Lindholm, Daniel; Boisen Devantier, Lykke; Nyborg, Karoline Lykke; Høgsbro, Andreas; Fries, de; Skovlund, Louise

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to examine what influencing factor that has had an impact on the presumed increasement of the use of networking among academics on the labour market and how it is expressed. On the basis of the influence from globalization on the labour market it can be concluded that the globalization has transformed the labour market into a market based on the organization of networks. In this new organization there is a greater emphasis on employees having social qualificati...

  13. Trends of ozone and O{sub x} in Switzerland from 1992 to 2007: observations at selected stations of the NABEL, OASI (Ticino) and ANU (Graubuenden) networks corrected for meteorological variability. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, J.; Prevot, A. [Paul Scherrer Institut (PSI), Laboratory of Atmospheric Chemistry (LAC), Villigen (Switzerland); Beguin, A.F. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, Institute for Atmospheric and Climate Science (IAC), Zuerich (Switzerland); Jutzi, V. [Vincent Jutzi, Lausanne (Switzerland); Ordonez, C. [Met Office, Exeter EX1 3PB (United Kingdom)

    2008-11-15

    Long-term changes of ozone concentrations are influenced by a variety of quantities, in particular meteorological variables and emissions. In order to evaluate the contributions of regional emissions and of the background concentration to changes in observed ozone levels, the variability due to meteorology has to be removed. Ordonez et al. (2005) investigated the temporal evolution of tropospheric ozone over the Swiss Plateau using meteorological and air quality measurements taken at stations of the Swiss air quality networks NABEL and OSTLUFT. Time period was 1992 to 2002 including a discussion of the heat wave in summer 2003. The air quality measurements were corrected for meteorological influences on the basis of a multi-linear model approach. Despite the emission abatement measures of the last decades no significant decrease in ozone levels was observed. Air quality stations south of the Alps, which often act as a barrier for air mass exchange between south and north, were not included in the investigation. This study (a) includes all NABEL stations, (b) considers also southern air quality stations of the cantons Ticino (OASI) and Graubuenden (ANU), and (c) extends the time frame until 2007. The methodology of correcting ozone and O{sub x} = O{sub 3} + NO{sub 2} for meteorological variability is based on the ANalysis of COVAriance (ANCOVA). This approach assumes that the mixing ratios of O{sub 3} and O{sub x} are multi-linear functions of selected meteorological quantities. The analysis is performed using the statistics package R, which supports the dependence on continuous variables (e.g. air temperature) as well as on discrete quantities (e.g. wind direction expressed in terms of discrete wind direction sectors). The following daily values of each station are considered in the analysis (examples): (i) Meteorological variables (averages): afternoon temperature, morning global irradiance, afternoon wind speed, etc. If no co-located meteorological data are

  14. Trends of ozone and Ox in Switzerland from 1992 to 2007: observations at selected stations of the NABEL, OASI (Ticino) and ANU (Graubuenden) networks corrected for meteorological variability. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.; Prevot, A.; Beguin, A.F.; Jutzi, V.; Ordonez, C.

    2008-11-01

    Long-term changes of ozone concentrations are influenced by a variety of quantities, in particular meteorological variables and emissions. In order to evaluate the contributions of regional emissions and of the background concentration to changes in observed ozone levels, the variability due to meteorology has to be removed. Ordonez et al. (2005) investigated the temporal evolution of tropospheric ozone over the Swiss Plateau using meteorological and air quality measurements taken at stations of the Swiss air quality networks NABEL and OSTLUFT. Time period was 1992 to 2002 including a discussion of the heat wave in summer 2003. The air quality measurements were corrected for meteorological influences on the basis of a multi-linear model approach. Despite the emission abatement measures of the last decades no significant decrease in ozone levels was observed. Air quality stations south of the Alps, which often act as a barrier for air mass exchange between south and north, were not included in the investigation. This study (a) includes all NABEL stations, (b) considers also southern air quality stations of the cantons Ticino (OASI) and Graubuenden (ANU), and (c) extends the time frame until 2007. The methodology of correcting ozone and O x = O 3 + NO 2 for meteorological variability is based on the ANalysis of COVAriance (ANCOVA). This approach assumes that the mixing ratios of O 3 and O x are multi-linear functions of selected meteorological quantities. The analysis is performed using the statistics package R, which supports the dependence on continuous variables (e.g. air temperature) as well as on discrete quantities (e.g. wind direction expressed in terms of discrete wind direction sectors). The following daily values of each station are considered in the analysis (examples): (i) Meteorological variables (averages): afternoon temperature, morning global irradiance, afternoon wind speed, etc. If no co-located meteorological data are available, data of the closest

  15. Generalized regression neural network (GRNN)-based approach for colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) retrieval: case study of Connecticut River at Middle Haddam Station, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddam, Salim

    2014-11-01

    The prediction of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) using artificial neural network approaches has received little attention in the past few decades. In this study, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was modeled using generalized regression neural network (GRNN) and multiple linear regression (MLR) models as a function of Water temperature (TE), pH, specific conductance (SC), and turbidity (TU). Evaluation of the prediction accuracy of the models is based on the root mean square error (RMSE), mean absolute error (MAE), coefficient of correlation (CC), and Willmott's index of agreement (d). The results indicated that GRNN can be applied successfully for prediction of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM).

  16. Long-term evolution of upper stratospheric ozone at selected stations of the Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steinbrecht, W; Claude, H; Schönenborn, F; McDermid, I S; Leblanc, T; Godin, S; Song, T; Swart, D P J; Meijer, Y J; Bodeker, G E; Connor, B J; Kämpfer, N; Hocke, K; Calisesi, Y; Schneider, N; Noë, J de la; Parrish, A D; Boyd, I S; Brühl, C; Steil, B; Giorgetta, M A; Manzini, E; Thomason, L W; Zawodny, J M; McCormick, M P; Russell, J M; Bhartia, P K; Stolarski, R S; Hollandsworth-Frith, S M

    2006-01-01

    The long-term evolution of upper stratospheric ozone has been recorded by lidars and microwave radiometers within the ground-based Network for the Detection of Stratospheric Change (NDSC), and by the space-borne Solar Backscatter Ultra-Violet instruments (SBUV), Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas

  17. Evaluation of weather station network in Jordan اﻷردن ﻲ ــﻓ وي ــﺟـ د اﻟ ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of weather station network in Jordan. ﯾـﻘـﺗ. ـﯾـ. م ﺷ. ــﻛـﺑـ. ﺔ اﻟ. . رﺻ. . د اﻟ. ــﺟـ. وي. ــﻓ. ﻲ. اﻷردن. ﺣﺎﻣﺪ ﻣﻮﺳﻰ اﻟﺨﻄﯿﺐ. ﻛﻠﯿﺔ. اﻟﻤﻌﻠﻤﯿﻦ،. ﺟﺎﻣﻌﺔ طﯿﺒﺔ اﻟﻤﺪﯾﻨﺔ اﻟﻤﻨﻮرة، ص. ب . 1343.

  18. A new strategy for weak events in sparse networks: the first-motion polarity solutions constrained by single-station waveform inversion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojtíková, Lucia; Zahradník, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 85, č. 6 (2014), s. 1265-1274 ISSN 0895-0695 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP210/12/2336 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : weak events * sparse networks * focal mechanism * waveform inversion Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.156, year: 2014 http://srl.geoscienceworld.org/content/85/6/1265.full

  19. Guidelines for Learning Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fehrle, Carl C.; Schulz, Jolene

    Guidelines for designing and planning learning stations for pupils at the elementary grade level include suggestions on how to develop a station that will be successful in meeting the learners' needs. Instructions for the use of tapes at a station and matching pupils with stations are given, as are guidelines on classroom arrangement and record…

  20. Water resources data, Ohio: Water year 1991. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin: Statewide project data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindel, H.L.; Klingler, J.H.; Mangus, J.P.; Trimble, L.E.

    1992-03-01

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of Ohio each water year. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, the data are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for 131 streamflow-gaging stations, 95 miscellaneous sites; (2) stage and content records for 5 streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality for 40 streamflow-gaging stations, 378 wells, and 74 partial-record sites; and (4) water levels for 431 observation wells.

  1. Cooperative Hurricane Network Obs

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observations from the Cooperative Hurricane Reporting Network (CHURN), a special network of stations that provided observations when tropical cyclones approached the...

  2. Neighborhood Environmental Watch Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Neighborhood Environmental Watch Network (NEWNET) is a regional network of environmental monitoring stations and a data archival center that supports collaboration between communities, industry, and government agencies to solve environmental problems. The stations provide local displays of measurements for the public and transmit measurements via satellite to a central site for archival and analysis. Station managers are selected from the local community and trained to support the stations. Archived data and analysis tools are available to researchers, educational institutions, industrial collaborators, and the public across the nation through a communications network. Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Environmental Protection Agency have developed a NEWNET pilot program for the Department of Energy. The pilot program supports monitoring stations in Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, and California. Additional stations are being placed in Colorado and New Mexico. Pilot stations take radiological and meteorological measurements. Other measurements are possible by exchanging sensors

  3. ICUD-0499 Low-cost remotely sensed environmental monitoring stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rasmus; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke

    2017-01-01

    This study contributes with extensive research of applying low-cost remotely sensed monitoring stations to an urban environment. Design requirements are scrutinized, including applications for remote data access, hardware design, and monitoring network design. A network of 9 monitoring stations...... measuring stream water level is deployed during July 2017. Data is streamed to a web page using cellular-based data transmission. Monitoring network performance is quantified with respect to local physical and weather conditions....

  4. Stream-water and groundwater quality in and near the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2014-01-01

    The Citizen Potawatomi Nation needs to characterize their existing surface-water and groundwater resources in and near their tribal jurisdictional area to complete a water-resource management plan. Water resources in this area include surface water from the North Canadian and Little Rivers and groundwater from the terrace and alluvial aquifers and underlying bedrock aquifers. To assist in this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Citizen Potawatomi Nation, collected water-quality samples at 4 sites on 3 streams and from 30 wells during 2012 and 2013 in and near the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area in central Oklahoma. Stream samples were collected eight times on the North Canadian River at the upstream USGS streamflow-gaging station North Canadian River near Harrah, Okla. (07241550); at the downstream USGS streamflow-gaging station North Canadian River at Shawnee, Okla. (07241800); and on the Little River at the USGS streamflow-gaging station Little River near Tecumseh, Okla., (07230500). Stream samples also were collected three times at an ungaged site, Deer Creek near McLoud, Okla. (07241590). Water properties were measured, and water samples were analyzed for concentrations of major ions, nutrients, trace elements, counts of fecal-indicator bacteria, and 69 organic compounds.

  5. Fire Stations - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Station Locations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed at or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  6. Hammond Bay Biological Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hammond Bay Biological Station (HBBS), located near Millersburg, Michigan, is a field station of the USGS Great Lakes Science Center (GLSC). HBBS was established by...

  7. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  8. Big Game Reporting Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Point locations of big game reporting stations. Big game reporting stations are places where hunters can legally report harvested deer, bear, or turkey. These are...

  9. Ocean Station Vessel

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Ocean Station Vessels (OSV) or Weather Ships captured atmospheric conditions while being stationed continuously in a single location. While While most of the...

  10. Fire Stations - 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Fire Stations in Kansas Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  11. Newport Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Newport Research Station is the Center's only ocean-port research facility. This station is located at Oregon State University's Hatfield Marine Science Center,...

  12. Radiation monitoring network in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grabowski, D.; Kurowski, W.; Muszynski, W.; Rubel, B.; Smagala, G.; Swietochowska, J.

    2001-01-01

    In Poland the radioactive contamination of the environment and food has been controlled since the early sixties by the Service for Measurements of Radioactive Contamination (SPSP). The service comprises a network of measuring stations and the Centre of Radioactive Contamination Measurements (COPSP). Actually, there are 100 measurement stations. The main task of such station is systematic measurement of radioactivity level in samples of environment components and food. Nine stations of SPSP acting within meteorological stations, ten stations of low level air radioactivity measurements (Aerosols Sampling Stations-500) and eleven permanent monitoring stations (PMS) form the radiation monitoring warning system in Poland. (author)

  13. CDIP Station Data Collection - All Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Scripps Institution of Oceanography, UC San Diego — The Coastal Data Information Program's station data collection consists of all publicly-released coastal environment measurements taken over the program's history, a...

  14. Parameters of passenger facilities according to railway station characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej HAVLENA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents ways and goals of categorization of railway stations and stops in the Czech railway network. The aim of this categorization is to classify railway stations (or stops in the railway network according to a suite of entrance parameters (e.g. municipality population, transfer links, job opportunities, tourist attractiveness. On the basis of these parameters, railway stations and stops will be classified into several categories, which will be used to specify the conclusions for station equipment concerning ticket offices, commercial services, waiting rooms and other accessories. Research results can be used as a support for infrastructure managers and railway operators to optimise the scale of their services.

  15. Development and application of artificial neural network models to estimate values of a complex human thermal comfort index associated with urban heat and cool island patterns using air temperature data from a standard meteorological station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos; Tsiros, Ioannis X; Tseliou, Areti; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2018-04-11

    The present study deals with the development and application of artificial neural network models (ANNs) to estimate the values of a complex human thermal comfort-discomfort index associated with urban heat and cool island conditions inside various urban clusters using as only inputs air temperature data from a standard meteorological station. The index used in the study is the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index which requires as inputs, among others, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and radiation (short- and long-wave components). For the estimation of PET hourly values, ANN models were developed, appropriately trained, and tested. Model results are compared to values calculated by the PET index based on field monitoring data for various urban clusters (street, square, park, courtyard, and gallery) in the city of Athens (Greece) during an extreme hot weather summer period. For the evaluation of the predictive ability of the developed ANN models, several statistical evaluation indices were applied: the mean bias error, the root mean square error, the index of agreement, the coefficient of determination, the true predictive rate, the false alarm rate, and the Success Index. According to the results, it seems that ANNs present a remarkable ability to estimate hourly PET values within various urban clusters using only hourly values of air temperature. This is very important in cases where the human thermal comfort-discomfort conditions have to be analyzed and the only available parameter is air temperature.

  16. Development and application of artificial neural network models to estimate values of a complex human thermal comfort index associated with urban heat and cool island patterns using air temperature data from a standard meteorological station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustris, Konstantinos; Tsiros, Ioannis X.; Tseliou, Areti; Nastos, Panagiotis

    2018-04-01

    The present study deals with the development and application of artificial neural network models (ANNs) to estimate the values of a complex human thermal comfort-discomfort index associated with urban heat and cool island conditions inside various urban clusters using as only inputs air temperature data from a standard meteorological station. The index used in the study is the Physiologically Equivalent Temperature (PET) index which requires as inputs, among others, air temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and radiation (short- and long-wave components). For the estimation of PET hourly values, ANN models were developed, appropriately trained, and tested. Model results are compared to values calculated by the PET index based on field monitoring data for various urban clusters (street, square, park, courtyard, and gallery) in the city of Athens (Greece) during an extreme hot weather summer period. For the evaluation of the predictive ability of the developed ANN models, several statistical evaluation indices were applied: the mean bias error, the root mean square error, the index of agreement, the coefficient of determination, the true predictive rate, the false alarm rate, and the Success Index. According to the results, it seems that ANNs present a remarkable ability to estimate hourly PET values within various urban clusters using only hourly values of air temperature. This is very important in cases where the human thermal comfort-discomfort conditions have to be analyzed and the only available parameter is air temperature.

  17. Principles of nuclear power station control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowles, J.B.

    1975-12-01

    This memorandum represents lecture notes first distributed as part of a UKAEA introductory course on Reactor Technology held during November 1975. A nuclear power station is only one element of a dispersed interconnected arrangement of other nuclear and fossil-fired units which together constitute the national 'grid'. Thus the control of any one station must relate to the objectives of the grid network as a whole. A precise control of the supply frequency of the grid is achieved by regulating the output power of individual stations, and it is necessary for each station to be stable when operating in isolation with a variable load. As regards individual stations, several special control problems concerned with individual plant items are discussed, such as: controlled reactivity insertions, temperature reactivity time constants and flow instability. A simplified analysis establishes a fundamental relationship between the stored thermal energy of a boiler unit (a function of mechanical construction) and the flexibility of the heat source (nuclear or fossil-fired) if the station is to cope satisfactorily with demands arising from unscheduled losses of other generating sets or transmission capacity. Two basic control schemes for power station operation are described known as 'coupled' and 'decoupled control'. Each of the control modes has its own merits, which depend on the proposed station operating strategy (base load or load following) and the nature of the heat source. (U.K.)

  18. Network operating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Long-term and short-term objectives for the development of a network operating system for the Space Station are stated. The short-term objective is to develop a prototype network operating system for a 100 megabit/second fiber optic data bus. The long-term objective is to establish guidelines for writing a detailed specification for a Space Station network operating system. Major milestones are noted. Information is given in outline form.

  19. Validation of measured poleward TEC gradient using multi-station GPS with Artificial Neural Network based TEC model in low latitude region for developing predictive capability of ionospheric scintillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sur, D.; Paul, A.

    2017-12-01

    The equatorial ionosphere shows sharp diurnal and latitudinal Total Electron Content (TEC) variations over a major part of the day. Equatorial ionosphere also exhibits intense post-sunset ionospheric irregularities. Accurate prediction of TEC in these low latitudes is not possible from standard ionospheric models. An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based Vertical TEC (VTEC) model has been designed using TEC data in low latitude Indian longitude sector for accurate prediction of VTEC. GPS TEC data from the stations Calcutta (22.58°N, 88.38°E geographic, magnetic dip 32°), Baharampore (24.09°N, 88.25°E geographic, magnetic dip 35°) and Siliguri (26.72°N, 88.39°E geographic; magnetic dip 40°) are used as training dataset for the duration of January 2007-September 2011. Poleward VTEC gradients from northern EIA crest to region beyond EIA crest have been calculated from measured VTEC and compared with that obtained from ANN based VTEC model. TEC data from Calcutta and Siliguri are used to compute VTEC gradients during April 2013 and August-September 2013. It has been observed that poleward VTEC gradient computed from ANN based TEC model has shown good correlation with measured values during vernal and autumnal equinoxes of high solar activity periods of 2013. Possible correlation between measured poleward TEC gradients and post-sunset scintillations (S4 ≥ 0.4) from northern crest of EIA has been observed in this paper. From the observation, a suitable threshold poleward VTEC gradient has been proposed for possible occurrence of post-sunset scintillations at northern crest of EIA along 88°E longitude. Poleward VTEC gradients obtained from ANN based VTEC model are used to forecast possible ionospheric scintillation after post-sunset period using the threshold value. It has been observed that these predicted VTEC gradients obtained from ANN based VTEC model can forecast post-sunset L-band scintillation with an accuracy of 67% to 82% in this dynamic low latitude

  20. Assessment of dissolved-selenium concentrations and loads in the lower Gunnison River Basin, Colorado, as part of the Selenium Management Program, from 2011 to 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneberg, Mark F.

    2018-04-23

    The Gunnison Basin Selenium Management Program implemented a water-quality monitoring network in 2011 in the lower Gunnison River Basin in Colorado. Selenium is a trace element that bioaccumulates in aquatic food chains and can cause reproductive failure, deformities, and other harmful effects. This report presents the percentile values of selenium because regulatory agencies in Colorado make decisions based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean Water Act Section 303(d) that uses percentile values of concentration. Also presented are dissolved-selenium loads at 18 sites in the lower Gunnison River Basin for water years (WYs) 2011–2016 (October 1, 2010, through September 30, 2016). Annual dissolved-selenium loads were calculated for five sites with continuous U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations. Annual dissolved-selenium loads for WY 2011 through WY 2016 ranged from 179 and 391 pounds (lb) at Uncompahgre River at Colona to 11,100 and 17,300 lb at Gunnison River near Grand Junction (herein called Whitewater), respectively. Instantaneous loads were calculated for five sites with continuous U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations and 13 ancillary sites where discrete water-quality sampling also took place, using discrete water-quality samples and the associated discharge measurements collected during the period. Median instantaneous loads ranged from 0.01 pound per day (lb/d) at Smith Fork near Lazear to 33.0 lb/d at Whitewater. Mean instantaneous loads ranged from 0.06 lb/d at Smith Fork near Lazear to 36.2 lb/d at Whitewater. Most tributary sites in the basin had a median instantaneous dissolved-selenium load of less than 20.0 lb/day. In general, dissolved-selenium loads at Gunnison River main-stem sites showed an increase from upstream to downstream. The State of Colorado water-quality standard for dissolved selenium of 4.6 micrograms per liter (µg/L) was compared to the 85th percentiles for dissolved

  1. Adaptive downtilt for cellular base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mestrom, R.M.C.; Coenen, T.J.; Smolders, A.B.

    2012-01-01

    Efficiency, reconfigurability, and power consumption are paramount for future communication systems in applications such as cellular handsets, base stations and home networking systems. We present our work in the European PANAMA project which addresses the associated challenges. Our work focuses on

  2. Base Station Performance Model

    OpenAIRE

    Walsh, Barbara; Farrell, Ronan

    2005-01-01

    At present the testing of power amplifiers within base station transmitters is limited to testing at component level as opposed to testing at the system level. While the detection of catastrophic failure is possible, that of performance degradation is not. This paper proposes a base station model with respect to transmitter output power with the aim of introducing system level monitoring of the power amplifier behaviour within the base station. Our model reflects the expe...

  3. Amtrak Rail Stations (National)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Updated database of the Federal Railroad Administration's (FRA) Amtrak Station database. This database is a geographic data set containing Amtrak intercity railroad...

  4. Cooperative Station History Forms

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Various forms, photographs and correspondence documenting the history of Cooperative station instrumentation, location changes, inspections, and...

  5. Point Locations of 849 Continuous Record Streamflow Gages Used to Estmate Annual and Average Values of Water-Budget Components Based on Hydrograph Separation and PRISM Precipitation in the Appalachian Plateaus Region, 1900-2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — As part of the U.S. Geological Survey’s Groundwater Resources Program study of the Appalachian Plateaus aquifers, estimates of annual water-budget components were...

  6. CNG Fuelling Stations Design Philosophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radwan, H.

    2004-01-01

    I. Overview (a) Compressed Natural Gas - CNG:- Natural Gas, as an alternative fuel for vehicles, is supplied from the Natural Gas Distribution Network to the CNG fuelling stations to be compressed to 250 bars. It is then dispensed, to be stored on board of the vehicle at about 200 bars in a cylinder installed in the rear, under carriage, or on top of the vehicle. When the Natural Gas is required by the engine, it leaves the cylinder traveling through a high pressure pipe to a high pressure regulator, where the pressure is reduced close to atmospheric pressure, through a specially designed mixer, where it is properly mixed with air. The mixture then flows into the engine's combustion chamber, and is ignited to create the power required to drive the vehicle. (b) CNG Fuelling Stations General Description: as Supply and Metering The incoming gas supply and metering installation primarily depend on the pressure and flow demands of the gas compressor. Natural Gas Compressor In general, gas compressors for natural gas filling stations have relatively low flow rates

  7. A report on upgraded seismic monitoring stations in Myanmar: Station performance and site response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiam, Hrin Nei; Min Htwe, Yin Myo; Kyaw, Tun Lin; Tun, Pa Pa; Min, Zaw; Htwe, Sun Hninn; Aung, Tin Myo; Lin, Kyaw Kyaw; Aung, Myat Min; De Cristofaro, Jason; Franke, Mathias; Radman, Stefan; Lepiten, Elouie; Wolin, Emily; Hough, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    Myanmar is in a tectonically complex region between the eastern edge of the Himalayan collision zone and the northern end of the Sunda megathrust. Until recently, earthquake monitoring and research efforts have been hampered by a lack of modern instrumentation and communication infrastructure. In January 2016, a major upgrade of the Myanmar National Seismic Network (MNSN; network code MM) was undertaken to improve earthquake monitoring capability. We installed five permanent broadband and strong‐motion seismic stations and real‐time data telemetry using newly improved cellular networks. Data are telemetered to the MNSN hub in Nay Pyi Taw and archived at the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology Data Management Center. We analyzed station noise characteristics and site response using noise and events recorded over the first six months of station operation. Background noise characteristics vary across the array, but indicate that the new stations are performing well. MM stations recorded more than 20 earthquakes of M≥4.5 within Myanmar and its immediate surroundings, including an M 6.8 earthquake located northwest of Mandalay on 13 April 2016 and the Mw 6.8 Chauk event on 24 August 2016. We use this new dataset to calculate horizontal‐to‐vertical spectral ratios, which provide a preliminary characterization of site response of the upgraded MM stations.

  8. Seismometer array station processors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, F.A.; Lea, T.G.; Douglas, A.

    1977-01-01

    A description is given of the design, construction and initial testing of two types of Seismometer Array Station Processor (SASP), one to work with data stored on magnetic tape in analogue form, the other with data in digital form. The purpose of a SASP is to detect the short period P waves recorded by a UK-type array of 20 seismometers and to edit these on to a a digital library tape or disc. The edited data are then processed to obtain a rough location for the source and to produce seismograms (after optimum processing) for analysis by a seismologist. SASPs are an important component in the scheme for monitoring underground explosions advocated by the UK in the Conference of the Committee on Disarmament. With digital input a SASP can operate at 30 times real time using a linear detection process and at 20 times real time using the log detector of Weichert. Although the log detector is slower, it has the advantage over the linear detector that signals with lower signal-to-noise ratio can be detected and spurious large amplitudes are less likely to produce a detection. It is recommended, therefore, that where possible array data should be recorded in digital form for input to a SASP and that the log detector of Weichert be used. Trial runs show that a SASP is capable of detecting signals down to signal-to-noise ratios of about two with very few false detections, and at mid-continental array sites it should be capable of detecting most, if not all, the signals with magnitude above msub(b) 4.5; the UK argues that, given a suitable network, it is realistic to hope that sources of this magnitude and above can be detected and identified by seismological means alone. (author)

  9. National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA) Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), an office of NOAA's National Ocean Service, manages a network of Continuously Operating Reference Stations (CORS) that provide...

  10. An Operations Management System for the Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, H. G.

    1986-09-01

    This paper presents an overview of the conceptual design of an integrated onboard Operations Management System (OMS). Both hardware and software concepts are presented and the integrated space station network is discussed. It is shown that using currently available software technology, an integrated software solution for Space Station management and control, implemented with OMS software, is feasible.

  11. Secure base stations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Brusilovsky, Alec; McLellan, Rae; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul

    2009-01-01

    With the introduction of the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) base station router (BSR) and fourth generation (4G) base stations, such as the 3rd Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) Long Term Evolution (LTE) Evolved Node B (eNB), it has become important to

  12. Meyrin Petrol Station

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    Please note that the Meyrin petrol station will be closed for maintenance work on Tuesday 19 and Wednesday 20 December 2006. If you require petrol during this period we invite you to use the Prévessin petrol station, which will remain open. TS-IC-LO Section Tel.: 77039 - 73793

  13. Nuclear power stations licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solito, J.

    1978-04-01

    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n 0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed [pt

  14. SPS rectifier stations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1974-01-01

    The first of the twelves SPS rectifier stations for the bending magnets arrived at CERN at the end of the year. The photograph shows a station with the rectifiers on the left and in the other three cubicles the chokes, capacitors and resistor of the passive filter.

  15. Ondergronds Station Blijdorp, Rotterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hijma, M.P.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/266562426; Cohen, K.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185633374

    2014-01-01

    Het is in de herfst van 2005. Een lief meisje, Marieke, rijdt op haar vouwfiets door Rotterdam. Bij het Centraal Station is het al tijden een grote bouwplaats. Onder de nieuwe hal komt een veel groter metrostation en ook onder de Statenweg in Blijdorp is een grote bouwput voor een nieuw station.

  16. Information network architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, N. D.

    1985-01-01

    Graphs, charts, diagrams and outlines of information relative to information network architectures for advanced aerospace missions, such as the Space Station, are presented. Local area information networks are considered a likely technology solution. The principle needs for the network are listed.

  17. STRUVE arc and EUPOS® stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasmane, Ieva; Kaminskis, Janis; Balodis, Janis; Haritonova, Diana

    2013-04-01

    The Struve Geodetic Arc was developed in Years 1816 to 1855, 200 years ago. Historic information on the points of the Struve Geodetic Arc are included in the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2005. Nevertheless, the sites of many points are still not identified nor included in the data bases nowadays. Originally STRUVE arc consisted of 258 main triangles with 265 triangulation points. Currently 34 of the original station points are identified and included in the in the UNESCO World Heritage list. identified original measurement points of the Meridian Arc are located in Sweden (7 points), Norway (15), Finland (83), Russia (1), Estonia (22), Latvia (16), Lithuania (18), Belorussia (28), Ukraine (59) and Moldova (27). In Year 2002 was initiated another large coverage project - European Position Determination System "EUPOS®". Currently there are about 400 continuously operating GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) stations covering EU countries Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania and East European countries Ukraine and Moldavia. EUPOS® network is a ground based GNSS augmentation system widely used for geodesy, land surveying, geophysics and navigation. It gives the opportunity for fast and accurate position determination never available before. It is an honorable task to use the EUPOS® system for research of the Struve triangulation former sites. Projects with Struve arc can popularize geodesy, geo-information and its meaning in nowadays GIS and GNSS systems. Struve Arc and its points is unique cooperation cross-border object which deserve special attention because of their natural beauty and historical value for mankind. GNSS in geodesy discovers a powerful tool for the verification and validation of the height values of geodetic leveling benchmarks established historically almost 200 years ago. The differential GNSS and RTK methods appear very useful to identify vertical displacement of landscape by means of

  18. [STEM on Station Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundebjerg, Kristen

    2016-01-01

    The STEM on Station team is part of Education which is part of the External Relations organization (ERO). ERO has traditional goals based around BHAG (Big Hairy Audacious Goal). The BHAG model is simplified to a saying: Everything we do stimulates actions by others to advance human space exploration. The STEM on Station education initiate is a project focused on bringing off the earth research and learning into classrooms. Educational resources such as lesson plans, activities to connect with the space station and STEM related contests are available and hosted by the STEM on Station team along with their partners such as Texas Instruments. These educational activities engage teachers and students in the current happenings aboard the international space station, inspiring the next generation of space explorers.

  19. Central Station Design Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    . The work identifies the architecture, sizing and siting of prospective Central Stations in Denmark, which can be located at shopping centers, large car parking lots or gas stations. Central Stations are planned to be integrated in the Danish distribution grid. The Danish island of Bornholm, where a high...... overloading, more reference points might be necessary to represent various transformer loading levels. The subject of safety in Central Station is also addressed. A number of safety rules based on European standards apply to AC charging equipment up to 44 kW. The connection interlock and the automatic de......-energization are identified as fundamental requirements for safety in such a charging station. The connection interlock is a solution which ensures that no power is applied to the DC cable when the EV connector is not connected. The automatic de-energization device ensures that whenever a strain on the cable is detected, e...

  20. Space station operations management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Kathleen V.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom operations management concepts must be responsive to the unique challenges presented by the permanently manned international laboratory. Space Station Freedom will be assembled over a three year period where the operational environment will change as significant capability plateaus are reached. First Element Launch, Man-Tended Capability, and Permanent Manned Capability, represent milestones in operational capability that is increasing toward mature operations capability. Operations management concepts are being developed to accomodate the varying operational capabilities during assembly, as well as the mature operational environment. This paper describes operations management concepts designed to accomodate the uniqueness of Space Station Freedoom, utilizing tools and processes that seek to control operations costs.

  1. Waste Transfer Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    2011-01-01

    tion and transport is usually the most costly part of any waste management system; and when waste is transported over a considerable distance or for a long time, transferring the waste from the collection vehicles to more efficient transportation may be economically beneficial. This involves...... a transfer station where the transfer takes place. These stations may also be accessible by private people, offering flexibility to the waste system, including facilities for bulky waste, household hazardous waste and recyclables. Waste transfer may also take place on the collection route from small...... describes the main features of waste transfer stations, including some considerations about the economical aspects on when transfer is advisable....

  2. "Central Station" Londonis

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2000-01-01

    Londoni galeriis Milch seitsme läti, leedu ja eesti kunstniku projekt "Central Station". Kuraatorid Lisa Panting, Sally Tallant. Eestist osalevad Hanno Soans (Catarina Campinoga koostöös valminud video), Kiwa, Kai Kaljo

  3. Materials Test Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — When completed, the Materials Test Station at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center will meet mission need. MTS will provide the only fast-reactor-like irradiation...

  4. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKernan, M.L.

    1989-01-01

    The Shippingport Atomic Power Station was located on the Ohio River in Shippingport Borough (Beaver County), Pennsylvania, USA. The US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) constructed the plant in the mid-1950s on a seven and half acre parcel of land leased from Duquesne Light Company (DLC). The purposes were to demonstrate and to develop Pressurized Water Recovery technology and to generate electricity. DLC operated the Shippingport plant under supervision of (the successor to AEC) the Department of Energy (DOE)-Naval Reactors (NR) until operations were terminated on October 1, 1982. NR concluded end-of-life testing and defueling in 1984 and transferred the Station's responsibility to DOE Richland Operations Office (RL), Surplus Facility Management Program Office (SFMPO5) on September 5, 1984. SFMPO subsequently established the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project and selected General Electric (GE) as the Decommissioning Operations Contractor. This report is intended to provide an overview of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

  5. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1982-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 interleaved electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TT70, TTL2). See also 7904075.

  6. Public Transit Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — fixed rail transit stations within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico. The modes of transit that are serviced...

  7. Mukilteo Research Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Research at the Mukilteo Research Station focuses on understanding the life cycle of marine species and the impacts of ecosystem stressors on anadromous and marine...

  8. Maine Field Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — In 2000 NOAA's National Marine Fisheries Service established the Maine Field Station in Orono, ME to have more direct involvement in the conservation of the living...

  9. FEMA DFIRM Station Start

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This table contains information about station starting locations. These locations indicate the reference point that was used as the origin for distance measurements...

  10. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  11. Routes and Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — he Routes_Stations table is composed of fixed rail transit systems within the Continental United States, Alaska, Hawaii, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico....

  12. Gas Stations, US, 2010, NAVTEQ

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Gas_Stations dataset is derived from the Navteq 'AUTOSVC' SDC layer (FAC_TYPE=5540) and contains gas stations and petrol stations. This NAVTEQ dataset is...

  13. Enhanced Master Station History Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Enhanced Master Station History Report (EMSHR) is a compiled list of basic, historical information for every station in the station history database, beginning...

  14. Tobruk power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boergardts, B

    1978-01-01

    In February of 1975, the Electricity Corporation Benghazi (ECB) awarded a contract for the construction of a turnkey power station and seawater desalination plant in Tobruk, Libya to a consortium under the leadership of BBC Mannheim. This power station has an output of 129 MW and supplies about 24,000 m/sup 3/ of drinking water daily. It went into operation in 1977, two and a half years after the contract was awarded.

  15. Space Station galley design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabanino, Rudy; Murphy, George L.; Yakut, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    An Advanced Food Hardware System galley for the initial operating capability (IOC) Space Station is discussed. Space Station will employ food hardware items that have never been flown in space, such as a dishwasher, microwave oven, blender/mixer, bulk food and beverage dispensers, automated food inventory management, a trash compactor, and an advanced technology refrigerator/freezer. These new technologies and designs are described and the trades, design, development, and testing associated with each are summarized.

  16. Leadership at Antarctic Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    Claseification 6. No. Pegees LEADERSHIP AT ANTARTIC STATIONS hxIs i4 5, C =r~eta(C), 17 Rfs~W (R, Udusiied U)J 7. No Refs 8. Author(s) Edocumesnt I...whether there is a "best" approach to leadership at an Antartic Station and what leadership style may have the most to offer. 3~~ __ ___ Tipesis to be

  17. National Seismic Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokes, P.A.

    1982-06-01

    The National Seismic Station was developed to meet the needs of regional or worldwide seismic monitoring of underground nuclear explosions to verify compliance with a nuclear test ban treaty. The Station acquires broadband seismic data and transmits it via satellite to a data center. It is capable of unattended operation for periods of at least a year, and will detect any tampering that could result in the transmission of unauthentic seismic data

  18. The Princess Elisabeth Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berte, Johan

    2012-01-01

    Aware of the increasing impact of human activities on the Earth system, Belgian Science Policy Office (Belspo) launched in 1997 a research programme in support of a sustainable development policy. This umbrella programme included the Belgian Scientific Programme on Antarctic Research. The International Polar Foundation, an organization led by the civil engineer and explorer Alain Hubert, was commissioned by the Belgian Federal government in 2004 to design, construct and operate a new Belgian Antarctic Research Station as an element under this umbrella programme. The station was to be designed as a central location for investigating the characteristic sequence of Antarctic geographical regions (polynia, coast, ice shelf, ice sheet, marginal mountain area and dry valleys, inland plateau) within a radius of 200 kilometers (approx.124 miles) of a selected site. The station was also to be designed as "state of the art" with respect to sustainable development, energy consumption, and waste disposal, with a minimum lifetime of 25 years. The goal of the project was to build a station and enable science. So first we needed some basic requirements, which I have listed here; plus we had to finance the station ourselves. Our most important requirement was that we decided to make it a zero emissions station. This was both a philosophical choice as we thought it more consistent with Antarctic Treaty obligations and it was also a logistical advantage. If you are using renewable energy sources, you do not have to bring in all the fuel.

  19. Geoscience Australia Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) Station Field Campaign Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruddick, R. [Geoscience Australia, Symonston (Australia); Twilley, B. [Geoscience Australia, Symonston (Australia)

    2016-03-01

    This station formed part of the Australian Regional GPS Network (ARGN) and South Pacific Regional GPS Network (SPRGN), which is a network of continuous GPS stations operating within Australia and its Territories (including Antarctica) and the Pacific. These networks support a number of different science applications including maintenance of the Geospatial Reference Frame, both national and international, continental and tectonic plate motions, sea level rise, and global warming.

  20. Does the underground sidewall station survey method meet MHSA ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The question is asked whether or not this method of sur-veying will meet the MHSA standards of accuracy that was developed for typical hangingwall traverse type networks. Results obtained from a survey closure using a network of clusters of four sidewall stations demonstrates that under the described circumstances it will ...

  1. System control fuzzy neural sewage pumping stations using genetic algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Владлен Николаевич Кузнецов

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is considered the system of management of sewage pumping station with regulators based on a neuron network with fuzzy logic. Linguistic rules for the controller based on fuzzy logic, maintaining the level of effluent in the receiving tank within the prescribed limits are developed. The use of genetic algorithms for neuron network training is shown.

  2. Fiscal 1999 phase 2 R and D report of WE-NET (International Clean Energy Network Using Hydrogen Conversion). Task 7. Development of hydrogen supply station; 1999 nendo suiso riyo kokusai clean energy system gijutsu (WE-NET) dainiki kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Task 7. Suiso kyokyu station no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    This report summarizes the fiscal 1999 research result on element technologies and system technology for hydrogen supply stations. In 1999, study was made on the total system of hydrogen supply stations, and basic specifications and total designs were studied for such main component systems of hydrogen supply stations as hydrogen production equipment with a reformer of natural gas, polymer electrolyte water electrolyzer hydrogen supply system, hydrogen absorbing alloy tank, and hydrogen dispenser unit. From the study result on the optimum operation condition of the hydrogen production equipment, a S/C (ratio of steam/mol of material carbon) of 2.5, reforming temperature of 700 degrees C, recycling gas ratio of 0.21, and air-fuel ratio of 1.3-2.0 were obtained. In the study on optimum hydrogen absorbing alloy, LaNi{sub 5} alloy system with Mn as additive were selected. For the polymer electrolyte water electrolyzer hydrogen supply station, the basic specification of a total system, and the remote control system of the station were studied and established. R and D themes in the future were also presented. (NEDO)

  3. International Space Station Future Correlation Analysis Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laible, Michael R.; Pinnamaneni, Murthy; Sugavanam, Sujatha; Grygier, Michael

    2018-01-01

    Ongoing modal analyses and model correlation are performed on different configurations of the International Space Station (ISS). These analyses utilize on-orbit dynamic measurements collected using four main ISS instrumentation systems: External Wireless Instrumentation System (EWIS), Internal Wireless Instrumentation System (IWIS), Space Acceleration Measurement System (SAMS), and Structural Dynamic Measurement System (SDMS). Remote Sensor Units (RSUs) are network relay stations that acquire flight data from sensors. Measured data is stored in the Remote Sensor Unit (RSU) until it receives a command to download data via RF to the Network Control Unit (NCU). Since each RSU has its own clock, it is necessary to synchronize measurements before analysis. Imprecise synchronization impacts analysis results. A study was performed to evaluate three different synchronization techniques: (i) measurements visually aligned to analytical time-response data using model comparison, (ii) Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD), and (iii) lag from cross-correlation to align measurements. This paper presents the results of this study.

  4. Effect of removing the common mode errors on linear regression analysis of noise amplitudes in position time series of a regional GPS network & a case study of GPS stations in Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiping; Ma, Jun; Li, Zhao; Zhou, Xiaohui; Zhou, Boye

    2018-05-01

    The analysis of the correlations between the noise in different components of GPS stations has positive significance to those trying to obtain more accurate uncertainty of velocity with respect to station motion. Previous research into noise in GPS position time series focused mainly on single component evaluation, which affects the acquisition of precise station positions, the velocity field, and its uncertainty. In this study, before and after removing the common-mode error (CME), we performed one-dimensional linear regression analysis of the noise amplitude vectors in different components of 126 GPS stations with a combination of white noise, flicker noise, and random walking noise in Southern California. The results show that, on the one hand, there are above-moderate degrees of correlation between the white noise amplitude vectors in all components of the stations before and after removal of the CME, while the correlations between flicker noise amplitude vectors in horizontal and vertical components are enhanced from un-correlated to moderately correlated by removing the CME. On the other hand, the significance tests show that, all of the obtained linear regression equations, which represent a unique function of the noise amplitude in any two components, are of practical value after removing the CME. According to the noise amplitude estimates in two components and the linear regression equations, more accurate noise amplitudes can be acquired in the two components.

  5. Heterodox networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lala, Purnima; Kumar, Ambuj

    2016-01-01

    It is imperative for the service providers to bring innovation in the network design to meet the exponential growth of mobile subscribers for multi-technology future wireless networks. As a matter of research, studies on providing services to moving subscriber groups aka ‘Place Time Capacity (PTC......)’ have not been considered much in the literature. In this article we present Heterodox networks as an innovative and alternate approach to handle the PTC congestion. We describe two different approaches to combat the PTC congestion where the traditional terrestrial infrastructure fails to provide......-Configurable Intelligent Distributed Antenna System (SCIDAS)’ that overlays intelligence over the conventional DAS architecture and latter is in the form of a swarm of intelligent hovering base stations working in a team to cooperatively resolve the PTC congestion at the Area of Event (AoE). A suitable network...

  6. Locating replenishment stations for electric vehicles: Application to Danish traffic data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wen, Min; Laporte, Gilbert; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    2012-01-01

    for electric vehicles on a traffic network with flow-based demand. The objective is to optimize the network performance, for example to maximize the flow covered by a prefixed number of stations, or to minimize the number of stations needed to cover traffic flows. Two mixed integer linear programming......Environment-friendly electric vehicles have gained substantial attention in governments, industry and universities. The deployment of a network of recharging stations is essential given their limited travel range. This paper considers the problem of locating electronic replenishment stations...

  7. Hydrogen Fuelling Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rothuizen, Erasmus Damgaard

    . A system consisting of one high pressure storage tank is used to investigate the thermodynamics of fuelling a hydrogen vehicle. The results show that the decisive parameter for how the fuelling proceeds is the pressure loss in the vehicle. The single tank fuelling system is compared to a cascade fuelling......This thesis concerns hydrogen fuelling stations from an overall system perspective. The study investigates thermodynamics and energy consumption of hydrogen fuelling stations for fuelling vehicles for personal transportation. For the study a library concerning the components in a hydrogen fuelling...... station has been developed in Dymola. The models include the fuelling protocol (J2601) for hydrogen vehicles made by Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) and the thermodynamic property library CoolProp is used for retrieving state point. The components in the hydrogen fuelling library are building up...

  8. Hydrogen vehicle fueling station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daney, D.E.; Edeskuty, F.J.; Daugherty, M.A. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen fueling stations are an essential element in the practical application of hydrogen as a vehicle fuel, and a number of issues such as safety, efficiency, design, and operating procedures can only be accurately addressed by a practical demonstration. Regardless of whether the vehicle is powered by an internal combustion engine or fuel cell, or whether the vehicle has a liquid or gaseous fuel tank, the fueling station is a critical technology which is the link between the local storage facility and the vehicle. Because most merchant hydrogen delivered in the US today (and in the near future) is in liquid form due to the overall economics of production and delivery, we believe a practical refueling station should be designed to receive liquid. Systems studies confirm this assumption for stations fueling up to about 300 vehicles. Our fueling station, aimed at refueling fleet vehicles, will receive hydrogen as a liquid and dispense it as either liquid, high pressure gas, or low pressure gas. Thus, it can refuel any of the three types of tanks proposed for hydrogen-powered vehicles -- liquid, gaseous, or hydride. The paper discusses the fueling station design. Results of a numerical model of liquid hydrogen vehicle tank filling, with emphasis on no vent filling, are presented to illustrate the usefulness of the model as a design tool. Results of our vehicle performance model illustrate our thesis that it is too early to judge what the preferred method of on-board vehicle fuel storage will be in practice -- thus our decision to accommodate all three methods.

  9. Space Station Habitability Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clearwater, Yvonne A.

    1988-01-01

    The purpose and scope of the Habitability Research Group within the Space Human Factors Office at the NASA/Ames Research Center is described. Both near-term and long-term research objectives in the space human factors program pertaining to the U.S. manned Space Station are introduced. The concept of habitability and its relevancy to the U.S. space program is defined within a historical context. The relationship of habitability research to the optimization of environmental and operational determinants of productivity is discussed. Ongoing habitability research efforts pertaining to living and working on the Space Station are described.

  10. Power station instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jervis, M.W.

    1993-01-01

    Power stations are characterized by a wide variety of mechanical and electrical plant operating with structures, liquids and gases working at high pressures and temperatures and with large mass flows. The voltages and currents are also the highest that occur in most industries. In order to achieve maximum economy, the plant is operated with relatively small margins from conditions that can cause rapid plant damage, safety implications, and very high financial penalties. In common with other process industries, power stations depend heavily on control and instrumentation. These systems have become particularly significant, in the cost-conscious privatized environment, for providing the means to implement the automation implicit in maintaining safety standards, improving generation efficiency and reducing operating manpower costs. This book is for professional instrumentation engineers who need to known about their use in power stations and power station engineers requiring information about the principles and choice of instrumentation available. There are 8 chapters; chapter 4 on instrumentation for nuclear steam supply systems is indexed separately. (Author)

  11. Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This Topical Report is a synopsis of the decontamination of plant components and structures at the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project (SSDP). The information is provided as a part of the Technology Transfer Program to document the preparation activities in support of the shipment of radioactive wastes and the unconditional release of the site and structural materials. 1 ref., 16 figs., 4 tabs

  12. Galileo Station Keeping Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Cambriles, Antonio; Bejar-Romero, Juan Antonio; Aguilar-Taboada, Daniel; Perez-Lopez, Fernando; Navarro, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents analyses done for the design and implementation of the Maneuver Planning software of the Galileo Flight Dynamics Facility. The station keeping requirements of the constellation have been analyzed in order to identify the key parameters to be taken into account in the design and implementation of the software.

  13. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  14. Avoiding Service Station Fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Grace M.; Burton, John R.

    1982-01-01

    High school students are warned against service station fraud. A problem-solving section is designed to help students calculate consumer costs for various fraudulent transactions. Several ways of reducing fraud or of lessening the chances of problems are noted. (MP)

  15. The Service Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.

    The purpose of the teacher's guide is to encourage the primary student to expand his or her awareness of jobs within the community. The role of the service station worker is examined, with emphasis on the goods and services provided. Subject areas for which the materials in this guide have potential are social studies, art, and language. Each set…

  16. Electrostatic pickup station

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1979-01-01

    Electrostatic pickup station, with 4 electrodes, to measure beam position in the horizontal and vertical plane. This type is used in the transfer lines leaving the PS (TT2, TTL2, TT70). See also 8206063, where the electrode shapes are clearly visible.

  17. Point Lepreau generating station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganong, G.H.D.; Strang, A.E.; Gunter, G.E.; Thompson, T.S.

    Point Lepreau-1 reactor is a 600 MWe generating station expected to be in service by October 1979. New Brunswick is suffering a 'catch up' phenomenon in load growth and needs to decrease dependence on foreign oil. The site is on salt water and extensive study has gone into corrosion control. Project management, financing and scheduling have unique aspects. (E.C.B.)

  18. Mojave Base Station Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscielski, C. G.

    1984-01-01

    A 12.2 meter diameter X-Y mount antenna was reconditioned for use by the crustal dynamic project as a fixed base station. System capabilities and characteristics and key performance parameters for subsystems are presented. The implementation is completed.

  19. ANALYSIS OF SOLAR POWER STATION SCHEMES ON PHOTOELECTRIC MODULES FOR ELECTRIC CARS CHARGING STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hnatov

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of existing schemes for building solar power stations on photoelectric modules with the revealing of their operation principles and functionality has been conducted. The specified technical characteristics of each of the analyzed schemes are given. The structural scheme of the solar charging station for electric cars with determining its functional capabilities and operation features is proposed. The practical application of this scheme will help to reduce the dependence on the general electric power supply network and will create conditions for its total rejection.

  20. Improving Station Performance by Building Isolation Walls in the Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yan; Horn, Nikolaus; Leohardt, Roman

    2014-05-01

    Conrad Observatory is situated far away from roads and industrial areas on the Trafelberg in Lower Austria. At the end of the seismic tunnel, the main seismic instrument of the Observatory with a station code CONA is located. This station is one of the most important seismic stations in the Austrian Seismic Network (network code OE). The seismic observatory consists of a 145m long gallery and an underground laboratory building with several working areas. About 25 meters away from the station CONA, six temporary seismic stations were implemented for research purposes. Two of them were installed with the same equipment as CONA, while the remaining four stations were set up with digitizers having lower noise and higher resolution (Q330HR) and sensors with the same type (STS-2). In order to prevent possible disturbances by air pressure and temperature fluctuation, three walls were built inside of the tunnel. The first wall is located ca 63 meters from the tunnel entrance, while a set of double walls with a distance of 1.5 meters is placed about 53 meters from the first isolation wall but between the station CONA and the six temporary stations. To assess impact of the isolation walls on noise reduction and detection performance, investigations are conducted in two steps. The first study is carried out by comparing the noise level and detection performance between the station CONA behind the double walls and the stations in front of the double walls for verifying the noise isolation by the double walls. To evaluate the effect of the single wall, station noise level and detection performance were studied by comparing the results before and after the installation of the wall. Results and discussions will be presented. Additional experiment is conducted by filling insulation material inside of the aluminium boxes of the sensors (above and around the sensors). This should help us to determine an optimal insulation of the sensors with respect to pressure and temperature

  1. Wireless networks; Traadloese nettverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Wireless Local Area Networks - WLAN, is being installed in homes, offices, schools and city areas with an increasing speed. Computers communicate with each other through networks by using radio signals. Base stations make sure there is sufficient radio coverage in the current areas. The effects on human and if it is dangerous is discussed

  2. Measuring Robustness of Timetables at Stations using a Probability Distribution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Wittrup; Landex, Alex

    Stations are often the limiting capacity factor in a railway network. This induces interdependencies, especially at at-grade junctions, causing network effects. This paper presents three traditional methods that can be used to measure the complexity of a station, indicating the robustness...... of the station’s infrastructure layout and plan of operation. However, these three methods do not take the timetable at the station into consideration. Therefore, two methods are introduced in this paper, making it possible to estimate the robustness of different timetables at a station or different...... infrastructure layouts given a timetable. These two methods provide different precision at the expense of a more complex calculation process. The advanced and more precise method is based on a probability distribution that can describe the expected delay between two trains as a function of the buffer time...

  3. Hydrogen Filling Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boehm, Robert F; Sabacky, Bruce; Anderson II, Everett B; Haberman, David; Al-Hassin, Mowafak; He, Xiaoming; Morriseau, Brian

    2010-02-24

    Hydrogen is an environmentally attractive transportation fuel that has the potential to displace fossil fuels. The Freedom CAR and Freedom FUEL initiatives emphasize the importance of hydrogen as a future transportation fuel. Presently, Las Vegas has one hydrogen fueling station powered by natural gas. However, the use of traditional sources of energy to produce hydrogen does not maximize the benefit. The hydrogen fueling station developed under this grant used electrolysis units and solar energy to produce hydrogen fuel. Water and electricity are furnished to the unit and the output is hydrogen and oxygen. Three vehicles were converted to utilize the hydrogen produced at the station. The vehicles were all equipped with different types of technologies. The vehicles were used in the day-to-day operation of the Las Vegas Valley Water District and monitoring was performed on efficiency, reliability and maintenance requirements. The research and demonstration utilized for the reconfiguration of these vehicles could lead to new technologies in vehicle development that could make hydrogen-fueled vehicles more cost effective, economical, efficient and more widely used. In order to advance the development of a hydrogen future in Southern Nevada, project partners recognized a need to bring various entities involved in hydrogen development and deployment together as a means of sharing knowledge and eliminating duplication of efforts. A road-mapping session was held in Las Vegas in June 2006. The Nevada State Energy Office, representatives from DOE, DOE contractors and LANL, NETL, NREL were present. Leadership from the National hydrogen Association Board of Directors also attended. As a result of this session, a roadmap for hydrogen development was created. This roadmap has the ability to become a tool for use by other road-mapping efforts in the hydrogen community. It could also become a standard template for other states or even countries to approach planning for a hydrogen

  4. The ANSS Station Information System: A Centralized Station Metadata Repository for Populating, Managing and Distributing Seismic Station Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, V. I.; Yu, E.; Acharya, P.; Jaramillo, J.; Chowdhury, F.

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining and archiving accurate site metadata is critical for seismic network operations. The Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) Station Information System (SIS) is a repository of seismic network field equipment, equipment response, and other site information. Currently, there are 187 different sensor models and 114 data-logger models in SIS. SIS has a web-based user interface that allows network operators to enter information about seismic equipment and assign response parameters to it. It allows users to log entries for sites, equipment, and data streams. Users can also track when equipment is installed, updated, and/or removed from sites. When seismic equipment configurations change for a site, SIS computes the overall gain of a data channel by combining the response parameters of the underlying hardware components. Users can then distribute this metadata in standardized formats such as FDSN StationXML or dataless SEED. One powerful advantage of SIS is that existing data in the repository can be leveraged: e.g., new instruments can be assigned response parameters from the Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology (IRIS) Nominal Response Library (NRL), or from a similar instrument already in the inventory, thereby reducing the amount of time needed to determine parameters when new equipment (or models) are introduced into a network. SIS is also useful for managing field equipment that does not produce seismic data (eg power systems, telemetry devices or GPS receivers) and gives the network operator a comprehensive view of site field work. SIS allows users to generate field logs to document activities and inventory at sites. Thus, operators can also use SIS reporting capabilities to improve planning and maintenance of the network. Queries such as how many sensors of a certain model are installed or what pieces of equipment have active problem reports are just a few examples of the type of information that is available to SIS users.

  5. Electric machinery and drives in thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    The following subjects were dealt with during the VDE meeting: 1) Requirements made by the electric network on the generators and their excitation equipment, and the influence thereof on their design; 2) requirements made by the power station process on the electric drives and the influence thereof on type and design; 3) requirements made on protective measures from the point of the electric power station machinery. (TK) [de

  6. NASA Communications Augmentation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omidyar, Guy C.; Butler, Thomas E.; Laios, Straton C.

    1990-01-01

    The NASA Communications (Nascom) Division of the Mission Operations and Data Systems Directorate (MO&DSD) is to undertake a major initiative to develop the Nascom Augmentation (NAUG) network to achieve its long-range service objectives for operational data transport to support the Space Station Freedom Program, the Earth Observing System (EOS), and other projects. The NAUG is the Nascom ground communications network being developed to accommodate the operational traffic of the mid-1990s and beyond. The NAUG network development will be based on the Open Systems Interconnection Reference Model (OSI-RM). This paper describes the NAUG network architecture, subsystems, topology, and services; addresses issues of internetworking the Nascom network with other elements of the Space Station Information System (SSIS); discusses the operations environment. This paper also notes the areas of related research and presents the current conception of how the network will provide broadband services in 1998.

  7. Reducing lighting electricity use in underground metro stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casals, Miquel; Gangolells, Marta; Forcada, Núria; Macarulla, Marcel

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Lighting systems are big energy consumers in underground metro stations. • An adaptive lighting system strategy is developed for underground stations. • Dimming controls are based on station occupancy levels and maintenance cycles. • The k-means clustering technique is used to identify stations’ occupancy patterns. • Savings were found to amount to 255.47 MW h in 2 years for a case study metro network. - Abstract: Lighting systems are usually one of the largest electrical end-uses in underground metro stations. Taking into account that budget restrictions in publicly owned companies hinder energy efficiency retrofit projects that require high initial investments, affordable energy saving strategies are needed. This paper presents a low-cost approach for reducing lighting electricity use in underground stations, without affecting passengers’ comfort or the metro operator’s service. For this purpose, an adaptive lighting strategy of dimming the illuminance levels of artificial light sources has been developed. Dimming controls are based on the occupancy of the station, and the preventive maintenance and cleaning cycles of the luminaires. The stations’ monthly occupancy patterns are defined through the k-means clustering technique. To illustrate its effectiveness, the method was applied to 115 underground stations of the Barcelona metro network. The results revealed overall electricity savings of 255.47 MW h on a biannual basis, which represents 36.22% of the stations’ baseline lighting consumption. Individual energy savings were found to range from 25 to 87.5 MW h/year in the stations of the Barcelona metro network, depending on the number and profile of station users. The research findings will undoubtedly be useful for the future energy efficiency project plans of worldwide metro operators and managers of other underground spaces.

  8. Optimal Network-Topology Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Victor O. K.; Yuen, Joseph H.; Hou, Ting-Chao; Lam, Yuen Fung

    1987-01-01

    Candidate network designs tested for acceptability and cost. Optimal Network Topology Design computer program developed as part of study on topology design and analysis of performance of Space Station Information System (SSIS) network. Uses efficient algorithm to generate candidate network designs consisting of subsets of set of all network components, in increasing order of total costs and checks each design to see whether it forms acceptable network. Technique gives true cost-optimal network and particularly useful when network has many constraints and not too many components. Program written in PASCAL.

  9. Self Calibrating Flow Estimation in Waste Water Pumping Stations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kallesøe, Carsten Skovmose; Knudsen, Torben

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge about where waste water is flowing in waste water networks is essential to optimize the operation of the network pumping stations. However, installation of flow sensors is expensive and requires regular maintenance. This paper proposes an alternative approach where the pumps and the waste...... water pit are used for estimating both the inflow and the pump flow of the pumping station. Due to the nature of waste water, the waste water pumps are heavily affected by wear and tear. To compensate for the wear of the pumps, the pump parameters, used for the flow estimation, are automatically...... calibrated. This calibration is done based on data batches stored at each pump cycle, hence makes the approach a self calibrating system. The approach is tested on a pumping station operating in a real waste water network....

  10. Compositional Verification of Multi-Station Interlocking Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Macedo, Hugo Daniel dos Santos; Fantechi, Alessandro; Haxthausen, Anne Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    pose a big challenge to current verification methodologies, due to the explosion of state space size as soon as large, if not medium sized, multi-station systems have to be controlled. For these reasons, verification techniques that exploit locality principles related to the topological layout...... of the controlled system to split in different ways the state space have been investigated. In particular, compositional approaches divide the controlled track network in regions that can be verified separately, once proper assumptions are considered on the way the pieces are glued together. Basing on a successful...... method to verify the size of rather large networks, we propose a compositional approach that is particularly suitable to address multi-station interlocking systems which control a whole line composed of stations linked by mainline tracks. Indeed, it turns out that for such networks, and for the adopted...

  11. Battery charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergey, M.

    1997-12-01

    This paper discusses the concept of battery charging stations (BCSs), designed to service rural owners of battery power sources. Many such power sources now are transported to urban areas for recharging. A BCS provides the opportunity to locate these facilities closer to the user, is often powered by renewable sources, or hybrid systems, takes advantage of economies of scale, and has the potential to provide lower cost of service, better service, and better cost recovery than other rural electrification programs. Typical systems discussed can service 200 to 1200 people, and consist of stations powered by photovoltaics, wind/PV, wind/diesel, or diesel only. Examples of installed systems are presented, followed by cost figures, economic analysis, and typical system design and performance numbers.

  12. The nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plettner, B.

    1987-04-01

    The processes taking place in a nuclear power plant and the dangers arising from a nuclear power station are described. The means and methods of controlling, monitoring, and protecting the plant and things that can go wrong are presented. There is also a short discourse on the research carried out in the USA and Germany, aimed at assessing the risks of utilising nuclear energy by means of the incident tree analysis and probability calculations. (DG) [de

  13. International Space Station exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) exhibit in StenniSphere at John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., gives visitors an up-close look at the largest international peacetime project in history. Step inside a module of the ISS and glimpse how astronauts will live and work in space. Currently, 16 countries contribute resources and hardware to the ISS. When complete, the orbiting research facility will be larger than a football field.

  14. Shippingport station communications program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stote, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    The author discusses how the communications program for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station has a long history. It can be traced as far back as 1953, when the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) awarded a contract to Westinghouse Electric to design the nuclear portion of a power plant for electric utility use. During May of the next year, President Eisenhower initiated groundbreaking ceremonies for the construction of the commercial atomic power plant at Shippingport, Pennsylvania

  15. Water Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 1, Ohio River Basin excluding Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synoptic sites, and partial-record sit -aid (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake-and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures 8a through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two or three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  16. Wadter Resources Data Ohio: Water year 1994. Volume 2, St. Lawrence River Basin and Statewide Project Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-12-31

    The Water Resources Division of the US Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with State agencies, obtains a large amount of data each water year (a water year is the 12-month period from October 1 through September 30 and is identified by the calendar year in which it ends) pertaining to the water resources of Ohio. These data, accumulated during many years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the State. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the USGS, they are published annually in this report series entitled ``Water Resources Data--Ohio.`` This report (in two volumes) includes records on surface water and ground water in the State. Specifically, it contains: (1) Discharge records for streamflow-gaging stations, miscellaneous sites, and crest-stage stations; (2) stage and content records for streams, lakes, and reservoirs; (3) water-quality data for streamflow-gaging stations, wells, synaptic sites, and partial-record sites; and (4) water-level data for observation wells. Locations of lake- and streamflow-gaging stations, water-quality stations, and observation wells for which data are presented in this volume are shown in figures ga through 8b. The data in this report represent that part of the National Water Data System collected by the USGS and cooperating State and Federal agencies in Ohio. This series of annual reports for Ohio began with the 1961 water year with a report that contained only data relating to the quantities of surface water. For the 1964 water year, a similar report was introduced that contained only data relating to water quality. Beginning with the 1975 water year, the report was changed to present (in two to three volumes) data on quantities of surface water, quality of surface and ground water, and ground-water levels.

  17. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system.

  18. Buried waste integrated demonstration human engineered control station. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document describes the Human Engineered Control Station (HECS) project activities including the conceptual designs. The purpose of the HECS is to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of remote retrieval by providing an integrated remote control station. The HECS integrates human capabilities, limitations, and expectations into the design to reduce the potential for human error, provides an easy system to learn and operate, provides an increased productivity, and reduces the ultimate investment in training. The overall HECS consists of the technology interface stations, supporting engineering aids, platform (trailer), communications network (broadband system), and collision avoidance system

  19. Measurements and modelling of base station power consumption under real traffic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Josip; Garma, Tonko; Petrovic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  20. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Petrovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  1. The key network communication technology in large radiation image cooperative process system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zheng; Kang Kejun; Gao Wenhuan; Wang Jingjin

    1998-01-01

    Large container inspection system (LCIS) based on radiation imaging technology is a powerful tool for the customs to check the contents inside a large container without opening it. An image distributed network system is composed of operation manager station, image acquisition station, environment control station, inspection processing station, check-in station, check-out station, database station by using advanced network technology. Mass data, such as container image data, container general information, manifest scanning data, commands and status, must be on-line transferred between different stations. Advanced network communication technology is presented

  2. Application and study of advanced network technology in large container inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zheng; Kang Kejun; Gao Wenhuan; Wang Jingjin

    1996-01-01

    Large Container Inspection System (LCIS) based on radiation imaging technology is a powerful tool for the customs to check the contents inside a large container without opening it. An image distributed network system is composed of center manager station, image acquisition station, environment control station, inspection processing station, check-in station, check-out station, database station by using advanced network technology. Mass data, such as container image data, container general information, manifest scanning data, commands and status, must be on-line transferred between different stations. Advanced network technology and software programming technique are presented

  3. Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — EMS Locations in Kansas The EMS stations dataset consists of any location where emergency medical services (EMS) personnel are stationed or based out of, or where...

  4. Weigh-in-Motion Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  5. Automatic Traffic Recorder (ATR) Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The data included in the GIS Traffic Stations Version database have been assimilated from station description files provided by FHWA for Weigh-in-Motion (WIM), and...

  6. Space Station fluid management logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Sam M.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion on space station fluid management logistics are presented. Topics covered include: fluid management logistics - issues for Space Station Freedom evolution; current fluid logistics approach; evolution of Space Station Freedom fluid resupply; launch vehicle evolution; ELV logistics system approach; logistics carrier configuration; expendable fluid/propellant carrier description; fluid carrier design concept; logistics carrier orbital operations; carrier operations at space station; summary/status of orbital fluid transfer techniques; Soviet progress tanker system; and Soviet propellant resupply system observations.

  7. Thermal management of space stations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Thermal management aims at making full use of energy resources available in the space station to reduce energy consumption, waste heat rejection and the weight of the station. It is an extension of the thermal control. This discussion introduces the concept and development of thermal management, presents the aspects of thermal management and further extends its application to subsystems of the space station.

  8. Air and radiation monitoring stations

    CERN Multimedia

    AUTHOR|(SzGeCERN)582709

    2015-01-01

    CERN has around 100 monitoring stations on and around its sites. New radiation measuring stations, capable of detecting even lower levels of radiation, were installed in 2014. Two members of HE-SEE group (Safety Engineering and Environment group) in front of one of the new monitoring stations.

  9. Station Program Note Pull Automation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    transferred over to a new Excel worksheet for comparison. I managed to get my application to acquire the CSWG (Computer Safety Working Group) and the SPNWG (Space Station Working Group) SPN's with just two mouse clicks for each pull, as opposed to several from the original process. When all three pulls are performed, an Excel sheet containing all three different results will be generated for the user to compare and determine which SPN's will be presented or reviewed the following month. The experience from this internship has been spectacular. As a high school senior who will begin attending college in the fall, this internship has been both educationally and occupationally beneficial. The internship has allowed me the opportunities to learn new programming languages, effectively network with NASA personnel from a variety of departments at JSC, and allowed me to learn new professional skills and etiquette. My internship at NASA's Johnson Space Center has further motivated me to pursue a Master's degree in Software Engineering and strive for a prosperous career with NASA as a civil servant.

  10. Space station orbit maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, D. I.; Jones, R. M.

    1983-01-01

    The orbit maintenance problem is examined for two low-earth-orbiting space station concepts - the large, manned Space Operations Center (SOC) and the smaller, unmanned Science and Applications Space Platform (SASP). Atmospheric drag forces are calculated, and circular orbit altitudes are selected to assure a 90 day decay period in the event of catastrophic propulsion system failure. Several thrusting strategies for orbit maintenance are discussed. Various chemical and electric propulsion systems for orbit maintenance are compared on the basis of propellant resupply requirements, power requirements, Shuttle launch costs, and technology readiness.

  11. Submerged AUV Charging Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack A.; Chao, Yi; Curtin, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) are becoming increasingly important for military surveillance and mine detection. Most AUVs are battery powered and have limited lifetimes of a few days to a few weeks. This greatly limits the distance that AUVs can travel underwater. Using a series of submerged AUV charging stations, AUVs could travel a limited distance to the next charging station, recharge its batteries, and continue to the next charging station, thus traveling great distances in a relatively short time, similar to the Old West “Pony Express.” One solution is to use temperature differences at various depths in the ocean to produce electricity, which is then stored in a submerged battery. It is preferred to have the upper buoy submerged a reasonable distance below the surface, so as not to be seen from above and not to be inadvertently destroyed by storms or ocean going vessels. In a previous invention, a phase change material (PCM) is melted (expanded) at warm temperatures, for example, 15 °C, and frozen (contracted) at cooler temperatures, for example, 8 °C. Tubes containing the PCM, which could be paraffin such as pentadecane, would be inserted into a container filled with hydraulic oil. When the PCM is melted (expanded), it pushes the oil out into a container that is pressurized to about 3,000 psi (approx equals 20.7 MPa). When a valve is opened, the high-pressure oil passes through a hydraulic motor, which turns a generator and charges a battery. The low-pressure oil is finally reabsorbed into the PCM canister when the PCM tubes are frozen (contracted). Some of the electricity produced could be used to control an external bladder or a motor to the tether line, such that depth cycling is continued for a very long period of time. Alternatively, after the electricity is generated by the hydraulic motor, the exiting low-pressure oil from the hydraulic motor could be vented directly to an external bladder on the AUV, such that filling of the bladder

  12. PlayStation purpura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Susan J; Leonard, Jane; Chamberlain, Alex J

    2010-08-01

    A 16-year-old boy presented with a number of asymptomatic pigmented macules on the volar aspect of his index fingers. Dermoscopy of each macule revealed a parallel ridge pattern of homogenous reddish-brown pigment. We propose that these lesions were induced by repetitive trauma from a Sony PlayStation 3 (Sony Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) vibration feedback controller. The lesions completely resolved following abstinence from gaming over a number of weeks. Although the parallel ridge pattern is typically the hallmark for early acral lentiginous melanoma, it may be observed in a limited number of benign entities, including subcorneal haematoma.

  13. Tether applications for space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobles, W.

    1986-01-01

    A wide variety of space station applications for tethers were reviewed. Many will affect the operation of the station itself while others are in the category of research or scientific platforms. One of the most expensive aspects of operating the space station will be the continuing shuttle traffic to transport logistic supplies and payloads to the space station. If a means can be found to use tethers to improve the efficiency of that transportation operation, it will increase the operating efficiency of the system and reduce the overall cost of the space station. The concept studied consists of using a tether to lower the shuttle from the space station. This results in a transfer of angular momentum and energy from the orbiter to the space station. The consequences of this transfer is studied and how beneficial use can be made of it.

  14. Comprehensive evaluation of a digital imaging network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, S.K.; Benson, H.; Elliott, L.P.; Horii, S.

    1988-01-01

    The authors' institution has installed a comprehensive PACS network involving a dozen work stations and ten imaging systems with electronic archiving and teleradiology capability based on the CommView (AT and T) system and its fiberoptic network. Diagnostic reporting stations are placed in neuroradiology, abdominal imaging, general radiology, and ultrasound service. Other review stations are located in intensive care units, radiation medicine, the emergency room, and other sites. Clinical acceptance of such technology varies depending on a number of factors: image quality, image data volume, service style, and personal preference. The general acceptance depends on the work station performance, network response time, and work station environment. Clinical acceptance by radiologists and referring physicians was evaluated. The evaluation project included work-station performance, network performance, system interface, RIS interface, and development of training methods and implementation strategy for other sites. A cost analysis and a study of administrative impact are integral parts of the comprehensive evaluation project

  15. Draper Station Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrossian, Nazareth; Jang, Jiann-Woei; McCants, Edward; Omohundro, Zachary; Ring, Tom; Templeton, Jeremy; Zoss, Jeremy; Wallace, Jonathan; Ziegler, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Draper Station Analysis Tool (DSAT) is a computer program, built on commercially available software, for simulating and analyzing complex dynamic systems. Heretofore used in designing and verifying guidance, navigation, and control systems of the International Space Station, DSAT has a modular architecture that lends itself to modification for application to spacecraft or terrestrial systems. DSAT consists of user-interface, data-structures, simulation-generation, analysis, plotting, documentation, and help components. DSAT automates the construction of simulations and the process of analysis. DSAT provides a graphical user interface (GUI), plus a Web-enabled interface, similar to the GUI, that enables a remotely located user to gain access to the full capabilities of DSAT via the Internet and Webbrowser software. Data structures are used to define the GUI, the Web-enabled interface, simulations, and analyses. Three data structures define the type of analysis to be performed: closed-loop simulation, frequency response, and/or stability margins. DSAT can be executed on almost any workstation, desktop, or laptop computer. DSAT provides better than an order of magnitude improvement in cost, schedule, and risk assessment for simulation based design and verification of complex dynamic systems.

  16. Wind turbine power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-11-01

    The Countryside Council for Wales (CCW's) policy on wind turbine power stations needs to be read in the context of CCW's document Energy:Policy and perspectives for the Welsh countryside. This identifies four levels of action aimed at reducing emission of gases which contribute towards the risk of global warming and gases which cause acid deposition. These are: the need for investment in energy efficiency; the need for investment in conventional power generation in order to meet the highest environmental standards; the need for investment in renewable energy; and the need to use land use transportation policies and decisions to ensure energy efficiency and energy conservation. CCW views wind turbine power stations, along with other renewable energy systems, within this framework. CCW's policy is to welcome the exploitation of renewable energy sources as an element in a complete and environmentally sensitive energy policy, subject to the Environmental Assessment of individual schemes and monitoring of the long-term impact of the various technologies involved. (Author)

  17. NETWORK SECURITY ATTACKS. ARP POISONING CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminiţa DEFTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Arp poisoning is one of the most common attacks in a switched network. A switch is a network device that limits the ability of attackers that use a packet sniffer to gain access to information from internal network traffic. However, using ARP poisoning the traffic between two computers can be intercepted even in a network that uses switches. This method is known as man in the middle attack. With this type of attack the affected stations from a network will have invalid entries in the ARP table. Thus, it will contain only the correspondence between the IP addresses of the stations from the same network and a single MAC address (the station that initiated the attack. In this paper we present step by step the initiation of such an attack in a network with three computers. We will intercept the traffic between two stations using the third one (the attacker.

  18. Scaling in public transport networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. von Ferber

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We analyse the statistical properties of public transport networks. These networks are defined by a set of public transport routes (bus lines and the stations serviced by these. For larger networks these appear to possess a scale-free structure, as it is demonstrated e.g. by the Zipf law distribution of the number of routes servicing a given station or for the distribution of the number of stations which can be visited from a chosen one without changing the means of transport. Moreover, a rather particular feature of the public transport network is that many routes service common subsets of stations. We discuss the possibility of new scaling laws that govern intrinsic properties of such subsets.

  19. Performance issues in management of the Space Station Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Marjory J.

    1988-01-01

    The onboard segment of the Space Station Information System (SSIS), called the Data Management System (DMS), will consist of a Fiber Distributed Data Interface (FDDI) token-ring network. The performance of the DMS in scenarios involving two kinds of network management is analyzed. In the first scenario, how the transmission of routine management messages impacts performance of the DMS is examined. In the second scenario, techniques for ensuring low latency of real-time control messages in an emergency are examined.

  20. Wireless sensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perotti, Jose M.; Lucena, Angel R.; Mullenix, Pamela A.; Mata, Carlos T.

    2006-05-01

    Current and future requirements of aerospace sensors and transducers demand the design and development of a new family of sensing devices, with emphasis on reduced weight, power consumption, and physical size. This new generation of sensors and transducers will possess a certain degree of intelligence in order to provide the end user with critical data in a more efficient manner. Communication between networks of traditional or next-generation sensors can be accomplished by a Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) developed by NASA's Instrumentation Branch and ASRC Aerospace Corporation at Kennedy Space Center (KSC), consisting of at least one central station and several remote stations and their associated software. The central station is application-dependent and can be implemented on different computer hardware, including industrial, handheld, or PC-104 single-board computers, on a variety of operating systems: embedded Windows, Linux, VxWorks, etc. The central stations and remote stations share a similar radio frequency (RF) core module hardware that is modular in design. The main components of the remote stations are an RF core module, a sensor interface module, batteries, and a power management module. These modules are stackable, and a common bus provides the flexibility to stack other modules for additional memory, increased processing, etc. WSN can automatically reconfigure to an alternate frequency if interference is encountered during operation. In addition, the base station will autonomously search for a remote station that was perceived to be lost, using relay stations and alternate frequencies. Several wireless remote-station types were developed and tested in the laboratory to support different sensing technologies, such as resistive temperature devices, silicon diodes, strain gauges, pressure transducers, and hydrogen leak detectors.

  1. Local control stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, W.S.; Higgins, J.C.; Wachtel, J.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes research concerning the effects of human engineering design at local control stations (i.e., operator interfaces located outside the control room) on human performance and plant safety. The research considered both multifunction panels (e.g. remote shutdown panels) as well as single-function interfaces (e.g., valves, breakers, gauges, etc.). Changes in performance shaping factors associated with variations in human engineering at LCSs were estimated based on expert opinion. By means of a scaling procedure, these estimates were used to modify the human error probabilities in a PRA model, which was then employed to generate estimates of plant risk and scoping-level value/impact ratios for various human engineering upgrades. Recent documentation of human engineering deficiencies at single-function LCSs was also reviewed, and an assessment of the current status of LCSs with respect to human engineering was conducted

  2. Innovative Railway Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rzepnicka, Sylwia; Załuski, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    In relation to modern demographic trends, evolving technologies and environment-friendly solutions increases the potential of rail considered as sustainable form of public transport. Contemporary tendencies of designing railway stations in Europe are focused on lowering energy consumption and reducing carbon emission. The main goal of the designers is to create a friendly and intuitive space for its users and at the same time a building that uses renewable energy sources and minimizes negative impact on the environment by the increase of biologically active areas, reuse of rainwater and greywater, innovative heating and cooling solutions and reduction of energy losses. The optimisation of a life circle in railway architecture introduces new approach to passenger service. Examples mentioned in the content of this article help to synthesize changes in approach to the design within the context of sustainability.

  3. Bradwell Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    When built, the Magnox reactors were expected to have operating lifetimes of 20-25 years. In order to satisfy the licensing authorities of their continued safety, long term safety reviews (LTSRs) are being carried out as the reactors reach 20 years of operation. This is the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate's (NII) summary report on Bradwell nuclear power station. The objectives of the LTSR are stated. A description of the plant is followed by an explanation of the statutory position on licensing. The responsibilities of the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) and the NII are defined. From the examination of the CEGB's LTSR it is concluded that this generally confirms the validity of the existing safety case for present operation. However, some recommendations are made as to work required for reactor operation up to 1992. A summary of the NII findings is presented. This includes the reactor pressure circuit integrity, effects of ageing and in-service wear and radiation doses. (U.K.)

  4. Integrated microfluidic probe station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, C M; Qasaimeh, M A; Brastaviceanu, T; Anderson, K; Kabakibo, Y; Juncker, D

    2010-11-01

    The microfluidic probe (MFP) consists of a flat, blunt tip with two apertures for the injection and reaspiration of a microjet into a solution--thus hydrodynamically confining the microjet--and is operated atop an inverted microscope that enables live imaging. By scanning across a surface, the microjet can be used for surface processing with the capability of both depositing and removing material; as it operates under immersed conditions, sensitive biological materials and living cells can be processed. During scanning, the MFP is kept immobile and centered over the objective of the inverted microscope, a few micrometers above a substrate that is displaced by moving the microscope stage and that is flushed continuously with the microjet. For consistent and reproducible surface processing, the gap between the MFP and the substrate, the MFP's alignment, the scanning speed, the injection and aspiration flow rates, and the image capture need all to be controlled and synchronized. Here, we present an automated MFP station that integrates all of these functionalities and automates the key operational parameters. A custom software program is used to control an independent motorized Z stage for adjusting the gap, a motorized microscope stage for scanning the substrate, up to 16 syringe pumps for injecting and aspirating fluids, and an inverted fluorescence microscope equipped with a charge-coupled device camera. The parallelism between the MFP and the substrate is adjusted using manual goniometer at the beginning of the experiment. The alignment of the injection and aspiration apertures along the scanning axis is performed using a newly designed MFP screw holder. We illustrate the integrated MFP station by the programmed, automated patterning of fluorescently labeled biotin on a streptavidin-coated surface.

  5. New Seismic Monitoring Station at Mohawk Ridge, Valles Caldera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roberts, Peter Morse [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-20

    Two new broadband digital seismic stations were installed in the Valles Caldera in 2011 and 2012. The first is located on the summit of Cerros del Abrigo (station code CDAB) and the second is located on the flanks of San Antonio Mountain (station code SAMT). Seismic monitoring stations in the caldera serve multiple purposes. These stations augment and expand the current coverage of the Los Alamos Seismic Network (LASN), which is operated to support seismic and volcanic hazards studies for LANL and northern New Mexico (Figure 1). They also provide unique continuous seismic data within the caldera that can be used for scientific studies of the caldera’s substructure and detection of very small seismic signals that may indicate changes in the current and evolving state of remnant magma that is known to exist beneath the caldera. Since the installation of CDAB and SAMT, several very small earthquakes have already been detected near San Antonio Mountain just west of SAMT (Figure 2). These are the first events to be seen in that area. Caldera stations also improve the detection and epicenter determination quality for larger local earthquakes on the Pajarito Fault System east of the Preserve and the Nacimiento Uplift to the west. These larger earthquakes are a concern to LANL Seismic Hazards assessments and seismic monitoring of the Los Alamos region, including the VCNP, is a DOE requirement. Currently the next closest seismic stations to the caldera are on Pipeline Road (PPR) just west of Los Alamos, and Peralta Ridge (PER) south of the caldera. There is no station coverage near the resurgent dome, Redondo Peak, in the center of the caldera. Filling this “hole” is the highest priority for the next new LASN station. We propose to install this station in 2018 on Mohawk Ridge just east of Redondito, in the same area already occupied by other scientific installations, such as the MCON flux tower operated by UNM.

  6. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-02-01

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  7. Space station communications and tracking equipment management/control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapell, M. H.; Seyl, J. W.

    1982-01-01

    Design details of a communications and tracking (C and T) local area network and the distribution system requirements for the prospective space station are described. The hardware will be constructed of LRUs, including those for baseband, RF, and antenna subsystems. It is noted that the C and T equipment must be routed throughout the station to accommodate growth of the station. Configurations of the C and T modules will therefore be dependent on the function of the space station module where they are located. A block diagram is provided of a sample C and T hardware distribution configuration. A topology and protocol will be needed to accommodate new terminals, wide bandwidths, bidirectional message transmission, and distributed functioning. Consideration will be given to collisions occurring in the data transmission channels.

  8. Quantum key distribution using card, base station and trusted authority

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordholt, Jane E.; Hughes, Richard John; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Rosenberg, Danna; McCabe, Kevin Peter; Tyagi, Kush T.; Dallmann, Nicholas

    2017-06-14

    Techniques and tools for quantum key distribution ("QKD") between a quantum communication ("QC") card, base station and trusted authority are described herein. In example implementations, a QC card contains a miniaturized QC transmitter and couples with a base station. The base station provides a network connection with the trusted authority and can also provide electric power to the QC card. When coupled to the base station, after authentication by the trusted authority, the QC card acquires keys through QKD with a trust authority. The keys can be used to set up secure communication, for authentication, for access control, or for other purposes. The QC card can be implemented as part of a smart phone or other mobile computing device, or the QC card can be used as a fillgun for distribution of the keys.

  9. Quantum key distribution using card, base station and trusted authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordholt, Jane Elizabeth; Hughes, Richard John; Newell, Raymond Thorson; Peterson, Charles Glen; Rosenberg, Danna; McCabe, Kevin Peter; Tyagi, Kush T; Dallman, Nicholas

    2015-04-07

    Techniques and tools for quantum key distribution ("QKD") between a quantum communication ("QC") card, base station and trusted authority are described herein. In example implementations, a QC card contains a miniaturized QC transmitter and couples with a base station. The base station provides a network connection with the trusted authority and can also provide electric power to the QC card. When coupled to the base station, after authentication by the trusted authority, the QC card acquires keys through QKD with a trusted authority. The keys can be used to set up secure communication, for authentication, for access control, or for other purposes. The QC card can be implemented as part of a smart phone or other mobile computing device, or the QC card can be used as a fillgun for distribution of the keys.

  10. On the crustal bias of repeat stations in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venera Dobrica

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A magnetic induction model has been applied to recordings obtained in 2010 during the field campaigns for geomagnetic measurements at the 26 repeat stations of the Romanian secular variation network. The model is based on the observation that a variable external magnetic field induces a response of the Earth's interior not only by electromagnetic induction, but also by magnetic induction in the magnetic rocks above the Curie temperature. The model computes coefficients of a linear relationship between recorded values of a certain geomagnetic element (X, Y, Z, or F at the repeat station and recorded X, Y, Z values at a reference station (in this case, SUA observatory. Coefficients depend on magnetic permeabilities of rocks beneath the station and stand as a proxy for the anomaly bias characterizing the site. Maps of the lateral variation of this type of information were obtained and discussed.

  11. Parameterization Of Solar Radiation Using Neural Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiya, J. D.; Alfa, B.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a neural network technique for parameterization of global solar radiation. The available data from twenty-one stations is used for training the neural network and the data from other ten stations is used to validate the neural model. The neural network utilizes latitude, longitude, altitude, sunshine duration and period number to parameterize solar radiation values. The testing data was not used in the training to demonstrate the performance of the neural network in unknown stations to parameterize solar radiation. The results indicate a good agreement between the parameterized solar radiation values and actual measured values

  12. Application for the Tape Station

    CERN Document Server

    Solero, A

    2003-01-01

    The Tape Station is used as an Isolde facility to observe the variations of intensity and the lifespan of certain isotopes. A Siemens Simatic FM-352-5 module controls the Tape Station in a PLC system then a DSC controls the PLC, which will be controlled the Tape station program. During the Isolde consolidation project, the Tape Station has been rebuilt, and the control system has been fully integrated in the PS control. Finally, a new application has been written in JAVA Development kit 1.4 and the PS Java environment. The main purpose of this note is to explain how to use this program.

  13. Space Station Engineering Design Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcruer, Duane T.; Boehm, Barry W.; Debra, Daniel B.; Green, C. Cordell; Henry, Richard C.; Maycock, Paul D.; Mcelroy, John H.; Pierce, Chester M.; Stafford, Thomas P.; Young, Laurence R.

    1989-01-01

    Space Station Freedom topics addressed include: general design issues; issues related to utilization and operations; issues related to systems requirements and design; and management issues relevant to design.

  14. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS). This file provides information on the numbers and distribution (latitude/longitude) of air monitoring sites...

  15. Vacuum switchgear for power station auxiliary switchboards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coombs, P.E.

    1992-01-01

    Sizewell B is the first UK power station in which vacuum switchgear is used for the auxiliary switchboards. Previously the 3.3kV, 6.6kV or 11kV switchgear has used air-break circuit breakers and fused air-break contactors, known as motor starting devices or fused switching devices (FSD). The use of vacuum interrupters is therefore a new technology in this application, although it has been established in the UK distribution network and in industrial installations from the mid 1970s. Vacuum switchgear was already in use in the USA for power station auxiliary switchgear at the time that it was proposed for Sizewell B. The Sizewell B high voltage auxiliary switchgear comprises eight Unit and Station Auxiliary Switchboards at 3.3kV and 11kV, and four 3.3kV Essential Switchboards for the essential safety related circuits, making a total of 65 circuit breakers plus FSD panels. (Author)

  16. The Remote Security Station (RSS) final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pletta, J.B.; Amai, W.A.; Klarer, P.; Frank, D.; Carlson, J.; Byrne, R.

    1992-10-01

    The Remote Security Station (RSS) was developed by Sandia National Laboratories for the Defense Nuclear Agency to investigate issues pertaining to robotics and sensor fusion in physical security systems. This final report documents the status of the RSS program at its completion in April 1992. The RSS system consists of the Man Portable Security Station (MaPSS) and the Telemanaged Mobile Security Station (TMSS), which are integrated by the Operator's Control Unit (OCU) into a flexible exterior perimeter security system. The RSS system uses optical, infrared, microwave, and acoustic intrusion detection sensors in conjunction with sensor fusion techniques to increase the probability of detection and to decrease the nuisance alarm rate of the system. Major improvements to the system developed during the final year are an autonomous patrol capability, which allows TMSS to execute security patrols with limited operator interaction, and a neural network approach to sensor fusion, which significantly improves the system's ability to filter out nuisance alarms due to adverse weather conditions

  17. An initial abstraction and constant loss model, and methods for estimating unit hydrographs, peak streamflows, and flood volumes for urban basins in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huizinga, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Streamflow data, basin characteristics, and rainfall data from 39 streamflow-gaging stations for urban areas in and adjacent to Missouri were used by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Metropolitan Sewer District of St. Louis to develop an initial abstraction and constant loss model (a time-distributed basin-loss model) and a gamma unit hydrograph (GUH) for urban areas in Missouri. Study-specific methods to determine peak streamflow and flood volume for a given rainfall event also were developed.

  18. Station History Of The Seismic Station In Ahmadu Bello University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dominants in the selected events are events from Meditterranian, East Kazakhstan, India/Burma/China, South and Central America and North Ascension island regions. The limited number of events reporting at the station was due to low operational gain at the station which permitted only events whose magnitudes are ...

  19. United States National Seismographic Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buland, R.

    1993-09-01

    The concept of a United States National Seismograph Network (USNSN) dates back nearly 30 years. The idea was revived several times over the decades. but never funded. For, example, a national network was proposed and discussed at great length in the so called Bolt Report (U. S. Earthquake Observatories: Recommendations for a New National Network, National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1980, 122 pp). From the beginning, a national network was viewed as augmenting and complementing the relatively dense, predominantly short-period vertical coverage of selected areas provided by the Regional Seismograph Networks (RSN's) with a sparse, well-distributed network of three-component, observatory quality, permanent stations. The opportunity finally to begin developing a national network arose in 1986 with discussions between the US Geological Survey (USGS) and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). Under the agreement signed in 1987, the NRC has provided $5 M in new funding for capital equipment (over the period 1987-1992) and the USGS has provided personnel and facilities to develop. deploy, and operate the network. Because the NRC funding was earmarked for the eastern United States, new USNSN station deployments are mostly east of 105 degree W longitude while the network in the western United States is mostly made up of cooperating stations (stations meeting USNSN design goals, but deployed and operated by other institutions which provide a logical extension to the USNSN)

  20. Airline Operational Control (AOC)/UAS Ground Control Station (GCS) Collaboration, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to form a network and a set of tools that will create a shared situation awareness with Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Ground Control Stations (GCSs) and...

  1. Calibration and study of the measurement capabilities of real-time gamma spectrometry equipment developed for the renewal of the network of stations automatic monitoring environmental radiation of the Generalitat of Catalunya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanovas, R.; Prieto, E.; Salvado, M.

    2014-01-01

    The renewal of the automatic environmental radiation surveillance network of the Generalitat of Catalunya has been carried out through the development and implementation of gamma-spectrometry-based equipment. the monitors use scintillation crystals, either Na(TI) or LaBr 3 (Ce) and currently, there are 3 types of equipment water radioactivity monitors, aerosols on a particulate filter monitors and direct measurement monitors. In this paper, we expose the basic features of its operation, the details of their calibration and the minimum detectable activity concentration for some isotopes. (Author)

  2. Calibration and study of the measurement capabilities of real-time gamma spectrometry equipment, developed for the renewal of the network of automatic stations for environmental radiological surveillance of the Generalitat de Catalunya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casanovas, R.; Prieto, E.; Salvado, M.

    2013-01-01

    The renewal of the automatic environmental radiation surveillance network of the Gereralitat of Catalunya has been carried out through the development and implementation of gamma-spectrometry-based equipment. The monitors use scintillation cristals, either NaI(Tl) or LaBr 3 (Ce) and currently, there are 3 types of equipment: water radioactivity monitors, aerosols on a particulate filter monitors and direct measurement monitors. In this paper, we expose the basic features of its operation, the details of their calibration and the minimum detectable activity concentrations for some isotopes

  3. Controversial power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marcan, P.

    2008-01-01

    When information on plans to build a power station in Trebisov first appeared reactions differed. A 40-billion investment in a town with more than 20% unemployment seemed attractive. But some people did not like the idea of having a power plant located in the town. Around one year after the investment was officially announced TREND returned to Trebisov. In the meantime the investor has managed to overcome one of the biggest obstacles on its way to building a new power plant. The ministry responsible gave the environmental study a positive rating. But objectors are still not sure that everything is fine. They claim that the study misinterprets data and that the ministry did not show expertise when evaluating it. 'Is it possible that a coal power plant located in a town would have twice as many positive effects on peoples' health than negative ones? Why don't we build them everywhere?'asked the chairman of the civic society, Trebisov nahlas, Gejza Gore. The developer of the project, Ceskoslovenska energeticka spolocnost (CES), Kosice is fighting back and claims that their counterpart lacks professional arguments. In the meantime it is preparing for area management proceedings. Trebisov is also involved in the discussion and claims that the town planning scheme does not include such a project. The Ministry of Construction has a different opinion. In the opinion of the Ministry the town planning scheme allows a 885-megawatt power plant to be built only a few hundred meters away from housing estates. (author)

  4. Swedish encapsulation station review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G.

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB's document 'Plan 1996'. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL's Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International's experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation

  5. Shippingport station communications program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stote, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    At the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project, the central idea of the communications program that was developed for use was purposely designed to be as uncomplicated as possible. The central theme, that was developed and communicated, is that all nuclear plants will someday need to be retired and also decommissioned. The Shippingport Plant, originally constructed as a demonstration nuclear power plant, was now being decommissioned as a demonstration to the world-wide nuclear industry that this evolution can be done in a safe and cost-effective manner. Furthermore, the technology currently exists to complete this process. The new phase of the communications program was initiated even before the responsibility for the plant was transferred from Duquesne Light to GE. With such a change forthcoming, it was necessary to inform local officials of these plans, and the reasons for them. Equally important was the need to inform a variety of agencies and offices in the three-state area of the changes, and the continuing need to involve them in the Site Emergency Plan. This document was also revised in recognition of changing site conditions, as well as the changes in responsibility. 1 ref

  6. Swedish encapsulation station review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Sven Olof; Brunzell, P.; Heibel, R.; McCarthy, J.; Pennington, C.; Rusch, C.; Varley, G. [NAC International, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    1998-06-01

    In the Encapsulation Station (ES) Review performed by NAC International, a number of different areas have been studied. The main objectives with the review have been to: Perform an independent review of the cost estimates for the ES presented in SKB`s document `Plan 1996`. This has been made through comparisons between the ES and BNFL`s Waste Encapsulation Plant (WEP) at Sellafield as well as with the CLAB facility. Review the location of the ES (at the CLAB site or at the final repository) and its interaction with other parts of the Swedish system for spent fuel management. Review the logistics and plant capacity of the ES. Identify important safety aspects of the ES as a basis for future licensing activities. Based on NAC International`s experience of casks for transport and storage of spent fuel, review the basic design of the copper/steel canister and the transport cask. This review insides design, manufacturing, handling and licensing aspects. Perform an overall comparison between the ES project and the CLAB project with the objective to identify major project risks and discuss their mitigation 19 refs, 9 figs, 35 tabs

  7. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usher, E.F.F.W.; Fraser, A.P.

    1981-01-01

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  8. RF-Station control crate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beuzekom, M.G. van; Es, J.T. van.

    1992-01-01

    This report gives a description of the electronic control-system for the RF-station of AmPS. The electronics form the connection between the computer-system and the hardware of the RF-station. Only the elements of the systems which are not described in the other NIKHEF-reports are here discussed in detail. (author). 7 figs

  9. Balloon launching station, Mildura, Victoria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mildura Balloon Launching Station was established in 1960 by the Department of Supply (now the Department of Manufacturing Industry) on behalf of the United States Atomic Energy Commission (USAEC) to determine the content of radioactive material in the upper atmosphere over Australia. The Station location and layout, staffing, balloon launching equipment, launching, tracking and recovery are described. (R.L.)

  10. Impact of Base Station Cooperation on Cell Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian Dexter Garcia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Base station cooperation (BSC has been identified as a key radio access technology for next-generation cellular networks such as LTE-Advanced. BSC impacts cell planning, which is the methodical selection of base station (BS sites, and BS equipment configuration for cost-effective cellular networks. In this paper, the impact of BSC on cell plan parameters (coverage, traffic, handover, and cost, as well as additional cell planning steps required for BSC are discussed. Results show that BSC maximizes its gains over noncooperation (NC in a network wherein interference from cooperating BSs is the main limitation. Locations exist where NC may produce higher throughputs, therefore dynamic or semistatic switching between BSC and NC, called fractional BSC, is recommended. Because of interference from noncooperating BSs, the gains of BSC over NC are upper bounded, and diminishes at greater intersite distances because of noise. This encourages smaller cell sizes, higher transmit powers, and dynamic clustering of cooperative BSs.

  11. Assesment of Carbon Credits for Power Generation Systems at GSM Base Station Site

    OpenAIRE

    Ani, Vincent Anayochukwu; Ani, Emmanuel Onyeka

    2016-01-01

    Electricity production is often a source of CO2 emissions, for instance when fossil fuel is combusted in power plants. Therefore the root cause of pollution coming from telecommunication industry is the source of energy (diesel genset) the network operators used in running their Base station sites. Energy consumption of using diesel to power base station by telecom networks is a contributor to global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This paper presents the comparative carbon credits of hybrid ...

  12. Design of an MSAT-X mobile transceiver and related base and gateway stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Russell J. F.; Bhaskar, Udaya; Hemmati, Farhad; Mackenthun, Kenneth M.; Shenoy, Ajit

    This paper summarizes the results of a design study of the mobile transceiver, base station, and gateway station for NASA's proposed Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X). Major ground segment system design issues such as frequency stability control, modulation method, linear predictive coding vocoder algorithm, and error control technique are addressed. The modular and flexible transceiver design is described in detail, including the core, RF/IF, modem, vocoder, forward error correction codec, amplitude-companded single sideband, and input/output modules, as well as the flexible interface. Designs for a three-carrier base station and a 10-carrier gateway station are also discussed, including the interface with the controllers and with the public-switched telephone networks at the gateway station. Functional specifications are given for the transceiver, the base station, and the gateway station.

  13. Design of an MSAT-X mobile transceiver and related base and gateway stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Russell J. F.; Bhaskar, Udaya; Hemmati, Farhad; Mackenthun, Kenneth M.; Shenoy, Ajit

    1987-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a design study of the mobile transceiver, base station, and gateway station for NASA's proposed Mobile Satellite Experiment (MSAT-X). Major ground segment system design issues such as frequency stability control, modulation method, linear predictive coding vocoder algorithm, and error control technique are addressed. The modular and flexible transceiver design is described in detail, including the core, RF/IF, modem, vocoder, forward error correction codec, amplitude-companded single sideband, and input/output modules, as well as the flexible interface. Designs for a three-carrier base station and a 10-carrier gateway station are also discussed, including the interface with the controllers and with the public-switched telephone networks at the gateway station. Functional specifications are given for the transceiver, the base station, and the gateway station.

  14. An Intelligent Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Gonçalo; Ruano, Antonio; Duarte, Helder; Silva, Sergio; Khosravani, Hamid; Pesteh, Shabnam; Ferreira, Pedro M.; Horta, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Accurate measurements of global solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight, self-powered and portable sensor was developed, using a nearest-neighbors (NEN) algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN) models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. The hardware and software design of the implemented prototype are described, as well as the forecasting performance related to the three atmospheric variables, using both approaches, over a prediction horizon of 48-steps-ahead. PMID:26690433

  15. An Intelligent Weather Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonçalo Mestre

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Accurate measurements of global solar radiation, atmospheric temperature and relative humidity, as well as the availability of the predictions of their evolution over time, are important for different areas of applications, such as agriculture, renewable energy and energy management, or thermal comfort in buildings. For this reason, an intelligent, light-weight, self-powered and portable sensor was developed, using a nearest-neighbors (NEN algorithm and artificial neural network (ANN models as the time-series predictor mechanisms. The hardware and software design of the implemented prototype are described, as well as the forecasting performance related to the three atmospheric variables, using both approaches, over a prediction horizon of 48-steps-ahead.

  16. The Trencin water power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This leaflet describes the Trencin water power station. The Trencin water power station was built seven years after the Dubnica nad Vahom water power station started its operation and was the last stage of the first and the oldest derived cascade of water power stations on the Vah River. After completing water power stations at Ladce (1936), Ilava (1946) and Dubnica nad Vahom (1949) and before constructing the Trencin water power station, the whole second derived cascade of water power stations including water power stations at Kostolna, Nove Mesto nad Vahom and Horna Streda was built as soon as possible mainly because the need to get compensation for discontinued electricity supplies as well as energetic coal from the Czech Republic. Hereby, experiences from the construction of previous grades were used, mainly as far as the dimensioning was concerned, as the fi rst installed power stations had, in comparison with the growing requirements on the electricity supplies, very low absorption capacity - only 150 m 3 .s -1 . Thus the Trencin power station (original name was the Skalka power station) was already dimensioned for the same absorption capacity as the cascade located downstream the river, that is 180 m 3 .s -1 . That was related also to growing demands on electricity supplies during the peaks in the daily electric system load diagram, and thus to the transfer from continuous operation of the water power station to semi-peak or even peak performance. According to the standards of power station classification, the Trencin water power station is a medium size, low pressure, channel power station with two units equipped by Kaplan turbines and synchronous hydro-alternators. The water power station installed capacity is 16.1 MW in total and its designed annual production of electrical energy for medium water year is 85,000 MWh, while the average annual production during the last 30 years is 86,252 MWh. Installed unit has a four-blade Kaplan turbine with the diameter

  17. Space station propulsion requirements study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, C. L.; Brennan, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    Propulsion system requirements to support Low Earth Orbit (LEO) manned space station development and evolution over a wide range of potential capabilities and for a variety of STS servicing and space station operating strategies are described. The term space station and the overall space station configuration refers, for the purpose of this report, to a group of potential LEO spacecraft that support the overall space station mission. The group consisted of the central space station at 28.5 deg or 90 deg inclinations, unmanned free-flying spacecraft that are both tethered and untethered, a short-range servicing vehicle, and a longer range servicing vehicle capable of GEO payload transfer. The time phasing for preferred propulsion technology approaches is also investigated, as well as the high-leverage, state-of-the-art advancements needed, and the qualitative and quantitative benefits of these advancements on STS/space station operations. The time frame of propulsion technologies applicable to this study is the early 1990's to approximately the year 2000.

  18. Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Garcia, Rene; Sanchez, Ana V.

    2004-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2002.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 95 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 28 streamflow stations, 27 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 17 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 102 observation wells.

  19. Water Resources Data, Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, Water Year 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Pedro L.; Aquino, Zaida; Figueroa-Alamo, Carlos; Garcia, Rene; Sanchez, Ana V.

    2002-01-01

    The Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with local and Federal agencies obtains a large amount of data pertaining to the water resources of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the Territory of the U.S. Virgin Islands each water year. These data, accumulated during many water years, constitute a valuable data base for developing an improved understanding of the water resources of the area. To make these data readily available to interested parties outside the U.S. Geological Survey, the data are published annually in this report series entitled 'Water Resources Data for Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands, 2001.' This report includes records on both surface and ground water. Specifically, it contains: (1) discharge records for 95 streamflow gaging stations, daily sediment records for 23 streamflow stations, 20 partial-record or miscellaneous streamflow stations, stage records for 18 reservoirs, and (2) water-quality records for 17 streamflow-gaging stations, and for 42 ungaged stream sites, 11 lake sites, 2 lagoons, and 1 bay, and (3) water-level records for 103 observation wells.

  20. 47 CFR 97.109 - Station control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station control. 97.109 Section 97.109... SERVICE Station Operation Standards § 97.109 Station control. (a) Each amateur station must have at least one control point. (b) When a station is being locally controlled, the control operator must be at the...

  1. Transwaal - economic district heat from the Beznau nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatzmann, G.

    1986-01-01

    Initial study phases of the Transwaal project for distribution of heat from the Beznau nuclear power station via pipe lines to Aare and Limmat valley regions in Switzerland are presented. 500 MW heat availability through heat exchangers providing forward flow water temperature of 120 0 C, pipe line network and pumping station aspects, and the system energy flow diagram, are described. Considerations based on specific energy requirements in the year 2000 including alternative schemes showed economic viability. Investment and consumer costs and savings compared with oil and gas heating are discussed. Heat supply is guaranteed well into the 21st century and avoids environmental disadvantages. (H.V.H.)

  2. A brief review of advances in complex networks of nuclear science and technology field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fang Jinqing

    2010-01-01

    A brief review of advances in complex networks of nuclear science and technology field at home and is given and summarized. These complex networks include: nuclear energy weapon network, network centric warfare, beam transport networks, continuum percolation evolving network associated with nuclear reactions, global nuclear power station network, (nuclear) chemistry reaction networks, radiological monitoring and anti-nuclear terror networks, and so on. Some challenge issues and development prospects of network science are pointed out finally. (authors)

  3. Biotechnology opportunities on Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deming, Jess; Henderson, Keith; Phillips, Robert W.; Dickey, Bernistine; Grounds, Phyllis

    1987-01-01

    Biotechnology applications which could be implemented on the Space Station are examined. The advances possible in biotechnology due to the favorable microgravity environment are discussed. The objectives of the Space Station Life Sciences Program are: (1) the study of human diseases, (2) biopolymer processing, and (3) the development of cryoprocessing and cryopreservation methods. The use of the microgravity environment for crystal growth, cell culturing, and the separation of biological materials is considered. The proposed Space Station research could provide benefits to the fields of medicine, pharmaceuticals, genetics, agriculture, and industrial waste management.

  4. Space Station Freedom food management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehurst, Troy N., Jr.; Bourland, Charles T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes the specification requirements for the Space Station Food System, and describes the system that is being designed and developed to meet those requirements. Space Station Freedom will provide a mix of frozen, refrigerated, rehydratable, and shelf stable foods. The crew will pre-select preferred foods from an approved list, to the extent that proper nutrition balance is maintained. A galley with freezers, refrigerators, trash compactor, and combination microwave and convection ovens will improve crew efficiency and productivity during the long Space Station Freedom (SSF) missions.

  5. Torness: proposed nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The need for and desirability of nuclear power, and in particular the proposed nuclear power station at Torness in Scotland, are questioned. Questions are asked, and answered, on the following topics: position, appearance and cost of the proposed Torness plant, and whether necessary; present availability of electricity, and forecast of future needs, in Scotland; energy conservation and alternative energy sources; radiation hazards from nuclear power stations (outside, inside, and in case of an accident); transport of spent fuel from Torness to Windscale; radioactive waste management; possibility of terrorists making a bomb with radioactive fuel from a nuclear power station; cost of electricity from nuclear power; how to stop Torness. (U.K.)

  6. Operational characteristics of pediatric radiology: Image display stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taira, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    The display of diagnostic images is accomplished in the UCLA Pediatric Radiology Clinical Radiology Imaging System (CRIS) using 3 different types of digital viewing stations. These include a low resolution station with six 512 x 512 monitors, a high resolution station with three 1024 x 1024 monitors, and a very high resolution workstation with two 2048 x 2048 monitors. The display stations provide very basic image processing manipulations including zoom and scroll, contrast enhancement, and contrast reversal. The display stations are driven by a computer system which is dedicated for clinical use. During times when the clinical computer is unavailable (maintenance or system malfunction), the 512 x 512 workstation can be switched to operate from a research PACS system in the UCLA Image Processing Laboratory via a broadband communication network. Our initial clinical implementation involves digital viewing for pediatric radiology conferences. Presentation of inpatient cases use the six monitor 512 x 512 multiple viewing station. Later stages of the clinical implementation involve the use of higher resolution displays for the purpose of primary diagnosis from video displays

  7. VT Data - Electric Charging Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — Locations of Electric Charging Stations provided by the NREL national laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy....

  8. NOAA Weather Radio - Station Listing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Non-Zero All Hazards Logo Emergency Alert Description Event Codes Fact Sheet FAQ Organization Search COVERAGE County Coverage Listings State Coverage Listings NWR Station Search Maps SAME SAME Coding Using

  9. Services for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fremann, M.; Ryckelynck

    1987-01-01

    This article gives an information as complete as possible about the activities of the french nuclear industry on the export-market. It describes the equipment and services available in the field of services for nuclear power stations [fr

  10. Interior Alaska Gravity Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 9416 records. This data base was received in March 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  11. Gravity Station Data for Spain

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 28493 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  12. WVU Hydrogen Fuel Dispensing Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, William [West Virginia University Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The scope of this project was changed during the course of the project. Phase I of the project was to construct a site similar to the site at Central West Virginia Regional Airport in Charleston, WV to show that duplication of the site was a feasible method of conducting hydrogen stations. Phase II of the project was necessitated due to a lack of funding that was planned for the development of the station in Morgantown. The US Department of Energy determined that the station in Charleston would be dismantled and moved to Morgantown and reassembled at the Morgantown site. This necessitated storage of the components of the station for almost a year at the NAFTC Headquarters which caused a number of issues with the equipment that will be discussed in later portions of this report. This report will consist of PHASE I and PHASE II with discussions on each of the tasks scheduled for each phase of the project.

  13. Gravity Station Data for Portugal

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data total 3064 records. This data base was received in April 1997. Principal gravity parameters include Free-air Anomalies which have been...

  14. Mitigating Inter-Network Interference in LoRa Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Voigt, Thiemo; Bor, Martin; Roedig, Utz; Alonso, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Long Range (LoRa) is a popular technology used to construct Low-Power Wide-Area Network (LPWAN) networks. Given the popularity of LoRa it is likely that multiple independent LoRa networks are deployed in close proximity. In this situation, neighbouring networks interfere and methods have to be found to combat this interference. In this paper we investigate the use of directional antennae and the use of multiple base stations as methods of dealing with inter-network interference. Directional a...

  15. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Ethanol Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More in this section... Ethanol Basics Benefits & Considerations Stations Locations Infrastructure fueling stations by location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about ethanol fueling infrastructure; codes, standards, and safety; and ethanol equipment options. Maps & Data E85 Fueling Station

  16. Autonomous Electrical Vehicles’ Charging Station

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska; Mariusz Kłos; Łukasz Rosłaniec; Rafał Bielas; Magdalena Błędzińska

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a model of an autonomous electrical vehicles’ charging station. It consists of renewable energy sources: wind turbine system, photovoltaic cells, as well as an energy storage, load, and EV charging station. In order to optimise the operating conditions, power electronic converters were added to the system. The model was implemented in the Homer Energy programme. The first part of the paper presents the design assumptions and technological solutions. Further in the paper...

  17. Space stations systems and utilization

    CERN Document Server

    Messerschmid, Ernst

    1999-01-01

    The design of space stations like the recently launched ISS is a highly complex and interdisciplinary task. This book describes component technologies, system integration, and the potential usage of space stations in general and of the ISS in particular. It so adresses students and engineers in space technology. Ernst Messerschmid holds the chair of space systems at the University of Stuttgart and was one of the first German astronauts.

  18. Space Station Freedom operations costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accola, Anne L.; Williams, Gregory J.

    1988-01-01

    Measures to reduce the operation costs of the Space Station which can be implemented in the design and development stages are discussed. Operational functions are described in the context of an overall operations concept. The provisions for operations cost responsibilities among the partners in the Space Station program are presented. Cost estimating methodologies and the way in which operations costs affect the design and development process are examined.

  19. Distributed cloud association in downlink multicloud radio access networks

    KAUST Repository

    Dahrouj, Hayssam; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a multicloud radio access network (M-CRAN), wherein each cloud serves a cluster of base-stations (BS's) which are connected to the clouds through high capacity digital links. The network comprises several remote users, where

  20. Advances in power station construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    This book is about power stations - specifically about the construction of modern power stations by the Central Electricity Generating Board in England and Wales over the past decade. It describes the work of the CEGB's Generation Development and Construction Division, perhaps better known throughout the world as simply 'Barnwood' where it has its Headquarters in Gloucester, UK. Barnwood was formed in the early 1970s to concentrate the CEGB's then dispersed engineering construction resources to cope with the smaller number but greatly increased size and complexity of modern power station projects. Perhaps uniquely over the ten years since its formation Barnwood has managed the construction of all types of station; coal-fired, oil-fired, nuclear, pumped storage and hydro. This book tells the story of these various projects and gives detailed descriptions of the respective stations. However, it is not intended as a comprehensive description of power station technology. Rather it is intended to convey the scale of such projects and the many decisions and compromises which have to be made in the course of managing their construction

  1. Research on Application of Automatic Weather Station Based on Internet of Things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jianyun, Chen; Yunfan, Sun; Chunyan, Lin

    2017-12-01

    In this paper, the Internet of Things is briefly introduced, and then its application in the weather station is studied. A method of data acquisition and transmission based on NB-iot communication mode is proposed, Introduction of Internet of things technology, Sensor digital and independent power supply as the technical basis, In the construction of Automatic To realize the intelligent interconnection of the automatic weather station, and then to form an automatic weather station based on the Internet of things. A network structure of automatic weather station based on Internet of things technology is constructed to realize the independent operation of intelligent sensors and wireless data transmission. Research on networking data collection and dissemination of meteorological data, through the data platform for data analysis, the preliminary work of meteorological information publishing standards, networking of meteorological information receiving terminal provides the data interface, to the wisdom of the city, the wisdom of the purpose of the meteorological service.

  2. Coexistence of 3G repeaters with LTE base stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Woon-Young; Lee, Sang-Min; Hwang, Gyung-Ho; Kim, Jae-Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Repeaters have been an attractive solution for mobile operators to upgrade their wireless networks at low cost and to extend network coverage effectively. Since the first LTE commercial deployment in 2009, many mobile operators have launched LTE networks by upgrading their 3G and legacy networks. Because all 3G frequency bands are shared with the frequency bands for LTE deployment and 3G mobile operators have an enormous number of repeaters, reusing 3G repeaters in LTE networks is definitely a practical and cost-efficient solution. However, 3G repeaters usually do not support spatial multiplexing with multiple antennas, and thus it is difficult to reuse them directly in LTE networks. In order to support spatial multiplexing of LTE, the role of 3G repeaters should be replaced with small LTE base stations or MIMO-capable repeaters. In this paper, a repeater network is proposed to reuse 3G repeaters in LTE deployment while still supporting multilayer transmission of LTE. Interestingly, the proposed network has a higher cluster throughput than an LTE network with MIMO-capable repeaters.

  3. 47 CFR 73.6016 - Digital Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of TV... Class A TV station protection of TV broadcast stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect authorized TV broadcast stations, applications for minor changes in authorized TV broadcast stations filed on...

  4. Oceanographic data collected from Saturn Estuary Station 03 by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2008-04-19 to 2017-08-01 (NCEI Accession 0162617)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162617 contains biological, chemical and physical data collected at Saturn Estuary Station 03, a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary -...

  5. Oceanographic data collected from SATURN River Station 05 by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2009-06-23 to 2016-12-06 (NCEI Accession 0162430)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162430 contains biological, chemical, navigational and physical data collected at SATURN River Station 05, a fixed station in the Columbia River...

  6. Oceanographic data collected from Saturn Estuary Station 01 by Center for Coastal Margin Observation and Prediction (CMOP) and assembled by Northwest Association of Networked Ocean Observation Systems (NANOOS) in the Columbia River Estuary and North East Pacific Ocean from 2008-04-13 to 2017-07-01 (NCEI Accession 0162182)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NCEI Accession 0162182 contains biological, chemical and physical data collected at Saturn Estuary Station 01, a fixed station in the Columbia River estuary -...

  7. 75 FR 22674 - Moynihan Station Development Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Railroad Administration Moynihan Station Development Project... availability of and public comment period for the Moynihan Station Development Project Environmental Assessment... 22675

  8. Time coded distribution via broadcasting stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leschiutta, S.; Pettiti, V.; Detoma, E.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of standard time signals via AM and FM broadcasting stations presents the distinct advantages to offer a wide area coverage and to allow the use of inexpensive receivers, but the signals are radiated a limited number of times per day, are not usually available during the night, and no full and automatic synchronization of a remote clock is possible. As an attempt to overcome some of these problems, a time coded signal with a complete date information is diffused by the IEN via the national broadcasting networks in Italy. These signals are radiated by some 120 AM and about 3000 FM and TV transmitters around the country. In such a way, a time ordered system with an accuracy of a couple of milliseconds is easily achieved.

  9. Extending the GEMINI advanced review station development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadner, S.; Spahn, W.; Pepper, S.

    1999-01-01

    Recent changes in the objectives of arms control agreements will have a dramatic impact on the nuclear non-proliferation regime. Meeting the demands of the nuclear non-proliferation regime will require the utilisation of the best available technological means for verification. The following discussion focuses on the increasing demands for safeguards with a view towards the possible technological solutions available to meet these demands. Based on the assumption that the gap between the international nonproliferation verification agenda and the available financial means can only be bridged via technology, the following discussion hopes to offer a compelling argument for the adoption of remote monitoring technologies in safeguards applications, specifically, data collection and review. The GEMINI Advanced Review Station (GARS) was developed with initial support from USPOTAS. This poster presentation presents the latest developments in GARS, including its extension to other surveillance systems under IAEA consideration, NDA applications, and networked safeguards. (author)

  10. The Medical Gopher — A Microcomputer Based Physician Work Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Clement J.

    1984-01-01

    We've developed a microcomputer medical work station intended to reduce the physician's “gopher” work of fetching, reviewing, organizing and writing that consumes his day. The system requires extensive physician interaction; so we have developed a fast and consistent menu-oriented user interface. It provides facilities for entering prescriptions, orders, problems and other medical record information and for generating flowsheets, executing reminder rules, providing ad hoc retrievals and reporting facts about drugs, tests and differential diagnoses. Each work station is connected to a central server (currently a VAX 117/80) in a network configuration, but carries all of its own programs, tables and medical records for a few hundred patients, locally. This system is tested but not yet tried. Questions remain about physician's acceptance and the true usefullness of such a work station.

  11. Lightning current distribution to ground at a power line tower carrying a radio base station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grcev, L.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Waes, van J.B.M.

    2005-01-01

    Radio base stations are often mounted on towers of power transmission lines. They are usually powered from the low-voltage network through an isolating transformer, to separate the high- and low-voltage networks. The isolating transformer ensures security at customers' premises in the case of nearby

  12. The Miksova water power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    This leaflet describes the Miksova water power station. The Miksova water power station is part of the second derived cascade of hydro power stations on the river Vah. It was built at the end of a huge development in Slovak hydro-energy in the late 1950's and the beginning of the 1960's. It is the second water power station on this derived cascade, which is situated downstream the Hricov reservoir and water power station. At the power station, three turbine sets with vertical Kaplan turbines are installed with a total power output of 3 x 31.2 = 93.6 MW. With this power output the Miksova water power station (Miksova I) was the biggest water power station in the Slovak Republic until the construction of Pumping water power station Liptovska Mara. And it is still the biggest channel water power station on the Vah so far. It was put into operation during the period 1963 to 1965. There are three turbine sets with Kaplan turbines from CKD Blansko, with a synchronous hydro-alternator installed in the power station. Their installed capacity is 93.6 MW in total and the projected annual production of electrical energy is 207 GWh. The turbines are fi ve-bladed (on the Hricov and Povazska Bystrica water power stations they are four-bladed) and the impeller wheel has a diameter of 4800 mm. They are designed for extension of the head from 24.1 to 22.21 m and each of them has an absorption capacity of 134 m 3 .s -1 nd a nominal operating speed of 2.08 m 3 .s -1 , runaway speed 4.9 m 3 .s -1 . Each synchronous hydro-alternator has a maximum power output of 31.2 MW, a nominal voltage of 10.5 kV and power factor cos φ of 0.8. Power from the power station is led out through 110 kV switchgear. The water power station operates under automatic turbine mode of operation with remote indication and control from the Dispatch Centre at Vodne elektrarne, in Trencin. From start of operation until the end of 2003 all three turbine sets operated for a total of 450,500 running hours and the

  13. OPTIMAL NETWORK TOPOLOGY DESIGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, J. H.

    1994-01-01

    This program was developed as part of a research study on the topology design and performance analysis for the Space Station Information System (SSIS) network. It uses an efficient algorithm to generate candidate network designs (consisting of subsets of the set of all network components) in increasing order of their total costs, and checks each design to see if it forms an acceptable network. This technique gives the true cost-optimal network, and is particularly useful when the network has many constraints and not too many components. It is intended that this new design technique consider all important performance measures explicitly and take into account the constraints due to various technical feasibilities. In the current program, technical constraints are taken care of by the user properly forming the starting set of candidate components (e.g. nonfeasible links are not included). As subsets are generated, they are tested to see if they form an acceptable network by checking that all requirements are satisfied. Thus the first acceptable subset encountered gives the cost-optimal topology satisfying all given constraints. The user must sort the set of "feasible" link elements in increasing order of their costs. The program prompts the user for the following information for each link: 1) cost, 2) connectivity (number of stations connected by the link), and 3) the stations connected by that link. Unless instructed to stop, the program generates all possible acceptable networks in increasing order of their total costs. The program is written only to generate topologies that are simply connected. Tests on reliability, delay, and other performance measures are discussed in the documentation, but have not been incorporated into the program. This program is written in PASCAL for interactive execution and has been implemented on an IBM PC series computer operating under PC DOS. The disk contains source code only. This program was developed in 1985.

  14. Romanian seismic network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionescu, Constantin; Rizescu, Mihaela; Popa, Mihaela; Grigore, Adrian

    2000-01-01

    The research in the field of seismology in Romania is mainly carried out by the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP). The NIEP activities are mainly concerned with the fundamental research financed by research contracts from public sources and the maintenance and operation of the Romanian seismic network. A three stage seismic network is now operating under NIEP, designed mainly to monitor the Vrancea seismic region in a magnitude range from microearthquakes to strong events: - network of 18 short-period seismometers (S13); - Teledyne Geotech Instruments (Texas); - network of 7 stations with local digital recording (PCM-5000) on magnetic tape, made up of, S13 geophone (T=2 s) on vertical component and SH1 geophone (T=5 s) on horizontal components; - network of 28 SMA-1 accelerometers and 30 digital accelerometers (Kinemetrics - K2) installed in the free field conditions in the framework of the joint German-Romanian cooperation program (CRC); the K2 instruments cover a magnitude range from 1.4 to 8.0. Since 1994, MLR (Muntele Rosu) station has become part of the GEOFON network and was provided with high performance broad band instruments. At Bucharest and Timisoara data centers, an automated and networked seismological system performs the on-line digital acquisition and processing of the telemetered data. Automatic processing includes discrimination between local and distant seismic events, earthquake location and magnitude computation, and source parameter determination for local earthquakes. The results are rapidly distributed via Internet, to several seismological services in Europe and USA, to be used in the association/confirmation procedures. Plans for new developments of the network include the upgrade from analog to digital telemetry and new stations for monitoring local seismicity. (authors)

  15. Pumped energy transfer stations (STEP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tournery, Jean-Francois

    2015-12-01

    As objectives of development are high for renewable energies (they are supposed to cover 50 per cent of new energy needs by 2035), pumped energy transfer stations are to play an important role in this respect. The author first discusses the consequences of the development of renewable energies on the exploitation of electric grids: issue of intermittency for some of them, envisaged solutions. Then, he addresses one of the solutions: the storage of electric power. He notices that increasing the potential energy of a volume of water is presently the most mature solution to face massive needs of the power system. Dams and pumped energy transfer stations represent now almost the whole installed storage power in the world. The author then presents these pumped energy transfer stations: principle, brief history (the first appeared in Italy and Switzerland at the end of the 1890's). He indicates the various parameters of assessment of such stations: maximum stored energy, installed power in pumping mode and turbine mode, time constant, efficiency, level of flexibility. He discusses economic issues. He describes and comments the operation of turbine-pump groups: ternary groups, reversible binary groups. He discusses barriers to be overcome and technical advances to be made for varying speed groups and for marine stations. He finally gives an overview (table with number of stations belonging to different power ranges, remarkable installations) of existing stations in China, USA, Japan, Germany, Austria, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Switzerland, France and UK, and indicate predictions regarding storage needs at the world level. Some data are finally indicated for the six existing French installations

  16. Optimizing Placement of Weather Stations: Exploring Objective Functions of Meaningful Combinations of Multiple Weather Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, A.; Dietterich, T.; Selker, J. S.

    2017-12-01

    Many regions of the world lack ground-based weather data due to inadequate or unreliable weather station networks. For example, most countries in Sub-Saharan Africa have unreliable, sparse networks of weather stations. The absence of these data can have consequences on weather forecasting, prediction of severe weather events, agricultural planning, and climate change monitoring. The Trans-African Hydro-Meteorological Observatory (TAHMO.org) project seeks to address these problems by deploying and operating a large network of weather stations throughout Sub-Saharan Africa. To design the TAHMO network, we must determine where to place weather stations within each country. We should consider how we can create accurate spatio-temporal maps of weather data and how to balance the desired accuracy of each weather variable of interest (precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, etc.). We can express this problem as a joint optimization of multiple weather variables, given a fixed number of weather stations. We use reanalysis data as the best representation of the "true" weather patterns that occur in the region of interest. For each possible combination of sites, we interpolate the reanalysis data between selected locations and calculate the mean average error between the reanalysis ("true") data and the interpolated data. In order to formulate our multi-variate optimization problem, we explore different methods of weighting each weather variable in our objective function. These methods include systematic variation of weights to determine which weather variables have the strongest influence on the network design, as well as combinations targeted for specific purposes. For example, we can use computed evapotranspiration as a metric that combines many weather variables in a way that is meaningful for agricultural and hydrological applications. We compare the errors of the weather station networks produced by each optimization problem formulation. We also compare these

  17. Cloud Radio Access Network architecture. Towards 5G mobile networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Checko, Aleksandra

    Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) is a novel mobile network architecture which can address a number of challenges that mobile operators face while trying to support ever-growing end-users’ needs towards 5th generation of mobile networks (5G). The main idea behind C-RAN is to split the base...... stations into radio and baseband parts, and pool the Baseband Units (BBUs) from multiple base stations into a centralized and virtualized BBU Pool. This gives a number of benefits in terms of cost and capacity. However, the challenge is then to find an optimal functionality splitting point as well...... as to design the socalled fronthaul network, interconnecting those parts. This thesis focuses on quantifying those benefits and proposing a flexible and capacity-optimized fronthaul network. It is shown that a C-RAN with a functional split resulting in a variable bit rate on the fronthaul links brings cost...

  18. Shippingport Station decommissioning project overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiber, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy is in the process of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station located on the Ohio River, 30 miles northwest of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Shippingport Station is the first commercial size nuclear power plant to undergo decommissioning in the United Staes. The plant is located on approximately 7 acres of land owned by the Duquesne Light Company (DLC) and leased to the U.S. Government. DLC operates two nuclear power plants, Beaver Valley 1 and 2, located immediately adjacent to the site and the Bruce Mansfield coal-fired power plant is also within the immediate area. The Station was shutdown in October, 1982. Defueling operations began in 1983 and were completed by September, 1984. The Shippingport Station consists of a 275' x 60' fuel handling building containing the reactor containment chamber, the service building, the turbine building, the radioactive waste processing building, the administration building and other smaller support buildings. The Station has four coolant loops and most of the containment structures are located below grade. Structures owned by the U.S. Government including the fuel handling building, service building, contaminated equipment room, the boiler chambers, the radioactive waste processing building and the decontamination and laydown buildings will be dismantled and removed to 3 feet below grade. The area will then be filled with clean soil and graded. The turbine building, testing and training building and the administration building are owned by DLC and will remain

  19. Pemanfaatan Google Maps Api Untuk Visualisasi Data Base Transceiver Station

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it’s location, it’s transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  20. Pemanfaatan Google Maps Api Untuk Visualisasi Data Base Transceiver Station

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it's location, it's transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  1. PEMANFAATAN GOOGLE MAPS API UNTUK VISUALISASI DATA BASE TRANSCEIVER STATION

    OpenAIRE

    Rani, Septia

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of the Google Maps API to perform data visualization for Base Transceiver Station (BTS) data. BTS are typically used by telecommunications companies to facilitate wireless communication between communication devices with the network operator. Each BTS has important information such as it’s location, it’s transaction traffic, as well as information about revenue. With the implementation of BTS data visualization using the Google Maps API, key information owned by e...

  2. The Paks Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdosi, N.; Szabo, L.

    1978-01-01

    As the first stage in the construction of the Paks Nuclear Power Station, two units of 440 MW(e) each will be built. They are operated with two coolant loops each. The reactor units are VVER 440 type water-moderated PWR type heterogeneous power reactors designed in the Soviet Union and manufactured in Czechoslovakia. Each unit operates two Soviet-made K-220-44 steam turbines and Hungarian-made generators of an effective output of 220 MW. The output of the transformer units - also of Hungarian made - is 270 MVA. The radiation protection system of the nuclear power station is described. Protection against system failures is accomplished by specially designed equipment and security measures especially within the primary circuit. Some data on the power station under construction are given. (R.P.)

  3. Hungarian repeat station survey, 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Kovács

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The last Hungarian repeat station survey was completed between October 2010 and February 2011. Declination, inclination and the total field were observed using one-axial DMI fluxgate magnetometer mounted on Zeiss20A theodolite and GSM 19 Overhauser magnetometer. The magnetic elements of the sites were reduced to the epoch of 2010.5 on the basis of the continuous recordings of Tihany Geophysical Observatory. In stations located far from the reference observatory, the observations were carried out in the morning and afternoon in order to decrease the effect of the distant temporal correction. To further increase the accuracy, on-site dIdD variometer has also been installed near the Aggtelek station, in the Baradla cave, during the survey of the easternmost sites. The paper presents the technical details and the results of our last campaign. The improvement of the accuracy of the temporal reduction by the use of the local variometer is also reported.

  4. Monitoring of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ull, E.; Labudda, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the invention is to create a process for undelayed automated detection and monitoring of accidents in the operation of nuclear power stations. According to the invention, this problem is solved by the relevant local measurements, such as radiation dose, components and type of radiation and additional relevant meteorological parameters being collected by means of wellknown data collection platforms, these being transmitted via transmission channels by means of satellites to suitable worldwide situated receiving stations on the ground, being processed there and being evaluated to recognise accidents. The local data collection platforms are used in the immediate vicinity of the nuclear power station. The use of aircraft, ships and balloons as data collection systems is also intended. (HWJ)

  5. Reviewing nuclear power station achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howles, L.R.

    1976-01-01

    For measurement of nuclear power station achievement against original purchase the usual gross output figures are of little value since the term loosely covers many different definitions. An authentically designed output figure has been established which relates to net design output plus house load at full load. Based on these figures both cumulative and moving annual load factors are measured, the latter measuring the achievement over the last year, thus showing trends with time. Calculations have been carried out for all nuclear stations in the Western World with 150 MW(e) gross design output and above. From these are shown: moving annual load factor indicating relative station achievements for all the plants; cumulative load factors from which return of investment can be calculated; average moving annual load factors for the four types of system Magnox, PWR, HWR, and BWR; and a relative comparison of achievement by country in a few cases. (U.K.)

  6. Future Parking Demand at Rail Stations in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho Phooi Wai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Klang Valley, Malaysia is currently undergoing a massive development of rail transportation system expansion where the current integrated rail transit system will see new extensions of two MRT lines and an LRT line by year 2020. By year 2017, the first MRT line will be ready to run with 31 new rail stations connected to the current passenger rail network. The existing Park and Ride facilities in Klang Valley are commonly known as being unable to sufficiently cater for the current parking space demand. Therefore, with the expansion of many additional rail stations which are rapidly under construction, there are doubts that the future parking space at rail stations will be able to accommodate the sudden rise of rail passengers. Although the authorities are increasing parking bays at various locations, will the future parking demand at rail stations be sufficient? This paper studies the factors influencing parking demand in terms of population, car ownership, new car registrations and passenger rail ridership and estimating the future parking demand using Linear Regression method. Result shows that the forecasted parking demand at rail stations after the implementation of the first new MRT system in 2017 is 2.7 times more than in 2014.

  7. Bringing Western-standard service stations to the Baltic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pesonen, H.

    1992-01-01

    Neste is the only Western oil company so far to have established a service station presence in the Baltic, with the exception of Norway's Statoil, which has one outlet near Tallinn Airport. Neste has an important logistical advantage compared to other companies in this respect as its two Finnish refineries are ideally located for supplying the region with high-quality petroleum products. Neste's first joint venture in the Baltic, Traffic Service, based in Estonia, was set up with Eesti Kutus in 1988 and opened its first service station in 1990. Other joint ventures are now up and running in Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, and St. Petersburg. A total of 10 - 15 stations, the majority strategically located along the route of the Via Baltica, are expected to be operational by the end of this year. The Neste network comprises a combination of new outlets and refurbished older stations that have been modernized to bring them up to Western standards. These offer a comprehensive range of fuels, lubricants, spare parts, and accessories, as well as food, confectionery, and coffee shop services. Some stations also offer repair and car wash facilities. Adapting to the transition from a communist economy to a Western, capitalist one has not been easy for the Baltic countries, and has inevitably created difficulties for companies like Neste, in areas such as legislation covering land ownership. Neste's joint ventures have also encountered difficulties in instilling the Western approach to business efficiency, and customer service in a workforce used to the Soviet retail system

  8. 47 CFR 73.1120 - Station location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Station location. 73.1120 Section 73.1120... Rules Applicable to All Broadcast Stations § 73.1120 Station location. Each AM, FM, TV and Class A TV... be the geographical station location. [65 FR 30003, May 10, 2000] ...

  9. Water Resources Data--California, Water Year 2002, Volume 1, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rockwell, G.L.; Pope, G.L.; Agajanian, J.; Caldwell, L.A.

    2003-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2002 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 188 gaging stations and 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 19 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 39 streamflow-gaging stations and 11 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 1 station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  10. Water Resources Data -- California, Water Year 2003, Volume 1, Southern Great Basin from Mexican Border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope Basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pope, G.L.; Agajanian, J.; Caldwell, L.A.; Rockwell, G.L.

    2004-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2003 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 193 gaging stations and 11 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 22 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 47 streamflow-gaging stations and 12 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 1 station. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  11. Water resources data, California, water year 2004, volume 1: Southern Great Basin from Mexican border to Mono Lake Basin, and Pacific Slope basins from Tijuana River to Santa Maria River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agajanian, J.; Caldwell, L.A.; Rockwell, G.L.; Pope, G.L.

    2005-01-01

    Water-resources data for the 2004 water year for California consist of records of stage, discharge, and water quality of streams, stage and contents in lakes and reservoirs, and water levels and water quality in wells. Volume 1 contains discharge records for 195 gaging stations and 10 crest-stage partial-record stations, stage and contents for 25 lakes and reservoirs, gage-height records for 2 stations, water quality for 47 streamflow-gaging stations and 7 partial-record stations, and precipitation data for 5 stations. These data represent that part of the National Water Data System operated by the U.S. Geological Survey and cooperating State and Federal agencies in California.

  12. Developments of space station; Uchu station no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, H. [National Space Development Agency of Japan, Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-03-05

    This paper introduces the Japanese experiment module (JEM) in developing a space station. The JEM consists of systems of a pressurizing section, an exposure section, a pressurizing portion of a supply section, a manipulator and an exposure portion of the supply section. The pressurizing section circulates and controls air so that crews can perform experiments under pressurized environment. The exposure section is a part in which experiments are carried out under exposure environment. The supply section runs between a station and the ground, with required devices loaded on it. The manipulator performs attaching a payload for the exposure section and replaces experimental samples. The JEM undergoes a schedule of fabricating an engineering model, testing for a certification a prototype flight model, and putting the model on a flight. The pressurizing section, exposure section and manipulator are at the stage of system tests. Surveillance of the JEM and control of the experiments are carried out at the Tsukuba Space Center. The Center is composed of a space experiment building, a zero-gravity environment testing building, an astronaut training building, a space station operating building, and a space station testing building. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Space Station personal hygiene study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prejean, Stephen E.; Booher, Cletis R.

    1986-01-01

    A personal hygiene system is currently under development for Space Station application that will provide capabilities equivalent to those found on earth. This paper addresses the study approach for specifying both primary and contingency personal hygiene systems and provisions for specified growth. Topics covered are system definition and subsystem descriptions. Subsystem interfaces are explored to determine which concurrent NASA study efforts must be monitored during future design phases to stay up-to-date on critical Space Station parameters. A design concept for a three (3) compartment personal hygiene facility is included as a baseline for planned test and verification activities.

  14. Space Station - Risks and vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, K.

    1986-01-01

    In assessing the prospects of the NASA Space Station program, it is important to take account of the long term perspective embodied in the proposal; its international participants are seen as entering a complex web of developmental and operational interdependence of indefinite duration. It is noted to be rather unclear, however, to what extent this is contemplated by such potential partners as the ESA, which has its own program goals. These competing hopes for eventual autonomy in space station operations will have considerable economic, technological, and political consequences extending well into the next century.

  15. Single-Station Sigma for the Iranian Strong Motion Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafarani, H.; Soghrat, M. R.

    2017-11-01

    In development of ground motion prediction equations (GMPEs), the residuals are assumed to have a log-normal distribution with a zero mean and a standard deviation, designated as sigma. Sigma has significant effect on evaluation of seismic hazard for designing important infrastructures such as nuclear power plants and dams. Both aleatory and epistemic uncertainties are involved in the sigma parameter. However, ground-motion observations over long time periods are not available at specific sites and the GMPEs have been derived using observed data from multiple sites for a small number of well-recorded earthquakes. Therefore, sigma is dominantly related to the statistics of the spatial variability of ground motion instead of temporal variability at a single point (ergodic assumption). The main purpose of this study is to reduce the variability of the residuals so as to handle it as epistemic uncertainty. In this regard, it is tried to partially apply the non-ergodic assumption by removing repeatable site effects from total variability of six GMPEs driven from the local, Europe-Middle East and worldwide data. For this purpose, we used 1837 acceleration time histories from 374 shallow earthquakes with moment magnitudes ranging from M w 4.0 to 7.3 recorded at 370 stations with at least two recordings per station. According to estimated single-station sigma for the Iranian strong motion stations, the ratio of event-corrected single-station standard deviation ( Φ ss) to within-event standard deviation ( Φ) is about 0.75. In other words, removing the ergodic assumption on site response resulted in 25% reduction of the within-event standard deviation that reduced the total standard deviation by about 15%.

  16. Flood characteristics for the New River in the New River Gorge National River, West Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.B.; Cunningham, M.K.

    1994-01-01

    The frequency and magnitude of flooding of the New River in the New River Gorge National River was studied. A steady-state, one-dimensional flow model was applied to the study reach. Rating curves, cross sections, and Manning's roughness coefficients that were used are presented in this report. Manning's roughness coefficients were evaluated by comparing computed elevations (from application of the steady-state, one-dimensional flow model) to rated elevations at U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow-gaging stations and miscellaneous-rating sites. Manning's roughness coefficients ranged from 0.030 to 0.075 and varied with hydraulic depth. The 2-, 25-, and 100-year flood discharges were esti- mated on the basis of information from flood- insurance studies of Summers County, Fayette County, and the city of Hinton, and flood-frequency analysis of discharge records for the USGS streamflow-gaging stations at Hinton and Thurmond. The 100-year discharge ranged from 107,000 cubic feet per second at Hinton to 150,000 cubic feet per second at Fayette.

  17. Building GSM network in extreme conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulec, M.; Voznak, M.; Fajkus, M.; Partila, P.; Tovarek, J.; Chmelikova, Z.

    2015-05-01

    The paper is focused on the building ad-hoc GSM network based on open source software and low-cost hardware. The created Base Transmission Station can be deployed and put into operation in a few minutes in a required area to ensure private communication between connected GSM mobile terminals. The convergence between BTS station and the other networks is possible through IP network. The paper tries to define connection parameters to provide sufficient quality of voice service between the GSM network and IP Multimedia Subsystem. The paper brings practical results of voice call quality measurement between users inside BTS station mobile network and users inside IP Multimedia Subsystem network. The calls are simulated by low-cost embedded solution for speech quality measurement in GSM network. This tool is under development of our laboratory and allows automatic speech quality measurement of any GSM or UMTS mobile network. The Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality method is used to get final comparable results. The communication between BTS station and connected networks has to be secured against the interception from the third party. The influence of the securing method for quality of service is presented in detail. Paper, apart from the quality of service measurement section, describes technical requirements for successful interconnection between BTS and IMS networks. The authentication, authorization and accounting methods in roaming between BTS and IMS system are presented too.

  18. Simulated groundwater flow paths, travel time, and advective transport of nitrogen in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system, Barnegat Bay–Little Egg Harbor Watershed, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronin, Lois M.; Cauller, Stephen J.

    2017-07-31

    Elevated concentrations of nitrogen in groundwater that discharges to surface-water bodies can degrade surface-water quality and habitats in the New Jersey Coastal Plain. An analysis of groundwater flow in the Kirkwood-Cohansey aquifer system and deeper confined aquifers that underlie the Barnegat Bay–Little Egg Harbor (BB-LEH) watershed and estuary was conducted by using groundwater-flow simulation, in conjunction with a particle-tracking routine, to provide estimates of groundwater flow paths and travel times to streams and the BB-LEH estuary.Water-quality data from the Ambient Groundwater Quality Monitoring Network, a long-term monitoring network of wells distributed throughout New Jersey, were used to estimate the initial nitrogen concentration in recharge for five different land-use classes—agricultural cropland or pasture, agricultural orchard or vineyard, urban non-residential, urban residential, and undeveloped. Land use at the point of recharge within the watershed was determined using a geographic information system (GIS). Flow path starting locations were plotted on land-use maps for 1930, 1973, 1986, 1997, and 2002. Information on the land use at the time and location of recharge, time of travel to the discharge location, and the point of discharge were determined for each simulated flow path. Particle-tracking analysis provided the link from the point of recharge, along the particle flow path, to the point of discharge, and the particle travel time. The travel time of each simulated particle established the recharge year. Land use during the year of recharge was used to define the nitrogen concentration associated with each flow path. The recharge-weighted average nitrogen concentration for all flow paths that discharge to the Toms River upstream from streamflow-gaging station 01408500 or to the BB-LEH estuary was calculated.Groundwater input into the Barnegat Bay–Little Egg Harbor estuary from two main sources— indirect discharge from base

  19. Self-Interested Routing in Queueing Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ali K. Parlaktürk; Sunil Kumar

    2004-01-01

    We study self-interested routing in stochastic networks, taking into account the discrete stochastic dynamics of such networks. We analyze a two-station multiclass queueing network in which the system manager chooses the scheduling rule and individual customers choose routes in a self-interested manner. We show that this network can be unstable in Nash equilibrium under some scheduling rules. We also design a nontrivial scheduling rule that negates the performance degradation resulting from s...

  20. Next-Generation Environment-Aware Cellular Networks: Modern Green Techniques and Implementation Challenges

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim; Yaacoub, Elias; Kadri, Abdullah; Yanikomeroglu, Halim; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    achieve significant economic benefits and environmental savings: 1) the base station sleeping strategy; 2) the optimized energy procurement from the smart grid; 3) the base station energy sharing; and 4) the green networking collaboration between

  1. Remote input/output station

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    A general view of the remote input/output station installed in building 112 (ISR) and used for submitting jobs to the CDC 6500 and 6600. The card reader on the left and the line printer on the right are operated by programmers on a self-service basis.

  2. Merchant funding for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, B.; Bartlam, M.

    1997-01-01

    The next frontier for project finance is merchant generation: the financing of IPPs without long-term offtake contracts. Banks are just beginning to finance merchant generation power stations. One of the first was Destec's Indian Queens project in Cornwall, UK. Bruce Johnston and Martin Bartlam of Wilde Sapte discuss the project. (UK)

  3. The Medicina Station Status Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfei, Alessandro; Orlati, Andrea; Maccaferri, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    General information about the Medicina Radio Astronomy Station, the 32-m antenna status, and the staff in charge of the VLBI observations is provided. In 2012, the data from geodetic VLBI observations were acquired using the Mark 5A recording system with good results. Updates of the hardware were performed and are briefly described.

  4. "Artificial intelligence" at streamgaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. B. Thomas

    1985-01-01

    Two types of problems are related to collecting hydrologic data at stream gaging stations. One includes the technical/logistical questions associated with measuring and transferring data for processing. Effort spent on these problems ranges from improving devices for sensing data to using electronic data loggers.

  5. Automating Space Station operations planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemer, Kathleen A.

    1989-01-01

    The development and implementation of the operations planning processes for the Space Station are discussed. A three level planning process, consisting of strategic, tactical, and execution level planning, is being developed. The integration of the planning procedures into a tactical planning system is examined and the planning phases are illustrated.

  6. Performance of Existing Hydrogen Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprik, Samuel [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Kurtz, Jennifer M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainscough, Christopher D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Saur, Genevieve [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Peters, Michael C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-12-01

    In this presentation, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory presented aggregated analysis results on the performance of existing hydrogen stations, including performance, operation, utilization, maintenance, safety, hydrogen quality, and cost. The U.S. Department of Energy funds technology validation work at NREL through its National Fuel Cell Technology Evaluation Center (NFCTEC).

  7. Space Station power system issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giudici, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    Issues governing the selection of power systems for long-term manned Space Stations intended solely for earth orbital missions are covered briefly, drawing on trade study results from both in-house and contracted studies that have been conducted over nearly two decades. An involvement, from the Program Development Office at MSFC, with current Space Station concepts began in late 1982 with the NASA-wide Systems Definition Working Group and continued throughout 1984 in support of various planning activities. The premise for this discussion is that, within the confines of the current Space Station concept, there is good reason to consider photovoltaic power systems to be a venerable technology option for both the initial 75 kW and 300 kW (or much greater) growth stations. The issue of large physical size required by photovoltaic power systems is presented considering mass, atmospheric drag, launch packaging and power transmission voltage as being possible practicality limitations. The validity of searching for a cross-over point necessitating the introduction of solar thermal or nuclear power system options as enabling technologies is considered with reference to programs ranging from the 4.8 kW Skylab to the 9.5 gW Space Power Satellite

  8. 47 CFR 73.6018 - Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of DTV... TV station protection of DTV stations. Digital Class A TV stations must protect the DTV service that... application for digital operation of an existing Class A TV station or to change the facilities of a digital...

  9. 47 CFR 80.107 - Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Service of private coast stations and marine...) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE MARITIME SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures-Land Stations § 80.107 Service of private coast stations and marine-utility stations. A...

  10. 47 CFR 95.139 - Adding a small base station or a small control station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Adding a small base station or a small control... base station or a small control station. (a) Except for a GMRS system licensed to a non-individual, one or more small base stations or a small control station may be added to a GMRS system at any point...

  11. Learning Networks, Networked Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sloep, Peter; Berlanga, Adriana

    2010-01-01

    Sloep, P. B., & Berlanga, A. J. (2011). Learning Networks, Networked Learning [Redes de Aprendizaje, Aprendizaje en Red]. Comunicar, XIX(37), 55-63. Retrieved from http://dx.doi.org/10.3916/C37-2011-02-05

  12. Information transmission on hybrid networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Rongbin; Cui, Wei; Pu, Cunlai; Li, Jie; Ji, Bo; Gakis, Konstantinos; Pardalos, Panos M.

    2018-01-01

    Many real-world communication networks often have hybrid nature with both fixed nodes and moving modes, such as the mobile phone networks mainly composed of fixed base stations and mobile phones. In this paper, we discuss the information transmission process on the hybrid networks with both fixed and mobile nodes. The fixed nodes (base stations) are connected as a spatial lattice on the plane forming the information-carrying backbone, while the mobile nodes (users), which are the sources and destinations of information packets, connect to their current nearest fixed nodes respectively to deliver and receive information packets. We observe the phase transition of traffic load in the hybrid network when the packet generation rate goes from below and then above a critical value, which measures the network capacity of packets delivery. We obtain the optimal speed of moving nodes leading to the maximum network capacity. We further improve the network capacity by rewiring the fixed nodes and by considering the current load of fixed nodes during packets transmission. Our purpose is to optimize the network capacity of hybrid networks from the perspective of network science, and provide some insights for the construction of future communication infrastructures.

  13. Temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation and weather parameters at SEAKEYS stations in the Florida Keys, 2006 (NODC Accession 0058100)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected at several Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Florida Bay....

  14. Temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation and weather parameters at SEAKEYS stations in the Florida Keys, 2003 (NODC Accession 0058097)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected at several Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Florida Bay....

  15. Temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation and weather parameters at SEAKEYS stations in the Florida Keys, 2007 (NODC Accession 0058101)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected at several Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Florida Bay....

  16. Temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation and weather parameters at SEAKEYS stations in the Florida Keys, 2004 (NODC Accession 0058098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected at several Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Florida Bay....

  17. Temperature, salinity, photosynthetically active radiation and weather parameters at SEAKEYS stations in the Florida Keys, 2005 (NODC Accession 0058099)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains data collected at several Coastal-Marine Automated Network (C-MAN) stations in the Florida Keys National Marine Sanctuary and Florida Bay....

  18. Development and Performance of the Alaska Transportable Array Posthole Broadband Seismic Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aderhold, K.; Enders, M.; Miner, J.; Bierma, R. M.; Bloomquist, D.; Theis, J.; Busby, R. W.

    2017-12-01

    The final stations of the Alaska Transportable Array (ATA) will be constructed in 2017, completing the full footprint of 280 new and existing broadband seismic stations stretching across 19 degrees of latitude from western Alaska to western Canada. Through significant effort in planning, site reconnaissance, permitting and the considerable and concerted effort of field crews, the IRIS Alaska TA team is on schedule to successfully complete the construction of 194 new stations and upgrades at 28 existing stations over four field seasons. The station design and installation method was developed over the course of several years, leveraging the experience of the L48 TA deployments and existing network operators in Alaska as well as incorporating newly engineered components and procedures. A purpose-built lightweight drill was designed and fabricated to facilitate the construction of shallow boreholes to incorporate newly available posthole seismometers. This allowed for the development of a streamlined system of procedures to manufacture uniform seismic stations with minimal crew and minimal time required at each station location. A new station can typically be constructed in a single day with a four-person field crew. The ATA utilizes a hammer-drilled, cased posthole emplacement method adapted to the remote and harsh working environment of Alaska. The same emplacement design is implemented in all ground conditions to preserve uniformity across the array and eliminate the need for specialized mechanical equipment. All components for station construction are ideally suited for transport via helicopter, and can be adapted to utilize more traditional methods of transportation when available. This emplacement design delivers high quality data when embedded in bedrock or permafrost, reaching the low noise levels of benchmark permanent global broadband stations especially at long periods over 70 seconds. The TA will operate the network of real-time stations through at least

  19. Weekend Commercial Children's Television, 1975. A Study of Programming and Advertising to Children on Five Boston Stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcus, F. Earle

    Some 25-1/2 hours of Boston commercial television for children were monitored on a Saturday and Sunday in April 1975. The monitoring covered three network affiliated stations and two independent UHF stations. Monitoring, coding, and editing provided much statistical data, which was analyzed to yield findings in the areas of distribution of…

  20. Frequency domain analysis of the lightning current distribution to ground at the transmission line tower with cellular phone base station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grcev, L.; Deursen, van A.P.J.; Waes, van J.B.M.

    2003-01-01

    Cellular phone base stations are often placed in the poles of power transmission lines. We consider the case when such base stations are powered from the low-voltage network. Of special concern is the current that might be led through the cable metallic shields to other customers' premises in case

  1. Simple product-form bounds for queueing networks with finite clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, N.M.; van der Sluis, E.

    2001-01-01

    Queueing networks are studied with finite capacity constraints for clusters of stations. First, by an instructive tandem cluster example it is shown how a product-form modification method for networks with finite stations can be extended to networks with finite clusters. Next, a general result is

  2. The use of vertical and horizontal surface displacements at EPOS GNSS stations in Greenland to study ice sheet mass balance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Shfaqat Abbas

    2014-01-01

    The European Plate Observing System (EPOS) includes e.g. seismic and geodetic permanent national monitoring networks on a European scale. The main purpose is to create data platforms for monitoring and study geophysics processes like earthquakes, volcanoes, surface dynamics and tectonics. Here we...... present data from arctic GNSS stations included in the EPOS network. The arctic EPOS GNSS network consists of 16 continuous GPS stations spread across Greenland. This network is able to map the velocity fields associated with, plate motion, postglacial rebound and improve our understanding of tectonic...

  3. Mobility-Aware Modeling and Analysis of Dense Cellular Networks With $C$ -Plane/ $U$ -Plane Split Architecture

    KAUST Repository

    Ibrahim, Hazem; Elsawy, Hesham; Nguyen, Uyen Trang; Alouini, Mohamed-Slim

    2016-01-01

    The unrelenting increase in the population of mobile users and their traffic demands drive cellular network operators to densify their network infrastructure. Network densification shrinks the footprint of base stations (BSs) and reduces the number

  4. Work/control stations in Space Station weightlessness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Charles

    1990-01-01

    An ergonomic integration of controls, displays, and associated interfaces with an operator, whose body geometry and dynamics may be altered by the state of weightlessness, is noted to rank in importance with the optimal positioning of controls relative to the layout and architecture of 'body-ported' work/control stations applicable to the NASA Space Station Freedom. A long-term solution to this complex design problem is envisioned to encompass the following features: multiple imaging, virtual optics, screen displays controlled by a keyboard ergonomically designed for weightlessness, cursor control, a CCTV camera, and a hand-controller featuring 'no-grip' vernier/tactile positioning. This controller frees all fingers for multiple-switch actuations, while retaining index/register determination with the hand controller. A single architectural point attachment/restraint may be used which requires no residual muscle tension in either brief or prolonged operation.

  5. A network architecture for International Business Satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahata, Fumio; Nohara, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Yoshio

    Demand Assignment (DA) control is expected to be introduced in the International Business Satellte communications (IBS) network in order to cope with a growing international business traffic. The paper discusses the DA/IBS network from the viewpoints of network configuration, satellite channel configuration and DA control. The network configuration proposed here consists of one Central Station with network management function and several Network Coordination Stations with user management function. A satellite channel configuration is also presented along with a tradeoff study on transmission bit rate, high power amplifier output power requirement, and service quality. The DA control flow and protocol based on CCITT Signalling System No. 7 are also proposed.

  6. Revision of IRIS/IDA Seismic Station Metadata

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, W.; Davis, P.; Auerbach, D.; Klimczak, E.

    2017-12-01

    Trustworthy data quality assurance has always been one of the goals of seismic network operators and data management centers. This task is considerably complex and evolving due to the huge quantities as well as the rapidly changing characteristics and complexities of seismic data. Published metadata usually reflect instrument response characteristics and their accuracies, which includes zero frequency sensitivity for both seismometer and data logger as well as other, frequency-dependent elements. In this work, we are mainly focused studying the variation of the seismometer sensitivity with time of IRIS/IDA seismic recording systems with a goal to improve the metadata accuracy for the history of the network. There are several ways to measure the accuracy of seismometer sensitivity for the seismic stations in service. An effective practice recently developed is to collocate a reference seismometer in proximity to verify the in-situ sensors' calibration. For those stations with a secondary broadband seismometer, IRIS' MUSTANG metric computation system introduced a transfer function metric to reflect two sensors' gain ratios in the microseism frequency band. In addition, a simulation approach based on M2 tidal measurements has been proposed and proven to be effective. In this work, we compare and analyze the results from three different methods, and concluded that the collocated-sensor method is most stable and reliable with the minimum uncertainties all the time. However, for epochs without both the collocated sensor and secondary seismometer, we rely on the analysis results from tide method. For the data since 1992 on IDA stations, we computed over 600 revised seismometer sensitivities for all the IRIS/IDA network calibration epochs. Hopefully further revision procedures will help to guarantee that the data is accurately reflected by the metadata of these stations.

  7. Watershed Data Management (WDM) database for West Branch DuPage River streamflow simulation, DuPage County, Illinois, January 1, 2007, through September 30, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bera, Maitreyee

    2017-10-16

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the DuPage County Stormwater Management Department, maintains a database of hourly meteorological and hydrologic data for use in a near real-time streamflow simulation system. This system is used in the management and operation of reservoirs and other flood-control structures in the West Branch DuPage River watershed in DuPage County, Illinois. The majority of the precipitation data are collected from a tipping-bucket rain-gage network located in and near DuPage County. The other meteorological data (air temperature, dewpoint temperature, wind speed, and solar radiation) are collected at Argonne National Laboratory in Argonne, Ill. Potential evapotranspiration is computed from the meteorological data using the computer program LXPET (Lamoreux Potential Evapotranspiration). The hydrologic data (water-surface elevation [stage] and discharge) are collected at U.S.Geological Survey streamflow-gaging stations in and around DuPage County. These data are stored in a Watershed Data Management (WDM) database.This report describes a version of the WDM database that is quality-assured and quality-controlled annually to ensure datasets are complete and accurate. This database is named WBDR13.WDM. It contains data from January 1, 2007, through September 30, 2013. Each precipitation dataset may have time periods of inaccurate data. This report describes the methods used to estimate the data for the periods of missing, erroneous, or snowfall-affected data and thereby improve the accuracy of these data. The other meteorological datasets are described in detail in Over and others (2010), and the hydrologic datasets in the database are fully described in the online USGS annual water data reports for Illinois (U.S. Geological Survey, 2016) and, therefore, are described in less detail than the precipitation datasets in this report.

  8. Methods for estimating peak-flow frequencies at ungaged sites in Montana based on data through water year 2011: Chapter F in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Roy; Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to update methods for estimating peak-flow frequencies at ungaged sites in Montana based on peak-flow data at streamflow-gaging stations through water year 2011. The methods allow estimation of peak-flow frequencies (that is, peak-flow magnitudes, in cubic feet per second, associated with annual exceedance probabilities of 66.7, 50, 42.9, 20, 10, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.2 percent) at ungaged sites. The annual exceedance probabilities correspond to 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals, respectively.Regional regression analysis is a primary focus of Chapter F of this Scientific Investigations Report, and regression equations for estimating peak-flow frequencies at ungaged sites in eight hydrologic regions in Montana are presented. The regression equations are based on analysis of peak-flow frequencies and basin characteristics at 537 streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana and were developed using generalized least squares regression or weighted least squares regression.All of the data used in calculating basin characteristics that were included as explanatory variables in the regression equations were developed for and are available through the USGS StreamStats application (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/) for Montana. StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system application that was created by the USGS to provide users with access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resource planning and management. The primary purpose of the Montana StreamStats application is to provide estimates of basin characteristics and streamflow characteristics for user-selected ungaged sites on Montana streams. The regional regression equations presented in this report chapter can be conveniently solved using the Montana StreamStats application.Selected results from

  9. NASDA knowledge-based network planning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaya, K.; Fujiwara, M.; Kosugi, S.; Yambe, M.; Ohmori, M.

    1993-01-01

    One of the SODS (space operation and data system) sub-systems, NP (network planning) was the first expert system used by NASDA (national space development agency of Japan) for tracking and control of satellite. The major responsibilities of the NP system are: first, the allocation of network and satellite control resources and, second, the generation of the network operation plan data (NOP) used in automated control of the stations and control center facilities. Up to now, the first task of network resource scheduling was done by network operators. NP system automatically generates schedules using its knowledge base, which contains information on satellite orbits, station availability, which computer is dedicated to which satellite, and how many stations must be available for a particular satellite pass or a certain time period. The NP system is introduced.

  10. Operation and management of United Central Piping LPG supply stations in Shenzhen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai Yankai

    1997-11-01

    Shenzhen has based its city gas development project on the eventual conversion to natural gas supply by way of central piping LPG supply stations. To fully exploit the potential gas supply capability of every central piping station and cut down the total running cost, we have been connecting the existing supply stations and their piping system into a network, which not only provided a more reliable gas supply performance, but can greatly simplify the evacuation of gas stations from the ever-expanding downtown areas to suburbs. Through this way, the periodic gas stock held by individual stations can be transferred to storage terminal or stations of enough holding capability; the supplying distance has been much lengthened and the gas volume held in the piping system increased; gas supply covered by small stations has been shifted to new and large stations. By linking these stations, we are able to provide pipeline LP gas supply for a large area, and in the same time lay down the pipeline infrastructure for the upcoming LNG supply so that an easy conversion to LNG supply can be secured as soon as the projected LNG terminal is put to service. (au)

  11. Daily snow depth measurements from 195 stations in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison, L.J. [ed.] [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Easterling, D.R.; Jamason, P.; Bowman, D.P.; Hughes, P.Y.; Mason, E.H. [National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Asheville, NC (United States). National Climatic Data Center

    1997-02-01

    This document describes a database containing daily measurements of snow depth at 195 National Weather Service (NWS) first-order climatological stations in the United States. The data have been assembled and made available by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC) in Asheville, North Carolina. The 195 stations encompass 388 unique sampling locations in 48 of the 50 states; no observations from Delaware or Hawaii are included in the database. Station selection criteria emphasized the quality and length of station records while seeking to provide a network with good geographic coverage. Snow depth at the 388 locations was measured once per day on ground open to the sky. The daily snow depth is the total depth of the snow on the ground at measurement time. The time period covered by the database is 1893--1992; however, not all station records encompass the complete period. While a station record ideally should contain daily data for at least the seven winter months (January through April and October through December), not all stations have complete records. Each logical record in the snow depth database contains one station`s daily data values for a period of one month, including data source, measurement, and quality flags.

  12. 20 years of power station master training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, O.

    1977-01-01

    In the early fifties, the VGB working group 'Power station master training' elaborated plans for systematic and uniform training of power station operating personnel. In 1957, the first power station master course was held. In the meantime, 1.720 power station masters are in possession of a master's certificate of a chamber of commerce and trade. Furthermore, 53 power station masters have recently obtained in courses of the 'Kraftwerksschule e.V.' the know-how which enables them to also carry out their duty as a master in nuclear power stations. (orig.) [de

  13. Electric machinery and drives in thermal power stations. Elektrische Maschinen und Antriebe in thermischen Kraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1974-01-01

    The following subjects were dealt with during the VDE meeting: 1) Requirements made by the electric network on the generators and their excitation equipment, and the influence thereof on their design; 2) requirements made by the power station process on the electric drives and the influence thereof on type and design; 3) requirements made on protective measures from the point of the electric power station machinery.

  14. New Porta Susa - Turin Railway Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvio d'Ascia

    2011-02-01

    now shared by the ancient railways lines. In that way the city comes inside the station and the station becomes a real part of the city, permeable to pedestrian flows crossed in all directions and at different levels. The internal distribution of the different functional areas is based on a balance program with approximately 10.000 m² of services to travellers and the city (ticket offices, shops, restaurants, bars, terraces, approximately 10.000 m² of hall and public paths and still about 10.000 m² of technical areas, parking and service areas, ... The glass roof (surface of 15.000 m² will be equipped with a photovoltaic system (installed power = 765 kW peak 2300 arranged on the panels that make up 3600 (surface approximately 9.000 m² capable of producing 680,000 KWH’s year of electricity consumed in the public network and corresponding to approximately 35% of domestic needs of future PV, which we hope will become a new symbol for Turin.

  15. [Exploring nurse, usage effectiveness of mobile nursing station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Fang-Mei; Lee, Ting-Ting

    2013-04-01

    A mobile nursing station is an innovative cart that integrates a wireless network, information technology devices, and online charts. In addition to improving clinical work and workflow efficiencies, data is integrated among different information systems and hardware devices to promote patient safety. This study investigated the effectiveness of mobile nursing cart use. We compared different distributions of nursing activity working samples to evaluate the nursing information systems in terms of interface usability and usage outcomes. There were two parts of this study. Part one used work sampling to collect nursing activity data necessary to compare a unit that used a mobile nursing cart (mobile group, n = 18) with another that did not (traditional group, n = 14). Part two applied a nursing information system interface usability questionnaire to survey the mobile unit with nurses who had used a mobile nursing station (including those who had worked in this unit as floating nurses) (n = 30) in order to explore interface usability and effectiveness. We found that using the mobile nursing station information system increased time spent on direct patient care and decreased time spent on indirect patient care and documentation. Results further indicated that participants rated interface usability as high and evaluated usage effectiveness positively. Comments made in the open-ended question section raised several points of concern, including problems / inadequacies related to hardware devices, Internet speed, and printing. This study indicates that using mobile nursing station can improve nursing activity distributions and that nurses hold generally positive attitudes toward mobile nursing station interface usability and usage effectiveness. The authors thus encourage the continued implementation of mobile nursing stations and related studies to further enhance clinical nursing care.

  16. An online application for the barometric coefficient calculation of NMDB stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschalis, P; Mavromichalaki, H; Gerontidou, M; Koutroumpi, I; Yanke, V; Belov, A; Eroshenko, E

    2013-01-01

    One of the most important data corrections related to the primary data processing of the neutron monitors is the pressure correction due to the barometric effect. This effect induces considerable variation in the counting rate of a cosmic ray detector which is not related to the real variation of the cosmic rays flux but only to the local atmospheric pressure of the station. In order to provide the worldwide neutron monitor network with good quality data, a correction has to be made that requires the calculation of the barometric coefficient. A new method that effectively calculates the barometric coefficient for a station using data of a reference station in order to subtract the primary variations of cosmic rays is presented in this work. Moreover, this method is the prototype of an online tool that uses data of the NMDB stations and calculates the barometric coefficient for any available station. This tool is also presented.

  17. EUPOS - Satellite multifunctional system of reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sledzinski, J.

    2003-04-01

    The European project EUPOS (European Position Determination System) of establishment of a system of multifunctional satellite reference stations in Central and Eastern Europe is described in the paper. Fifteen countries intend to participate in the project: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Macedonia, Poland, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovak Republic and Slovenia. One common project will be prepared for all countries, however it will include the existing or developed infrastructure in particular countries. The experiences of establishing and operating of the German network SAPOS as well as experiences gained by other countries will be used. The European network of stations will be compatible with the system SAPOS and future European system Galileo. The network of reference stations will provide signal for both positioning of the geodetic control points and for land, air and marine navigation. Several levels of positioning accuracy will be delivered.

  18. Training of power station staff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dusserre, J.

    1993-01-01

    ELECTRICITE DE FRANCE currently operates 51 generating stations with 900 and 1300 MW Pressurized Water Reactors while, only 15 years ago, France possessed only a very small number of such stations. It was therefore vital to set up a major training organization to produce staff capable of starting, controlling and maintaining these facilities with a constant eye to improving quality and safety. Operator and maintenance staff training is based on highly-structured training plans designed to match both the post to be filled and the qualifications possessed by the person who is to fill it. It was essential to set up suitable high-performance training resources to handle this fast growth in staff. These resources are constantly being developed and allow EDF to make steady progress in a large number of areas, varying from the effects of human factors to the procedures to be followed during an accident

  19. Le projet de station touristique

    OpenAIRE

    Vlès, Vincent

    1996-01-01

    Cet ouvrage traite du savoir-faire du technicien, de l'ingénieur, du directeur d'office de tourisme qui façonne, depuis maintenant près de trois décennies, le territoire local de la production touristique : la station. Il analyse les stratégies, les mises en œuvre, les pratiques de l'aménagement et du développement touristique. Il propose une construction du projet de station, méthode qui est l'aboutissement d'expériences de terrain. Il présente un guide des interventions. Il décrit des modes...

  20. Manned space stations - A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disher, J. H.

    1981-09-01

    The findings from the Skylab missions are discussed as they relate to the operations planning of future space stations such as Spacelab and the proposed Space Operations Center. Following a brief description of the Skylab spacecraft, the significance of the mission as a demonstration of the possibility of effecting emergency repairs in space is pointed out. Specific recommendations made by Skylab personnel concerning capabilities for future in-flight maintenance are presented relating to the areas of spacecraft design criteria, tool selection and spares carried. Attention is then given to relevant physiological findings, and to habitability considerations in the areas of sleep arrangements, hygiene, waste management, clothing, and food. The issue of contamination control is examined in detail as a potential major system to be integrated into future design criteria. The importance of the Skylab results to the designers of future space stations is emphasized.

  1. Space Station tethered elevator system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddock, Michael H.; Anderson, Loren A.; Hosterman, K.; Decresie, E.; Miranda, P.; Hamilton, R.

    1989-01-01

    The optimized conceptual engineering design of a space station tethered elevator is presented. The tethered elevator is an unmanned, mobile structure which operates on a ten-kilometer tether spanning the distance between Space Station Freedom and a platform. Its capabilities include providing access to residual gravity levels, remote servicing, and transportation to any point along a tether. The report discusses the potential uses, parameters, and evolution of the spacecraft design. Emphasis is placed on the elevator's structural configuration and three major subsystem designs. First, the design of elevator robotics used to aid in elevator operations and tethered experimentation is presented. Second, the design of drive mechanisms used to propel the vehicle is discussed. Third, the design of an onboard self-sufficient power generation and transmission system is addressed.

  2. Space Station solar water heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horan, D. C.; Somers, Richard E.; Haynes, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The feasibility of directly converting solar energy for crew water heating on the Space Station Freedom (SSF) and other human-tended missions such as a geosynchronous space station, lunar base, or Mars spacecraft was investigated. Computer codes were developed to model the systems, and a proof-of-concept thermal vacuum test was conducted to evaluate system performance in an environment simulating the SSF. The results indicate that a solar water heater is feasible. It could provide up to 100 percent of the design heating load without a significant configuration change to the SSF or other missions. The solar heater system requires only 15 percent of the electricity that an all-electric system on the SSF would require. This allows a reduction in the solar array or a surplus of electricity for onboard experiments.

  3. Decommissioning of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregory, A.R.

    1988-01-01

    In the United Kingdom the Electricity Boards, the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) and BNFL cooperate on all matters relating to the decommissioning of nuclear plant. The Central Electricity Generating Board's (CEGB) policy endorses the continuing need for nuclear power, the principle of reusing existing sites where possible and the building up of sufficient funds during the operating life of a nuclear power station to meet the cost of its complete clearance in the future. The safety of the plant is the responsibility of the licensee even in the decommissioning phase. The CEGB has carried out decommissioning studies on Magnox stations in general and Bradwell and Berkeley in particular. It has also been involved in the UKAEA Windscale AGR decommissioning programme. The options as to which stage to decommission to are considered. Methods, costs and waste management are also considered. (U.K.)

  4. Stage measurement at gaging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Vernon B.; Turnipseed, D. Phil

    2010-01-01

    Stream and reservoir stage are critical parameters in the computation of stream discharge and reservoir volume, respectively. In addition, a record of stream stage is useful in the design of structures that may be affected by stream elevation, as well as for the planning for various uses of flood plains. This report describes equipment and methodology for the observation, sensing, and recording of stage in streams and reservoirs. Although the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) still uses the traditional, basic stilling-well float system as a predominant gaging station, modern electronic stage sensors and water-level recorders are now commonly used. Bubble gages coupled with nonsubmersible pressure transducers eliminate the need for stilling wells. Submersible pressure transducers have become common in use for the measurement of stage in both rivers and lakes. Furthermore, noncontact methods, such as radar, acoustic, and laser methods of sensing water levels, are being developed and tested, and in the case of radar, are commonly used for the measurement of stage. This report describes commonly used gaging-station structures, as well as the design and operation of gaging stations. Almost all of the equipment and instruments described in this report will meet the accuracy standard set by the USGS Office of Surface Water (OSW) for the measurement of stage for most applications, which is ±0.01 foot (ft) or 0.2 percent of the effective stage. Several telemetry systems are used to transmit stage data from the gaging station to the office, although satellite telemetry has become the standard. These telemetry systems provide near real-time stage data, as well as other information that alerts the hydrographer to extreme or abnormal events, and instrument malfunctions.

  5. Fortaleza Station Report for 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, Pierre; Pereira de Lucena, A. Macilio; Sombra da Silva, Adeildo

    2013-01-01

    This is a brief report about the activities carried out at the Fortaleza geodetic VLBI station (ROEN: R´adio Observat´orio Espacial do Nordeste), located in Eus´ebio, CE, Brazil, during the period from January until December 2012. The observing activities were resumed in May after the major maintenance that comprised the azimuth bearing replacement. The total observational experiments consisted of 103 VLBI sessions and continuous GPS monitoring recordings.

  6. A Probabilistic Model to Evaluate the Optimal Density of Stations Measuring Snowfall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneebeli, Martin; Laternser, Martin

    2004-05-01

    Daily new snow measurements are very important for avalanche forecasting and tourism. A dense network of manual or automatic stations measuring snowfall is necessary to have spatially reliable data. Snow stations in Switzerland were built at partially subjective locations. A probabilistic model based on the frequency and spatial extent of areas covered by heavy snowfalls was developed to quantify the probability that snowfall events are measured by the stations. Area probability relations were calculated for different thresholds of daily accumulated snowfall. A probabilistic model, including autocorrelation, was used to calculate the optimal spacing of stations based on simulated triangular grids and to compare the capture probability of different networks and snowfall thresholds. The Swiss operational snow-stations network captured snowfall events with high probability, but the distribution of the stations could be optimized. The spatial variability increased with higher thresholds of daily accumulated snowfall, and the capture probability decreased with increasing thresholds. The method can be used for other areas where the area probability relation for threshold values of snow or rain can be calculated.

  7. Status of radionuclide monitoring stations in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    The Australian Radiation Protection and Nuclear Safety Agency (ANSTO) first became involved in the monitoring of radionuclides in the environment in 1955 when assessing the effects on the Australian population of the radioactive releases associated with the atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons. (At that time ARPANSA was known as the Commonwealth X-ray and Radium Laboratory). The United Kingdom had tested weapons in Australia in 1952 and 1953 and in August 1954 entered into an agreement with the Australian Government to establish a test range at Maralinga in South Australia. The government established a Maralinga Safety Committee and through this Committee ARPANSA became involved in the surveillance of radioactive fallout over Australia. The primary function of this surveillance was to ensure that the nuclear trials would not adversely effect the health of the Australian population. A program was established to reliably assess the deposition of radioactive fallout over Australia so that exposure to the population could be estimated. This task was performed in conjunction with the Bureau of Meteorology and the Department of Supply. Measurements were made on daily samples of fallout dawn from 10 centres throughout Australia. A low level radiochemical facility was established in 1961 for the measurement of 90 Sr and 137 Cs in environmental samples so that the long term distribution of fallout could be tracked. In the 1960s the program was extended to measure fresh fission products reaching Australia from atmospheric testing in other countries, usually originating from test sites in the northern hemisphere. The sampling program that was established was designed so that it could be rapidly expanded when a new testing program started. At this time a permanent fallout monitoring network was established around Australia using high volume air samplers capable of sampling up to 10000 m 3 per week. Approximately six stations have been operated at any one time but the

  8. Pumps for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Shiro

    1979-01-01

    16 nuclear power plants are in commercial operation in Japan, and nuclear power generation holds the most important position among various substitute energies. Hereafter also, it is expected that the construction of nuclear power stations will continue because other advantageous energy sources are not found. In this paper, the outline of the pumps used for BWR plants is described. Nuclear power stations tend to be large scale to reduce the construction cost per unit power output, therefore the pumps used are those of large capacity. The conditions to be taken in consideration are high temperature, high pressure, radioactive fluids, high reliability, hydrodynamic performances, aseismatic design, relevant laws and regulations, and quality assurance. Pumps are used for reactor recirculation system, control rod driving hydraulic system, boric acid solution injecting system, reactor coolant purifying system, fuel pool cooling and purifying system, residual heat removing system, low pressure and high pressure core spraying systems, and reactor isolation cooling system, for condensate, feed water, drain and circulating water systems of turbines, for fresh water, sea water, make-up water and fire fighting services, and for radioactive waste treating system. The problems of the pumps used for nuclear power stations are described, for example, the requirement of high reliability, the measures to radioactivity and the aseismatic design. (Kako, I.)

  9. Optimization of station battery replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jancauskas, J.R.; Shook, D.A.

    1994-01-01

    During a loss of ac power at a nuclear generating station (including diesel generators), batteries provide the source of power which is required to operate safety-related components. Because traditional lead-acid batteries have a qualified life of 20 years, the batteries must be replaced a minimum of once during a station's lifetime, twice if license extension is pursued, and more often depending on actual in-service dates and the results of surveillance tests. Replacement of batteries often occurs prior to 20 years as a result of systems changes caused by factors such as Station Blackout Regulations, control system upgrades, incremental load growth, and changes in the operating times of existing equipment. Many of these replacement decisions are based on the predictive capabilities of manual design basis calculations. The inherent conservatism of manual calculations may result in battery replacements occurring before actually required. Computerized analysis of batteries can aid in optimizing the timing of replacements as well as in interpreting service test data. Computerized analysis also provides large benefits in maintaining the as-configured load profile and corresponding design margins, while also providing the capability of quickly analyze proposed modifications and response to internal and external audits

  10. AL-USRCRN Station Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Documentation of United States Alabama Regional Climate Reference Network (AL-USRCRN) installations in 2006. Installations documented are for AL-USRCRN pilot project...

  11. Engineering graphics data entry for space station data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacovara, R. C.

    1986-01-01

    The entry of graphical engineering data into the Space Station Data Base was examined. Discussed were: representation of graphics objects; representation of connectivity data; graphics capture hardware; graphics display hardware; site-wide distribution of graphics, and consolidation of tools and hardware. A fundamental assumption was that existing equipment such as IBM based graphics capture software and VAX networked facilities would be exploited. Defensible conclusions reached after study and simulations of use of these systems at the engineering level are: (1) existing IBM based graphics capture software is an adequate and economical means of entry of schematic and block diagram data for present and anticipated electronic systems for Space Station; (2) connectivity data from the aforementioned system may be incorporated into the envisioned Space Station Data Base with modest effort; (3) graphics and connectivity data captured on the IBM based system may be exported to the VAX network in a simple and direct fashion; (4) graphics data may be displayed site-wide on VT-125 terminals and lookalikes; (5) graphics hard-copy may be produced site-wide on various dot-matrix printers; and (6) the system may provide integrated engineering services at both the engineering and engineering management level.

  12. Considering the dynamic refueling behavior in locating electric vehicle charging stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, K.; Sun, X. H.

    2014-11-01

    Electric vehicles (EVs) will certainly play an important role in addressing the energy and environmental challenges at current situation. However, location problem of EV charging stations was realized as one of the key issues of EVs launching strategy. While for the case of locating EV charging stations, more influence factors and constraints need to be considered since the EVs have some special attributes. The minimum requested charging time for EVs is usually more than 30minutes, therefore the possible delay time due to waiting or looking for an available station is one of the most important influence factors. In addition, the intention to purchase and use of EVs that also affects the location of EV charging stations is distributed unevenly among regions and should be considered when modelling. Unfortunately, these kinds of time-spatial constraints were always ignored in previous models. Based on the related research of refuelling behaviours and refuelling demands, this paper developed a new concept with dual objectives of minimum waiting time and maximum service accessibility for locating EV charging stations - named as Time-Spatial Location Model (TSLM). The proposed model and the traditional flow-capturing location model are applied on an example network respectively and the results are compared. Results demonstrate that time constraint has great effects on the location of EV charging stations. The proposed model has some obvious advantages and will help energy providers to make a viable plan for the network of EV charging stations.

  13. Alternative Fuels Data Center: Biodiesel Fueling Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locations Infrastructure Development Vehicles Laws & Incentives Biodiesel Fueling Stations Photo of a location or along a route. Infrastructure Development Learn about biodiesel fueling infrastructure codes Case Studies California Ramps Up Biofuels Infrastructure Green Fueling Station Powers Fleets in Upstate

  14. HSIP Fire Stations in New Mexico

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — Fire Stations in New Mexico Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their jobs is...

  15. 47 CFR 74.882 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...'s call sign or designator, its location, and the call sign of the broadcasting station or name of... operation. Identification may be made by transmitting the station call sign by visual or aural means or by...

  16. 47 CFR 73.1201 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... public file. The notice must state that the station's public file is available for inspection and that consumers can view it at the station's main studio and on its Web site. At least one of the announcements...

  17. Spent fuel canister docking station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.

    2006-01-01

    The working report for the spent fuel canister docking station presents a design for the operation and structure of the docking equipment located in the fuel handling cell for the spent fuel in the encapsulation plant. The report contains a description of the basic requirements for the docking station equipment and their implementation, the operation of the equipment, maintenance and a cost estimate. In the designing of the equipment all the problems related with the operation have been solved at the level of principle, nevertheless, detailed designing and the selection of final components have not yet been carried out. In case of defects and failures, solutions have been considered for postulated problems, and furthermore, the entire equipment was gone through by the means of systematic risk analysis (PFMEA). During the docking station designing we came across with needs to influence the structure of the actual disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel, too. Proposed changes for the structure of the steel lid fastening screw were included in the report. The report also contains a description of installation with the fuel handling cell structures. The purpose of the docking station for the fuel handling cell is to position and to seal the disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel into a penetration located on the cell floor and to provide suitable means for executing the loading of the disposal canister and the changing of atmosphere. The designed docking station consists of a docking ring, a covering hatch, a protective cone and an atmosphere-changing cap as well as the vacuum technology pertaining to the changing of atmosphere and the inert gas system. As far as the solutions are concerned, we have arrived at rather simple structures and most of the actuators of the system are situated outside of the actual fuel handling cell. When necessary, the equipment can also be used for the dismantling of a faulty disposal canister, cut from its upper end by machining. The

  18. Ergonomic Application on the Work Station Layout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suharyo Widagdo; Darlis

    2003-01-01

    Work station layout in the ideal way has been made. The dimension of the work station is 9.4 m x 7.1 m. The workers to be stationed should feel comfort. This can be done by honoring the dimensions and the sum of the tools that should be stationed and also the free space that should be mention between the tools as state in EPRI, NP-2411. (author)

  19. Network modeling of PM10 concentration in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supian, Muhammad Nazirul Aiman Abu; Bakar, Sakhinah Abu; Razak, Fatimah Abdul

    2017-08-01

    Air pollution is not a new phenomenon in Malaysia. The Department of Environment (DOE) monitors the country's ambient air quality through a network of 51 stations. The air quality is measured using the Air Pollution Index (API) which is mainly recorded based on the concentration of particulate matter, PM10 readings. The Continuous Air Quality Monitoring (CAQM) stations are located in various places across the country. In this study, a network model of air quality based on PM10 concen tration for selected CAQM stations in Malaysia has been developed. The model is built using a graph formulation, G = (V, E) where vertex, V is a set of CAQM stations and edges, E is a set of correlation values for each pair of vertices. The network measurements such as degree distributions, closeness centrality, and betweenness centrality are computed to analyse the behaviour of the network. As a result, a rank of CAQM stations has been produced based on their centrality characteristics.

  20. 47 CFR 97.203 - Beacon station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Beacon station. 97.203 Section 97.203... SERVICE Special Operations § 97.203 Beacon station. (a) Any amateur station licensed to a holder of a Technician, Technician Plus, General, Advanced or Amateur Extra Class operator license may be a beacon. A...

  1. 47 CFR 22.313 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Telephone Radio Systems in the Rural Radiotelephone Service; (5) [Reserved] (6) Stations operating pursuant... Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES... of each station in the Public Mobile Services must ensure that the transmissions of that station are...

  2. 30 CFR 57.12085 - Transformer stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Transformer stations. 57.12085 Section 57.12085 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Underground Only § 57.12085 Transformer stations. Transformer stations shall be enclosed to prevent persons...

  3. Fire protection concept for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zitzmann, H.

    The author shows how a systematic approach permits the design of a fire-protected power station. The special conditions of an individual power station are here treated as marginal conditions. The article describes how the concept is realized in the completed power station, taking account of the information provided by fire statistics. (orig.) [de

  4. Standardized Curriculum for Service Station Retailing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mississippi State Dept. of Education, Jackson. Office of Vocational, Technical and Adult Education.

    This curriculum guide for service station retailing was developed by the state of Mississippi to standardize vocational education course titles and core contents. The objectives contained in this document are common to all service station retailing programs in the state. The guide contains objectives for service station retailing I and II courses.…

  5. 47 CFR 90.425 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... stations. (4) It is any type of radiopositioning or radar station authorized in a service other than the... procedure. Except as provided for in paragraphs (d) and (e) of this section, each station or system shall be identified by the transmission of the assigned call sign during each transmission or exchange of...

  6. 47 CFR 87.107 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... station. Identify by one of the following means: (1) Aircraft radio station call sign. (2) The type of... type of aircraft followed by the last three characters of the registration marking. Notwithstanding any... of stations are exempted from the use of a call sign: Airborne weather radar, radio altimeter, air...

  7. 47 CFR 80.519 - Station identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... drawbridges may be identified by use of the name of the bridge in lieu of the call sign. Identification must...) Stations must identify transmissions by announcing in the English language the station's assigned call sign. In lieu of the identification of the station by voice, the official call sign may be transmitted by...

  8. Environment Aware Cellular Networks

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2015-02-01

    The unprecedented rise of mobile user demand over the years have led to an enormous growth of the energy consumption of wireless networks as well as the greenhouse gas emissions which are estimated currently to be around 70 million tons per year. This significant growth of energy consumption impels network companies to pay huge bills which represent around half of their operating expenditures. Therefore, many service providers, including mobile operators, are looking for new and modern green solutions to help reduce their expenses as well as the level of their CO2 emissions. Base stations are the most power greedy element in cellular networks: they drain around 80% of the total network energy consumption even during low traffic periods. Thus, there is a growing need to develop more energy-efficient techniques to enhance the green performance of future 4G/5G cellular networks. Due to the problem of traffic load fluctuations in cellular networks during different periods of the day and between different areas (shopping or business districts and residential areas), the base station sleeping strategy has been one of the main popular research topics in green communications. In this presentation, we present several practical green techniques that provide significant gains for mobile operators. Indeed, combined with the base station sleeping strategy, these techniques achieve not only a minimization of the fossil fuel consumption but also an enhancement of mobile operator profits. We start with an optimized cell planning method that considers varying spatial and temporal user densities. We then use the optimal transport theory in order to define the cell boundaries such that the network total transmit power is reduced. Afterwards, we exploit the features of the modern electrical grid, the smart grid, as a new tool of power management for cellular networks and we optimize the energy procurement from multiple energy retailers characterized by different prices and pollutant

  9. Queueing Models for Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haan, Roland

    2009-01-01

    This thesis presents models for the performance analysis of a recent communication paradigm: \\emph{mobile ad hoc networking}. The objective of mobile ad hoc networking is to provide wireless connectivity between stations in a highly dynamic environment. These dynamics are driven by the mobility of

  10. The NASA Fireball Network Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moser, Danielle E.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Meteoroid Environment Office (MEO) has been operating an automated video fireball network since late-2008. Since that time, over 1,700 multi-station fireballs have been observed. A database containing orbital data and trajectory information on all these events has recently been compiled and is currently being mined for information. Preliminary results are presented here.

  11. Analysis of Synchronization Impairments for Cooperative Base Stations Using OFDM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Manolakis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Base station cooperation is envisioned as a key technology for future cellular networks, as it has the potential to eliminate intercell interference and to enhance spectral efficiency. To date, there is still lack of understanding of how imperfect carrier and sampling frequency synchronization between transmitters and receivers limit the potential gains and what the actual system requirements are. In this paper, OFDM signal model is established for multiuser multicellular networks, describing the joint effect of multiple carrier and sampling frequency offsets. It is shown that the impact of sampling offsets is much smaller than the impact of carrier frequency offsets. The model is extended to the downlink of base-coordinated networks and closed-form expressions are derived for the mean power of users’ self-signal, interuser, and intercarrier interference, whereas it is shown that interuser interference is the main source of degradation. The SIR is inverse to the base stations’ carrier frequency variance and to the square of time since the last precoder update, whereas it grows with the number of base stations and drops with the number of users. Through user selection, the derived SIR upper bound can be approached. Finally, system design recommendations for meeting synchronization requirements are provided.

  12. Nuclear Station Facilities Improvement Planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooks, R. W.; Lunardini, A. L.; Zaben, O.

    1991-01-01

    An effective facilities improvement program will include a plan for the temporary relocation of personnel during the construction of an adjoining service building addition. Since the smooth continuation of plant operation is of paramount importance, the phasing plan is established to minimize the disruptions in day-to-day station operation and administration. This plan should consider the final occupancy arrangements and the transition to the new structure; for example, computer hookup and phase-in should be considered. The nuclear industry is placing more emphasis on safety and reliability of nuclear power plants. In order to do this, more emphasis is placed on operations and maintenance. This results in increased size of managerial, technical and maintenance staffs. This in turn requires improved office and service facilities. The facilities that require improvement may include training areas, rad waste processing and storage facilities, and maintenance facilities. This paper discusses an approach for developing an effective program to plan and implement these projects. These improvement projects can range in magnitude from modifying a simple system to building a new structure to allocating space for a future project. This paper addresses the planning required for the new structures with emphasis on site location, space allocation, and internal layout. Since facility planning has recently been completed by Sargent and Leyden at six U. S. nuclear stations, specific examples from some of those plants are presented. Site planning and the establishment of long-range goals are of the utmost importance when undertaking a facilities improvement program for a nuclear station. A plan that considers the total site usage will enhance the value of both the new and existing facilities. Proper planning at the beginning of the program can minimize costs and maximize the benefits of the program

  13. Arduino adventures escape from Gemini station

    CERN Document Server

    Kelly, James Floyd

    2013-01-01

    Arduino Adventures: Escape from Gemini Station provides a fun introduction to the Arduino microcontroller by putting you (the reader) into the action of a science fiction adventure story.  You'll find yourself following along as Cade and Elle explore Gemini Station-an orbiting museum dedicated to preserving and sharing technology throughout the centuries. Trouble ensues. The station is evacuated, including Cade and Elle's class that was visiting the station on a field trip. Cade and Elle don't make it aboard their shuttle and are trapped on the station along with a friendly artificial intellig

  14. A customer-friendly Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivirotto, D. S.

    1984-01-01

    This paper discusses the relationship of customers to the Space Station Program currently being defined by NASA. Emphasis is on definition of the Program such that the Space Station will be conducive to use by customers, that is by people who utilize the services provided by the Space Station and its associated platforms and vehicles. Potential types of customers are identified. Scenarios are developed for ways in which different types of customers can utilize the Space Station. Both management and technical issues involved in making the Station 'customer friendly' are discussed.

  15. Transceiver for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzmaurice, M.; Bruno, R.

    1990-07-01

    This paper describes the design of the Laser Communication Transceiver (LCT) system which was planned to be flight tested as an attached payload on Space Station Freedom. The objective in building and flight-testing the LCT is to perform a broad class of tests addressing the critical aspects of space-based optical communications systems, providing a base of experience for applying laser communications technology toward future communications needs. The LCT's functional and performance requirements and capabilities with respect to acquisition, spatial tracking and pointing, communications, and attitude determination are discussed.

  16. Tracing Utopia in 'Utopia Station'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schwarzbart, Judith

    This paper will discuss how avant-garde rhetoric and working methods are used to rethink exhibition-making in the wake of the ‘relational aesthetics’ and visual art of the 90s. With Utopia Station curated by Molly Nesbit, Hans Ulrich Obrist, and Rirkrit Tiravanija as key example, we will look...... at the many layers of discourse, ‘thinking-in-process’ and collaboration. These processes led to particular presentational formats (display) and architectural frameworks for activities, and gave way to a variety of other material and situated performative modes of audience encounters. Here, we can trace avant...

  17. Plant diagnostics in power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, A.; Doering, D.

    1985-01-01

    The method of noise diagnostics is dealt with as a part of plant diagnostics in nuclear power stations. The following special applications are presented: (1) The modular noise diagnostics system is used for monitoring primary coolant circuits and detecting abnormal processes due to mechanical vibrations, loose parts or leaks. (2) The diagnostics of machines and plants with antifriction bearings is based on bearing vibration measurements. (3) The measurement of the friction moment by means of acoustic emission analysis is used for evaluating the operational state of slide bearings

  18. Steam turbines for PWR stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muscroft, J.

    1989-01-01

    The thermodynamic cycle requirements and mechanical design features applying to modern GEC 3000 rev/min steam turbines for pressurised water reactor power stations are reviewed. The most recent developments include machines of 630 MW and 985 MW output which are currently under construction. The importance of service experience with nuclear wet steam turbines associated with a variety of types of water cooled reactor and its relevance to the design of modern 3000 rev/min turbines for pressurised water reactor applications is emphasised. (author)

  19. Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    of fuel delivered to Summit via LC-130 at a price of $32/gal. (Lever et al. 2016), the cost for constructing and maintaining the skiway for the 2014...CRREL TR-16-9 18 The costs associated with the Twin Otter include a day rate plus an hourly mission rate, a per passenger rate, airport fees, fuel, a...ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 6- 9 Engineering for Polar Operations, Logistics, and Research (EPOLAR) Summit Station Skiway Cost Analysis Co ld

  20. The APS optics topography station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasnicki, S.

    1996-01-01

    An in-house station for topographic testing of x-ray optical elements for the Advanced Photon Source experimental beamlines was set up by the Experimental Facilities Division of Argonne National Laboratory. A new double-crystal x-ray diffractometer was designed and built keeping in mind the need for testing large crystals possibly attached to cooling manifolds and lines. A short description of the new facility is given. The instrument performance fully satisfies imposed requirements, and the machine was successfully used for testing several silicon and diamond crystals