WorldWideScience

Sample records for stream water samples

  1. Physico-chemical characteristics of water sample from Aiba Stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed at assessing the effectiveness of solar distillation in purification of water. The water sample collected from Aiba stream was subjected to double slope solar water distillation unit. The physico- chemical characteristics of the raw sample and the distillate were determined using standard methods. The.

  2. Sampling procedure for lake or stream surface water chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Musselman

    2012-01-01

    Surface waters collected in the field for chemical analyses are easily contaminated. This research note presents a step-by-step detailed description of how to avoid sample contamination when field collecting, processing, and transporting surface water samples for laboratory analysis.

  3. Stream sediment sampling and analysis. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Means, J.L.; Voris, P.V.; Headington, G.L.

    1986-04-01

    The objectives were to sample and analyze sediments from upstream and downstream locations (relative to the Goodyear Atomic plant site) of three streams for selected pollutants. The three streams sampled were the Scioto River, Big Beaver Creek, and Big Run Creek. Sediment samples were analyzed for EPA's 129 priority pollutants (Clean Water Act) as well as isotopic uranium ( 234 U, 235 U, and 238 U) and technetium-99

  4. Synoptic sampling and principal components analysis to identify sources of water and metals to an acid mine drainage stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick; Runkel, Robert L; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2017-07-01

    Combining the synoptic mass balance approach with principal components analysis (PCA) can be an effective method for discretising the chemistry of inflows and source areas in watersheds where contamination is diffuse in nature and/or complicated by groundwater interactions. This paper presents a field-scale study in which synoptic sampling and PCA are employed in a mineralized watershed (Lion Creek, Colorado, USA) under low flow conditions to (i) quantify the impacts of mining activity on stream water quality; (ii) quantify the spatial pattern of constituent loading; and (iii) identify inflow sources most responsible for observed changes in stream chemistry and constituent loading. Several of the constituents investigated (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) fail to meet chronic aquatic life standards along most of the study reach. The spatial pattern of constituent loading suggests four primary sources of contamination under low flow conditions. Three of these sources are associated with acidic (pH mine water in the Minnesota Mine shaft located to the north-east of the river channel. In addition, water chemistry data during a rainfall-runoff event suggests the spatial pattern of constituent loading may be modified during rainfall due to dissolution of efflorescent salts or erosion of streamside tailings. These data point to the complexity of contaminant mobilisation processes and constituent loading in mining-affected watersheds but the combined synoptic sampling and PCA approach enables a conceptual model of contaminant dynamics to be developed to inform remediation.

  5. Environmental DNA method for estimating salamander distribution in headwater streams, and a comparison of water sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katano, Izumi; Harada, Ken; Doi, Hideyuki; Souma, Rio; Minamoto, Toshifumi

    2017-01-01

    Environmental DNA (eDNA) has recently been used for detecting the distribution of macroorganisms in various aquatic habitats. In this study, we applied an eDNA method to estimate the distribution of the Japanese clawed salamander, Onychodactylus japonicus, in headwater streams. Additionally, we compared the detection of eDNA and hand-capturing methods used for determining the distribution of O. japonicus. For eDNA detection, we designed a qPCR primer/probe set for O. japonicus using the 12S rRNA region. We detected the eDNA of O. japonicus at all sites (with the exception of one), where we also observed them by hand-capturing. Additionally, we detected eDNA at two sites where we were unable to observe individuals using the hand-capturing method. Moreover, we found that eDNA concentrations and detection rates of the two water sampling areas (stream surface and under stones) were not significantly different, although the eDNA concentration in the water under stones was more varied than that on the surface. We, therefore, conclude that eDNA methods could be used to determine the distribution of macroorganisms inhabiting headwater systems by using samples collected from the surface of the water.

  6. Evolution of concentration-discharge relations revealed by high frequency diurnal sampling of stream water during spring snowmelt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olshansky, Y.; White, A. M.; Thompson, M.; Moravec, B. G.; McIntosh, J. C.; Chorover, J.

    2017-12-01

    Concentration discharge (C-Q) relations contain potentially important information on critical zone (CZ) processes including: weathering reactions, water flow paths and nutrient export. To examine the C-Q relations in a small (3.3 km2) headwater catchment - La Jara Creek located in the Jemez River Basin Critical Zone Observatory, daily, diurnal stream water samples were collected during spring snow melt 2017, from two flumes located in outlets of the La Jara Creek and a high elevation zero order basin within this catchment. Previous studies from this site (McIntosh et al., 2017) suggested that high frequency sampling was needed to improve our interpretation of C-Q relations. The dense sampling covered two ascending and two descending limbs of the snowmelt hydrograph, from March 1 to May 15, 2017. While Na showed inverse correlation (dilution) with discharge, most other solutes (K, Mg, Fe, Al, dissolved organic carbon) exhibited positive (concentration) or chemostatic trends (Ca, Mn, Si, dissolved inorganic carbon and dissolved nitrogen). Hysteresis in the C-Q relation was most pronounced for bio-cycled cations (K, Mg) and for Fe, which exhibited concentration during the first ascending limb followed by a chemostatic trend. A pulsed increase in Si concentration immediately after the first ascending limb in both flumes suggests mixing of deep groundwater with surface water. A continual increase in Ge/Si concentrations followed by a rapid decrease after the second rising limb may suggest a fast transition between soil water to ground water dominating the stream flow. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of selected samples across the hydrograph demonstrated pronounced changes in dissolved organic matter molecular composition with the advancement of the spring snow melt. X-ray micro-spectroscopy of colloidal material isolated from the collected water samples indicated a significant role for organic matter in the transport of inorganic colloids. Analyses of high

  7. Methods to characterize environmental settings of stream and groundwater sampling sites for National Water-Quality Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagaki, Naomi; Hitt, Kerie J.; Price, Curtis V.; Falcone, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Characterization of natural and anthropogenic features that define the environmental settings of sampling sites for streams and groundwater, including drainage basins and groundwater study areas, is an essential component of water-quality and ecological investigations being conducted as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment program. Quantitative characterization of environmental settings, combined with physical, chemical, and biological data collected at sampling sites, contributes to understanding the status of, and influences on, water-quality and ecological conditions. To support studies for the National Water-Quality Assessment program, a geographic information system (GIS) was used to develop a standard set of methods to consistently characterize the sites, drainage basins, and groundwater study areas across the nation. This report describes three methods used for characterization-simple overlay, area-weighted areal interpolation, and land-cover-weighted areal interpolation-and their appropriate applications to geographic analyses that have different objectives and data constraints. In addition, this document records the GIS thematic datasets that are used for the Program's national design and data analyses.

  8. Synoptic sampling and principal components analysis to identify sources of water and metals to an acid mine drainage stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrne, Patrick; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Combining the synoptic mass balance approach with principal components analysis (PCA) can be an effective method for discretising the chemistry of inflows and source areas in watersheds where contamination is diffuse in nature and/or complicated by groundwater interactions. This paper presents a field-scale study in which synoptic sampling and PCA are employed in a mineralized watershed (Lion Creek, Colorado, USA) under low flow conditions to (i) quantify the impacts of mining activity on stream water quality; (ii) quantify the spatial pattern of constituent loading; and (iii) identify inflow sources most responsible for observed changes in stream chemistry and constituent loading. Several of the constituents investigated (Al, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn) fail to meet chronic aquatic life standards along most of the study reach. The spatial pattern of constituent loading suggests four primary sources of contamination under low flow conditions. Three of these sources are associated with acidic (pH metal and major ion) chemistry using PCA suggests a hydraulic connection between many of the left bank inflows and mine water in the Minnesota Mine shaft located to the north-east of the river channel. In addition, water chemistry data during a rainfall-runoff event suggests the spatial pattern of constituent loading may be modified during rainfall due to dissolution of efflorescent salts or erosion of streamside tailings. These data point to the complexity of contaminant mobilisation processes and constituent loading in mining-affected watersheds but the combined synoptic sampling and PCA approach enables a conceptual model of contaminant dynamics to be developed to inform remediation.

  9. Continuous sampling from distributed streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Cormode; Muthukrishnan, S.; Yi, Ke

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple distribu......A fundamental problem in data management is to draw and maintain a sample of a large data set, for approximate query answering, selectivity estimation, and query planning. With large, streaming data sets, this problem becomes particularly difficult when the data is shared across multiple...... distributed sites. The main challenge is to ensure that a sample is drawn uniformly across the union of the data while minimizing the communication needed to run the protocol on the evolving data. At the same time, it is also necessary to make the protocol lightweight, by keeping the space and time costs low...... for each participant. In this article, we present communication-efficient protocols for continuously maintaining a sample (both with and without replacement) from k distributed streams. These apply to the case when we want a sample from the full streams, and to the sliding window cases of only the W most...

  10. Developing Water Sampling Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental Science and Technology, 1974

    1974-01-01

    Participants in the D-19 symposium on aquatic sampling and measurement for water pollution assessment were informed that determining the extent of waste water stream pollution is not a cut and dry procedure. Topics discussed include field sampling, representative sampling from storm sewers, suggested sampler features and application of improved…

  11. How does observation uncertainty influence which stream water samples are most informative for model calibration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ling; van Meerveld, Ilja; Seibert, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Streamflow isotope samples taken during rainfall-runoff events are very useful for multi-criteria model calibration because they can help decrease parameter uncertainty and improve internal model consistency. However, the number of samples that can be collected and analysed is often restricted by practical and financial constraints. It is, therefore, important to choose an appropriate sampling strategy and to obtain samples that have the highest information content for model calibration. We used the Birkenes hydrochemical model and synthetic rainfall, streamflow and isotope data to explore which samples are most informative for model calibration. Starting with error-free observations, we investigated how many samples are needed to obtain a certain model fit. Based on different parameter sets, representing different catchments, and different rainfall events, we also determined which sampling times provide the most informative data for model calibration. Our results show that simulation performance for models calibrated with the isotopic data from two intelligently selected samples was comparable to simulations based on isotopic data for all 100 time steps. The models calibrated with the intelligently selected samples also performed better than the model calibrations with two benchmark sampling strategies (random selection and selection based on hydrologic information). Surprisingly, samples on the rising limb and at the peak were less informative than expected and, generally, samples taken at the end of the event were most informative. The timing of the most informative samples depends on the proportion of different flow components (baseflow, slow response flow, fast response flow and overflow). For events dominated by baseflow and slow response flow, samples taken at the end of the event after the fast response flow has ended were most informative; when the fast response flow was dominant, samples taken near the peak were most informative. However when overflow

  12. Synoptic sampling and principal components analysis to identify sources of water and metals to an acid mine drainage stream

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Patrick; Runkel, Robert L.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Combining the synoptic mass balance approach with principal components analysis (PCA) can be an effective method for discretising the chemistry of inflows and source areas in watersheds where contamination is diffuse in nature and/or complicated by groundwater interactions. This paper presents a field-scale study in which synoptic sampling and PCA are employed in a mineralized watershed (Lion Creek, Colorado, USA) under low flow conditions to (i) quantify the impacts of mining activity on str...

  13. Disc valve for sampling erosive process streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrochek, J.E.; Dinsmore, S.R.; Chandler, E.W.

    1986-01-07

    A four-port disc valve is described for sampling erosive, high temperature process streams. A rotatable disc defining opposed first and second sampling cavities rotates between fired faceplates defining flow passageways positioned to be alternatively in axial alignment with the first and second cavities. Silicon carbide inserts and liners composed of [alpha] silicon carbide are provided in the faceplates and in the sampling cavities to limit erosion while providing lubricity for a smooth and precise operation when used under harsh process conditions. 1 fig.

  14. How and Why Does Stream Water Temperature Vary at Small Spatial Scales in a Headwater Stream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, J. C.; Gannon, J. P.; Kelleher, C.

    2017-12-01

    The temperature of stream water is controlled by climatic variables, runoff/baseflow generation, and hyporheic exchange. Hydrologic conditions such as gaining/losing reaches and sources of inflow can vary dramatically along a stream on a small spatial scale. In this work, we attempt to discern the extent that the factors of air temperature, groundwater inflow, and precipitation influence stream temperature at small spatial scales along the length of a stream. To address this question, we measured stream temperature along the perennial stream network in a 43 ha catchment with a complex land use history in Cullowhee, NC. Two water temperature sensors were placed along the stream network on opposite sides of the stream at 100-meter intervals and at several locations of interest (i.e. stream junctions). The forty total sensors recorded the temperature every 10 minutes for one month in the spring and one month in the summer. A subset of sampling locations where stream temperature was consistent or varied from one side of the stream to the other were explored with a thermal imaging camera to obtain a more detailed representation of the spatial variation in temperature at those sites. These thermal surveys were compared with descriptions of the contributing area at the sample sites in an effort to discern specific causes of differing flow paths. Preliminary results suggest that on some branches of the stream stormflow has less influence than regular hyporheic exchange, while other tributaries can change dramatically with stormflow conditions. We anticipate this work will lead to a better understanding of temperature patterns in stream water networks. A better understanding of the importance of small-scale differences in flow paths to water temperature may be able to inform watershed management decisions in the future.

  15. Using high-frequency sampling to detect effects of atmospheric pollutants on stream chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen D. Sebestyen; James B. Shanley; Elizabeth W. Boyer

    2009-01-01

    We combined information from long-term (weekly over many years) and short-term (high-frequency during rainfall and snowmelt events) stream water sampling efforts to understand how atmospheric deposition affects stream chemistry. Water samples were collected at the Sleepers River Research Watershed, VT, a temperate upland forest site that receives elevated atmospheric...

  16. Relation between Streaming Potential and Streaming Electrification Generated by Streaming of Water through a Sandwich-type Cell

    OpenAIRE

    Maruyama, Kazunori; Nikaido, Mitsuru; Hara, Yoshinori; Tanizaki, Yoshie

    2012-01-01

    Both streaming potential and accumulated charge of water flowed out were measured simultaneously using a sandwich-type cell. The voltages generated in divided sections along flow direction satisfied additivity. The sign of streaming potential agreed with that of streaming electrification. The relation between streaming potential and streaming electrification was explained from a viewpoint of electrical double layer in glass-water interface.

  17. Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of water quality index and portability of Iguedo stream in Edo ... has been found functional in assessing the water quality of this stream based on the ... Key words: Water quality index, physicochemical parameters, Iguedo Stream.

  18. The effect of in-stream activities on the Njoro River, Kenya. Part I: Stream flow and chemical water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yillia, Paul T.; Kreuzinger, Norbert; Mathooko, Jude M.

    For shallow streams in sub-Saharan Africa, in-stream activities could be described as the actions by people and livestock, which take place within or besides stream channels. This study examined the nature of in-stream activities along a rural stream in Kenya and established the inequality in water allocation for various livelihood needs, as well as the negative impact they have on dry weather stream flow and chemical water quality. Seven locations along the stream were studied in wet and dry weather of 2006. Enumeration consisted of making head counts of people and livestock and tallying visitors at hourly intervals from 6 a.m. to 7 p.m. To estimate water abstraction, filled containers of known volume were counted and the stream was sampled to examine the impact on water quality. Water samples were obtained upstream and downstream of in-stream activities before (6 a.m.) and during (11 a.m., 6 p.m.) activities. Samples were analyzed for suspended solids, turbidity, BOD 5, total nitrogen and total phosphorus. The daily total abstraction at the middle reaches during dry weather was 120-150 m 3 day -1. More than 60% of abstraction was done by water vendors. Vended water from the stream was sold at US 3.5-7.5 per m 3 and vendors earned between US 3-6 a day. Abstracted water contributed approximately 40-60% of the total daily consumptive water use in the riparian area during dry weather but >30% of the morning stream flow was abstracted thereby upsetting stream flow in the lower reaches. The daily total water abstraction correlated positively ( R2, 0.98) and significantly ( p < 0.05) with the daily total human visit, which was diurnally periodic with two peaks, occurring between 9 a.m. and 10 a.m. and from 4 p.m. to 5 p.m. This diurnal pattern of visits and the corresponding in-stream activities affected water quality. In particular, suspended solids, turbidity and BOD 5 levels increased significantly ( p < 0.05) downstream during in-stream activities. It was concluded

  19. Sampling methods for amphibians in streams in the Pacific Northwest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Bruce Bury; Paul Stephen. Corn

    1991-01-01

    Methods describing how to sample aquatic and semiaquatic amphibians in small streams and headwater habitats in the Pacific Northwest are presented. We developed a technique that samples 10-meter stretches of selected streams, which was adequate to detect presence or absence of amphibian species and provided sample sizes statistically sufficient to compare abundance of...

  20. 244-AR vault cooling water stream-specific report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-08-01

    The proposed wastestream designation for the 244-AR Vault cooling water wastestream is that this stream is not a dangerous waste, pursuant to the Washington (State) Administration Code (WAC) 173-303, Dangerous Waste Regulations. A combination of process knowledge and sampling data was used to make this determination. 21 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Estimation of river and stream temperature trends under haphazard sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Brian R.; Lyubchich, Vyacheslav; Gel, Yulia R.; Rogala, James T.; Robertson, Dale M.; Wei, Xiaoqiao

    2015-01-01

    Long-term temporal trends in water temperature in rivers and streams are typically estimated under the assumption of evenly-spaced space-time measurements. However, sampling times and dates associated with historical water temperature datasets and some sampling designs may be haphazard. As a result, trends in temperature may be confounded with trends in time or space of sampling which, in turn, may yield biased trend estimators and thus unreliable conclusions. We address this concern using multilevel (hierarchical) linear models, where time effects are allowed to vary randomly by day and date effects by year. We evaluate the proposed approach by Monte Carlo simulations with imbalance, sparse data and confounding by trend in time and date of sampling. Simulation results indicate unbiased trend estimators while results from a case study of temperature data from the Illinois River, USA conform to river thermal assumptions. We also propose a new nonparametric bootstrap inference on multilevel models that allows for a relatively flexible and distribution-free quantification of uncertainties. The proposed multilevel modeling approach may be elaborated to accommodate nonlinearities within days and years when sampling times or dates typically span temperature extremes.

  2. Reactor water sampling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamaki, Kazuo.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention concerns a reactor water sampling device for sampling reactor water in an in-core monitor (neutron measuring tube) housing in a BWR type reactor. The upper end portion of a drain pipe of the reactor water sampling device is attached detachably to an in-core monitor flange. A push-up rod is inserted in the drain pipe vertically movably. A sampling vessel and a vacuum pump are connected to the lower end of the drain pipe. A vacuum pump is operated to depressurize the inside of the device and move the push-up rod upwardly. Reactor water in the in-core monitor housing flows between the drain pipe and the push-up rod and flows into the sampling vessel. With such a constitution, reactor water in the in-core monitor housing can be sampled rapidly with neither opening the lid of the reactor pressure vessel nor being in contact with air. Accordingly, operator's exposure dose can be reduced. (I.N.)

  3. Sampling the stream landscape: Improving the applicability of an ecoregion-level capture probability model for stream fishes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollenhauer, Robert; Mouser, Joshua B.; Brewer, Shannon K.

    2018-01-01

    Temporal and spatial variability in streams result in heterogeneous gear capture probability (i.e., the proportion of available individuals identified) that confounds interpretation of data used to monitor fish abundance. We modeled tow-barge electrofishing capture probability at multiple spatial scales for nine Ozark Highland stream fishes. In addition to fish size, we identified seven reach-scale environmental characteristics associated with variable capture probability: stream discharge, water depth, conductivity, water clarity, emergent vegetation, wetted width–depth ratio, and proportion of riffle habitat. The magnitude of the relationship between capture probability and both discharge and depth varied among stream fishes. We also identified lithological characteristics among stream segments as a coarse-scale source of variable capture probability. The resulting capture probability model can be used to adjust catch data and derive reach-scale absolute abundance estimates across a wide range of sampling conditions with similar effort as used in more traditional fisheries surveys (i.e., catch per unit effort). Adjusting catch data based on variable capture probability improves the comparability of data sets, thus promoting both well-informed conservation and management decisions and advances in stream-fish ecology.

  4. Effectiveness of stream-sediment sampling along the Rio Ojo Caliente, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenrich-Verbeek, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    During 1976 a detailed geochemical study was conducted of the water and stream sediments in the tributaries of the Rio Ojo Caliente above the USGS gaging station 4 km below La Madera to determine: (1) the source of the anomaly in the water and (2) why the stream sediment samples did not contain a corresponding anomaly. The low uranium content of the stream sediments from these high uranium waters can be explained by (1) the presence of a ground water source for the uranium and (2) insufficient time for the uranium in the water to be adsorbed onto the sediments. Although a stream sediment anomaly in the streams containing high uranium waters can not be established with a size fraction less than 150 μm, enough uranium has been adsorbed by the fine fraction that a small local anomaly can be outlined using only the fraction size less than 90 μm. Thus, because adsorption appears to be a major control on the uranium in the fine fraction and detrital minerals control the uranium in the coarse fraction, if it is assumed that buried deposits are of prime importance because most surface deposits have been recognized, then sampling should be restricted to the fine fraction (less than 90 μm). Nevertheless, in a case where ground water is the contributing source for uranium, as was shown above by the low anomalous uranium values, even in the fine fraction, stream sediment sampling alone is not an effective technique for detecting uranium anomalies. This emphasizes the necessity of water sampling in conjunction with stream-sediment sampling

  5. Results of Macroinvertebrate Sampling Conducted at 33 SRS Stream Locations, July--August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    1994-12-01

    In order to assess the health of the macroinvertebrate communities of SRS streams, the macroinvertebrate communities at 30 stream locations on SRS were sampled during the summer of 1993, using Hester-Dendy multiplate samplers. In addition, three off-site locations in the Upper Three Runs drainage were sampled in order to assess the potential for impact from off-site activities. In interpreting the data, it is important to recognize that these data were from a single set of collections. Macroinvertebrate communities often undergo considerable temporal variation, and are also greatly influenced by such factors as water depth, water velocity, and available habitat. These stations were selected with the intent of developing an on-going sampling program at a smaller number of stations, with the selection of the stations to be based largely upon the results of this preliminary sampling program. When stations within a given stream showed similar results, fewer stations would be sampled in the future. Similarly, if a stream appeared to be perturbed, additional stations or chemical analyses might be added so that the source of the perturbation could be identified. In general, unperturbed streams will contain more taxa than perturbed streams, and the distribution of taxa among orders or families will differ. Some groups of macroinvertebrates, such as Ephemeroptera (mayflies), Plecoptera (stoneflies) and Trichoptera (caddisflies), which are collectively called EPT taxa, are considered to be relatively sensitive to most kinds of stream perturbation; therefore a reduced number of EPT taxa generally indicates that the stream has been subject to chemical or physical stressors. In coastal plain streams, EPT taxa are generally less dominant than in streams with rocky substrates, while Chironomidae (midges) are more abundant. (Abstract Truncated)

  6. chemical and microbiological assessment of surface water samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF EKWUEME

    were investigated in this study: Nine samples from different surface water bodies, two samples from two effluent sources ... Ezeagu, Udi, Nkanu, Oji River and some parts of Awgu and Aninri ..... Study of Stream Output from Small Catchments.

  7. Identify the dominant variables to predict stream water temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, H.; Flagler, J.

    2016-12-01

    Stream water temperature is a critical variable controlling water quality and the health of aquatic ecosystems. Accurate prediction of water temperature and the assessment of the impacts of environmental variables on water temperature variation are critical for water resources management, particularly in the context of water quality and aquatic ecosystem sustainability. The objective of this study is to measure stream water temperature and air temperature and to examine the importance of streamflow on stream water temperature prediction. The measured stream water temperature and air temperature will be used to test two hypotheses: 1) streamflow is a relatively more important factor than air temperature in regulating water temperature, and 2) by combining air temperature and streamflow data stream water temperature can be more accurately estimated. Water and air temperature data loggers are placed at two USGS stream gauge stations #01362357and #01362370, located in the upper Esopus Creek watershed in Phonecia, NY. The ARIMA (autoregressive integrated moving average) time series model is used to analyze the measured water temperature data, identify the dominant environmental variables, and predict the water temperature with identified dominant variable. The preliminary results show that streamflow is not a significant variable in predicting stream water temperature at both USGS gauge stations. Daily mean air temperature is sufficient to predict stream water temperature at this site scale.

  8. Biological responses to acidification reversal in Cumbrian streamwaters - stream water chemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tipping, E.; Hardie, D.J.; Lawlor, A.J.; Lofts, S.; Simon, B.M.; Vincent, C.D. [Institute of Freshwater Ecology, Ambleside (United Kingdom)

    1999-07-01

    This reports summarises the findings of a study sampling the streams for invertebrates and comparing the results with those made in the 1960s and 1970s, The distribution of the bacterium Cytophaga was examined, and the results of the chemical analysis of the stream waters were compared with the results from previous years. The background to the study is traced, and details of the sampling and chemical analysis are given. Evidence of the reversal of acidification in the streams is considered.

  9. Testing a community water supply well located near a stream for susceptibility to stream contamination and low-flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart-Maddox, N. S.; Tysor, E. H.; Swanson, J.; Degon, A.; Howard, J.; Tsinnajinnie, L.; Frisbee, M. D.; Wilson, J. L.; Newman, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    A community well is the primary water supply to the town of El Rito. This small rural town in is located in a semi-arid, mountainous portion of northern New Mexico where water is scarce. The well is 72 meters from a nearby intermittent stream. Initial tritium sampling suggests a groundwater connection between the stream and well. The community is concerned with the sustainability and future quality of the well water. If this well is as tightly connected to the stream as the tritium data suggests, then the well is potentially at risk due to upstream contamination and the impacts of extended drought. To examine this, we observed the well over a two-week period performing pump and recovery tests, electrical resistivity surveys, and physical observations of the nearby stream. We also collected general chemistry, stable isotope and radon samples from the well and stream. Despite the large well diameter, our pump test data exhibited behavior similar to a Theis curve, but the rate of drawdown decreased below the Theis curve late in the test. This decrease suggests that the aquifer is being recharged, possibly through delayed yield, upwelling of groundwater, or from the stream. The delayed yield hypothesis is supported by our electrical resistivity surveys, which shows very little change in the saturated zone over the course of the pump test, and by low values of pump-test estimated aquifer storativity. Observations of the nearby stream showed no change in stream-water level throughout the pump test. Together this data suggests that the interaction between the stream and the well is low, but recharge could be occurring through other mechanisms such as delayed yield. Additional pump tests of longer duration are required to determine the exact nature of the aquifer and its communication with the well.

  10. Stream-Groundwater Interaction Buffers Seasonal Changes in Urban Stream Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, S. H.; Lautz, L. K.

    2013-12-01

    Urban streams in the northeastern United States have large road salt inputs during winter, increased nonpoint sources of inorganic nitrogen, and decreased short-term and permanent storage of nutrients. Meadowbrook Creek, a first order stream in Syracuse, New York, flows along a negative urbanization gradient, from a channelized and armored stream running through the middle of a roadway to a pool-riffle stream meandering through a broad, vegetated floodplain with a riparian aquifer. In this study we investigated how reconnection to groundwater and introduction of riparian vegetation impacted surface water chemistry by making bi-weekly longitudinal surveys of stream water chemistry in the creek from May 2012 until June 2013. Chloride concentrations in the upstream, urban reach of Meadowbrook Creek were strongly influenced by discharge of road salt to the creek during snow melt events in winter and by the chemistry of water draining an upstream retention basin in summer. Chloride concentrations ranged from 161.2 mg/L in August to 2172 mg/L in February. Chloride concentrations in the downstream, 'connected' reach had less temporal variation, ranging from 252.0 mg/L in August to 1049 mg/L in January, and were buffered by groundwater discharge, as the groundwater chloride concentrations during the sampling period ranged from 84.0 to 655.4 mg/L. Groundwater discharge resulted in higher chloride concentrations in summer and lower concentrations in winter in the connected reach relative to the urban reach, minimizing annual variation. In summer, there was little-to-no nitrate in the urban reach due to a combination of limited sources and high primary productivity. In contrast, during the summer, nitrate concentrations reached over 1 mg N/L in the connected reach due to the presence of riparian vegetation and lower nitrate uptake due to cooler temperatures and shading. During the winter, when temperatures fell below freezing, nitrate concentrations in the urban reach

  11. In-stream Physical Heterogeneity, Rainfall Aided Flushing, and Discharge on Stream Water Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Pattiyage I A; Wai, Onyx W H

    2015-08-01

    Implications of instream physical heterogeneity, rainfall-aided flushing, and stream discharge on water quality control have been investigated in a headwater stream of a climatic region that has contrasting dry and wet seasons. Dry (low flow) season's physical heterogeneity showed a positive correlation with good water quality. However, in the wet season, physical heterogeneity showed minor or no significance on water quality variations. Furthermore, physical heterogeneity appeared to be more complementary with good water quality subsequent to rainfall events. In many cases stream discharge was a reason for poor water quality. For the dry season, graywater inputs to the stream could be held responsible. In the wet season, it was probably the result of catchment level disturbances (e.g., regulation of ephemeral freshwater paths). Overall, this study revealed the importance of catchment-based approaches on water quality improvement in tandem with in-stream approaches framed on a temporal scale.

  12. Application of regression model on stream water quality parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleman, M.; Maqbool, F.; Malik, A.H.; Bhatti, Z.A.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical analysis was conducted to evaluate the effect of solid waste leachate from the open solid waste dumping site of Salhad on the stream water quality. Five sites were selected along the stream. Two sites were selected prior to mixing of leachate with the surface water. One was of leachate and other two sites were affected with leachate. Samples were analyzed for pH, water temperature, electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), Biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), dissolved oxygen (DO) and total bacterial load (TBL). In this study correlation coefficient r among different water quality parameters of various sites were calculated by using Pearson model and then average of each correlation between two parameters were also calculated, which shows TDS and EC and pH and BOD have significantly increasing r value, while temperature and TDS, temp and EC, DO and BL, DO and COD have decreasing r value. Single factor ANOVA at 5% level of significance was used which shows EC, TDS, TCL and COD were significantly differ among various sites. By the application of these two statistical approaches TDS and EC shows strongly positive correlation because the ions from the dissolved solids in water influence the ability of that water to conduct an electrical current. These two parameters significantly vary among 5 sites which are further confirmed by using linear regression. (author)

  13. Operational forest stream crossings effects on water quality in the Virginia Piedmont

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace M. Aust; Matthew B. Carroll; M. Chad Bolding; Andy Dolloff

    2011-01-01

    Water quality indices were examined for paired upstream and downstream samples for 23 operational stream crossings and approaches during four periods. Stream crossings were (1) portable bridges (BRIDGE), (2) culverts backfilled with poles (POLE), (3) culverts with earth backfill (CULVERT), and (4) reinforced fords (FORD). The four operational periods were (1) prior to...

  14. Heavy metal contamination in stream water and sediments of gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the seasonal variation in heavy metal contamination of stream water and sediments in the gold mining area of Atakunmosa West local Government, Osun State, Nigeria. Twelve villages of prominence in illegal gold mining were selected for the study covering dry and wet seasons of 2012. Stream water ...

  15. Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in a high-mountain area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zelazny, Miroslaw; Astel, Aleksander; Wolanin, Anna; Malek, Stanislaw

    2011-01-01

    The present study deals with the application of the self-organizing map (SOM) technique in the exploration of spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water samples collected in the Chocholowski Stream Basin located in the Tatra Mountains (Poland). The SOM-based classification helped to uncover relationships between physical and chemical parameters of water samples and factors determining the quality of water in the studied high-mountain area. In the upper part of the Chocholowski Stream Basin, located on the top of the crystalline core of the Tatras, concentrations of the majority of ionic substances were the lowest due to limited leaching. Significantly higher concentration of ionic substances was detected in spring and stream samples draining sedimentary rocks. The influence of karst-type springs on the quality of stream water was also demonstrated. - Highlights: → We use SOM approach to explore physiochemical data for mountain waters. → Geologic structure and hydrological events impact water chemistry. → Limited leaching, typical of crystalline core, reflects in low water mineralization. → Sedimentary rocks are susceptible for leaching. → Eutrophication has not been shown to be a threat in the Chocholowska Valley. - Spatiotemporal dynamics of spring and stream water chemistry in unique high-mountain area was evaluated by the self-organizing map technique.

  16. Heavy-water extraction from non-electrolytic hydrogen streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeRoy, R.L.; Hammerli, M.; Butler, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Heavy water may be produced from non-electrolytic hydrogen streams using a combined electrolysis and catalytic exchange process. The method comprises contacting feed water in a catalyst column with hydrogen gas originating partly from a non-electrolytic hydrogen stream and partly from an electrolytic hydrogen stream, so as to enrich the feed water with the deuterium extracted from both the non-electrolytic and electrolytic hydrogen gas, and passing the deuterium water to an electrolyser wherein the electrolytic hydrogen gas is generated and then fed through the catalyst column. (L.L.)

  17. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment sampling for uranium in the sandstone environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenrich, K.J.

    1985-01-01

    Sandstone terranes commonly host uranium occurrences in the western United States. In addition, because sedimentary terranes, particularly shales and immature, not well cemented sandstone, contribute more sediment and soluble material than do plutonic, volcanic, or metamorphic terranes they are an excellent regime for hydrogeochemical and stream-sediment prospecting. Because of higher conductivity, and hence higher uranium content, of waters draining such environments the sampling need not be as precise nor the analytical detection limit as low as in other terranes to yield a successful survey. Nevertheless, reasonable preparation and care of the samples is recommended: (1) The water samples should be filtered through 0.45 μm membranes and acidified to a pH of less than 1. (2) Because the adsorption of uranium by organic material is so significant it is recommended that the reasonable finest stream-sediment fraction, 4 , conductivity, etc.) are useful in the data reduction towards the elimination of false anomalies. (author)

  18. Sampling, Splitting and Merging in Coinductive Stream Calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Niqui (Milad); J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan); C. Bolduc; J. Desharnais; B. Ktari

    2010-01-01

    textabstractWe study various operations for partitioning, projecting and merging streams of data. These operations are motivated by their use in dataflow programming and the stream processing languages. We use the framework of \\emph{stream calculus} and \\emph{stream circuits} for defining and

  19. Sampling, splitting and merging in coinductive stream calculus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Niqui (Milad); J.J.M.M. Rutten (Jan)

    2009-01-01

    htmlabstractWe study various operations for partitioning, projecting and merging streams of data. These operations are motivated by their use in dataflow programming and the stream processing languages. We use the framework of stream calculus and stream circuits for defining and proving properties

  20. Method and apparatus for transport, introduction, atomization and excitation of emission spectrum for quantitative analysis of high temperature gas sample streams containing vapor and particulates without degradation of sample stream temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckels, David E.; Hass, William J.

    1989-05-30

    A sample transport, sample introduction, and flame excitation system for spectrometric analysis of high temperature gas streams which eliminates degradation of the sample stream by condensation losses.

  1. Impact of sampling strategy on stream load estimates in till landscape of the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidon, P.; Hubbard, L.E.; Soyeux, E.

    2009-01-01

    Accurately estimating various solute loads in streams during storms is critical to accurately determine maximum daily loads for regulatory purposes. This study investigates the impact of sampling strategy on solute load estimates in streams in the US Midwest. Three different solute types (nitrate, magnesium, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)) and three sampling strategies are assessed. Regardless of the method, the average error on nitrate loads is higher than for magnesium or DOC loads, and all three methods generally underestimate DOC loads and overestimate magnesium loads. Increasing sampling frequency only slightly improves the accuracy of solute load estimates but generally improves the precision of load calculations. This type of investigation is critical for water management and environmental assessment so error on solute load calculations can be taken into account by landscape managers, and sampling strategies optimized as a function of monitoring objectives. ?? 2008 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  2. Reconnaissance study of uranium and fluorine contents of stream and lake waters, West Greenland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steenfelt, A.; Dam, E.

    1982-01-01

    The present study forms part of a current investigation on the applicability of geochemical methods in mineral exploration in Greenland. The sampling programme of 1981 comprised three parts: (1) A helicopter supported, low density, regional sampling (1 sample/30 km 2 ) of stream water and stream sediment in the area covered by map sheet 66 V.2, south-east of Soendre Stroemfjord. A total of 207 water samples was obtained. (2) Detailed sampling within a 20 km 2 area of lake and stream water (71 samples) from a camp at 66deg49'N, 25deg37'W, 25 km south-west of Soendre Stroemfjord. (3) Reconnaissance sampling, by boat, along the southern part of the west coast of Greenland. The aim of this reconnaissance was to obtain information on the character of the drainage systems and on the availability of sample media (water, stream sediment, aquatic moss) for geochemical exploration. A total of 195 water samples were collected. In addition, rust zones and areas of known mineralisation along the coast were sampled. (author)

  3. Contamination of water in Oliwski Stream after the flood in 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej-Łukowicz Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article pollution of stream waters with surface runoff from an urbanized area caused by an extremely high rainfall is discussed. The analyzes were carried out after the rainfall of the depth 152 mm which took place in Gdańsk on 14th and 15th July 2016. This extreme rainfall caused urban flooding, damage of several retention ponds and pollution of surface waters. In the article the results of physical and chemical analyzes of the water samples from Oliwski Stream, inflowing to the Gulf of Gdańsk at the beach in Jelitkowo, are presented. The samples were collected at six points along the Stream in order to evaluate potential pollution sources. The results of the study indicated elevated concentrations of phosphorus compounds and nitrates (V. Additionally, the concentrations of total suspended solids (TSS, solids granulometry and grain size distribution along the stream was investigated.

  4. Geology, Streamflow, and Water Chemistry of the Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Northern Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izuka, Scot K.; Ewart, Charles J.

    1995-01-01

    A study of the geology, streamflow, and water chemistry of Talufofo Stream Basin, Saipan, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, was undertaken to determine the flow characteristics of Talufofo Stream and the relation to the geology of the drainage basin. The Commonwealth government is exploring the feasibility of using water from Talufofo Stream to supplement Saipan's stressed municipal water supply. Streamflow records from gaging stations on the principal forks of Talufofo Stream indicate that peak streamflows and long-term average flow are higher at the South Fork gaging station than at the Middle Fork gaging station because the drainage area of the South Fork gaging station is larger, but persistent base flow from ground-water discharge during dry weather is greater in the Middle Fork gaging station. The sum of the average flows at the Middle Fork and South Fork gaging stations, plus an estimate of the average flow at a point in the lower reaches of the North Fork, is about 2.96 cubic feet per second or 1.91 million gallons per day. Although this average represents the theoretical maximum long-term draft rate possible from the Talufofo Stream Basin if an adequate reservoir can be built, the actual amount of surface water available will be less because of evaporation, leaks, induced infiltration, and reservoir-design constraints. Base-flow characteristics, such as stream seepage and spring discharge, are related to geology of the basin. Base flow in the Talufofo Stream Basin originates as discharge from springs near the base of limestones located in the headwaters of Talufofo Stream, flows over low-permeability volcanic rocks in the middle reaches, and seeps back into the high-permeability limestones in the lower reaches. Water sampled from Talufofo Stream during base flow had high dissolved-calcium concentrations (between 35 and 98 milligrams per liter), characteristic of water from a limestone aquifer. Concentrations of potassium, sodium, and chloride

  5. The role of headwater streams in downstream water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, R.B.; Boyer, E.W.; Smith, R.A.; Schwarz, G.E.; Moore, R.B.

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge of headwater influences on the water-quality and flow conditions of downstream waters is essential to water-resource management at all governmental levels; this includes recent court decisions on the jurisdiction of the Federal Clean Water Act (CWA) over upland areas that contribute to larger downstream water bodies. We review current watershed research and use a water-quality model to investigate headwater influences on downstream receiving waters. Our evaluations demonstrate the intrinsic connections of headwaters to landscape processes and downstream waters through their influence on the supply, transport, and fate of water and solutes in watersheds. Hydrological processes in headwater catchments control the recharge of subsurface water stores, flow paths, and residence times of water throughout landscapes. The dynamic coupling of hydrological and biogeochemical processes in upland streams further controls the chemical form, timing, and longitudinal distances of solute transport to downstream waters. We apply the spatially explicit, mass-balance watershed model SPARROW to consider transport and transformations of water and nutrients throughout stream networks in the northeastern United States. We simulate fluxes of nitrogen, a primary nutrient that is a water-quality concern for acidification of streams and lakes and eutrophication of coastal waters, and refine the model structure to include literature observations of nitrogen removal in streams and lakes. We quantify nitrogen transport from headwaters to downstream navigable waters, where headwaters are defined within the model as first-order, perennial streams that include flow and nitrogen contributions from smaller, intermittent and ephemeral streams. We find that first-order headwaters contribute approximately 70% of the mean-annual water volume and 65% of the nitrogen flux in second-order streams. Their contributions to mean water volume and nitrogen flux decline only marginally to about 55% and

  6. Effects of water removal on a Hawaiian stream ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinzie, R. A.; Chong, C.; Devrell, J.; Lindstrom, D.; Wolff, R.

    2006-01-01

    A 3-year study of Wainiha River on Kaua'i, Hawai'i, was carried out to determine the impact that water removal had on key stream ecosystem parameters and functions. The study area included a diversion dam for a hydroelectric plant that removes water at an elevation of 213 m and returns it to the stream about 6 km downstream at an elevation of 30 m. There were two high-elevation sites, one with undiverted flow and one with reduced flow, and two low-elevation sites, one with reduced flow and one with full flow restored. Monthly samples were taken of instream and riparian invertebrates and plants. When samples from similar elevations were compared, dewatered sites had lower concentrations of benthic photosynthetic pigments than full-flow sites, and benthic ash-free dry mass (AFDM) was higher at the two low-elevation sites regardless of flow. Benthic chlorophyll a (chl a) and AFDM were higher in summer months than in the winter. Benthic invertebrate abundance was highest at the full-flow, low-elevation site and benthic invertebrate biomass was highest at the full-flow, high-elevation site. Season had only marginal effects on abundance and biomass of benthic invertebrates. Diversity of benthic invertebrates was higher at the more-downstream sites. Abundance of drifting invertebrates was highest at the site above the diversion dam and generally higher in winter than in summer months. Biomass of drifting invertebrates was also highest at the above-dam site but there was little seasonal difference. Almost all parameters measured were lowest at the site just downstream of the diversion dam. The biotic parameters responded only weakly to flows that had occurred up to 1 month before the measurements were made. Flow, elevation, and season interact in complex ways that impact ecosystem parameters and functions, but water diversion can override all these environmental factors. ?? 2006 by University of Hawai'i Press All rights reserved.

  7. Monitoring of water quality of a stream at the Federal University of Pernambuco, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlyete Chagas de Araújo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cavouco stream is an affluent of Pernambuco’s main river, the Capibaribe, and has its source on the campus of the Federal University of Pernambuco (UFPE. The stretch of the river that runs within the university receives an influx of pollution in the form of chemicals, and household and hospital waste. In light of this situation, and hoping to mitigate it, the aim of this study was to analyze the water quality of this stream and to raise the academic community’s awareness regarding this issue. To this end, stream water samples were collected in two different periods (dry and rainy at five strategic points on campus. The water samples were sent to the Water Treatment Plant and to the Laboratory for Analysis of Mineral, Soil and Water of the UFPE where 16 physicochemical parameters were analyzed (temperature, turbidity, conductivity, total dissolved solids, pH, dissolved oxygen, ammonia, nitrite, nitrate, iron, manganese, cadmium, lead, copper, chromium, zinc according to the methodology of 21st Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater. The results show that the water of the Cavouco stream has a high load of pollution, with the points P2 and P5 being the most impacted. Additionally, the results of the Index of Water Quality for the Protection of Aquatic Life indicated that currently the stream has a low capacity for maintenance of aquatic life.

  8. Effects of forest harvest on stream-water quality and nitrogen cycling in the Caspar Creek watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randy A. Dahlgren

    1998-01-01

    The effects of forest harvest on stream-water quality and nitrogen cycling were examined for a redwood/Douglas-fir ecosystem in the North Fork, Caspar Creek experimental watershed in northern California. Stream-water samples were collected from treated (e.g., clearcut) and reference (e.g., noncut) watersheds, and from various locations downstream from the treated...

  9. Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M. F.; Eriksson, E.; Binning, P. J.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    The water quality of surface waters is threatened by multiple anthropogenic pollutants and the large variety of pollutants challenges the monitoring and assessment of the water quality. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify both point and diffuse sources of micropollutants impacting the water quality of a stream at catchment scale. Grindsted stream in western Jutland, Denmark was used as a study site. The stream passes both urban and agricultural areas and is impacted by severe groundwater contamination in Grindsted city. Along a 12 km reach of Grindsted stream, the potential pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along the stream and analyzed for general water quality parameters, inorganic constituents, pesticides, sulfonamides, chlorinated solvents, BTEXs, and paracetamol and ibuprofen. The latter two groups were not detected. The general water quality showed typical conditions for a stream in western Jutland. Minor impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 - 8.8 μg/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most frequently detected and some rarely detected pesticides in Danish water courses. The concentrations were generally consistent with other findings in Danish streams and in the range 0.01 - 0.09 μg/l; except for metribuzin-diketo that showed high concentrations up to 0.74 μg/l. The groundwater contamination at the pharmaceutical factory site, the drainage ditch and the waste deposits is similar in composition containing among others sulfonamides and chlorinated solvents (including vinyl

  10. Assessment of Heavy Metals in the Water of Sahastradhara Hill Stream at Dehradun, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar Bharti

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A study on heavy metals assessment in the water of Sahastradhara hill-stream was conducted with different five sites at significant differences. The present paper deals with the water quality status of Sahastradhara stream by the assessment of heavy metals. Heavy Metals were found in fluctuated trend from first upstream to last downstream. The values of almost all Heavy Metals were found in increasing manner especially after the fourth sampling site. After the third sampling station, a solid waste dumping site was found. So, there may be a relation between heavy metals in stream water and solid waste dumping site. Concentrations of all Heavy Metals at fourth and fifth sampling site were found very high. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/ije.v3i3.11076 International Journal of Environment Vol.3(3 2014: 164-172

  11. Mild desalination of various raw water streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, C.K.; Broek, W.B.P. van den; Loewenberg, J.; Koeman-Stein-N.E.; Heidekamp, M.; Schepper, W. de

    2015-01-01

    For chemical industries, fresh water availability is a pre-requisite for sustainable operation. However, in many delta areas around the world, fresh water is scarce. Therefore, the E4Water project (http://www.e4water.eu) comprises a case study at the Dow site in Terneuzen, The Netherlands, which is

  12. Time-Efficiency of Sorting Chironomidae Surface-Floating Pupal Exuviae Samples from Urban Trout Streams in Northeast Minnesota, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyssa M Anderson

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Collections of Chironomidae surface-floating pupal exuviae (SFPE provide an effective means of assessing water quality in streams. Although not widely used in the United States, the technique is not new and has been shown to be more cost-efficient than traditional dip-net sampling techniques in organically enriched stream in an urban landscape. The intent of this research was to document the efficiency of sorting SFPE samples relative to dip-net samples in trout streams with catchments varying in amount of urbanization and differences in impervious surface. Samples of both SFPE and dip-nets were collected from 17 sample sites located on 12 trout streams in Duluth, MN, USA. We quantified time needed to sort subsamples of 100 macroinvertebrates from dip-net samples, and less than or greater than 100 chironomid exuviae from SFPE samples. For larger samples of SFPE, the time required to subsample up to 300 exuviae was also recorded. The average time to sort subsamples of 100 specimens was 22.5 minutes for SFPE samples, compared to 32.7 minutes for 100 macroinvertebrates in dip-net samples. Average time to sort up to 300 exuviae was 37.7 minutes. These results indicate that sorting SFPE samples is more time-efficient than traditional dip-net techniques in trout streams with varying catchment characteristics.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1380.Published online: 17 October 2012.

  13. Radon in streams and ground waters of Pennsylvania as a guide to uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korner, L.A.; Rose, A.W.

    1977-06-01

    Radon-222, a daughter in the radioactive decay of uranium, has potential as a geochemical guide to uranium ores because of its chemical inertness and its relatively easy determination. The radon contents of 59 stream and 149 ground waters have been determined with a newly designed portable radon detector in order to test the method in uranium exploration. Radon contents of stream waters do not appear useful for reconnaissance uranium exploration of areas like Pennsylvania because of relatively rapid degassing of radon from turbulent waters, and because most radon is derived from nearby influx of ground waters into the streams. Radon in streams near uranium occurrences in Carbon and Lycoming counties is lower than many background streams. Radon in ground water is recommended as a reconnaissance method of uranium exploration because most samples from near mineralized areas are anomalous in radon. In contrast, uranium in ground waters is not anomalous near mineralized areas in Carbon County. Equations are derived to show the relation of radon in ground waters to uranium contents of enclosing rocks, emanation of radon from the solids to water, and porosity or fracture width. Limonites are found to be highly enriched in radium, the parent of radon. A model for detection of a nearby uranium ore body by radon measurement on a pumping well has been developed

  14. Water Quality in Tortum Stream and its Tributaries (Erzurum/Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mine KÖKTÜRK

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken with the aim of determining the effects of domestic waste and hydroelectric dams on water quality in the Tortum Stream and its tributaries. Water samples were taken monthly from nine sampling points of Tortum Stream and its tributaries between July 2012 and May 2013. Analyzed for temperature (°C, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO, total suspended solids (TSS, alkalinity, Ca, total hardness, sulfate (SO4, ammonia-nitrogen (N-NH3−, nitrite-nitrogen (N-NO2− and nitrate nitrogen (N-NO3− as well as total phosphorus (TP, total orthophosphate (TO, total iron and silica (SiO2 were carried out. Physical and chemical characteristics of Tortum Stream and its tributaries which were examined according to the Water Framework Directive and the Water Pollution Control Regulations. It can be said that the stream has a low water quality standard except for water temperature, dissolved oxygen and sulfate. The results showed that Tortum Stream and tributaries are under threat because of domestic waste, fertilizers and hydroelectric constructions.

  15. Comparison of active and passive sampling strategies for the monitoring of pesticide contamination in streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assoumani, Azziz; Margoum, Christelle; Guillemain, Céline; Coquery, Marina

    2014-05-01

    The monitoring of water bodies regarding organic contaminants, and the determination of reliable estimates of concentrations are challenging issues, in particular for the implementation of the Water Framework Directive. Several strategies can be applied to collect water samples for the determination of their contamination level. Grab sampling is fast, easy, and requires little logistical and analytical needs in case of low frequency sampling campaigns. However, this technique lacks of representativeness for streams with high variations of contaminant concentrations, such as pesticides in rivers located in small agricultural watersheds. Increasing the representativeness of this sampling strategy implies greater logistical needs and higher analytical costs. Average automated sampling is therefore a solution as it allows, in a single analysis, the determination of more accurate and more relevant estimates of concentrations. Two types of automatic samplings can be performed: time-related sampling allows the assessment of average concentrations, whereas flow-dependent sampling leads to average flux concentrations. However, the purchase and the maintenance of automatic samplers are quite expensive. Passive sampling has recently been developed as an alternative to grab or average automated sampling, to obtain at lower cost, more realistic estimates of the average concentrations of contaminants in streams. These devices allow the passive accumulation of contaminants from large volumes of water, resulting in ultratrace level detection and smoothed integrative sampling over periods ranging from days to weeks. They allow the determination of time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations of the dissolved fraction of target contaminants, but they need to be calibrated in controlled conditions prior to field applications. In other words, the kinetics of the uptake of the target contaminants into the sampler must be studied in order to determine the corresponding sampling rate

  16. Geochemical orientation survey of stream sediment, stream water, and ground water near uranium prospects, Monticello area, New York. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, A.W.; Smith, A.T.; Wesolowski, D.

    1982-08-01

    A detailed geochemical test survey has been conducted in a 570 sq km area around six small copper-uranium prospects in sandstones of the Devonian Catskill Formation near Monticello in southern New York state. This report summarizes and interprets the data for about 500 stream sediment samples, 500 stream water samples, and 500 ground water samples, each analyzed for 40 to 50 elements. The groundwater samples furnish distinctive anomalies for uranium, helium, radon, and copper near the mineralized localities, but the samples must be segregated into aquifers in order to obtain continuous well-defined anomalies. Two zones of uranium-rich water (1 to 16 parts per billion) can be recognized on cross sections; the upper zone extends through the known occurrences. The anomalies in uranium and helium are strongest in the deeper parts of the aquifers and are diluted in samples from shallow wells. In stream water, copper and uranium are slightly anomalous, as in an ore factor derived from factor analysis. Ratios of copper, uranium, and zinc to conductivity improve the resolution of anomalies. In stream sediment, extractable uranium, copper, niobium, vanadium, and an ore factor furnish weak anomalies, and ratios of uranium and copper to zinc improve the definition of anomalies. The uranium/thorium ratio is not helpful. Published analyses of rock samples from the nearby stratigraphic section show distinct anomalies in the zone containing the copper-uranium occurrences. This report is being issued without the normal detailed technical and copy editing, to make the data available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Reconnaissance Evaluation program

  17. Geochemical orientation survey of stream sediment, stream water, and ground water near uranium prospects, Monticello area, New York. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, A. W.; Smith, A. T.; Wesolowski, D.

    1982-08-01

    A detailed geochemical test survey has been conducted in a 570 sq km area around six small copper-uranium prospects in sandstones of the Devonian Catskill Formation near Monticello in southern New York state. This report summarizes and interprets the data for about 500 stream sediment samples, 500 stream water samples, and 500 ground water samples, each analyzed for 40 to 50 elements. The groundwater samples furnish distinctive anomalies for uranium, helium, radon, and copper near the mineralized localities, but the samples must be segregated into aquifers in order to obtain continuous well-defined anomalies. Two zones of uranium-rich water (1 to 16 parts per billion) can be recognized on cross sections; the upper zone extends through the known occurrences. The anomalies in uranium and helium are strongest in the deeper parts of the aquifers and are diluted in samples from shallow wells. In stream water, copper and uranium are slightly anomalous, as in an ore factor derived from factor analysis. Ratios of copper, uranium, and zinc to conductivity improve the resolution of anomalies. In stream sediment, extractable uranium, copper, niobium, vanadium, and an ore factor furnish weak anomalies, and ratios of uranium and copper to zinc improve the definition of anomalies. The uranium/thorium ratio is not helpful. Published analyses of rock samples from the nearby stratigraphic section show distinct anomalies in the zone containing the copper-uranium occurrences. This report is being issued without the normal detailed technical and copy editing, to make the data available to the public before the end of the National Uranium Reconnaissance Evaluation program.

  18. IMPACT OF MUNICIPAL LANDFILL SITE ON WATER QUALITY IN THE WŁOSANKA STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Włodzimierz Kanownik

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hydrochemical research conducted in the years 2007–2010 comprised monitoring of the Włosanka stream waters and leachate waters from the municipal landfill in Kulerzów in the Malopolskie province. 16 leachate samples were collected from the container taking into consideration the vertical stratification of the quality and samples of water from the Włosanka stream in measurement points situated before and after the landfill. Concentrations of metals: calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, iron, manganese and heavy metals: chromium, zinc, copper, cadmium, nickel and lead were determined in the leachates and the stream water. Analysis of the studied metals in the leachates revealed that only potassium concentration exceeded the highest admissible value which is the condition of introducing sewage to water bodies or to soil. Water along the investigated reach of the Włosanka stream, both above and below the municipal landfill was of quality class 1. The landfill had no significant effect on the studied metal concentrations in the stream water – no statistically significant differences were registered between the concentrations of the studied metals (including heavy metals either in the point above or below the landfill. However, statistical tests comparing values of metal concentrations in the landfill leachates with the stream water revealed that the concentrations of 7 out of 12 tested metals were significantly higher in the leachates. Therefore, the landfill site monitoring should be continued, leachate waters should be collected in the container and supplied to the sewage treatment plant to prevent any threat to human life and health, or to the environment.

  19. Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Woo-Jin; Ryu, Jong-Sik; Mayer, Bernhard; Lee, Kwang-Sik; Lee, Sin-Woo

    2014-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO 3 were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1–165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224–434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO 4 were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (δ 34 S SO4 and δ 18 O SO4 ) verified that the SO 4 in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ 15 N NO3 and δ 18 O NO3 ) indicated that NO 3 in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO 3 in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of δ 34 S SO4 and δ 15 N NO3 . This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes controlling the water chemistry of streams draining watersheds having different

  20. Evaluation of the Bacterial Status of Water Samples at Umudike Abia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    77.78%), Proteus spp.(66.67%), Serratia spp.(55.5%) and Vibro spp.(22.2%). The occurrence of the water borne pathogens appeared limited to the stream water samples, hence, continuous consumption without adequate treatment is potentially dangerous. Keywords: Water, rainwater, stream, bacteria, coliforms, pathogen ...

  1. Influence of climate on alpine stream chemistry and water sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foks, Sydney; Stets, Edward; Singha, Kamini; Clow, David W.

    2018-01-01

    The resilience of alpine/subalpine watersheds may be viewed as the resistance of streamflow or stream chemistry to change under varying climatic conditions, which is governed by the relative size (volume) and transit time of surface and subsurface water sources. Here, we use end‐member mixing analysis in Andrews Creek, an alpine stream in Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado, from water year 1994 to 2015, to explore how the partitioning of water sources and associated hydrologic resilience change in response to climate. Our results indicate that four water sources are significant contributors to Andrews Creek, including snow, rain, soil water, and talus groundwater. Seasonal patterns in source‐water contributions reflected the seasonal hydrologic cycle, which is driven by the accumulation and melting of seasonal snowpack. Flushing of soil water had a large effect on stream chemistry during spring snowmelt, despite making only a small contribution to streamflow volume. Snow had a large influence on stream chemistry as well, contributing large amounts of water with low concentrations of weathering products. Interannual patterns in end‐member contributions reflected responses to drought and wet periods. Moderate and significant correlations exist between annual end‐member contributions and regional‐scale climate indices (the Palmer Drought Severity Index, the Palmer Hydrologic Drought Index, and the Modified Palmer Drought Severity Index). From water year 1994 to 2015, the percent contribution from the talus‐groundwater end member to Andrews Creek increased an average of 0.5% per year (p < 0.0001), whereas the percent contributions from snow plus rain decreased by a similar amount (p = 0.001). Our results show how water and solute sources in alpine environments shift in response to climate variability and highlight the role of talus groundwater and soil water in providing hydrologic resilience to the system.

  2. High purity heavy water production: need for total organic carbon determination in process water streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayushi; Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R.; Vithal, G.K.

    2009-01-01

    In recent times, demand for high purity heavy water (99.98% pure) in industries and laboratories has grown by manifold. Its application started in nuclear industry with the design of CANDU reactor, which uses natural uranium as fuel. In this reactor the purest grade of heavy water is used as the moderator and the primary coolant. Diverse industrial applications like fibre optics, medicine, semiconductors etc. use high purity heavy water extensively to achieve better performance of the specific material. In all these applications there is a stringent requirement that the total organic carbon content (TOC) of high purity heavy water should be very low. This is because the presence of TOC can lead to adverse interactions in different applications. To minimize the TOC content in the final product there is a need to monitor and control the TOC content at each and every stage of heavy water production. Hence a simple, rapid and accurate method was developed for the determination of TOC content in process water samples. The paper summarizes the results obtained for the TOC content in the water samples collected from process streams of heavy water production plant. (author)

  3. Cover Crops for Managing Stream Water Quantity and Improving Stream Water Quality of Non-Tile Drained Paired Watersheds

    OpenAIRE

    Gurbir Singh; Jon E. Schoonover; Karl W. J. Williard

    2018-01-01

    In the Midwestern United States, cover crops are being promoted as a best management practice for managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural fields through surface and subsurface water movement. To date, the water quality benefits of cover crops have been inferred primarily from plot scale studies. This project is one of the first to analyze the impacts of cover crops on stream water quality at the watershed scale. The objective of this research was to evaluate nitrogen, phosphor...

  4. Does stream water chemistry reflect watershed characteristics?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chuman, Tomáš; Hruška, Jakub; Oulehle, Filip; Gürtlerová, P.; Majer, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 185, č. 7 (2013), s. 5683-5701 ISSN 0167-6369 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Anions * Cations * Land cover * Water quality * Geochemical reactivity * Czech Republic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.679, year: 2013

  5. Precipitation and stream water stable isotope data from the Marys River, Oregon in water year 2015.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Water stable isotope data collected from a range of streams throughout the Marys River basin in water year 2015, and precipitation data collected within the basin at...

  6. Water quality of some logged and unlogged California streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredric R. Kopperdahl; James W. Burns; Gary E. Smith

    1971-01-01

    Water quality was monitored in 1968 and 1969 in six coastal streams in northern California, four of which were subjected to logging and/or road building (Bummer Lake Creek, South Fork Yager Creek, Little North Fork Noyo River, and South Fork Caspar Creek), while the others remained undisturbed (Godwood Creek and North Fork Caspar Creek). The purposes of this study were...

  7. Heavy metal contamination in stream water and sediments of gold ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I.O.OLABANJI

    3D) with 0.457 ± 0.061 and 0.364 ± 0.056 mg/L in dry and wet seasons. The mean .... safe limit clearly indicating that Cd contamination of the stream water might be ... of lead contaminant in the study area is the formation of acid mine drainage.

  8. Stream water responses to timber harvest: Riparian buffer width effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton

    2011-01-01

    Vegetated riparian buffers are critical for protecting aquatic and terrestrial processes and habitats in southern Appalachian ecosystems. In this case study, we examined the effect of riparian buffer width on stream water quality following upland forest management activities in four headwater catchments. Three riparian buffer widths were delineated prior to cutting; 0m...

  9. Agriculture and stream water quality: A biological evaluation of erosion control practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenat, David R.

    1984-07-01

    Agricultural runoff affects many streams in North Carolina. However, there is is little information about either its effect on stream biota or any potential mitigation by erosion control practices. In this study, benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled in three different geographic areas of North Carolina, comparing control watersheds with well-managed and poorly managed watersheds. Agricultural streams were characterized by lower taxa richness (especially for intolerant groups) and low stability. These effects were most evident at the poorly managed sites. Sedimentation was the apparent major problem, but some changes at agricultural sites implied water quality problems. The groups most intolerant of agricultural runoff were Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera and Trichoptera. Tolerant species were usually filter-feeders or algal grazers, suggesting a modification of the food web by addition of particulate organic matter and nutrients. This study clearly indicates that agricultural runoff can severely impact stream biota. However, this impact can be greatly mitigated by currently recommended erosion control practices.

  10. Water Quality of Combined Sewer Overflows, Stormwater, and Streams, Omaha, Nebraska, 2006-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jason R.; Frankforter, Jill D.; Rus, David L.; Hobza, Christopher M.; Moser, Matthew T.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the City of Omaha, investigated the water quality of combined sewer overflows, stormwater, and streams in the Omaha, Nebraska, area by collecting and analyzing 1,175 water samples from August 2006 through October 2007. The study area included the drainage area of Papillion Creek at Capeheart Road near Bellevue, Nebraska, which encompasses the tributary drainages of the Big and Little Papillion Creeks and Cole Creek, along with the Missouri River reach that is adjacent to Omaha. Of the 101 constituents analyzed during the study, 100 were detected in at least 1 sample during the study. Spatial and seasonal comparisons were completed for environmental samples. Measured concentrations in stream samples were compared to water-quality criteria for pollutants of concern. Finally, the mass loads of water-quality constituents in the combined sewer overflow discharges, stormwater outfalls, and streams were computed and compared. The results of the study indicate that combined sewer overflow and stormwater discharges are affecting the water quality of the streams in the Omaha area. At the Papillion Creek Basin sites, Escherichia coli densities were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in 99 percent of the samples (212 of 213 samples analyzed for Escherichia coli) collected during the recreational-use season from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). Escherichia coli densities in 76 percent of Missouri River samples (39 of 51 samples) were greater than 126 units per 100 milliliters in samples collected from May through September (in 2006 and 2007). None of the constituents with human health criteria for consumption of water, fish, and other aquatic organisms were detected at levels greater than the criteria in any of the samples collected during this study. Total phosphorus concentrations in water samples collected in the Papillion Creek Basin were in excess of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's proposed

  11. Heated water jet in coflowing turbulent stream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shirazi, M.A.; McQuivey, R.S.; Keefer, T.N.

    1974-01-01

    Effects of ambient turbulence on temperature and salinity distributions of heated water and neutrally buoyant saltwater jets were studied for a wide range of densimetric jet Froude numbers, jet discharge velocities, and ambient turbulence levels in a 4-ft-wide channel. Estimates of vertical and lateral diffusivity coefficients for heat and for salt were obtained from salinity and temperature distributions taken at several stations downstream of the injection point. Readily usable correlations are presented for plume center-line temperature, plume width, and trajectory. The ambient turbulence affects the gross behavior characteristics of the plume. The effects vary with the initial jet Froude number and the jet to ambient velocity ratio. Heat and salinity are transported similarly and the finite source dimensions and the initial jet characteristics alter the numerical value of the diffusivity

  12. A multigear protocol for sampling crayfish assemblages in Gulf of Mexico coastal streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R. Budnick; William E. Kelso; Susan B. Adams; Michael D. Kaller

    2018-01-01

    Identifying an effective protocol for sampling crayfish in streams that vary in habitat and physical/chemical characteristics has proven problematic. We evaluated an active, combined-gear (backpack electrofishing and dipnetting) sampling protocol in 20 Coastal Plain streams in Louisiana. Using generalized linear models and rarefaction curves, we evaluated environmental...

  13. PCBs in Rain Water, Streams and a Reservoir in a Small Catchment of NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Martín, Jordi; Cereijo-Arango, José Luis; García-Morrondo, David; Juncosa-Rivera, Ricardo; Cillero-Castro, Carmen; Muñoz-Ibáñez, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) constitute a significant environmental concern due to its persistence, tendency to bio-accumulate, acknowledged toxicity and ubiquity. In the present study, a small water catchment (~100 km2) inclusive of a two-tailed water supply reservoir (Abegondo-Cecebre) has been monitored between 2009 and 2014. Sampling stations include: a) one precipitation gauge used to collect monthly-integrated bulk precipitation (25 samples); b) seven streams (95 samples); c) five surface and one bottom points within the reservoir (104 samples); d) five points for sediment sampling in two surveys (spring and summer; 10 samples). All the water samples as well as the leachates of sediment washing have been analyzed for their concentration in 6 marker PCB (congeners 28, 52, 101, 138, 153 and 180) and 12 dioxin-like PCB (congeners 77, 81, 105, 114, 118, 123, 126, 156, 157, 167, 169 and 189) compounds. The average concentration of PCBtot in the bulk precipitation during the sampling period is ~406 pg/L although a very significant decrease has occurred since the end of 2011 (~800 pg/L) to the end of 2014 (~60 pg/L). Likewise, the mean concentration of PCBtot in the stream water samples is 174 pg/L and a similar reduction in the concentration of PCBtot is also acknowledged for the same period of time (~250 pg/L before the end of 2011 and ~30 pg/L after then). Reservoir surface water has a PCBtot concentration of ~234 pg/L which, according to its sampling time (2010-2011) is consistent with the measured stream waters. However, deep reservoir water reveals an average concentration which is higher than the corresponding top water (~330 pg/L) but significantly smaller than the water-leached sediments (~860 pg/L). The available data suggest that up to a 30% of PCBs associated with precipitation becomes sequestered by the soil/sediment system while no significant change takes place during the transfer of water from the stream to the reservoir system, at least in

  14. Land-based sources of marine pollution: Pesticides, PAHs and phthalates in coastal stream water, and heavy metals in coastal stream sediments in American Samoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polidoro, Beth A; Comeros-Raynal, Mia T; Cahill, Thomas; Clement, Cassandra

    2017-03-15

    The island nations and territories of the South Pacific are facing a number of pressing environmental concerns, including solid waste management and coastal pollution. Here we provide baseline information on the presence and concentration of heavy metals and selected organic contaminants (pesticides, PAHs, phthalates) in 7 coastal streams and in surface waters adjacent to the Futiga landfill in American Samoa. All sampled stream sediments contained high concentrations of lead, and some of mercury. Several coastal stream waters showed relatively high concentrations of diethyl phthalate and of organophosphate pesticides, above chronic toxicity values for fish and other aquatic organisms. Parathion, which has been banned by the US Environmental Protection Agency since 2006, was detected in several stream sites. Increased monitoring and initiatives to limit non-point source land-based pollution will greatly improve the state of freshwater and coastal resources, as well as reduce risks to human health in American Samoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Passive sampling of bioavailable organic chemicals in Perry County, Missouri cave streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J Tyler; Adams, Ginny; Sharum, Martin; Steelman, Karen L

    2010-12-01

    Two types of passive samplers--semipermeable membrane devices (SPMDs) and polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS)--were deployed in spring 2008 to assess bioavailable concentrations of aquatic contaminants in five cave streams and resurgences in Perry County, Missouri. Study sites represent areas of high cave biodiversity and the only known habitat for grotto sculpin (Cottus carolinae). Time-weighted average (TWA) water concentrations were calculated for 20 compounds (n = 9 SPMDs; n = 11 POCIS) originating primarily from agricultural sources, including two organochlorine insecticides, dieldrin and heptachlor epoxide, which were found at levels exceeding U.S. EPA criteria for the protection of aquatic life. GIS data were used to quantify and map sinkhole distribution and density within the study area. Infiltration of storm runoff and its influence on contaminant transport were also evaluated using land cover and hydrological data. This work provides evidence of cave stream contamination by a mix of organic chemicals and demonstrates the applicability of passive samplers for monitoring water quality in dynamic karst environments where rapid transmission of storm runoff makes instantaneous water sampling difficult.

  16. innovation in radioactive waste water-stream management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, D.A.E.F.

    2010-01-01

    treatment of radioactive waste dtreams is receiving considereble attention in most countries. the present work is for the radioactive wastewater stream management, by volume reduction by a mutual heating and humidificaction of a compressed dry air introduced through the wastewater. in the present work, a mathematical model describing the volume reduction by at the optimum operating condition is determined. a set of coupled first order differential equations, obtained through the mass and energy conservations laws, are used to obtain the humidity ratio, water diffused to the air stream, water temperature, and humid air stream temperature distributions through the bubbling column. these coupled differential equations are simulataneously solved numerically by the developed computer program using fourth order rung-kutta method. the results obtained, according to the present mathematical model, revealed that the air bubble state variables such as mass transfer coefficient (K G ) and interfacial area (a) have a strong effect on the process. therefore, the behavior of the air bubble state variables with coulmn height can be predicted and optimized. moreover, the design curves of the volumetric reduction of the wastewater streams are obtained and assessed at the different operating conditions. an experimental setup was constructed to verify the suggested model. comperhensive comparison between suggested model results, recent experimental measurements and the results of previous work was carried out

  17. Fragmentation and quench behavior of corium melt streams in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Wang, K.; Blomquist, C.A.; McUmber, L.M.; Schneider, J.P.

    1994-02-01

    The interaction of molten core materials with water has been investigated for the pour stream mixing mode. This interaction plays a crucial role during the later stages of in-vessel core melt progression inside a light water reactor such as during the TMI-2 accident. The key issues which arise during the molten core relocation include: (i) the thermal attack and possible damage to the RPV lower head from the impinging molten fuel stream and/or the debris bed, (ii) the molten fuel relocation pathways including the effects of redistribution due to core support structure and the reactor lower internals, (iii) the quench rate of the molten fuel through the water in the lower plenum, (iv) the steam generation and hydrogen generation during the interaction, (v) the transient pressurization of the primary system, and (vi) the possibility of a steam explosion. In order to understand these issues, a series of six experiments (designated CCM-1 through -6) was performed in which molten corium passed through a deep pool of water in a long, slender pour stream mode. Results discussed include the transient temperatures and pressures, the rate and magnitude of steam/hydrogen generation, and the posttest debris characteristics

  18. Water's Journey from Rain to Stream in perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhe, Allan; Grip, Harald

    2015-04-01

    The International Hydrological Decade (IHD) 1965-1974, sponsored by UNESCO, initiated a research effort for coordinating the fragmented branches of hydrology and for understanding and quantifying the hydrologic cycle on various scales, from continents to small catchments. One important part of the Swedish IHD-program was to quantify the terms of the water budget, including detailed data on soil water and groundwater storage dynamics, of several medium sized to small. As an outcome of these studies and subsequent process oriented studies, a new view of the runoff process in forested till soils was developed in the 1970's, stressing the dominating role of groundwater in delivering water to the streams and the usefulness of subdividing catchments into recharge and discharge areas for groundwater for understanding the flowpaths of water. This view contrasted with the general view among the public, and also among professionals within the field and in text books, according to which overland flow is the main process for runoff. With this latter view it would, for instance, not be possible to understand stream water chemistry, which had become an important question in a time of growing environmental concern. In order to decrease the time lag between research results and practice, the Swedish Natural Science Research Council initiated a text book project for presenting the recent results of hydrologic research on stream flow generation applied to Swedish conditions, and in 1985 our book "Water's Journey from Rain to Stream" was published. Founded on the basic principles for water storage and flow in soils, the book gives a general picture of the water flow through the forested till landscape, with separate chapters for recharge and discharge areas. Chemical processes along the flowpaths of water are treated and the book concludes with a few applications to current issues. The book is written in Swedish and the target audience is those working professionally with water and

  19. StreamStats: A water resources web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Kernell G.; Guthrie, John G.; Rea, Alan H.; Steeves, Peter A.; Stewart, David W.

    2008-01-01

    Streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent flood, the mean flow, and the 7-day 10-year low flow, are used by engineers, land managers, biologists, and many others to help guide decisions in their everyday work. For example, estimates of the 1-percent flood (the flow that is exceeded, on average, once in 100 years and has a 1-percent chance of being exceeded in any year, sometimes referred to as the 100-year flood) are used to create flood-plain maps that form the basis for setting insurance rates and land-use zoning. This and other streamflow statistics also are used for dam, bridge, and culvert design; water-supply planning and management; water-use appropriations and permitting; wastewater and industrial discharge permitting; hydropower facility design and regulation; and the setting of minimum required streamflows to protect freshwater ecosystems. In addition, researchers, planners, regulators, and others often need to know the physical and climatic characteristics of the drainage basins (basin characteristics) and the influence of human activities, such as dams and water withdrawals, on streamflow upstream from locations of interest to understand the mechanisms that control water availability and quality at those locations. Knowledge of the streamflow network and downstream human activities also is necessary to adequately determine whether an upstream activity, such as a water withdrawal, can be allowed without adversely affecting downstream activities.Streamflow statistics could be needed at any location along a stream. Most often, streamflow statistics are needed at ungaged sites, where no streamflow data are available to compute the statistics. At U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) streamflow data-collection stations, which include streamgaging stations, partial-record stations, and miscellaneous-measurement stations, streamflow statistics can be computed from available data for the stations. Streamflow data are collected continuously at streamgaging stations

  20. Stream water chemistry after two forest fertilizations with Skog Vital in central Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ring, E.; Nohrstedt, H.Oe.

    1993-05-01

    A study was made of the impact of forest fertilization (non-nitrogenous mix) on the water chemistry of two streams, which drain catchment areas in east Haerjedalen in Sweden. In summer 1990, part of one of the catchment areas was fertilized by tractor at a dose of 0.6 tonnes per hectare, and part of the other by helicopter at a dose of 0.5 tonnes per hectare. The fertilizer contained base cations, sulphur, phosphorus, zinc and boron. Water samples were taken at a water-sampling station upstream of the treated area and at a water-sampling station downstream of the treated area. A total of 30 samples were made and the water was analysed for pH, alkalinity, nitrogen, phosphorus, base cations, aluminium and sulphate. Discharge was both measured and simulated, the latter using a runoff model. An estimate was made of the additional leaching resulting from fertilization. 13 refs, 12 figs, 6 tabs

  1. Use of neural networks for monitoring surface water quality changes in a neotropical urban stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Andréa Oliveira Souza; Silva, Priscila Ferreira; Sabará, Millôr Godoy; da Costa, Esly Ferreira

    2009-08-01

    This paper reports the using of neural networks for water quality analysis in a tropical urban stream before (2002) and after sewerage building and the completion of point-source control-based sanitation program (2003). Mathematical modeling divided water quality data in two categories: (a) input of some in situ water quality variables (temperature, pH, O2 concentration, O2 saturation and electrical conductivity) and (b) water chemical composition (N-NO2(-); N-NO3(-); N-NH4(+) Total-N; P-PO4(3-); K+; Ca2+; Mg+2; Cu2+; Zn2+ and Fe+3) as the output from tested models. Stream water data come from fortnightly sampling in five points along the Ipanema stream (Southeast Brazil, Minas Gerais state) plus two points downstream and upstream Ipanema discharge into Doce River. Once the best models are consistent with variables behavior we suggest that neural networking shows potential as a methodology to enhance guidelines for urban streams restoration, conservation and management.

  2. Evaluation of water quality at the source of streams of the Sinos River Basin, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Benvenuti

    Full Text Available The Sinos River Basin (SRB is located in the northeastern region of the state of Rio Grande do Sul (29º20' to 30º10'S and 50º15' to 51º20'W, southern Brazil, and covers two geomorphologic provinces: the southern plateau and the central depression. It is part of the Guaíba basin, has an area of approximately 800 km2 and contains 32 counties. The basin provides drinking water for 1.6 million inhabitants in one of the most important industrial centres in Brazil. This study describes different water quality indices (WQI used for the sub-basins of three important streams in the SRB: Pampa, Estância Velha/Portão and Schmidt streams. Physical, chemical and microbiological parameters assessed bimonthly using samples collected at each stream source were used to calculate the Horton Index (HI, the Dinius Index (DI and the water quality index adopted by the US National Sanitation Foundation (NSF WQI in the additive and multiplicative forms. These indices describe mean water quality levels at the streams sources. The results obtained for these 3 indexes showed a worrying scenario in which water quality has already been negatively affected at the sites where three important sub-basins in the Sinos River Basin begin to form.

  3. Potential Impacts of Organic Wastes on Small Stream Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, S. S.; Groffman, P. M.; Findlay, S. E.; Fischer, D. T.; Burke, R. A.; Molinero, J.

    2005-05-01

    We monitored concentrations of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), dissolved oxygen (DO) and other parameters in 17 small streams of the South Fork Broad River (SFBR) watershed on a monthly basis for 15 months. The subwatersheds were chosen to reflect a range of land uses including forested, pasture, mixed, and developed. The SFBR watershed is heavily impacted by organic wastes, primarily from its large poultry industry, but also from its rapidly growing human population. The poultry litter is primarily disposed of by application to pastures. Our monthly monitoring results showed a strong inverse relationship between mean DOC and mean DO and suggested that concentrations of total nitrogen (TN), DOC, and the trace gases nitrous oxide, methane and carbon dioxide are impacted by organic wastes and/or nutrients from animal manure applied to the land and/or human wastes from wastewater treatment plants or septic tanks in these watersheds. Here we estimate the organic waste loads of these watersheds and evaluate the impact of organic wastes on stream DOC and alkalinity concentrations, electrical conductivity, sediment potential denitrification rate and plant stable nitrogen isotope ratios. All of these water quality parameters are significantly correlated with watershed waste loading. DOC is most strongly correlated with total watershed waste loading whereas conductivity, alkalinity, potential denitrification rate and plant stable nitrogen isotope ratio are most strongly correlated with watershed human waste loading. These results suggest that more direct inputs (e.g., wastewater treatment plant effluents, near-stream septic tanks) have a greater relative impact on stream water quality than more dispersed inputs (land applied poultry litter, septic tanks far from streams) in the SFBR watershed. Conductivity, which is generally elevated in organic wastes, is also significantly correlated with total watershed waste loading suggesting it may be a useful indicator of overall

  4. A short report regarding the physicochemical properties of surface water quality in Karaçomak stream, Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şuţan, Nicoleta Anca; Mutlu, Ekrem; Yanik, Telat; Dobre, Raluca

    2016-04-01

    Within the scope of present study, the water quality of stream Karaçomak in Kastamonu-Turkey was investigated. Water samples were collected from 9 stations selected on Karaçomak stream, considering the pollution points and the points, where the entrance of water into stream is high. The samples taken were analyzed in terms of water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, saltiness, electrical conductivity, chemical composition and heavy metal content, and for their genotoxic and cytotoxic potential. Physicochemical evaluation indicated that all samples had heterogeneous intensity of environmental influence, but the considerable impact was noticed for the third and seventh stations. The present study highlights the need for continuous evaluation of water pollution level, and is intended to help in mitigating the environmental impacts and improve environmental performance.

  5. The influence of riparian woodland on the spatial and temporal variability of stream water temperatures in an upland salmon stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Malcolm

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal variability of stream water temperatures was investigated at six locations on the Girnock Burn (30km2 catchment, Cairngorms, Scotland over three hydrological years between 1998 and 2002. The key site-specific factors affecting the hydrology and climatology of the sampling points were investigated as a basis for physical process inference. Particular emphasis was placed on assessing the effects of riparian forest in the lower catchment versus the heather moorland riparian zones that are spatially dominant in the upper catchment. The findings were related to river heat budget studies that provided process detail. Gross changes in stream temperature were affected by the annual cycle of incoming solar radiation and seasonal changes in hydrological and climatological conditions. Inter-annual variation in these controlling variables resulted in inter-annual variability in thermal regime. However, more subtle inter-site differences reflected the impact of site-specific characteristics on various components of the river energy budget. Inter-site variability was most apparent at shorter time scales, during the summer months and for higher stream temperatures. Riparian woodland in the lower catchment had a substantial impact on thermal regime, reducing diel variability (over a period of 24 hours and temperature extremes. Observed inter-site differences are likely to have a substantial effect on freshwater ecology in general and salmonid fish in particular. Keywords: temperature, thermal regime, forest, salmon, hydrology, Girnock Burn, Cairngorm

  6. Water quality and ecological condition of urban streams in Independence, Missouri, June 2005 through December 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, D.; Harris, Thomas E.; Niesen, Shelley L.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the sources of selected constituents in urban streams and better understand processes affecting water quality and their effects on the ecological condition of urban streams and the Little Blue River in Independence, Missouri the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the City of Independence Water Pollution Control Department initiated a study in June 2005 to characterize water quality and evaluate the ecological condition of streams within Independence. Base-flow and stormflow samples collected from five sites within Independence, from June 2005 to December 2008, were used to characterize the physical, chemical, and biologic effects of storm runoff on the water quality in Independence streams and the Little Blue River. The streams draining Independence-Rock Creek, Sugar Creek, Mill Creek, Fire Prairie Creek, and the Little Blue River-drain to the north and the Missouri River. Two small predominantly urban streams, Crackerneck Creek [12.9-square kilometer (km2) basin] and Spring Branch Creek (25.4-km2 basin), were monitored that enter into the Little Blue River between upstream and downstream monitoring sites. The Little Blue River above the upstream site is regulated by several reservoirs, but streamflow is largely uncontrolled. The Little Blue River Basin encompasses 585 km2 with about 168 km2 or 29 percent of the basin lying within the city limits of Independence. Water-quality samples also were collected for Rock Creek (24.1-km2 basin) that drains the western part of Independence. Data collection included streamflow, physical properties, dissolved oxygen, chloride, metals, nutrients, common organic micro-constituents, and fecal indicator bacteria. Benthic macroinvertebrate community surveys and habitat assessments were conducted to establish a baseline for evaluating the ecological condition and health of streams within Independence. Additional dry-weather screenings during base flow of all streams draining Independence were conducted to

  7. The effects of human land use on flow regime and water chemistry of headwater streams in the highlands of Chiapas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Castillo M.M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We studied the effects of land use changes on flow regime and water chemistry of headwater streams in the highlands of Chiapas, a region in southern Mexico that has experienced high rates of deforestation in the last decades. Samples for water chemistry were collected and discharge was measured between September 2007 and August 2008 at eight streams that differed in the land uses of their riparian and catchment areas, including streams draining protected forested areas. Streams with high forest cover (>70% in their catchments maintained flow through the year. Streams draining more disturbed catchments exhibited reduced or no flow for 4 − 6 months during the dry season. Nitrate concentrations were lower at streams draining forested catchments while highest concentrations were measured where conventional agriculture covered a high proportion of the catchment and riparian zone. Highest phosphorus concentrations occurred at the catchment where poultry manure was applied as fertilizer. Differences between forest streams and those draining disturbed areas were correlated with the proportion of forest and agriculture in the riparian zone. Variation in stream variables among sampling dates was lower at the forest sites than at the more disturbed study streams. Conversion of forest into agriculture and urban areas is affecting flow regime and increasing nutrient concentrations, although the magnitude of the impacts are influenced by the type of agricultural practices and the alteration of the riparian zone.

  8. Environmental Monitoring, Water Quality - MO 2009 Stream Team Volunteer Water Quality Monitoring Sites (SHP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — This data set shows the monitoring locations of trained Volunteer Water Quality Monitors. A monitoring site is considered to be a 300 foot section of stream channel....

  9. Impacts of Catfish Effluents on Water Quality Parameters of Majidun Stream, South-West, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. E. Omofunmi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great concern about the level of safety of surface waters, especially in developing countries where there is an exponential increase in water pollution and water-borne diseases. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of catfish pond effluents on water quality of stream water where five catfish farms were located. Water samples were taken on monthly basis, 20 cm of below water surface from the streams that receive effluents from neighboring fishponds. Water quality indicators like dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5, nitrate, nitrite, water temperature, ammonia and Hydrogen ion Concentration (pH were examined in the sampled waters in accordance with the American Public Health Association standards. The average values of water quality indicators examined at effluents and non-effluents discharged sites of the stream indicated that water (24.6 ± 0.2, 24.2 ±0.1, (7.29±0.30, 7.30±0.10, (6.90±0.4, 7.07±0.1 mg/l, (0.40±0.04, 0.27±0.01, (3.77±0.26, 2.34±0.16 mg/l, (3.59±0.11, 2.80±0.02 mg/l and (3.51±0.24, 2.46±0.21 mg/l at (p≥0.05 respectively for temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, total ammonia, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, and BODs. They were significant differences (P 0.05 excepts temperature and pH, between values obtained at effluents discharged and non-effluents discharged sites, indicating that improper discharges of catfish pond effluents could resulted into environmental contamination

  10. Bivariate functional data clustering: grouping streams based on a varying coefficient model of the stream water and air temperature relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Li; X. Deng; Andy Dolloff; E. P. Smith

    2015-01-01

    A novel clustering method for bivariate functional data is proposed to group streams based on their water–air temperature relationship. A distance measure is developed for bivariate curves by using a time-varying coefficient model and a weighting scheme. This distance is also adjusted by spatial correlation of streams via the variogram. Therefore, the proposed...

  11. Insecticide toxicity to Hyalella curvispina in runoff and stream water within a soybean farm (Buenos Aires, Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mugni, H; Ronco, A; Bonetto, C

    2011-03-01

    Toxicity to the locally dominant amphipod Hyalella curvispina was assessed in a first-order stream running through a cultivated farm. Cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, endosulfan and glyphosate were sprayed throughout the studied period. Toxicity was assayed under controlled laboratory conditions with runoff and stream water samples taken from the field under steady state and flood conditions. Ephemeral toxicity pulses were observed as a consequence of farm pesticide applications. After pesticide application, runoff water showed 100% mortality to H. curvispina for 1 month, but no mortality thereafter. Toxicity persistence was shortest in stream water, intermediate in stream sediments and longest in soil samples. Runoff had a more important toxicity effect than the exposure to direct aerial fumigation. The regional environmental features determining fast toxicity dissipation are discussed. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Multivariate statistical techniques for the evaluation of surface water quality of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Riffat Naseem; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar

    2017-10-01

    Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan play an important role in living water supply and irrigation of farmlands; thus, the water quality is closely related to public health. Multivariate techniques were applied to check spatial and seasonal trends, and metals contamination sources of the Himalayan foothills streams, Pakistan. Grab surface water samples were collected from different sites (5-15 cm water depth) in pre-washed polyethylene containers. Fast Sequential Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Varian FSAA-240) was used to measure the metals concentration. Concentrations of Ni, Cu, and Mn were high in pre-monsoon season than the post-monsoon season. Cluster analysis identified impaired, moderately impaired and least impaired clusters based on water parameters. Discriminant function analysis indicated spatial variability in water was due to temperature, electrical conductivity, nitrates, iron and lead whereas seasonal variations were correlated with 16 physicochemical parameters. Factor analysis identified municipal and poultry waste, automobile activities, surface runoff, and soil weathering as major sources of contamination. Levels of Mn, Cr, Fe, Pb, Cd, Zn and alkalinity were above the WHO and USEPA standards for surface water. The results of present study will help to higher authorities for the management of the Himalayan foothills streams.

  13. Dynamics of physicochemical parameter concentrations in the Graniczna Woda stream water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Żarnowiec Wioletta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents variability of physicochemical parameter concentrations and determined the potential and chemical status of water in the Graniczna Woda stream, the right bank tributary to the Stoła River. The stream catchment area of 41.5 km2 is covered mainly by forests. A lowland stream flows through part of the Upper Silesia Industrial Region through three districts. A biological-mechanical municipal sewage treatment plant operates in the area of Miasteczko Śląskie, as well as a factory sewage treatment plant of Zinc Plant. The data base used in the papers consisted of the results obtained from the Provincial Inspectorate of the Environmental Protection in Katowice, monthly analyses of water samples collected in the years 2009–2013 in the control-measurement points located by the mouth of the Stoła River. 34 physicochemical indices were analyzed in the paper. Statistically significant upward trends were determined over the period of investigations for values of electrical conductivity (EC, total suspended solids, Cl, SO4, NO2-N and Zn in the stream water. Statistically significant downward trend was noted for total hardness. It was stated that both the potential and chemical status o the stream water were below good. Exceeded limit values for quality class II determined for oxygen and organic indices (chemical oxygen demand COD-Mn, total organic carbon TOC, salinity (EC, SO4, Cl, Ca, hardness and biogenic indices and substances particularly harmful for aquatic environment (Zn, Tl as well as exceeded allowable heavy metal concentrations may evidence a constant inflow of heavy metals to the aquatic environment of the Graniczna Woda stream from municipal and industrial sewage.

  14. High resolution stream water quality assessment in the Vancouver, British Columbia region: a citizen science study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shupe, Scott M

    2017-12-15

    Changing land cover and climate regimes modify water quantity and quality in natural stream systems. In regions undergoing rapid change, it is difficult to effectively monitor and quantify these impacts at local to regional scales. In Vancouver, British Columbia, one of the most rapidly urbanizing areas in Canada, 750 measurements were taken from a total of 81 unique sampling sites representing 49 streams located in urban, forest, and agricultural-dominant watersheds at a frequency of up to 12 times per year between 2013 and 2016. Dissolved nitrate (NO 3 -N) and phosphate (PO 4 -P) concentrations, turbidity, water temperature, pH and conductivity were measured by citizen scientists in addition to observations of hydrology, vegetation, land use, and visible stream impacts. Land cover was mapped at a 15-m resolution using Landsat 8 OLI imagery and used to determine dominant land cover for each watershed in which a sample was recorded. Regional, seasonal, and catchment-type trends in measurements were determined using statistical analyses. The relationships of nutrients to land cover varied seasonally and on a catchment-type basis. Nitrate showed seasonal highs in winter and lows in summer, though phosphate had less seasonal variation. Overall, nitrate concentrations were positively associated to agriculture and deciduous forest and negatively associated with coniferous forest. In contrast, phosphate concentrations were positively associated with agricultural, deciduous forest, and disturbed land cover and negatively associated with urban land cover. Both urban and agricultural land cover were significantly associated with an increase in water conductivity. Increased forest land cover was associated with better water quality, including lower turbidity, conductivity, and water temperature. This study showed the importance of high resolution sampling in understanding seasonal and spatial dynamics of stream water quality, made possible with the large number of

  15. Field-deployable, nano-sensing approach for real-time detection of free mercury, speciation and quantification in surface stream waters and groundwater samples at the U.S. Department of Energy contaminated sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campiglia, Andres D. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States); Hernandez, Florencio E. [Univ. of Central Florida, Orlando, FL (United States)

    2014-08-28

    The detrimental effects on human health caused by long-term exposure to trace contamination of toxic metals have been documented in numerous epidemiological and toxicological studies. The fact that metals are non-biodegradable and accumulate in the food chain poses a severe threat to the environment and human health. Their monitoring in drinking water, aquatic ecosystems, food and biological fluids samples is then essential for global sustainability. While research efforts employing established methodology continue to advance conceptual/computational models of contaminant behavior, the increasing awareness and public concern with environmental and occupational exposure to toxic metals calls for sensing devices capable to handle on-site elemental analysis in short analysis time. Field analysis with potable methodology prevents unnecessary scrutiny of un-contaminated samples via laboratory-bound methods, reduces analysis cost and expedites turnaround time for decision making and remediation purposes. Of particular toxicological interest are mercury and its species. Mercury is recognized as a major environmental pollution issue. The field-portable sensor developed in this project provides a unique and valuable tool for the on-site, real-time determination of inorganic mercury in surface waters. The ability to perform on-site analysis of mercury should prove useful in remote locations with difficult accessibility. It should facilitate data collection from statistically meaningful population sizes for a better understanding of the dose-effect role and the water-soil-plant-animal-human transfer mechanisms. The acquired knowledge should benefit the development of efficient environmental remediation processes, which is extremely relevant for a globally sustainable environment.

  16. Are the streams of the Sinos River basin of good water quality? Aquatic macroinvertebrates may answer the question

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bieger

    Full Text Available Macroinvertebrate communities are one of the most used groups in assessments of water quality, since they respond directly to the level of contamination of aquatic ecosystems. The main objective of this study was the assessment of the water quality of the Sinos River basin (Rio Grande do Sul state, Brazil through biotic indices based on the macroinvertebrate community ("Family Biotic Index - FBI", and "Biological Monitoring Working Party Score System - BMWP". Three lower order streams (2nd order were selected in each one of three main regions of the basin. In each stream, the samplings were performed in three reaches (upper, middle, and lower, totalling 27 reaches. Two samplings were carried in each reach over one year (winter and summer. A total of 6,847 macroinvertebrates distributed among 54 families were sampled. The streams from the upper region were of better water quality than the lower region. The water quality did not change between the upper, middle and lower reaches of the streams. However, the upper reaches of the streams were of better water quality in all the regions of the basin. The water quality of the streams did not vary between the summer and the winter. This result demonstrated that water quality may be analysed in both studied seasons (summer and winter using biotic indices. The analysis of the results allows us to conclude that the biotic indices used reflected the changes related to the water quality along the longitudinal gradient of the basin. Thus, aquatic macroinvertebrates were important bioindicators of the water and environmental quality of the streams of the Sinos River basin.

  17. Carcinogenic ptaquiloside in stream water at base flow and during storm events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strobel, Bjarne W.; Clauson-Kaas, Frederik; Hansen, Hans Chr. Bruun

    2017-01-01

    identified, of which the compound ptaquiloside (PTA) is the most abundant. Ptaquiloside has been shown to be highly water soluble, leachable from bracken fronds and litter, and present in the soil below bracken stands. During storm events throughfall from the bracken canopy was collected as well. Stream...... water samples were taken as grab samples, while throughfall accumulated in glass jars set out below the canopy. Field blanks and fortified lab controls were included to ensure reliability of the analysis. Ptaquiloside concentrations were determined using LC-MS/MS after a clean-up using solid phase...... extraction. Results showed that PTA levels in the stream were highly dependent on precipitation, and was rising considerably during rain events, peaking at 2.28 μg/L, before quickly (conservation...

  18. Effects of golf course construction and operation on water chemistry of headwater streams on the Precambrian Shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, Jennifer G.; Dillon, Peter J.

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the effects of golf course construction and operation on the water chemistry of Shield streams, we compared the water chemistry in streams draining golf courses under construction (2) and in operation (5) to streams in forested reference locations and to upstream sites where available. Streams were more alkaline and higher in base cation and nitrate concentrations downstream of operational golf courses. Levels of these parameters and total phosphorus increased over time in several streams during golf course construction through to operation. There was evidence of inputs of mercury to streams on two of the operational courses. Nutrient (phosphorus and nitrogen) concentrations were significantly related to the area of unmanaged vegetation in a 30 x 30 m area on either side of the sampling sites, and to River Bank Quality Index scores, suggesting that maintaining vegetated buffers along the stream on golf courses will reduce in-stream nutrient concentrations. - Golf course construction and operation had a significant impact on alkalinity, nitrogen and base cation concentrations of streams

  19. Storm water runoff-a source of emerging contaminants in urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, K.; Chen, C.; FitzGerald, K.; Badgley, B.

    2016-12-01

    Emerging contaminants (ECs) that refers to prescription, over-the-counter, veterinary, and illicit drugs in addition to products intended to have primary effects on the human body, such as sunscreens and insect repellants. Historically municipal wastewater treatment effluent has been considered to be the main source of ECs in aquatic environment. However, recent investigations have suggested urban storm water runoff as an important source of ECs in the environment. The objective of this multi-year study was to investigate the occurrence of a wide range of ECs and the special and temporal change of 4-Nonlyphenol (4-NP), an endocrine disruptor, in a stream solely impacted by the storm water runoff from Blacksburg, VA. Urban land cover has doubled during the past 15 years surrounding this. Water and sediment samples were collected periodically along the stream during a 3-year period and analyzed for 4-NP using a gas chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry and for EC screening using an ultra- performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. In addition, human-associated Bacteroides sp. (HF183) was analyzed to explore possible cross contamination between the sewer system and storm water collection system of the city. Fifteen ECs were detected in water samples from various locations along the stream at estimated levels ranging from low ppt to low ppb. The levels of 4-NP in the storm water sediment samples, ranging from 30-1500 µg/kg (d.w.), positively correlated with the levels of Human-associated Bacteroides sp. (HF183) in the storm water. Our study suggested: 1) collective urban activity and leaky urban sewer systems are significant sources of ECs in storm water runoff that are often untreated or with minimum treatment before flowing into urban streams; and 2) sediment transport and re-suspension can further releases accumulated ECs back into stream water during rain events, resulting in occurrence of ECs downstream and possibly in the receiving river. This

  20. Land-based sources of marine pollution: Pesticides, PAHs and phthalates in coastal stream water, and heavy metals in coastal stream sediments in American Samoa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polidoro, Beth A.; Comeros-Raynal, Mia T.; Cahill, Thomas; Clement, Cassandra

    2017-01-01

    The island nations and territories of the South Pacific are facing a number of pressing environmental concerns, including solid waste management and coastal pollution. Here we provide baseline information on the presence and concentration of heavy metals and selected organic contaminants (pesticides, PAHs, phthalates) in 7 coastal streams and in surface waters adjacent to the Futiga landfill in American Samoa. All sampled stream sediments contained high concentrations of lead, and some of mercury. Several coastal stream waters showed relatively high concentrations of diethyl phthalate and of organophosphate pesticides, above chronic toxicity values for fish and other aquatic organisms. Parathion, which has been banned by the US Environmental Protection Agency since 2006, was detected in several stream sites. Increased monitoring and initiatives to limit non-point source land-based pollution will greatly improve the state of freshwater and coastal resources, as well as reduce risks to human health in American Samoa. - Highlights: • Several coastal stream sediments in American Samoa are high in lead and mercury. • Organophosphate pesticides, including Parathion, are present in coastal streams. • More research is needed on the sources, fate and impacts of these contaminants.

  1. Cover Crops for Managing Stream Water Quantity and Improving Stream Water Quality of Non-Tile Drained Paired Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurbir Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In the Midwestern United States, cover crops are being promoted as a best management practice for managing nutrient and sediment losses from agricultural fields through surface and subsurface water movement. To date, the water quality benefits of cover crops have been inferred primarily from plot scale studies. This project is one of the first to analyze the impacts of cover crops on stream water quality at the watershed scale. The objective of this research was to evaluate nitrogen, phosphorus, and sediment loss in stream water from a no-till corn-soybean rotation planted with winter cover crops cereal rye (Secale cereale and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa in non-tile drained paired watersheds in Illinois, USA. The paired watersheds are under mixed land use (agriculture, forest, and pasture. The control watershed had 27 ha of row-crop agriculture, and the treatment watershed had 42 ha of row crop agriculture with cover crop treatment (CC-treatment. During a 4-year calibration period, 42 storm events were collected and Event Mean Concentrations (EMCs for each storm event were calculated for total suspended solids (TSS, nitrate-N (NO3-N, ammonia-N (NH4-N, dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP, and total discharge. Predictive regression equations developed from the calibration period were used for calculating TSS, NO3-N, NH4-N, and DRP losses of surface runoff for the CC-treatment watershed. The treatment period consisted of total 18 storm events, seven of which were collected during the cereal rye, eight in the hairy vetch cover crop season and three during cash crop season. Cover crops reduced TSS and discharge by 33% and 34%, respectively in the CC-treatment watershed during the treatment period. However, surprisingly, EMCs for NO3-N, NH4-N, and DRP did not decrease. Stream discharge from the paired-watersheds will continue to be monitored to determine if the current water quality results hold or new patterns emerge.

  2. Impact of Industrial Effluents on Water Quality of Streams in Nakawa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of Industrial Effluents on Water Quality of Streams in Nakawa-Ntinda, Uganda. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... physicochemical parameters of streams that receive effluents from different categories of industries in Nakawa -Ntinda industrial area of Kampala. the stream water quality ...

  3. Machine learning and hurdle models for improving regional predictions of stream water acid neutralizing capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas A. Povak; Paul F. Hessburg; Keith M. Reynolds; Timothy J. Sullivan; Todd C. McDonnell; R. Brion Salter

    2013-01-01

    In many industrialized regions of the world, atmospherically deposited sulfur derived from industrial, nonpoint air pollution sources reduces stream water quality and results in acidic conditions that threaten aquatic resources. Accurate maps of predicted stream water acidity are an essential aid to managers who must identify acid-sensitive streams, potentially...

  4. Missouri StreamStats—A water-resources web application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jarrett T.

    2018-01-31

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) maintains and operates more than 8,200 continuous streamgages nationwide. Types of data that may be collected, computed, and stored for streamgages include streamgage height (water-surface elevation), streamflow, and water quality. The streamflow data allow scientists and engineers to calculate streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent annual exceedance probability flood (also known as the 100-year flood), the mean flow, and the 7-day, 10-year low flow, which are used by managers to make informed water resource management decisions, at each streamgage location. Researchers, regulators, and managers also commonly need physical characteristics (basin characteristics) that describe the unique properties of a basin. Common uses for streamflow statistics and basin characteristics include hydraulic design, water-supply management, water-use appropriations, and flood-plain mapping for establishing flood-insurance rates and land-use zones. The USGS periodically publishes reports that update the values of basin characteristics and streamflow statistics at selected gaged locations (locations with streamgages), but these studies usually only update a subset of streamgages, making data retrieval difficult. Additionally, streamflow statistics and basin characteristics are most often needed at ungaged locations (locations without streamgages) for which published streamflow statistics and basin characteristics do not exist. Missouri StreamStats is a web-based geographic information system that was created by the USGS in cooperation with the Missouri Department of Natural Resources to provide users with access to an assortment of tools that are useful for water-resources planning and management. StreamStats allows users to easily obtain the most recent published streamflow statistics and basin characteristics for streamgage locations and to automatically calculate selected basin characteristics and estimate streamflow statistics at ungaged

  5. Enrichment of Arsenic in Surface Water, Stream Sediments and Soils in Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shehong; Wang, Mingguo; Yang, Qiang; Wang, Hui; Zhu, Jianming; Zheng, Baoshan; Zheng, Yan

    2013-12-01

    Groundwater in sedimentary deposits in China, Southern, and Southeast Asia down gradient from the Tibetan plateau contain elevated As concentrations on a regional scale. To ascertain the possibility of source region As enrichment, samples of water (n=86), stream sediment (n=77) and soil (n=73) were collected from the Singe Tsangpo (upstream of the Indus River), Yarlung Tsangpo (upstream of the Brahmaputra River) and other drainage basins in Tibet in June of 2008. The average arsenic concentration in stream waters, sediments and soils was 58±70 μg/L (n=39, range 2-252 μg/L), 42±40 mg/kg (n=37, range 12-227 mg/kg), and 44±27mg/kg (n=28, range 12-84 mg/kg) respectively for the Singe Tsangpo and was 11±17 μg/L (n=30, range 2-83 μg/L), 28±11 mg/kg (n=28, range 2-61 mg/kg), and 30±34 mg/kg (n=21, range 6-173 mg/kg) respectively for the Yarlung Tsangpo. A dug well contained 195 μg/L of As. In addition to elevated As levels in surface and shallow groundwater of Tibet, hot spring and alkaline salt lake waters displayed very high As levels, reaching a maximum value of 5,985 μg/L and 10,626 μg/L As, respectively. The positive correlation between [As] and [Na]+[K] in stream waters indicates that these surface water arsenic enrichments are linked to the hot springs and/or salt lakes. Further, 24% of As in stream sediment is reductively leachable, with bulk As displaying a positive correlation with stream water As, suggesting sorption from stream water. In contrast, the fraction of reductively leachable As is negligible for soils and several rock samples, suggesting that As in them are associated with unweathered minerals. Whether the pronounced As anomaly found in Tibet affects the sedimentary As content in deltas downstream or not requires further study.

  6. Residence times and nitrate transport in ground water discharging to streams in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsey, Bruce D.; Phillips, Scott; Donnelly, Colleen A.; Speiran, Gary K.; Plummer, Niel; Bohlke, John Karl; Focazio, Michael J.; Burton, William C.; Busenberg, Eurybiades

    2003-01-01

    One of the major water-quality problems in the Chesapeake Bay is an overabundance of nutrients from the streams and rivers that discharge to the Bay. Some of these nutrients are from nonpoint sources such as atmospheric deposition, agricultural manure and fertilizer, and septic systems. The effects of efforts to control nonpoint sources, however, can be difficult to quantify because of the lag time between changes at the land surface and the response in the base-flow (ground water) component of streams. To help resource managers understand the lag time between implementation of management practices and subsequent response in the nutrient concentrations in the base-flow component of streamflow, a study of ground-water discharge, residence time, and nitrate transport in springs throughout the Chesapeake Bay Watershed and in four smaller watersheds in selected hydrogeomorphic regions (HGMRs) was conducted. The four watersheds were in the Coastal Plain Uplands, Piedmont crystalline, Valley and Ridge carbonate, and Valley and Ridge siliciclastic HGMRs.A study of springs to estimate an apparent age of the ground water was based on analyses for concentrations of chlorofluorocarbons in water samples collected from 48 springs in the Chesapeake Bay Watershed. Results of the analysis indicate that median age for all the samples was 10 years, with the 25th percentile having an age of 7 years and the 75th percentile having an age of 13 years. Although the number of samples collected in each HGMR was limited, there did not appear to be distinct differences in the ages between the HGMRs. The ranges were similar between the major HGMRs above the Fall Line (modern to about 50 years), with only two HGMRs of small geographic extent (Piedmont carbonate and Mesozoic Lowland) having ranges of modern to about 10 years. The median values of all the HGMRs ranged from 7 to 11 years. Not enough samples were collected in the Coastal Plain for comparison. Spring samples showed slightly younger

  7. Natural and anthropogenic sources and processes affecting water chemistry in two South Korean streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Woo-Jin [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Ryu, Jong-Sik [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Mayer, Bernhard [Department of Geoscience, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta T2N 1N4 (Canada); Lee, Kwang-Sik, E-mail: kslee@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sin-Woo [Division of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Korea Basic Science Institute, Cheongwon-gun, Chungbuk 363-883 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Geology, Chungnam National University, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) in a watershed provides potential sources of pollutants for surface and subsurface waters that can deteriorate water quality. Between March and early August 2011, water samples were collected from two streams in South Korea, one dominantly draining a watershed with carbonate bedrock affected by coal mines and another draining a watershed with silicate bedrock and a relatively undisturbed catchment area. The objective of the study was to identify the sources and processes controlling water chemistry, which was dependent on bedrock and land use. In the Odae stream (OS), the stream in the silicate-dominated catchment, Ca, Na, and HCO{sub 3} were the dominant ions and total dissolved solids (TDS) was low (26.1–165 mg/L). In the Jijang stream (JS), in the carbonate-dominated watershed, TDS (224–434 mg/L) and ion concentrations were typically higher, and Ca and SO{sub 4} were the dominant ions due to carbonate weathering and oxidation of pyrite exposed at coal mines. Dual isotopic compositions of sulfate (δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 18}O{sub SO4}) verified that the SO{sub 4} in JS is derived mainly from sulfide mineral oxidation in coal mines. Cl in JS was highest upstream and decreased progressively downstream, which implies that pollutants from recreational facilities in the uppermost part of the catchment are the major source governing Cl concentrations within the discharge basin. Dual isotopic compositions of nitrate (δ{sup 15}N{sub NO3} and δ{sup 18}O{sub NO3}) indicated that NO{sub 3} in JS is attributable to nitrification of soil organic matter but that NO{sub 3} in OS is derived mostly from manure. Additionally, the contributions of potential anthropogenic sources to the two streams were estimated in more detail by using a plot of δ{sup 34}S{sub SO4} and δ{sup 15}N{sub NO3}. This study suggests that the dual isotope approach for sulfate and nitrate is an excellent additional tool for elucidating the sources and processes

  8. Reliability of a method of sampling stream invertebrates

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chutter, FM

    1966-05-01

    Full Text Available In field ecological studies inferences must often be drawn from dissimilarities in numbers and species of organisms found in biological samples collected at different times and under various conditions....

  9. Evaluation of HDPE water sample bottles and PVC sampler tubing used in herbicide dissipation studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. B. Fischer; J. L. Michael; H. L. Gibbs

    2009-01-01

    The recovery of six herbicides (triclopyr, triclopyr ester, sulfometuron methyl, metsulfuron methyl, imazapyr, and hexazinone) was evaluated in two stream water samples, one from Weogufka Creek in the Alabama Piedmont and one from a stagnant stream in the Escambia Experimental Forest near Florida. Simulated field study conditions were...

  10. Sample collection: an overview of the Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolivar, S.L.

    1979-01-01

    A Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) for uranium is currently being conducted throughout the conterminous United States and Alaska. The HSSR is part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation sponsored by the US Department of Energy. This ambitious geochemical reconnaissance program is conducted by four national laboratories: Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant, and Savannah River Laboratory. The program is based on an extensive review of world literature, reconnaissance work done in other countries, and pilot studies conducted by each laboratory. Sample-collection methods and sample density are determined to optimize the probability of detecting potential uranium mineralization. To achieve this aim, each laboratory has developed independent standardized field collection procedures that are designed for its section of the country. Field parameters such as pH, conductivity, climate, geography, and geology are recorded at each site. Most samples are collected at densities of one sample site per 10 to 23 km 2 . The HSSR program has helped to improve existing hydrogeochemical reconnaissance exploration techniques. In addition to providing industry with data that may help to identify potential uranium districts and to extend known uranium provinces, the HSSR also provides multi-element analytical data, which can be used in water quality, soil, sediment, environmental, and base-metal exploration studies

  11. The Influence of Geology and Other Environmental Factors on Stream Water Chemistry and Benthic Invertebrate Assemblages

    OpenAIRE

    Olson, John R.

    2012-01-01

    Catchment geology is known to influence water chemistry, which can significantly affect both species composition and ecosystem processes in streams. However, current predictions of how stream water chemistry varies with geology are limited in both scope and precision, and we have not adequately tested the specific mechanisms by which water chemistry influences stream biota. My dissertation research goals were to (1) develop empirical models to predict natural base-flow water chemistry from ca...

  12. Data quality objectives for the B-Cell waste stream classification sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnett, J.M.

    1998-01-01

    This document defines the data quality objectives, (DQOS) for sampling the B-Cell racks waste stream. The sampling effort is concentrated on determining a ratio of Cs-137 to Sr-90 and Cs-137 to transuranics (TRU). Figure 1.0 shows the logic path of sampling effort. The flow chart begins with sample and data acquisition and progresses toward (a) statistical confidence and waste classification boundaries, (b) management decisions based on the input parameters and technical methods available, and (c) grout container volume/weight limits and radiation limits. The end result will be accurately classifying the B-Cell rack waste stream

  13. Performance of the air2stream model that relates air and stream water temperatures depends on the calibration method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Adam P.; Napiorkowski, Jaroslaw J.

    2018-06-01

    A number of physical or data-driven models have been proposed to evaluate stream water temperatures based on hydrological and meteorological observations. However, physical models require a large amount of information that is frequently unavailable, while data-based models ignore the physical processes. Recently the air2stream model has been proposed as an intermediate alternative that is based on physical heat budget processes, but it is so simplified that the model may be applied like data-driven ones. However, the price for simplicity is the need to calibrate eight parameters that, although have some physical meaning, cannot be measured or evaluated a priori. As a result, applicability and performance of the air2stream model for a particular stream relies on the efficiency of the calibration method. The original air2stream model uses an inefficient 20-year old approach called Particle Swarm Optimization with inertia weight. This study aims at finding an effective and robust calibration method for the air2stream model. Twelve different optimization algorithms are examined on six different streams from northern USA (states of Washington, Oregon and New York), Poland and Switzerland, located in both high mountains, hilly and lowland areas. It is found that the performance of the air2stream model depends significantly on the calibration method. Two algorithms lead to the best results for each considered stream. The air2stream model, calibrated with the chosen optimization methods, performs favorably against classical streamwater temperature models. The MATLAB code of the air2stream model and the chosen calibration procedure (CoBiDE) are available as Supplementary Material on the Journal of Hydrology web page.

  14. Dissolved pesticides, dissolved organic carbon, and water-quality characteristics in selected Idaho streams, April--December 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reilly, Timothy J.; Smalling, Kelly L.; Wilson, Emma R.; Battaglin, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Water-quality samples were collected from April through December 2010 from four streams in Idaho and analyzed for a suite of pesticides, including fungicides, by the U.S. Geological Survey. Water samples were collected from two agricultural and two nonagricultural (control) streams approximately biweekly from the beginning of the growing season (April) through the end of the calendar year (December). Samples were analyzed for 90 pesticides using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Twenty-three pesticides, including 8 fungicides, 10 herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 2 pesticide degradates, were detected in 45 water samples. The most frequently detected compounds in the two agricultural streams and their detection frequencies were metolachlor, 96 percent; azoxystrobin, 79 percent; boscalid, 79 percent; atrazine, 46 percent; pendimethalin, 33 percent; and trifluralin, 33 percent. Dissolved-pesticide concentrations ranged from below instrumental limits of detection (0.5-1.0 nanograms per liter) to 771 nanograms per liter (hexazinone). The total number of pesticides detected in any given water sample ranged from 0 to 11. Only three pesticides (atrazine, fipronil, and simazine) were detected in samples from the control streams during the sampling period.

  15. Seasonality, water quality trends and biological responses in four streams in the Cairngorm Mountains, Scotland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Soulsby

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and invertebrate communities found in four streams in the Cairngorms, Scotland, were monitored between 1985-1997. Stream waters were mildly acidic (mean pH ca. 6.5, with low alkalinity (mean acid neutralising capacity varying from 35-117 meq l-1 and low ionic strength. Subtle differences in the chemistry of each stream were reflected in their invertebrate faunas. Strong seasonality in water chemistry occurred, with the most acid, low alkalinity waters observed during the winter and early spring. This was particularly marked during snowmelt between January and April. In contrast, summer flows were usually groundwater dominated and characterised by higher alkalinity and higher concentrations of most other weathering-derived solutes. Seasonality was also clear in the invertebrate data, with Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA separating seasonal samples along axes related to water temperature and discharge characteristics. Inter-annual hydrological and chemical differences were marked, particularly with respect to the winter period. Invertebrate communities found in each of the streams also varied from year to year, with spring communities significantly more variable (PHydrochemical trends over the study period were analysed using a seasonal Kendall test, LOcally WEighted Scatterplot Smoothing (LOWESS and graphical techniques. These indicated that a reduction in sulphate concentrations in stream water is occurring, consistent with declining levels of atmospheric deposition. This may be matched by increases in pH and declining calcium concentrations, though available evidence is inconclusive. Other parameters, such as chloride, total organic carbon and zinc, reveal somewhat random patterns, probably reflecting irregular variations in climatic factors and/or atmospheric deposition. Previous studies have shown that the stream invertebrate communities have remained stable over this period (i.e. no significant linear trends

  16. Effect of boiling regime on melt stream breakup in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, B.W.; Gabor, J.D.; Cassulo, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    A study has been performed examining the breakup and mixing behavior of an initially coherent stream of high-density melt as it flows downward through water. This work has application to the quenching of molten core materials as they drain downward during a postulated severe reactor accident. The study has included examination of various models of breakup distances based upon interfacial instabilities dominated either by liquid-liquid contact or by liquid-vapor contact. A series of experiments was performed to provide a data base for assessment of the various modeling approaches. The experiments involved Wood's metal (T/sub m/ = 73 0 C, rho = 9.2 g/cm 3 , d/sub j/ = 20 mm) poured into a deep pool of water. The temperature of the water and wood's metal were varied to span the range from single-phase, liquid-liquid contact to the film boiling regime. Experiment results showed that breakup occurred largely as a result of the spreading and entrainment from the leading edge of the jet. However, for streams of sufficient lengths a breakup length could be discerned at which there was no longer a coherent central core of the jet to feed the leading edge region. The erosion of the vertical trailing column is by Kelvin-Helmoltz instabilities and related disengagement of droplets from the jet into the surrounding fluid. For conditions of liquid-liquid contact, the breakup length has been found to be about 20 jet diameters; when substantial vapor is produced at the interface due to heat transfer from the jet to the water, the breakup distance was found to range to as high as 50 jet diameters. The former values are close to the analytical prediction of Taylor, whereas the latter values are better predicted by the model of Epstein and Fauske

  17. Meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data for water year 1992 from two basins in Central Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKinley, P.W.; Oliver, T.A.

    1995-01-01

    The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, is studying Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential repository for high level nuclear waste. As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Project, the analog recharge study is providing data for the evaluation of recharge to the Yucca Mountain ground-water system given a cooler and wetter climate than currently exists. The current and climatic conditions are favorable to the isolation of radioactive waste. Because waste isolation from the accessible environment for 10,000 years is necessary, climatic change and the potential for increased ground-water recharge need to be considered as part of the characterization of the potential repository. Therefore, two small basins, measuring less than 2 square miles, were studied to determine the volume of precipitation available for recharge to ground water. The semiarid 3-Springs Basin is located to the east of Kawich Peak in the Kawich Range east of Tonopah, Nevada. Stewart Basin is a subalpine drainage basin north of Arc Dome in the Toiyabe Range north of Tonopah, Nevada. The purpose of this publication is to make available the meteorological, stream-discharge, and water-quality data collected during the study. Meteorological data collected include air temperature, soil temperature, solar radiation, and relative humidity. Stream-discharge data were collected from the surface-water outlet of each basin. Water-quality data are chemical analyses of water samples collected from surface- and ground-water sources. Each basin has a meteorological station located in the lower and upper reaches of the basin. Hydrologic records include stream-discharge and water-quality data from the lower meteorological site and water-quality data from springs within the basins

  18. Rare earth elements (REE) and yttrium in stream waters, stream sediments, and Fe Mn oxyhydroxides: Fractionation, speciation, and controls over REE + Y patterns in the surface environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leybourne, Matthew I.; Johannesson, Karen H.

    2008-12-01

    We have collected ˜500 stream waters and associated bed-load sediments over an ˜400 km 2 region of Eastern Canada and analyzed these samples for Fe, Mn, and the rare earth elements (REE + Y). In addition to analyzing the stream sediments by total digestion (multi-acid dissolution with metaborate fusion), we also leached the sediments with 0.25 M hydroxylamine hydrochloride (in 0.05 M HCl), to determine the REE + Y associated with amorphous Fe- and Mn-oxyhydroxide phases. We are thus able to partition the REE into "dissolved" (primary sources, the host lithologies (i.e., mechanical dispersion) and hydromorphically transported (the labile fraction). Furthermore, Eu appears to be more mobile than the other REE, whereas Ce is preferentially removed from solution and accumulates in the stream sediments in a less labile form than the other REEs + Y. Despite poor statistical correlations between the REEs + Y and Mn in either the total sediment or partial extractions, based on apparent distribution coefficients and the pH of the stream waters, we suggest that either sediment organic matter and/or possibly δ-MnO 2/FeOOH are likely the predominant sinks for Ce, and to a lesser extent the other REE, in the stream sediments.

  19. Survival of Acetate in Biodegraded Stream Water DOM: New Insights Based on NMR Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, S.; Waggoner, D. C.; Bowen, J. C.; Cory, R. M.; Kaplan, L.; Hatcher, P.

    2017-12-01

    DOM is a complex chemical mixture of high- (HMW) and low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic molecules that serve as the primary energy sources for heterotrophic bacteria in freshwater environments. However, there are still large uncertainties on the composition of DOM that is labile and thus rapidly metabolized. The current thinking is that labile DOM is primarily composed of monosaccharides, amino acids, and other LMW organic acids such as formic, acetic, or propionic among others, although some humic substances also are biologically labile. To test the contribution of LMW organic acids to the labile fraction of DOM, freshwater samples were collected from five streams within the Rio Tempisquito watershed in Costa Rica and subjected to differing degrees of biodegradation using a series of plug-flow bioreactors with residence times ranging from 0.5-150 min. Varying the residence times of bioreactors allows for separation and identification of labile from less labile to more recalcitrant DOM. The stream water fed into the bioreactors had DOC concentrations that ranged from 0.7-1.2 ppm C and the GF/F-filtered stream water as well as the bioreactor effluents were analyzed directly without pre-treatment using proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H NMR). Small molecules dominated the 1H NMR spectra with the greatest changes, as a function of bioreactor residence time, in the carbohydrate, terminal methyl, and long-chain methylene structures. In contrast, acetate remained relatively constant after 150 min of bioreactor residence time, thus raising the question of why this inherently labile volatile fatty acid was not consumed by stream microbes colonizing bioreactors that otherwise metabolized approximately 35% of the total dissolved organic carbon present in the stream water. We suggest that acetate may resist biodegradation because it is complexed strongly with inorganic cations.

  20. Diel changes in water chemistry in an arsenic-rich stream and treatment-pond system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammons, C.H.; Grant, T.M.; Nimick, D.A.; Parker, S.R.; DeGrandpre, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Arsenic concentrations are elevated in surface waters of the Warm Springs Ponds Operable Unit (WSPOU), located at the head of the upper Clark Fork River Superfund site, Montana, USA. Arsenic is derived from historical deposition of smelter emissions (Mill and Willow Creeks) and historical mining and milling wastes (Silver Bow Creek). Although long-term monitoring has characterized the general seasonal and flow-related trends in As concentrations in these streams and the pond system used to treat Silver Bow Creek water, little is known about solubility controls and sorption processes that influence diel cycles in As concentrations. Diel (24-h) sampling was conducted in July 2004 and August 2005 at the outlet of the treatment ponds, at two locations along a nearby reconstructed stream channel that diverts tributary water around the ponds, and at Silver Bow Creek 2??km below the ponds. Dissolved As concentration increased up to 51% during the day at most of the stream sites, whereas little or no diel change was displayed at the treatment-pond outlet. The strong cycle in streams is explained by pH- and temperature-dependent sorption of As onto hydrous metal oxides or biofilms on the streambed. Concentrations of dissolved Ca2+ and HCO3- at the stream sites showed a diel temporal pattern opposite to that of As, and geochemical modeling supports the hypothesis that the concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3- were controlled by precipitation of calcite during the warm afternoon hours when pH rose above 9.0. Nightly increases in dissolved Mn and Fe(II) concentrations were out of phase with concentrations of other divalent cations and are more likely explained by redox phenomena. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Radon measurement in Malaysia water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, A.B.; Rosli Mahat; Yusof Md Amin

    1995-01-01

    This paper reported the results of the measurement of radon in local water. The water samples collected were rainwater, river water, seawater, well water or ground water at area of State of Selangor and Kuala Lumpur. The samples were collected in scintillation cell ZnS(Ag) through Radon Degassing Unit RDU 200. Alpha activity was counted with scintillation counters RD 200 at energy 5.5 MeV. (author)

  2. Testing common stream sampling methods for broad-scale, long-term monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eric K. Archer; Brett B. Roper; Richard C. Henderson; Nick Bouwes; S. Chad Mellison; Jeffrey L. Kershner

    2004-01-01

    We evaluated sampling variability of stream habitat sampling methods used by the USDA Forest Service and the USDI Bureau of Land Management monitoring program for the upper Columbia River Basin. Three separate studies were conducted to describe the variability of individual measurement techniques, variability between crews, and temporal variation throughout the summer...

  3. Physical and Chemical Connectivity of Streams and Riparian Wetlands to Downstream Waters: A Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streams, riparian areas, floodplains, alluvial aquifers, and downstream waters (e.g., large rivers, lakes, and oceans) are interconnected by longitudinal, lateral, and vertical fluxes of water, other materials, and energy. Collectively, these interconnected waters are called fluv...

  4. Variations in statewide water quality of New Jersey streams, water years 1998-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckathorn, Heather A.; Deetz, Anna C.

    2012-01-01

    Statistical analyses were conducted for six water-quality constituents measured at 371 surface-water-quality stations during water years 1998-2009 to determine changes in concentrations over time. This study examined year-round concentrations of total dissolved solids, dissolved nitrite plus nitrate, dissolved phosphorus, total phosphorus, and total nitrogen; concentrations of dissolved chloride were measured only from January to March. All the water-quality data analyzed were collected by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and the U.S. Geological Survey as part of the cooperative Ambient Surface-Water-Quality Monitoring Network. Stations were divided into groups according to the 1-year or 2-year period that the stations were part of the Ambient Surface-Water-Quality Monitoring Network. Data were obtained from the eight groups of Statewide Status stations for water years 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001-02, 2003-04, 2005-06, 2007-08, and 2009. The data from each group were compared to the data from each of the other groups and to baseline data obtained from Background stations unaffected by human activity that were sampled during the same time periods. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to determine whether median concentrations of a selected water-quality constituent measured in a particular 1-year or 2-year group were different from those measured in other 1-year or 2-year groups. If the median concentrations were found to differ among years or groups of years, then Tukey's multiple comparison test on ranks was used to identify those years with different or equal concentrations of water-quality constituents. A significance level of 0.05 was selected to indicate significant changes in median concentrations of water-quality constituents. More variations in the median concentrations of water-quality constituents were observed at Statewide Status stations (randomly chosen stations scattered throughout the State of New Jersey) than at Background stations

  5. Spatio-temporal variation in stream water chemistry in a tropical urban watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. Ramirez; K.G. Rosas; A.E. Lugo; O.M. Ramos-Gonzalez

    2014-01-01

    Urban activities and related infrastructure alter the natural patterns of stream physical and chemical conditions. According to the Urban Stream Syndrome, streams draining urban landscapes are characterized by high concentrations of nutrients and ions, and might have elevated water temperatures and variable oxygen concentrations. Here, we report temporal and spatial...

  6. Changes in Stream Water Temperatures in the Chesapeake Bay Region, 1960-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    This map shows the changes in stream water temperatures in the Chesapeake Bay region from 1960 to 2014. Blue circles represent cooling trends in stream water temperatures, and red circles represent warming trends in stream water temperatures. Data were analyzed by Mike Kolian of EPA in partnership with John Jastram and Karen Rice of the U.S. Geological Survey. For more information: www.epa.gov/climatechange/science/indicators

  7. Analysis Of DWPF Sludge Batch 7A (Macrobatch 8) Pour Stream Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, F.

    2012-01-01

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a), also referred to as Macrobatch 8 (MB8), in June 2011. SB7a is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 6 (SB6) and the SB7a material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7a was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Three pour stream glass samples and two Melter Feed Tank (MFT) slurry samples were collected while processing SB7a. These additional samples were taken during SB7a to understand the impact of antifoam and the melter bubblers on glass redox chemistry. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where they were analyzed. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: (1) The sum of oxides for the official SB7a pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%). (2) The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7a is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7a pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7a Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample. (3) As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the official SB7a pour stream sample. (4) The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7a pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.64 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental

  8. Quadrature demodulation based circuit implementation of pulse stream for ultrasonic signal FRI sparse sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoupeng, Song; Zhou, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Converting ultrasonic signal to ultrasonic pulse stream is the key step of finite rate of innovation (FRI) sparse sampling. At present, ultrasonic pulse-stream-forming techniques are mainly based on digital algorithms. No hardware circuit that can achieve it has been reported. This paper proposes a new quadrature demodulation (QD) based circuit implementation method for forming an ultrasonic pulse stream. Elaborating on FRI sparse sampling theory, the process of ultrasonic signal is explained, followed by a discussion and analysis of ultrasonic pulse-stream-forming methods. In contrast to ultrasonic signal envelope extracting techniques, a quadrature demodulation method (QDM) is proposed. Simulation experiments were performed to determine its performance at various signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs). The circuit was then designed, with mixing module, oscillator, low pass filter (LPF), and root of square sum module. Finally, application experiments were carried out on pipeline sample ultrasonic flaw testing. The experimental results indicate that the QDM can accurately convert ultrasonic signal to ultrasonic pulse stream, and reverse the original signal information, such as pulse width, amplitude, and time of arrival. This technique lays the foundation for ultrasonic signal FRI sparse sampling directly with hardware circuitry. (paper)

  9. Water born pollutants sampling using porous suction samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baig, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The common standard method of sampling water born pollutants in the vadoze zone is core sampling and it is followed by extraction of pore fluid. This method does not allow sampling at the same location next time and again later on. There is an alternative approach for sampling fluids (water born pollutants) from both saturated and unsaturated regions of vadose zone using porous suction samplers. There are three types of porous suction samplers, vacuum-operated, pressure-vacuum lysimeters, high pressure vacuum samples. The suction samples are operated in the range of 0-70 centi bars and usually consist of ceramic and polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE). The operation range of PTFE is higher than ceramic cups. These samplers are well suited for in situ and repeated sampling form the same location. This paper discusses the physical properties and operating condition of such samplers to the utilized under our environmental sampling. (author)

  10. Study of Uranium Concentrations in Water and Organic Material from Streams in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ek, J.

    1981-12-01

    The purpose of the investigation has been to study how uranium concentrations in stream water and organic material are related to various geological parameters such as rock types, average uranium content and radioactivity, fracturing, leachability of uranium from the bedrock, occurrence of uranium mineralisations and thickness and type of Quarternary deposits. The investigation has also taken account of the effects of environmental factors such as climate , precipitation, height above sea level and topography. The background concentration of uranium in organic stream sediment varies from 1 ppm to 45 ppm, with a background value of 10 ppm for all 14 areas considered together. The threshold value for organic stream material varies from 3 ppm U to 303 ppm U with a threshold value of 133 ppm U for all 14 areas considered together. For water, the background concentration varies between the 5 areas from 0.2 ppb U to 0.7 ppb U with a background value of 0.4 ppb U for all 5 areas together. The threshold value varies from 0.3 ppb U to 5.2 ppb U with a threshold value of 2.9 ppb U for all 5 areas together. An investigation of the correlation between uranium concentrations in water and organic stream material from one and the same sampling point shows a positive correlation for high concentrations, but the correlation becomes successively less significant with lower concentrations. Uranium concentrations in organic stream material and water are positively correlated with the following geological parameters:1) Background concentrations of uranium in the bedrock. 2) Abundance of fractures in the bedrock. 3) Leachability of uranium from the bedrock. 4) Presence of uranium mineralisations. For organic stream material, this positive correlation is obtained for both high and low uranium concentrations whereas for water it occurs only with high concentrations. In areas of broken topography and high relief, there is a more clearly defined correlation to the bedrock than in areas of

  11. Determination of Phthalates in Drinking Water Samples

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    successfully applied to the analysis of phthalate esters contamination in bottled drinking water samples. ... esters are used in the manufacturing of polyvinyl chloride. (PVC). ... water, soil, air, food products and the human body. (Castillo et al.

  12. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  13. Mercury in stream water at five Czech catchments across a Hg and S deposition gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navrátil, Tomáš; Shanley, James B.; Rohovec, Jan; Oulehle, Filip; Krám, Pavel; Matoušková, Šárka; Tesař, Miroslav; Hojdová, Maria

    2015-01-01

    The Czech Republic was heavily industrialized in the second half of the 20th century but the associated emissions of Hg and S from coal burning were significantly reduced since the 1990s. We studied dissolved (filtered) stream water mercury (Hg) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations at five catchments with contrasting Hg and S deposition histories in the Bohemian part of the Czech Republic. The median filtered Hg concentrations of stream water samples collected in hydrological years 2012 and 2013 from the five sites varied by an order of magnitude from 1.3 to 18.0 ng L− 1. The Hg concentrations at individual catchments were strongly correlated with DOC concentrations r from 0.64 to 0.93 and with discharge r from 0.48 to 0.75. Annual export fluxes of filtered Hg from individual catchments ranged from 0.11 to 13.3 μg m− 2 yr− 1 and were highest at sites with the highest DOC export fluxes. However, the amount of Hg exported per unit DOC varied widely; the mean Hg/DOC ratio in stream water at the individual sites ranged from 0.28 to 0.90 ng mg− 1. The highest stream Hg/DOC ratios occurred at sites Pluhův Bor and Jezeří which both are in the heavily polluted Black Triangle area. Stream Hg/DOC was inversely related to mineral and total soil pool Hg/C across the five sites. We explain this pattern by greater soil Hg retention due to inhibition of soil organic matter decomposition at the sites with low stream Hg/DOC and/or by precipitation of a metacinnabar (HgS) phase. Thus mobilization of Hg into streams from forest soils likely depends on combined effects of organic matter decomposition dynamics and HgS-like phase precipitation, which were both affected by Hg and S deposition histories.

  14. Measurement of dissolved Cs-137 in stream water, soil water and groundwater at Headwater Forested Catchment in Fukushima after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwagami, Sho; Tsujimura, Maki; Onda, Yuichi; Sakakibara, Koichi; Konuma, Ryohei; Sato, Yutaro

    2016-04-01

    Radiocesium migration from headwater forested catchment is important perception as output from the forest which is also input to the subsequent various land use and downstream rivers after Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. In this study, dissolved Cs-137 concentration of stream water, soil water and groundwater were measured. Observations were conducted at headwater catchment in Yamakiya district, located 35 km northwest of FDNPP from April 2014 to November 2015. Stream water discharge was monitored and stream water samples were taken at main channel and sub channel. Stream water discharge was monitored by combination of parshallflume and v-notch weir. Stream water was sampled manually at steady state condition in 3-4 month interval and also intense few hours interval sampling were conducted during rainfall events using automated water sampler. Around the sub channel, it is found that there is a regularly saturated area at the bottom of the slope, temporary saturated area which saturate during the rainy season in summer and regularly dry area. 6 interval cameras were installed to monitor the changing situation of saturated area. Suction lysimeters were installed at three areas (regularly saturated area, temporary saturated area and dry area) for sampling soil water in depth of 0.1 m and 0.3 m. Boreholes were installed at three points along the sub channel. Three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at temporary saturated area, 20 m upstream of sub channel weir. Another three boreholes with depth of 3 m, 5 m and 10 m were installed at dry area, 40 m upstream of sub channel weir. And a borehole with depth of 20 m was installed at ridge of sub catchment, 52 m upstream of sub channel weir. Groundwater was sampled by electrically powered pump and groundwater level was monitored. Also suction-free lysimeter was installed at temporary saturated area for sampling the near surface subsurface water. Soil water samples were collected

  15. Incorporation of the equilibrium temperature approach in a Soil and Water Assessment Tool hydroclimatological stream temperature model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xinzhong; Shrestha, Narayan Kumar; Ficklin, Darren L.; Wang, Junye

    2018-04-01

    Stream temperature is an important indicator for biodiversity and sustainability in aquatic ecosystems. The stream temperature model currently in the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) only considers the impact of air temperature on stream temperature, while the hydroclimatological stream temperature model developed within the SWAT model considers hydrology and the impact of air temperature in simulating the water-air heat transfer process. In this study, we modified the hydroclimatological model by including the equilibrium temperature approach to model heat transfer processes at the water-air interface, which reflects the influences of air temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and streamflow conditions on the heat transfer process. The thermal capacity of the streamflow is modeled by the variation of the stream water depth. An advantage of this equilibrium temperature model is the simple parameterization, with only two parameters added to model the heat transfer processes. The equilibrium temperature model proposed in this study is applied and tested in the Athabasca River basin (ARB) in Alberta, Canada. The model is calibrated and validated at five stations throughout different parts of the ARB, where close to monthly samplings of stream temperatures are available. The results indicate that the equilibrium temperature model proposed in this study provided better and more consistent performances for the different regions of the ARB with the values of the Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient (NSE) greater than those of the original SWAT model and the hydroclimatological model. To test the model performance for different hydrological and environmental conditions, the equilibrium temperature model was also applied to the North Fork Tolt River Watershed in Washington, United States. The results indicate a reasonable simulation of stream temperature using the model proposed in this study, with minimum relative error values compared to the other two models

  16. Analysis of trace dicyandiamide in stream water using solid phase extraction and liquid chromatography UV spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Huidong; Sun, Dongdi; Gunatilake, Sameera R; She, Jinyan; Mlsna, Todd E

    2015-09-01

    An improved method for trace level quantification of dicyandiamide in stream water has been developed. This method includes sample pretreatment using solid phase extraction. The extraction procedure (including loading, washing, and eluting) used a flow rate of 1.0mL/min, and dicyandiamide was eluted with 20mL of a methanol/acetonitrile mixture (V/V=2:3), followed by pre-concentration using nitrogen evaporation and analysis with high performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet spectroscopy (HPLC-UV). Sample extraction was carried out using a Waters Sep-Pak AC-2 Cartridge (with activated carbon). Separation was achieved on a ZIC(®)-Hydrophilic Interaction Liquid Chromatography (ZIC-HILIC) (50mm×2.1mm, 3.5μm) chromatography column and quantification was accomplished based on UV absorbance. A reliable linear relationship was obtained for the calibration curve using standard solutions (R(2)>0.999). Recoveries for dicyandiamide ranged from 84.6% to 96.8%, and the relative standard deviations (RSDs, n=3) were below 6.1% with a detection limit of 5.0ng/mL for stream water samples. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Watershed features and stream water quality: Gaining insight through path analysis in a Midwest urban landscape, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiayu Wu; Timothy W. Stewart; Janette R. Thompson; Randy Kolka; Kristie J. Franz

    2015-01-01

    Urban stream condition is often degraded by human activities in the surrounding watershed. Given the complexity of urban areas, relationships among variables that cause stream degradation can be difficult to isolate. We examined factors affecting stream condition by evaluating social, terrestrial, stream hydrology and water quality variables from 20 urban stream...

  18. Predicting Hyporheic Exchange of Water and Solutes in Streams on the Basis of a Priori Estimates of Stream Physical Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, S. H.; Harvey, J.; Packman, A.; Worman, A.

    2005-12-01

    It is very important to accurately model solute transport in rivers in order to analyze contaminant transport, water quality, and a variety of ecological processes. The purpose of this research is to determine the physical characteristics of a stream or river that are sufficient to predict hyporheic exchange and downstream solute transport. In the fall of 2004, we conducted a bromide tracer injection and made physical measurements in Sugar Creek, a small agricultural stream in northwestern Indiana. As is typical for small mid-western agricultural streams, Sugar Creek has been ditched and straightened, and subsequent downcutting through glacial sediments and slumpage of bank sediments composed of finer grain sizes has created a stream of intermediate complexity. In order to relate the observed solute transport to more basic physical characteristics of the stream, we determined the bathymetry of Sugar Creek over a wide range of scales (centimeters to decameters), and measured velocity profiles, the water elevation surface profile, hydraulic conductivity via in situ measurements, and bed sediment grain size distributions throughout the study reach. Our most detailed topographic measurements revealed fine scale bed variations with wavelengths on the order of ten centimeters, while surveying of the entire study reach characterized large scale meanders with wavelengths on the order of five meters. The distribution of wavelengths influences the driving forces that cause solute to enter the bed and banks. Hydraulic conductivity determines the resistance to flow of stream water through the (meander) stream banks and streambed. We used a scaling approach to relate the geometric and hydrogeologic characteristics of the stream to solute transport and also applied a new analytical solution for the subsurface flows resulting from topographic variations over a wide range of spatial scales. These models captured the main features of the observed solute transport. The greatest

  19. Assessing pesticide concentrations and fluxes in the stream of a small vineyard catchment - Effect of sampling frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabiet, M., E-mail: marion.rabiet@unilim.f [Cemagref, UR QELY, 3bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, F-69336 Lyon (France); Margoum, C.; Gouy, V.; Carluer, N.; Coquery, M. [Cemagref, UR QELY, 3bis quai Chauveau, CP 220, F-69336 Lyon (France)

    2010-03-15

    This study reports on the occurrence and behaviour of six pesticides and one metabolite in a small stream draining a vineyard catchment. Base flow and flood events were monitored in order to assess the variability of pesticide concentrations according to the season and to evaluate the role of sampling frequency on the evaluation of fluxes estimates. Results showed that dissolved pesticide concentrations displayed a strong temporal and spatial variability. A large mobilisation of pesticides was observed during floods, with total dissolved pesticide fluxes per event ranging from 5.7 x 10{sup -3} g/Ha to 0.34 g/Ha. These results highlight the major role of floods in the transport of pesticides in this small stream which contributed to more than 89% of the total load of diuron during August 2007. The evaluation of pesticide loads using different sampling strategies and method calculation, showed that grab sampling largely underestimated pesticide concentrations and fluxes transiting through the stream. - This work brings new insights about the fluxes of pesticides in surface water of a vineyard catchment, notably during flood events.

  20. Assessing pesticide concentrations and fluxes in the stream of a small vineyard catchment - Effect of sampling frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabiet, M.; Margoum, C.; Gouy, V.; Carluer, N.; Coquery, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on the occurrence and behaviour of six pesticides and one metabolite in a small stream draining a vineyard catchment. Base flow and flood events were monitored in order to assess the variability of pesticide concentrations according to the season and to evaluate the role of sampling frequency on the evaluation of fluxes estimates. Results showed that dissolved pesticide concentrations displayed a strong temporal and spatial variability. A large mobilisation of pesticides was observed during floods, with total dissolved pesticide fluxes per event ranging from 5.7 x 10 -3 g/Ha to 0.34 g/Ha. These results highlight the major role of floods in the transport of pesticides in this small stream which contributed to more than 89% of the total load of diuron during August 2007. The evaluation of pesticide loads using different sampling strategies and method calculation, showed that grab sampling largely underestimated pesticide concentrations and fluxes transiting through the stream. - This work brings new insights about the fluxes of pesticides in surface water of a vineyard catchment, notably during flood events.

  1. Experimental investigation of mixing of non-isothermal water streams at BWR operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergagio, Mattia, E-mail: bergagio@kth.se [AlbaNova University Center, Nuclear Reactor Technology Division, Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Anglart, Henryk, E-mail: henryk@kth.se [AlbaNova University Center, Nuclear Reactor Technology Division, Department of Physics, Royal Institute of Technology, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Institute of Heat Engineering, Warsaw University of Technology, 21/25 Nowowiejska Street, 00-665 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-06-15

    Highlights: • Temperatures are measured in the presence of mixing at BWR operating conditions. • The thermocouple support is moved along a pattern to extend the measurement region. • Uncertainty of 1.58 K for temperatures acquired at 1000 Hz. • Momenta of the hot streams and thermal stratification affect the data examined. • Unconventional spectral analysis is required to further study the data collected. - Abstract: In this experimental investigation, wall surface temperatures have been measured during mixing of three water streams in the annular gap between two coaxial stainless-steel tubes. The inner tube, with an outer diameter of 35 mm and a thickness of 5 mm, holds six K-type, ungrounded thermocouples with a diameter of 0.5 mm, which measured surface temperatures with a sampling rate of either 100 Hz or 1000 Hz. The tube was rotated from 0 to 360° and moved in a range of 387 mm in the axial direction to allow measurements of surface temperatures in the whole mixing region. The outer tube has an inner diameter of 80 mm and a thickness of 10 mm to withstand a water pressure of 9 MPa. A water stream at a temperature of either 333 K or 423 K and a Reynolds number between 1657 and 8410 rose vertically in the annular gap and mixed with two water streams at a temperature of 549 K and a Reynolds number between 3.56 × 10{sup 5} and 7.11 × 10{sup 5}. These two water streams entered the annulus radially on the same axial level, 180° apart. Water pressure was kept at 7.2 MPa. Temperature recordings were performed at five axial and eight azimuthal locations, for each set of boundary conditions. Each recording lasted 120 s to provide reliable data on the variance, intermittency and frequency of the surface temperature time series at hand. Thorough calculations indicate that the uncertainty in the measured temperature is of 1.58 K. The mixing region extends up to 0.2 m downward of the hot inlets. In most cases, measurements indicate non-uniform mixing in the

  2. Molecular detection of vertebrates in stream water: a demonstration using Rocky Mountain tailed frogs and Idaho giant salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Caren S; Pilliod, David S; Arkle, Robert S; Waits, Lisette P

    2011-01-01

    Stream ecosystems harbor many secretive and imperiled species, and studies of vertebrates in these systems face the challenges of relatively low detection rates and high costs. Environmental DNA (eDNA) has recently been confirmed as a sensitive and efficient tool for documenting aquatic vertebrates in wetlands and in a large river and canal system. However, it was unclear whether this tool could be used to detect low-density vertebrates in fast-moving streams where shed cells may travel rapidly away from their source. To evaluate the potential utility of eDNA techniques in stream systems, we designed targeted primers to amplify a short, species-specific DNA fragment for two secretive stream amphibian species in the northwestern region of the United States (Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, and Idaho giant salamanders, Dicamptodon aterrimus). We tested three DNA extraction and five PCR protocols to determine whether we could detect eDNA of these species in filtered water samples from five streams with varying densities of these species in central Idaho, USA. We successfully amplified and sequenced the targeted DNA regions for both species from stream water filter samples. We detected Idaho giant salamanders in all samples and Rocky Mountain tailed frogs in four of five streams and found some indication that these species are more difficult to detect using eDNA in early spring than in early fall. While the sensitivity of this method across taxa remains to be determined, the use of eDNA could revolutionize surveys for rare and invasive stream species. With this study, the utility of eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic vertebrates has been demonstrated across the majority of freshwater systems, setting the stage for an innovative transformation in approaches for aquatic research.

  3. Molecular detection of vertebrates in stream water: a demonstration using Rocky Mountain tailed frogs and Idaho giant salamanders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren S Goldberg

    Full Text Available Stream ecosystems harbor many secretive and imperiled species, and studies of vertebrates in these systems face the challenges of relatively low detection rates and high costs. Environmental DNA (eDNA has recently been confirmed as a sensitive and efficient tool for documenting aquatic vertebrates in wetlands and in a large river and canal system. However, it was unclear whether this tool could be used to detect low-density vertebrates in fast-moving streams where shed cells may travel rapidly away from their source. To evaluate the potential utility of eDNA techniques in stream systems, we designed targeted primers to amplify a short, species-specific DNA fragment for two secretive stream amphibian species in the northwestern region of the United States (Rocky Mountain tailed frogs, Ascaphus montanus, and Idaho giant salamanders, Dicamptodon aterrimus. We tested three DNA extraction and five PCR protocols to determine whether we could detect eDNA of these species in filtered water samples from five streams with varying densities of these species in central Idaho, USA. We successfully amplified and sequenced the targeted DNA regions for both species from stream water filter samples. We detected Idaho giant salamanders in all samples and Rocky Mountain tailed frogs in four of five streams and found some indication that these species are more difficult to detect using eDNA in early spring than in early fall. While the sensitivity of this method across taxa remains to be determined, the use of eDNA could revolutionize surveys for rare and invasive stream species. With this study, the utility of eDNA techniques for detecting aquatic vertebrates has been demonstrated across the majority of freshwater systems, setting the stage for an innovative transformation in approaches for aquatic research.

  4. National water summary 1990-91: Hydrologic events and stream water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulson, Richard W.; Chase, Edith B.; Williams, John S.; Moody, David W.

    1993-01-01

    National Water Summary 1990-91 Hydrologic Events and Stream Water Quality was planned to complement existing Federal-State water-quality reporting to the U.S. Congress that is required by the Clean Water Act of 1972. This act, formally known as the Federal Water Pollution Control Act Amendments of 1972 (Public Law 92-500), and its amendments in 1977,1979,1980,1981,1983, and 1987, is the principal basis for Federal-State cooperation on maintaining and reporting on water quality in the United States. Under section 305(b) of the Clean Water Act, the States must designate uses for waterbodies, biennially assess whether the waterbodies meet designated uses, and report to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which in turn summarizes the findings of the State assessments in a biennial National Water Quality Inventory report to the Congress.

  5. Stream water chemistry in watersheds receiving different atmospheric inputs of H+, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stottlemyer, R.

    1997-01-01

    Weekly precipitation and stream water samples were collected from small watersheds in Denali National Park, Alaska, the Fraser Experimental Forest, Colorado, Isle Royale National Park, Michigan, and the Calumet watershed on the south shore of Lake Superior, Michigan. The objective was to determine if stream water chemistry at the mouth and upstream stations reflected precipitation chemistry across a range of atmospheric inputs of H+, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42-. Volume-weighted precipitation H+, NH4+, NO3-, and SO42- concentrations varied 4 to 8 fold with concentrations highest at Calumet and lowest in Denali. Stream water chemistry varied among sites, but did not reflect precipitation chemistry. The Denali watershed, Rock Creek, had the lowest precipitation NO3- and SO42- concentrations, but the highest stream water NO3and SO42- concentrations. Among sites, the ratio of mean monthly upstream NO3- concentration to precipitation NO3- concentration declined (p 90 percent inputs) across inputs ranging from 0.12 to > 6 kg N ha-1 y-1. Factors possibly accounting for the weak or non-existent signal between stream water and precipitation ion concentrations include rapid modification of meltwater and precipitation chemistry by soil processes, and the presence of unfrozen soils which permits winter mineralization and nitrification to occur.

  6. Towards benchmarking an in-stream water quality model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A method of model evaluation is presented which utilises a comparison with a benchmark model. The proposed benchmarking concept is one that can be applied to many hydrological models but, in this instance, is implemented in the context of an in-stream water quality model. The benchmark model is defined in such a way that it is easily implemented within the framework of the test model, i.e. the approach relies on two applications of the same model code rather than the application of two separate model codes. This is illustrated using two case studies from the UK, the Rivers Aire and Ouse, with the objective of simulating a water quality classification, general quality assessment (GQA, which is based on dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand and ammonium. Comparisons between the benchmark and test models are made based on GQA, as well as a step-wise assessment against the components required in its derivation. The benchmarking process yields a great deal of important information about the performance of the test model and raises issues about a priori definition of the assessment criteria.

  7. Macro Invertebrates As Bio Indicators Of Water Quality In Nzovwe Stream In Mbeya Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrick Ojija

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to assess the water quality of Nzovwe stream using macroinvertebrates as bioindicators. Biological monitoring working party BMWP scoring system was the index used to assess the ecosystem health of Nzovwe stream. A total of 584 aquatic macroinvertebrates were identified from Nzovwe stream. They belonged to 22 families. The most abundant taxa were Odonata 35.959 Hemiptera 25.514 Coleoptera 18.493 and Diptera 12.842. Whereas the least abundant taxa were Ephemeroptera and Gastropoda each constituting 1.028 of all macroinvertebrates. The most abundant macroinvertebrates were Dragonflies 27.226 Water striders 13.185 and Creeping water bugs 10.274 whereas the least abundant were Giant water bugs 0.514 and Backswimmers 0.514. The BMWP score of Nzovwe stream was 115. Based on this score the water of Nzovwe stream is neither very clean nor significantly altered aquatic environment. Hence the Nzovwe stream is moderately polluted due to non-point source pollution from several sources. Moreover it was found that agricultural activities washing and bathing could alter physico-chemical parameters of the stream and hence changing the abundance of macroinvertebrates as well as the quality of water. This study therefore recommends that the source of pollutants should be controlled and the stream regularly monitored by the relevant authorities. Additionally biological indicators and their indices are suggested to be used in assessing the condition of a stream ecosystem.

  8. The Role of Riparian Vegetation in Protecting and Improving Chemical Water Quality in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Dosskey; Philippe Vidon; Noel P. Gurwick; Craig J. Allan; Tim P. Duval; Richard Lowrance

    2010-01-01

    We review the research literature and summarize the major processes by which riparian vegetation influences chemical water quality in streams, as well as how these processes vary among vegetation types, and discuss how these processes respond to removal and restoration of riparian vegetation and thereby determine the timing and level of response in stream water quality...

  9. Environmental impact of coal ash on tributary streams and nearshore water or Lake Erie. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, K.G.

    1978-08-01

    The environmental impact of coal ash disposal at a landfill site in north-central Chautauqua County, New York was studied from June 1975 through July 1977. Water samples taken from wells, ponds, and streams at 67 sites were analyzed for specific conductance, pH, alkalinity, arsenic, calcium, cadmium, chloride, chromium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, selenium, sodium, sulfate and zinc. Evidence suggests that ponds at the landfill were high in Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and SO/sub 4/ compared to control pands. A stream adjacent to the site contained greater Mn (207 ug/1) and SO/sub 4/ (229 ppm) than control streams. Shallow alkaline test wells in the landfill had elevated As, Ca, and Se. Acid-neutral test wells had elevated As, Ca, Cr, Mg and Mn. Household wells in the vicinity of the landfill showed no evident contamination from the landfill. Average iron concentrations in the biota were tripled, and manganese concentrations doubled in biota affected by the coal ash dump. However, any effects of the disposal area on the distribution of the biota could not be separated from effects of varying environment factors such as water movements, substrate composition and food availability. No harmful effects could be demonstrated on the biota in the creek which flowed past the disposal area.

  10. STREAM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Godsk, Mikkel

    This paper presents a flexible model, ‘STREAM’, for transforming higher science education into blended and online learning. The model is inspired by ideas of active and collaborative learning and builds on feedback strategies well-known from Just-in-Time Teaching, Flipped Classroom, and Peer...... Instruction. The aim of the model is to provide both a concrete and comprehensible design toolkit for adopting and implementing educational technologies in higher science teaching practice and at the same time comply with diverse ambitions. As opposed to the above-mentioned feedback strategies, the STREAM...... model supports a relatively diverse use of educational technologies and may also be used to transform teaching into completely online learning. So far both teachers and educational developers have positively received the model and the initial design experiences show promise....

  11. The application and testing of diatom-based indices of stream water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The application and testing of diatom-based indices of stream water quality in Chinhoyi Town, Zimbabwe. ... PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH ... test the applicability of foreign diatom-based water quality assessment indices to ...

  12. Potential toxic elements in stream sediments, soils and waters in an abandoned radium mine (central Portugal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, I M H R; Neiva, A M R; Albuquerque, M T D; Carvalho, P C S; Santos, A C T; Cunha, Pedro P

    2018-02-01

    The Alto da Várzea radium mine (AV) exploited ore and U-bearing minerals, such as autunite and torbernite. The mine was exploited underground from 1911 to 1922, closed in 1946 without restoration, and actually a commercial area is deployed. Stream sediments, soils and water samples were collected between 2008 and 2009. Stream sediments are mainly contaminated in As, Th, U and W, which is related to the AV radium mine. The PTEs, As, Co, Cr, Sr, Th, U, W, Zn, and electrical conductivity reached the highest values in soils collected inside the mine influence. Soils are contaminated with As and U and must not be used for any purpose. Most waters have pH values ranging from 4.3 to 6.8 and are poorly mineralized (EC = 41-186 µS/cm; TDS = 33-172 mg/L). Groundwater contains the highest Cu, Cr and Pb contents. Arsenic occurs predominantly as H 2 (AsO 4 ) - and H(AsO 4 ) 2- . Waters are saturated in goethite, haematite and some of them also in lepidocrocite and ferrihydrite, which adsorbs As (V). Lead is divalent in waters collected during the warm season, being mobile in these waters. Thorium occurs mainly as Th(OH) 3 (CO 3 ) - , Th(OH) 2 (CO 3 ) and Th(OH) 2 (CO 3 ) 2 2- , which increase water Th contents. Uranium occurs predominantly as UO 2 CO 3 , but CaUO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 2- and CaUO 2 (CO 3 ) 3 also occur, decreasing its mobility in water. The waters are contaminated in NO 2 - , Mn, Cu, As, Pb and U and must not be used for human consumption and in agricultural activities. The water contamination is mainly associated with the old radium mine and human activities. A restoration of the mining area with PTE monitoring is necessary to avoid a public hazard.

  13. Pasture size effects on the ability of off-stream water or restricted stream access to alter the spatial/temporal distribution of grazing beef cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisinger, J J; Russell, J R; Morrical, D G; Isenhart, T M

    2014-08-01

    For 2 grazing seasons, effects of pasture size, stream access, and off-stream water on cow distribution relative to a stream were evaluated in six 12.1-ha cool-season grass pastures. Two pasture sizes (small [4.0 ha] and large [12.1 ha]) with 3 management treatments (unrestricted stream access without off-stream water [U], unrestricted stream access with off-stream water [UW], and stream access restricted to a stabilized stream crossing [R]) were alternated between pasture sizes every 2 wk for 5 consecutive 4-wk intervals in each grazing season. Small and large pastures were stocked with 5 and 15 August-calving cows from mid May through mid October. At 10-min intervals, cow location was determined with Global Positioning System collars fitted on 2 to 3 cows in each pasture and identified when observed in the stream (0-10 m from the stream) or riparian (0-33 m from the stream) zones and ambient temperature was recorded with on-site weather stations. Over all intervals, cows were observed more (P ≤ 0.01) frequently in the stream and riparian zones of small than large pastures regardless of management treatment. Cows in R pastures had 24 and 8% less (P cows in or near pasture streams regardless of pasture size. In 2011, the probability of cow presence in the stream and riparian zones increased at greater (P cow presence in the stream and riparian zones increased at greater (P cow presence in the stream and riparian zone increased less (P cow presence in shade (within 10 m of tree drip lines) in the total pasture with increasing temperatures did not differ between treatments. However, probability of cow presence in riparian shade increased at greater (P cows in or near pasture streams with unrestricted access.

  14. Air - water temperature relationships in the trout streams of southeastern Minnesota’s carbonate - sandstone landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krider, Lori A.; Magner, Joseph A.; Perry, Jim; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Ferrington, Leonard C.

    2013-01-01

    Carbonate-sandstone geology in southeastern Minnesota creates a heterogeneous landscape of springs, seeps, and sinkholes that supply groundwater into streams. Air temperatures are effective predictors of water temperature in surface-water dominated streams. However, no published work investigates the relationship between air and water temperatures in groundwater-fed streams (GWFS) across watersheds. We used simple linear regressions to examine weekly air-water temperature relationships for 40 GWFS in southeastern Minnesota. A 40-stream, composite linear regression model has a slope of 0.38, an intercept of 6.63, and R2 of 0.83. The regression models for GWFS have lower slopes and higher intercepts in comparison to surface-water dominated streams. Regression models for streams with high R2 values offer promise for use as predictive tools for future climate conditions. Climate change is expected to alter the thermal regime of groundwater-fed systems, but will do so at a slower rate than surface-water dominated systems. A regression model of intercept vs. slope can be used to identify streams for which water temperatures are more meteorologically than groundwater controlled, and thus more vulnerable to climate change. Such relationships can be used to guide restoration vs. management strategies to protect trout streams.

  15. Process for the exchange of hydrogen isotopes between streams of liquid water and gaseous halohydrocarbon and an apparatus therefor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Symons, E.A.; Rolston, J.H.; Clermont, M.J.; Paterson, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    This invention provides a process for the exchange of hydrogen isotopes between streams of liquid water and gaseous halohydrocarbons comprising: (a) bringing into contact a water stream, a halohydrocarbon stream, and a catalytic porous anion exchange resin so that the isotope-deficient halohydrocarbon stream is enriched; (b) decomposing the halohydrocarbon stream photolytically into two gaseous streams, one enriched and the other deficient; (c) removing as a product the first, enriched stream; and (d) recycling the second stream for enrichment. An apparatus is also provided

  16. Mapping spatial and temporal variation of stream water temperature in the upper Esopus Creek watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, H.; McGlinn, L.

    2017-12-01

    The upper Esopus Creek and its tributary streams located in the Catskill Mountain region of New York State provide habitats for cold-adapted aquatic species. However, ongoing global warming may change the stream water temperature within a watershed and disturb the persistence of coldwater habitats. Characterizing thermal regimes within the upper Esopus Creek watershed is important to provide information of thermally suitable habitats for aquatic species. The objectives of this study are to measure stream water temperature and map thermal variability among tributaries to the Esopus Creek and within Esopus Creek. These objectives will be achieved by measuring stream water temperature for at least two years. More than 100 water temperature data loggers have been placed in the upper Esopus Creek and their tributaries to collect 30-minute interval water temperatures. With the measured water temperature, we will use spatial interpolation in ArcGIS to create weekly and monthly water temperature surface maps to evaluate the thermal variation over time and space within the upper Esopus Creek watershed. We will characterize responsiveness of water temperature in tributary streams to air temperature as well. This information of spatial and temporal variation of stream water temperature will assist stream managers with prioritizing management practices that maintain or enhance connectivity of thermally suitable habitats in high priority areas.

  17. Dry Stream Reaches in Carbonate Terranes: Surface Indicators of Ground-Water Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahana, J.V.; Hollyday, E.F.

    1988-01-01

    In areas where dry stream reaches occur, subsurface drainage successfully competes with surface drainage, and sheet-like dissolution openings have developed parallel to bedding creating the ground-water reservoir. Union Hollow in south-central Tennessee is the setting for a case study that illustrates the application of the dry stream reach technique. In this technique, dry stream reach identification is based on two types of readily acquired information: remotely sensed black and white infrared aerial photography; and surface reconnaissance of stream channel characteristics. Test drilling in Union Hollow subsequent to identification of the dry reach proved that a localized ground-water reservoir was present.

  18. Influence of acid mine drainage on microbial communities in stream and groundwater samples at Guryong Mine, South Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaisoo; Koo, So-Yeon; Kim, Ji-Young; Lee, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Don; Ko, Kyung-Seok; Ko, Dong-Chan; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2009-10-01

    The effects of acid mine drainage (AMD) in a stream and groundwater near an abandoned copper mine were characterized by physicochemical properties, bacterial community structure using denaturing gel gradient electrophoresis (DGGE), and microbial activity/diversity using Ecoplate technique. Based on DGGE fingerprints, the eubacterial community structures grouped into the stream water (GRS1, GRS2 and GRS3) and groundwater samples (GW1 and GW2), apparently based on differences in water temperature and the concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrate and sulfate. The most highly AMD-contaminated sample (GRS1) had additional α-Proteobacteria whereas the groundwater samples included additional β-Proteobacteria, suggesting the development of populations resistant to AMD toxicity under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Community level physiological activities on the 31 Ecoplate substrates suggested that the activities decreased with increasing concentrations of sulfate and heavy metals derived from AMD. The Shannon index showed that microbial diversity was greatest in GRS2, and lowest in GRS1, and was probably related to the level of AMD.

  19. Water quality assessment of the Eastern Iowa Basins: Basic water chemistry of rivers and streams, 1996-98

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Kimberlee K.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey began data-collection activities in the Eastern Iowa Basins study unit of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program in September 1995 with the purpose of determining the status and trends in water quality of water from the Wapsipinicon, Cedar, Iowa, and Skunk River basins. From March 1996 through September 1998, monthly surface-water samples were collected from 11 sites on the study's rivers and streams representing three distinct physiographic regions, the Des Moines Lobe, the Iowan Surface, the Southern Iowa Drift Plain, and one subregion, the Iowan Karst. These water samples were analyzed for basic water chemistry, including, but not limited to the following cations: sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, and silica; anions: chloride, fluoride, sulfate, and bicarbonate; and two metals - iron and maganese. Although none of the concentrations of the constituents exceeded health advisories or drinking-water regulations, extremely high or low concentrations could potentially affect aquatic life. Calcium, magnesium, and potassium are essential elements for both plant and animal life; manganese is an essential element in plant metabolism; and silica is important in the growth of diatom algae. Calcium had the largest median concentration of 61 milligrams per liter (mg/L) of the cations, and the largest maximum concentration of 100 mg/L. Bicarbonate had the largest median concentration of 210 mg/L of the anions, and the largest maximum concentration of 400 mg/L.

  20. Olfactory responses to natal stream water in sockeye salmon by BOLD fMRI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Bandoh

    Full Text Available Many studies have shown that juvenile salmon imprint olfactory memory of natal stream odors during downstream migration, and adults recall this stream-specific odor information to discriminate their natal stream during upstream migration for spawning. The odor information processing of the natal stream in the salmon brain, however, has not been clarified. We applied blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate the odor information processing of the natal stream in the olfactory bulb and telencephalon of lacustrine sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka. The strong responses to the natal stream water were mainly observed in the lateral area of dorsal telencephalon (Dl, which are homologous to the medial pallium (hippocampus in terrestrial vertebrates. Although the concentration of L-serine (1 mM in the control water was 20,000-times higher than that of total amino acid in the natal stream water (47.5 nM, the BOLD signals resulting from the natal stream water were stronger than those by L-serine in the Dl. We concluded that sockeye salmon could process the odor information of the natal stream by integrating information in the Dl area of the telencephalon.

  1. Use of stream water pH and specific conductance measurements to identify ground water discharges of fly ash leachate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.M.

    1992-01-01

    Low pH and high specific conductance are typical chemical characteristics of coal fly ash leachate. Measurements of these parameters in streams adjacent to a fly ash facility were used to identify areas of ground water discharge into the streams. In-situ specific conductance and pH were determined at approximately 50 surface water stations from on-site and off-site streams. The results of the in-situ determinations were used to select twelve surface water stations for more detailed chemical analyses. The chemical character of the stream water affected by ground water discharges was similar to the water quality of sedimentation ponds which received drainage from the fly ash embankment. The results indicated that in-situ measurements of indicator parameters such as pH and specific conductance can be used as a screening method for identifying surface water quality impacts at fly ash facilities

  2. Advances in Radiocarbon Measurement of Water Samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janovics, R.; Molnar, M.; Major, I. [Institute of Nuclear Research (ATO MKI), Hungarian Academy of Sciences, H-4001 Debrecen (Hungary); Svetlik, I. [Department of Radiation Dosimetry, Nuclear Physics Institute AS CR, Prague (Czech Republic); Wacker, L. [Institute for Particle Physics, ETH Hoenggerberg, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    In this paper two very different and novel methods for the {sup 14}C measurement of water samples are presented. The first method uses direct absorption into a scintillation cocktail and a following liquid scintillation measurement. Typical sample size is 20-40 L and overall uncertainty is {+-} 2% for modern samples. It is a very cost effective and easy to use method based on a novel and simple static absorption process for the CO{sub 2} extracted from groundwater. The other very sensitive method is based on accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) using a gas ion source. With a MICADAS type AMS system we demonstrated that you can routinely measure the {sup 14}C content of 1 mL of water sample with better than 1% precision (for a modern sample). This direct {sup 14}C AMS measurement of water takes less than 20 minutes including sample preparation. (author)

  3. Long-term changes in the water quality of rainfall, cloud water and stream water for moorland, forested and clear-felled catchments at Plynlimon, mid-Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Long term changes in the water quality of rainfall, cloud water and stream waters draining acidic and acid sensitive moorland and forested catchments at Plynlimon, mid-Wales, are examined for the period 1983 to 2001. Atmospheric inputs of chloride and sulphate are influenced by the relative inputs of clean maritime and polluted land based air masses. There is no systematic increase or decrease over time for chloride and non-sea-salt sulphate. Rather, there is a decadal scale process possibly representative of the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation that affects the maritime and pollution climate of the Atlantic seaboard of the UK. Over 17 years of study, there may be a small decrease in non-sea-salt sulphate of about 10 μeq l-1 and a small improvement in acid neutralising capacity of about 20 to 30 μeq l-1 in rainfall. There is a clear improvement in cloud water chemistry with respect to pollutant components (ammonium, nitrate, non-sea-salt sulphate and acidity (acid neutralising capacity improved by about 300 μeq l-1 through the study period. Many of the changes in cloud water chemistry are similar to rainfall over the same period except the magnitude of change is larger for the cloud water. Within the streams, there is some evidence for reductions in acidity as reflected by acid neutralising capacity becoming less negative. For one stream, deforestation occurred during the sampling period and this led to large increases in nitrate and smaller increases in aluminium midway through the study period. However, the climate and hydrological variability largely masked out other changes. The current analysis provides only a start to identifying trends for such a complex and variable environmental system. The need for strong statistical tools is emphasised to resolve issues of: (a hydrological induced water quality variability, (b changing soil and groundwater "endmember" chemistry contribution to the stream and (c the non-linear patterns of

  4. Effects of land use and sample location on nitrate-stream flow hysteresis descriptors during storm events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinson, Lawrence S.; Gibs, Jacob; Imbrigiotta, Thomas E.; Garrett, Jessica D.

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey's New Jersey and Iowa Water Science Centers deployed ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometric sensors at water-quality monitoring sites on the Passaic and Pompton Rivers at Two Bridges, New Jersey, on Toms River at Toms River, New Jersey, and on the North Raccoon River near Jefferson, Iowa to continuously measure in-stream nitrate plus nitrite as nitrogen (NO3 + NO2) concentrations in conjunction with continuous stream flow measurements. Statistical analysis of NO3 + NO2 vs. stream discharge during storm events found statistically significant links between land use types and sampling site with the normalized area and rotational direction of NO3 + NO2-stream discharge (N-Q) hysteresis patterns. Statistically significant relations were also found between the normalized area of a hysteresis pattern and several flow parameters as well as the normalized area adjusted for rotational direction and minimum NO3 + NO2 concentrations. The mean normalized hysteresis area for forested land use was smaller than that of urban and agricultural land uses. The hysteresis rotational direction of the agricultural land use was opposite of that of the urban and undeveloped land uses. An r2 of 0.81 for the relation between the minimum normalized NO3 + NO2 concentration during a storm vs. the normalized NO3 + NO2 concentration at peak flow suggested that dilution was the dominant process controlling NO3 + NO2 concentrations over the course of most storm events.

  5. Water Sample Points, Navajo Nation, 2000, USACE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This point shapefile presents the locations and results for water samples collected on the Navajo Nation by the US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) for the US...

  6. The impact of the High Park Wildfire on stream water quality and implications for drinking water treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosario-Ortiz, F.

    2014-12-01

    The Cache La Poudre (CLP) watershed in Northern Colorado was impacted by the High Park fire, which burned from June 9th through July 1st of 2012. The CLP watershed serves as a source of drinking water for three water districts in Northern Colorado, including the City of Fort Collins. Sampling was conducted during four different storm events immediately after the fire was extinguished. The sampling was expanded through spring and summer 2013 in order to capture the flush of debris from the wildfire into the CLP River. Samples were also collected from an unburned control site for comparison. Surface water samples were analyzed for parameters including nutrients, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration and dissolved organic matter (DOM) characterization. In addition, bench scale treatment analyses were conducted to better understand the impacts of the wildfire on treatment processes for drinking water utilities. Lastly, leaching of stream bank sediments was conducted to determine the potential longer term inputs of burned material to the stream water. The overarching goals of the sampling campaign were to: 1) Evaluate the impact that wildfires have on the properties of DOM, specifically with respect to DBP formation and speciation (TTHM, HAA5, HAN, NDMA); 2) Establish the condition under which the source water could be effectively treated (using coagulation) to remove DBP precursors; 3) Evaluate the use of fluorescence spectroscopy as a surrogate for the concentration and reactivity of DOM in the CLP watershed; and 4) Assess the quantity and quality of DOM leached from streambed sediments. Preliminary results showed elevated DOC levels during the storm events and at wildfire impacted sites compared to the unburned site following the fire. DBP yields were higher for the four storm events following the fire when compared to yields for the control site located upstream of the burn area, and also when compared to data from a previous DBP study conducted on similar

  7. Channel water balance and exchange with subsurface flow along a mountain headwater stream in Montana, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Payn; M.N. Gooseff; B.L. McGlynn; K.E. Bencala; S.M. Wondzell

    2009-01-01

    Channel water balances of contiguous reaches along streams represent a poorly understood scale of stream-subsurface interaction. We measured reach water balances along a headwater stream in Montana, United States, during summer base flow recessions. Reach water balances were estimated from series of tracer tests in 13 consecutive reaches delineated evenly along a 2.6-...

  8. Methodology to produce a water and energy stream map (WESM in the South African manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies, Edward

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for water and energy in South Africa, and the capacity constraints and restrictions of both resources, have led to a rapid increase in their cost. The manufacturing industry remains South Africa’s third-largest consumer of water and second- largest consumer of national energy. The improvement of water and energy efficiency is becoming an increasingly important theme for both organisational success and national economic sustainability. This paper presents the ‘lean based water and energy stream mapping framework’ developed for the manufacturing industry, with the specific objective of decreasing its water and energy intensity. As with the traditional value stream mapping tool, the water and energy stream mapping focuses on eliminating water- and energy-specific wastes within a process. Water and energy waste categories that will be used in conjunction with the framework will also be discussed. The key objective of this paper is to detail the process of creating the water and energy stream mapping, and the statistical forecasting methodology used to develop the baseline water and energy demand data. The outcome of the implementation of the framework is the future state water and energy stream mapping, which is effectively a blueprint for increased water and energy efficiency within a studied process.

  9. Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Fjendbo; Eriksson, Eva; Binning, Philip John

    2012-01-01

    the stream and analyzed for general water quality parameters, inorganic constituents, pesticides, sulfonamides, chlorinated solvents, BTEXs, and paracetamol and ibuprofen. The latter two groups were not detected. The general water quality showed typical conditions for a stream in western Jutland. Minor...... at the pharmaceutical factory site, the drainage ditch and the waste deposits is similar in composition containing among others sulfonamides and chlorinated solvents (including vinyl chloride). Vinyl chloride concentrations surpassed Danish stream water quality criteria with a factor 10. The largest chemical impact...

  10. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L; Paretti, Nicholas V; Foreman, William T; Iverson, Jana L; Alvarez, David A

    2014-03-01

    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19-23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Sampling trace organic compounds in water: a comparison of a continuous active sampler to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coes, Alissa L.; Paretti, Nicholas V.; Foreman, William T.; Iverson, Jana L.; Alvarez, David A.

    2014-01-01

    A continuous active sampling method was compared to continuous passive and discrete sampling methods for the sampling of trace organic compounds (TOCs) in water. Results from each method are compared and contrasted in order to provide information for future investigators to use while selecting appropriate sampling methods for their research. The continuous low-level aquatic monitoring (CLAM) sampler (C.I.Agent® Storm-Water Solutions) is a submersible, low flow-rate sampler, that continuously draws water through solid-phase extraction media. CLAM samplers were deployed at two wastewater-dominated stream field sites in conjunction with the deployment of polar organic chemical integrative samplers (POCIS) and the collection of discrete (grab) water samples. All samples were analyzed for a suite of 69 TOCs. The CLAM and POCIS samples represent time-integrated samples that accumulate the TOCs present in the water over the deployment period (19–23 h for CLAM and 29 days for POCIS); the discrete samples represent only the TOCs present in the water at the time and place of sampling. Non-metric multi-dimensional scaling and cluster analysis were used to examine patterns in both TOC detections and relative concentrations between the three sampling methods. A greater number of TOCs were detected in the CLAM samples than in corresponding discrete and POCIS samples, but TOC concentrations in the CLAM samples were significantly lower than in the discrete and (or) POCIS samples. Thirteen TOCs of varying polarity were detected by all of the three methods. TOC detections and concentrations obtained by the three sampling methods, however, are dependent on multiple factors. This study found that stream discharge, constituent loading, and compound type all affected TOC concentrations detected by each method. In addition, TOC detections and concentrations were affected by the reporting limits, bias, recovery, and performance of each method.

  12. Contaminated Stream Water as Source for Escherichia coli O157 Illness in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probert, William S; Miller, Glen M; Ledin, Katya E

    2017-07-01

    In May 2016, an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infections occurred among children who had played in a stream flowing through a park. Analysis of E. coli isolates from the patients, stream water, and deer and coyote scat showed that feces from deer were the most likely source of contamination.

  13. Mixing Hot and Cold Water Streams at a T-Junction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, David; Zhang, Mingqian; Xu, Zhenghe; Ryan, Jim; Wanke, Sieghard; Afacan, Artin

    2008-01-01

    A simple mixing of a hot- and cold-water stream at a T-junction was investigated. The main objective was to use mass and energy balance equations to predict mass low rates and the temperature of the mixed stream after the T-junction, and then compare these with the measured values. Furthermore, the thermocouple location after the T-junction and…

  14. Use of index analysis to evaluate the water quality of a stream ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, the water quality of a stream that receives industrial effluents is evaluated through the analysis of two indices. Data (dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, pH, turbidity, colour, temperature and thermotolerant coliforms) were collected from five stations in the Mussuré Stream, located in João Pessoa ...

  15. Uranium concentrations in stream waters and sediments from selected sites in the eastern Seward Peninsula, Koyukuk, and Charley River areas, and across South-Central Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Hill, D.E.

    1978-04-01

    During the summer of 1975, a 6-week reconnaissance was conducted in widespread areas of Alaska as part of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program; Water, stream sediment, and bedrock samples were taken from the eastern Seward Peninsula, from north of Koyukuk River, from the Charley River area, and from across south central Alaska. This report contains the LASL uranium determinations resulting from fluorometric analysis of the water samples and delayed-neutron counting of the stream sediment samples. Results of total uranium for 611 water and 641 sediment samples, from 691 stream locations, are presented. Overlays showing the numbered sample locations and graphically portraying the concentrations of uranium in water and stream sediment samples, at 1:250,000 scale for use with existing National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) sheets and published geologic maps, are provided as plates. The main purposes of this work are to make the uranium data available to the public in the standard computer format used in the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (i.e., with a DOE sample number giving the latitude and longitude of each sample location) and to provide uranium concentration overlays at the standard scale of 1:250,000 adopted by the DOE for the NURE program. It also allows a plausible explanation of differences between the uranium values for sediment as determined by acid dissolution/extraction/fluorometry and by delayed-neutron counting that were noted in the earlier report

  16. Water sampling techniques for continuous monitoring of pesticides in water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šunjka Dragana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good ecological and chemical status of water represents the most important aim of the Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC, which implies respect of water quality standards at the level of entire river basin (2008/105/EC and 2013/39/EC. This especially refers to the control of pesticide residues in surface waters. In order to achieve the set goals, a continuous monitoring program that should provide a comprehensive and interrelated overview of water status should be implemented. However, it demands the use of appropriate analysis techniques. Until now, the procedure for sampling and quantification of residual pesticide quantities in aquatic environment was based on the use of traditional sampling techniques that imply periodical collecting of individual samples. However, this type of sampling provides only a snapshot of the situation in regard to the presence of pollutants in water. As an alternative, the technique of passive sampling of pollutants in water, including pesticides has been introduced. Different samplers are available for pesticide sampling in surface water, depending on compounds. The technique itself is based on keeping a device in water over a longer period of time which varies from several days to several weeks, depending on the kind of compound. In this manner, the average concentrations of pollutants dissolved in water during a time period (time-weighted average concentrations, TWA are obtained, which enables monitoring of trends in areal and seasonal variations. The use of these techniques also leads to an increase in sensitivity of analytical methods, considering that pre-concentration of analytes takes place within the sorption medium. However, the use of these techniques for determination of pesticide concentrations in real water environments requires calibration studies for the estimation of sampling rates (Rs. Rs is a volume of water per time, calculated as the product of overall mass transfer coefficient and area of

  17. Depauperate macroinvertebrates in a mine affected stream: Clean water may be the key to recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battaglia, M.; Hose, G.C.; Turak, E.; Warden, B.

    2005-01-01

    Acid mine drainage (AMD) is frequently linked with changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages, but the relative contribution of water and sediment to toxicity is equivocal. We have shown that the macroinvertebrate fauna of Neubecks Ck, a mine impacted stream in New South Wales, Australia, was much poorer than in two reference streams. Multivariate RELATE analyses indicated that the patterns in the biological data were more strongly correlated with the concentrations of common metals in the surface water than the pore water of these streams. From this we hypothesised that the water was more toxic to the biota than the sediment and we tested this hypothesis with a sediment transplant experiment. Sediment from Neubecks Ck that was placed in reference streams retained high concentrations of metals throughout the experiment, yet supported a macroinvertebrate assemblage similar to that in the reference streams. Sediment from the reference streams that was placed in Neubecks Ck supported few, if any, animals. This indicates that water in Neubecks Ck is toxic to biota, but that sediment is able to support aquatic biota in clean water. Therefore, remediation should focus on improving water quality rather than sediment quality. - Macroinvertebrates colonise contaminated sediment in clean water

  18. The WIPP Water Quality Sampling Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhland, D.; Morse, J.G.; Colton, D.

    1986-01-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a Department of Energy facility, will be used for the underground disposal of wastes. The Water Quality Sampling Program (WQSP) is designed to obtain representative and reproducible water samples to depict accurate water composition data for characterization and monitoring programs in the vicinity of the WIPP. The WQSP is designed to input data into four major programs for the WIPP project: Geochemical Site Characterization, Radiological Baseline, Environmental Baseline, and Performance Assessment. The water-bearing units of interest are the Culebra and Magneta Dolomite Members of the Rustler Formation, units in the Dewey Lake Redbeds, and the Bell Canyon Formation. At least two chemically distinct types of water occur in the Culebra, one being a sodium/potassium chloride water and the other being a calcium/magnesium sulfate water. Water from the Culebra wells to the south of the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the calcium/magnesium sulfate type. Water in the Culebra in the north and around the WIPP site is distinctly fresher and tends to be of the sodium/potassium chloride type and is much higher in total dissolved solids. The program, which is currently 1 year old, will continue throughout the life of the facility as part of the Environmental Monitoring Program

  19. Effects of chronic pollution and water flow intermittency on stream biofilms biodegradation capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rožman, Marko; Acuña, Vicenç; Petrović, Mira

    2018-02-01

    A mesocosm case study was conducted to gain understanding and practical knowledge on biofilm emerging contaminants biodegradation capacity under stressor and multiple stressor conditions. Two real life scenarios: I) biodegradation in a pristine intermittent stream experiencing acute pollution and II) biodegradation in a chronically polluted intermittent stream, were examined via a multifactorial experiment using an artificial stream facility. Stream biofilms were exposed to different water flow conditions i.e. permanent and intermittent water flow. Venlafaxine, a readily biodegradable pharmaceutical was used as a measure of biodegradation capacity while pollution was simulated by a mixture of four emerging contaminants (erythromycin, sulfisoxazole, diclofenac and imidacloprid in addition to venlafaxine) in environmentally relevant concentrations. Biodegradation kinetics monitored via LC-MS/MS was established, statistically evaluated, and used to link biodegradation with stress events. The results suggest that the effects of intermittent flow do not hinder and may even stimulate pristine biofilm biodegradation capacity. Chronic pollution completely reduced biodegradation in permanent water flow experimental treatments while no change in intermittent streams was observed. A combined effect of water flow conditions and emerging contaminants exposure on biodegradation was found. The decrease in biodegradation due to exposure to emerging contaminants is significantly greater in streams with permanent water flow suggesting that the short and medium term biodegradation capacity in intermittent systems may be preserved or even greater than in perennial streams. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Collection and preparation of wet and dry stream-sediment samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puchlik, K.

    1977-03-01

    Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is responsible for the Hydrogeochemistry and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) program for uranium in the seven far western states. The work thus far has concentrated on the arid to semi-arid regions of the West and this paper discusses the collection and preparation of sediment samples in the Basin and Range province. The sample collection and preparation procedures described here may not be applicable to other parts of the far western states or other areas. These procedures also differ somewhat from those used by the other three laboratories involved in the HSSR program

  1. Sensitivity Sampling Over Dynamic Geometric Data Streams with Applications to $k$-Clustering

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Zhao; Yang, Lin F.; Zhong, Peilin

    2018-01-01

    Sensitivity based sampling is crucial for constructing nearly-optimal coreset for $k$-means / median clustering. In this paper, we provide a novel data structure that enables sensitivity sampling over a dynamic data stream, where points from a high dimensional discrete Euclidean space can be either inserted or deleted. Based on this data structure, we provide a one-pass coreset construction for $k$-means %and M-estimator clustering using space $\\widetilde{O}(k\\mathrm{poly}(d))$ over $d$-dimen...

  2. Comparing molecular composition of dissolved organic matter in soil and stream water: Influence of land use and chemical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Anne-Gret; Roth, Vanessa-Nina; Dittmar, Thorsten; Gleixner, Gerd; Breuer, Lutz; Houska, Tobias; Marxsen, Jürgen

    2016-11-15

    Electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR-MS) was used to examine the molecular composition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from soils under different land use regimes and how the DOM composition in the catchment is reflected in adjacent streams. The study was carried out in a small area of the Schwingbach catchment, an anthropogenic-influenced landscape in central Germany. We investigated 30 different soil water samples from 4 sites and different depths (managed meadow (0-5cm, 40-50cm), deciduous forest (0-5cm), mixed-coniferous forest (0-5cm) and agricultural land (0-5cm, 40-50cm)) and 8 stream samples. 6194 molecular formulae and their magnitude-weighted parameters ((O/C)w, (H/C)w, (N/C)w, (AI-mod)w, (DBE/C)w, (DBE/O)w, (DBE-O)w, (C#)w, (MW)w) were used to describe the molecular composition of the samples. The samples can be roughly divided in three groups. Group 1 contains samples from managed meadow 40-50cm and stream water, which are characterized by high saturation compared to samples from group 2 including agricultural samples and samples from the surface meadow (0-5cm), which held more nitrogen containing and aromatic compounds. Samples from both forested sites (group 3) are characterized by higher molecular weight and O/C ratio. Environmental parameters vary between sites and among these parameters pH and nitrate significantly affect chemical composition of DOM. Results indicate that most DOM in streams is of terrestrial origin. However, 120 molecular formulae were detected only in streams and not in any of the soil samples. These compounds share molecular formulae with peptides, unsaturated aliphatics and saturated FA-CHO/FA-CHOX. Compounds only found in soil samples are much more aromatic, have more double bonds and a much lower H/C ratio but higher oxygen content, which indicates the availability of fresh plant material and less microbial processed material compared to stream samples. Copyright

  3. Protocol for collecting eDNA samples from streams [Version 2.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Carim; T. Wilcox; M. K. Young; K. S. McKelvey; M. K. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the 2014 field season, we had over two dozen biologist throughout the western US collect over 300 samples for eDNA analysis with paired controls. Control samples were collected by filtering 0.5 L of distilled water. No samples had any evidence of field contamination. This method of sampling verifies the cleanliness of the field equipment, as well as the...

  4. Pollutant loads and water quality in streams of heavily populated and industrialised towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntengwe, F. W.

    The availability of portable water is often taken for granted and water allowed to get polluted. Industries, settlements, farms, markets, leaking sewer lines, poor hygiene practices are all potential sources of pollution. Each pollutant has its own effect on water and the environment. A study was conducted in Kitwe Stream in order to establish whether engineering and other human activities affect water quality. Samples were collected at ten points, the first point being at the source while the tenth point was at the confluence with the Kafue River. The samples were analysed for physical, chemical and biological parameters. The results revealed high levels of concentration and loads of total suspended solids (TSS). The points with high TSS values were P4 (118 mg/l) and P6 (140 mg/l) representing daily loads of 7.74 and 8.71 tonnes, respectively. The highest values of coliform were found at points P9 (2099), P10 (2558) followed by P4 (1149), P5 (1256) and P6 (1370). High values of nitrites were found at points P4 (34 mg/l), P5 (32 mg/l), P6 (21 mg/l) and P10 (12.4 mg/l). Chlorides were also found to be high at points P4, P5 and P6 with values of 70 mg/l, 80 mg/l and 87 mg/l, respectively. These parameters exceeded the maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 100 mg/l for TSS, 1 mg/l for nitrites, 500/100 ml for coliform in Zambia. The conductivity and coliform were also found to be high (>500 μS/cm, >500). The benthic study revealed a normal diversity of invertebrates but chironomidae was found to be on average 60% of total species counted. The fish activity was high upstream and low downstream at the mouth of the stream where it joins the Kafue River. There was no fish activity at the middle points. The planktons (phytoplankton and zooplankton) count revealed a high count (15-30 per ml) in places where there was high fish activity and a low count (1-5 per ml) where there was no activity. The stream water quality was therefore affected by the human activities.

  5. Geostatistical prediction of microbial water quality throughout a stream network using meteorology, land cover, and spatiotemporal autocorrelation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, David Andrew; Messier, Kyle P; Serre, Marc L; Rowny, Jakob G; Stewart, Jill R

    2018-06-11

    Predictive modeling is promising as an inexpensive tool to assess water quality. We developed geostatistical predictive models of microbial water quality that empirically modelled spatiotemporal autocorrelation in measured fecal coliform (FC) bacteria concentrations to improve prediction. We compared five geostatistical models featuring different autocorrelation structures, fit to 676 observations from 19 locations in North Carolina's Jordan Lake watershed using meteorological and land cover predictor variables. Though stream distance metrics (with and without flow-weighting) failed to improve prediction over the Euclidean distance metric, incorporating temporal autocorrelation substantially improved prediction over the space-only models. We predicted FC throughout the stream network daily for one year, designating locations "impaired", "unimpaired", or "unassessed" if the probability of exceeding the state standard was >90%, 10% but <90%, respectively. We could assign impairment status to more of the stream network on days any FC were measured, suggesting frequent sample-based monitoring remains necessary, though implementing spatiotemporal predictive models may reduce the number of concurrent sampling locations required to adequately assess water quality. Together, these results suggest that prioritizing sampling at different times and conditions using geographically sparse monitoring networks is adequate to build robust and informative geostatistical models of water quality impairment.

  6. Reclamation of potable water from mixed gas streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judkins, Roddie R; Bischoff, Brian L; Debusk, Melanie Moses; Narula, Chaitanya

    2013-08-20

    An apparatus for separating a liquid from a mixed gas stream can include a wall, a mixed gas stream passageway, and a liquid collection assembly. The wall can include a first surface, a second surface, and a plurality of capillary condensation pores. The capillary condensation pores extend through the wall, and have a first opening on the first surface of the wall, and a second opening on the second surface of the wall. The pore size of the pores can be between about 2 nm to about 100 nm. The mixed gas stream passageway can be in fluid communication with the first opening. The liquid collection assembly can collect liquid from the plurality of pores.

  7. Stream water temperature limits occupancy of salamanders in mid-Atlantic protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Evan H. Campbell; Wiewel, Amber N. M.; Rice, Karen C.

    2014-01-01

    Stream ecosystems are particularly sensitive to urbanization, and tolerance of water-quality parameters is likely important to population persistence of stream salamanders. Forecasted climate and landscape changes may lead to significant changes in stream flow, chemical composition, and temperatures in coming decades. Protected areas where landscape alterations are minimized will therefore become increasingly important for salamander populations. We surveyed 29 streams at three national parks in the highly urbanized greater metropolitan area of Washington, DC. We investigated relationships among water-quality variables and occupancy of three species of stream salamanders (Desmognathus fuscus, Eurycea bislineata, and Pseudotriton ruber). With the use of a set of site-occupancy models, and accounting for imperfect detection, we found that stream-water temperature limits salamander occupancy. There was substantial uncertainty about the effects of the other water-quality variables, although both specific conductance (SC) and pH were included in competitive models. Our estimates of occupancy suggest that temperature, SC, and pH have some importance in structuring stream salamander distribution.

  8. Impacts of groundwater metal loads from bedrock fractures on water quality of a mountain stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Brian S; Dawson, Helen E

    2009-06-01

    Acid mine drainage and metal loads from hardrock mines to surface waters is a significant problem in the western USA and many parts of the world. Mines often occur in mountain environments with fractured bedrock aquifers that serve as pathways for metals transport to streams. This study evaluates impacts from current and potential future groundwater metal (Cd, Cu, and Zn) loads from fractures underlying the Gilt Edge Mine, South Dakota, on concentrations in Strawberry Creek using existing flow and water quality data and simple mixing/dilution mass balance models. Results showed that metal loads from bedrock fractures to the creek currently contribute water quality is achieved upstream in Strawberry Creek, fracture metal loads would be water quality standards exceedances once groundwater with elevated metals concentrations in the aquifer matrix migrates to the fractures and discharges to the stream. Potential future metal loads from an upstream fracture would contribute a small proportion of the total load relative to current loads in the stream. Cd has the highest stream concentrations relative to standards. Even if all stream water was treated to remove 90% of the Cd, the standard would still not be achieved. At a fracture farther downstream, the Cd standard can only be met if the upstream water is treated achieving a 90% reduction in Cd concentrations and the median stream flow is maintained.

  9. A comparative study of stream water and stream sediment as geochemical exploration media in the Rio Tanama porphyry copper district, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learned, R.E.; Chao, T.T.; Sanzolone, R.F.

    1985-01-01

    To test the relative effectiveness of stream water and sediment as geochemical exploration media in the Rio Tanama porphyry copper district of Puerto Rico, we collected and subsequently analyzed samples of water and sediment from 29 sites in the rivers and tributaries of the district. Copper, Mo, Pb, Zn, SO42-, and pH were determined in the waters; Cu, Mo, Pb, and Zn were determined in the sediments. In addition, copper in five partial extractions from the sediments was determined. Geochemical contrast (anomaly-to-background quotient) was the principal criterion by which the effectiveness of the two media and the five extractions were judged. Among the distribution patterns of metals in stream water, that of copper most clearly delineates the known porphyry copper deposits and yields the longest discernable dispersion train. The distribution patterns of Mo, Pb, and Zn in water show little relationship to the known mineralization. The distribution of SO42- in water delineates the copper deposits and also the more extensive pyrite alteration in the district; its recognizable downstream dispersion train is substantially longer than those of the metals, either in water or sediment. Low pH values in small tributaries delineate areas of known sulfide mineralization. The distribution patterns of copper in sediments clearly delineate the known deposits, and the dispersion trains are longer than those of copper in water. The partial determinations of copper related to secondary iron and manganese oxides yield the strongest geochemical contrasts and longest recognizable dispersion trains. Significantly high concentrations of molybdenum in sediments were found at only three sites, all within one-half km downstream of the known copper deposits. The distribution patterns of lead and zinc in sediments are clearly related to the known primary lead-zinc haloes around the copper deposits. The recognizable downstream dispersion trains of lead and zinc are shorter than those of

  10. Some physiochemical and heavy metal concentration in surface water streams of Tutuka in the Kenyasi mining catchment area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boateng, Louis [University of Education, Winneba Ghana, P. O. Box 40, Mampong (Ghana)

    2013-07-01

    This research was conducted in the Akantansu stream of Tutuka in Kenyasi in the Brong Ahafo Region of Ghana in the months of October and November 2010 and January 2011. The major objectives of the study were to measure levels of pH, BOD (biochemical oxygen demand), lead, chromium, and arsenic in the Akantansu stream of Tutuka and to find ways that the community could ensure safe water use. To achieve the objectives of the study, sampling was done over a period of three months and data was collected and analyzed into graphs and ANOVA tables. The research revealed that the levels of arsenic and BOD were high as compared to the standards of WHO and EPA. If the people of Tutuka continue to use the stream, they may experience negative health effects (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, etc.). The level of pH, chromium and lead was acceptable as compared to the standard of WHO and EPA. (authors)

  11. Changes in vegetative communities and water table dynamics following timber harvesting in small headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. Choi; J.C. Dewey; J. A. Hatten; A.W. Ezell; Z. Fan

    2012-01-01

    In order to better understand the relationship between vegetation communities and water table in the uppermost portions (ephemeral–intermittent streams) of headwater systems, seasonal plot-based field characterizations of vegetation were used in conjunction with monthly water table measurements. Vegetation, soils, and water table data were examined to determine...

  12. Assessing the Effects of Water Right Purchases on Stream Temperatures and Fish Habitat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmore, L.; Null, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    Warm stream temperature and low flow conditions are limiting factors for native trout species in Nevada's Walker River. Water rights purchases are being considered to increase instream flow and improve habitat conditions. However, the effect of water rights purchases on stream temperatures and fish habitat have yet to be assessed. Manipulating flow conditions affect stream temperatures by altering water depth, velocity, and thermal mass. This study uses the River Modeling System (RMSv4), an hourly, physically-based hydrodynamic and water quality model, to estimate flows and stream temperatures in the Walker River. The model is developed for two wet years (2010-2011). Study results highlight reaches with cold-water habitat that is suitable for native trout species. Previous research on the Walker River has evaluated instream flow changes with water rights purchases. This study incorporates stream temperatures as a proxy for trout habitat, and thus explicitly incorporates water quality and fish habitat into decision-making regarding water rights purchases. Walker River

  13. Analysis of postfire hydrology, water quality, and sediment transport for selected streams in areas of the 2002 Hayman and Hinman fires, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Michael R.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began a 5-year study in 2003 that focused on postfire stream-water quality and postfire sediment load in streams within the Hayman and Hinman fire study areas. This report compares water quality of selected streams receiving runoff from unburned areas and burned areas using concentrations and loads, and trend analysis, from seasonal data (approximately April–November) collected 2003–2007 at the Hayman fire study area, and data collected from 1999–2000 (prefire) and 2003 (postfire) at the Hinman fire study area. The water-quality data collected during this study include onsite measurements of streamflow, specific conductance, and turbidity, laboratory-determined pH, and concentrations of major ions, nutrients, organic carbon, trace elements, and suspended sediment. Postfire floods and effects on water quality of streams, lakes and reservoirs, drinking-water treatment, and the comparison of measured concentrations to applicable water quality standards also are discussed. Exceedances of Colorado water-quality standards in streams of both the Hayman and Hinman fire study areas only occurred for concentrations of five trace elements (not all trace-element exceedances occurred in every stream). Selected samples analyzed for total recoverable arsenic (fixed), dissolved copper (acute and chronic), total recoverable iron (chronic), dissolved manganese (acute, chronic, and fixed) and total recoverable mercury (chronic) exceeded Colorado aquatic-life standards.

  14. Portable field water sample filtration unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebert, A.J.; Young, G.G.

    1977-01-01

    A lightweight back-packable field-tested filtration unit is described. The unit is easily cleaned without cross contamination at the part-per-billion level and allows rapid filtration of boiling hot and sometimes muddy water. The filtration results in samples that are free of bacteria and particulates and which resist algae growth even after storage for months. 3 figures

  15. Water quality of streams in Johnson County, Kansas, 2002-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Water quality of streams in Johnson County, Kansas was evaluated from October 2002 through December 2007 in a cooperative study between the U.S. Geological Survey and the Johnson County Stormwater Management Program. Water quality at 42 stream sites, representing urban and rural basins, was characterized by evaluating benthic macroinvertebrates, water (discrete and continuous data), and/or streambed sediment. Point and nonpoint sources and transport were described for water-quality constituents including suspended sediment, dissolved solids and major ions, nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), indicator bacteria, pesticides, and organic wastewater and pharmaceutical compounds. The information obtained from this study is being used by city and county officials to develop effective management plans for protecting and improving stream quality. This fact sheet summarizes important results from three comprehensive reports published as part of the study and available on the World Wide Web at http://ks.water.usgs.gov/Kansas/studies/qw/joco/. ?? 2009 ASCE.

  16. Assessment of the Water and Sediment Quality of Tropical Forest Streams in Upper Reaches of the Baleh River, Sarawak, Malaysia, Subjected to Logging Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teck-Yee Ling

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of the impact of logging activities on water and sediment quality of Sarawak forest streams is still scarce despite Sarawak being the largest exporter of timber in Malaysia. This study was aimed at determining the water and sediment quality of forest streams in Sarawak and the potential impact of logging activities. In situ parameters were measured, and water and sediment samples were collected at six stations before rain. Additionally, water quality was investigated at three stations after rain. The results showed that canopy removal resulted in large temperature variation and sedimentation in the forest streams. Lower suspended solids were found at stations with inactive logging (<2 mg/L compared to active logging (10–16 mg/L activities. The highest concentration of total nitrogen and total phosphorus in water and sediment was 4.4 mg/L, 77.6 μg/L, 0.17%, and 0.01%, respectively. Besides, significantly negative correlation of sediment nitrogen and water total ammonia nitrogen indicated the loss of nitrogen from sediment to water. Water quality of the streams deteriorated after rain, in particular, suspended solids which increased from 8.3 mg/L to 104.1 mg/L. This study reveals that logging activities have an impact on the water quality of Sarawak forest streams particularly in rainfall events.

  17. Uranium concentrations in lake and stream waters and sediments from selected sites in the Susitna River Basin, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.E.

    1977-03-01

    During the summer of 1976, 141 water and 211 sediment samples were taken from 147 locations in the Susitna River basin in Alaska by the Geophysical Institute of the University of Alaska for the LASL. These samples were taken to provide preliminary information on the uranium concentrations in waters and sediments from the Susitna River basin and to test the analytical methods proposed for the NURE Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance for uranium in Alaska. The uranium determinations resulting from the fluorometric analysis of the water samples and the delayed-neutron counting of the sediment samples are presented. The low levels of uranium in the water samples, many of which were below the detectable limit of the LASL fluorometric technique, indicate that a more sensitive analytical method is needed for the analysis of Alaskan water samples from this area. An overlay showing numbered sample locations and overlays graphically portraying the concentrations of uranium in the water and sediment samples, all at 1:250,000 scale for use with existing USGS topographic sheets, are also provided as plates

  18. Assessing effects of water abstraction on fish assemblages in Mediterranean streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benejam, Lluis; Angermeier, Paul L.; Munne, Antoni; García-Berthou, Emili

    2010-01-01

    1. Water abstraction strongly affects streams in arid and semiarid ecosystems, particularly where there is a Mediterranean climate. Excessive abstraction reduces the availability of water for human uses downstream and impairs the capacity of streams to support native biota. 2. We investigated the flow regime and related variables in six river basins of the Iberian Peninsula and show that they have been strongly altered, with declining flows (autoregressive models) and groundwater levels during the 20th century. These streams had lower flows and more frequent droughts than predicted by the official hydrological model used in this region. Three of these rivers were sometimes dry, whereas there were predicted by the model to be permanently flowing. Meanwhile, there has been no decrease in annual precipitation. 3. We also investigated the fish assemblage of a stream in one of these river basins (Tordera) for 6 years and show that sites more affected by water abstraction display significant differences in four fish metrics (catch per unit effort, number of benthic species, number of intolerant species and proportional abundance of intolerant individuals) commonly used to assess the biotic condition of streams. 4. We discuss the utility of these metrics in assessing impacts of water abstraction and point out the need for detailed characterisation of the natural flow regime (and hence drought events) prior to the application of biotic indices in streams severely affected by water abstraction. In particular, in cases of artificially dry streams, it is more appropriate for regulatory agencies to assign index scores that reflect biotic degradation than to assign ‘missing’ scores, as is presently customary in assessments of Iberian streams.

  19. Scale-dependence of land use effects on water quality of streams in agricultural catchments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buck, Oliver; Niyogi, Dev K.; Townsend, Colin R.

    2004-01-01

    The influence of land use on water quality in streams is scale-dependent and varies in time and space. In this study, land cover patterns and stocking rates were used as measures of agricultural development in two pasture and one native grassland catchment in New Zealand and were related to water quality in streams of various orders. The amount of pasture per subcatchment correlated well to total nitrogen and nitrate in one catchment and turbidity and total phosphorous in the other catchment. Stocking rates were only correlated to total phosphorous in one pasture catchment but showed stronger correlations to ammonium, total phosphorous and total nitrogen in the other pasture catchment. Winter and spring floods were significant sources of nutrients and faecal coliforms from one of the pasture catchments into a wetland complex. Nutrient and faecal coliform concentrations were better predicted by pastural land cover in fourth-order than in second-order streams. This suggests that upstream land use is more influential in larger streams, while local land use and other factors may be more important in smaller streams. These temporal and spatial scale effects indicate that water-monitoring schemes need to be scale-sensitive. - Land use influences water quality of streams at various spatial scales

  20. Using of CFD software for setting the location of water stream micro turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsuk Łukasz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to estimate the efficiency of CFD software in calculating flow velocity magnitude in natural water streams. These kinds of estimations are essential for setting the locations of water stream micro turbines. These devices can be useful to provide electricity in areas remote from power generating facilities or as backup power supply in case of power grid failure. The analysed water stream has length of 100 m and its average slope was approximately 10%. Water velocity varies in the range from 0.5 m3*s−1 to 5 m3*s−1. Additionally, the influence of ground roughness on the stream velocity was also an important factor. Results proved to be satisfactory. In the analysed stream, velocities were in a range which allows the proposed micro turbine to be effective. Calculation grid created by CFD software did not have many areas which may raise doubts. Also, the influence of changes in the ground roughness factor was noticeable. Preliminary CFD simulations allow to estimate where in the stream the micro turbine will be most efficient. On the other hand, despite these calculations, profitability and return on the investment still can be questionable.

  1. Scale-dependence of land use effects on water quality of streams in agricultural catchments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buck, Oliver; Niyogi, Dev K.; Townsend, Colin R

    2004-07-01

    The influence of land use on water quality in streams is scale-dependent and varies in time and space. In this study, land cover patterns and stocking rates were used as measures of agricultural development in two pasture and one native grassland catchment in New Zealand and were related to water quality in streams of various orders. The amount of pasture per subcatchment correlated well to total nitrogen and nitrate in one catchment and turbidity and total phosphorous in the other catchment. Stocking rates were only correlated to total phosphorous in one pasture catchment but showed stronger correlations to ammonium, total phosphorous and total nitrogen in the other pasture catchment. Winter and spring floods were significant sources of nutrients and faecal coliforms from one of the pasture catchments into a wetland complex. Nutrient and faecal coliform concentrations were better predicted by pastural land cover in fourth-order than in second-order streams. This suggests that upstream land use is more influential in larger streams, while local land use and other factors may be more important in smaller streams. These temporal and spatial scale effects indicate that water-monitoring schemes need to be scale-sensitive. - Land use influences water quality of streams at various spatial scales.

  2. “Experimental study on water pollution tendencies around Lobuliet, Khor bou and Luri streams in Juba, South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Leju Celestino Ladu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization and population demand for resources in Juba has led to pollution of aquatic ecosystems and deteriorated water quality. The streams water samples in Juba, central equatoria state, were collected in sterile 500ml plastic containers and instantaneously experimented. The pH, total solids, total dissolved solids, alkalinity and nitrate were used for evaluation. The results were then compared with standard permissible limits. The pH for Khor bou and Luri streams ranges from 6.1 to 6.7. Lobuliet stream showed abnormal pH value ranging from 9.7 to 9.9. Alkalinity ranges from 106.67 to 1060.33 mg/l. Total dissolved solids (TDS ranges from 0.002mg/ml to 20.00mg/l. Statistical analysis using ANOVA indicated that TDS was insignificantly different (p>0.05 among the sites sampled. The nitrite level was low ranging from 0.04mg/l to 0.09mg/l. The cadmium and lead concentration ranges from 0.86mg/l to 1.92mg/l and 0.29mg/l to 0.95mg/l respectively. Analysis of variance showed the concentration of cadmium and lead were significantly different (P<0.05 among the sites sampled. Lobuliet stream had the highest concentration of heavy metals. The study concluded that pollution tendencies were attributed to the discharge of municipal and industrial effluent to the streams and if not properly tackled, may pose adverse impacts to the biogeochemical cycle.

  3. Rising air and stream-water temperatures in Chesapeake Bay region, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Jastram, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Monthly mean air temperature (AT) at 85 sites and instantaneous stream-water temperature (WT) at 129 sites for 1960–2010 are examined for the mid-Atlantic region, USA. Temperature anomalies for two periods, 1961–1985 and 1985–2010, relative to the climate normal period of 1971–2000, indicate that the latter period was statistically significantly warmer than the former for both mean AT and WT. Statistically significant temporal trends across the region of 0.023 °C per year for AT and 0.028 °C per year for WT are detected using simple linear regression. Sensitivity analyses show that the irregularly sampled WT data are appropriate for trend analyses, resulting in conservative estimates of trend magnitude. Relations between 190 landscape factors and significant trends in AT-WT relations are examined using principal components analysis. Measures of major dams and deciduous forest are correlated with WT increasing slower than AT, whereas agriculture in the absence of major dams is correlated with WT increasing faster than AT. Increasing WT trends are detected despite increasing trends in streamflow in the northern part of the study area. Continued warming of contributing streams to Chesapeake Bay likely will result in shifts in distributions of aquatic biota and contribute to worsened eutrophic conditions in the bay and its estuaries.

  4. Water sampling device for detecting fuel failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masubuchi, Yukio.

    1997-01-01

    A notched portion is formed at the lower end of an outer cap, and an extensible air bag is disposed being in contact with the inner side of the notched portion. A compressed air is sent into the outer gap through an air supply pipe to urge coolants thereby lowering the water level. A portion of the compressed air gets out of the outer gap from the notched portion, and if air bubbles are observed on the surface of coolants in a pressure vessel of a reactor, the outer cap is confirmed to be attached to the upper lattice plate. Compressed air is supplied to the air bag to close the notched portion. Then, coolants are sucked from a water level confirmation pipe. The level of coolants is further lowered, and the compressed air is sucked from the water level confirmation pipe instead of the coolants. Then, the level of the coolants at the inner side of the inner cap is confirmed to be made lower than the upper end of the channel box of a reactor fuel assembly. Then, coolants in the channel box are sampled, as a specimen water, through a water sampling pipe. (I.N.)

  5. Assessment of Energetic Compounds, Semi-volatile Organic Compounds, and Trace Elements in Streambed Sediment and Stream Water from Streams Draining Munitions Firing Points and Impact Areas, Fort Riley, Kansas, 2007-08

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coiner, R.L.; Pope, L.M.; Mehl, H.E.

    2010-01-01

    An assessment of energetic compounds (explosive and propellant residues) and associated semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and trace elements in streambed sediment and stream water from streams draining munitions firing points and impact areas at Fort Riley, northeast Kansas, was performed during 2007-08 by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the U.S. Army. Streambed sediment from 16 sampling sites and stream-water samples from 5 sites were collected at or near Fort Riley and analyzed for as many as 17 energetic compounds, 65 SVOCs, and 27 trace elements. None of the energetic compounds or SVOCs were detected in streambed sediment collected from sites within the Fort Riley Military Reservation. This may indicate that these compounds either are not transported from dispersal areas or that analytical methods are not sensitive enough to detect the small concentrations that may be transported. Concentrations of munitions-associated trace elements did not exceed sediment-quality guidelines recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and are not indicative of contamination of streambed sediment at selected streambed sampling sites, at least in regards to movement from dispersal areas. Analytical results of stream-water samples provided little evidence of contamination by energetic compounds, SVOCs, or associated trace elements. Perchlorate was detected in 19 of 20 stream-water samples at concentrations ranging from an estimated 0.057 to an estimated 0.236 ug/L (micrograms per liter) with a median concentration of an estimated 0.114 ug/L, substantially less than the USEPA Interim Health Advisory criterion (15 ug/L), and is in the range of documented background concentrations. Because of these small concentrations and possible natural sources (precipitation and groundwater), it is likely that the occurrence of perchlorate in stream water is naturally occurring, although a definitive identification of the source of perchlorate in

  6. Study of radioelements drained by Rhone stream to Mediterranean Sea: Strategy of sampling and methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, M.; Charmasson, S.; Calmet, D.; Fernandez, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the methods used for water and sediments sampling in rivers and sea. The purpose is the study of radionuclide migration (Cesium 134, Cesium 137) in Mediterranean Sea (Gulf of Lion). 20 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab

  7. Seasonal and spatial variations of glyphosate residues in surface waters of El Crespo stream, Buenos Aires province, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Debora; Okada, Elena; Aparicio, Virginia; Menone, Mirta; Costa, Jose Luis

    2017-04-01

    El Crespo stream is located inside a small watershed (52,000 Ha) which is only influenced by farming activities without urban or industrial impact. The watershed can be divided in two areas, the southern area (upstream), mainly composed of intensive crops and the northern area (downstream) used only for extensive livestock. In this sense, "El Crespo" stream in an optimal site for monitoring screening of pesticide residues. The objective of this work was to determine the seasonal and spatial variations of glyphosate (GLY), in surface waters of "El Crespo" stream. We hypothesized that in surface waters of "El Crespo" stream the levels of GLY vary depending of the season and rainfall events. The water sampling was carried out from October to June (2014-2015) in two sites: upstream (US) and downstream (DS), before and after rain events. The water samples were collected by triplicate in 1 L polypropylene bottles and stored at -20°C until analysis. GLY was extracted from unfiltered water samples with a buffer solution (100 mM Na2B4O7•10H2O/100 mM K3PO4, pH=9) and derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate (1 mg/mL in acetonitrile). Afterwards samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography coupled to a tandem mass spectrometer (UPLC-MS/MS). The detection limit (LD) was 0.1 μg/L and the quantification limit (QL) was 0.5 μg/L. The rainfall regime was obtained from the database of INTA Balcarce. GLY was detected in 92.3% of the analyzed samples. In the US site, were GLY is regularly applied, the highest GLY concentration was registered in October (2.15 ± 0.16 μg/L); from November to June, the GLY levels decreased from 1.97 ± 0.17 μg/L to rain falls. On the rest of the months, the rainfall events were scarce and the GLY concentrations decreased in both. These results indicated that in the El Crespo stream the GLY residues vary according the applications in the field and the rainfall regime and the DS site is probably a sump of GLY residues applied upstream in

  8. Catchment hydrochemical processes controlling acidity and nitrogen in forest stream water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foelster, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of air pollutants has been a severe threat to terrestrial and forest ecosystems for several decades. In Sweden sulphur deposition has caused acidification of soils and runoff, while nitrogen deposition only had a minor or local impact on runoff quality so far. During the last three decades, emission control has caused a decline in sulphur deposition, whereas nitrogen deposition on the other hand, has continued to increase to a rate several times above the natural background level. Long term changes in runoff acidity and nitrogen chemistry after these changes in deposition are of great concern. Monitoring of small, well-defined catchments including hydrochemistry of precipitation, soil and runoff, is a valuable tool for addressing this concern. When interpreting runoff data from such sites, the near-stream zone has been identified to be of crucial importance. The main objective for this thesis was to explain how catchment processes were related to short-term variation and long-term trends in the hydrochemistry of forest stream water. The field work was conducted on the strongly acidified and nitrogen limited Kindla catchment, with a special emphasis on the relationship between the near-stream zone and both stream acidity and nitrogen leaching. Furthermore, time series of hydrochemistry in forest stream water from 13 catchments were analysed for changes in acidity and nitrogen leaching. In three of these sites, soil water from E- and B-horizons was also analysed with regards to these questions. The investigations revealed that the near-stream zone was a net source of acidity in runoff at Kindla due to leaching of organic acids, although this contribution was overshadowed by sulphate from upland soils and deposition. The near-stream zone was also the main source for both organic nitrogen and nitrate to the stream, but the leaching rate was low, especially for inorganic nitrogen. In the 13 reference streams, sulphate concentrations declined in

  9. Link between DOC in near surface peat and stream water in an upland catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Joanna M; Lane, Stuart N; Chapman, Pippa J; Adamson, John K

    2008-10-15

    Hydrologic transport of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from peat soils may differ to organo-mineral soils in how they responded to changes in flow, because of differences in soil profile and hydrology. In well-drained organo-mineral soils, low flow is through the lower mineral layer where DOC is absorbed and high flow is through the upper organic layer where DOC is produced. DOC concentrations in streams draining organo-mineral soils typically increase with flow. In saturated peat soils, both high and low flows are through an organic layer where DOC is produced. Therefore, DOC in stream water draining peat may not increase in response to changes in flow as there is no switch in flow path between a mineral and organic layer. To verify this, we conducted a high-resolution monitoring study of soil and stream water at an upland peat catchment in northern England. Our data showed a strong positive correlation between DOC concentrations at -1 and -5 cm depth and stream water, and weaker correlations between concentrations at -20 to -50 cm depth and stream water. Although near surface organic material appears to be the key source of stream water DOC in both peat and organo-mineral soils, we observed a negative correlation between stream flow and DOC concentrations instead of a positive correlation as DOC released from organic layers during low and high flow was diluted by rainfall. The differences in DOC transport processes between peat and organo-mineral soils have different implications for our understanding of long-term changes in DOC exports. While increased rainfall may cause an increase in DOC flux from peat due to an increase in water volume, it may cause a decrease in concentrations. This response is contrary to expected changes in DOC exports from organo-mineral soils, where increase rainfall is likely to result in an increase in flux and concentration.

  10. Genes indicative of zoonotic and swine pathogens are persistent in stream water and sediment following a swine manure spill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haack, Sheridan K.; Duris, Joseph W.; Kolpin, Dana W.; Fogarty, Lisa R.; Johnson, Heather E.; Gibson, Kristen E.; Focazio, Michael J.; Schwab, Kellogg J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Foreman, William T.

    2015-01-01

    Manure spills to streams are relatively frequent, but no studies have characterized stream contamination with zoonotic and veterinary pathogens, or fecal chemicals, following a spill. We tested stream water and sediment over 25 days and downstream for 7.6 km for: fecal indicator bacteria (FIB); the fecal indicator chemicals cholesterol and coprostanol; 20 genes for zoonotic and swine-specific bacterial pathogens by presence/absence polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for viable cells; one swine-specific Escherichia coli toxin gene (STII) by quantitative PCR (qPCR); and nine human and animal viruses by qPCR, or reverse-transcriptase qPCR. Twelve days post-spill, and 4.2 km downstream, water concentrations of FIB, cholesterol, and coprostanol were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than those detected before, or above, the spill, and genes indicating viable zoonotic or swine-infectious Escherichia coli, were detected in water or sediment. STII increased from undetectable before, or above the spill, to 105 copies/100 mL water 12 days post-spill. Thirteen of 14 water (8/9 sediment) samples had viable STII-carrying cells post-spill. Eighteen days post-spill porcine adenovirus and teschovirus were detected 5.6 km downstream. Sediment FIB concentrations (per gram wet weight) were greater than in water, and sediment was a continuous reservoir of genes and chemicals post-spill. Constituent concentrations were much lower, and detections less frequent, in a runoff event (200 days post-spill) following manure application, although the swine-associated STII and stx2e genes were detected. Manure spills are an underappreciated pathway for livestock-derived contaminants to enter streams, with persistent environmental outcomes, and the potential for human and veterinary health consequences.

  11. Characterization of water quality for streams in the southern Yampa River basin, northwestern Colorado. Water Resources Investigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, R.S.

    1991-01-01

    Historically, the Yampa River basin in northwestern Colorado has been an area of coal-mining development. Coal mining generally has been developed in the southern part of the basin and at lower elevations. The purpose of the report is to characterize the stream water quality by summarizing selected major dissolved constituents for the streams that drain the southern part of the Yampa River basin. Characterization is done initially by providing a statistical summary of the constituents for individual water-quality sites in the study area. These statistical summaries can be used to help assess water-quality within specified stream reaches. Water-quality data are available for sites on most perennial streams in the study area, and these data provide the best information about the immediate stream reach. Water-quality data from all sites are combined into regions, and linear-regression equations between dissolved constituents and specific conductance are calculated. Such equations provide an estimate of the water-quality relations within these regions. The equations also indicate an increase in error as individual sites are combined

  12. Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorzelec, Marta; Piekarska, Katarzyna

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the presence and concentration of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment and to verify the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for analysis of drinking water. For this purpose, study was conducted for a period of 5 months. Semipermeable membrane devices were deployed in a surface water treatment plant located in Lower Silesia (Poland). To determine the effect of water treatment on concentration of PAHs, three sampling places were chosen: raw water input, stream of water just before disinfection and treated water output. After each month of sampling SPMDs were changed for fresh ones and prepared for further analysis. Concentrations of fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Presented study indicates that the use of semipermeable membrane devices can be an effective tool for the analysis of aquatic environment, including monitoring of drinking water, where organic micropollutants are present at very low concentrations.

  13. Incorporation of water-use summaries into the StreamStats web application for Maryland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ries, Kernell G.; Horn, Marilee A.; Nardi, Mark R.; Tessler, Steven

    2010-01-01

    Approximately 25,000 new households and thousands of new jobs will be established in an area that extends from southwest to northeast of Baltimore, Maryland, as a result of the Federal Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) process, with consequent new demands on the water resources of the area. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Maryland Department of the Environment, has extended the area of implementation and added functionality to an existing map-based Web application named StreamStats to provide an improved tool for planning and managing the water resources in the BRAC-affected areas. StreamStats previously was implemented for only a small area surrounding Baltimore, Maryland, and it was extended to cover all BRAC-affected areas. StreamStats could provide previously published streamflow statistics, such as the 1-percent probability flood and the 7-day, 10-year low flow, for U.S. Geological Survey data-collection stations and estimates of streamflow statistics for any user-selected point on a stream within the implemented area. The application was modified for this study to also provide summaries of water withdrawals and discharges upstream from any user-selected point on a stream. This new functionality was made possible by creating a Web service that accepts a drainage-basin delineation from StreamStats, overlays it on a spatial layer of water withdrawal and discharge points, extracts the water-use data for the identified points, and sends it back to StreamStats, where it is summarized for the user. The underlying water-use data were extracted from the U.S. Geological Survey's Site-Specific Water-Use Database System (SWUDS) and placed into a Microsoft Access database that was created for this study for easy linkage to the Web service and StreamStats. This linkage of StreamStats with water-use information from SWUDS should enable Maryland regulators and planners to make more informed decisions on the use of water resources in the BRAC area, and

  14. A stochastic dynamic programming model for stream water quality ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    constraints of the water quality management problem; (ii) a water quality simulation model ... of acceptance and limited implementation of optimisation techniques. .... The response of river system to these sources of pollution can be integrated ...

  15. Surface and ground water quality in a restored urban stream affected by road salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    In 2001 research began in Minebank Run, MD to examine the impact of restoration on water quality. Our research area was to determine if road salts in the surface and ground waters are detrimental to the stream channel restoration. The upstream reach (UP), above the Baltimore I-...

  16. A model to predict stream water temperature across the conterminous USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalina Segura; Peter Caldwell; Ge Sun; Steve McNulty; Yang Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Stream water temperature (ts) is a critical water quality parameter for aquatic ecosystems. However, ts records are sparse or nonexistent in many river systems. In this work, we present an empirical model to predict ts at the site scale across the USA. The model, derived using data from 171 reference sites selected from the Geospatial Attributes of Gages for Evaluating...

  17. Nitrogen patterns in subsurface waters of the Yzeron stream: effect of combined sewer overflows and subsurface-surface water mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aucour, A M; Bariac, T; Breil, P; Namour, P; Schmitt, L; Gnouma, R; Zuddas, P

    2013-01-01

    Urbanization subjects streams to increased nitrogen loads. Therefore studying nitrogen forms at the interface between urban stream and groundwater is important for water resource management. In this study we report results on water δ(18)O and nitrogen forms in subsurface waters of a stream (Yzeron, France). The sites studied were located upstream and downstream of combined sewer overflows (CSO) in a rural area and a periurban area, respectively. Water δ(18)O allowed us to follow the mixing of subsurface water with surface water. Dissolved organic nitrogen and organic carbon of fine sediment increased by 20-30% between rural and periurban subsurface waters in the cold season, under high flow. The highest nitrate levels were observed in rural subsurface waters in the cold season. The lowest nitrate levels were found in periurban subsurface waters in the warm season, under low flow. They corresponded to slow exchange of subsurface waters with channel water. Thus reduced exchange between surface and subsurface waters and organic-matter-rich input seemed to favor nitrate reduction in the downstream, periurban, subsurface waters impacted by CSO.

  18. PIXE analysis applied to characterized water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Maristela S.; Carneiro, Luana Gomes; Medeiros, Geiza; Sampaio, Camilla; Martorell, Ana Beatriz Targino; Gouvea, Stella; Cunha, Kenya Moore Dias da

    2011-01-01

    Araxa, in Brazil, is a naturally high background area located in the State of Minas Gerais with a population of about 93 672 people. Araxa is historical city famous for its mineral water sources and mud from Termas de Araxa spa, which have been used for therapeutic, and recreation purposes. Other important aspect of economy of the city are mining and metallurgic industries. In the Araxa area is located the largest deposit of pyrochlore, a niobium mineral, and also a deposit of apatite, a phosphate mineral both containing Th and U associated to crystal lattice. The minerals are obtained from open pit mines, the minerals are processed in industrial also located in city of Araxa, these plants process the pyrochlore and apatite to obtain the Fe-Nb alloy and the concentrate of phosphate, respectively. Studies were developed in this area to assessment the occupational risk of the workers due to exposure to dust particles during the routine working, however very few studies evaluated the water contamination outside the mines in order to determine the metal (stables elements) concentrations in water and also the concentrations of the radionuclides in water. This paper presents the previous results of a study to identify and determine the concentrations of metals (stables elements) and radionuclides in river around the city. The water from these rivers is used as drinking water and irrigation water. The water samples were collected in different rivers around the Araxa city and the samples were analyzed using PIXE technique. A proton beam of 2 MeV obtained from the van de Graaff electrostatic accelerator was used to induce the characteristic X-rays. S, K, Ca, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Ba, Pb and U were identified in the mass spectrum of the samples. The elemental mass concentrations were compared using a non-parametric statistical test. The results of the statistical test showed that the elemental mass concentrations did not present the same distribution. These results indicated

  19. Determination of 40K in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delgado, C. E.; Miranda C, L.; Cuevas J, A. K.; Vega C, H. R.

    2014-10-01

    The natural water used for human consumption comes from different sources, which may contain suspended solids in varying proportions. In groundwater, the source of suspended solids is related to the dissolution of mineral strata by the waters and leaching of rocks. Also, the radioactivity could concentrate on the bodies of slow-moving water that eventually could present a risk to ecosystems, as well as for the consumer. The water usually contains several natural radionuclides as: tritium, radon, radio, uranium isotopes, etc. The objective of this study was to evaluate the concentration of 40 K in water from different areas of Zacatecas state (Mexico). Four water samples were taken in triplicate from different areas; the 40 K concentration was measured with a spectrum metric system of gamma radiation with NaI (Tl) scintillation detector of 7.62 cm. In the measuring process a standard was prepared using water and KCl analytic grade where the 40 K concentration is 6.25 mol/Lt adding 250 mg/ml of potassium. Also the system was calibrated in energy using 3 point sources of 137 Cs, diameter 22 Na and 7.62 cm of height, using containers Marinelli and 60 Co. In the obtained spectra was observed that the photon of 1.432 MeV that emits the 40 K when decaying is the most important. The highest concentration was of 123 ± 5.2 Bq/lt and the lowest was of 9 ± 0.4 Bq/lt. Under the standards of drinking water, an amount of 40 K deposits an effective dose which contributes to annual dose received by people. (Author)

  20. Total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis of river waters in its stream across the city of Cordoba, in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentinuzzi, M.C.; Sanchez, H.J.; Abraham, J.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this work was to analyze the composition of river waters and to study their quality by detecting possible contaminants. The samples were taken at 32 points of the Suquia River in its stream across the city of Cordoba (in the Province of Cordoba, Argentina). The samples were analyzed with total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) using beam guides. Beam guides made of two Si plate reflectors were used as sample carriers and to guide the X-ray photons to the sample; the measurements were taken using the characteristic configuration that ensures the best excitation and detection conditions (in TXRF). The analyses were carried out by preconcentration of the water samples and by adding an internal standard (Gallium); small amounts of samples (30 μl) were deposited on the Si reflector plate and they were then analyzed in the total reflection regime. Spectra were analyzed with standard methods using conventional programs. The results show interesting behaviors of the concentration of trace elements along the river: elements of low atomic number (such as Ca, Cl, S, K) present higher concentrations as compared to high Z elements (such as Fe, Zn, Br, Sr); the concentrations of light elements follow a similar behavior along the stream, the same situation is observed in the set of elements with high atomic number. Some samples present high concentrations in certain elements indicating possible sources of contamination

  1. Potential Impacts of Climate Change on Stream Water Temperatures Across the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehsani, N.; Knouft, J.; Ficklin, D. L.

    2017-12-01

    Analyses of long-term observation data have revealed significant changes in several components of climate and the hydrological cycle over the contiguous United States during the twentieth and early twenty-first century. Mean surface air temperatures have significantly increased in most areas of the country. In addition, water temperatures are increasing in many watersheds across the United States. While there are numerous studies assessing the impact of climate change on air temperatures at regional and global scales, fewer studies have investigated the impacts of climate change on stream water temperatures. Projecting increases in water temperature are particularly important to the conservation of freshwater ecosystems. To achieve better insights into attributes regulating population and community dynamics of aquatic biota at large spatial and temporal scales, we need to establish relationships between environmental heterogeneity and critical biological processes of stream ecosystems at these scales. Increases in stream temperatures caused by the doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide may result in a significant loss of fish habitat in the United States. Utilization of physically based hydrological-water temperature models is computationally demanding and can be onerous to many researchers who specialize in other disciplines. Using statistical techniques to analyze observational data from 1760 USGS stream temperature gages, our goal is to develop a simple yet accurate method to quantify the impacts of climate warming on stream water temperatures in a way that is practical for aquatic biologists, water and environmental management purposes, and conservation practitioners and policy-makers. Using an ensemble of five global climate models (GCMs), we estimate the potential impacts of climate change on stream temperatures within the contiguous United States based on recent trends. Stream temperatures are projected to increase across the US, but the magnitude of the

  2. Assessing the suitability of stream water for five different uses and its aquatic environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulazzaky, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Surface water is one of the essential resources for supporting sustainable development. The suitability of such water for a given use depends both on the available quantity and tolerable quality. Temporary status for a surface water quality has been identified extensively. Still the suitability of the water for different purposes needs to be verified. This study proposes a water quality evaluation system to assess the aptitude of the Selangor River water for aquatic biota, drinking water production, leisure and aquatic sport, irrigation use, livestock watering, and aquaculture use. Aptitude of the water has been classified in many parts of the river segment as unsuitable for aquatic biota, drinking water production, leisure and aquatic sport as well as aquaculture use. The water quality aptitude classes of the stream water for nine locations along the river are evaluated to contribute to decision support system. The suitability of the water for five different uses and its aquatic ecosystem are verified.

  3. E. coli Surface Properties Differ between Stream Water and Sediment Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiao; Liao, Chunyu; Thompson, Michael L; Soupir, Michelle L; Jarboe, Laura R; Dixon, Philip M

    2016-01-01

    The importance of E. coli as an indicator organism in fresh water has led to numerous studies focusing on cell properties and transport behavior. However, previous studies have been unable to assess if differences in E. coli cell surface properties and genomic variation are associated with different environmental habitats. In this study, we investigated the variation in characteristics of E. coli obtained from stream water and stream bottom sediments. Cell properties were measured for 77 genomically different E. coli strains (44 strains isolated from sediments and 33 strains isolated from water) under common stream conditions in the Upper Midwestern United States: pH 8.0, ionic strength 10 mM and 22°C. Measured cell properties include hydrophobicity, zeta potential, net charge, total acidity, and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) composition. Our results indicate that stream sediment E. coli had significantly greater hydrophobicity, greater EPS protein content and EPS sugar content, less negative net charge, and higher point of zero charge than stream water E. coli . A significant positive correlation was observed between hydrophobicity and EPS protein for stream sediment E. coli but not for stream water E. coli . Additionally, E. coli surviving in the same habitat tended to have significantly larger (GTG) 5 genome similarity. After accounting for the intrinsic impact from the genome, environmental habitat was determined to be a factor influencing some cell surface properties, such as hydrophobicity. The diversity of cell properties and its resulting impact on particle interactions should be considered for environmental fate and transport modeling of aquatic indicator organisms such as E. coli .

  4. E. coli Surface Properties Differ between Stream Water and Sediment Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of E. coli as an indicator organism in fresh water has led to numerous studies focusing on cell properties and transport behavior. However, previous studies have been unable to assess if differences in E. coli cell surface properties and genomic variation are associated with different environmental habitats. In this study, we investigated the variation in characteristics of E. coli obtained from stream water and stream bottom sediments. Cell properties were measured for 77 genomically different E. coli strains (44 strains isolated from sediments and 33 strains isolated from water under common stream conditions in the Upper Midwestern United States: pH 8.0, ionic strength 10mM and 22˚C. Measured cell properties include hydrophobicity, zeta potential, net charge, total acidity and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS composition. Our results indicate that stream sediment E. coli had significantly greater hydrophobicity, greater EPS protein content and EPS sugar content, less negative net charge, and higher point of zero charge than stream water E. coli. A significant positive correlation was observed between hydrophobicity and EPS protein for stream sediment E. coli but not for stream water E. coli. Additionally, E. coli surviving in the same habitat tended to have significantly larger (GTG5 genome similarity. After accounting for the intrinsic impact from the genome, environmental habitat was determined to be a factor influencing some cell surface properties, such as hydrophobicity. The diversity of cell properties and its resulting impact on particle interactions should be considered for environmental fate and transport modeling of aquatic indicator organisms such as E. coli.

  5. Investigative studies on water contamination in Bangladesh. Primary treatment of water samples at the sampling site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sera, K.; Islam, Md. Shafiqul; Takatsuji, T.; Nakamura, T.; Goto, S.; Takahashi, C.; Saitoh, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Arsenic concentration in 13 well waters, 9 pond waters, 10 agricultural waters and a coconut juice taken in Comilla district, Bangladesh, where the problem of arsenic pollution is the most severe, was investigated. High-level arsenic is detected even in the well water which has been kept drinking by the people. Relatively high arsenic concentration was detected for some pond and farm waters even though the sampling was performed just after the rainy season and the waters were expected to be highly diluted. Clear relationship was observed in elemental compositions between the pond water and the coconut juice collected at the edge of the water. These results are expected to become the basic information for evaluating the risk of individual food such as cultured fishes, shrimps and farm products, and for controlling total intakes of arsenic. In order to solve the problem of transportation of water samples internationally, a simple method of target preparation performed at the sampling site was established and its validity was confirmed. All targets were prepared at the sampling sites in this study on the basis of this method. (author)

  6. Sources of trends in water-quality data for selected streams in Texas, 1975-89 water years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertz, T.L.; Wells, F.C.; Ohe, D.J.

    1994-01-01

    Sources of trends in water-quality data for selected streams in Texas for the 1975-89 water years were investigated in this study. The investigation of sources was confined to distinct geographic patterns in the trend indicators for one constituent or for a group of related constituents.

  7. Chemical characteristics of surface waters in the Forsmark area. Evaluation of data from lakes, streams and coastal sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonesten, Lars

    2005-06-01

    This report is an evaluation of the chemical composition of surface water in lakes, streams, and at coastal sampling sites in the Forsmark area. The aim with this study is to characterise the surface water systems in the area, and the further aim with this characterisation is to be used as input material to the safety analyses and environmental impact assessments for the potential deep repository of used nuclear fuels. The data used consist of water chemical composition of lakes, streams and coastal sites from the period March 2002 - April 2004. The sampling has been performed predominantly on a monthly basis. The emphasis of the assessment has been on surface waters (0.5 m), as the water depth at all sampling locations is limited, and thereby the water systems are rarely stratified for prolonged periods. The characterisations have been restricted to the most commonly measured chemical parameters.The assessment has been divided into three parts: Comparisons within and between the lakes, streams, and coastal sites, respectively; Temporal and spatial variation, predominantly within lakes and stream sites; and Relationships between the various chemical parameters. Beside comparisons between the sampling sites within the Forsmark area, comparisons have also been made with regional and national data from the latest Swedish National Survey (2000). The analyses of temporal and spatial variation have been concentrated on the freshwater systems in the Norra Bassaengen catchment area. This catchment area is the most comprehensively investigated, and it also includes the Bolundsfjaerden sub-catchment, which is the area where the continued site investigations will be concentrated. The relationships among the sampling sites, the catchment areas, as well as the chemical parameters investigated, were examined by applying PCA analyses on the lake and stream data. In general, the freshwater systems in the Forsmark area are characterised by small and shallow oligotrophic hardwater

  8. Chemical characteristics of surface waters in the Forsmark area. Evaluation of data from lakes, streams and coastal sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonesten, Lars [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala (Sweden). Dept. of Environmental Assessment

    2005-06-01

    This report is an evaluation of the chemical composition of surface water in lakes, streams, and at coastal sampling sites in the Forsmark area. The aim with this study is to characterise the surface water systems in the area, and the further aim with this characterisation is to be used as input material to the safety analyses and environmental impact assessments for the potential deep repository of used nuclear fuels. The data used consist of water chemical composition of lakes, streams and coastal sites from the period March 2002 - April 2004. The sampling has been performed predominantly on a monthly basis. The emphasis of the assessment has been on surface waters (0.5 m), as the water depth at all sampling locations is limited, and thereby the water systems are rarely stratified for prolonged periods. The characterisations have been restricted to the most commonly measured chemical parameters.The assessment has been divided into three parts: Comparisons within and between the lakes, streams, and coastal sites, respectively; Temporal and spatial variation, predominantly within lakes and stream sites; and Relationships between the various chemical parameters. Beside comparisons between the sampling sites within the Forsmark area, comparisons have also been made with regional and national data from the latest Swedish National Survey (2000). The analyses of temporal and spatial variation have been concentrated on the freshwater systems in the Norra Bassaengen catchment area. This catchment area is the most comprehensively investigated, and it also includes the Bolundsfjaerden sub-catchment, which is the area where the continued site investigations will be concentrated. The relationships among the sampling sites, the catchment areas, as well as the chemical parameters investigated, were examined by applying PCA analyses on the lake and stream data. In general, the freshwater systems in the Forsmark area are characterised by small and shallow oligotrophic hardwater

  9. The quality of our Nation's waters-Nutrients in the Nation's streams and groundwater, 1992-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovsky, N.M.; Burow, K.R.; Clark, G.M.; Gronberg, J.M.; Hamilton, P.A.; Hitt, K.J.; Mueller, D.K.; Munn, M.D.; Nolan, B.T.; Puckett, L.J.; Rupert, M.G.; Short, T.M.; Spahr, N.E.; Sprague, L.A.; Wilber, W.G.

    2010-01-01

    National Findings and Their Implications Although the use of artificial fertilizer has supported increasing food production to meet the needs of a growing population, increases in nutrient loadings from agricultural and, to a lesser extent, urban sources have resulted in nutrient concentrations in many streams and parts of aquifers that exceed standards for protection of human health and (or) aquatic life, often by large margins. Do NAWQA findings substantiate national concerns for aquatic and human health? National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) findings indicate that nutrient concentrations in streams and groundwater in basins with significant agricultural or urban development are substantially greater than naturally occurring or ?background? levels. For example, median concentrations of total nitrogen and phosphorus in agricultural streams are about 6 times greater than background levels. Findings also indicate that concentrations in streams routinely were 2 to 10 times greater than regional nutrient criteria recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) to protect aquatic life. Such large differences in magnitude suggest that significant reductions in sources of nutrients, as well as greater use of land management strategies to reduce the transport of nutrients to streams, are needed to meet recommended criteria for streams draining areas with significant agricultural and urban development. Nitrate concentrations above the Federal drinking-water standard-or Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL)-of 10 milligrams per liter (mg/L, as nit-ogen) are relatively uncommon in samples from streams used for drinking water or from relatively deep aquifers; the MCL is exceeded, however, in more than 20 percent of shallow (less than 100 feet below the water table) domestic wells in agricultural areas. This finding raises concerns for human health in rural agricultural areas where shallow groundwater is used for domestic supply and may warn of future

  10. Factors controlling stream water nitrate and phosphor loads during precipitation events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozemeijer, J.; van der Velde, Y.; van Geer, F.; de Rooij, G. H.; Broers, H.; Bierkens, M. F.

    2009-12-01

    Pollution of surface waters in densely populated areas with intensive land use is a serious threat to their ecological, industrial and recreational utilization. European and national manure policies and several regional and local pilot projects aim at reducing pollution loads to surface waters. For the evaluation of measures, water authorities and environmental research institutes are putting a lot of effort into monitoring surface water quality. Within regional surface water quality monitoring networks, the measurement locations are usually situated in the downstream part of the catchment to represent a larger area. The monitoring frequency is usually low (e.g. monthly), due to the high costs for sampling and analysis. As a consequence, human induced trends in nutrient loads and concentrations in these monitoring data are often concealed by the large variability of surface water quality caused by meteorological variations. Because this natural variability in surface water quality is poorly understood, large uncertainties occur in the estimates of (trends in) nutrient loads or average concentrations. This study aims at uncertainty reduction in the estimates of mean concentrations and loads of N and P from regional monitoring data. For this purpose, we related continuous records of stream water N and P concentrations to easier and cheaper to collect quantitative data on precipitation, discharge, groundwater level and tube drain discharge. A specially designed multi scale experimental setup was installed in an agricultural lowland catchment in The Netherlands. At the catchment outlet, continuous measurements of water quality and discharge were performed from July 2007-January 2009. At an experimental field within the catchment we collected continuous measurements of precipitation, groundwater levels and tube drain discharges. 20 significant rainfall events with a variety of antecedent conditions, durations and intensities were selected for analysis. Singular and

  11. Stable Carbon Isotope Characterization of CO2 Loss in Acid Mine Drainage Impacted Stream Water: Observations from a Laboratory Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, H. N.; Atekwana, E. A.

    2007-05-01

    Water from an acid mine drainage spring, ground water from a mine tailings pile, stream water and tap water were acidified to simulate acid mine drainage (AMD) contamination. The objective was to determine how acidification of stream water by AMD affected DIC loss and carbon isotope fraction. Two 20 L HDP containers (reactors) containing samples from each source were left un-acidified and allowed to evolve under ambient conditions for several weeks in the laboratory and two others were acidified. Acidification was carried out progressively with sulfuric acid to pH <3. For acidified samples, one reactor was acidified open to the atmosphere and the other closed from contact with atmosphere and CO2(g) was collected under vacuum. The un-acidified samples did not show significant alkalinity and DIC loss, and the 13C of DIC was enriched with time. The acidified samples showed decrease in alkalinity and DIC and increase in the 13C of DIC and CO2(g) with progressive acidification. The enrichment of 13C of DIC for un-acidified samples was due to exchange with atmospheric CO2. On the other hand, the 13C enrichment in the acidified samples was due to fractionation during dehydration of HCO3- and diffusive loss of CO2(g) from the aqueous phase. The actual values measured depended on the amount of CO2 lost from the aqueous phase during acidification. Samples with greater CO2 loss (closed acidification) had greater 13C enrichment. Beyond the HCO3- titration end point, the δ13C of DIC and CO2(g) was similar and nearly constant. The result of this study suggests that AMD effects on DIC can be modeled as a first order kinetic reaction and the isotope enrichment modeled using Rayleigh distillation.

  12. Sampling and analysis plan for sampling of liquid waste streams generated by 222-S Laboratory Complex operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benally, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    This Sampling and Analysis Plan (SAP) establishes the requirements and guidelines to be used by the Waste Management Federal Services of Hanford, Inc. personnel in characterizing liquid waste generated at the 222-S Laboratory Complex. The characterization process to verify the accuracy of process knowledge used for designation and subsequent management of wastes consists of three steps: to prepare the technical rationale and the appendix in accordance with the steps outlined in this SAP; to implement the SAP by sampling and analyzing the requested waste streams; and to compile the report and evaluate the findings to the objectives of this SAP. This SAP applies to portions of the 222-S Laboratory Complex defined as Generator under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Any portion of the 222-S Laboratory Complex that is defined or permitted under RCRA as a treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) facility is excluded from this document. This SAP applies to the liquid waste generated in the 222-S Laboratory Complex. Because the analytical data obtained will be used to manage waste properly, including waste compatibility and waste designation, this SAP will provide directions for obtaining and maintaining the information as required by WAC173-303

  13. Application of HEC-RAS water quality model to estimate contaminant spreading in small stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halaj, Peter; Bárek, Viliam; Halajová, Anna Báreková; Halajová, Denisa [Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Nitra (Slovakia)

    2013-07-01

    The paper presents study of some aspects of HEC-RAS water quality model connected to simulation of contaminant transport in small stream. Authors mainly focused on one of the key tasks in process of pollutant transport modelling in streams - determination of the dispersion characteristics represented by longitudinal dispersion coefficient D. Different theoretical and empirical formulas have been proposed for D value determination and they have revealed that the coefficient is variable parameter that depends on hydraulic and morphometric characteristics of the stream reaches. Authors compare the results of several methods of coefficient D assessment, assuming experimental data obtained by tracer studies and compare them with results optimized by HEC-RAS water quality model. The analyses of tracer study and computation outputs allow us to outline the important aspects of longitudinal dispersion coefficient set up in process of the HEC-RAS model use. Key words: longitudinal dispersion coefficient, HEC-RAS, water quality modeling.

  14. USE OF DIATOMS TO ASSES WATER QUALITY OF ANTHROPOGENICALLY MODIFIED MATYSÓWKA STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Noga

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Matysówka stream is small, under 6 km long watercourse, which is a right-bank tributary of Strug River. In 2009–2011studies on the subject of diversity of diatom communities using diatom indices IPS, GDI and TDI for water quality assessment were conducted. On the stream 271 diatom taxa were identified, among which: Achnanthidium minutissimum var. minutissimum, Navicula cryptotenella, N. gregaria, N. lanceolata, N. tripunctata, Nitzschia linearis, N. pusilla, N. recta, Planothidium frequentissimum, Rhoicosphenia abbreviata were the most frequent. Middle and lower section of Matysówka stream was characterized by increased concentrations of phosphates, nitrites, ammonium, total phosphorus and nitrogen, BOD5. On the basis of diatom indices IPS and GDI waters were characterized as III–IV quality classes, while the TDI index revealed the worst water quality classes (IV–V.

  15. Shade and flow effects on ammonia retention in macrophyte-rich streams: implications for water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilcock, Robert J.; Scarsbrook, Mike R.; Cooke, James G.; Costley, Kerry J.; Nagels, John W.

    2004-01-01

    Controlled releases of NH 4 -N and conservative tracers (Br - and Cl - ) to five reaches of four streams with contrasting macrophyte communities have shown differing retentions, largely as a result of the way plants interact with stream flow and velocity. First-order constants (k) were 1.0-4.8 d -1 and retention of NH 4 -N was 6-71% of amounts added to each reach. Distance travelled before a 50% reduction in concentration was achieved were 40-450 m in three streams under low-flow conditions, and 2400-3800 m at higher flows. Retention (%) of NH 4 -N can be approximated by a simple function of travel time and k, highlighting the importance of the relationship between macrophytes and stream velocity on nutrient processing. This finding has significant management implications, particularly with respect to restoration of riparian shade. Small streams with predominantly marginal emergent plants are likely to have improved retention of NH 4 -N as a result of shading or other means of reducing plant biomass. Streams dominated by submerged macrophytes will have impaired NH 4 -N retention if plant biomass is reduced because of reduced contact times between NH 4 -N molecules and reactive sites. In these conditions water resource managers should utilise riparian shading in concert with unshaded vegetated reaches to achieve a balance between enhanced in-stream habitat and nutrient processing capacity

  16. Low-Cost Alternative for the Measurement of Water Levels in Surface Water Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis E. PEÑA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Flood risk management and water resources planning involve a deep knowledge of surface streams so that mitigation strategies and climate change adaptations can be implemented. Commercially, there is a wide range of technologies for the measurement of hydroclimatic variables; however, many of these technologies may not be affordable for institutions with limited budgets. This paper has two main objectives: 1 Present the design of an ultrasound-based water level measurement system, and 2 Propose a methodological alternative for the development of instruments, according to the needs of institutions conducting monitoring of surface waterbodies. To that end, the proposed methodology is based on selection processes defined according to the specific needs of each waterbody. The prototype was tested in real-world scale, with the potential to obtain accurate measurements. Lastly, we present the design of the ultrasound-based water level measurement instrument, which can be built at a low cost. Low-cost instruments can potentially contribute to the sustainable instrumental autonomy of environmental entities and help define measurement and data transmission standards based on the specific requirements of the monitoring.

  17. Flat Branch monitoring project: stream water temperature and sediment responses to forest cutting in the riparian zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton D. Clinton; James M. Vose; Dick L. Fowler

    2010-01-01

    Stream water protection during timber-harvesting activities is of primary interest to forest managers. In this study, we examine the potential impacts of riparian zone tree cutting on water temperature and total suspended solids. We monitored stream water temperature and total suspended solids before and after timber harvesting along a second-order tributary of the...

  18. Occurrence and in vitro bioactivity of estrogen, androgen, and glucocorticoid compounds in a nationwide screen of United States stream waters

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — In vitro bioactivity concentrations and chemical concentrations of estrogens, androgens, and glucocorticoids from a nationwide screen of United States stream water...

  19. Water evaporation: a transition path sampling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varilly, Patrick; Chandler, David

    2013-02-07

    We use transition path sampling to study evaporation in the SPC/E model of liquid water. On the basis of thousands of evaporation trajectories, we characterize the members of the transition state ensemble (TSE), which exhibit a liquid-vapor interface with predominantly negative mean curvature at the site of evaporation. We also find that after evaporation is complete, the distributions of translational and angular momenta of the evaporated water are Maxwellian with a temperature equal to that of the liquid. To characterize the evaporation trajectories in their entirety, we find that it suffices to project them onto just two coordinates: the distance of the evaporating molecule to the instantaneous liquid-vapor interface and the velocity of the water along the average interface normal. In this projected space, we find that the TSE is well-captured by a simple model of ballistic escape from a deep potential well, with no additional barrier to evaporation beyond the cohesive strength of the liquid. Equivalently, they are consistent with a near-unity probability for a water molecule impinging upon a liquid droplet to condense. These results agree with previous simulations and with some, but not all, recent experiments.

  20. Afloat in a Boat: Linking Land Use / Land Cover to the Spatial Evolution of Water Quality along a Blackwater Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, J.; Vose, J. M.; Nichols, E. G.; Jass, T. L.; Emanuel, R. E.; McRae, J.

    2016-12-01

    Water quality and land use/land cover (LULC) are linked intimately in many watersheds, although exact relationships are often nonlinear and sometimes complex. Together with watershed topography, LULC can affect water quality in various ways. As such, attributing water quality characteristics to LULC variations (either in space or time) can be difficult. Many studies seek to understand these relationships from a Eulerian reference frame, which typically involves many samples or observations through time at a fixed location. Here we explore an alternative approach to understanding relationships between LULC and water quality that relies on a Lagrangian, or moving, reference frame, in which the effects of LULC and watershed topography on water quality can be observed through a different lens. We studied three reaches of the Lumber River, a blackwater stream in North Carolina's Coastal Plain, to assess relationships between LULC and water quality in a watershed that is a patchwork of agriculture, forests, wetlands and developed land. Our study combines spatially intensive water quality measurements (temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH and nitrate concentration), collected by boat, with geospatial analyses of LULC to understand influences on the spatial evolution of reach-scale water quality. In particular, we investigate relationships between spatial patterns in nitrate and the changing spatial characteristics of the watershed integrated at sampling points along each reach. We also assess relationships between nitrate and other water quality variables, such as pH, temperature, and dissolved oxygen to better understand the potential role of in-stream nutrient processing in observed spatial patterns. This work has implications for the regulation and management of agriculture, wetlands, and forests in a region that has long struggled to balance agriculture, a major economic driver, with water quality, a major concern for recreation and cultural

  1. Concentration of radiocesium in stream water from a mountainous catchment area during rainfall events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kimihito; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Hatakeyama, Masato

    2012-01-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic systems were contaminated with radioactive materials following the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on 11 March, 2011. It is important that levels of radiocesium (Cs) in stream water from affected areas be monitored as this water is used for paddy irrigation and domestic water. Additionally, soil particles and organic matter from the streams are deposited in rivers, estuaries and into the ocean. Predictions suggest that Cs levels will increase during intense rainfall-runoff events. To check this prediction, we monitored temporal changes in runoff events and Cs levels in stream water from a mountainous catchment area northwest of the Fukushima plant. In March and April, 2012, the concentrations of Cs and suspended solids (SS) in stream water taken from low-level water flow were found to be 0.2–0.3 Bq/L and 2–7 mg/L, respectively. A heavy rainfall event in July 2012 resulted in an increase and subsequent decrease of both the runoff volume and SS concentration. At the beginning of the rainfall event the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS was measured to be 23 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.3 Bq/L over the course of the event. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.1 Bq/L, this decreased only slightly during the runoff event. During a low rainfall event in September 2012 the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS at the beginning of the rainfall event was found to be 15 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.5 Bq/L as the amount of SS in the water decreased. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.2 Bq/L, again this decreased only slightly over the course of the runoff event. The Cs levels in stream water, during rainfall-runoff events, were primary influenced by the concentration of SS. The amount of Cs dissolved in the water, on the other hand, was roughly constant at 0.1–0.2 Bq/L. The results of this study indicate that, although the concentration of Cs in stream water is below

  2. Concentration of radiocesium in stream water from a mountainous catchment area during rainfall events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kimihito; Yasutaka, Tetsuo; Hatakeyama, Masato

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial and aquatic systems were contaminated with radioactive materials following the nuclear accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on 11 March, 2011. It is important that levels of radiocesium (Cs) in stream water from affected areas be monitored as this water is used for paddy irrigation and domestic water. Additionally, soil particles and organic matter from the streams are deposited in rivers, estuaries and into the ocean. Predictions suggest that Cs levels will increase during intense rainfall-runoff events. To check this prediction, we monitored temporal changes in runoff events and Cs levels in stream water from a mountainous catchment area northwest of the Fukushima plant. In March and April, 2012, the concentrations of Cs and suspended solids (SS) in stream water taken from low-level water flow were found to be 0.2-0.3 Bq/L and 2-7 mg/L, respectively. A heavy rainfall event in July 2012 resulted in an increase and subsequent decrease of both the runoff volume and SS concentration. At the beginning of the rainfall event the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS was measured to be 23 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.3 Bq/L over the course of the event. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.1 Bq/L, this decreased only slightly during the runoff event. During a low rainfall event in September 2012 the concentration of Cs absorbed in the SS at the beginning of the rainfall event was found to be 15 Bq/L, this decreased gradually to 0.5 Bq/L as the amount of SS in the water decreased. The concentration of Cs dissolved in the water was 0.2 Bq/L, again this decreased only slightly over the course of the runoff event. The Cs levels in stream water, during rainfall-runoff events, were primary influenced by the concentration of SS. The amount of Cs dissolved in the water, on the other hand, was roughly constant at 0.1-0.2 Bq/L. The results of this study indicate that, although the concentration of Cs in stream water is below the

  3. Natural and artificial radionuclides in the Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Tahawy, M.S.; Farouk, M.A.; Ibrahiem, N.M.; El-Mongey, S.A.M.

    1994-01-01

    Concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water have been measured using γ spectrometers based on a hyper-pure Ge detector. The activity concentrations of 238 U series, 232 Th series and 40 K did not exceed 16.0, 15.5 and 500.0 Bq kg -1 dry weight for sediments. The activity concentration of 238 U series and 40 K did not exceed 0.6 and 18.0 Bq l -1 for stream water. (author)

  4. Natural and artificial radionuclides in the Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Tahawy, M. S.; Farouk, M. A.; Ibrahiem, N. M.; El-Mongey, S. A. M.

    1994-07-01

    Concentration of natural and artificial radionuclides in Suez Canal bottom sediments and stream water have been measured using γ spectrometers based on a hyper-pure Ge detector. The activity concentrations of 238U series, 232Th series and 40K did not exceed 16.0, 15.5 and 500.0 Bq kg-1 dry weight for sediments. The activity concentration of 238U series and 40K did not exceed 0.6 and 18.0 Bq 1-1 for stream water.

  5. Integrated assessment of chemical quality and genotoxicity of the water of the Luiz Rau Stream in the lower stretch of the Sinos River Basin, in South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Tamires Petry; Gustavo Marques da Costa; Tatiane Benvenuti; Marco Antônio Siqueira Rodrigues; Annette Droste

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the chemical quality and genotoxicity of the water of the Luiz Rau Stream in Novo Hamburgo (Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil) and investigated the relationship between the genetic damage observed in Tradescantia pallida var. purpurea and the chemical parameters analyzed. Water samplings were collected bimonthly from September 2012 to March 2013 from two sites, near the headspring (S1) and near the mouth (S2). Cuttings with flower buds were exposed to water from the sites and dist...

  6. A simple metric to predict stream water quality from storm runoff in an urban watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Zachary M; Sullivan, Patrick J; Walter, M Todd; Fuka, Daniel R; Petrovic, A Martin; Steenhuis, Tammo S

    2010-01-01

    The contribution of runoff from various land uses to stream channels in a watershed is often speculated and used to underpin many model predictions. However, these contributions, often based on little or no measurements in the watershed, fail to appropriately consider the influence of the hydrologic location of a particular landscape unit in relation to the stream network. A simple model was developed to predict storm runoff and the phosphorus (P) status of a perennial stream in an urban watershed in New York State using the covariance structure of runoff from different landscape units in the watershed to predict runoff in time. One hundred and twenty-seven storm events were divided into parameterization (n = 85) and forecasting (n = 42) data sets. Runoff, dissolved P (DP), and total P (TP) were measured at nine sites distributed among three land uses (high maintenance, unmaintained, wooded), three positions in the watershed (near the outlet, midwatershed, upper watershed), and in the stream at the watershed outlet. The autocorrelation among runoff and P concentrations from the watershed landscape units (n = 9) and the covariance between measurements from the landscape units and measurements from the stream were calculated and used to predict the stream response. Models, validated using leave-one-out cross-validation and a forecasting method, were able to correctly capture temporal trends in streamflow and stream P chemistry (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiencies, 0.49-0.88). The analysis suggests that the covariance structure was consistent for all models, indicating that the physical processes governing runoff and P loss from these landscape units were stationary in time and that landscapes located in hydraulically active areas have a direct hydraulic link to the stream. This methodology provides insight into the impact of various urban landscape units on stream water quantity and quality.

  7. Threshold-dependent sample sizes for selenium assessment with stream fish tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Smith, David R.

    2015-01-01

    precision of composites for estimating mean conditions. However, low sample sizes (<5 fish) did not achieve 80% power to detect near-threshold values (i.e., <1 mg Se/kg) under any scenario we evaluated. This analysis can assist the sampling design and interpretation of Se assessments from fish tissue by accounting for natural variation in stream fish populations.

  8. Variations in surface water-ground water interactions along a headwater mountain stream: comparisons between transient storage and water balance analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam S. Ward; Robert A. Payn; Michael N. Gooseff; Brian L. McGlynn; Kenneth E. Bencala; Christa A. Kellecher; Steven M. Wondzell; Thorsten. Wagener

    2013-01-01

    The accumulation of discharge along a stream valley is frequently assumed to be the primary control on solute transport processes. Relationships of both increasing and decreasing transient storage, and decreased gross losses of stream water have been reported with increasing discharge; however, we have yet to validate these relationships with extensive field study. We...

  9. 49 Trace Metals' Contamination of Stream Water and Irrigated Crop ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABUBAKAR AHMED

    human consumption as they pose serious health risks due to contamination with the metals. For environmental ... mining activities, industrial and domestic effluents, urban ... drinking and bathing water, irrigation, food, fuel and energy.

  10. GENDER MAIN STREAMING IN WATER SUPPLY AND SANITATION PROJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona FRONE

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available As we have stated in the previous year conference paper, the human right to water and sanitation entitles everyoneto water and sanitation services which are available, accessible, affordable, acceptable and safe. Developmentprograms for water and sanitation services, as many other socio-economic development programs have often beenassumed to be neutral in terms of gender. However, sometimes there can be failures in the implementation andharnessing of such projects because of errors arising from lack of adequate integration of gender equality. In thispaper are highlighted some aspects and issues of gender mainstreaming in water supply and sanitation developmentprojects, including conclusions from a case study conducted by an NGO in a commune of Romania and ownrecommendations.

  11. Indicators of streamflow alteration, habitat fragmentation, impervious cover, and water quality for Massachusetts stream basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiskel, Peter K.; Brandt, Sara L.; DeSimone, Leslie A.; Ostiguy, Lance J.; Archfield, Stacey A.

    2010-01-01

    Massachusetts streams and stream basins have been subjected to a wide variety of human alterations since colonial times. These alterations include water withdrawals, treated wastewater discharges, construction of onsite septic systems and dams, forest clearing, and urbanization—all of which have the potential to affect streamflow regimes, water quality, and habitat integrity for fish and other aquatic biota. Indicators were developed to characterize these types of potential alteration for subbasins and groundwater contributing areas in Massachusetts. The potential alteration of streamflow by the combined effects of withdrawals and discharges was assessed under two water-use scenarios. Water-use scenario 1 incorporated publicly reported groundwater withdrawals and discharges, direct withdrawals from and discharges to streams, and estimated domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges. Surface-water-reservoir withdrawals were excluded from this scenario. Water-use scenario 2 incorporated all the types of withdrawal and discharge included in scenario 1 as well as withdrawals from surface-water reservoirs—all on a long-term, mean annual basis. All withdrawal and discharge data were previously reported to the State for the 2000–2004 period, except domestic-well withdrawals and septic-system discharges, which were estimated for this study. The majority of the state’s subbasins and groundwater contributing areas were estimated to have relatively minor (less than 10 percent) alteration of streamflow under water-use scenario 1 (seasonally varying water use; no surface-water-reservoir withdrawals). However, about 12 percent of subbasins and groundwater contributing areas were estimated to have extensive alteration of streamflows (greater than 40 percent) in August; most of these basins were concentrated in the outer metropolitan Boston region. Potential surcharging of streamflow in August was most commonly indicated for main-stem river subbasins, although

  12. Discrete simulations of spatio-temporal dynamics of small water bodies under varied stream flow discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daya Sagar, B. S.

    2005-01-01

    Spatio-temporal patterns of small water bodies (SWBs) under the influence of temporally varied stream flow discharge are simulated in discrete space by employing geomorphologically realistic expansion and contraction transformations. Cascades of expansion-contraction are systematically performed by synchronizing them with stream flow discharge simulated via the logistic map. Templates with definite characteristic information are defined from stream flow discharge pattern as the basis to model the spatio-temporal organization of randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes. These spatio-temporal patterns under varied parameters (λs) controlling stream flow discharge patterns are characterized by estimating their fractal dimensions. At various λs, nonlinear control parameters, we show the union of boundaries of water bodies that traverse the water body and non-water body spaces as geomorphic attractors. The computed fractal dimensions of these attractors are 1.58, 1.53, 1.78, 1.76, 1.84, and 1.90, respectively, at λs of 1, 2, 3, 3.46, 3.57, and 3.99. These values are in line with general visual observations.

  13. Discrete simulations of spatio-temporal dynamics of small water bodies under varied stream flow discharges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. Daya Sagar

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Spatio-temporal patterns of small water bodies (SWBs under the influence of temporally varied stream flow discharge are simulated in discrete space by employing geomorphologically realistic expansion and contraction transformations. Cascades of expansion-contraction are systematically performed by synchronizing them with stream flow discharge simulated via the logistic map. Templates with definite characteristic information are defined from stream flow discharge pattern as the basis to model the spatio-temporal organization of randomly situated surface water bodies of various sizes and shapes. These spatio-temporal patterns under varied parameters (λs controlling stream flow discharge patterns are characterized by estimating their fractal dimensions. At various λs, nonlinear control parameters, we show the union of boundaries of water bodies that traverse the water body and non-water body spaces as geomorphic attractors. The computed fractal dimensions of these attractors are 1.58, 1.53, 1.78, 1.76, 1.84, and 1.90, respectively, at λs of 1, 2, 3, 3.46, 3.57, and 3.99. These values are in line with general visual observations.

  14. Characterization of a stream sediment matrix material for sampling behavior in order to use it as a CRM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Donghui; Xiao Caijin; Ni Bangfa; Tian Weizhi; Zhang Yuanxun; Wang Pingsheng; Liu Cunxiong; Zhang Guiying

    2010-01-01

    Sampling behavior of multielements in a stream sediment matrix was studied with sample sizes in a range of 9 orders of magnitude by a combination of INAA, PIXE and SR-XRF. For accurately weighable sample sizes (>1 mg), sampling uncertainties for 16 elements are better than 1% by INAA. For sample sizes that cannot be accurately weighed (<1 mg), PIXE and SR-XRF were used and the effective sample sizes were estimated. Sampling uncertainties for seven elements are better than 1% at sample sizes of tenth mg level, and that for three elements are better than 10% on ng levels.

  15. Headwater streams in the EU Water Framework Directive: Evidence-based decision support to select streams for river basin management plans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette; Larsen, Søren Erik; Andersen, Dagmar K.

    2018-01-01

    , however, it is intensely debated whether the small size and low slopes, typical of Danish streams, in combination with degraded habitat conditions obstruct their ability to fulfill the ecological quality objectives required by the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD). The purpose of this studywas to provide...... an analytically based framework for guiding the selection of headwater streams for RBMP. Specifically, the following hypotheses were addressed: i) stream slope, width, planform, and general physical habitat quality can act as criteria for selecting streams for the next generation of RBMPs, and ii) probability......-based thresholds for reaching good ecological status can be established for some or all of these criteria, thus creating a sound, scientifically based, and clear selection process. The hypotheses were tested using monitoring data on Danish streams from the period 2004–2015. Significant linear relationships were...

  16. Inference of Stream Network Fragmentation Patterns from Ground Water - Surface Water Interactions on the High Plains Aquifer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, D. G.; Yang, X.; Steward, D. R.; Gido, K.

    2007-12-01

    Stream networks in the Great Plains integrate fluxes from precipitation as surface runoff in discrete events and groundwater as base flow. Changes in land cover and agronomic practices and development of ground water resources to support irrigated agriculture have resulted in profound changes in the occurrence and magnitude of stream flows, especially near the Ogallala aquifer, where precipitation is low. These changes have demonstrably altered the aquatic habitat of western Kansas, with documented changes in fish populations, riparian communities and groundwater quality due to stream transmission losses. Forecasting future changes in aquatic and riparian ecology and groundwater quality requires a large scale spatially explicit model of groundwater- surface water interaction. In this study, we combine historical data on land use, stream flow, production well development and groundwater level observations with groundwater elevation modeling to support a geospatial framework for assessing changes in refugia for aquatic species in four rivers in western Kansas between 1965 and 2005. Decreased frequency and duration of streamflow occurred in all rivers, but the extent of change depended on the geomorphology of the river basin and the extent of groundwater development. In the absence of streamflow, refugia for aquatic species were defined as the stream reaches below the phreatic surface of the regional aquifer. Changes in extent, location and degree of fragmentation of gaining reaches was found to be a strong predictor of surface water occurrence during drought and a robust hydrological template for the analysis of changes in recharge to alluvial and regional aquifers and riparian and aquatic habitat.

  17. Multiple Time-Scale Monitoring to Address Dynamic Seasonality and Storm Pulses of Stream Water Quality in Mountainous Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Ju Lee

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Rainfall variability and extreme events can amplify the seasonality and storm pulses of stream water chemistry in mountainous watersheds under monsoon climates. To establish a monitoring program optimized for identifying potential risks to stream water quality arising from rainfall variability and extremes, we examined water chemistry data collected on different timescales. At a small forested watershed, bi-weekly sampling lasted over two years, in comparison to three other biweekly sampling sites. In addition, high-frequency continuous measurements of pH, electrical conductivity, and turbidity were conducted in tandem with automatic water sampling at 2 h intervals during eight rainfall events. Biweekly monitoring showed that during the summer monsoon period, electrical conductivity (EC, dissolved oxygen (DO, and dissolved ion concentrations generally decreased, but total suspended solids (TSS slightly increased. A noticeable variation from the usual seasonal pattern was that DO levels substantially decreased during an extended drought. Bi-hourly storm event samplings exhibited large changes in the concentrations of TSS and particulate and dissolved organic carbon (POC; DOC during intense rainfall events. However, extreme fluctuations in sediment export during discharge peaks could be detected only by turbidity measurements at 5 min intervals. Concomitant measurements during rainfall events established empirical relationships between turbidity and TSS or POC. These results suggest that routine monitoring based on weekly to monthly sampling is valid only in addressing general seasonal patterns or long-lasting phenomena such as drought effects. We propose an “adaptive” monitoring scheme that combines routine monitoring for general seasonal patterns and high-frequency instrumental measurements of water quality components exhibiting rapid responses pulsing during intense rainfall events.

  18. Stream-water and groundwater quality in and near the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area, Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma, 2012-13

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Carol J.

    2014-01-01

    The Citizen Potawatomi Nation needs to characterize their existing surface-water and groundwater resources in and near their tribal jurisdictional area to complete a water-resource management plan. Water resources in this area include surface water from the North Canadian and Little Rivers and groundwater from the terrace and alluvial aquifers and underlying bedrock aquifers. To assist in this effort, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Citizen Potawatomi Nation, collected water-quality samples at 4 sites on 3 streams and from 30 wells during 2012 and 2013 in and near the Citizen Potawatomi Nation Tribal Jurisdictional Area in central Oklahoma. Stream samples were collected eight times on the North Canadian River at the upstream USGS streamflow-gaging station North Canadian River near Harrah, Okla. (07241550); at the downstream USGS streamflow-gaging station North Canadian River at Shawnee, Okla. (07241800); and on the Little River at the USGS streamflow-gaging station Little River near Tecumseh, Okla., (07230500). Stream samples also were collected three times at an ungaged site, Deer Creek near McLoud, Okla. (07241590). Water properties were measured, and water samples were analyzed for concentrations of major ions, nutrients, trace elements, counts of fecal-indicator bacteria, and 69 organic compounds.

  19. Chloride dynamics in a restored urban stream and the influence of road salts on water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the connection between road salts and water quality is essential to assess the implications for human health and ecosystem services from these widely used de-icers. Preliminary analysis identified a probable connection between road salt application and a stream wat...

  20. Relating road salt to exceedances of the water quality standard for chloride in New Hampshire streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trowbridge, Philip R; Kahl, J Steve; Sassan, Dari A; Heath, Douglas L; Walsh, Edward M

    2010-07-01

    Six watersheds in New Hampshire were studied to determine the effects of road salt on stream water quality. Specific conductance in streams was monitored every 15 min for one year using dataloggers. Chloride concentrations were calculated from specific conductance using empirical relationships. Stream chloride concentrations were directly correlated with development in the watersheds and were inversely related to streamflow. Exceedances of the EPA water quality standard for chloride were detected in the four watersheds with the most development. The number of exceedances during a year was linearly related to the annual average concentration of chloride. Exceedances of the water quality standard were not predicted for streams with annual average concentrations less than 102 mg L(-1). Chloride was imported into three of the watersheds at rates ranging from 45 to 98 Mg Cl km(-2) yr(-1). Ninety-one percent of the chloride imported was road salt for deicing roadways and parking lots. A simple, mass balance equation was shown to predict annual average chloride concentrations from streamflow and chloride import rates to the watershed. This equation, combined with the apparent threshold for exceedances of the water quality standard, can be used for screening-level TMDLs for road salt in impaired watersheds.

  1. Stream habitat or water quality - what influences stronger fish and macrozoobenthos biodiversity?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adámek, Z.; Jurajda, Pavel

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2001), s. 305-311 ISSN 1642-3593. [Ecohydrology as a tool for restoration of physically degraded fish habitats. Warsaw, 11.06.2001-13.06.2001] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : stream ecology * water quality * fish communities Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  2. Tritium removal from air streams by catalytic oxidation and water adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, A.E.

    1976-06-01

    An effective method of capturing tritium from air streams is by catalytic oxidation followed by water adsorption on a microporous solid adsorbent. Performance of a burner/dryer combination is illustrated by overall mass balance equations. Engineering design methods for packed bed reactors and adsorbers are reviewed, emphasizing the experimental data needed for design and the effect of operating conditions on system performance

  3. Influence of maximum water temperature on occurrence of Lahontan cutthroat trout within streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Dunham; R. Schroeter; B. Rieman

    2003-01-01

    We measured water temperature at 87 sites in six streams in two different years (1998 and 1999) to test for association with the occurrence of Lahontan cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki henshawi. Because laboratory studies suggest that Lahontan cutthroat trout begin to show signs of acute stress at warm (>22°C) temperatures, we focused on the...

  4. Effect of Strip Mining on Water Quality in Small Streams in Eastern Kentucky, 1967-1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth L. Dyer; Willie R. Curtis

    1977-01-01

    Eight years of streamflow data are analyzed to show the effects of strip mining on chemical quality of water in six first-order streams in Breathitt County, Kentucky. All these watersheds were unmined in August, 1967, but five have since been strip mined. The accumulated data from this case history study indicate that strip mining causes large increases in the...

  5. Watershed scale assessment of the impact of forested riparian zones on stream water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. A. Webber; K. W. J. Williard; M. R. Whiles; M. L. Stone; J. J. Zaczek; D. K. Davie

    2003-01-01

    Federal and state land management agencies have been promoting forest and grass riparian zones to combat non-point source nutrient and sediment pollution of our nations' waters. The majority of research examining the effectiveness of riparian buffers at reducing nutrient and sediment inputs to streams has been conducted at the field scale. This study took a...

  6. Spatio-temporal variation in stream water chemistry in a tropical urban watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alonso Ramírez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban activities and related infrastructure alter the natural patterns of stream physical and chemical conditions. According to the Urban Stream Syndrome, streams draining urban landscapes are characterized by high concentrations of nutrients and ions, and might have elevated water temperatures and variable oxygen concentrations. Here, we report temporal and spatial variability in stream physicochemistry in a highly urbanized watershed in Puerto Rico. The main objective of the study was to describe stream physicochemical characteristics and relate them to urban intensity, e.g., percent impervious surface cover, and watershed infrastructure, e.g., road and pipe densities. The Río Piedras Watershed in the San Juan Metropolitan Area, Puerto Rico, is one of the most urbanized regions on the island. The Río Piedras presented high solute concentrations that were related to watershed factors, such as percent impervious cover. Temporal variability in ion concentrations lacked seasonality, as did all other parameters measured except water temperature, which was lower during winter and highest during summer, as expected based on latitude. Spatially, stream physicochemistry was strongly related to watershed percent impervious cover and also to the density of urban infrastructure, e.g., roads, pipe, and building densities. Although the watershed is serviced by a sewage collection system, illegal discharges and leaky infrastructure are probably responsible for the elevated ion concentration found. Overall, the Río Piedras is an example of the response of a tropical urban watershed after major sewage inputs are removed, thus highlighting the importance of proper infrastructure maintenance and management of runoff to control ion concentrations in tropical streams.

  7. Understanding and quantifying focused, indirect groundwater recharge from ephemeral streams using water table fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuthbert, M. O.; Acworth, R. I.; Andersen, M. S.; Larsen, J. R.; McCallum, A. M.; Rau, G. C.; Tellam, J. H.

    2016-02-01

    Understanding and managing groundwater resources in drylands is a challenging task, but one that is globally important. The dominant process for dryland groundwater recharge is thought to be as focused, indirect recharge from ephemeral stream losses. However, there is a global paucity of data for understanding and quantifying this process and transferable techniques for quantifying groundwater recharge in such contexts are lacking. Here we develop a generalized conceptual model for understanding water table and groundwater head fluctuations due to recharge from episodic events within ephemeral streams. By accounting for the recession characteristics of a groundwater hydrograph, we present a simple but powerful new water table fluctuation approach to quantify focused, indirect recharge over both long term and event time scales. The technique is demonstrated using a new, and globally unparalleled, set of groundwater observations from an ephemeral stream catchment located in NSW, Australia. We find that, following episodic streamflow events down a predominantly dry channel system, groundwater head fluctuations are controlled by pressure redistribution operating at three time scales from vertical flow (days to weeks), transverse flow perpendicular to the stream (weeks to months), and longitudinal flow parallel to the stream (years to decades). In relative terms, indirect recharge decreases almost linearly away from the mountain front, both in discrete monitored events as well as in the long-term average. In absolute terms, the estimated indirect recharge varies from 80 to 30 mm/a with the main uncertainty in these values stemming from uncertainty in the catchment-scale hydraulic properties.

  8. Results of elemental analyses of water and waterborne sediment samples from the Fairbanks NTMS quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharp, R.R. Jr.; Aamodt, P.L; Hill, D.E.

    1979-04-01

    During the late spring and then again in late summer, 1977, lake and stream water and bottom sediment samples were collected at a nominal density of one location every 16 km 2 from throughout the approximate 16,500-km 2 area of the Fairbanks NTMS quadrangle, Alaska. These samples were collected using standard procedures by investigators from the University of Alaska, Fairbanks, as part of a special Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) study to identify variance in total uranium contents related to natural factors such as seasonal changes, source types, and geologic/geographic environments. Histograms and statistical summaries of total uranium in a number of sample populations presented herein indicate that water samples collected in late summer have a mean uranium content that is slightly higher than the mean for waters collected in the spring. Dilution and/or evaporative concentration are possible causes for this difference. Sediment samples collected from streams and springs have a slightly higher mean uranium content than those collected from lakes, and this is consistent with HSSR data from other Alaskan areas. The Alaskan investigators will complete a detailed analysis of variance study of these data in the near future and a second open-file report will be forthcoming upon its completion

  9. Field manual for stream water and sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.B.; Price, V.; Baucom, E.I.

    1977-11-01

    A manual is presented that is intended to direct and coordinate field operations, site selection, sample collection, and information codes for the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) contribution to the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program. The manual provides technical direction and public relations information for field sampling teams. The program is being conducted to evaluate domestic uranium resources and to identify favorable areas for commercial exploration. The NURE program is expected to increase the activity of commercial exploration for uranium in the United States

  10. Stream water quality in the context of payments for environmental services in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piccolo, M. C.; Reis, L. D. C.; Figueiredo, R. D. O.; Camargo, P. B. D.; Costa, C. F. G. D.; Zuccari, M. L.; Green, T. R.

    2015-12-01

    Public policy of payment for environmental services (PES) was established in 2007 to face the challenge of recuperatingwater resources at one of the headwater areas of the Jaguari River Basin, which supplies an important reservoir for the metropolitan region of São Paulo, Brazil. Such effort consists of reforestation of riparian zones and spring lands at the hills of selected catchments, including the Ribeirão das Posses (RP) catchment. Since 2012 the University of São Paulo has developed research at RP to monitor the benefits of these practices on stream water quality, and identified a few parameters as good indicators to follow up the results of this PES program. The present study has the objective to show results of the monthly monitoring in2015,including 13 sampling stations at RP catchment distributed as follows: one in a spring forested area, three in spring areas of different ages of reforestation (3, 5 and 8 years), and nine at reaches of RP streamlocated in a way to contemplate the effects of the first order streams that comes from the studied spring areas entering RP. We established two additional stations at the Jaguari River, upstream and downstream of RP outlet. In situ measurements include temperature, pH, electric conductivity (EC) and dissolved oxygen (DO), and collect water samples to bring to the laboratory for analyses of dissolved organic and inorganic carbon (DOC and DIC), total nitrogen (TN) and alkalinity. Also, sediments (fine fraction: >0.45 μm; and coarse fraction: >63 μm) are collected for isotopic carbon analyses. Preliminary results show pH values ranging from 5.5 to 7.8, while DO ranges from 5.8 to 8.9 mg L-1. As for EC, the mean at the spring forested station was 34.6 μS cm-1, while at spring areas of 3, 6 and 8 years of reforestation they were 53.3, 73.8 and 34.8 μS cm-1, respectively. We expected that by the end of this annual monitoring the benefits of reforestation will be affirmed.

  11. Mercury removal from water streams through the ion exchange membrane bioreactor concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oehmen, Adrian; Vergel, Dario; Fradinho, Joana; Reis, Maria A M; Crespo, João G; Velizarov, Svetlozar

    2014-01-15

    Mercury is a highly toxic heavy metal that causes human health problems and environmental contamination. In this study, an ion exchange membrane bioreactor (IEMB) process was developed to achieve Hg(II) removal from drinking water and industrial effluents. Hg(II) transport through a cation exchange membrane was coupled with its bioreduction to Hg(0) in order to achieve Hg removal from concentrated streams, with minimal production of contaminated by-products observed. This study involves (1) membrane selection, (2) demonstration of process effectiveness for removing Hg from drinking water to below the 1ppb recommended limit, and (3) process application for treatment of concentrated water streams, where >98% of the Hg was removed, and the throughput of contaminated water was optimised through membrane pre-treatment. The IEMB process represents a novel mercury treatment technology with minimal generation of contaminated waste, thereby reducing the overall environmental impact of the process. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cross-regional prediction of long-term trajectory of stream water DOC response to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Laudon; J.M. Buttle; S.K. Carey; J.J. McDonnell; K.J. McGuire; J. Seibert; J. Shanley; C. Soulsby; D. Tetzlaff

    2012-01-01

    There is no scientific consensus about how dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in surface waters is regulated. Here we combine recent literature data from 49 catchments with detailed stream and catchment process information from nine well established research catchments at mid- to high latitudes to examine the question of how climate controls stream water DOC. We show for...

  13. Guidelines for the collection of continuous stream water-temperature data in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toohey, Ryan C.; Neal, Edward G.; Solin, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives of stream monitoring programs differ considerably among many of the academic, Federal, state, tribal, and non-profit organizations in the state of Alaska. Broad inclusion of stream-temperature monitoring can provide an opportunity for collaboration in the development of a statewide stream-temperature database. Statewide and regional coordination could reduce overall monitoring cost, while providing better analyses at multiple spatial and temporal scales to improve resource decision-making. Increased adoption of standardized protocols and data-quality standards may allow for validation of historical modeling efforts with better projection calibration. For records of stream water temperature to be generally consistent, unbiased, and reproducible, data must be collected and analyzed according to documented protocols. Collection of water-temperature data requires definition of data-quality objectives, good site selection, proper selection of instrumentation, proper installation of sensors, periodic site visits to maintain sensors and download data, pre- and post-deployment verification against an NIST-certified thermometer, potential data corrections, and proper documentation, review, and approval. A study created to develop a quality-assurance project plan, data-quality objectives, and a database management plan that includes procedures for data archiving and dissemination could provide a means to standardize a statewide stream-temperature database in Alaska. Protocols can be modified depending on desired accuracy or specific needs of data collected. This document is intended to guide users in collecting time series water-temperature data in Alaskan streams and draws extensively on the broader protocols already published by the U.S. Geological Survey.

  14. Accumulation of anthropogenic radionuclides in crops in conditions of water stream and classical hydroponics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayrapetyan, Khachatur; Hovsepyan, Albert; Daryadar, Mahsa; Alexanyan, Julietta; Tovmasyan, Anahit; Ghalachyan, Laura; Tadevosyan, Anna; Mayrapetyan, Stepan [Institute of Hydroponics Problems, NAS, Noragyugh 108, 0082, Yerevan (Armenia)

    2014-07-01

    Natural and artificial radionuclides (RN) dangerous for health are emitted into ecosystems because of human anthropogenic activities in the field of nuclear energetics. Biologically artificial RN {sup 90}Sr(T{sub 1/2}=28,6 years) and {sup 137}Cs (T{sub 1/2}=30,1 years)are very dangerous. Therefore obtaining radio-ecologically safe raw material of high quality is a very urgent problem now. Taking into account the above mentioned, in order to obtain ecologically safe raw material we carried out comparative radiochemical investigations on essential oil and medicinal plants peppermint(Mentha piperita L.) and sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) grown in new water-stream (continuous, gully, cylindrical) and classical hydroponics, with the aim of revealing accumulation peculiarities of {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs. The results of experiments have shown that in classical hydroponics peppermint and sweet basil exceeded the same indices of water-stream hydroponics with {sup 90}Sr and {sup 137}Cs content 1,1-1,2; 1,2-1,3 and 1,5-1,8; 1,4-1,8 times, respectively. Moreover, sweet basil exceeded peppermint in water-stream hydroponics {sup 90}Sr 1,3-1,6; {sup 137}Cs 1,2-1,4 times and in classical hydroponics {sup 90}Sr 1,6; {sup 137}Cs 1,2 times. The content of controlled artificial RN in raw material did not exceed the allowed concentration limit (ACL). New water-stream hydroponics system worked out in Institute of Hydroponics Problems is a radio-ecologically more profitable method for producing raw material than classical hydroponics. At the same time water-stream hydroponics system in comparison with classical hydroponics promoted productivity (dry raw material) increase of peppermint and sweet basil 1,1-1,4 times. (authors)

  15. Quality and mutagenicity of water and sediment of the streams impacted by the former uranium mine area Olší–Drahonín (Czech Republic)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudcová, H.; Badurová, J.; Rozkošný, M.; Sova, J.; Funková, R.; Svobodová, J.

    2013-01-01

    The water quality research performed in the years 2003–2010 demonstrated an impact of the mine water pumped from the closed Olší uranium mine and discharged from the mine water treatment plant (MWTP) and groundwater from springs in the area on the water quality of the Hadůvka stream. The water ecosystems of the lower part of the Hadůvka stream are impacted mainly by water originated from the springs located in the stream valley and drained syenit subsoil, naturally rich in uranium. Those inflows caused a very high concentration of uranium measured in the water of the stream, which exceeds the given limit value. No negative impact on the water ecosystems of the receiving Bobrůvka River was found. This reduction of impact is caused by five times higher average daily flow rate of the Bobrůvka River in comparison with the Hadůvka stream, which results in a sufficient dilution of pollution from the Hadůvka. - Highlights: ► No significant impact of former uranium mining in the Olší mine area on the water ecosystems. ► The water ecosystems impacted mainly by natural sources of uranium. ► The occurrence of mutagenic compounds in the surface water was found using Ames fluctuated test. ► The mutagenicity was repeatedly detected in sediments. ► None of the samples showed cytotoxic effects in tests with S. typhimurium or P. phosphoreum organisms.

  16. Modelling of in-stream nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations using different sampling strategies for calibration data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jomaa, Seifeddine; Jiang, Sanyuan; Yang, Xiaoqiang; Rode, Michael

    2016-04-01

    It is known that a good evaluation and prediction of surface water pollution is mainly limited by the monitoring strategy and the capability of the hydrological water quality model to reproduce the internal processes. To this end, a compromise sampling frequency, which can reflect the dynamical behaviour of leached nutrient fluxes responding to changes in land use, agriculture practices and point sources, and appropriate process-based water quality model are required. The objective of this study was to test the identification of hydrological water quality model parameters (nitrogen and phosphorus) under two different monitoring strategies: (1) regular grab-sampling approach and (2) regular grab-sampling with additional monitoring during the hydrological events using automatic samplers. First, the semi-distributed hydrological water quality HYPE (Hydrological Predictions for the Environment) model was successfully calibrated (1994-1998) for discharge (NSE = 0.86), nitrate-N (lowest NSE for nitrate-N load = 0.69), particulate phosphorus and soluble phosphorus in the Selke catchment (463 km2, central Germany) for the period 1994-1998 using regular grab-sampling approach (biweekly to monthly for nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations). Second, the model was successfully validated during the period 1999-2010 for discharge, nitrate-N, particulate-phosphorus and soluble-phosphorus (lowest NSE for soluble phosphorus load = 0.54). Results, showed that when additional sampling during the events with random grab-sampling approach was used (period 2011-2013), the hydrological model could reproduce only the nitrate-N and soluble phosphorus concentrations reasonably well. However, when additional sampling during the hydrological events was considered, the HYPE model could not represent the measured particulate phosphorus. This reflects the importance of suspended sediment during the hydrological events increasing the concentrations of particulate phosphorus. The HYPE model could

  17. Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna breeding water in a dry zone stream in Sri Lanka

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piyaratne, M K; Amerasinghe, F P; Amerasinghe, P H

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: Selected physico-chemical characteristics of flowing and pooled water in a stream that generated two malaria vectors, Anopheles culicifacies s.l. Giles and Anopheles varuna Iyengar, were investigated during August-September 1997 and July 1998 at the Upper Yan Oya watershed.......5% of 151 samples analysed were mosquito-positive. Logistic regression was used for statistical analysis. RESULTS: Among physico-chemical parameters, An. culicifacies (the major malaria vector in the country) was positively related only to temperature, and An. varuna (a secondary malaria vector) to calcium...

  18. The trace element analysis in freshwater fish species, water and sediment in Iyidere stream (Rize-Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verep, Bulent; Mutlu, Cengiz; Apaydin, Gokhan; Cevik, Ugur

    2012-07-15

    Many environmental problems like dam construction, agricultural debris, flooding and industrial establishments threaten Iyidere stream (Rize, Turkey) on the southeastern coast of the Black Sea (Turkey). The trace element concentrations in water, fish and sediments in lyidere stream (Rize, Turkey) were investigated in this study. The concentration of six different elements in ten freshwater fish species and sediment was determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence method. A radioisotope excited X-ray fluorescence analysis using the method of multiple standard addition is applied for the elemental analysis of fish and sediments. Water samples for trace metals were analyzed using standard spectrophotometry methods. A qualitative analysis of spectral peaks showed that ten different freshwater fish samples (Chondrostoma colchicum, Chalcalburnus chalcoides, Salmo trutta labrax, Alburnoides bipunctatus, Leuciscus cephalus, Barbus taurus escherichia, Capoeta tinca, Neogobius kessleri, Rutilus frisii, Lampetra lanceolata) and sediment contained phosphorus (P), sulphur (S), chlorine (Cl), potassium (K), calcium (Ca) and titanium (Ti). Heavy metals as toxic elements for biota (Pb, Cd, Hg, Zn and Mn etc.) were not detected in fish, water and sediments. Thus, It can be declared that freshwater fish of Iyidere does not contains health risks for consumers in terms of metal pollution.

  19. Effects of pasture management and off-stream water on temporal/spatial distribution of cattle and stream bank characteristics in cool-season grass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarte, K A; Russell, J R; Morrical, D G

    2011-10-01

    A 2-yr grazing experiment was conducted to assess the effects of grazing management on cattle distribution and pasture and stream bank characteristics. Six 12.1-ha cool-season grass pastures in central Iowa were allotted to 1 of 3 treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with stream access restricted to 4.9-m-wide stabilized crossings (CSR), or rotational stocking with stream access restricted to a riparian paddock (RP). Pastures were stocked with 15 fall-calving Angus cows (Bos taurus L.) from mid-May to mid-October for 153 d in 2008 and 2009. A global positioning system (GPS) collar recording cow position every 10 min was placed on at least 1 cow per pasture for 2 wk of each month from May through September. Off-stream water was provided to cattle in CSU and CSR treatments during the second of the 2 wk when GPS collars were on the cattle. A black globe temperature relative humidity index (BGTHI) was measured at 10-min intervals to match the time of the GPS measurements. Each month of the grazing season, forage characteristics (sward height, forage mass, and CP, IVDMD, and P concentrations) and bare and fecal-covered ground were measured. Stream bank erosion susceptibility was visually scored in May, August, and October (pre-, mid-, and post-stocking). Cattle in RP and CSR treatments spent less time (P CSR treatment reduced the probability (P CSR and RP treatments in the stream and streamside zones in September and October and in July and September. Streams in pastures with the CSU treatment had less stable banks (P CSR treatments. Results show that time spent by cattle near pasture streams can be reduced by RP or CSR treatments, thereby decreasing risks of sediment and nutrient loading of pasture streams even during periods of increased BGTHI.

  20. Effects of land use, stream habitat, and water quality on biological communities of wadeable streams in the Illinois River Basin of Arkansas, 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, James C.; Justus, B.G.; Meredith, Bradley J.

    2014-01-01

    The Illinois River Basin includes an area of diverse land use in northwestern Arkansas. Land-use data collected in 2006 indicate that most of the land in the basin is agricultural. The agricultural land is used primarily for production of poultry and cattle. Eighteen sites were selected from the list of candidate sites based on drainage area, land use, presence or absence of an upstream wastewater-treatment plant, water quality, and other information gathered during the reconnaissance. An important consideration in the process was to select sites along gradients of forest to urban land use and forest to agricultural land use. Water-quality samples were collected for analysis of nutrients, and a multiparameter field meter was used to measure water temperature, specific conductance, pH, and dissolved oxygen. Streamflow was measured immediately following the water-quality sampling. Macroalgae coverage was estimated and periphyton, macroinvertebrate, and fish communities were sampled at each site. Stream habitat also was assessed. Many types of land-use, water-quality, and habitat factors affected one or more aspects of the biological communities. Several macroinvertebrate and fish metrics changed in response to changes in percent forest; sites that would be considered most disturbed, based on these metrics, are sites with the highest percentages of urban land use in their associated basins. The presence of large mats of macroalgae was one of the most noticeable biological characteristics in several streams within the Illinois River Basin. The highest macroalgae percent cover values were recorded at four sites downstream from wastewater-treatment plants. Macroalgae percent cover was strongly correlated only with bed substrate size, canopy closure, and specific conductance. Periphyton metrics were most often and most strongly correlated with riparian shading, specific conductance, substrate turbidity, percent agriculture, poultry house density, and unpaved road density

  1. Modeling Air Temperature/Water Temperature Relations Along a Small Mountain Stream Under Increasing Urban Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedders, E. R.; Anderson, W. P., Jr.; Hengst, A. M.; Gu, C.

    2017-12-01

    greater. This indicates a possible tipping point in the stream temperature-water temperature relationship at which increased urbanization overpowers increasing stream thermal inertia.

  2. Mapping and spatial analysis of the distribution of indicator organisms for water quality in the stream of Ayura (Envigado, Antioquia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra Rojas, Adriana; Aguirre Ramirez, Nestor Jaime; Caicedo Quintero, Orlando

    2011-01-01

    This research evaluates and analyzes the spatial distribution communities of periphyton and aquatic macroinvertebrates used in determining water quality, considering the work done previously by de GAIA group at the University of Antioquia on water stream Ayura. We used the functions of hydrological models preset into GIS tool, which was conducted the layout of the stream netting with. Through the overlay of thematic layers, was obtained a mapping tool that allowed us to determine the relationship between land uses given to near areas where the sampling stations were located and the population of collected organisms, they were identified at each point. The results allow us to say that, both communities of protists and aquatic macroinvertebrates as indexes established, BMWP Colombia, Dinius and INSG, show a good quality of water resources for the station 1, which are coniferous forest, high and low stubbles; in station 2, it has an acceptable quality, and it has been noticed some buildings there, pastures and monocultures; finally at station 3, located in urban areas, the water quality is lower than previous stations

  3. Water Quality Assessment of Streams and Wetlands in a Fast Growing East African City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels De Troyer

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The combination of rapid urbanization, industrialization, population growth, and low environmental awareness poses a major threat to worldwide valuable freshwater resources, which provide important ecosystem services to humans. There is an urgent need to monitor and assess these resources, as this information is indispensable for sustainable decision-making and management. In this context, we analyzed the chemical and ecological water quality of the riverine environment of a fast growing city in Southwest Ethiopia for which we proposed possible remediation options that were evaluated with an empirical model. The chemical and ecological water quality was assessed at 53 sampling locations using the oxygen Prati index and the ETHbios, which is a biotic index based on macroinvertebrates. In addition, a microbiological analysis was performed to estimate the degree of fecal contamination. Finally, we analyzed the relationship between the oxygen content and the organic pollution to simulate the effect of organics removal from waste streams on the chemical water quality. Our results showed that the average values for dissolved oxygen (4.2 mg DO·L−1 and nutrients (0.9 mg oPO43−·L−1 and 12.8 mg TAN·L−1 exceeded international standards. Moreover, high turbidity levels revealed that land erosion is a severe problem in the region. Along the rivers, a significant increase in oxygen consumption and in nutrient concentrations was observed, indicating organic pollution originating from different diffuse and point sources of pollution. The lack of proper sanitation also led to exceedingly high abundances of fecal coliforms in the surface water (>320 MPN·mL−1. However, fecal contamination was strongly reduced (>92% after the polluted river water passed Boye wetland, indicating the purification potential of natural wetlands and the importance of conserving and protecting those ecosystems. The simulation results of the model showed that water quality

  4. Viscosity changes of riparian water controls diurnal fluctuations of stream-flow and DOC concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Michael; Klaus, Julian; Pfister, Laurent; Weiler, Markus

    2015-04-01

    Diurnal fluctuations in stream-flow are commonly explained as being triggered by the daily evapotranspiration cycle in the riparian zone, leading to stream flow minima in the afternoon. While this trigger effect must necessarily be constrained by the extent of the growing season of vegetation, we here show evidence of daily stream flow maxima in the afternoon in a small headwater stream during the dormant season. We hypothesize that the afternoon maxima in stream flow are induced by viscosity changes of riparian water that is caused by diurnal temperature variations of the near surface groundwater in the riparian zone. The patterns were observed in the Weierbach headwater catchment in Luxembourg. The catchment is covering an area of 0.45 km2, is entirely covered by forest and is dominated by a schistous substratum. DOC concentration at the outlet of the catchment was measured with the field deployable UV-Vis spectrometer spectro::lyser (scan Messtechnik GmbH) with a high frequency of 15 minutes over several months. Discharge was measured with an ISCO 4120 Flow Logger. During the growing season, stream flow shows a frequently observed diurnal pattern with discharge minima in the afternoon. During the dormant season, a long dry period with daily air temperature amplitudes of around 10 ° C occurred in March and April 2014, with discharge maxima in the afternoon. The daily air temperature amplitude led to diurnal variations in the water temperature of the upper 10 cm of the riparian zone. Higher riparian water temperatures cause a decrease in water viscosity and according to the Hagen-Poiseuille equation, the volumetric flow rate is inversely proportional to viscosity. Based on the Hagen-Poiseuille equation and the viscosity changes of water, we calculated higher flow rates of near surface groundwater through the riparian zone into the stream in the afternoon which explains the stream flow maxima in the afternoon. With the start of the growing season, the viscosity

  5. Application of the water gas shift reaction to fusion fuel exhaust streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKay, A.M.; Cheh, C.H.; Glass, R.W.

    1983-10-01

    In a Fusion Fuel Clean Up (FCU) system, impurities will be removed from the fusion reactor exhaust and neutral beam line streams. Tritium in this impurity stream will be recovered and recycled to the fuel stream. In one flowsheet configuration of the Tritium Systems Test Assembly (TSTA), tritium is recovered from a simulated impurity stream via uranium hot metal beds and recycled to an isotope separation system. This study has shown, however, that the catalyzed water gas shift reaction, by which (H,D,T) 2 O and CO are converted to (H,D,T) 2 and CO 2 is a better method of (H,D,T) 2 O reduction than the hot metal beds. Catalytic reactors were designed, built and tested to provide data for the design of a prototype reactor to replace the hot metal beds in the FCU system. The prototype reactor contains only 10 g of catalyst and is expected to last at least 5 years. The reactor is small (1.3 cm OD x 13 cm long), operates at low temperatures (approximately 490 K) and will convert water to hydrogen, at a CO/H 2 O ratio of 1.5, with an efficiency of greater than 98 percent. Results show that the catalytic reactor is very stable even during upset conditions. Wide ranges of flow and a CO/H 2 O ratio variance from 1.3 upward have little effect on the conversion efficiency. Short term high temperature excursions do not affect the catalyst and lower temperatures will simply decrease the reaction rate resulting in lower conversions. The reactor appears to be unaffected by NO 2 , CO 2 , O 2 and N 2 in the feed stream at concentration levels expected in a fusion reactor exhaust stream

  6. Factors affecting reservoir and stream-water quality in the Cambridge, Massachusetts, drinking-water source area and implications for source-water protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waldron, Marcus C.; Bent, Gardner C.

    2001-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the city of Cambridge, Massachusetts, Water Department, to assess reservoir and tributary-stream quality in the Cambridge drinking-water source area, and to use the information gained to help guide the design of a comprehensive water-quality monitoring program for the source area. Assessments of the quality and trophic state of the three primary storage reservoirs, Hobbs Brook Reservoir, Stony Brook Reservoir, and Fresh Pond, were conducted (September 1997-November 1998) to provide baseline information on the state of these resources and to determine the vulnerability of the reservoirs to increased loads of nutrients and other contaminants. The effects of land use, land cover, and other drainage-basin characteristics on sources, transport, and fate of fecal-indicator bacteria, highway deicing chemicals, nutrients, selected metals, and naturally occurring organic compounds in 11 subbasins that contribute water to the reservoirs also was investigated, and the data used to select sampling stations for incorporation into a water-quality monitoring network for the source area. All three reservoirs exhibited thermal and chemical stratification, despite artificial mixing by air hoses in Stony Brook Reservoir and Fresh Pond. The stratification produced anoxic or hypoxic conditions in the deepest parts of the reservoirs and these conditions resulted in the release of ammonia nitrogen orthophosphate phosphorus, and dissolved iron and manganese from the reservoir bed sediments. Concentrations of sodium and chloride in the reservoirs usually were higher than the amounts recommended by the U.S. Environmental Protection agency for drinking-water sources (20 milligrams per liter for sodium and 250 milligrams per liter for chloride). Maximum measured sodium concentrations were highest in Hobbs Brook Reservoir (113 milligrams per liter), intermediate in Stony Brook Reservoir (62

  7. Effects of Highway Road Salting on the Water Quality of Selected Streams in Chittenden County, Vermont, November 2005-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denner, Jon C.; Clark, Stewart F.; Smith, Thor E.; Medalie, Laura

    2010-01-01

    A study of road-deicing chloride (Cl) concentrations and loads was conducted at three streams in Chittenden County, VT, from November 2005 to 2007. This study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Vermont Agency of Transportation. The streams, Alder Brook, Allen Brook, and Mill Brook, were selected to represent different land uses in the upstream watershed, different road types and densities, and different geometric patterns of the roadway draining to the receiving stream to assess the relative contribution of and differences in state road-salt applications to stream Cl concentrations and loads. Water-quality samples were collected and specific conductance was measured continuously at paired stations upstream and downstream from State highways and related to Cl concentrations to assist in determining the effects of road-salting operations during winter maintenance on the levels of Cl in the streams. Mean concentrations of Cl ranged from 8.2 to 72 mg/L (milligrams per liter) in the water-quality samples collected at sampling stations upstream from State highway bridges and from 7.9 to 80 mg/L in those collected at sampling stations downstream of highway bridges. Mean Cl loads ranged from 1,100 to 4,090 lb/d (pounds per day) at upstream stations and from 1,110 to 4,200 lb/d at downstream stations. Estimated mean annual Cl loads ranged from 402,000 to 1,490,000 lb/yr (pounds per year) at upstream stations and from 405,000 to 1,530,000 lb/yr at downstream stations. Mean Cl concentrations in samples collected at the three paired stations were lowest at Mill Brook at VT 117 near Essex Junction, VT (7.9 mg/L) and highest at Allen Brook at VT 2A near Essex Junction, VT (80.7 mg/L). None of the monitored Cl concentrations in the water-quality samples collected at the three paired sampling stations exceeded either of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA) recommended chronic and acute Cl toxicity criteria of 230 and 860 mg

  8. Water-quality assessment of south-central Texas : comparison of water quality in surface-water samples collected manually and by automated samplers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ging, Patricia B.

    1999-01-01

    Surface-water sampling protocols of the U.S. Geological Survey National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program specify samples for most properties and constituents to be collected manually in equal-width increments across a stream channel and composited for analysis. Single-point sampling with an automated sampler (autosampler) during storms was proposed in the upper part of the South-Central Texas NAWQA study unit, raising the question of whether property and constituent concentrations from automatically collected samples differ significantly from those in samples collected manually. Statistical (Wilcoxon signed-rank test) analyses of 3 to 16 paired concentrations for each of 26 properties and constituents from water samples collected using both methods at eight sites in the upper part of the study unit indicated that there were no significant differences in concentrations for dissolved constituents, other than calcium and organic carbon.

  9. The effect of restored and native oxbows on hydraulic loads of nutrients and stream water quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalkhoff, Stephen J.; Hubbard, Laura E.; Joseph P.Schubauer-Berigan,

    2016-01-01

    The use of oxbow wetlands has been identified as a potential strategy to reduce nutrient transport from agricultural drainage tiles to streams in Iowa. In 2013 and 2014, a study was conducted in north-central Iowa in a native oxbow in the Lyons Creek watershed and two restored oxbow wetlands in the Prairie Creek watershed (Smeltzer west and Smeltzer east) to assess their effectiveness at reducing nitrogen and phosphorus loads. The tile line inlets carrying agricultural runoff to the oxbows, the outfall from the oxbows, and the surface waters in the streams receiving the outfall water were monitored for discharge and nutrients from February 2013 to September 2015. Smeltzer west and east also had four monitoring wells each, two in the upland and two between the oxbow and Prairie Creek to monitor surface water-groundwater interaction. The Smeltzer west and east oxbow sites also were instrumented to continuously measure the nitrate concentration. Rainfall was measured at one Lyons Creek and one Smeltzer site. Daily mean nitrate-N concentrations in Lyons Creek in 2013 ranged from 11.8 mg/L to 40.9 mg/L, the median daily mean nitrate-N concentration was 33.0 mg/L. Daily mean nitrate-N concentrations in Prairie Creek in 2013 ranged from 0.07 mg/L in August to 32.2 mg/L in June. In 2014, daily mean nitrate-N concentrations in Prairie Creek ranged from 0.17 mg/L in April to 26.7 mg/L in July; the daily mean nitrate-N concentration for the sampled period was 9.78 mg/L. Nutrient load reduction occurred in oxbow wetlands in Lyons and Prairie Creek watersheds in north-central Iowa but efficiency of reduction was variable. Little nutrient reduction occurred in the native Lyons Creek oxbow during 2013. Concentrations of all nutrient constituents were not significantly (P>0.05, Wilcoxon rank sum) different in water discharging from the tile line than in water leaving the Lyons Creek oxbow. A combination of physical features and flow conditions suggest that the residence time of

  10. Using heat to characterize streambed water flux variability in four stream reaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, H.I.; Zamora, C.M.; McCarthy, K.A.; Vogel, J.R.; Wilson, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Estimates of streambed water flux are needed for the interpretation of streambed chemistry and reactions. Continuous temperature and head monitoring in stream reaches within four agricultural watersheds (Leary Weber Ditch, IN; Maple Creek, NE; DR2 Drain, WA; and Merced River, CA) allowed heat to be used as a tracer to study the temporal and spatial variability of fluxes through the streambed. Synoptic methods (seepage meter and differential discharge measurements) were compared with estimates obtained by using heat as a tracer. Water flux was estimated by modeling one-dimensional vertical flow of water and heat using the model VS2DH. Flux was influenced by physical heterogeneity of the stream channel and temporal variability in stream and ground-water levels. During most of the study period (April-December 2004), flux was upward through the streambeds. At the IN, NE, and CA sites, high-stage events resulted in rapid reversal of flow direction inducing short-term surface-water flow into the streambed. During late summer at the IN site, regional ground-water levels dropped, leading to surface-water loss to ground water that resulted in drying of the ditch. Synoptic measurements of flux generally supported the model flux estimates. Water flow through the streambed was roughly an order of magnitude larger in the humid basins (IN and NE) than in the arid basins (WA and CA). Downward flux, in response to sudden high streamflows, and seasonal variability in flux was most pronounced in the humid basins and in high conductivity zones in the streambed. Copyright ?? 2008 by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  11. Coldwater fish in wadeable streams [Chapter 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason B. Dunham; Amanda E. Rosenberger; Russell F. Thurow; C. Andrew Dolloff; Philip J. Howell

    2009-01-01

    Small, wadeable streams comprise the majority of habitats available to fishes in fluvial networks. Wadeable streams are generally less than 1 m deep, and fish can be sampled without the use of water craft. Cold waters are defined as having mean 7-d summer maximum water temperatures of less than 20°C and providing habitat for coldwater fishes.

  12. Pesticides in streams of the United States : initial results from the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Steven J.; Gilliom, Robert J.; Capel, Paul D.

    1999-01-01

    Water samples from 58 rivers and streams across the United States were analyzed for pesticides as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program of the U.S. Geological Survey. The sampling sites represent 37 diverse agricultural basins, 11 urban basins, and 10 basins with mixed land use. Forty-six pesticides and pesticide degradation products were analyzed in approximately 2,200 samples collected from 1992 to 1995. The target compounds account for approximately 70 percent of national agricultural use in terms of the mass of pesticides applied annually. All the target compounds were detected in one or more samples. Herbicides generally were detected more frequently and at higher concentrations than insecticides. Nationally, 11 herbicides, 1 herbicide degradation product, and 3 insecticides were detected in more than 10 percent of samples. The number of target compounds detected at each site ranged from 7 to 37. The herbicides atrazine, metolachlor, prometon, and simazine were detected most frequently; among the insecticides, carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, and diazinon were detected the most frequently. Distinct differences in pesticide occurrence were observed in streams draining the various agricultural settings. Relatively high levels of several herbicides occurred as seasonal pulses in corn-growing areas. Several insecticides were frequently detected in areas where the dominant crops consist of orchards and vegetables. The number of pesticides detected and their concentrations were lower in wheat-growing areas than in most other agricultural areas. In most urban areas, the herbicides prometon and simazine and the insecticides carbaryl, chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and malathion were commonly detected. Concentrations of pesticides rarely exceeded standards and criteria established for drinking water, but some pesticides commonly exceeded criteria established for the protection of aquatic life.

  13. Water diffusion in cytoplasmic streaming in Elodea internodal cells under the effect of antimitotic agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorob'ev, Vladimir N; Anisimov, Alexander V; Dautova, Nailya R

    2008-07-01

    The translational displacement of the cytoplasmic water in Elodea stem cells resulting from protein motor activity was measured using the NMR method. A 24-h treatment with vincristine results in a reduction of the translational displacement of the cytoplasmic water. With a constant cytoplasmic streaming velocity, the dynamics of the translational displacement of the cytoplasmic water under the effect of taxol are characterized by a continuous increase at a concentration of 0.05 mM, and reaching a plateau at a concentration of 0.5 mM.

  14. Revised Methods for Characterizing Stream Habitat in the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzpatrick, Faith A.; Waite, Ian R.; D'Arconte, Patricia J.; Meador, Michael R.; Maupin, Molly A.; Gurtz, Martin E.

    1998-01-01

    Stream habitat is characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. The goal of stream habitat characterization is to relate habitat to other physical, chemical, and biological factors that describe water-quality conditions. To accomplish this goal, environmental settings are described at sites selected for water-quality assessment. In addition, spatial and temporal patterns in habitat are examined at local, regional, and national scales. This habitat protocol contains updated methods for evaluating habitat in NAWQA Study Units. Revisions are based on lessons learned after 6 years of applying the original NAWQA habitat protocol to NAWQA Study Unit ecological surveys. Similar to the original protocol, these revised methods for evaluating stream habitat are based on a spatially hierarchical framework that incorporates habitat data at basin, segment, reach, and microhabitat scales. This framework provides a basis for national consistency in collection techniques while allowing flexibility in habitat assessment within individual Study Units. Procedures are described for collecting habitat data at basin and segment scales; these procedures include use of geographic information system data bases, topographic maps, and aerial photographs. Data collected at the reach scale include channel, bank, and riparian characteristics.

  15. Human-Nature Relationship in Mediterranean Streams: Integrating Different Types of Knowledge to Improve Water Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Gonzalez

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The social and ecological systems of Mediterranean streams are intrinsically linked as a result of long human occupation. In this region, these links vary greatly across small distances due to geomorphology, resulting in great diversity across space, which poses particular challenges for understanding and managing these systems. This demands (i interdisciplinary integration of knowledge that focuses on the social-ecological interactions, while according due consideration to the whole; and also (ii transdisciplinary integration, integrating lay and expert knowledge to understand local specificities. To address these needs - a focus on interactions and local knowledge - the research presented here studies the human-nature relationship in Mediterranean streams. Its main objective is to improve understanding of Mediterranean streams, but it also provides practical inputs to enhance local-level management. The study adopts an applied approach from the perspective of natural resources management. A case study was developed conducting field work on streams within the Natura 2000 site of Monfurado, Portugal - a mainly privately owned area with conflicting land uses between conservation and farming. Rivers and streams in Portugal are considered to be in very bad condition, particularly with regard to water quality. The experimental design was based, from a critical realism perspective of inter- and trans-disciplinarity, on the complementarities between methodologies from (i the social sciences: value survey and analysis of discourse; and (ii the natural sciences: biomonitoring and integrity biotic indexes. Results characterized the connected systems from both ecological and social points of view. They also characterized the relationship between both dimensions. We concluded that well-established riparian vegetation cover of streams is a key structural element of the human-nature relationship in the Mediterranean streams of Monfurado at several levels

  16. Arsenic transport in groundwater, surface water, and the hyporheic zone of a mine-influenced stream-aquifer system

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Brendan

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the transport of dissolved arsenic in groundwater, surface water and the hyporheic zone in a stream-aquifer system influenced by an abandoned arsenopyrite mine. Mine tailing piles consisting of a host of arsenic-bearing minerals including arsenopyrite and scorodite remain adjacent to the stream and represent a continuous source of arsenic. Arsenic loads from the stream, springs, and groundwater were quantified at the study reach on nine dates from January to August 2005 and ...

  17. Assessing biogeochemical cycling and transient storage of surface water in Eastern Siberian streams using short-term solute additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, J. D.; Seybold, E.; Drake, T. W.; Bulygina, E. B.; Bunn, A. G.; Chandra, S.; Davydov, S.; Frey, K. E.; Holmes, R. M.; Sobczak, W. V.; Spektor, V. V.; Zimov, S. A.; Zimov, N.

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies highlight the role of stream networks in the processing of nutrient and organic matter inputs from the surrounding watershed. Clear evidence exists that streams actively regulate fluxes of carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus from upland terrestrial ecosystems to downstream aquatic environments. This is of particular interest in Arctic streams because of the potential impact of permafrost thaw due to global warming on inputs of nutrients and organic matter to small streams high in the landscape. Knowledge of functional characteristics of these stream ecosystems is paramount to our ability to predict changes in stream ecosystems as climate changes. Biogeochemical models developed by stream ecologists, specifically nutrient spiraling models, provide a set of metrics that we used to assess nutrient processing rates in several streams in the Eastern Siberian Arctic. We quantified these metrics using solute addition experiments in which nitrogen and phosphorus were added simultaneously with chloride as a conservative tracer. We focused on 5 streams, three flowing across upland yedoma soils and two floodplain streams. Yedoma streams showed higher uptake of N than P, suggesting N limitation of biological processes, with large variation between these three streams in the severity of N limitation. Floodplain streams both showed substantially higher P uptake than N uptake, indicating strong P limitation. Given these results, it is probable that these two types of streams will respond quite differently to changes in nutrient and organic matter inputs as permafrost thaws. Furthermore, uptake was strongly linked to discharge and transient storage of surface water, measured using temporal patterns of the conservative tracer, with higher nutrient uptake in low discharge, high transient storage streams. Given the possibility that both discharge and nutrient inputs will increase as permafrost thaws, longer-term nutrient enrichment experiments are needed to develop

  18. Mercury concentration in black flies Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) from soft-water streams in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harding, K.M.; Gowland, J.A.; Dillon, P.J.

    2006-01-01

    Total Hg in Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) was measured in 17 soft-water streams in the District of Muskoka and Haliburton County (Ontario, Canada) during 2003 and 2004. Black flies contained 0.07-0.64 μg/g total Hg (dry weight). The methylmercury concentration was measured in 6 samples of the 17, and ranged from 58% to 93% of total Hg. The concentration of total Hg is much higher than has been found in other filter feeding insects, and represents a significant potential source of Hg to fish. Mercury concentrations in Simulium spp. at different sites were strongly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon, and the proportion of land within each catchment that was wetland. There was also a strong negative correlation with pH. By examining Hg concentration in filter feeding insects we have found a significant entry point for Hg and MeHg into the food web. - Accumulation of total mercury by black fly larvae is affected by stream pH, DOC and wetland area in the stream catchment

  19. Mercury concentration in black flies Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) from soft-water streams in Ontario, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harding, K.M. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Gowland, J.A. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada); Dillon, P.J. [Trent University, 1600 West Bank Drive, Peterborough, ON K9J 7B8 (Canada)]. E-mail: pdillon@trentu.ca

    2006-10-15

    Total Hg in Simulium spp. (Diptera, Simuliidae) was measured in 17 soft-water streams in the District of Muskoka and Haliburton County (Ontario, Canada) during 2003 and 2004. Black flies contained 0.07-0.64 {mu}g/g total Hg (dry weight). The methylmercury concentration was measured in 6 samples of the 17, and ranged from 58% to 93% of total Hg. The concentration of total Hg is much higher than has been found in other filter feeding insects, and represents a significant potential source of Hg to fish. Mercury concentrations in Simulium spp. at different sites were strongly positively correlated with dissolved organic carbon, and the proportion of land within each catchment that was wetland. There was also a strong negative correlation with pH. By examining Hg concentration in filter feeding insects we have found a significant entry point for Hg and MeHg into the food web. - Accumulation of total mercury by black fly larvae is affected by stream pH, DOC and wetland area in the stream catchment.

  20. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Maybell, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) describes planned water sampling activities and provides the regulatory and technical basis for ground water sampling in 1994 at the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Maybell, Colorado. The WSAP identifies and justifies sampling locations, analytical parameters, and sampling frequencies at the site. The ground water data will be used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for the ground water and surface water monitoring activities is derived from the EPA regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1993) and the proposed EPA standards of 1987 (52 FR 36000). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), the Technical Approach Document (TAD) (DOE, 1989), and the most effective technical approach for the site. This WSAP also includes a summary and the results of water sampling activities from 1989 through 1992 (no sampling was performed in 1993)

  1. Biological water-quality assessment of selected streams in the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District Planning Area of Wisconsin, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder Eikenberry, Barbara C.; Bell, Amanda H.; Sullivan, Daniel J.; Lutz, Michelle A.; Alvarez, David A.

    2010-01-01

    Changes in the water quality of stream ecosystems in an urban area may manifest in conspicuous ways, such as in murky or smelly streamwater, or in less conspicuous ways, such as fewer native or pollution-sensitive organisms. In 2004, and again in 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey sampled stream organisms—algae, invertebrates, and fish—in 14 Milwaukee area streams to assess water quality as part of the ongoing Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD) Corridor Study. In addition, passive-sampling devices (SPMDs, “semipermeable membrane devices”) were deployed at a subset of sites in order to evaluate the potential exposure of stream organisms to certain toxic chemicals. Results of the 2007 sampling effort are the focus of this report. Results of sampling from 2007 are compared with results from 2004. The water quality of sampled streams was assessed by evaluating biological-assemblage data, metrics computed from assemblage data, and an aggregate bioassessment ranking method that combined data for algae, invertebrates, and fish. These data contain information about the abundance (number) of different species in each group of stream organisms and the balance between species that can or cannot tolerate polluted or disturbed conditions. In 2007, the highest numbers of algal, invertebrate, and fish species were found at the Milwaukee River at Milwaukee, the largest sampled site. Algal results indicated water quality concerns at 10 of the 14 sampled sites due to the occurrence of nuisance algae or low percentages of pollution-sensitive algae. When compared to 2004, total algal biovolume was higher in 2007 at 12 of 14 sites, due mostly to more nuisance green algae from unknown causes. Results of several metrics, including the Hilsenhoff Biotic Index (HBI-10), suggest that invertebrate assemblages in the Little Menomonee River, Underwood Creek, and Honey Creek were poorer quality in 2007 compared to 2004. Six sites received “very poor” quality ratings for

  2. Assessment of water chemistry, habitat, and benthic macroinvertebrates at selected stream-quality monitoring sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 1998-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reif, Andrew G.

    2004-01-01

    Biological, chemical, and habitat data have been collected from a network of sites in Chester County, Pa., from 1970 to 2003 to assess stream quality. Forty sites in 6 major stream basins were sampled between 1998 and 2000. Biological data were used to determine levels of impairment in the benthic-macroinvertebrate community in Chester County streams and relate the impairment, in conjunction with chemical and habitat data, to overall stream quality. Biological data consisted of benthic-macroinvertebrate samples that were collected annually in the fall. Water-chemistry samples were collected and instream habitat was assessed in support of the biological sampling.Most sites in the network were designated as nonimpacted or slightly impacted by human activities or extreme climatic conditions on the basis of biological-metric analysis of benthic-macroinvertebrate data. Impacted sites were affected by factors, such as nutrient enrichment, erosion and sedimentation, point discharges, and droughts and floods. Streams in the Schuylkill River, Delaware River, and East Branch Brandywine Creek Basins in Chester County generally had low nutrient concentrations, except in areas affected by wastewater-treatment discharges, and stream habitat that was affected by erosion. Streams in the West Branch Brandywine, Christina, Big Elk, and Octoraro Creek Basins in Chester County generally had elevated nutrient concentrations and streambottom habitat that was affected by sediment deposition.Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from French Creek, Pigeon Creek (Schuylkill River Basin), and East Branch Brandywine Creek at Glenmoore consistently indicate good stream conditions and were the best conditions measured in the network. Macroinvertebrate communities identified in samples from Trout Creek (site 61), West Branch Red Clay Creek (site 55) (Christina River Basin), and Valley Creek near Atglen (site 34) (Octoraro Creek Basin) indicated fair to poor stream conditions and

  3. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Green River, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papusch, R.

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is to provide a basis for groundwater and surface water sampling at the Green River Uranium Mill Tailing Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring locations

  4. VARIABILITY OF VALUES OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL WATER QUALITY INDICES ALONG THE LENGTH OF THE IWONICZANKA STREAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Bogdał

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper aims at presentation of the effect of changes in the catchment area management on the value of water quality physicochemical indices along the length of the Iwoniczanka stream, which flows through Iwonicz-Zdrój, one of the oldest health resorts in Poland. Analyses of 14 water quality indices were conducted from November 2013 to May 2014 in five measurement points: two situated in the upper course of the stream – in forest areas, two located in the area of Iwonicz-Zdrój town, and one below the rural built-up area. On the basis of the conducted data analysis it was found that the mean values of pH, electrolytic conductivity, sulphates, calcium, total iron and manganese were increasing with the course of flowing water, as evidenced by the water enrichment in substances which had their sources in built-up areas. On average, the highest values of biogenic indices and chlorides but the lowest values of oxygen indices were registered immediately below the location of drain collector from the closed sewage treatment plant, which resulted in pollution of the analysed stream bed with the substances previously drained from the treatment plant. Water flowing through the forest areas had the maximum ecological potential in the built-up areas and due to phosphate concentrations it was classified to class II and then, due to self-purification, returned to the physicochemical parameters appropriate for class I water. The conducted hydro-chemical tests confirmed a significant negative effect of built-up areas on the quality of the flowing waters.

  5. Evaluation of Jacuba stream water and industrial effluents quality by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, Silvana; Oliveira, Renato W.M.

    2005-01-01

    The pollution of the environment became everywhere of public interest of the world. The developed countries not just come being affected for the environmental problems; the developing nations also begin to suffer the serious impacts of the pollution, what elapses of the fast economic growth associated to the exploration of natural resources. This work has as objective to use the TXRF technique on the study the water quality of the Jacuba stream in Hortolandia city. (author)

  6. Water Quality, Macroinvertebrates, and Fisheries in Tailwaters and Related Streams. An Annotated Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    more rapidly available source of energy and protein below the dam than that normally present in unregulated streams. Benthic diversity was lowest at...robusta; bluehead sucker, Pantosteus delphinus; and humpback sucker, Xyrauchen texanus) in Dinosaur National Monument were con- ducted from May 1964 to...duced successfully in Dinosaur National Monument every year since impoundment. During years of high summer discharge from the dam resultant lower water

  7. Evaluation of Jacuba stream water and industrial effluents quality by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Silvana; Oliveira, Renato W.M. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; Vives, Ana Elisa S. de [Universidade Metodista de Piracicaba (UNIMEP), Santa Barbara D' Oeste, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mail: aesvives@unimep.br; Zucchi, Orgheda L.A.D. [Sao Paulo Univ., Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas]. E-mail: olzucchi@fcfrp.usp.br; Nascimento Filho, Virgilio F. [Centro de Energia Nuclear na Agricultura (CENA), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: virgilio@cena.usp.br

    2005-07-01

    The pollution of the environment became everywhere of public interest of the world. The developed countries not just come being affected for the environmental problems; the developing nations also begin to suffer the serious impacts of the pollution, what elapses of the fast economic growth associated to the exploration of natural resources. This work has as objective to use the TXRF technique on the study the water quality of the Jacuba stream in Hortolandia city. (author)

  8. Controls on stream water dissolved mercury in three mid-Appalachian forested headwater catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riscassi, Ami L.; Scanlon, Todd M.

    2011-12-01

    Determining the controls on dissolved mercury (HgD) transport is necessary to improve estimations of export from unmonitored watersheds and to forecast responses to changes in deposition and other environmental forcings. Stream water HgD and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) were evaluated over a range of discharge conditions in three streams within Shenandoah National Park, VA. Watersheds are distinguished by stream water pH (ranging from neutral to acidic) and soil size fractioning (ranging from clays to sands). At all sites, discharge was a significant but poor predictor of HgD concentrations (r2 from 0.13-0.52). HgD was strongly coupled with DOC at all sites (r2 from 0.74-0.89). UV absorbance at 254 nm (UV254), a proxy for DOC quantity and quality, slightly improved the predictions of HgD. Mean DOC quality differed between streams, with less aromatic DOC mobilized from the more acidic watershed. The site with less aromatic DOC and sandy soils mobilized more Hg to the stream for the same quantity and quality of DOC, likely due to the reduced capacity of the larger-grained soils to retain Hg, leaving a greater fraction associated with the organic matter. A similar amount of 0.54 ng HgD/mg DOC is transported at all sites, suggesting the less aromatic DOC transports less Hg per unit DOC, offsetting the effects of soil type. This research demonstrates that soil composition and DOC quality influence HgDexport. We also provide evidence that soil organic carbon is a primary control on Hg-DOC ratios (0.12-1.4 ng mg-1) observed across the U.S. and Sweden.

  9. Stormwater management impacts on urban stream water quality and quantity during and after development in Clarksburg, MD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, J. V.; Noe, G. B.; Jarnagin, S.; Mohamoud, Y. M.; Van Ness, K.; Hogan, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Urbanization and urban land use leads to degradation of local stream habitat and 'urban stream syndrome.' Best Management Practices (BMPs) are often used in an attempt to mitigate the impact of urban land use on stream water quality and quantity. Traditional development has employed stormwater BMPs that were placed in a centralized manner located either in the stream channel or near the riparian zone to treat stormwater runoff from large drainage areas; however, urban streams have largely remained impaired. Recently, distributed placement of BMPs throughout the landscape has been implemented in an attempt to detain, treat, and infiltrate stormwater runoff from smaller drainage areas near its source. Despite increasing implementation of distributed BMPs, little has been reported on the catchment-scale (1-10 km^2) performance of distributed BMPs and how they compare to centralized BMPs. The Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA), located in the Washington, DC exurbs within the larger Chesapeake Bay watershed, is undergoing rapid urbanization and employs distributed BMPs on the landscape that treat small drainage areas with the goal of preserving high-quality stream resources in the area. In addition, the presence of a nearby traditionally developed (centralized BMPs) catchment and an undeveloped forested catchment makes the CSPA an ideal setting to understand how the best available stormwater management technology implemented during and after development affects stream water quality and quantity through a comparative watershed analysis. The Clarksburg Integrated Monitoring Partnership is a consortium of local and federal agencies and universities that conducts research in the CSPA including: monitoring of stream water quality, geomorphology, and biology; analysis of stream hydrological and water quality data; and GIS mapping and analysis of land cover, elevation change and BMP implementation data. Here, the impacts of urbanization on stream water quantity

  10. Tracing disturbance impacts on water quantity and quality through a stream network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Matthew; Nippgen, Fabian; McGlynn, Brian; Bernhardt, Emily

    2017-04-01

    By dismantling and redistributing 100s of meters of bedrock to mine coal from the surface, mountaintop mining with valley fills has dramatically changed catchment hydrology and biogeochemistry over more than 5,000 km2 in Central Appalachia. Throughout this expansive coal region, mining operators deposit tens of millions of m3 of crushed bedrock into headwater valleys, creating valley fills, which have substantial subsurface water storage potential. Streams draining mines have reduced peakflows, elevated baseflows, and lower event runoff ratios on average. The water stored in and percolating through valley fills drives the dissolution and oxidation of pyrite into sulfuric acid which reacts with carbonate-rich materials to rapidly weather out a suite of elements including Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, SO42-, HCO3-, and the pollutant Selenium. Together these ions increase the average specific conductance of mined streams from 60 to 1,500 µS/cm, 25-times higher than unmined streams, exporting 45-times more total dissolved solids. Together, the increased catchment storage, consequent elevated baseflow, and elevated weathering rates from mining have the potential to lower water quality throughout river networks in Central Appalachia, especially during the summer low flow period. To better understand the water quality impacts of mining at the river network scale, we used the paired catchment approach. Working in the Mud River, West Virginia, we instrumented a 4th order catchment 35 km2, that was 46% mined. Within the large catchment we instrumented 8 additional 1st-3rd order sub-catchments that varied in catchment size, mining cover, mine size, and mine age. At each site we measured stream discharge and specific conductance (SC). Using SC as a trace for mining we did simple hydrograph separations at our largest catchments, partitioning the hydrograph between mined and unmined water. Our results suggest that on an annual scale, mine water contributes a disproportionate percentage of

  11. Analysis on the Water Exchange between the Main Stream of the Yangtze River and the Poyang Lake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, J.; Li, J.; Yan, H.; Zheng, L.; Dai, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Analysis on the hydrologic characteristics of the main stream of the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake were studied to discuss the water exchange between the main stream of the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake before and after the operation of Three Gorges Reservoir, as well as in the typical dry year of

  12. Effects of road salts on groundwater and surface water dynamics of socium and chloride in an urban restored stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Road salts are a growing environmental concern in urban watersheds. We examined groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) dynamics of Na+ and Cl− in Minebank Run (MBR), an urban stream in Maryland, USA. We observed an increasing salinity trend in this restored stream. Current basef...

  13. Groundwater and surface water dynamics of Na and Cl in an urban stream: effects of road salts

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractRoad salts are a growing environmental and health concern in urban watersheds. We examined groundwater (GW) and surface water (SW) dynamics of Na and Cl in an urban stream, Minebank Run (MBR), MD. We observed an increasing salinity trend in this restored stream. Current b...

  14. Evaluating the accotink creek restoration project for improving water quality, in-stream habitat, and bank stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struck, S.D.; Selvakumar, A.; Hyer, K.; O'Connor, T.

    2007-01-01

    Increased urbanization results in a larger percentage of connected impervious areas and can contribute large quantities of stormwater runoff and significant quantities of debris and pollutants (e.g., litter, oils, microorganisms, sediments, nutrients, organic matter, and heavy metals) to receiving waters. To improve water quality in urban and suburban areas, watershed managers often incorporate best management practices (BMPs) to reduce the quantity of runoff as well as to minimize pollutants and other stressors contained in stormwater runoff. It is well known that land-use practices directly impact urban streams. Stream flows in urbanized watersheds increase in magnitude as a function of impervious area and can result in degradation of the natural stream channel morphology affecting the physical, chemical, and biological integrity of the stream. Stream bank erosion, which also increases with increased stream flows, can lead to bank instability, property loss, infrastructure damage, and increased sediment loading to the stream. Increased sediment loads may lead to water quality degradation downstream and have negative impacts on fish, benthic invertebrates, and other aquatic life. Accotink Creek is in the greater Chesapeake Bay and Potomac watersheds, which have strict sediment criteria. The USEPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency) and USGS (United States Geological Survey) are investigating the effectiveness of stream restoration techniques as a BMP to decrease sediment load and improve bank stability, biological integrity, and in-stream water quality in an impaired urban watershed in Fairfax, Virginia. This multi-year project continuously monitors turbidity, specific conductance, pH, and water temperature, as well as biological and chemical water quality parameters. In addition, physical parameters (e.g., pebble counts, longitudinal and cross sectional stream surveys) were measured to assess geomorphic changes associated with the restoration. Data

  15. Water-supply potential of major streams and the Upper Floridan Aquifer in the vicinity of Savannah, Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza, Reggina; Krause, Richard E.

    1997-01-01

    Surface- and ground-water resources in the Savannah, Georgia, area were evaluated for potential water-supply development. Stream-discharge and water-quality data were analyzed for two major streams considered to be viable water-supply sources. A ground-water flow model was developed to be used in conjunction with other previously calibrated models to simulate the effects of additional pumpage on water levels near areas of saltwater intrusion at Brunswick and seawater encroachment at Hilton Head Island. Hypothetical scenarios also were simulated involving redistributions and small increases, and decreases in pumpage.

  16. Occurence of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two waste water treatment plant effluents in northern New Jersey, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, Jacob; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Klapinski, Frank R.; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert

    2013-01-01

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin-H2O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and

  17. Connectivity of streams and wetlands to downstream waters: An integrated systems framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leibowitz, Scott G.; Wigington, Parker J.; Schoefield, Kate A.; Alexander, Laurie C.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Golden, Heather E.

    2018-01-01

    Interest in connectivity has increased in the aquatic sciences, partly because of its relevance to the Clean Water Act. This paper has two objectives: (1) provide a framework to understand hydrological, chemical, and biological connectivity, focusing on how headwater streams and wetlands connect to and contribute to rivers; and (2) briefly review methods to quantify hydrological and chemical connectivity. Streams and wetlands affect river structure and function by altering material and biological fluxes to the river; this depends on two factors: (1) functions within streams and wetlands that affect material fluxes; and (2) connectivity (or isolation) from streams and wetlands to rivers that allows (or prevents) material transport between systems. Connectivity can be described in terms of frequency, magnitude, duration, timing, and rate of change. It results from physical characteristics of a system, e.g., climate, soils, geology, topography, and the spatial distribution of aquatic components. Biological connectivity is also affected by traits and behavior of the biota. Connectivity can be altered by human impacts, often in complex ways. Because of variability in these factors, connectivity is not constant but varies over time and space. Connectivity can be quantified with field‐based methods, modeling, and remote sensing. Further studies using these methods are needed to classify and quantify connectivity of aquatic ecosystems and to understand how impacts affect connectivity.

  18. Isolation and identification of Salmonella spp. in drinking water, streams, and swine wastewater by molecular techniques in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, C.; Hsu, B.; Shen, T.; Tseng, S.; Tsai, J.; Huang, K.; Kao, P.; Chen, J.

    2013-12-01

    Salmonella spp. is a common water-borne pathogens and its genus comprises more than 2,500 serotypes. Major pathogenic genotypes which cause typhoid fever, enteritis and other intestinal-type diseases are S. Typhimurium, S. Enteritidis, S. Stanley, S. Agona, S.Albany, S. Schwarzengrund, S. Newport, S. Choleraesuis, and S. Derby. Hence, the identification of the serotypes of Salmonella spp. is important. In the present study, the analytical procedures include direct concentration method, non-selective pre-enrichment method and selective enrichment method of Salmonella spp.. Both selective enrichment method and cultured bacteria were detected with specific primers of Salmonella spp. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). At last, the serotypes of Salmonella were confirmed by using MLST (multilocus sequence typing) with aroC, dnaN, hemD, hisD, purE, sucA, thrA housekeeping genes to identify the strains of positive samples. This study contains 121 samples from three different types of water sources including the drinking water (51), streams (45), and swine wastewater (25). Thirteen samples with positive invA gene are separated from culture method. The strains of these positive samples which identified from MLST method are S. Albany, S. Typhimurium, S. Newport, S. Bareilly, and S. Derby. Some of the serotypes, S. Albany, S. Typhimurium and S. Newport, are highly pathogenic which correlated to human diarrhea. In our results, MLST is a useful method to identify the strains of Salmonella spp.. Keywords: Salmonella, PCR, MLST.

  19. Evaluation of water and sediment of Graminha and Aguas da Serra stream in Limeira (SP) by SR-TXRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazza, Elizete Vieira; Moreira, Silvana

    2007-01-01

    Limeira city is located in the Sao Paulo State, in the second area of the State with the largest economic and demographic growth. It possesses expressive economy, with industries in several productive sections. As the Graminha and Aguas da Serra streams present its nascent ones in the urban zone of the Limeira city, they cross part of the rural zone and it unites draining in the Piracicaba River, it is possible that these basins suffer or have already suffered the impacts related to the environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic factors. Once the city have galvanization industries for the jewels, semi-jewels and bijoux production the descriptions and interpretations of the concentrations of heavy metals, in the water and in the sediments, are indicative to elucidate the influence anthropogenic and the loading of these compounds for Piracicaba River. For the metal determination Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) was used. All measurements were performed using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Ge hyperpure detector. Detection limits for water samples was 0.04 -μg.L -1 and in sediment samples 0.03 μg.g -1 for Cu and Zn elements. In the water samples concentrations higher than permissive values established by CONAMA for Al, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb were observed. For sediment samples values higher than reference value quality defined by CETESB was verified for Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb. (author)

  20. Evaluation of water and sediment of Graminha and Aguas da Serra stream in Limeira (SP) by SR-TXRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fazza, Elizete Vieira; Moreira, Silvana [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil, Arquitetura e Urbanismo]. E-mails: silvana@fec.unicamp.br; fazzaelizete@yahoo.com

    2007-07-01

    Limeira city is located in the Sao Paulo State, in the second area of the State with the largest economic and demographic growth. It possesses expressive economy, with industries in several productive sections. As the Graminha and Aguas da Serra streams present its nascent ones in the urban zone of the Limeira city, they cross part of the rural zone and it unites draining in the Piracicaba River, it is possible that these basins suffer or have already suffered the impacts related to the environmental pollution caused by anthropogenic factors. Once the city have galvanization industries for the jewels, semi-jewels and bijoux production the descriptions and interpretations of the concentrations of heavy metals, in the water and in the sediments, are indicative to elucidate the influence anthropogenic and the loading of these compounds for Piracicaba River. For the metal determination Synchrotron Radiation Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (SR-TXRF) was used. All measurements were performed using a white beam of synchrotron radiation for excitation and a Ge hyperpure detector. Detection limits for water samples was 0.04 -{mu}g.L{sup -1} and in sediment samples 0.03 {mu}g.g{sup -1} for Cu and Zn elements. In the water samples concentrations higher than permissive values established by CONAMA for Al, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, Cu and Pb were observed. For sediment samples values higher than reference value quality defined by CETESB was verified for Cr, Zn, Cu, Ni and Pb. (author)

  1. Estimation of uranium in different types of water and sand samples by adsorptive stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalke, Sunil; Raghunath, Radha; Mishra, Suchismita; Suseela, B.; Tripathi, R.M.; Pandit, G.G.; Shukla, V.K.; Puranik, V.D.

    2005-01-01

    A method is standardized for the estimation of uranium by adsorptive stripping voltammetry using chloranilic acid (CAA) as complexing agent. The optimum parameters to get best sensitivity and good reproducibility for uranium were 60s adsorption time, pH 1.8, chloranilic acid (2x10 -4 M) and 0.002M EDTA. The peak potential under this condition was found to be -0.03 V. With these optimum parameters a sensitivity of 1.19 nA/nM uranium was observed. Detection limit for this optimum parameter was found to be 0.55 nM. This can be further improved by increasing adsorption time. Using this method, uranium was estimated in different type of water samples such as seawater, synthetic seawater, stream water, tap water, well water, bore well water and process water. This method has also been used for estimation of uranium in sand, organic solvent used for extraction of uranium from phosphoric acid and its raffinate. Sample digestion procedures used for estimation of uranium in various matrices are discussed. It has been observed from the analysis that the uranium peak potentials changes with matrix of the sample, hence, standard addition method is the best method to get reliable and accurate results. Quality assurance of the standardized method is verified by analyzing certified reference water sample from USDOE, participating intercomparison exercises and also by estimating uranium content in water samples both by differential pulse adsorptive stripping voltammetric and laser fluorimetric techniques. (author)

  2. ELIMINATION OF THE CHARACTERIZATION OF DWPF POUR STREAM SAMPLE AND THE GLASS FABRICATION AND TESTING OF THE DWPF SLUDGE BATCH QUALIFICATION SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amoroso, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

    2012-05-11

    A recommendation to eliminate all characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification sample was made by a Six-Sigma team chartered to eliminate non-value-added activities for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) sludge batch qualification program and is documented in the report SS-PIP-2006-00030. That recommendation was supported through a technical data review by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is documented in the memorandums SRNL-PSE-2007-00079 and SRNL-PSE-2007-00080. At the time of writing those memorandums, the DWPF was processing sludge-only waste but, has since transitioned to a coupled operation (sludge and salt). The SRNL was recently tasked to perform a similar data review relevant to coupled operations and re-evaluate the previous recommendations. This report evaluates the validity of eliminating the characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification samples based on sludge-only and coupled operations. The pour stream sample has confirmed the DWPF's ability to produce an acceptable waste form from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) blending and product composition/durability predictions for the previous sixteen years but, ultimately the pour stream analysis has added minimal value to the DWPF's waste qualification strategy. Similarly, the information gained from the glass fabrication and PCT of the sludge batch qualification sample was determined to add minimal value to the waste qualification strategy since that sample is routinely not representative of the waste composition ultimately processed at the DWPF due to blending and salt processing considerations. Moreover, the qualification process has repeatedly confirmed minimal differences in glass behavior from actual radioactive waste to glasses fabricated from simulants or batch chemicals. In

  3. Elimination Of The Characterization Of DWPF Pour Stream Sample And The Glass Fabrication And Testing Of The DWPF Sludge Batch Qualification Sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoroso, J.; Peeler, D.; Edwards, T.

    2012-01-01

    A recommendation to eliminate all characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification sample was made by a Six-Sigma team chartered to eliminate non-value-added activities for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) sludge batch qualification program and is documented in the report SS-PIP-2006-00030. That recommendation was supported through a technical data review by the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and is documented in the memorandums SRNL-PSE-2007-00079 and SRNL-PSE-2007-00080. At the time of writing those memorandums, the DWPF was processing sludge-only waste but, has since transitioned to a coupled operation (sludge and salt). The SRNL was recently tasked to perform a similar data review relevant to coupled operations and re-evaluate the previous recommendations. This report evaluates the validity of eliminating the characterization of pour stream glass samples and the glass fabrication and Product Consistency Test (PCT) of the sludge batch qualification samples based on sludge-only and coupled operations. The pour stream sample has confirmed the DWPF's ability to produce an acceptable waste form from Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME) blending and product composition/durability predictions for the previous sixteen years but, ultimately the pour stream analysis has added minimal value to the DWPF's waste qualification strategy. Similarly, the information gained from the glass fabrication and PCT of the sludge batch qualification sample was determined to add minimal value to the waste qualification strategy since that sample is routinely not representative of the waste composition ultimately processed at the DWPF due to blending and salt processing considerations. Moreover, the qualification process has repeatedly confirmed minimal differences in glass behavior from actual radioactive waste to glasses fabricated from simulants or batch chemicals. In contrast, the

  4. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  5. Analytical data and sample locality map for aqua-regia leachates of stream sediments analyzed by ICP, and emission spectrographic and ICP results for many NURE stream sediments from the Killik River Quadrangle, Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motooka, J.M.; Adrian, B.M.; Church, S.E.; McDougal, C.M.; Fife, J.B.

    1989-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey report is presented giving analytical data and sample locality map for aqua-regia leachates of stream sediments analyzed by ICP, and emission spectrographic and ICP results for many NURE stream sediments from the Killik River Quadrangle, Alaska

  6. Relationships of sedimentation and benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages in headwater streams using systematic longitudinal sampling at the reach scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longing, S D; Voshell, J R; Dolloff, C A; Roghair, C N

    2010-02-01

    Investigating relationships of benthic invertebrates and sedimentation is challenging because fine sediments act as both natural habitat and potential pollutant at excessive levels. Determining benthic invertebrate sensitivity to sedimentation in forested headwater streams comprised of extreme spatial heterogeneity is even more challenging, especially when associated with a background of historical and intense watershed disturbances that contributed unknown amounts of fine sediments to stream channels. This scenario exists in the Chattahoochee National Forest where such historical timber harvests and contemporary land-uses associated with recreation have potentially affected the biological integrity of headwater streams. In this study, we investigated relationships of sedimentation and the macroinvertebrate assemblages among 14 headwater streams in the forest by assigning 30, 100-m reaches to low, medium, or high sedimentation categories. Only one of 17 assemblage metrics (percent clingers) varied significantly across these categories. This finding has important implications for biological assessments by showing streams impaired physically by sedimentation may not be impaired biologically, at least using traditional approaches. A subsequent multivariate cluster analysis and indicator species analysis were used to further investigate biological patterns independent of sedimentation categories. Evaluating the distribution of sedimentation categories among biological reach clusters showed both within-stream variability in reach-scale sedimentation and sedimentation categories generally variable within clusters, reflecting the overall physical heterogeneity of these headwater environments. Furthermore, relationships of individual sedimentation variables and metrics across the biological cluster groups were weak, suggesting these measures of sedimentation are poor predictors of macroinvertebrate assemblage structure when using a systematic longitudinal sampling design

  7. Influence of the old mining loads on the contamination of streams, flows in the Water-work Reservoir “Ružín I” in 2004 year by the selected elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomislav Špaldon

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available This article presents results of the research concentrated on the content of selected elements, mostly heavy metals, in samples of stream waters and stream deposits from selected profiles of streams in the drainage basins of the Hnilec and Hornád river, which flow in the water-work Reservoir “Ružín I”. The sampling was carried out from the winter to the summer months, 2004. The major part of the drainage basins of these two rivers is located in the territory of the central Spiš, which is well-known from the historic times until these days by its intensive mining, mineral processing and metallurgical activities. The wastes generated by such activities are sources of metals, which penetrate into the surface waters and consequently into the stream deposits. From the point of view of the transfer and the transformation of these metal elements, their monitoring deserves a continuous attention

  8. Baseline geochemical data for stream sediment and surface water samples from Panther Creek, the Middle Fork of the Salmon River, and the Main Salmon River from North Fork to Corn Creek, collected prior to the severe wildfires of 2000 in central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eppinger, Robert G.; Briggs, Paul H.; Brown, Zoe Ann; Crock, James G.; Meier, Allen; Theodorakos, Peter M.; Wilson, Stephen A.

    2001-01-01

    In 1996, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a reconnaissance baseline geochemical study in central Idaho. The purpose of the baseline study was to establish a 'geochemical snapshot' of the area, as a datum for monitoring future change in the geochemical landscape, whether natural or human-induced. This report presents the methology, analytical results, and sample descriptions for water, sediment, and heavy-mineral concentrate samples collected during this geochemical investigation. In the summer of 2000, the Clear Creek, Little Pistol, and Shellrock wildfires swept across much of the area that was sampled. Thus, these data represent a pre-fire baseline geochemical dataset. A 2001 post- fire study is planned and will involve re-sampling of the pre-fire baseline sites, to allow for pre- and post-fire comparison.

  9. Par Pond refill water quality sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.W. II; Martin, F.D.; Westbury, H.M.

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to document anoxia and its cause in the event that the anoxia caused a fish kill. However, no fish kill was observed during this study, and dissolved oxygen and nutrient concentrations generally remained within the range expected for southeastern reservoirs. Par Pond water quality monitoring will continue during the second summer after refill as the aquatic macrophytes become reestablished and nutrients in the sediments are released to the water column

  10. Featured collection introduction: Connectivity of streams and wetlands to downstream waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Laurie C.; Fritz, Ken M.; Schofield, Kate; Autrey, Bradley; DeMeester, Julie; Golden, Heather E.; Goodrich, David C.; Kepner, William G.; Kiperwas, Hadas R.; Lane, Charles R.; LeDuc, Stephen D.; Leibowitz, Scott; McManus, Michael G.; Pollard, Amina I.; Ridley, Caroline E.; Vanderhoof, Melanie; Wigington, Parker J.

    2018-01-01

    Connectivity is a fundamental but highly dynamic property of watersheds. Variability in the types and degrees of aquatic ecosystem connectivity presents challenges for researchers and managers seeking to accurately quantify its effects on critical hydrologic, biogeochemical, and biological processes. However, protecting natural gradients of connectivity is key to protecting the range of ecosystem services that aquatic ecosystems provide. In this featured collection, we review the available evidence on connections and functions by which streams and wetlands affect the integrity of downstream waters such as large rivers, lakes, reservoirs, and estuaries. The reviews in this collection focus on the types of waters whose protections under the U.S. Clean Water Act have been called into question by U.S. Supreme Court cases. We synthesize 40+ years of research on longitudinal, lateral, and vertical fluxes of energy, material, and biota between aquatic ecosystems included within the Act's frame of reference. Many questions about the roles of streams and wetlands in sustaining downstream water integrity can be answered from currently available literature, and emerging research is rapidly closing data gaps with exciting new insights into aquatic connectivity and function at local, watershed, and regional scales. Synthesis of foundational and emerging research is needed to support science‐based efforts to provide safe, reliable sources of fresh water for present and future generations.

  11. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Gunnison, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-06-01

    This water sampling and analysis plan summarizes the results of previous water sampling activities and the plan for water sampling activities for calendar year 1994. A buffer zone monitoring plan is included as an appendix. The buffer zone monitoring plan is designed to protect the public from residual contamination that entered the ground water as a result of former milling operations. Surface remedial action at the Gunnison Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project site began in 1992; completion is expected in 1995. Ground water and surface water will be sampled semiannually in 1994 at the Gunnison processing site (GUN-01) and disposal site (GUN-08). Results of previous water sampling at the Gunnison processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated by the former uranium processing activities. Background ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer (Tertiary gravels) at the Gunnison disposal site. The monitor well locations provide a representative distribution of sampling points to characterize ground water quality and ground water flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been modified with time to reflect constituents that are related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted at least semiannually during and one year following the period of construction activities, to comply with the ground water protection strategy discussed in the remedial action plan (DOE, 1992a)

  12. Surface-water quantity and quality, aquatic biology, stream geomorphology, and groundwater-flow simulation for National Guard Training Center at Fort Indiantown Gap, Pennsylvania, 2002-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langland, Michael J.; Cinotto, Peter J.; Chichester, Douglas C.; Bilger, Michael D.; Brightbill, Robin A.

    2010-01-01

    Base-line and long-term monitoring of water resources of the National Guard Training Center at Fort Indiantown Gap in south-central Pennsylvania began in 2002. Results of continuous monitoring of streamflow and turbidity and monthly and stormflow water-quality samples from two continuous-record long-term stream sites, periodic collection of water-quality samples from five miscellaneous stream sites, and annual collection of biological data from 2002 to 2005 at 27 sites are discussed. In addition, results from a stream-geomorphic analysis and classification and a regional groundwater-flow model are included. Streamflow at the facility was above normal for the 2003 through 2005 water years and extremely high-flow events occurred in 2003 and in 2004. Water-quality samples were analyzed for nutrients, sediments, metals, major ions, pesticides, volatile and semi-volatile organic compounds, and explosives. Results indicated no exceedances for any constituent (except iron) above the primary and secondary drinking-water standards or health-advisory levels set by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Iron concentrations were naturally elevated in the groundwater within the watershed because of bedrock lithology. The majority of the constituents were at or below the method detection limit. Sediment loads were dominated by precipitation due to the remnants of Hurricane Ivan in September 2004. More than 60 percent of the sediment load measured during the entire study was transported past the streamgage in just 2 days during that event. Habitat and aquatic-invertebrate data were collected in the summers of 2002-05, and fish data were collected in 2004. Although 2002 was a drought year, 2003-05 were above-normal flow years. Results indicated a wide diversity in invertebrates, good numbers of taxa (distinct organisms), and on the basis of a combination of metrics, the majority of the 27 sites indicated no or slight impairment. Fish-metric data from 25 sites indicated results

  13. The effect of beaver ponds on water quality in rural coastal plain streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bason, Christopher W.; Kroes, Daniel; Brinson, Mark M.

    2017-01-01

    We compared water-quality effects of 13 beaver ponds on adjacent free-flowing control reaches in the Coastal Plain of rural North Carolina. We measured concentrations of nitrate, ammonium, soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), and suspended sediment (SS) upstream and downstream of paired ponds and control reaches. Nitrate and SS concentrations decreased, ammonium concentrations increased, and SRP concentrations were unaffected downstream of the ponds and relative to the control reaches. The pond effect on nitrate concentration was a reduction of 112 ± 55 μg-N/L (19%) compared to a control-reach—influenced reduction of 28 ± 17 μg-N/L. The pond effect on ammonium concentration was an increase of 9.47 ± 10.9 μg-N/L (59%) compared to the control-reach—influenced reduction of 1.49 ± 1.37 μg-N/L. The pond effect on SS concentration was a decrease of 3.41 ± 1.68 mg/L (40%) compared to a control-reach—influenced increase of 0.56 ± 0.27 mg/L. Ponds on lower-order streams reduced nitrate concentrations by greater amounts compared to those in higher-order streams. Older ponds reduced SS concentrations by greater amounts compared to younger ponds. The findings of this study indicate that beaver ponds provide water-quality benefits to rural Coastal Plain streams by reducing concentrations of nitrate and suspended sediment.

  14. A field study of selected U.S. Geological Survey analytical methods for measuring pesticides in filtered stream water, June - September 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Jeffrey D.; Norman, Julia E.; Sandstrom, Mark W.; Rose, Claire E.

    2017-09-06

    U.S. Geological Survey monitoring programs extensively used two analytical methods, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry, to measure pesticides in filtered water samples during 1992–2012. In October 2012, the monitoring programs began using direct aqueous-injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry as a new analytical method for pesticides. The change in analytical methods, however, has the potential to inadvertently introduce bias in analysis of datasets that span the change.A field study was designed to document performance of the new method in a variety of stream-water matrices and to quantify any potential changes in measurement bias or variability that could be attributed to changes in analytical methods. The goals of the field study were to (1) summarize performance (bias and variability of pesticide recovery) of the new method in a variety of stream-water matrices; (2) compare performance of the new method in laboratory blank water (laboratory reagent spikes) to that in a variety of stream-water matrices; (3) compare performance (analytical recovery) of the new method to that of the old methods in a variety of stream-water matrices; (4) compare pesticide detections and concentrations measured by the new method to those of the old methods in a variety of stream-water matrices; (5) compare contamination measured by field blank water samples in old and new methods; (6) summarize the variability of pesticide detections and concentrations measured by the new method in field duplicate water samples; and (7) identify matrix characteristics of environmental water samples that adversely influence the performance of the new method. Stream-water samples and a variety of field quality-control samples were collected at 48 sites in the U.S. Geological Survey monitoring networks during June–September 2012. Stream sites were located across the United States and included sites in agricultural and urban land

  15. Bioassessment tools in novel habitats: an evaluation of indices and sampling methods in low-gradient streams in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazor, Raphael D; Schiff, Kenneth; Ritter, Kerry; Rehn, Andy; Ode, Peter

    2010-08-01

    Biomonitoring programs are often required to assess streams for which assessment tools have not been developed. For example, low-gradient streams (slopeindices in the state were developed in high-gradient systems. This study evaluated the performance of three sampling methods [targeted riffle composite (TRC), reach-wide benthos (RWB), and the margin-center-margin modification of RWB (MCM)] and two indices [the Southern California Index of Biotic Integrity (SCIBI) and the ratio of observed to expected taxa (O/E)] in low-gradient streams in California for application in this habitat type. Performance was evaluated in terms of efficacy (i.e., ability to collect enough individuals for index calculation), comparability (i.e., similarity of assemblages and index scores), sensitivity (i.e., responsiveness to disturbance), and precision (i.e., ability to detect small differences in index scores). The sampling methods varied in the degree to which they targeted macroinvertebrate-rich microhabitats, such as riffles and vegetated margins, which may be naturally scarce in low-gradient streams. The RWB method failed to collect sufficient numbers of individuals (i.e., >or=450) to calculate the SCIBI in 28 of 45 samples and often collected fewer than 100 individuals, suggesting it is inappropriate for low-gradient streams in California; failures for the other methods were less common (TRC, 16 samples; MCM, 11 samples). Within-site precision, measured as the minimum detectable difference (MDD) was poor but similar across methods for the SCIBI (ranging from 19 to 22). However, RWB had the lowest MDD for O/E scores (0.20 versus 0.24 and 0.28 for MCM and TRC, respectively). Mantel correlations showed that assemblages were more similar within sites among methods than within methods among sites, suggesting that the sampling methods were collecting similar assemblages of organisms. Statistically significant disagreements among methods were not detected, although O/E scores were higher

  16. Microbiology of the surface water samples in the high background radiation areas of Ramsar, Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motamedifar, Mohammad; Zamani, Khosrow; Sedigh, Hadi; Mortazavi, Seyed Mohammad Javad; Taeb, Shahram; Haghani, M.; Mortazavi, Seyed Ali Reza; Soofi, Amir

    2014-01-01

    Residents of high background radiation areas of Ramsar have lived in these areas for many generations and received radiation doses much higher than the dose limit recommended by ICRP for radiation workers. The radioactivity of the high background radiation areas of Ramsar is reported to be due to 226 Ra and its decay products, which have been brought to the surface by the waters of hot springs. Over the past years the department has focused on different aspects of the health effects of the elevated levels of natural radiation in Ramsar. This study was aimed to perform a preliminary investigation on the bioeffects of exposure to elevated levels of natural radiation on the microbiology of surface water samples. Water samples were collected from surface water streams in Talesh Mahalleh district, Ramsar as well as a nearby area with normal levels of background radiation. Only two strains of bacteria, that is, Providencia stuartii and Shimwellia blattae, could be isolated from the water samples collected from high background radiation areas, while seven strains (Escherichia coli, Enterobacter asburiae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Shigella dysenteriae, Buttiauxella agerstis, Tatumella punctuata and Raoultella ornithinolytica) were isolated from the water samples collected from normal background radiation areas. All the bacteria isolated from water samples of high and normal background radiation areas were sensitive to ultraviolet radiation, heat, betadine, alcohol, and deconex. Although other investigators have reported that bacteria isolated from hot springs show radioresistance, the results reported here do not reveal any adaptive response. (author)

  17. Analysis of phthalate esters contamination in drinking water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The optimum condition method was successfully applied to the analysis of phthalate esters contamination in bottled drinking water samples. The concentration of DMP, DEP and DBP in drinking water samples were below allowable levels, while the DEHP concentration in three samples was found to be greater than the ...

  18. Changing Groundwater-Surface Water Interactions Impact Stream Chemistry and Ecology at the Arctic-Boreal Transition in Western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, J. C.; Carey, M.; O'Donnell, J.; Sjoberg, Y.; Zimmerman, C. E.

    2016-12-01

    The arctic-boreal transition zone of Alaska is experiencing rapid change related to unprecedented warming and subsequent loss of permafrost. These changes in turn may affect groundwater-surface water (GW-SW) interactions, biogeochemical cycling, and ecosystem processes. While recent field and modeling studies have improved our understanding of hydrology in watersheds underlain by thawing permafrost, little is known about how these hydrologic shifts will impact bottom-up controls on stream food webs. To address this uncertainty, we are using an integrative experimental design to link GW-SW interactions to stream biogeochemistry and biota in 10 first-order streams in northwest Alaska. These study streams drain watersheds that span several gradients, including elevation, aspect, and vegetation (tundra vs. forest). We have developed a robust, multi-disciplinary data set to characterize GW-SW interactions and to mechanistically link GW-SW dynamics to water quality and the stream ecosystem. Data includes soil hydrology and chemistry; stream discharge, temperature, and inflow rates; water chemistry (including water isotopes, major ions, carbon concentration and isotopes, nutrients and chlorophyll-a), and invertebrate and fish communities. Stream recession curves indicate a decreasing rate later in the summer in some streams, consistent with seasonal thaw in lower elevation and south-facing catchments. Base cation and water isotope chemistry display similar impacts of seasonal thaw and also suggest the dominance of groundwater in many streams. Coupled with estimates of GW-SW exchange at point, reach, and catchment scales, these results will be used to predict how hydrology and water quality are likely to impact fish habitat and growth given continued warming at the arctic-boreal transition.

  19. Effects of land use change on streamflow and stream water quality of a coastal catchment

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Petersen, Chantel R

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Main stream length (km) 28.4 19.46 Main stream slope (%) 3.4 2.6 Drainage density (km/km2) 2.51 3.59 Length of overland flow (km) 0.19 0.139   Figure 1    Figure 1 Catchments of the Touws and Duiwe Rivers 141 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v43i1... catchment throughout the period examined (Fig. 2a, Table 3), as the natural forest areas were formally protected from the 142 http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/wsa.v43i1.16 Available on website http://www.wrc.org.za ISSN 1816-7950 (Online) = Water SA Vol. 43 No. 1...

  20. Uranium and coexisting element behaviour in surface waters and associated sediments with varied sampling techniques used for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenrich-Verbeek, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    Optimum sampling methods in surface water and associated sediments for use in uranium exploration are being studied at thirty sites in Colorado, New Mexico, Arizona and Utah. For water samples, filtering is recommended to increase sample homogeneity and reproducibility because for most elements studied water samples which were allowed to remain unfiltered until time of analysis contained higher concentrations than field-filtered samples of the same waters. Acidification of unfiltered samples resulted in still higher concentrations. This is predominantly because of leaching of the elements from the suspended fraction. U in water correslates directly with Ca, Mg, Na, K, Ba, B, Li and As. In stream sediments, U and other trace elements are concentrated in the finer size fractions. Accordingly, in prospecting, grain size fractions less than 90 μm (170 mesh) should be analyzed for U. A greater number of elements (21) show a significant positive correlation with U in stream sediments than in water. Results have revealed that anomalous concentrations of U found in water may not be detected in associated sediments and vice versa. Hence, sampling of both surface water and coexisting sediment is strongly recommended

  1. Guidelines for sampling fish in inland waters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Backiel, Tadeusz; Welcomme, R. L

    1980-01-01

    The book is addressed mainly to Fishery Biologists but it is hoped that Fishing Gear Technologists also can acquire some basic knowledge of sampling problems and procedures which, in turn, can result...

  2. Predicted macroinvertebrate response to water diversion from a montane stream using two-dimensional hydrodynamic models and zero flow approximation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmquist, Jeffrey G.; Waddle, Terry J.

    2013-01-01

    We used two-dimensional hydrodynamic models for the assessment of water diversion effects on benthic macroinvertebrates and associated habitat in a montane stream in Yosemite National Park, Sierra Nevada Mountains, CA, USA. We sampled the macroinvertebrate assemblage via Surber sampling, recorded detailed measurements of bed topography and flow, and coupled a two-dimensional hydrodynamic model with macroinvertebrate indicators to assess habitat across a range of low flows in 2010 and representative past years. We also made zero flow approximations to assess response of fauna to extreme conditions. The fauna of this montane reach had a higher percentage of Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera (%EPT) than might be expected given the relatively low faunal diversity of the study reach. The modeled responses of wetted area and area-weighted macroinvertebrate metrics to decreasing discharge indicated precipitous declines in metrics as flows approached zero. Changes in area-weighted metrics closely approximated patterns observed for wetted area, i.e., area-weighted invertebrate metrics contributed relatively little additional information above that yielded by wetted area alone. Loss of habitat area in this montane stream appears to be a greater threat than reductions in velocity and depth or changes in substrate, and the modeled patterns observed across years support this conclusion. Our models suggest that step function losses of wetted area may begin when discharge in the Merced falls to 0.02 m3/s; proportionally reducing diversions when this threshold is reached will likely reduce impacts in low flow years.

  3. Experimental study of simulant melt stream-water thermal interaction in pool and narrow geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narayanan, K.S.; Jasmin Sudha, A.; Murthy, S.S.; Rao, E.H.V.M.; Lydia, G.; Das, S.K.; Harvey, J.; Kannan, S.E.

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Small scale experiments were carried out to investigate the thermal interaction characteristics of a few kilograms of Sn Pb, Bi and Zn as hot melt, in the film boiling region of water in an attempt to simulate a coherent fuel coolant interaction during a postulated severe accident in a nuclear reactor. Melt stream solidification and detached debris generation were studied with different melt superheat up to 200 deg. C, at different coolant temperatures of 30 deg. C, 50 deg. C, 70 deg. C, 90 deg. C, in pool geometry and in long narrow coolant column. The material was heated in an Alumina crucible and poured through a hot stainless steel funnel with a nozzle diameter of 7.7 mm, into the coolant. A stainless steel plate was used to collect the solidified mass after the interaction. Temperature monitoring was done in the coolant column close to the melt stream. The melt stream movement inside the coolant was imaged using a video camera at 25 fps. Measured melt stream entry velocity was around 1.5 m/sec. For low melt superheat and low coolant temperature, solidified porous tree like structure extended from the collector plate up to the melt release point. For water temperature of 70 deg. C, the solidified bed height at the center was found to decrease with increase in the melt superheat up to 150 deg. C. Fragmentation was found to occur when the melt superheat exceeded 200 deg. C. Particle size distribution was obtained for the fragmented debris. In 1D geometry, with 50 deg. C superheat, columnar solidification was observed with no fine debris. The paper gives the details of the results obtained in the experiments and highlights the role of Rayleigh-Taylor, Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities and the melt physical properties on the fragmentation kinetics. (authors)

  4. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan -- Shiprock, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    Water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) is required for each U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site to provide a basis for ground water and surface water sampling at disposal and former processing sites. This WSAP identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the monitoring stations at the Navaho Reservation in Shiprock, New Mexico, UMTRA Project site. The purposes of the water sampling at Shiprock for fiscal year (FY) 1994 are to (1) collect water quality data at new monitoring locations in order to build a defensible statistical data base, (2) monitor plume movement on the terrace and floodplain, and (3) monitor the impact of alluvial ground water discharge into the San Juan River. The third activity is important because the community of Shiprock withdraws water from the San Juan River directly across from the contaminated alluvial floodplain below the abandoned uranium mill tailings processing site

  5. Spectrophotometric Determination of Boron in Environmental Water Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    San San; Khin Win Kyi; Kwaw Naing

    2002-02-01

    The present paper deals with the study on the methods for the determination of boron in the environmental water samples. The standard methods which are useful for this determination are discussed thoroughly in this work. Among the standard methods approved by American Public Health Association, the carmine method was selected for this study. Prior to the determination of boron in the water samples, the precision and accuracy of the methods of choice were examined by using standard boron solutions. The determination of Boron was carried out by using water samples, waste water from Aquaculture Research Centre, University of Yangon, the Ayeyarwady River water near Magway Myathalon Pagoda in Magway Division, ground water from Sanchaung Township, and tap water from Universities' Research Centre, University of Yangon. Analyses of these water samples were done and statistical treatment of the results was carried out. (author)

  6. Forested wetland mitigation resulting from discharges of cooling water into streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, E.A.

    1993-01-01

    The Savannah River Swamp is a 3020-ha forested wetland on the floodplain of the Savannah River and is located on the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. Historically, the swamp consisted of ∼50% bald cypress-water tupelo stands, 40% mixed bottomland hardwood stands, and 10% shrub, marsh, and open water. The hydrology was controlled by flooding the Savannah River and by flow from four creeks that drain into the swamp prior to flow into the Savannah River. Upstream dams have caused some alteration of the water levels and timing of flooding within the floodplain. Major impacts to the swamp hydrology occurred with the completion of the production reactors and one coal-fired powerhouse at the SRS in the early 1950s. Water, often in excess of 40 to 50 degrees C was discharged into one of the small streams from 1954 to 1988, at various levels, ranging from 20 to 40 times the prior flow rate of the stream. This had a major impact on the adjacent swamp land, with erosion, silting, and vegetation destruction. The Final Environmental Impact Statement, Continued Operation of K, L, and P Reactors, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina, and the subsequent record of decision directed that these areas be restored to functional forested wetland status to the extent possible. This paper describes work begun to reach that objective

  7. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Data report: Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, W.M.; Sargent, K.A.; Cook, J.R.

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas. The following samples were collected: Arkansas-3292 stream sediments, 5121 ground waters, 1711 stream waters; Louisiana-1017 stream sediments, 0 ground waters, 0 stream waters; Misissippi-0 stream sediments, 814 ground waters, 0 stream waters; Missouri-2162 stream sediments, 3423 ground waters 1340 stream waters; Oklahoma-2493 stream sediments, 2751 ground waters, 375 stream waters; and Texas-279 stream sediments, 0 ground waters, 0 stream waters. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. The results of mass spectroscopic analysis for He are given for 563 ground water sites in Mississippi. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Oak Ridge National Laboratory analyzed sediment samples which were not analyzed by Savannah River Laboratory neutron activation

  8. 77 FR 74985 - Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Streams and Downstream Protection Values for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-18

    ... Water Quality Standards for the State of Florida's Streams and Downstream Protection Values for Lakes... its numeric water quality standards for nutrients in Florida that were promulgated and published on.... Water Quality Criteria D. EPA Determination Regarding Florida and EPA's Rulemaking E. EPA Promulgation...

  9. Water-quality trends for a stream draining the Southern Anthracite Field, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.; Bilger, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Stream flow, chemical and biological data for the northern part of Swatara Creek, which drains a 112 km2 area in the Southern Anthracite Field of eastern Pennsylvania, indicate progressive improvement in water quality since 1959, after which most mines in the watershed had been flooded. Drainage from the flooded mines contributes substantially to base flow in Swatara Creek. Beginning in 1995, a variety of treatment systems and surface reclamation were implemented at some of the abandoned mines. At Ravine, Pa., immediately downstream of the mined area, median SO4 concentration declined from about 150 mg l-1 in 1959 to 75 mg l-1 in 1999 while pH increased from acidic to near-neutral values (medians: c. pH 4 before 1975; c. pH 6 after 1975). Fish populations rebounded from non-existent during 1959-1990 to 21 species identified in 1999. Nevertheless, recent monitoring indicates (1) episodic acidification and elevated concentrations and transport of Fe, Al, Mn, and trace metals during storm flow; (2) elevated concentrations of Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in streambed sediments relative to unmined areas and to toxicity guidelines for aquatic invertebrates and fish; and (3) elevated concentrations of metals in fish tissue, notably Zn. The metals are ubiquitous in the fine fraction (mining-affected tributaries and the main stem of Swatara Creek. As a result of scour and transport of streambed deposits, concentrations of suspended solids and total metals in the water column are correlated, and those for storm flow typically exceed base flow. Nevertheless, the metals concentrations are poorly correlated with stream flow because concentrations of suspended solids and total metals typically peak prior to peak stream stage. In contrast, SO4, specific conductance and pH are inversely correlated with stream flow as a result of dilution of poorly buffered stream water with weakly acidic storm runoff derived mainly from low-pH rainfall. Declines in pH to values approaching 5

  10. Water-quality trends for a stream draining the Southern Anthracite Field, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, C.A.; Bilger, Michael D.

    2001-01-01

    Stream flow, chemical and biological data for the northern part of Swatara Creek, which drains a 112 km2 area in the Southern Anthracite Field of eastern Pennsylvania, indicate progressive improvement in water quality since 1959, after which most mines in the watershed had been flooded. Drainage from the flooded mines contributes substantially to base flow in Swatara Creek. Beginning in 1995, a variety of treatment systems and surface reclamation were implemented at some of the abandoned mines. At Ravine, Pa., immediately downstream of the mined area, median SO4 concentration declined from about 150 mg l-1 in 1959 to 75 mg l-1 in 1999 while pH increased from acidic to near-neutral values (medians: c. pH 4 before 1975; c. pH 6 after 1975). Fish populations rebounded from non-existent during 1959-1990 to 21 species identified in 1999. Nevertheless, recent monitoring indicates (1) episodic acidification and elevated concentrations and transport of Fe, Al, Mn, and trace metals during storm flow; (2) elevated concentrations of Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Pb, Ni, and Zn in streambed sediments relative to unmined areas and to toxicity guidelines for aquatic invertebrates and fish; and (3) elevated concentrations of metals in fish tissue, notably Zn. The metals are ubiquitous in the fine fraction (water column are correlated, and those for storm flow typically exceed base flow. Nevertheless, the metals concentrations are poorly correlated with stream flow because concentrations of suspended solids and total metals typically peak prior to peak stream stage. In contrast, SO4, specific conductance and pH are inversely correlated with stream flow as a result of dilution of poorly buffered stream water with weakly acidic storm runoff derived mainly from low-pH rainfall. Declines in pH to values approaching 5.0 during storm flow events or declines in redox potential during burial of sediment could result in the remobilization of metals associated with suspended solids and streambed deposits.

  11. The development of a system to assess the ecological quality of streams based on macroinvertebrates - design of the sampling programme within the AQEM project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hering, D.; Buffagni, A.; Moog, O.; Sandin, L.; Sommerhäuser, M.; Strubauer, I.; Feld, C.; Johnson, R.; Pinto, P.; Skoulikidis, N.; Verdonschot, P.F.M.; Zahrádková, S.

    2003-01-01

    The EU Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires river assessment systems based on benthic invertebrates. The AQEM project is developing, at a European scale, such a methodology, based on a comparison of communities of reference streams and degraded streams. The project is focussing on three main

  12. Analysis of the herbicide diuron, three diuron degradates, and six neonicotinoid insecticides in water-Method details and application to two Georgia streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hladik, Michelle; Calhoun, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    A method for the determination of the widely used herbicide diuron, three degradates of diuron, and six neonicotinoid insecticides in environmental water samples is described. Filtered water samples were extracted by using solid-phase extraction (SPE) with no additional cleanup steps. Quantification of the pesticides from the extracted water samples was done by using liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). Recoveries in test water samples fortified at 20 nanograms per liter (ng/L) for each compound ranged from 75 to 97 percent; relative standard deviations ranged from 5 to 10 percent. Method detection limits (MDLs) in water ranged from 3.0 to 6.2 ng/L using LC/MS/MS. The method was applied to water samples from two streams in Georgia, Sope Creek and the Chattahoochee River. Diuron and 3,4-dichloroaniline (3,4-DCA) were detected in 100 and 80 percent, respectively, of the samples from the Chattahoochee River, whereas Sope creek had detection frequencies of 15 percent for diuron and 31 percent for 3,4-DCA. Detection frequencies for the neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, were 60 percent for the Chattahoochee River and 85 percent for Sope Creek. Field matrix-spike recoveries for each compound, when averaged over four water samples, ranged from 79 to 100 percent. The average percentage difference between replicate pairs for all compounds detected in the field samples was 10.1 (± 4.5) percent.

  13. Ecological Status of Rivers and Streams in Saxony (Germany According to the Water Framework Directive and Prospects of Improvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Müller

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The Federal State of Saxony (Germany transposed the EU Water Framework Directive into state law, identifying 617 surface water bodies (rivers and streams for implementation of the water framework directive (WFD. Their ecological status was classified by biological quality elements (macrophytes and phytobenthos, benthic invertebrates and fish, and in large rivers, phytoplankton and specific synthetic and non-synthetic pollutants. Hydromorphological and physico-chemical quality elements were used to identify significant anthropogenic pressures, which surface water bodies are susceptible to, and to assess the effect of these pressures on the status of surface water bodies. In 2009, the data for classification of the ecological status and the main pressures and impacts on water bodies were published in the river basin management plans (RBMP of the Elbe and Oder rivers. To that date, only 23 (4% streams achieved an ecological status of “good”, while the rest failed to achieve the environmental objective. The two main reasons for the failure were significant alterations to the stream morphology (81% of all streams and nutrient enrichment (62% caused by point (industrial and municipal waste water treatment plants and non-point (surface run-off from arable fields, discharges from urban drainages and decentralized waste water treatment plants sources. It was anticipated that a further 55 streams would achieve the environmental objective by 2015, but the remaining 539 need extended deadlines.

  14. Training the next generation of scientists: Modeling Infectious Disease and Water Quality of Montana Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fytilis, N.; Wyman, S.; Lamb, R.; Stevens, L.; Kerans, B.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    The University of Vermont College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences and the Barrett Foundation have established a scholarship program for undergraduate students. The Barrett Scholarship program, aware of the importance of developing research quantitative and writing skills for undergraduate students, provides scholarships to outstanding undergraduate students for environmental engineering research projects. The intent is to help retain student interest early in their undergraduate engineering careers when few of their first or second year classes have little engineering or real-world application. We focus on one Barrett research project, derived from a NSF Biodiversity and Infectious Disease grant, because of the multiple disciplines (engineering, ecology, biology) and education levels (spanning secondary to graduate) involved. In this research, students across three departments at two universities (University of Vermont, Montana State University) and one independent high school (Vermont Commons School) formed a cohesive collaboration with faculty members to identify different worm taxa of T. Tubifex. Whirling disease has had a severe impact on the native population of salmonids in the upper Madison River MT, USA, resulting in the death of most fish that contract the parasite. T. Tubifex is the intermediate host for Myxobolus cerebralis, the parasite that causes whirling disease in salmonids. Samples collected from eight locations along the Madison River varied in the prevalence of whirling disease. The site-specific worm community structure has been measured and identified using molecular genetic probes and a taxonomic key to link worm communities to geochemical features (e.g. site elevation, slope, pH, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and percent of organic soil matter). Using a unique clustering algorithm, we group geochemical features to discriminate over a range of water quality gradients (i.e., “clean” to “dirty”). The link between

  15. A hierarchical bayesian model to quantify uncertainty of stream water temperature forecasts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Bal

    Full Text Available Providing generic and cost effective modelling approaches to reconstruct and forecast freshwater temperature using predictors as air temperature and water discharge is a prerequisite to understanding ecological processes underlying the impact of water temperature and of global warming on continental aquatic ecosystems. Using air temperature as a simple linear predictor of water temperature can lead to significant bias in forecasts as it does not disentangle seasonality and long term trends in the signal. Here, we develop an alternative approach based on hierarchical Bayesian statistical time series modelling of water temperature, air temperature and water discharge using seasonal sinusoidal periodic signals and time varying means and amplitudes. Fitting and forecasting performances of this approach are compared with that of simple linear regression between water and air temperatures using i an emotive simulated example, ii application to three French coastal streams with contrasting bio-geographical conditions and sizes. The time series modelling approach better fit data and does not exhibit forecasting bias in long term trends contrary to the linear regression. This new model also allows for more accurate forecasts of water temperature than linear regression together with a fair assessment of the uncertainty around forecasting. Warming of water temperature forecast by our hierarchical Bayesian model was slower and more uncertain than that expected with the classical regression approach. These new forecasts are in a form that is readily usable in further ecological analyses and will allow weighting of outcomes from different scenarios to manage climate change impacts on freshwater wildlife.

  16. Preconcentration NAA for simultaneous multielemental determination in water sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatt, A.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Environment concerns with water, air, land and their interrelationship viz., human beings, fauna and flora. One of the important environmental compartments is water. Elements present in water might face a whole lot of physico-chemical conditions. This poses challenges to measure their total concentrations as well as different species. Preconcentration of the elements present in water samples is a necessary requisites in water analysis. For multi elements concentration measurements, Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is one of the preferred analytical techniques due to its sensitivity and selectivity. In this talk preconcentration NAA for multielemental determination in water sample determination will be discussed

  17. Evaluating the impact of irrigation on surface water - groundwater interaction and stream temperature in an agricultural watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essaid, Hedeff I; Caldwell, Rodney R

    2017-12-01

    Changes in groundwater discharge to streams caused by irrigation practices can influence stream temperature. Observations along two currently flood-irrigated reaches in the 640-square-kilometer upper Smith River watershed, an important agricultural and recreational fishing area in west-central Montana, showed a downstream temperature decrease resulting from groundwater discharge to the stream. A watershed-scale coupled surface water and groundwater flow model was used to examine changes in streamflow, groundwater discharge to the stream and stream temperature resulting from irrigation practices. The upper Smith River watershed was used to develop the model framework including watershed climate, topography, hydrography, vegetation, soil properties and current irrigation practices. Model results were used to compare watershed streamflow, groundwater recharge, and groundwater discharge to the stream for three scenarios: natural, pre-irrigation conditions (PreIrr); current irrigation practices involving mainly stream diversion for flood and sprinkler irrigation (IrrCurrent); and a hypothetical scenario with only groundwater supplying sprinkler irrigation (IrrGW). Irrigation increased groundwater recharge relative to natural PreIrr conditions because not all applied water was removed by crop evapotranspiration. Groundwater storage and groundwater discharge to the stream increased relative to natural PreIrr conditions when the source of irrigation water was mainly stream diversion as in the IrrCurrent scenario. The hypothetical IrrGW scenario, in which groundwater withdrawals were the sole source of irrigation water, resulted in widespread lowering of the water table and associated decreases in groundwater storage and groundwater discharge to the stream. A mixing analysis using model predicted groundwater discharge along the reaches suggests that stream diversion and flood irrigation, represented in the IrrCurrent scenario, has led to cooling of stream temperatures

  18. Recent results of the investigation of a micro-fluidic sampling chip and sampling system for hot cell aqueous processing streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripp, J.; Smith, T.; Law, J.

    2013-01-01

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and micro-fluidic sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. Different sampling volumes have been tested. It appears that the 10 μl volume has produced data that had much smaller relative standard deviations than the 2 μl volume. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The micro-fluidic-based robotic sampling system's mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of micro-fluidic sampling chips. (authors)

  19. Measurement of radioactivity in water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, L.

    1990-01-01

    Public concern about the levels of radioactivity release to the environment whether authorised discharges or resulting from nuclear accident, has increased in recent years. Consequently there is increasing pressure for reliable data on the distribution of radioactivity and the extent of its intrusion into food chains and water supplies. As a result a number of laboratories not experienced in radioactivity measurements have acquired nucleonic counting equipment. These notes explore the underlying basics and indicate sources of essential data and information which are required for a better understanding of radioactivity measurements. Particular attention is directed to the screening tests which are usually designated ''gross'' alpha and ''gross'' beta activity measurement. (author)

  20. Concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pogorzelec Marta

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the presence and concentration of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in water samples from different stages of treatment and to verify the usefulness of semipermeable membrane devices for analysis of drinking water. For this purpose, study was conducted for a period of 5 months. Semipermeable membrane devices were deployed in a surface water treatment plant located in Lower Silesia (Poland. To determine the effect of water treatment on concentration of PAHs, three sampling places were chosen: raw water input, stream of water just before disinfection and treated water output. After each month of sampling SPMDs were changed for fresh ones and prepared for further analysis. Concentrations of fifteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. Presented study indicates that the use of semipermeable membrane devices can be an effective tool for the analysis of aquatic environment, including monitoring of drinking water, where organic micropollutants are present at very low concentrations.

  1. The outlier sample effects on multivariate statistical data processing geochemical stream sediment survey (Moghangegh region, North West of Iran)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanbari, Y.; Habibnia, A.; Memar, A.

    2009-01-01

    In geochemical stream sediment surveys in Moghangegh Region in north west of Iran, sheet 1:50,000, 152 samples were collected and after the analyze and processing of data, it revealed that Yb, Sc, Ni, Li, Eu, Cd, Co, as contents in one sample is far higher than other samples. After detecting this sample as an outlier sample, the effect of this sample on multivariate statistical data processing for destructive effects of outlier sample in geochemical exploration was investigated. Pearson and Spear man correlation coefficient methods and cluster analysis were used for multivariate studies and the scatter plot of some elements together the regression profiles are given in case of 152 and 151 samples and the results are compared. After investigation of multivariate statistical data processing results, it was realized that results of existence of outlier samples may appear as the following relations between elements: - true relation between two elements, which have no outlier frequency in the outlier sample. - false relation between two elements which one of them has outlier frequency in the outlier sample. - complete false relation between two elements which both have outlier frequency in the outlier sample

  2. Numerical investigation on effect of blade shape for stream water wheel performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yah, N. F.; Oumer, A. N.; Aziz, A. A.; Sahat, I. M.

    2018-04-01

    Stream water wheels are one of the oldest and commonly used types of wheels for the production of energy. Moreover, they are economical, efficient and sustainable. However, few amounts of research works are available in the open literature. This paper aims to develop numerical model for investigation of the effect of blade shape on the performance of stream water wheel. The numerical model was simulated using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method and the developed model was validated by comparing the simulation results with experimental data obtained from literature. The performance of straight, curved type 1 and curved type 2 was observed and the power generated by each blade design was identified. The inlet velocity was set to 0.3 m/s static pressure outlet. The obtained results indicate that the highest power was generated by the Curved type 2 compared to straight blade and curved type 1. From the CFD result, Curved type 1 was able to generate 0.073 Watt while Curved type 2 generate 0.064 Watt. The result obtained were consistent with the experiment result hence can be used the numerical model as a guide to numerically predict the water wheel performance

  3. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Naturita, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    Surface remedial action is scheduled to begin at the Naturita UMTRA Project processing site in the spring of 1994. No water sampling was performed during 1993 at either the Naturita processing site (NAT-01) or the Dry Flats disposal site (NAT-12). Results of previous water sampling at the Naturita processing site indicate that ground water in the alluvium is contaminated as a result of uranium processing activities. Baseline ground water conditions have been established in the uppermost aquifer at the Dry Flats disposal site. Water sampling activities scheduled for April 1994 include preconstruction sampling of selected monitor wells at the processing site, surface water sampling of the San Miguel River, sampling of several springs/seeps in the vicinity of the disposal site, and sampling of two monitor wells in Coke Oven Valley. The monitor well locations provide sampling points to characterize ground water quality and flow conditions in the vicinity of the sites. The list of analytes has been updated to reflect constituents related to uranium processing activities and the parameters needed for geochemical evaluation. Water sampling will be conducted annually at minimum during the period of construction activities

  4. Reconciling agriculture and stream restoration in Europe: A review relating to the EU Water Framework Directive

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flavio, Hugo; Ferreira, P.; Formigo, N.

    2017-01-01

    Agriculture is widespread across the EU and has caused considerable impacts on freshwater ecosystems. To revert the degradation caused to streams and rivers, research and restoration efforts have been developed to recover ecosystem functions and services, with the European Water Framework Directive.......g. stakeholder management, land use conflicts, climate change effects), which may play an important role in guiding future policy. Our recommendations are important for the second WFD cycle because they 1) help secure the development and dissemination of science-based restoration strategies and 2) provide...

  5. PCR detection of Burkholderia multivorans in water and soil samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, Charlotte; Daenekindt, Stijn; Vandamme, Peter

    2016-08-12

    Although semi-selective growth media have been developed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex bacteria from the environment, thus far Burkholderia multivorans has rarely been isolated from such samples. Because environmental B. multivorans isolates mainly originate from water samples, we hypothesized that water rather than soil is its most likely environmental niche. The aim of the present study was to assess the occurrence of B. multivorans in water samples from Flanders (Belgium) using a fast, culture-independent PCR assay. A nested PCR approach was used to achieve high sensitivity, and specificity was confirmed by sequencing the resulting amplicons. B. multivorans was detected in 11 % of the water samples (n = 112) and 92 % of the soil samples (n = 25) tested. The percentage of false positives was higher for water samples compared to soil samples, showing that the presently available B. multivorans recA primers lack specificity when applied to the analysis of water samples. The results of the present study demonstrate that B. multivorans DNA is commonly present in soil samples and to a lesser extent in water samples in Flanders (Belgium).

  6. Heavy metal contamination of stream water and sediment in the Taejon area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyoung Woong [Paichai University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyun Koo [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-08-31

    Associated with the rapid pace of overpopulation and industrialization is the increase of municipal and industrial wastewater and heavy metal contamination from these point sources have received much attention in the Taejon area. To reduce the environmental problems, 21 stream sediments from Gap-chun, Yudeung-chun, Yusung-chun and Keum river have been analyzed for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn. The results show that heavy metal concentrations are high in sediments from the Sintanjin and Taehwa Industrial Complex area with particular reference to 1388 {mu}g/g Cu in the stream sediment of Yusung-chun. When the geochemical map drawn from the Kriging technique of these data are compared with the industrialization and urbanization index map, high concentrations of heavy metals are found in stream sediments in industrialized areas resulting from the accumulation of heavy metals from the polluting factories. Concentrations of Cu in sediments from the Taehwa Industrial Complex area and those of Zn in sediments from the Sintanjin Complex area higher than EPA standard in the U.S.A and may be the potential sources of pollution in Keum river with possible implications to human health. For the speciation of Cu, Pb and Zn, the high proportions of exchangeable phase of Cu and Zn in stream sediments indicate that the metals originate not from parent materials but from wastewater and exist as the adsorbed phase on the surface of sediments. These metals are easily dissolved into the water by the reaction and relative amounts of easily dissolved phase of metals are in the order of Cu = Zn > Pb. (author). 17 refs., 4 tabs., 7 figs.

  7. Trail Creek I: Assessing the Water Quality of Streams using Fecal Indicator Bacteria and Microbial Source Tracking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saintil, T.; Radcliffe, D. E.; Rasmussen, T. C.; Kannan, A.

    2017-12-01

    Fecal coliforms are indicators for disease-causing pathogens. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US. EPA) recommends the use of E. coli and Enterococci because they are highly correlated with pathogenic organisms in recreational waters. This standard method helps to determine the overall water quality and the potential health risks. Studies have shown that it is difficult to estimate the exact sources of fecal contamination because both human and certain animal species contain E. coli and Enterococci in their waste. Certain strains of E. coli and Enterococci are also able to survive outside of their hosts, which should not be the case for an appropriate fecal indicator. As a result, microbial source tracking (MST) studies use gene specific markers to identify the possible contributors to water pollution whether human or animal. Trail Creek is a second-order stream located in Athens-Clarke County, GA. The 33-km2 watershed is approximately 64% forests, 18% pastures and 16% residential communities. Trail Creek is on the TMDL list and an extended study on the relationships between the different factors causing elevated fecal bacteria is needed. Synoptic sampling events were conducted during baseflow conditions at six locations. Storm sampling events (> 8 mm) were captured using automated samplers at two locations. These samplers were equipped with pressure transducers which record stage at 30-minute intervals. The samples were analyzed for fecal coliform, E. Coli and Enterococci. Water quality parameters including temperature, specific conductance, dissolved oxygen, pH, and turbidity were also recorded. Relationships between the parameters and fecal indicator bacteria show inconsistent patterns and high variability. Using quantitative PCR and MST techniques, the human specific marker (HF183) and ruminant marker (Rum2Bac) were used to identify the fecal sources in both baseflow and storm samples. The presence and abundance of the different markers at

  8. Occurrence and partitioning of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two wastewater treatment plant effluents in Northern New Jersey, 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gibs, Jacob, E-mail: jgibs@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, 810 Bear Tavern Road, West Trenton, NJ 08628 (United States); Heckathorn, Heather A. [U.S. Geological Survey, 810 Bear Tavern Road, West Trenton, NJ 08628 (United States); Meyer, Michael T. [U.S. Geological Survey, 4821 Quail Crest Place, Lawrence, KS 66049 (United States); Klapinski, Frank R.; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert L. [New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection, PO Box 413, Trenton, NJ 08625 (United States)

    2013-08-01

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin–H{sub 2}O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin

  9. Occurrence and partitioning of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two wastewater treatment plant effluents in Northern New Jersey, 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibs, Jacob; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Klapinski, Frank R.; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert L.

    2013-01-01

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin–H 2 O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin

  10. Water and bed-material quality of selected streams and reservoirs in the Research Triangle area of North Carolina, 1988-94

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oblinger, C.J.; Treece, M.W.

    1996-01-01

    The Triangle Area Water Supply Monitoring Project was formed by a consortium of local governments and governmental agencies in cooperation with the U.S. Geological Survey to supplement existing data on conventional pollutants, nutrients, and metals to enable eventual determination of long-term trends; to examine spatial differences among water supplies within the region, especially differences between smaller upland sources, large multipurpose reservoirs, and run-of-river supplies; to provide tributary loading inlake data for predictive modeling of Falls of the Neuse and B. Everett Jordan reservoirs; and to establish a database for synthetic organic compounds. Water-quality sampling began in October 1988 at 35 sites located on area run-of-river and reservoir water supplies and their tributaries. Sampling has continued through 1994. Samples were analyzed for major ions, nutrients, trace metals, pesticides, and semivolatile and volatile organic compounds. Monthly concentration data, high-flow concentration data, and data on daily mean streamflow at most stream sites were used to calculate loadings of nitrogen, phosphorus, suspended sediment, and trace metals to reservoirs. Stream and lake sites were assigned to one of five site categories-- (1) rivers, (2) large multipurpose reservoirs, (3) small water-supply reservoirs, (4) streams below urban areas and wastewater-treatment plants, and (5) headwater streams--according to general site characteristics. Concentrations of nitrogen species, phosphorus species, and selected trace metals were compared by site category using nonparametric analysis of variance techniques and qualitatively (trace metals). Wastewater-treatment plant effluents and urban runoff had a significant impact on water quality compared to reservoirs and headwater streams. Streams draining these areas had more mineralized water than streams draining undeveloped areas. Moreover, median nitrogen and nitrite plus nitrate concentrations were significantly

  11. Microbial Condition of Water Samples from Foreign Fuel Storage Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, C.J.

    1998-01-01

    In order to assess the microbial condition of foreign spent nuclear fuel storage facilities and their possible impact on SRS storage basins, twenty-three water samples were analyzed from 12 different countries. Fifteen of the water samples were analyzed and described in an earlier report (WSRC-TR-97-00365 [1]). This report describes nine additional samples received from October 1997 through March 1998. The samples include three from Australia, two from Denmark and Germany and one sample from Italy and Greece. Each water sample was analyzed for microbial content and activity as determined by total bacteria, viable aerobic bacteria, viable anaerobic bacteria, viable sulfate-reducing bacteria, viable acid-producing bacteria and enzyme diversity. The results for each water sample were then compared to all other foreign samples analyzed to date and monthly samples pulled from the receiving basin for off-site fuel (RBOF), at SRS. Of the nine samples analyzed, four samples from Italy, Germany and Greece had considerably higher microbiological activity than that historically found in the RBOF. This microbial activity included high levels of enzyme diversity and the presence of viable organisms that have been associated with microbial influenced corrosion in other environments. The three samples from Australia had microbial activities similar to that in the RBOF while the two samples from Denmark had lower levels of microbial activity. These results suggest that a significant number of the foreign storage facilities have water quality standards that allow microbial proliferation and survival

  12. Lagrangian sampling for emerging contaminants through an urban stream corridor in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J.B.; Battaglin, W.A.; Zuellig, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    Recent national concerns regarding the environmental occurrence of emerging contaminants (ECs) have catalyzed a series of recent studies. Many ECs are released into the environment through discharges from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and other sources. In 2005, the U.S. Geological Survey and the City of Longmont initiated an investigation of selected ECs in a 13.8-km reach of St. Vrain Creek, Colorado. Seven sites were sampled for ECs following a Lagrangian design; sites were located upstream, downstream, and in the outfall of the Longmont WWTP, and at the mouths of two tributaries, Left Hand Creek and Boulder Creek (which is influenced by multiple WWTP outfalls). Samples for 61 ECs in 16 chemical use categories were analyzed and 36 were detected in one or more samples. Of these, 16 have known or suspected endocrine-disrupting potential. At and downstream from the WWTP outfall, detergent metabolites, fire retardants, and steroids were detected at the highest concentrations, which commonly exceeded 1 ??g/l in 2005 and 2 ??g/l in 2006. Most individual ECs were measured at concentrations less than 2 ??g/l. The results indicate that outfalls from WWTPs are the largest but may not be the sole source of ECs in St. Vrain Creek. In 2005, high discharge was associated with fewer EC detections, lower total EC concentrations, and smaller EC loads in St. Vrain Creek and its tributaries as compared with 2006. EC behavior differed by individual compound, and some differences between sites could be attributed to analytical variability or to other factors such as physical or chemical characteristics or distance from contributing sources. Loads of some ECs, such as diethoxynonylphenol, accumulated or attenuated depending on location, discharge, and distance downstream from the WWTP, whereas others, such as bisphenol A, were largely conservative. The extent to which ECs in St. Vrain Creek affect native fish species and macroinvertebrate communities is unknown, but recent

  13. Natural Radioactivity Pattern of Surabaya Water Environmental Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosidi; Agus Taftazani

    2007-01-01

    The gross β radioactivity and natural radionuclide of Surabaya environmental samples pattern have been evaluated. The environmental samples were chosen randomly at 12 locations. The environment samples were water (fresh, estuary and coastal), sediment, eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms, Mangrove (Rhizophora stylosa), (Moolgarda delicatus) fish and (Johnius (Johnieops) borneensis) (Sharpnose hammer croaker) fish. The water sample was evaporated; the sediment sample was dried and ground; the biotic samples was burnt at the temperature 500 °C ; The gross β measurement using GM detector and the radionuclides has been identified by γ spectrometer. From the investigation results could be concluded that the natural radioactivity of environmental samples was very low. gross-β of water samples were lower than the threshold value of local government regulation of Surabaya no: 2 year 2004 (1 Bq/L). The distribution of gross-β activity of eichhornia crassipes (Mart) Solms was higher than the other biotic, water and sediment samples as well as the accumulation of radionuclides in the water organism was taken place. The result of identification using γ spectrometer has detected 7 of radionuclides, i.e 210 Pb, 212 Pb, 214 Pb, 208 Tl, 214 Bi, 228 Ac, and 40 K in all sample. The distribution factor of sediment F D was less than bioaccumulation factor of biotic F B and it indicates that there the radionuclide accumulation migration follows the pattern of water - sediment - biotic sample. (author)

  14. Sampling procedure, receipt and conservation of water samples to determine environmental radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herranz, M.; Navarro, E.; Payeras, J.

    2009-01-01

    The present document informs about essential goals, processes and contents that the subgroups Sampling and Samples Preparation and Conservation believe they should be part of the procedure to obtain a correct sampling, receipt, conservation and preparation of samples of continental, marine and waste water before qualifying its radioactive content.

  15. Radioactivity in waste water samples from COGEMA supplied by Greenpeace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinen, H.A.J.M.; Kwakman, P.J.M.; Overwater, R.M.W.; Tax, R.B.; Nissan, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    The environmental organization Greenpeace sampled waste water from the reprocessing plant COGEMA in La Hague, France, in May 1999. On request of the Inspection Environmental Hygiene, The Dutch National Institute for Public Health and Environmental Protection (RIVM) determined the radioactivity of the waste water samples. 5 refs

  16. Determination of Phenols in Water Samples using a Supported ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The sample preparation method was tested for the determination of phenols in river water samples and landfill leachate. Concentrations of phenols in river water were found to be in the range 4.2 μg L–1 for 2-chlorophenol to 50 μg L–1 for 4-chlorophenol. In landfill leachate, 4-chlorophenol was detected at a concentration ...

  17. Measurement of 90Sr in fresh water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belanova, A.; Meresova, J.; Svetlik, I.; Tomaskova, L.

    2008-01-01

    This preliminary study show new experimental approach to the determination of the radionuclide 90 Sr in water samples. The new method of dynamic windows utilizing liquid scintillation counting was applied on model and surface water samples. Our results show the demand of separation technique with significantly higher yields. (authors)

  18. Sampling surface and subsurface particle-size distributions in wadable gravel-and cobble-bed streams for analyses in sediment transport, hydraulics, and streambed monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristin Bunte; Steven R. Abt

    2001-01-01

    This document provides guidance for sampling surface and subsurface sediment from wadable gravel-and cobble-bed streams. After a short introduction to streams types and classifications in gravel-bed rivers, the document explains the field and laboratory measurement of particle sizes and the statistical analysis of particle-size distributions. Analysis of particle...

  19. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Grand Junction, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    Surface remedial action will be completed at the Grand Junction processing site during the summer of 1994. Results of 1993 water sampling indicate that ground water flow conditions and ground water quality at the processing site have remained relatively constant with time. Uranium concentrations in ground water continue to exceed the maximum concentration limits, providing the best indication of the extent of contaminated ground water. Evaluation of surface water quality of the Colorado River indicate no impact from uranium processing activities. No compliance monitoring at the Cheney disposal site has been proposed because ground water in the Dakota Sandstone (uppermost aquifer) is classified as limited-use (Class 111) and because the disposal cell is hydrogeologically isolated from the uppermost aquifer. The following water sampling and water level monitoring activities are planned for calendar year 1994: (i) Semiannual (early summer and late fall) sampling of six existing monitor wells at the former Grand Junction processing site. Analytical results from this sampling will be used to continue characterizing hydrogeochemical trends in background ground water quality and in the contaminated ground water area resulting from source term (tailings) removal. (ii) Water level monitoring of approximately three proposed monitor wells projected to be installed in the alluvium at the processing site in September 1994. Data loggers will be installed in these wells, and water levels will be electronically monitored six times a day. These long-term, continuous ground water level data will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site. Water level and water quality data eventually will be used in future ground water modeling to establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site. Modeling results will be used to help demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing

  20. Estimated fecal coliform bacteria concentrations using near real-time continuous water-quality and streamflow data from five stream sites in Chester County, Pennsylvania, 2007–16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senior, Lisa A.

    2017-09-15

    Several streams used for recreational activities, such as fishing, swimming, and boating, in Chester County, Pennsylvania, are known to have periodic elevated concentrations of fecal coliform bacteria, a type of bacteria used to indicate the potential presence of fecally related pathogens that may pose health risks to humans exposed through water contact. The availability of near real-time continuous stream discharge, turbidity, and other water-quality data for some streams in the county presents an opportunity to use surrogates to estimate near real-time concentrations of fecal coliform (FC) bacteria and thus provide some information about associated potential health risks during recreational use of streams.The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Chester County Health Department (CCHD) and the Chester County Water Resources Authority (CCWRA), has collected discrete stream samples for analysis of FC concentrations during March–October annually at or near five gaging stations where near real-time continuous data on stream discharge, turbidity, and water temperature have been collected since 2007 (or since 2012 at 2 of the 5 stations). In 2014, the USGS, in cooperation with the CCWRA and CCHD, began to develop regression equations to estimate FC concentrations using available near real-time continuous data. Regression equations included possible explanatory variables of stream discharge, turbidity, water temperature, and seasonal factors calculated using Julian Day with base-10 logarithmic (log) transformations of selected variables.The regression equations were developed using the data from 2007 to 2015 (101–106 discrete bacteria samples per site) for three gaging stations on Brandywine Creek (West Branch Brandywine Creek at Modena, East Branch Brandywine Creek below Downingtown, and Brandywine Creek at Chadds Ford) and from 2012 to 2015 (37–38 discrete bacteria samples per site) for one station each on French Creek near Phoenixville and

  1. Water Stream in Bidet Toilet Commode as a Cause of Anterior Anal Fissure: A Case-Control Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Garg

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Water used as a single sharp stream in toilet commode for post defecation cleansing is a common practice in several countries across the globe including India. Repeated hitting of the anus by water stream could potentially cause injury to the anal canal epithelium and lead to development of fissure-in-ano. As the water stream is emanating from the backside of the toilet commode, the possible injury, if any, would be on the anterior anal canal. Objectives The present study aimed at determining whether water stream usage in toilet commodes increased the incidence of anterior fissure-in-ano; this was determined by the incidence of anterior fissure-in-ano the study and control groups. Methods All consecutive fissure-in-ano patients referring to a colorectal clinic from February 2012 to 2015 were included in the study. The patients were classified as a study group (who were using water stream for cleansing purposes in toilet commodes and a control group (patients who were not using water stream. The characteristics and location (position of the fissure-in-ano was noted. Results In this study, 165 patients were prospectively enrolled. Male/female ratio was 96/69, and the mean age was 36.3 ± 11.2 years. The anterior fissure-in-ano in the study group was 55.9% (47/84, while it was 17.3 % (14/81 in the control group (P < 0.0001, odds ratio: 6.08, 95% CI: 2.96 - 12.47]. Conclusions Water used as a single sharp stream to cleanse after defecation in toilet commodes is hazardous and should be avoided.

  2. Chemical and isotopic evolution of a layered eastern U.S. snowpack and its relation to stream-water composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanley, J.B.; Kendall, C.; Albert, M.R.; Hardy, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    The chemical, isotopic, and morphologic evolution of a layered snowpack was investigated during the winter of 1993-94 at Sleepers River Research Watershed in Danville, Vermont. The snowpack was monitored at two small basins: a forested basin at 525 m elevation, and an agricultural basin at 292 m elevation. At each site, the snowpack morphology was characterized and individual layers were sampled seven times during the season. Nitrate and 8d18O profiles in the snowpack remained relatively stable until peak accumulation in mid-March, except near the snow surface, where rain-on-snow events caused water and nitrate movement down to impeding ice layers. Subsequently, water and nitrate moved more readily through the ripening snowpack. As the snowpack evolved, combined processes of preferential ion elution, isotopic fractionation, and infiltration of isotopically heavy rainfall caused the pack to become depleted in solutes and isotopically enriched. The release of nitrate and isotopically depleted water was reflected in patterns of nitrate concentrations and ??18O of meltwater and stream water. Results supported data from the previous year which suggested that streamflow in the forested basin during snowmelt was dominated by groundwater discharge.

  3. A Comparison of Soil-Water Sampling Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tindall, J. A.; Figueroa-Johnson, M.; Friedel, M. J.

    2007-12-01

    The representativeness of soil pore water extracted by suction lysimeters in ground-water monitoring studies is a problem that often confounds interpretation of measured data. Current soil water sampling techniques cannot identify the soil volume from which a pore water sample is extracted, neither macroscopic, microscopic, or preferential flowpath. This research was undertaken to compare values of extracted suction lysimeters samples from intact soil cores with samples obtained by the direct extraction methods to determine what portion of soil pore water is sampled by each method. Intact soil cores (30 centimeter (cm) diameter by 40 cm height) were extracted from two different sites - a sandy soil near Altamonte Springs, Florida and a clayey soil near Centralia in Boone County, Missouri. Isotopically labeled water (O18? - analyzed by mass spectrometry) and bromide concentrations (KBr- - measured using ion chromatography) from water samples taken by suction lysimeters was compared with samples obtained by direct extraction methods of centrifugation and azeotropic distillation. Water samples collected by direct extraction were about 0.25 ? more negative (depleted) than that collected by suction lysimeter values from a sandy soil and about 2-7 ? more negative from a well structured clayey soil. Results indicate that the majority of soil water in well-structured soil is strongly bound to soil grain surfaces and is not easily sampled by suction lysimeters. In cases where a sufficient volume of water has passed through the soil profile and displaced previous pore water, suction lysimeters will collect a representative sample of soil pore water from the sampled depth interval. It is suggested that for stable isotope studies monitoring precipitation and soil water, suction lysimeter should be installed at shallow depths (10 cm). Samples should also be coordinated with precipitation events. The data also indicate that each extraction method be use to sample a different

  4. Decadal stream water quality trends under varying climate, land use, and hydrogeochemical setting in, Iowa, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Christopher; Bekins, Barbara; Kalkhoff, Stephen; Hirsch, Robert; Liao, Lixia; Barnes, Kimberlee

    2015-04-01

    Understanding how nitrogen fluxes respond to changes in agricultural practices and climatic variations is important for improving water quality in agricultural settings. In the central United States, intensification of corn cropping in support of ethanol production led to increases in N application rates in the 2000s during a period including both extreme dry and wet conditions. To examine the effect of these recent changes, a study was conducted on surface water quality in 10 major Iowa Rivers. Long term (~20 to 30 years) water quality and flow data were analyzed with Weighted Regression on Time, Discharge and Season (WRTDS), a statistical method that provides internally consistent estimates of the concentration history and reveals decadal trends that are independent of random variations of stream flow from seasonal averages. Trends of surface water quality showed constant or decreasing flow-normalized concentrations of nitrate+nitrite-N from 2000 to 2012 in all basins. To evaluate effects of annual discharge and N loading on these trends, multiple conceptual models were developed and calibrated to annual concentrations. The recent declining concentration trends can be attributed to both very high and very low streamflow discharge in the 2000's and to the long (e.g. 8-year) subsurface residence times in some basins. Dilution of surface water nitrate and depletion of stored nitrate may occur in years with very high discharge. Limited transport of N to streams and accumulation of stored N may occur in years with very low discharge. Central Iowa basins showed the greatest reduction in concentrations, likely because extensive tile-drains limit the effective volumes for storage of N and reduce residence times, and because the glacial sediments in these basins promote denitrification. Changes in nitrogen fluxes resulting from ethanol production and other factors will likely be delayed for years or decades in peripheral basins of Iowa, and may be obscured in the central

  5. Lead uptake of water plants in water stream at Kiteezi landfill site ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2Chemistry Laboratory, Uganda Industrial Research Institute, P. O. Box 7086, Kampala, Uganda. Received ... contain heavy metals which compromise water quality .... MATERIALS AND METHODS ... discharged out of the waste water treatment plant pipes. ... with deionized water twice and separated into shoots, stems and.

  6. Water-chemistry data for selected springs, geysers, and streams in Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, James W.; McCleskey, R. Blaine; Nordstrom, D. Kirk; Holloway, JoAnn M.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Sturtevant, Sabin A.

    2002-01-01

    Sixty-seven water analyses are reported for samples collected from 44 hot springs and their overflow drainages and two ambient-temperature acid streams in Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during 1990-2000. Thirty-seven analyses are reported for 1999, 18 for June of 2000, and 12 for September of 2000. These water samples were collected and analyzed as part of research investigations in YNP on microbially mediated sulfur oxidation in stream water, arsenic and sulfur redox speciation in hot springs, and chemical changes in overflow drainages that affect major ions, redox species, and trace elements. Most samples were collected from sources in the Norris Geyser Basin. Two ambient-temperature acidic stream systems, Alluvium and Columbine Creeks and their tributaries in Brimstone Basin, were studied in detail. Analyses were performed at or near the sampling site, in an on-site mobile laboratory truck, or later in a USGS laboratory, depending on stability of the constituent and whether or not it could be preserved effectively. Water temperature, specific conductance, pH, Eh, dissolved oxygen (D.O.), and dissolved H2S were determined on-site at the time of sampling. Alkalinity, acidity, and F were determined within a few days of sample collection by titration with acid, titration with base, and ion-selective electrode or ion chromatography (IC), respectively. Concentrations of S2O3 and SxO6 were determined as soon as possible (minutes to hours later) by IC. Concentrations of Br, Cl, NH4, NO2, NO3, SO4, Fe(II), and Fe(total) were determined within a few days of sample collection. Densities were determined later in the USGS laboratory. Concentrations of Li and K were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Concentrations of Al, As(total), B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe(total), K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Si, Sr, V, and Zn were determined by inductively-coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. Trace concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Sb were

  7. Procedures for the collection and preservation of groundwater and surface water samples and for the installation of monitoring wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.; Kearl, P.

    1984-01-01

    Proper sampling procedures are essential for a successful water-quality monitoring program. It must be emphasized, however, that it is impossible to maintain absolutely in-situ conditions when collecting and preserving a water sample, whether from a flowing stream or an aquifer. Consequently, the most that can reasonably be expected is to collect a best possible sample with minimal disturbance. This document describes procedures for installing monitoring wells and for collecting samples of surface water and groundwater. The discussion of monitoring wells includes mention of multilevel sampling and a general overview of vadose-zone monitoring. Guidelines for well installation are presented in detail. The discussion of water-sample collection contains evaluations of sampling pumps, filtration equipment, and sample containers. Sample-preservation techniques, as published by several government and private sources, are reviewed. Finally, step-by-step procedures for collection of water samples are provided; these procedures address such considerations as necessary equipment, field operations, and written documentation. Separate procedures are also included for the collection of samples for determination of sulfide and for reactive aluminum. The report concludes with a brief discussion of adverse sampling, conditions that may significantly affect the quality of the data. Appendix A presents a rationale for the development and use of statistical considerations in water sampling to ensure a more complete water quality monitoring program. 51 references, 9 figures, 4 tables

  8. Initial Characterization and Water Quality Assessment of Stream Landscapes in Northern Mongolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgen Hofmann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A comprehensive monitoring project (2006–2013 provided data on hydrology, hydromorphology, climatology, water physico-chemistry, sedimentology, macroinvertebrate community and fish diversity in the Kharaa River basin in northern Mongolia, thus enabling, for the first time, a detailed characterization of the stream landscapes. Surface waters were categorized into separate “water bodies” according to their identifiable abiotic and biocoenotic features, subsequently creating the smallest management sub-units within the river basin. Following the approach of the European Water Framework Directive (EC-WFD, in order to obtain a good ecological status (GES, four clearly identifiable water bodies in the Kharaa River main channel and seven water bodies consisting of the basin’s tributaries were delineated. The type-specific undisturbed reference state of various aquatic ecosystems was identified in the assessment and used to set standards for restoration goals. With regards to water quality and quantity, the upper reaches of the Kharaa River basin in the Khentii Mountains were classified as having a “good” ecological and chemical status. Compared with these natural reference conditions in the upper reaches, the initial risk assessment identified several “hot spot” regions with impacted water bodies in the middle and lower basin. Subsequently, the affected water bodies are at risk of not obtaining a level of good ecological and/or chemical status for surface waters. Finally, a matrix of cause-response relationships and stressor complexes has been developed and is presented here. The applicability of management approaches is discussed to better foster the development of a sustainable river basin management plan. The application of natural references states offers a sound scientific base to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities across the Kharaa River basin.

  9. Water quality and ecosystem management: Data-driven reality check of effects in streams and lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Destouni, Georgia; Fischer, Ida; Prieto, Carmen

    2017-08-01

    This study investigates nutrient-related water quality conditions and change trends in the first management periods of the EU Water Framework Directive (WFD; since 2009) and Baltic Sea Action Plan (BASP; since 2007). With mitigation of nutrients in inland waters and their discharges to the Baltic Sea being a common WFD and BSAP target, we use Sweden as a case study of observable effects, by compiling and analyzing all openly available water and nutrient monitoring data across Sweden since 2003. The data compilation reveals that nutrient monitoring covers only around 1% (down to 0.2% for nutrient loads) of the total number of WFD-classified stream and lake water bodies in Sweden. The data analysis further shows that the hydro-climatically driven water discharge dominates the determination of waterborne loads of both total phosphorus and total nitrogen across Sweden. Both water discharge and the related nutrient loads are in turn well correlated with the ecosystem status classification of Swedish water bodies. Nutrient concentrations do not exhibit such correlation and their changes over the study period are on average small, but concentration increases are found for moderate-to-bad status waters, for which both the WFD and the BSAP have instead targeted concentration decreases. In general, these results indicate insufficient distinction and mitigation of human-driven nutrient components in inland waters and their discharges to the sea by the internationally harmonized applications of the WFD and the BSAP. The results call for further comparative investigations of observable large-scale effects of such regulatory/management frameworks in different parts of the world.

  10. Reconciling agriculture and stream restoration in Europe: A review relating to the EU Water Framework Directive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flávio, H M; Ferreira, P; Formigo, N; Svendsen, J C

    2017-10-15

    Agriculture is widespread across the EU and has caused considerable impacts on freshwater ecosystems. To revert the degradation caused to streams and rivers, research and restoration efforts have been developed to recover ecosystem functions and services, with the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) playing a significant role in strengthening the progress. Analysing recent peer-reviewed European literature (2009-2016), this review explores 1) the conflicts and difficulties faced when restoring agriculturally impacted streams, 2) the aspects relevant to effectively reconcile agricultural land uses and healthy riverine ecosystems and 3) the effects and potential shortcomings of the first WFD management cycle. Our analysis reveals significant progress in restoration efforts, but it also demonstrates an urgent need for a higher number and detail of restoration projects reported in the peer-reviewed literature. The first WFD cycle ended in 2015 without reaching the goal of good ecological status in many European water-bodies. Addressing limitations reported in recent papers, including difficulties in stakeholder integration and importance of small headwater streams, is crucial. Analysing recent developments on stakeholder engagement through structured participatory processes will likely reduce perception discrepancies and increase stakeholder interest during the next WFD planning cycle. Despite an overall dominance of nutrient-related research, studies are spreading across many important topics (e.g. stakeholder management, land use conflicts, climate change effects), which may play an important role in guiding future policy. Our recommendations are important for the second WFD cycle because they 1) help secure the development and dissemination of science-based restoration strategies and 2) provide guidance for future research needs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Point-Source Contributions to the Water Quality of an Urban Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, S. F. B.; Young, M.; Lowry, C.

    2014-12-01

    Scajaquada Creek, which runs through the heart of the city of Buffalo, is a prime example of the ways in which human intervention and local geomorphology can impact water quality and urban hydrology. Beginning in the 1920's, the Creek has been partially channelized and connected to Buffalo's combined sewer system (CSS). At Forest Lawn Cemetery, where this study takes place, Scajaquada Creek emerges from a 3.5-mile tunnel built to route stream flow under the city. Collocated with the tunnel outlet is a discharge point for Buffalo's CSS, combined sewer outlet (CSO) #53. It is at this point that runoff and sanitary sewage discharge regularly during rain events. Initially, this study endeavored to create a spatial and temporal picture for this portion of the Creek, monitoring such parameters as conductivity, dissolved oxygen, pH, temperature, and turbidity, in addition to measuring Escherichia coli (E. coli) concentrations. As expected, these factors responded directly to seasonality, local geomorphology, and distance from the point source (CSO #53), displaying a overall, linear response. However, the addition of nitrate and phosphate testing to the study revealed an entirely separate signal from that previously observed. Concentrations of these parameters did not respond to location in the same manner as E. coli. Instead of decreasing with distance from the CSO, a distinct periodicity was observed, correlating with a series of outflow pipes lining the stream banks. It is hypothesized that nitrate and phosphate occurring in this stretch of Scajaquada Creek originate not from the CSO, but from fertilizers used to maintain the lawns within the subwatershed. These results provide evidence of the complexity related to water quality issues in urban streams as a result of point- and nonpoint-source hydrologic inputs.

  12. Influences of the land use pattern on water quality in low-order streams of the Dongjiang River basin, China: A multi-scale analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiao; Jiang, Yuan; Liu, Qi; Hou, Zhaojiang; Liao, Jianyu; Fu, Lan; Peng, Qiuzhi

    2016-05-01

    Understanding the relationships between land use patterns and water quality in low-order streams is useful for effective landscape planning to protect downstream water quality. A clear understanding of these relationships remains elusive due to the heterogeneity of land use patterns and scale effects. To better assess land use influences, we developed empirical models relating land use patterns to the water quality of low-order streams at different geomorphic regions across multi-scales in the Dongjiang River basin using multivariate statistical analyses. The land use pattern was quantified in terms of the composition, configuration and hydrological distance of land use types at the reach buffer, riparian corridor and catchment scales. Water was sampled under summer base flow at 56 low-order catchments, which were classified into two homogenous geomorphic groups. The results indicated that the water quality of low-order streams was most strongly affected by the configuration metrics of land use. Poorer water quality was associated with higher patch densities of cropland, orchards and grassland in the mountain catchments, whereas it was associated with a higher value for the largest patch index of urban land use in the plain catchments. The overall water quality variation was explained better by catchment scale than by riparian- or reach-scale land use, whereas the spatial scale over which land use influenced water quality also varied across specific water parameters and the geomorphic basis. Our study suggests that watershed management should adopt better landscape planning and multi-scale measures to improve water quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A hierarchical model of daily stream temperature using air-water temperature synchronization, autocorrelation, and time lags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin H. Letcher

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Water temperature is a primary driver of stream ecosystems and commonly forms the basis of stream classifications. Robust models of stream temperature are critical as the climate changes, but estimating daily stream temperature poses several important challenges. We developed a statistical model that accounts for many challenges that can make stream temperature estimation difficult. Our model identifies the yearly period when air and water temperature are synchronized, accommodates hysteresis, incorporates time lags, deals with missing data and autocorrelation and can include external drivers. In a small stream network, the model performed well (RMSE = 0.59°C, identified a clear warming trend (0.63 °C decade−1 and a widening of the synchronized period (29 d decade−1. We also carefully evaluated how missing data influenced predictions. Missing data within a year had a small effect on performance (∼0.05% average drop in RMSE with 10% fewer days with data. Missing all data for a year decreased performance (∼0.6 °C jump in RMSE, but this decrease was moderated when data were available from other streams in the network.

  14. Water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine salt domes, northeast Texas salt-dome basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr, J.E.; Halasz, S.J.; Liscum, F.

    1980-11-01

    This report contains water-quality data for aquifers, streams, and lakes in the vicinity of Keechi, Mount Sylvan, Oakwood, and Palestine Salt Domes in the northeast Texas salt-dome basin. Water-quality data were compiled for aquifers in the Wilcox Group, the Carrizo Sand, and the Queen City Sand. The data include analyses for dissolved solids, pH, temperature, hardness, calcium, magnesium, sodium, bicarbonate, chloride, and sulfate. Water-quality and streamflow data were obtained from 63 surface-water sites in the vicinity of the domes. These data include water discharge, specific conductance, pH, water temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Samples were collected at selected sites for analysis of principal and selected minor dissolved constituents

  15. Flowing water affects fish fast-starts: escape performance of the Hawaiian stream goby, Sicyopterus stimpsoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamond, Kelly M; Schoenfuss, Heiko L; Walker, Jeffrey A; Blob, Richard W

    2016-10-01

    Experimental measurements of escape performance in fishes have typically been conducted in still water; however, many fishes inhabit environments with flow that could impact escape behavior. We examined the influences of flow and predator attack direction on the escape behavior of fish, using juveniles of the amphidromous Hawaiian goby Sicyopterus stimpsoni In nature, these fish must escape ambush predation while moving through streams with high-velocity flow. We measured the escape performance of juvenile gobies while exposing them to a range of water velocities encountered in natural streams and stimulating fish from three different directions. Frequency of response across treatments indicated strong effects of flow conditions and attack direction. Juvenile S. stimpsoni had uniformly high response rates for attacks from a caudal direction (opposite flow); however, response rates for attacks from a cranial direction (matching flow) decreased dramatically as flow speed increased. Mechanical stimuli produced by predators attacking in the same direction as flow might be masked by the flow environment, impairing the ability of prey to detect attacks. Thus, the likelihood of successful escape performance in fishes can depend critically on environmental context. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area and processes controlling metal attenuation in stream waters, southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VERIDIANA P. CAMPANER

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid drainage influence on the water and sediment quality was investigated in a coal mining area (southern Brazil. Mine drainage showed pH between 3.2 and 4.6 and elevated concentrations of sulfate, As and metals, of which, Fe, Mn and Zn exceeded the limits for the emission of effluents stated in the Brazilian legislation. Arsenic also exceeded the limit, but only slightly. Groundwater monitoring wells from active mines and tailings piles showed pH interval and chemical concentrations similar to those of mine drainage. However, the river and ground water samples of municipal public water supplies revealed a pH range from 7.2 to 7.5 and low chemical concentrations, although Cd concentration slightly exceeded the limit adopted by Brazilian legislation for groundwater. In general, surface waters showed large pH range (6 to 10.8, and changes caused by acid drainage in the chemical composition of these waters were not very significant. Locally, acid drainage seemed to have dissolved carbonate rocks present in the local stratigraphic sequence, attenuating the dispersion of metals and As. Stream sediments presented anomalies of these elements, which were strongly dependent on the proximity of tailings piles and abandoned mines. We found that precipitation processes in sediments and the dilution of dissolved phases were responsible for the attenuation of the concentrations of the metals and As in the acid drainage and river water mixing zone. In general, a larger influence of mining activities on the chemical composition of the surface waters and sediments was observed when enrichment factors in relation to regional background levels were used.

  17. Geochemistry of acid mine drainage from a coal mining area and processes controlling metal attenuation in stream waters, southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campaner, Veridiana P; Luiz-Silva, Wanilson; Machado, Wilson

    2014-05-14

    Acid drainage influence on the water and sediment quality was investigated in a coal mining area (southern Brazil). Mine drainage showed pH between 3.2 and 4.6 and elevated concentrations of sulfate, As and metals, of which, Fe, Mn and Zn exceeded the limits for the emission of effluents stated in the Brazilian legislation. Arsenic also exceeded the limit, but only slightly. Groundwater monitoring wells from active mines and tailings piles showed pH interval and chemical concentrations similar to those of mine drainage. However, the river and ground water samples of municipal public water supplies revealed a pH range from 7.2 to 7.5 and low chemical concentrations, although Cd concentration slightly exceeded the limit adopted by Brazilian legislation for groundwater. In general, surface waters showed large pH range (6 to 10.8), and changes caused by acid drainage in the chemical composition of these waters were not very significant. Locally, acid drainage seemed to have dissolved carbonate rocks present in the local stratigraphic sequence, attenuating the dispersion of metals and As. Stream sediments presented anomalies of these elements, which were strongly dependent on the proximity of tailings piles and abandoned mines. We found that precipitation processes in sediments and the dilution of dissolved phases were responsible for the attenuation of the concentrations of the metals and As in the acid drainage and river water mixing zone. In general, a larger influence of mining activities on the chemical composition of the surface waters and sediments was observed when enrichment factors in relation to regional background levels were used.

  18. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. This paper describes the distribution and characteristics of perched ground water. It discusses perched water below the surficial sediments in wells at the RWMC, the characteristics of chemical constituents found in perched water, the implications for contaminant transport in the unsaturated zone of water, and the lateral extent of perched water. Recommendations are made to increase the probability of detecting and sampling low yield perched water zones. 6 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs

  19. Evaluation of wastewater contaminant transport in surface waters using verified Lagrangian sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antweiler, Ronald C.; Writer, Jeffrey H.; Murphy, Sheila F.

    2014-01-01

    Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants can persist in surface waters for substantial distances. Much research has gone into evaluating the fate and transport of these contaminants, but this work has often assumed constant flow from wastewater treatment plants. However, effluent discharge commonly varies widely over a 24-hour period, and this variation controls contaminant loading and can profoundly influence interpretations of environmental data. We show that methodologies relying on the normalization of downstream data to conservative elements can give spurious results, and should not be used unless it can be verified that the same parcel of water was sampled. Lagrangian sampling, which in theory samples the same water parcel as it moves downstream (the Lagrangian parcel), links hydrologic and chemical transformation processes so that the in-stream fate of wastewater contaminants can be quantitatively evaluated. However, precise Lagrangian sampling is difficult, and small deviations – such as missing the Lagrangian parcel by less than 1 h – can cause large differences in measured concentrations of all dissolved compounds at downstream sites, leading to erroneous conclusions regarding in-stream processes controlling the fate and transport of wastewater contaminants. Therefore, we have developed a method termed “verified Lagrangian” sampling, which can be used to determine if the Lagrangian parcel was actually sampled, and if it was not, a means for correcting the data to reflect the concentrations which would have been obtained had the Lagrangian parcel been sampled. To apply the method, it is necessary to have concentration data for a number of conservative constituents from the upstream, effluent, and downstream sites, along with upstream and effluent concentrations that are constant over the short-term (typically 2–4 h). These corrections can subsequently be applied to all data, including non-conservative constituents. Finally, we

  20. Evaluation of wastewater contaminant transport in surface waters using verified Lagrangian sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antweiler, Ronald C; Writer, Jeffrey H; Murphy, Sheila F

    2014-02-01

    Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants can persist in surface waters for substantial distances. Much research has gone into evaluating the fate and transport of these contaminants, but this work has often assumed constant flow from wastewater treatment plants. However, effluent discharge commonly varies widely over a 24-hour period, and this variation controls contaminant loading and can profoundly influence interpretations of environmental data. We show that methodologies relying on the normalization of downstream data to conservative elements can give spurious results, and should not be used unless it can be verified that the same parcel of water was sampled. Lagrangian sampling, which in theory samples the same water parcel as it moves downstream (the Lagrangian parcel), links hydrologic and chemical transformation processes so that the in-stream fate of wastewater contaminants can be quantitatively evaluated. However, precise Lagrangian sampling is difficult, and small deviations - such as missing the Lagrangian parcel by less than 1h - can cause large differences in measured concentrations of all dissolved compounds at downstream sites, leading to erroneous conclusions regarding in-stream processes controlling the fate and transport of wastewater contaminants. Therefore, we have developed a method termed "verified Lagrangian" sampling, which can be used to determine if the Lagrangian parcel was actually sampled, and if it was not, a means for correcting the data to reflect the concentrations which would have been obtained had the Lagrangian parcel been sampled. To apply the method, it is necessary to have concentration data for a number of conservative constituents from the upstream, effluent, and downstream sites, along with upstream and effluent concentrations that are constant over the short-term (typically 2-4h). These corrections can subsequently be applied to all data, including non-conservative constituents. Finally, we show how data

  1. Preliminary geochemical assessment of water in selected streams, springs, and caves in the Upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages in Great Basin National Park, Nevada, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Angela P.; Thodal, Carl E.; Baker, Gretchen M.; Lico, Michael S.; Prudic, David E.

    2014-01-01

    Water in caves, discharging from springs, and flowing in streams in the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages are important natural resources in Great Basin National Park, Nevada. Water and rock samples were collected from 15 sites during February 2009 as part of a series of investigations evaluating the potential for water resource depletion in the park resulting from the current and proposed groundwater withdrawals. This report summarizes general geochemical characteristics of water samples collected from the upper Baker and Snake Creek drainages for eventual use in evaluating possible hydrologic connections between the streams and selected caves and springs discharging in limestone terrain within each watershed.Generally, water discharging from selected springs in the upper Baker and Snake Creek watersheds is relatively young and, in some cases, has similar chemical characteristics to water collected from associated streams. In the upper Baker Creek drainage, geochemical data suggest possible hydrologic connections between Baker Creek and selected springs and caves along it. The analytical results for water samples collected from Wheelers Deep and Model Caves show characteristics similar to those from Baker Creek, suggesting a hydrologic connection between the creek and caves, a finding previously documented by other researchers. Generally, geochemical evidence does not support a connection between water flowing in Pole Canyon Creek to that in Model Cave, at least not to any appreciable extent. The water sample collected from Rosethorn Spring had relatively high concentrations of many of the constituents sampled as part of this study. This finding was expected as the water from the spring travelled through alluvium prior to being discharged at the surface and, as a result, was provided the opportunity to interact with soil minerals with which it came into contact. Isotopic evidence does not preclude a connection between Baker Creek and the water discharging from

  2. Effect of land cover, stream discharge, and precipitation on water quality in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, J. S.; Uriarte, M.

    2017-12-01

    In 2015, Puerto Rico experienced one of the worst droughts in its history, causing widespread water rationing and sparking concerns for future resources. The drought represents precipitation extremes that provide valuable insight into the effects of land cover (LC), on modulating discharge and water quality indices at varying spatial scales. We used data collected from 38 water quality and 55 precipitation monitoring stations in Puerto Rico from 2005 to 2016, paired with a 2010 land cover map to (1) determine whether temporal variability in discharge, precipitation, or antecedent precipitation was a better predictor of water quality, (2) find the spatial scale where LC has the greatest impact on water quality, and (3) quantify impacts of LC on water quality indices, including dissolved oxygen (mg/L), total nitrogen (mg/L), phosphorous (mg/L), turbidity (NTRU), fecal coliforms (colony units/100mL) and instantaneous discharge (ft3/s). The resulting linear mixed effects models account for between 36-68% of the variance in water quality. Preliminary results indicate that phosphorous and nitrogen were best predicted from instantaneous stream discharge, the log of discharge was the better predictor for turbidity and fecal coliforms, and summed 2 and 14-day antecedent precipitation indices were better predictors for dissolved oxygen and discharge, respectively. Increased urban and pasture area reliably decreased water quality in relation to forest cover, while agriculture and wetlands had little or mixed effects. Turbidity and nitrogen responded to a watershed level LC, while phosphorous, fecal coliforms, and discharge responded to LC in 60 m riparian buffers at the watershed scale. Our results indicate that LC modulates changing precipitation regimes and the ensuing impacts on water quality at a range of spatial scales.

  3. Near-field Oblique Remote Sensing of Stream Water-surface Elevation, Slope, and Surface Velocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minear, J. T.; Kinzel, P. J.; Nelson, J. M.; McDonald, R.; Wright, S. A.

    2014-12-01

    A major challenge for estimating discharges during flood events or in steep channels is the difficulty and hazard inherent in obtaining in-stream measurements. One possible solution is to use near-field remote sensing to obtain simultaneous water-surface elevations, slope, and surface velocities. In this test case, we utilized Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) to remotely measure water-surface elevations and slope in combination with surface velocities estimated from particle image velocimetry (PIV) obtained by video-camera and/or infrared camera. We tested this method at several sites in New Mexico and Colorado using independent validation data consisting of in-channel measurements from survey-grade GPS and Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) instruments. Preliminary results indicate that for relatively turbid or steep streams, TLS collects tens of thousands of water-surface elevations and slopes in minutes, much faster than conventional means and at relatively high precision, at least as good as continuous survey-grade GPS measurements. Estimated surface velocities from this technique are within 15% of measured velocity magnitudes and within 10 degrees from the measured velocity direction (using extrapolation from the shallowest bin of the ADCP measurements). Accurately aligning the PIV results into Cartesian coordinates appears to be one of the main sources of error, primarily due to the sensitivity at these shallow oblique look angles and the low numbers of stationary objects for rectification. Combining remotely-sensed water-surface elevations, slope, and surface velocities produces simultaneous velocity measurements from a large number of locations in the channel and is more spatially extensive than traditional velocity measurements. These factors make this technique useful for improving estimates of flow measurements during flood flows and in steep channels while also decreasing the difficulty and hazard associated with making measurements in these

  4. Measuring surface-water loss in Honouliuli Stream near the ‘Ewa Shaft, O‘ahu, Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Sarah N.

    2017-05-30

    The Honolulu Board of Water Supply is currently concerned with the possibility of bacteria in the pumped water of the ‘Ewa Shaft (State well 3-2202-21). Groundwater from the ‘Ewa Shaft could potentially be used to meet future potable water needs in the ‘Ewa area on the island of O‘ahu. The source of the bacteria in the pumped water is unknown, although previous studies indicate that surface water may be lost to the subsurface near the site. The ‘Ewa Shaft consists of a vertical shaft, started near the south bank of Honouliuli Stream at an altitude of about 161 feet, and two horizontal infiltration tunnels near sea level. The shaft extracts groundwater from near the top of the freshwater lens in the Waipahu-Waiawa aquifer system within the greater Pearl Harbor Aquifer Sector, a designated Water Management Area.The surface-water losses were evaluated with continuous groundwater-level data from the ‘Ewa Shaft and a nearby monitoring well, continuous stream-discharge data from U.S. Geological Survey streamflow-gaging station 16212490 (Honouliuli Stream at H-1 Freeway near Waipahu), and seepage-run measurements in Honouliuli Stream and its tributary. During storms, discharge at the Honouliuli Stream gaging station increases and groundwater levels at ‘Ewa Shaft and a nearby monitoring well also increase. The concurrent increase in water levels at ‘Ewa Shaft and the nearby monitoring well during storms indicates that regional groundwater-level changes related to increased recharge, reduced withdrawals (due to a decrease in demand during periods of rainfall), or both may be occurring; although these data do not preclude the possibility of local recharge from Honouliuli Stream. Discharge measurements from two seepage runs indicate that surface water in the immediate area adjacent to ‘Ewa Shaft infiltrates into the streambed and may later reach the groundwater system developed by the ‘Ewa Shaft. The estimated seepage loss rates in the vicinity of

  5. Surface water quality in streams and rivers: introduction, scaling, and climate change: Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loperfido, John

    2013-01-01

    A variety of competing and complementary needs such as ecological health, human consumption, transportation, recreation, and economic value make management and protection of water resources in riverine environments essential. Thus, an understanding of the complex and interacting factors that dictate riverine water quality is essential in empowering stake-holders to make informed management decisions (see Chapter 1.15 for additional information on water resource management). Driven by natural and anthropogenic forcing factors, a variety of chemical, physical, and biological processes dictate riverine water quality, resulting in temporal and spatial patterns and cycling (see Chapter 1.2 for information describing how global change interacts with water resources). Furthermore, changes in climatic forcing factors may lead to long-term deviations in water quality outside the envelope of historical data. The goal of this chapter is to present fundamental concepts dictating the conditions of basic water quality parameters in rivers and streams (herein generally referred to as rivers unless discussing a specific system) in the context of temporal (diel (24 h) to decadal) longitudinal scaling. Understanding water quality scaling in rivers is imperative as water is continually reused and recycled (see also Chapters 3.1 and 3.15); upstream discharges from anthropogenic sources are incorporated into bulk riverine water quality that is used by downstream consumers. Water quality parameters reviewed here include temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), and suspended sediment and were selected given the abundance of data available for these parameters due to recent advances in water quality sensor technology (see Chapter 4.13 for use of hydrologic data in watershed management). General equations describing reactions affecting water temperature, pH, DO, and suspended sediment are included to convey the complexity of how simultaneously occurring reactions can affect water quality

  6. Soil Gas Sample Handling: Evaluation of Water Removal and Sample Ganging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritz, Brad G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Abrecht, David G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hayes, James C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Mendoza, Donaldo P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-10-31

    Soil gas sampling is currently conducted in support of Nuclear Test Ban treaty verification. Soil gas samples are collected and analyzed for isotopes of interest. Some issues that can impact sampling and analysis of these samples are excess moisture and sample processing time. Here we discuss three potential improvements to the current sampling protocol; a desiccant for water removal, use of molecular sieve to remove CO2 from the sample during collection, and a ganging manifold to allow composite analysis of multiple samples.

  7. UMTRA water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide background, guidance, and justification for fiscal year (FY) 1994 water sampling activities for the uranium mil tailings site at Tuba City, Arizona. This sampling and analysis plan will form the basis for groundwater sampling and analysis work orders to be implemented in FY94

  8. From soil water to surface water – how the riparian zone controls element transport from a boreal forest to a stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Lidman

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Boreal headwaters are often lined by strips of highly organic soils, which are the last terrestrial environment to leave an imprint on discharging groundwater before it enters a stream. Because these riparian soils are so different from the Podzol soils that dominate much of the boreal landscape, they are known to have a major impact on the biogeochemistry of important elements such as C, N, P and Fe and the transfer of these elements from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems. For most elements, however, the role of the riparian zone has remained unclear, although it should be expected that the mobility of many elements is affected by changes in, for example, pH, redox potential and concentration of organic carbon as they are transported through the riparian zone. Therefore, soil water and groundwater was sampled at different depths along a 22 m hillslope transect in the Krycklan catchment in northern Sweden using soil lysimeters and analysed for a large number of major and trace elements (Al, As, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Se, Si, Sr, Th, Ti, U, V, Zn, Zr and other parameters such as sulfate and total organic carbon (TOC. The results showed that the concentrations of most investigated elements increased substantially (up to 60 times as the water flowed from the uphill mineral soils and into the riparian zone, largely as a result of higher TOC concentrations. The stream water concentrations of these elements were typically somewhat lower than in the riparian zone, but still considerably higher than in the uphill mineral soils, which suggests that riparian soils have a decisive impact on the water quality of boreal streams. The degree of enrichment in the riparian zone for different elements could be linked to the affinity for organic matter, indicating that the pattern with strongly elevated concentrations in riparian soils is typical for organophilic substances. One likely explanation is that the

  9. Water sampling device for fuel rod failure monitoring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oogami, Hideaki; Echigoya, Hironori; Matsuoka, Tesshi.

    1991-01-01

    The device of the present invention accurately samples coolants in a channel box as sampling water even if the upper end of the channel box of a fuel assembly is positioned at the same height or lower than the upper end of an upper lattice plate. An existent device comprises an outer cap, an inner cap, an air supply pipe and a water sampling tube. In addition, the device of the present invention comprises a sealing material disposed at the end of the outer cap for keeping liquid sealing with the upper lattice plate and a water level monitoring pipe extended to lower than the inner cap passing through the liquid sealing of the outer cap for sucking the atmosphere in the outer cap. Pressurized air is sent through the air supply pipe, to lower the water level of the coolants in the outer cap and the water level monitoring pipe sucks the pressurized air, by which the inside and the outside of the channel box are partitioned. Subsequently, if the sample water is sampled by a sampling tube, sampling water which enables accurate evaluation for radioactivity concentration in the fuel assembly can be obtained. (I.S.)

  10. Catch me if you can: Comparing ballast water sampling skids to traditional net sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradie, Johanna; Gianoli, Claudio; Linley, Robert Dallas; Schillak, Lothar; Schneider, Gerd; Stehouwer, Peter; Bailey, Sarah

    2018-03-01

    With the recent ratification of the International Convention for the Control and Management of Ships' Ballast Water and Sediments, 2004, it will soon be necessary to assess ships for compliance with ballast water discharge standards. Sampling skids that allow the efficient collection of ballast water samples in a compact space have been developed for this purpose. We ran 22 trials on board the RV Meteor from June 4-15, 2015 to evaluate the performance of three ballast water sampling devices (traditional plankton net, Triton sampling skid, SGS sampling skid) for three organism size classes: ≥ 50 μm, ≥ 10 μm to Natural sea water was run through the ballast water system and untreated samples were collected using paired sampling devices. Collected samples were analyzed in parallel by multiple analysts using several different analytic methods to quantify organism concentrations. To determine whether there were differences in the number of viable organisms collected across sampling devices, results were standardized and statistically treated to filter out other sources of variability, resulting in an outcome variable representing the mean difference in measurements that can be attributed to sampling devices. These results were tested for significance using pairwise Tukey contrasts. Differences in organism concentrations were found in 50% of comparisons between sampling skids and the plankton net for ≥ 50 μm, and ≥ 10 μm to < 50 μm size classes, with net samples containing either higher or lower densities. There were no differences for < 10 μm organisms. Future work will be required to explicitly examine the potential effects of flow velocity, sampling duration, sampled volume, and organism concentrations on sampling device performance.

  11. Atrazine Concentrations in Stream Water and Streambed Sediment Pore Water in the St. Joseph and Galien River Basins, Michigan and Indiana, May 2001 - September 2003

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duris, Joseph W; Reeves, Howard W; Kiesler, James L

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) sampled multiple stream sites across the St. Joseph and Galien River Basins to detect and quantify the herbicide atrazine using a field enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) triazine test...

  12. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Tuba City, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    Planned, routine ground water sampling activities at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Tuba City, Arizona, are described in the following sections of this water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP). This plan identifies and justifies the sampling locations, analytical parameters, detection limits, and sampling frequency for the stations routinely monitored at the site. The ground water data are used for site characterization and risk assessment. The regulatory basis for routine ground water monitoring at UMTRA Project sites is derived from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations in 40 CFR Part 192 (1994) and the final EPA standards of 1995 (60 FR 2854). Sampling procedures are guided by the UMTRA Project standard operating procedures (SOP) (JEG, n.d.), and the most effective technical approach for the site

  13. When high waters recede and the floodplain reemerges: Evaluating the lingering effects of extreme flooding on stream nitrogen cycling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neville, J.; Emanuel, R. E.

    2017-12-01

    In 2016 Hurricane Matthew brought immense flooding and devastation to the Lumbee (aka Lumber) River basin. Some impacts are obvious, such as deserted homes and businesses, but other impacts, including long-term environmental, are uncertain. Extreme flooding throughout the basin established temporary hydrologic connectivity between aquatic environments and upland sources of nutrients and other pollutants. Though 27% of the basin is covered by wetlands, hurricane-induced flooding was so intense that wetlands may have had no opportunity to mitigate delivery of nutrients into surface waters. As a result, how Hurricane Matthew impacted nitrate retention and uptake in the Lumbee River remains uncertain. The unknown magnitude of nitrate transported into the Lumbee River from surrounding sources may have lingering impacts on nitrogen cycling in this stream. With these potential impacts in mind, we conducted a Lagrangian water quality sampling campaign to assess the ability of the Lumbee River to retain and process nitrogen following Hurricane Matthew. We collected samples before and after flooding and compare first order nitrogen uptake kinetics of both periods. The analysis and comparisons allow us to evaluate the long-term impacts of Hurricane Matthew on nitrogen cycling after floodwaters recede.

  14. Monitoring and sampling perched ground water in a basaltic terrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbell, J.M.

    1990-01-01

    Perched ground water zones are often overlooked in monitoring plans, but they can provide significant information on water and contaminant movement. This paper presents information about perched ground water obtained from drilling and monitoring at a hazardous and radioactive waste disposal site at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Six of forty-five wells drilled at the Radioactive Waste Management Complex have detected perched water in basalts above sedimentary interbeds. Perched water has been detected at depths of 90 and 210 ft below land surface, approximately 370 ft above the regional water table. Eighteen years of water level measurements from one well at a depth of 210 ft indicate a consistent source of water. Water level data indicate a seasonal fluctuation. The maximum water level in this well varies within a 0.5 ft interval, suggesting the water level reaches equilibrium with the inflow to the well at this height. Volatile organic constituents have been detected in concentrations from 1.2 to 1.4 mg/L of carbon tetrachloride. Eight other volatile organics have been detected. The concentrations of organics are consistent with the prevailing theory of movement by diffusion in the gaseous phase. Results of tritium analyses indicate water has moved to a depth of 86 ft in 17 yr. Results of well sampling analyses indicate monitoring and sampling of perched water can be a valuable resource for understanding the hydrogeologic environment of the vadose zone at disposal sites

  15. Rapid and stream-lined methods for analysis of actinides in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, E.L.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: 1) Project Summary: A systematic study of separating the actinides from each other in 1 M hydrochloric acid media has been carried out using selective oxidation/reduction processes followed by co-precipitation with neodymium fluoride. We have optimized two such procedures, one with bromate and another with permanganate, for the sequential separation of Am, Pu, Np, and U isotopes. The first procedure involves oxidation of Pu, Np and U to +6 state in 1 M HCI media at 85 deg C with 30% NaBrO 3 and separation from trivalent Am by collecting the latter on the first NdF 3 co- precipitated source. Plutonium is then reduced and converted to +4 oxidation state with 40% NaNO 2 at 85 deg C, while Np and U are kept oxidized with additional bromate in solution at 50-70 deg C, thus separating Pu by collection on a second NdF 3 source. At this stage, Np present in the filtrate is reduced with hydroxylamine hydrochloride and separated from U by collecting on a third source. Subsequently, U is reduced with 30% TiCI 3 and co-precipitated on a final source. The second procedure, which employs KMnO 4 in 1 M HCI media at 60-85 deg C for oxidizing Pu, Np and U, and separating from Am, produces MnO 2 which is collected along with Am on the co-precipitated NdF 3 . This MnO 2 is dissolved on the filter itself with 1 ml of acidified 1.5% H 2 O 2 without any degradation of the α-spectra. After evaporating the filtrate to destroy H 2 O 2 , Pu, Np and U are separated by following steps similar to those in the bromate procedure. The recoveries of the actinides with both procedures are >99%. The decontamination factors are between 10 3 and 10 4 . 2) Summary of Proposed Work for the Next Year: Now that the separation procedure has been developed, we will begin to incorporate it into rapid and steam-lined procedures for samples, such as water, air filters and environmental materials. (author)

  16. Ground-water resources of Gregg County, Texas, with a section on Stream runoff

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadhurst, W.L.; Breeding, S.D.

    1950-01-01

    Field work in the island of St. Croix, V. I., was carried on from December 1938 to April 1939 in connection with a test-drilling program for water sup- plies. The island is 21 miles long and has a maximum width of 6 miles. Its western part consists of a range of mountains flanked on the south by a rolling plain; its narrower eastern part is entirely mountainous. There are only a few small streams. The rolling and fiat lands are cultivated or are in grass, and the mountainous areas are either wooded or in grass. The average rain- fall of the island is 46.34 inches, but severe droughts and periods of excess precipitation are not uncommon. The island is made up of rocks of Upper Cretaceous age, mostly volcanic tufts and limestones known as the Mount Eagle volcanics; diorite intruded into the cretaceous rocks; and Oligocene to Miocene blue clays and yellow marls (the Jealousy formation and Kingshill marl, respectively). Alluvium is widely distributed. The Mount Eagle rocks were strongly folded in early Tertiary time and the Kingshill strata gently folded in post Lower-Miocene time along an east-northeast axis. Three early Tertiary cycles of erosion are recognized. After the folding of the Kingshill marl, streams followed the strike of the folded rocks in a westerly direction, but they gradually assumed southward courses across the marl plain and as a result a western area of old-age topography, a central area of late-mature topography, and an eastern area of early-mature topography have been created. Submerged reefs and emergent reefs and beaches indicate several fairly recent stands of the sea. Water for human consumption is obtained by collecting rain water in cis- terns, but water for other purposes is almost entirely supplied by wells which are generally less than 100 feet deep. Many dug wells are used, but in recent years drilled wells have been constructed. Most of them are discharged by wind-powered pumps of small capacity. Wells are developed in all the rocks

  17. Impact of Water Usage on the Hydrology of Streams in the Mill River Watershed, Massachusetts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, R. M.; Rhodes, A. L.; Pufall, A.; Bradstreet, E.; Katchpole, S.; Mattison, E.; Woods, R.

    2001-05-01

    Removal of surface water for municipal water supplies has reduced base flow in two tributary streams to the Mill River in Whately Massachusetts. This reduction in the flow of high quality water from these tributaries reduces the amount of dilution of high anthropogenic chemical loads in the main branch of the Mill River leading to high concentrations of chloride and sulfate. The city of Northampton, operates a reservoir on West Brook that removes an average of 5,700 m3/day. West Brook occupies a 28.4 km2 watershed underlain by Paleozoic igneous and metamorphic rocks that are mainly overlain by thin deposits of Pleistocene till. There are isolated areas of stratified drift in the area of the reservoir and where West Brook enters into the area formerly occupied by Glacial Lake Hitchcock. The reservoir (0.35 km2 in area) lies within the upper third of the subcatchment and is primarily fed by Avery Brook (7.6 km2 watershed). Although the reservoirs watershed represent about one third of the West Brook watershed, high water demands limit the release of water from the reservoir to periods of high flow associated with intense rainfall or snowmelt events. A comparison of unit hydrographs from Avery Brook, upstream of the reservoir with those from West Brook near where it enters the Mill River show significant lower discharges downstream (1mm/day). A comparison of flow duration curves show that discharges below the reservoir are dramatically lower during low flow conditions. The town of South Deerfield operates a reservoir on Roaring Brook that removes approximately 3,800 m3/day. Roaring Brook occupies a 14.0 km2 watershed that is similar in geology to West Brook. The reservoir is located on the downstream section of the brook just above where it enters the Mill River. Unlike the Northampton reservoir, water is almost continually released from the reservoir although the rate does fluctuate greatly. Data from a gage station located just downstream of the dam show rapid

  18. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Monument Valley, Arizona

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Monument Valley Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site in Cane Valley is a former uranium mill that has undergone surface remediation in the form of tailings and contaminated materials removal. Contaminated materials from the Monument Valley (Arizona) UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat (Utah) UMTRA Project site for consolidation with the Mexican Hat tailings. Tailings removal was completed in February 1994. Three geologic units at the site contain water: the unconsolidated eolian and alluvial deposits (alluvial aquifer), the Shinarump Conglomerate (Shinarump Member), and the De Chelly Sandstone. Water quality analyses indicate the contaminant plume has migrated north of the site and is mainly in the alluvial aquifer. An upward hydraulic gradient in the De Chelly Sandstone provides some protection to that aquifer. This water sampling and analysis plan recommends sampling domestic wells, monitor wells, and surface water in April and September 1994. The purpose of sampling is to continue periodic monitoring for the surface program, evaluate changes to water quality for site characterization, and provide data for the baseline risk assessment. Samples taken in April will be representative of high ground water levels and samples taken in September will be representative of low ground water levels. Filtered and nonfiltered samples will be analyzed for plume indicator parameters and baseline risk assessment parameters

  19. Radon in water samples around Ningyo Toge area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuta, Sadaaki [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Kamisaibara, Okayama (Japan). Ningyo Toge Works

    1997-02-01

    Radon concentrations of river water and drinking water were surveyed. Water samples were collected from the region around Ningyo-Toge Works which were positioned on a granitic layer having uranium deposit. Each sample was taken using a separating funnel and the radioactivity was counted by liquid scintillation counter (ALOKA, LB-2). Since there were old working places of mine in the region, mine drainages from them were also analyzed. The radon concentration of drinking water from the region ranged from 0.1 to 230 Bq/l. The samples with a higher activity than 100 Bq/l were water from springs or wells and the area of the highest Rn concentration was on a typical granitic layer, suggesting some geographic effects on Rn concentration. Some samples of drinking water had slightly higher levels of Rn, probably due to the utilization of underflow as its source. The mean concentration of Rn became higher in the order; river water, drinking water, mine drainage in the region. In addition, a negative correlation between Rn concentration of water and the river flow rate was observed in this region. (M.N.)

  20. From a water resource to a point pollution source: the daily journey of a coastal urban stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LR. Rörig

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to understand how a stream ecosystem that flows from its fountainhead to its mouth inside a city, changes from a water resource to a point pollution source. A multidisciplinary descriptive approach was adopted, including the short-term temporal and spatial determination of physical, chemical, biological and ecotoxicological variables. Results showed that water quality rapidly decreases with increasing urbanization, leading the system to acquire raw sewage attributes even in the first hundred meters after the fountainheads. Despite the tidal circulation near the stream mouth being restricted by shallowness, some improvement of the water quality was detected in this area. The multidisciplinary evaluation showed to be useful for obtaining a more realistic understanding of the stream degradation process, and to forecast restoration and mitigation measures.

  1. Troubled Waters: where Multiple Streams of Inequality Converge in the Math and Science Experiences of Nonprivileged Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrott, Laurel; Spatig, Linda; Kusimo, Patricia S.; Carter, Carolyn C.; Keyes, Marian

    Water is often hardest to navigate at the confluence of individual streams. As they experience math and science, nonprivileged girls maneuver through roiling waters where the streams of gender, ethnicity, poverty, place, and teaching practices converge. Just as waters of separate streams blend, these issues - too often considered separate factors - become blended and difficult to isolate, and the resulting turbulence produces a bumpy ride. We draw on 3 years of qualitative data collected as part of an intervention program to explore the math and science experiences and perceptions of a group of ethnically diverse, low socioeconomic status rural and urban adolescent Appalachian girls. After describing program and community contexts, we explore "opportunity to leant" issues - specifically, expectations, access to content, and support networks - and examine their schooling experiences against visions of science and math reform and pressures for accountability. Data are discussed within a framework of critical educational theory.

  2. The Role of Stream Water Carbon Dynamics and Export in the Carbon Balance of a Tropical Seasonal Rainforest, Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wen-Jun; Zhang, Yi-Ping; Schaefer, Douglas A.; Sha, Li-Qing; Deng, Yun; Deng, Xiao-Bao; Dai, Kai-Jie

    2013-01-01

    A two-year study (2009 ∼ 2010) was carried out to investigate the dynamics of different carbon (C) forms, and the role of stream export in the C balance of a 23.4-ha headwater catchment in a tropical seasonal rainforest at Xishuangbanna (XSBN), southwest China. The seasonal volumetric weighted mean (VWM) concentrations of total inorganic C (TIC) and dissolved inorganic C (DIC) were higher, and particulate inorganic C (PIC) and organic C (POC) were lower, in the dry season than the rainy season, while the VWM concentrations of total organic C (TOC) and dissolved organic C (DOC) were similar between seasons. With increased monthly stream discharge and stream water temperature (SWT), only TIC and DIC concentrations decreased significantly. The most important C form in stream export was DIC, accounting for 51.8% of the total C (TC) export; DOC, POC, and PIC accounted for 21.8%, 14.9%, and 11.5% of the TC export, respectively. Dynamics of C flux were closely related to stream discharge, with the greatest export during the rainy season. C export in the headwater stream was 47.1 kg C ha−1 yr−1, about 2.85% of the annual net ecosystem exchange. This finding indicates that stream export represented a minor contribution to the C balance in this tropical seasonal rainforest. PMID:23437195

  3. The role of stream water carbon dynamics and export in the carbon balance of a tropical seasonal rainforest, southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Jun Zhou

    Full Text Available A two-year study (2009 ~ 2010 was carried out to investigate the dynamics of different carbon (C forms, and the role of stream export in the C balance of a 23.4-ha headwater catchment in a tropical seasonal rainforest at Xishuangbanna (XSBN, southwest China. The seasonal volumetric weighted mean (VWM concentrations of total inorganic C (TIC and dissolved inorganic C (DIC were higher, and particulate inorganic C (PIC and organic C (POC were lower, in the dry season than the rainy season, while the VWM concentrations of total organic C (TOC and dissolved organic C (DOC were similar between seasons. With increased monthly stream discharge and stream water temperature (SWT, only TIC and DIC concentrations decreased significantly. The most important C form in stream export was DIC, accounting for 51.8% of the total C (TC export; DOC, POC, and PIC accounted for 21.8%, 14.9%, and 11.5% of the TC export, respectively. Dynamics of C flux were closely related to stream discharge, with the greatest export during the rainy season. C export in the headwater stream was 47.1 kg C ha(-1 yr(-1, about 2.85% of the annual net ecosystem exchange. This finding indicates that stream export represented a minor contribution to the C balance in this tropical seasonal rainforest.

  4. Interaction of on-site and near real time measured turbidity and enzyme activity in stream water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stadler, Philipp; Farnleitner, Andreas H.; Zessner, Matthias

    2013-04-01

    influence of turbidity on rapid GLUC measurements of stream water. During event run off conditions with high sediment load, accuracy of the GLUC determination was assayed. Various on-site set ups were tested to ascertain the use of sample prefiltration. We would like acknowledge financial support from the Austrian Science Funds (FWF) as part of the Vienna Doctoral Programme on Water Resource Systems (DK-plus W1219-N22). References: Cabral, J. P. S. 2010. "Water Microbiology. Bacterial Pathogens and Water." International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 7 (10): 3657-3703. Biswal , N. , S. Gupta, N. Ghosh, and A. Pradhan 2003. "Recovery of turbidity free fluorescence from measured fluorescence: An experimental approach. Optics Express 11, (24): 3320. Molina-Munoz, M., J. M. Poyatos, R. Vilchez, E. Hontoria, B. Rodelas, and J. Gonzalez-Lopez. 2007. "Effect of the Concentration of Suspended Solids on the Enzymatic Activities and Biodiversity of a Submerged Membrane Bioreactor for Aerobic Treatment of Domestic Wastewater." Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 73 (6): 1441-1451. Tryland, I., and L. Fiksdal. 1998. "Enzyme Characteristics of β-d-Galactosidase-and β-d-Glucuronidase-Positive Bacteria and Their Interference in Rapid Methods for Detection of Waterborne Coliforms andEscherichia Coli." Applied and Environmental Microbiology 64 (3): 1018-1023.

  5. Diatom, cyanobacterial and microbial mats as indicators of hydrocarbon contaminated Arctic streams and waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziervogel, H.; Selann, J.; Adeney, B. [EBA Engineering Consultants Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada); Nelson, J.A. [J.B. Services, Sarnia, ON (Canada); Murdock, E. [Nunavut Power, Iqaluit (Canada)

    2003-07-01

    An environmental assessment conducted at Repulse Bay, Nunavut in the summer of 2001 revealed a recent diesel spill flowing from the groundwater into a creek. The spill had not been reported. When Arctic surface waters mix with hydrocarbon impacted groundwater and sediments, distinctive mats of diatom, cyanobacteria and other bacteria are formed. These mats have the potential for phytoremediation of hydrocarbons. This paper explained the apparent dominance of mats in contaminated Arctic waters and why they promote biodegradation of hydrocarbons. Hydrocarbon-contaminated soils and groundwater are generally anaerobic. The higher dissolved carbon dioxide in polluted soils and groundwater can benefit photosynthetic cyanobacteria and diatom found in oligotrophic, lower alkalinity Arctic waters. The anaerobic and aerobic bacteria can potentially take advantage of the hydrogen substrate and the nitrogen fixing abilities of the cyanobacteria. Zooplankton predators may be killed off by the toxicity of the polluted groundwater. The paper provides examples where a microbial mat reduced the sulfate content of a hydrocarbon-impacted Arctic stream by 100 ppm, and where a pond covered in a benthic microbial mat showed no evidence of hydrocarbons in the water overlying sediments contaminated with hydrocarbons at concentrations measured at 30,000 ppm. 19 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  6. Sampling and Analysis Plan for the 105-N Basin Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.O. Mahood

    1997-01-01

    This sampling and analysis plan defines the strategy, and field and laboratory methods that will be used to characterize 105-N Basin water. The water will be shipped to the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and disposal as part of N Reactor deactivation. These analyses are necessary to ensure that the water will meet the acceptance criteria of the ETF, as established in the Memorandum of Understanding for storage and treatment of water from N-Basin (Appendix A), and the characterization requirements for 100-N Area water provided in a letter from ETF personnel (Appendix B)

  7. Recommendations for constructing forest stream crossings to control soil losses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamela J. Edwards; Jingxin Wang; Joshua T. Stedman

    2009-01-01

    Stream water samples were collected once daily and throughout storms from a small forested watershed in north central West Virginia for approximately 8 years. The turbidities of the samples were measured to determine how water quality changed in response to the construction of three associated stream crossings. The influence of the...

  8. Validation of single-sample doubly labeled water method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, M.D.; Weathers, W.W.

    1989-01-01

    We have experimentally validated a single-sample variant of the doubly labeled water method for measuring metabolic rate and water turnover in a very small passerine bird, the verdin (Auriparus flaviceps). We measured CO 2 production using the Haldane gravimetric technique and compared these values with estimates derived from isotopic data. Doubly labeled water results based on the one-sample calculations differed from Haldane values by less than 0.5% on average (range -8.3 to 11.2%, n = 9). Water flux computed by the single-sample method differed by -1.5% on average from results for the same birds based on the standard, two-sample technique (range -13.7 to 2.0%, n = 9)

  9. Preconcentration of uranium in water samples using dispersive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preconcentration of uranium in water samples using dispersive liquid-liquid micro- extraction coupled with solid-phase extraction and determination with inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry.

  10. APPLICATION OF DIATOMS TO ASSESS THE QUALITY OF THE WATERS OF THE BARYCZKA STREAM, LEFT-SIDE TRIBUTARY OF THE RIVER SAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Noga

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The Baryczka stream is a small (about 20 km long, left bank tributary of the River San (Podkarpackie Voivodeship. Studies on diversity of diatom communities using OMNIDIA software were conducted in 2010 and 2011. Diatomaceous indices IPS, GDI and TDI and Van Dam et al. classification system were used for water quality assessment. Planothidium lanceolatum, Cocconeis placentula var. lineata, Achnanthidium minutissimum var. minutissimum, Nitzschia linearis, Rhoicosphenia abbreviata, Navicula lanceolata and Naicula gregaria were the most numerous. Values of the IPS index indicate good water quality (II–III class. Based on the GDI index, waters of the Baryczka stream were classified to III class water quality. The TDI index indicated poor and bad ecological state on the most sampling sites. On all sampling sites alaliphilous (pH>7 diatoms taxa predominated. The most common were eutraphentic and hypereutraphentic diatoms. With respect to trophy, it was shown that α- and β-mesosaprobous diatoms were the most common (III and II class water quality.

  11. bacteriological analysis of well water samples in sagamu.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    Department of Pharmaceutical Microbiology, Faculty of Pharmacy, Olabisi Onabanjo University, Ago-Iwoye, Nigeria. *Correspondence. ... All the water samples exceeded the standard limit of the most probable ... or disinfection and this could lead to outbreak of water borne diseases. ... The bottle was brought up to a surface.

  12. Contamination of Ground Water Samples from Well Installations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, Christian; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard; Simonsen, Y.

    1996-01-01

    Leaching of a plasticizer, N-butylbenzenesulfonamide, from ground water multilevel sampling installations in nylon has been demonstrated. The leaching resulted in concentrations of DOC and apparent AOX, both comparable with those observed in landfill contaminated ground waters. It is concluded...... that nylon should not be used in studies of contamination with organic compounds....

  13. Bacterial contamination of water samples in Gabon, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Ehrhardt

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Contamination of water is a major burden in the public health setting of developing countries. We therefore assessed the quality of water samples in Gabon in 2013. The main findings were a contamination rate with coliforms of 13.5% and the detection of a possible environmental reservoir for extended spectrum beta-lactamase-producing bacteria.

  14. Ion Chromatographic Analyses of Sea Waters, Brines and Related Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Gros

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on the ion chromatographic methods for the analyses of natural waters with high ionic strength. At the beginning a natural diversity in ionic composition of waters is highlighted and terminology clarified. In continuation a brief overview of other review articles of potential interest is given. A review of ion chromatographic methods is organized in four sections. The first section comprises articles focused on the determination of ionic composition of water samples as com...

  15. Stream biomonitoring using macroinvertebrates around the globe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buss, Daniel F.; Carlisle, Daren M.; Chon, Tae Soo; Culp, Joseph; Harding, Jon S.; Keizer-Vlek, H.E.; Robinson, Wayne A.; Strachan, Stephanie; Thirion, Christa; Hughes, Robert M.

    2015-01-01

    Water quality agencies and scientists are increasingly adopting standardized sampling methodologies because of the challenges associated with interpreting data derived from dissimilar protocols. Here, we compare 13 protocols for monitoring streams from different regions and countries around the

  16. The national stream quality accounting network: A flux-basedapproach to monitoring the water quality of large rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, R.P.; Aulenbach, Brent T.; Kelly, V.J.

    2001-01-01

    Estimating the annual mass flux at a network of fixed stations is one approach to characterizing water quality of large rivers. The interpretive context provided by annual flux includes identifying source and sink areas for constituents and estimating the loadings to receiving waters, such as reservoirs or the ocean. Since 1995, the US Geological Survey's National Stream Quality Accounting Network (NASQAN) has employed this approach at a network of 39 stations in four of the largest river basins of the USA: The Mississippi, the Columbia, the Colorado and the Rio Grande. In this paper, the design of NASQAN is described and its effectiveness at characterizing the water quality of these rivers is evaluated using data from the first 3 years of operation. A broad range of constituents was measured by NASQAN, including trace organic and inorganic chemicals, major ions, sediment and nutrients. Where possible, a regression model relating concentration to discharge and season was used to interpolate between chemical observations for flux estimation. For water-quality network design, the most important finding from NASQAN was the importance of having a specific objective (that is, estimating annual mass flux) and, from that, an explicitly stated data analysis strategy, namely the use of regression models to interpolate between observations. The use of such models aided in the design of sampling strategy and provided a context for data review. The regression models essentially form null hypotheses for concentration variation that can be evaluated by the observed data. The feedback between network operation and data collection established by the hypothesis tests places the water-quality network on a firm scientific footing.

  17. Reduction of hexavalent chromium in water samples acidified for preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollenwerk, K.G.; Grove, D.B.

    1985-01-01

    Reduction of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI), in water samples, preserved by standard techniques, was investigated. The standard preservation technique for water samples that are to be analyzed for Cr(VI) consists of filtration through a 0.45-??m membrane, acidification to a pH plastic bottles. Batch experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of H+ concentration, NO2, temperature, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) on the reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III). The rate of reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) increased with increasing NO2, DOC, H+, and temperature. Reduction of Cr(VI) by organic matter occurred in some samples even though the samples were unacidified. Reduction of Cr(VI) is inhibited to an extent by storing the sample at 4??C. Stability of Cr(VI) in water is variable and depends on the other constituents present in the sample. Water samples collected for the determination of Cr(VI) should be filtered (0.45-??m membrane), refrigerated, and analyzed as quickly as possible. Water samples should not be acidified. Measurement of total Cr in addition to Cr(VI) can serve as a check for Cr(VI) reduction. If total Cr is greater than Cr(VI), the possibility that Cr(VI) reduction has occurred needs to be considered.The rate of reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) increased with increasing NO//2, DOC, H** plus , and temperature. Reduction of Cr(VI) by organic matter occurred in some samples even though the samples were unacidified. Reduction of Cr(VI) is inhibited to an extent by storing the sample at 4 degree C. Stability of Cr(VI) in water is variable and depends on the other constituents present in the sample. Water samples collected for the determination of Cr(VI) should be filtered (0. 45- mu m membrane), refrigerated, and analyzed as quickly as possible. Water samples should not be acidified. Measurement of total Cr in addition to Cr(VI) can serve as a check for Cr(VI) reduction. If total Cr is greater than Cr(VI), the possibility that Cr(VI) reduction has occurred needs

  18. A Regional Assessment of the Effects of Conservation Practices on In-stream Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A. M.; Alexander, R. B.; Arnold, J.; Norfleet, L.; Robertson, D. M.; White, M.

    2011-12-01

    The Conservation Effects Assessment Program (CEAP), initiated by USDA Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), has the goal of quantifying the environmental benefits of agricultural conservation practices. As part of this effort, detailed farmer surveys were compiled to document the adoption of conservation practices. Survey data showed that up to 38 percent of cropland in the Upper Mississippi River basin is managed to reduce sediment, nutrient and pesticide loads from agricultural activities. The broader effects of these practices on downstream water quality are challenging to quantify. The USDA-NRCS recently reported results of a study that combined farmer surveys with process-based models to deduce the effect of conservation practices on sediment and chemical loads in farm runoff and downstream waters. As a follow-up collaboration, USGS and USDA scientists conducted a semi-empirical assessment of the same suite of practices using the USGS SPARROW (SPAtially Referenced Regression On Watershed attributes) modeling framework. SPARROW is a hybrid statistical and mechanistic stream water quality model of annual conditions that has been used extensively in studies of nutrient sources and delivery. In this assessment, the USDA simulations of the effects of conservation practices on loads in farm runoff were used as an explanatory variable (i.e., change in farm loads per unit area) in a component of an existing a SPARROW model of the Upper Midwest. The model was then re-calibrated and tested to determine whether the USDA estimate of conservation adoption intensity explained a statistically significant proportion of the spatial variability in stream nutrient loads in the Upper Mississippi River basin. The results showed that the suite of conservation practices that NRCS has catalogued as complete nutrient and sediment management are a statistically significant feature in the Midwestern landscape associated with phosphorous runoff and delivery to downstream waters

  19. Data report: Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program. Hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sargent, K.A.; Cook, J.R.; Fay, W.M.

    1982-02-01

    This report presents the results of ground water, stream water, and stream sediment reconnaissance in Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Ohio. The following sample types were collected in each state: Illinois - 716 stream sediment, 1046 ground water, 337 stream water; Indiana - 126 stream sediment, 443 ground water, 111 stream water; Kentucky - 4901 stream sediment, 6408 ground water, 3966 stream water; Tennessee - 3309 stream sediment, 3574 ground water, 1584 stream water; Ohio - 1214 stream sediment, 2049 ground water, 1205 stream water. Neutron activation analyses are given for U, Br, Cl, F, Mn, Na, Al, V, and Dy in ground water and stream water, and for U, Th, Hf, Ce, Fe, Mn, Na, Sc, Ti, V, Al, Dy, Eu, La, Sm, Yb, and Lu in sediments. Supplementary analyses by other techniques are reported for U (extractable), Ag, As, Ba, Be, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Se, Sn, Sr, W, Y, and Zn. These analyses were made on 248 sediment samples from Tennessee. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site. Oak Ridge National Laboratory analyzed sediment samples which were not analyzed by Savannah River Laboratory neutron activation

  20. Streamflow, water quality, and aquatic macroinvertebrates of selected streams in Fairfax County, Virginia, 2007-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastram, John D.

    2014-01-01

    few exceptions. Nitrogen concentrations in monthly samples were generally low and dominated by nitrate. Exceptions to the generally low N concentrations occurred at Captain Hickory Run, which had a median total N concentration of approximately 4.9 milligrams per liter (mg/L), compared to the network-wide median of approximately 1.7 mg/L, and at Popes Head Creek Tributary, where total N concentrations spiked to 6–8 mg/L during low-flow periods in August or September of each year. Phosphorus concentrations in monthly samples were generally low and dominated by the dissolved fraction. Two monitoring stations in the network, Flatlick Branch and Frog Branch, are notable for having median total P concentrations that were, on average, approximately three times greater than the median total P concentration of 0.02 mg/L observed at the other 12 stations in the network. Suspended-sediment and nutrient loads and yields were similar to those of urbanized watersheds in other studies, although the yields from these urbanized basins were greater than, or within, the upper quartile of yields observed throughout the Chesapeake Bay watershed. Annual suspended-sediment loads ranged from 289–10,275 tons, with a median of 1,311 tons, and corresponding yields ranged from 107–2,827 tons per square mile (ton/mi2), with a median of 277 ton/mi2. Annual total N loads ranged from 8,014–36,413 pounds, with a median of 21,314 pounds, and corresponding yields ranged from 3,361–8,360 pounds per square mile (lb/mi2), with a median of 6,200 lb/mi2. Annual total P loads ranged from 380–6,558 pounds, with a median of 1,874 pounds, and corresponding yields ranged from 140–1,562 lb/mi2, with a median of 543 lb/mi2. Benthic macroinvertebrate community metrics indicated that streams throughout Fairfax County are generally of poor health. One station, Castle Creek, was an exception with results indicating relatively high quality aquatic health. Six additional monitoring stations were added to

  1. The influence of data characteristics on detecting wetland/stream surface-water connections in the Delmarva Peninsula, Maryland and Delaware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Distler, Hayley; Lang, Megan W.; Alexander, Laurie C.

    2018-01-01

    The dependence of downstream waters on upstream ecosystems necessitates an improved understanding of watershed-scale hydrological interactions including connections between wetlands and streams. An evaluation of such connections is challenging when, (1) accurate and complete datasets of wetland and stream locations are often not available and (2) natural variability in surface-water extent influences the frequency and duration of wetland/stream connectivity. The Upper Choptank River watershed on the Delmarva Peninsula in eastern Maryland and Delaware is dominated by a high density of small, forested wetlands. In this analysis, wetland/stream surface water connections were quantified using multiple wetland and stream datasets, including headwater streams and depressions mapped from a lidar-derived digital elevation model. Surface-water extent was mapped across the watershed for spring 2015 using Landsat-8, Radarsat-2 and Worldview-3 imagery. The frequency of wetland/stream connections increased as a more complete and accurate stream dataset was used and surface-water extent was included, in particular when the spatial resolution of the imagery was finer (i.e., watershed contributing direct surface water runoff to streamflow. This finding suggests that our interpretation of the frequency and duration of wetland/stream connections will be influenced not only by the spatial and temporal characteristics of wetlands, streams and potential flowpaths, but also by the completeness, accuracy and resolution of input datasets.

  2. Sampling and analysis of water from Upper Three Runs and its wetlands near Tank 16 and the Mixed Waste Management Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, K.L.; Cummins, C.L.

    1994-06-01

    In April and September 1993, sampling was conducted to characterize the Upper Three Runs (UTR) wetland waters near the Mixed Waste Management Facility to determine if contaminants migrating from MWMF are outcropping into the floodplain wetlands. For the spring sampling event, 37 wetlands and five stream water samples were collected. Thirty-six wetland and six stream water samples were collected for the fall sampling event. Background seepline and stream water samples were also collected for both sampling events. All samples were analyzed for RCRA Appendix IX volatiles, inorganics appearing on the Target Analyte List, tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides, and gross radiological activity. Most of the analytical data for both the spring and fall sampling events were reported as below method detection limits. The primary exceptions were the routine water quality indicators (e.g., turbidity, alkalinity, total suspended solids, etc.), iron, manganese, and tritium. During the spring, cadmium, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, potassium-40, ruthenium-106, and trichloroethylene were also detected above the MCLs from at least one location. A secondary objective of this project was to identify any UTR wetland water quality impacts resulting from leaks from Tank 16 located at the H-Area Tank Farm.

  3. Sampling and analysis of water from Upper Three Runs and its wetlands near Tank 16 and the Mixed Waste Management Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, K.L.; Cummins, C.L.

    1994-06-01

    In April and September 1993, sampling was conducted to characterize the Upper Three Runs (UTR) wetland waters near the Mixed Waste Management Facility to determine if contaminants migrating from MWMF are outcropping into the floodplain wetlands. For the spring sampling event, 37 wetlands and five stream water samples were collected. Thirty-six wetland and six stream water samples were collected for the fall sampling event. Background seepline and stream water samples were also collected for both sampling events. All samples were analyzed for RCRA Appendix IX volatiles, inorganics appearing on the Target Analyte List, tritium, gamma-emitting radionuclides, and gross radiological activity. Most of the analytical data for both the spring and fall sampling events were reported as below method detection limits. The primary exceptions were the routine water quality indicators (e.g., turbidity, alkalinity, total suspended solids, etc.), iron, manganese, and tritium. During the spring, cadmium, gross alpha, nonvolatile beta, potassium-40, ruthenium-106, and trichloroethylene were also detected above the MCLs from at least one location. A secondary objective of this project was to identify any UTR wetland water quality impacts resulting from leaks from Tank 16 located at the H-Area Tank Farm

  4. Development and testing of an in-stream phosphorus cycling model for the soil and water assessment tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Michael J; Storm, Daniel E; Mittelstet, Aaron; Busteed, Philip R; Haggard, Brian E; Rossi, Colleen

    2014-01-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool is widely used to predict the fate and transport of phosphorus (P) from the landscape through streams and rivers. The current in-stream P submodel may not be suitable for many stream systems, particularly those dominated by attached algae and those affected by point sources. In this research, we developed an alternative submodel based on the equilibrium P concentration concept coupled with a particulate scour and deposition model. This submodel was integrated with the SWAT model and applied to the Illinois River Watershed in Oklahoma, a basin influenced by waste water treatment plant discharges and extensive poultry litter application. The model was calibrated and validated using measured data. Highly variable in-stream P concentrations and equilibrium P concentration values were predicted spatially and temporally. The model also predicted the gradual storage of P in streambed sediments and the resuspension of this P during periodic high-flow flushing events. Waste water treatment plants were predicted to have a profound effect on P dynamics in the Illinois River due to their constant discharge even under base flow conditions. A better understanding of P dynamics in stream systems using the revised submodel may lead to the development of more effective mitigation strategies to control the impact of P from point and nonpoint sources. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  5. Influence of infrastructure on water quality and greenhouse gasdynamics in urban streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streams and rivers are significant sources of nitrous oxide (N2O), carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4), and watershed management can alter greenhouse gas emissions from streams. GHG emissions from streams in agricultural watersheds have been investigated in numerous studies,...

  6. UMTRA project water sampling and analysis plan, Mexican Hat, Utah

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-04-01

    The Mexican Hat, Utah, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site is a former uranium mill that is undergoing surface remediation in the form of on-site tailings stabilization. Contaminated surface materials from the Monument Valley, Arizona, UMTRA Project site have been transported to the Mexican Hat site and are being consolidated with the Mexican Hat tailings. The scheduled completion of the tailings disposal cell is August 1995. Water is found in two geologic units at the site: the Halgaito Shale Formation and the Honaker Trail Formation. The tailings rest on the Halgaito Shale, and water contained in that unit is a result of milling activities and, to a lesser extent, water released from the tailings from compaction during remedial action construction of the disposal cell. Water in the Halgaito Shale flows through fractures and discharges at seeps along nearby arroyos. Flow from the seeps will diminish as water drains from the unit. Ground water in the lower unit, the Honaker Trail Formation, is protected from contamination by an upward hydraulic gradient. There are no nearby water supply wells because of widespread poor background ground water quality and quantity, and the San Juan River shows no impacts from the site. This water sampling and analysis plan (WSAP) recommends sampling six seeps and one upgradient monitor well compared in the Honaker Trail Formation. Samples will be taken in April 1994 (representative of high group water levels) and September 1994 (representative of low ground water levels). Analyses will be performed on filtered samples for plume indicator parameters

  7. Legacies of stream channel modification revealed using General Land Office surveys, with implications for water temperature and aquatic life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth M. White

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Land use legacies can have a discernible influence in present-day watersheds and should be accounted for when designing conservation strategies for riverine aquatic life. We describe the environmental history of three watersheds within the Grande Ronde subbasin of the Columbia River using General Land Office survey field notes from the 19th century. In the two watersheds severely impacted by Euro-American land use, stream channel widths—a metric representing habitat simplification—increased from an average historical width of 16.8 m to an average present width of 20.8 m in large streams; 4.3 m to 5.5 m in small, confined or partly confined streams; and 3.5 m to 6.5 m in small, laterally unconfined steams. Conversely, we did not detect significant change in stream widths in an adjacent, wilderness stream with minimal human impact. Using a mechanistic water temperature model and restoration scenarios based on the historical condition, we predicted that stream restoration in the impacted watersheds could notably decrease average water temperatures—especially when channel narrowing is coupled with riparian restoration—up to a 6.6°C reduction in the upper Grande Ronde River and 3.0°C in Catherine Creek. These reductions in water temperature translated to substantial changes in the percentage of stream network habitable to salmon and steelhead migration (from 29% in the present condition to 79% in the fully restored scenario and to core juvenile rearing (from 13% in the present condition to 36% in the fully restored scenario. We conclude that land use legacies leave an important footprint on the present landscape and are critical for understanding historic habitat-forming processes as a necessary first step towards restoration.

  8. AN EVALUATION OF WATER QALITY OF AKPINAR STREAM (DENİZLİ WHERE TROUT PRODUCTION TAKES PLACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esengül KÖSE

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 20 physicochemical parameters were measured mountly in 2007 and seasonaly in 2008 and 2009 on Akpınar Stream, which is located within the borders of Denizli and has 13 trout production facility. The data obtained were evaluated according to the fresh water fish directive which was agreed by the Commision of European Union (EC Directives and Water Pollution Control Regulation Criteria. We determined that, the measured parameters on the first station do not constitute any risk for Salmonids and Cyprinids according to EC Directives and in the second station, the valuesof biological oxygen demand and nitrite were high enough to adversely affect the health of fish. There is not a significant difference between two stations for the parameters of oxygen, nitrate, totalnitrogen, pH, chemical oxygen demand, acid binding capacity, total hardness and chlorine. The parametes of total suspended solids, ammonium, nitrite, secondary phosphate, total phosphorus, organicmatter, ammonia, biological oxygen demand, turbidity, temperature and flow rate were significantly high in second station (p<0.05. The reason of high levels of the parameters especially origin of organic pollution in the secod station is fish feces and feed wastes which directly given into the water. Settling ponds should be used properly and controls should be provided to increase for more healtyproduction.

  9. Benthic invertebrate fauna, small streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Bruce Wallace; S.L. Eggert

    2009-01-01

    Small streams (first- through third-order streams) make up >98% of the total number of stream segments and >86% of stream length in many drainage networks. Small streams occur over a wide array of climates, geology, and biomes, which influence temperature, hydrologic regimes, water chemistry, light, substrate, stream permanence, a basin's terrestrial plant...

  10. Modern sedimentation patterns in Lake El'gygytgyn, NE Russia, derived from surface sediment and inlet streams samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Wennrich

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lake El'gygytgyn/NE Russia holds a continuous 3.58 Ma sediment record, which is regarded as the most long-lasting climate archive of the terrestrial Arctic. Based on multi-proxy geochemical, mineralogical, and granulometric analyses of surface sediment, inlet stream and bedrock samples, supplemented by statistical methods, major processes influencing the modern sedimentation in the lake were investigated. Grain-size parameters and chemical elements linked to the input of feldspars from acidic bedrock indicate a wind-induced two-cell current system as major driver of sediment transport and accumulation processes in Lake El'gygytgyn. The distribution of mafic rock related elements in the sediment on the lake floor can be traced back to the input of weathering products of basaltic rocks in the catchment. Obvious similarities in the spatial variability of manganese and heavy metals indicate sorption or co-precipitation of these elements with Fe and Mn hydroxides and oxides. But the similar distribution of organic matter and clay contents might also point to a fixation to organic components and clay minerals. An enrichment of mercury in the inlet streams might be indicative of neotectonic activity around the lake. The results of this study add to the fundamental knowledge of the modern lake processes of Lake El'gygytgyn and its lake-catchment interactions, and thus, yield crucial insights for the interpretation of paleo-data from this unique archive.

  11. Heavy water standards. Qualitative analyses, sample treating, stocking and manipulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavelescu, M.; Steflea, D.; Mihancea, I.; Varlam, M.; Irimescu, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents methods and procedures for measuring heavy water concentration, and also sampling, stocking and handling of samples to be analysed. The main concentration analysis methods are: mass spectrometry, for concentrations less then 1%, densitometry, for concentrations within the range 1% - 99% and infrared spectrometry for concentrations above 99%. Procedures of sampling, processing and purification appropriate to these measuring methods were established. 1 Tab

  12. The combined use of chemical and biochemical markers to assess water quality in two low-stream rivers (NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandes, Denise; Potrykus, Joanna; Morsiani, Cinzia; Raldua, Demetrio; Lavado, Ramon; Porte, Cinta

    2002-01-01

    Carps (Cyprinus carpio) and red swamp crayfish (Procambarus clarkii) were sampled from two low- stream Mediterranean rivers (Anoia and Cardener) receiving extensive urban and industrial waste water discharges. Tissue residues of selected pollutants (organo chlorinated compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)) were determined in conjunction with different biochemical responses (cytochrome P450, phase II enzymes) with the aim of investigating whether resident organisms were responsive to changes in water quality. Biota inhabiting those rivers were highly exposed to complex mixtures of polychlorobiphenyls and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (up to 9 ng/g w.w.) and PAHs (up to 6097 ng/g of hydroxylated PAHs in bile), the highest residues being observed in carps from Cardener. This has a reflection n 7-ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase (EROD) activity; that in carps from ardener ranged between 350 and 550 pmol/min/mg protein, whereas in carps from Anoia ranged between was 90 and 250 pmol/min/mg protein. The highest activity recorded was downstream of the sewage treatment plants in both rivers. Phase II enzymes were less sensitive to pollutant exposure than EROD; nonetheless, both glutathione S-transferase and UDP-glucuronyl transferase ere higher in carps from Cardener. The results support the usefulness of the combined use of chemical and biochemical responses to assess and diagnose pollution in highly stressed ecosystems

  13. Major inorganic elements in tap water samples in Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azrina, A; Khoo, H E; Idris, M A; Amin, I; Razman, M R

    2011-08-01

    Quality drinking water should be free from harmful levels of impurities such as heavy metals and other inorganic elements. Samples of tap water collected from 24 locations in Peninsular Malaysia were determined for inorganic element content. Minerals and heavy metals were analysed by spectroscopy methods, while non-metal elements were analysed using test kits. Minerals and heavy metals determined were sodium, magnesium, potassium, calcium, chromium, manganese, iron, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium and lead while the non-metal elements were fluoride, chloride, nitrate and sulphate. Most of the inorganic elements found in the samples were below the maximum permitted levels recommended by inter-national drinking water standard limits, except for iron and manganese. Iron concentration of tap water from one of the locations was higher than the standard limit. In general, tap water from different parts of Peninsular Malaysia had low concentrations of heavy metals and inorganic elements.

  14. Lead uptake of water plants in water stream at Kiteezi landfill site ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The concentration of Pb in the samples was measured using the atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS), Perkin Elmer Model. The obtained data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and two-way Anova. The results showed that there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the mean Pb content up taken by both plants ...

  15. Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera as water quality indicators along an environmental gradient in a neotropical urban stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Gomes Machado

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic interference in urban lotic systems is a factor affecting the biota of waterbodies. Aquatic macro invertebrates are an important food source for fish and are valuable indicators of water quality. The objective of this work was to study Chironomus larvae (Chironomidae: Diptera distribution along an environmental gradient in Barbado Stream, Cuiabá, MT, Brazil. No individual Chironomus was found in the springs of Barbado Stream, which may indicate preservation of the area. During the study period, we found 40.3 and 94.4 individuals/m2 at points 3 and 4 (low course, respectively. There is eutrophication in these sites due to domestic sewage discharges, indicating low quality water. The Barbado Stream needs restoration projects that include an awareness of the residents of their neighborhood’s environmental importance, and investments in the sanitation sector to prioritize the collection and treatment of wastewater and solid waste collection.

  16. Flocculation of organic carbon from headwaters to estuary - the impact of soil erosion, water quality and land use on carbon transformation processes in eight streams draining Exmoor, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoalv, J.; Groenevel