WorldWideScience

Sample records for streaked prochilod prochilodus

  1. Identification of nurseries areas of juvenile Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae) by scale and otolith morphometry and microchemistry

    OpenAIRE

    Avigliano, Esteban; Fortunato, Roberta Callicó; Biolé, Fernanda; Domanico, Alejandro; Simone, Silvia De; Neiff, Juan J.; Volpedo, Alejandra V.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The streaked prochilod Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes) is a commercially freshwater species from South America, distributed in the Plata basin. In the present work the morphometry (circularity, rectangularity, form factor, OL/OW and ellipticity indices) and chemistry (Sr:Ca, Ba:Ca, Zn:Ca) of lapilli otolith, and geometric morphometry of scales of streaked prochilod juveniles, in two sites in the Plata basin (Uruguay River and Estrella Wetland), were compared to determine if they ...

  2. Little Divergence Among Mitochondrial Lineages of Prochilodus (Teleostei, Characiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno F. Melo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence that migration prevents population structure among Neotropical characiform fishes has been reported recently but the effects upon species diversification remain unclear. Migratory species of Prochilodus have complex species boundaries and intrincate taxonomy representing a good model to address such questions. Here, we analyzed 147 specimens through barcode sequences covering all species of Prochilodus across a broad geographic area of South America. Species delimitation and population genetic methods revealed very little genetic divergence among mitochondrial lineages suggesting that extensive gene flow resulted likely from the highly migratory behavior, natural hybridization or recent radiation prevent accumulation of genetic disparity among lineages. Our results clearly delimit eight genetic lineages in which four of them contain a single species and four contain more than one morphologically problematic taxon including a trans-Andean species pair and species of the P. nigricans group. Information about biogeographic distribution of haplotypes presented here might contribute to further research on the population genetics and taxonomy of Prochilodus.

  3. Streak tube development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichs, C.K.; Estrella, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    A research program for the development of a high-speed, high-resolution streak image tube is described. This is one task in the development of a streak camera system with digital electronic readout, whose primary application is for diagnostics in underground nuclear testing. This program is concerned with the development of a high-resolution streak image tube compatible with x-ray input and electronic digital output. The tube must be capable of time resolution down to 100 psec and spatial resolution to provide greater than 1000 resolution elements across the cathode (much greater than presently available). Another objective is to develop the capability to make design changes in tube configurations to meet different experimental requirements. A demountable prototype streak tube was constructed, mounted on an optical bench, and placed in a vacuum system. Initial measurements of the tube resolution with an undeflected image show a resolution of 32 line pairs per millimeter over a cathode diameter of one inch, which is consistent with the predictions of the computer simulations. With the initial set of unoptmized deflection plates, the resolution pattern appeared to remain unchanged for static deflections of +- 1/2-inch, a total streak length of one inch, also consistent with the computer simulations. A passively mode-locked frequency-doubled dye laser is being developed as an ultraviolet pulsed light source to measure dynamic tube resolution during streaking. A sweep circuit to provide the deflection voltage in the prototype tube has been designed and constructed and provides a relatively linear ramp voltage with ramp durations adjustable between 10 and 1000 nsec

  4. Streaking tremor in Cascadia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidale, J. E.; Ghosh, A.; Sweet, J. R.; Creager, K. C.; Wech, A.; Houston, H.

    2009-12-01

    Details of tremor deep in subduction zones is damnably difficult to glimpse because of the lack of crisp initial arrivals, low waveform coherence, uncertain focal mechanisms, and the probability of simultaneous activity across extended regions. Yet such details hold out the best hope to illuminate the unknown mechanisms underlying episodic tremor and slip. Attacking this problem with brute force, we pointed a small, very dense seismic array down at the migration path of a good-sized episodic tremor and slip (ETS) event. In detail, it was an 84-element, 1300-m-aperture temporary seismic array in northern Washington, and the migration path of the May 2008 ETS event was 30-40 km directly underneath. Our beamforming technique tracked the time, incident angle, and azimuth of tremor radiation in unprecedented detail. We located the tremor by assuming it occurs on the subduction interface, estimated relative tremor moment released by each detected tremor window, and mapped it on the interface [Ghosh et al., GRL, 2009]. Fortunately for our ability to image it, the tremor generally appears to emanate from small regions, and we were surprised by how steadily the regions migrated with time. For the first time in Cascadia, we found convergence-parallel transient streaks of tremor migrating at velocities of several tens of km/hr, with movement in both up- and down-dip directions. Similar patterns have been seen in Japan [Shelly, G3, 2007]. This is in contrast to the long-term along-strike marching of tremor at 10 km/day. These streaks tend to propagate steadily and often repeat the same track on the interface multiple times. They light up persistent moment patches on the interface by a combination of increased amplitude and longer residence time within the patches. The up- and down-dip migration dominates the 2 days of tremor most clearly imaged by our array. The tendency of the streaks to fill in bands is the subject of the presentation of Ghosh et al. here. The physical

  5. Triton's streaks as windblown dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, Carl; Chyba, Christopher

    1990-01-01

    Explanations for the surface streaks observed by Voyager 2 on Triton's southern hemisphere are discussed. It is shown that, despite Triton's tenuous atmosphere, low-cohesion dust trains with diameters of about 5 micron or less may be carried into suspension by aeolian surface shear stress, given expected geostrophic wind speeds of about 10 m/s. For geyser-like erupting dust plumes, it is shown that dust-settling time scales and expected wind velocities can produce streaks with length scales in good agreement with those of the streaks. Thus, both geyserlike eruptions or direct lifting by surface winds appear to be viable mechanisms for the origin of the streaks.

  6. B chromosomes in the species Prochilodus argenteus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae: morphologicalidentity and dispersion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolo Penitente

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available B chromosomes have attracted the attention of Neotropical fish cytogeneticists in recent years, both for their remarkable occurrence in this group and also because of the interest in studies of the genetic structure and role played in the genome of these organisms. The aim of this study was to report the first occurrence of supernumerary chromosomes in Prochilodus argenteus (Agassiz, 1829, this being the fifth carrier species among thirteen within the genus Prochilodus (Agassiz, 1829. The extra elements identified in this species are small sized heterochromatic chromosomes characterized by a low mitotic instability index, being very similar to other supernumerary chromosomes described in the species of the genus Prochilodus. Morphology, structure and dispersion of the supernumerary genomic elements which occur in species of this genus are discussed aiming to better understand aspects involved the origin of supernumerary chromosomes and the differentiation process and relationships among species of this family.

  7. The South American freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus (Actinopterygii: Characiformes: Prochilodontidae): new species in Vietnamese aquaculture

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kalous, L.; Bui, A.T.; Petrtýl, M.; Bohlen, Jörg; Chaloupková, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 6 (2012), 955-958 ISSN 1355-557X Grant - others:MZe(CZ) 29/MZe/B/08-10 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50450515 Keywords : exotic species * aquaculture * Prochilodus lineatus Subject RIV: GL - Fishing Impact factor: 1.422, year: 2012

  8. Streaking into middle school science: The Dell Streak pilot project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, Susan Eudy

    A case study is conducted implementing the Dell Streak seven-inch android device into eighth grade science classes of one teacher in a rural middle school in the Piedmont region of North Carolina. The purpose of the study is to determine if the use of the Dell Streaks would increase student achievement on standardized subject testing, if the Streak could be used as an effective instructional tool, and if it could be considered an effective instructional resource for reviewing and preparing for the science assessments. A mixed method research design was used for the study to analyze both quantitative and qualitative results to determine if the Dell Streaks' utilization could achieve the following: 1. instructional strategies would change, 2. it would be an effective instructional tool, and 3. a comparison of the students' test scores and benchmark assessments' scores would provide statistically significant difference. Through the use of an ANOVA it was determined a statistically significant difference had occurred. A Post Hoc analysis was conducted to identify where the difference occurred. Finally a T-test determined was there was no statistically significance difference between the mean End-of-Grade tests and four quarterly benchmark scores of the control and the experimental groups. Qualitative research methods were used to gather results to determine if the Streaks were an effective instructional tool. Classroom observations identified that the teacher's teaching styles and new instructional strategies were implemented throughout the pilot project. Students had an opportunity to complete a questionnaire three times during the pilot project. Results revealed what the students liked about using the devices and the challenges they were facing. The teacher completed a reflective questionnaire throughout the pilot project and offered valuable reflections about the use of the devices in an educational setting. The reflection data supporting the case study was drawn

  9. Streak cameras and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernet, J.M.; Imhoff, C.

    1987-01-01

    Over the last several years, development of various measurement techniques in the nanosecond and pico-second range has led to increased reliance on streak cameras. This paper will present the main electronic and optoelectronic performances of the Thomson-CSF TSN 506 cameras and their associated devices used to build an automatic image acquisition and processing system (NORMA). A brief survey of the diversity and the spread of the use of high speed electronic cinematography will be illustrated by a few typical applications [fr

  10. Notes on the IMACON 500 streak camera system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clendenin, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The notes provided are intended to supplement the instruction manual for the IMACON 500 streak camera system. The notes cover the streak analyzer, instructions for timing the streak camera, and calibration

  11. Ultra fast x-ray streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.; McConaghy, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    A unique ultrafast x-ray sensitive streak camera, with a time resolution of 50psec, has been built and operated. A 100A thick gold photocathode on a beryllium vacuum window is used in a modified commerical image converter tube. The X-ray streak camera has been used in experiments to observe time resolved emission from laser-produced plasmas. (author)

  12. Nonlinear streak computation using boundary region equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, J A; Martel, C, E-mail: juanangel.martin@upm.es, E-mail: carlos.martel@upm.es [Depto. de Fundamentos Matematicos, E.T.S.I Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, Plaza Cardenal Cisneros 3, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-08-01

    The boundary region equations (BREs) are applied for the simulation of the nonlinear evolution of a spanwise periodic array of streaks in a flat plate boundary layer. The well-known BRE formulation is obtained from the complete Navier-Stokes equations in the high Reynolds number limit, and provides the correct asymptotic description of three-dimensional boundary layer streaks. In this paper, a fast and robust streamwise marching scheme is introduced to perform their numerical integration. Typical streak computations present in the literature correspond to linear streaks or to small-amplitude nonlinear streaks computed using direct numerical simulation (DNS) or the nonlinear parabolized stability equations (PSEs). We use the BREs to numerically compute high-amplitude streaks, a method which requires much lower computational effort than DNS and does not have the consistency and convergence problems of the PSE. It is found that the flow configuration changes substantially as the amplitude of the streaks grows and the nonlinear effects come into play. The transversal motion (in the wall normal-streamwise plane) becomes more important and strongly distorts the streamwise velocity profiles, which end up being quite different from those of the linear case. We analyze in detail the resulting flow patterns for the nonlinearly saturated streaks and compare them with available experimental results. (paper)

  13. Multislit streak photography for plasma dynamics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tou, T.Y.; Lee, S.

    1988-01-01

    A microscope slide with several transparent slits installed in a streak camera is used to record time-resolved two-dimensional information when a curved luminous plasma sheath traverses these slits. Applying this method to the plasma focus experiment, the axial run-down trajectory and the shapes of the plasma sheath at various moments can be obtained from a single streak photograph

  14. Wind Streaks on Earth; Exploration and Interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Zada, Aviv Lee; Blumberg, Dan G.; Maman, Shimrit

    2015-04-01

    Wind streaks, one of the most common aeolian features on planetary surfaces, are observable on the surface of the planets Earth, Mars and Venus. Due to their reflectance properties, wind streaks are distinguishable from their surroundings, and they have thus been widely studied by remote sensing since the early 1970s, particularly on Mars. In imagery, these streaks are interpreted as the presence - or lack thereof - of small loose particles on the surface deposited or eroded by wind. The existence of wind streaks serves as evidence for past or present active aeolian processes. Therefore, wind streaks are thought to represent integrative climate processes. As opposed to the comprehensive and global studies of wind streaks on Mars and Venus, wind streaks on Earth are understudied and poorly investigated, both geomorphologically and by remote sensing. The aim of this study is, thus, to fill the knowledge gap about the wind streaks on Earth by: generating a global map of Earth wind streaks from modern high-resolution remotely sensed imagery; incorporating the streaks in a geographic information system (GIS); and overlaying the GIS layers with boundary layer wind data from general circulation models (GCMs) and data from the ECMWF Reanalysis Interim project. The study defines wind streaks (and thereby distinguishes them from other aeolian features) based not only on their appearance in imagery but more importantly on their surface appearance. This effort is complemented by a focused field investigation to study wind streaks on the ground and from a variety of remotely sensed images (both optical and radar). In this way, we provide a better definition of the physical and geomorphic characteristics of wind streaks and acquire a deeper knowledge of terrestrial wind streaks as a means to better understand global and planetary climate and climate change. In a preliminary study, we detected and mapped over 2,900 wind streaks in the desert regions of Earth distributed in

  15. Streak camera recording of interferometer fringes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, N.L.; Chau, H.H.

    1977-01-01

    The use of an electronic high-speed camera in the streaking mode to record interference fringe motion from a velocity interferometer is discussed. Advantages of this method over the photomultiplier tube-oscilloscope approach are delineated. Performance testing and data for the electronic streak camera are discussed. The velocity profile of a mylar flyer accelerated by an electrically exploded bridge, and the jump-off velocity of metal targets struck by these mylar flyers are measured in the camera tests. Advantages of the streak camera include portability, low cost, ease of operation and maintenance, simplified interferometer optics, and rapid data analysis

  16. Compact Optical Technique for Streak Camera Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curt Allen; Terence Davies; Frans Janson; Ronald Justin; Bruce Marshall; Oliver Sweningsen; Perry Bell; Roger Griffith; Karla Hagans; Richard Lerche

    2004-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation. To accurately reduce data from the streak cameras a temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for generating trains of precisely timed short-duration optical pulses that are suitable for temporal calibrations

  17. Soft x-ray streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the development and of the current state of the art in picosecond soft x-ray streak camera technology. Accomplishments from a number of institutions are discussed. X-ray streak cameras vary from standard visible streak camera designs in the use of an x-ray transmitting window and an x-ray sensitive photocathode. The spectral sensitivity range of these instruments includes portions of the near UV and extends from the subkilovolt x- ray region to several tens of kilovolts. Attendant challenges encountered in the design and use of x-ray streak cameras include the accommodation of high-voltage and vacuum requirements, as well as manipulation of a photocathode structure which is often fragile. The x-ray transmitting window is generally too fragile to withstand atmospheric pressure, necessitating active vacuum pumping and a vacuum line of sight to the x-ray signal source. Because of the difficulty of manipulating x-ray beams with conventional optics, as is done with visible light, the size of the photocathode sensing area, access to the front of the tube, the ability to insert the streak tube into a vacuum chamber and the capability to trigger the sweep with very short internal delay times are issues uniquely relevant to x-ray streak camera use. The physics of electron imaging may place more stringent limitations on the temporal and spatial resolution obtainable with x-ray photocathodes than with the visible counterpart. Other issues which are common to the entire streak camera community also concern the x-ray streak camera users and manufacturers

  18. Description of novel microsatellite loci in the Neotropical fish Prochilodus argenteus and cross-amplification in P. costatus and P. lineatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna C.D.R. Barbosa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Prochilodus is one of the most important fish resources of South America, in addition to the important role it plays in nutrient cycling of Neotropical rivers. In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of nine novel microsatellite loci in Prochilodus argenteus. The number of alleles per polymorphic locus varied from 5 (Par76 to 21 (Par85, revealing a total of 116 alleles. The values of observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.629 (Par69 to 0.926 (Par85 and Par86 and from 0.643 (Par66 to 0.931 (Par80, respectively. Furthermore, the ability of these and other previously described microsatellite markers to amplify orthologous loci was tested in two related species, Prochilodus costatus and Prochilodus lineatus. These loci will be useful for studies of population genetic structure in this group of fishes, and in aiding future genetic mapping studies of P. argenteus.

  19. Reproductive Ecology of Prochilodus brevis an Endemic Fish from the Semiarid Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliane de Lima Gurgel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The commercially important migratory fish Prochilodus brevis is from the Neotropical region, and understanding the reproductive ecology of this potamodromous fish is essential for its conservation and management. This study investigated the length-mass relationship, sex ratio, length at first gonadal maturity, gonadal development stages, gonadosomatic index, condition factor, and reproductive period of P. brevis. Temporal distribution of rainfall, temperature, dissolved oxygen concentration, pH, and electrical conductivity of the water were related to the reproductive period of this fish. Rainfall seems to be the main environmental factor which modulates changes in limnological parameters and the timing of the spawning period of this fish. P. brevis migrates into lower reaches of the river to feed during the dry season and returns to the upper reaches during the rainy season to spawn. Inadequate facilities for migration create obstacles for spawning success of this ecologically important fish.

  20. Compact Optical Technique for Streak Camera Calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, P; Griffith, R; Hagans, K; Lerche, R; Allen, C; Davies, T; Janson, F; Justin, R; Marshall, B; Sweningsen, O

    2004-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is under construction at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy Stockpile Stewardship Program. Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation. To accurately reduce data from the streak cameras a temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for generating trains of precisely timed short-duration optical pulses1 (optical comb generators) that are suitable for temporal calibrations. These optical comb generators (Figure 1) are used with the LLNL optical streak cameras. They are small, portable light sources that produce a series of temporally short, uniformly spaced, optical pulses. Comb generators have been produced with 0.1, 0.5, 1, 3, 6, and 10-GHz pulse trains of 780-nm wavelength light with individual pulse durations of ∼25-ps FWHM. Signal output is via a fiber-optic connector. Signal is transported from comb generator to streak camera through multi-mode, graded-index optical fibers. At the NIF, ultra-fast streak-cameras are used by the Laser Fusion Program experimentalists to record fast transient optical signals. Their temporal resolution is unmatched by any other transient recorder. Their ability to spatially discriminate an image along the input slit allows them to function as a one-dimensional image recorder, time-resolved spectrometer, or multichannel transient recorder. Depending on the choice of photocathode, they can be made sensitive to photon energies from 1.1 eV to 30 keV and beyond. Comb generators perform two important functions for LLNL streak-camera users. First, comb generators are used as a precision time-mark generator for calibrating streak camera sweep rates. Accuracy is achieved by averaging many streak camera images of comb generator signals. Time-base calibrations with portable comb generators are easily done in both the calibration laboratory and in situ. Second, comb signals are applied

  1. Multiple biomarkers responses in Prochilodus lineatus allowed assessing changes in the water quality of Salado River basin (Santa Fe, Argentina)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazenave, Jimena, E-mail: jcazenave@inali.unl.edu.a [Laboratorio de Ictiologia, Instituto Nacional de Limnologia (INALI-CONICET-UNL), Paraje El Pozo, Ciudad Universitaria UNL, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Bacchetta, Carla; Parma, Maria J.; Scarabotti, Pablo A. [Laboratorio de Ictiologia, Instituto Nacional de Limnologia (INALI-CONICET-UNL), Paraje El Pozo, Ciudad Universitaria UNL, 3000 Santa Fe (Argentina); Wunderlin, Daniel A. [Dto. Bioquimica Clinica-CIBICI-CONICET, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Haya de la Torre esq Medina Allende, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000 Cordoba (Argentina)

    2009-11-15

    This field study assessed water quality of Salado River basin by using a set of biomarkers in the fish Prochilodus lineatus. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including morphological indexes (condition factor, liver somatic index), hematological (red and white blood cells) and biochemical (glucose, total protein and cholinesterase activity) parameters. Besides, detoxication and oxidative stress markers (antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation) were measured in liver, gills and kidney. Despite water quality assessment did not show marked differences among sites, biomarkers responses indicate that fish are living under stressful environmental conditions. According to multivariate analysis glucose, glutathione S-transferase activity, lipid peroxidation levels and the count of white blood cells are key biomarkers to contribute to discrimination of sites. So, we suggest use those biomarkers in future monitoring of freshwater aquatic systems. - A battery of biomarkers was successfully applied to assess the health of the fish Prochilodus lineatus from Salado River basin.

  2. Multiple biomarkers responses in Prochilodus lineatus allowed assessing changes in the water quality of Salado River basin (Santa Fe, Argentina)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cazenave, Jimena; Bacchetta, Carla; Parma, Maria J.; Scarabotti, Pablo A.; Wunderlin, Daniel A.

    2009-01-01

    This field study assessed water quality of Salado River basin by using a set of biomarkers in the fish Prochilodus lineatus. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including morphological indexes (condition factor, liver somatic index), hematological (red and white blood cells) and biochemical (glucose, total protein and cholinesterase activity) parameters. Besides, detoxication and oxidative stress markers (antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation) were measured in liver, gills and kidney. Despite water quality assessment did not show marked differences among sites, biomarkers responses indicate that fish are living under stressful environmental conditions. According to multivariate analysis glucose, glutathione S-transferase activity, lipid peroxidation levels and the count of white blood cells are key biomarkers to contribute to discrimination of sites. So, we suggest use those biomarkers in future monitoring of freshwater aquatic systems. - A battery of biomarkers was successfully applied to assess the health of the fish Prochilodus lineatus from Salado River basin.

  3. The LLL compact 10-ps streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.W.; Houghton, J.W.; Tripp, G.R.; Coleman, L.W.

    1975-01-01

    The 10-ps streak camera has been redesigned to simplify its operation, reduce manufacturing costs, and improve its appearance. The electronics have been simplified, a film indexer added, and a contacted slit has been evaluated. Data support a 10-ps resolution. (author)

  4. Pea Streak Virus Recorded in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sarkisova, Tatiana; Bečková, M.; Fránová, Jana; Petrzik, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 3 (2016), s. 164-166 ISSN 1212-2580 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH71145 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Pea streak virus * alfalfa * carlavirus * partial sequence Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.742, year: 2016

  5. Nondipole effects in attosecond photoelectron streaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spiewanowski, Maciek; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2012-01-01

    The influence of nondipole terms on the time delay in photoionization by an extreme-ultraviolet attosecond pulse in the presence of a near-infrared femtosecond laser pulse from 1s, 2s, and 2p states in hydrogen is investigated. In this attosecond photoelectron streaking process, the relative...

  6. Atomic and molecular phases through attosecond streaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baggesen, Jan Conrad; Madsen, Lars Bojer

    2011-01-01

    phase of the atomic or molecular ionization matrix elements from the two states through the interference from the two channels. The interference may change the phase of the photoelectron streaking signal within the envelope of the infrared field, an effect to be accounted for when reconstructing short...... pulses from the photoelectron signal and in attosecond time-resolved measurements....

  7. Acute morphological and physiological effects of lead in the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. B. R. Martinez

    Full Text Available The present study investigated lead effects on gill morphology, hematocrit, blood sodium, glucose, lipids, protein, and cholesterol of Prochilodus lineatus exposed to two sublethal lead concentrations for 96 h. Preliminary series of short-term static toxicity tests were run to determine LC50 (96 h of lead in P. lineatus, which was 95 mg Pb.L-1. Therefore, lead concentrations tested in the sublethal experiments were 24 and 71 mg Pb.L-1, which correspond to 25% and 75% of the LC50 (96 h, respectively. Gills of P. lineatus exposed to both lead concentrations during 96 h presented a higher occurrence of histopathological lesions such as epithelial lifting, hyperplasia, and lamellar aneurism. P. lineatus did not show significant alterations in hematocrit during exposure to both lead concentrations. Fish exposed to the highest lead concentration showed a significant decrease in Na+ plasma concentration after 48 h, possibly reflecting a sodium influx rate decrease. P. lineatus exposed to both lead concentrations presented a "classical general adaptation syndrome to stress", as hyperglycemia associated with lowered lipids and proteins was reported. Stress-response magnitude was dose-dependent. While the response to the lowest lead concentration might represent adaptation, the highest concentration seems to characterize exhaustion.

  8. Physiological effects of gasoline on the freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus(Characiformes: Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana D. Simonato

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effects of the water-soluble fraction of gasoline (WSFG on the Neotropical freshwater fish Prochilodus lineatus. The WSFG was prepared by mixing gasoline in water (1:4 and animals were exposed for 6, 24 and 96h to 5% diluted WSFG or only to water. After exposure, blood was collected from the caudal vein and the gills were removed. The following parameters were analyzed: hematological (hemoglobin, hematocrit, number of red blood cells, osmo-ionic (plasma Na+, Cl- and K+ and plasma osmolarity, metabolic (total plasma proteins and glucose, endocrine (cortisol, density and distribution of chloride cells [CC] in the gills (immunohistochemistry, and branchial Na+/K+-ATPase (NKA activity. Hemolysis was found to occur after 96h exposure to WSFG, as indicated by the decrease in the hematological parameters analyzed, followed by an increase in plasma K+. Secondary stress response was revealed by the occurrence of hyperglycemia in the three periods of exposure, despite the absence of significant increases in the plasma cortisol. The exposure to WSFG also caused an increase in the quantity of CC and in plasma Na+, after 24h, as well as in the enzymatic activity of NKA and plasma osmolarity, after 24h and 96h. These results indicate that fish exposed to the WSFG showed physiological adjusts to maintain their osmotic balance. However, the increase in the quantity of CC in the lamellae may interfere in the gas exchange impairing respiration.

  9. Osmolality and composition of the extender during the cold storage of Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae sperm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana T. M. Viveiros

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the effects of extender osmolality and composition on the cooling of Prochilodus lineatussperm. Sperm was diluted in six extenders: two compositions (powdered coconut water(tm = ACP; Beltsville Thawing Solution(tm = BTS x three osmolalities (285, 325, and 365 mOsm/kg plus an undiluted control, and stored at 6-8°C. Motility rate and velocities (curvilinear, straight line, and average path were determined every other day. Osmolality did not affect the quality of cooled sperm, thus data were pooled. Motility was higher on d 0 compared to the other days and diluted samples (85-90% yielded higher motility than control (75%. On d 2, motility was higher in BTS-diluted samples and control, but on d 4 and 6, control yielded the highest motility. Velocities decreased from d 0 to 6 in diluted samples, but not in control. On d 0, velocities were higher in BTS-diluted sperm, but, on d 2, 4, and 6, control yielded higher velocities despite of the large variation among males. Thus P. lineatussperm should be stored in BTS or without dilution, for a maximum of two days at 6-8°C. Extender osmolality between 285 and 365 mOsm/kg does not affect sperm quality during cold storage.

  10. Ultrastructure (SEM of the gills of Prochilodus Scrofa Steindachner (Pisces, Teleostei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daura Regina Eiras-Stofella

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Gills arches of the freshwater fish Prochilodus scrofa Steindachner, 1881 (Lt= 8.0-12.4cm were removed to be analyzed in a scanning electron microscope. The morphology of the superficial structures of the gill filaments and pharyngeal region of the gills arches was discussed and related to their functional aspects. A great quantity of mucous secretory cells and of microridges, along with the pavement cell surface of the primary lamellae and branchial pharyngeal region, indicate the existence of a protection strategy of the respiratory lamellae. The chloride cells are abundant, specially on the distal portion of the primary lamellae, and bring out the osmo regulatory capacity of this species. This fish seems not to be a filtering one according to: its short and simple gill rakers; presence of several taste buds turned towards the mouth opening; evidence of spines on the external side of the arches and an abundant secretion of mucous in the pharyngeal region. This species probably selects the food to be swallowed through its chemical receptors and retains it with the help of spines and mucous secretion this way protecting the gills filaments against the rubbing of particles over them.

  11. Dynamic range studies of the RCA streak tube in the LLL streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, S.W.; Phillips, G.E.

    1979-01-01

    As indicated by tests on several cameras, the dynamic range of the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory streak-camera system appears to be about two orders of magnitude greater than those reported for other systems for 10- to 200-ps pulses. The lack of a fine mesh grid in the RCA streak tube used in these cameras probably contributes to a lower system dynamic noise and therefore raises the dynamic range. A developmental tube with a mesh grid was tested and supports this conjecture. Order-of-magnitude variations in input slit width do not affect the spot size on the phosphor or the dynamic range of the RCA tube. (author)

  12. MULTIMODAL IMAGING OF ANGIOID STREAKS ASSOCIATED WITH TURNER SYNDROME.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Bing Q; Tsui, Edmund; Hussnain, Syed Amal; Barbazetto, Irene A; Smith, R Theodore

    2018-02-13

    To report multimodal imaging in a novel case of angioid streaks in a patient with Turner syndrome with 10-year follow-up. Case report of a patient with Turner syndrome and angioid streaks followed at Bellevue Hospital Eye Clinic from 2007 to 2017. Fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and optical coherence tomography angiography were obtained. Angioid streaks with choroidal neovascularization were noted in this patient with Turner syndrome without other systemic conditions previously correlated with angioid streaks. We report a case of angioid streaks with choroidal neovascularization in a patient with Turner syndrome. We demonstrate that angioid streaks, previously associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, Paget disease of bone, and hemoglobinopathies, may also be associated with Turner syndrome, and may continue to develop choroidal neovascularization, suggesting the need for careful ophthalmic examination in these patients.

  13. Fotoperiodo y Ontogenia Inicial de Peces Migratorios en Brasil con Énfasis en Sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus)

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Cuadrado, Ever Edrey; Solis Murgas, Luis David; Buitrago Cardozo, Michael de Jesús

    2016-01-01

    El estudio de los aspectos reproductivos y de la ontogenia de los peces migradores es de gran importancia en piscicultura, especialmente cuando se trata de especies nativas, resaltándose los patrones de crecimiento y desarrollo. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue hacer una compilación del conocimiento actual de la ontogenia de sábalo, Prochilodus lineatus, en las fases de embrión y larva, bajo ambientes fóticos variables y desde la perspectiva de la capacidad adaptativa del fenotipo. Además...

  14. Traveling wave deflector design for femtosecond streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Chengquan; Wu, Shengli; Luo, Duan; Wen, Wenlong; Xu, Junkai; Tian, Jinshou; Zhang, Minrui; Chen, Pin; Chen, Jianzhong; Liu, Rong

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a traveling wave deflection deflector (TWD) with a slow-wave property induced by a microstrip transmission line is proposed for femtosecond streak cameras. The pass width and dispersion properties were simulated. In addition, the dynamic temporal resolution of the femtosecond camera was simulated by CST software. The results showed that with the proposed TWD a femtosecond streak camera can achieve a dynamic temporal resolution of less than 600 fs. Experiments were done to test the femtosecond streak camera, and an 800 fs dynamic temporal resolution was obtained. Guidance is provided for optimizing a femtosecond streak camera to obtain higher temporal resolution.

  15. Traveling wave deflector design for femtosecond streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Chengquan; Wu, Shengli [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Luo, Duan [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Wen, Wenlong [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Xu, Junkai [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Tian, Jinshou, E-mail: tianjs@opt.ac.cn [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Extreme Optics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan, Shanxi 030006 (China); Zhang, Minrui; Chen, Pin [Xi’an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Chen, Jianzhong [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Liu, Rong [Xi' an Technological University, Xi' an 710021 (China)

    2017-05-21

    In this paper, a traveling wave deflection deflector (TWD) with a slow-wave property induced by a microstrip transmission line is proposed for femtosecond streak cameras. The pass width and dispersion properties were simulated. In addition, the dynamic temporal resolution of the femtosecond camera was simulated by CST software. The results showed that with the proposed TWD a femtosecond streak camera can achieve a dynamic temporal resolution of less than 600 fs. Experiments were done to test the femtosecond streak camera, and an 800 fs dynamic temporal resolution was obtained. Guidance is provided for optimizing a femtosecond streak camera to obtain higher temporal resolution.

  16. Compact optical technique for streak camera calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, Perry; Griffith, Roger; Hagans, Karla; Lerche, Richard; Allen, Curt; Davies, Terence; Janson, Frans; Justin, Ronald; Marshall, Bruce; Sweningsen, Oliver

    2004-01-01

    To produce accurate data from optical streak cameras requires accurate temporal calibration sources. We have reproduced an older technology for generating optical timing marks that had been lost due to component availability. Many improvements have been made which allow the modern units to service a much larger need. Optical calibrators are now available that produce optical pulse trains of 780 nm wavelength light at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 GHz, with individual pulse widths of approximately 25 ps full width half maximum. Future plans include the development of single units that produce multiple frequencies to cover a wide temporal range, and that are fully controllable via an RS232 interface

  17. Compact optical technique for streak camera calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Perry; Griffith, Roger; Hagans, Karla; Lerche, Richard; Allen, Curt; Davies, Terence; Janson, Frans; Justin, Ronald; Marshall, Bruce; Sweningsen, Oliver

    2004-10-01

    To produce accurate data from optical streak cameras requires accurate temporal calibration sources. We have reproduced an older technology for generating optical timing marks that had been lost due to component availability. Many improvements have been made which allow the modern units to service a much larger need. Optical calibrators are now available that produce optical pulse trains of 780 nm wavelength light at frequencies ranging from 0.1 to 10 GHz, with individual pulse widths of approximately 25 ps full width half maximum. Future plans include the development of single units that produce multiple frequencies to cover a wide temporal range, and that are fully controllable via an RS232 interface.

  18. Picosecond x-ray streak cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Averin, V. I.; Bryukhnevich, Gennadii I.; Kolesov, G. V.; Lebedev, Vitaly B.; Miller, V. A.; Saulevich, S. V.; Shulika, A. N.

    1991-04-01

    The first multistage image converter with an X-ray photocathode (UMI-93 SR) was designed in VNIIOFI in 1974 [1]. The experiments carried out in IOFAN pointed out that X-ray electron-optical cameras using the tube provided temporal resolution up to 12 picoseconds [2]. The later work has developed into the creation of the separate streak and intensifying tubes. Thus, PV-003R tube has been built on base of UMI-93SR design, fibre optically connected to PMU-2V image intensifier carrying microchannel plate.

  19. X-ray streak crystal spectography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kauffman, R.L.; Brown, T.; Medecki, H.

    1983-01-01

    We have built an x-ray streaked crystal spectrograph for making time-resolved x-ray spectral measurements. This instrument can access Bragg angles from 11 0 to 38 0 and x-ray spectra from 200 eV to greater than 10 keV. We have demonstrated resolving powers, E/δE > 200 at 1 keV and time resolution less than 20 psec. A description of the instrument and an example of the data is given

  20. Streaked, x-ray-transmission-grating spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceglio, N.M.; Roth, M.; Hawryluk, A.M.

    1981-08-01

    A free standing x-ray transmission grating has been coupled with a soft x-ray streak camera to produce a time resolved x-ray spectrometer. The instrument has a temporal resolution of approx. 20 psec, is capable of covering a broad spectral range, 2 to 120 A, has high sensitivity, and is simple to use requiring no complex alignment procedure. In recent laser fusion experiments the spectrometer successfully recorded time resolved spectra over the range 10 to 120 A with a spectral resolving power, lambda/Δlambda of 4 to 50, limited primarily by source size and collimation effects

  1. Comet assay in gill cells of Prochilodus lineatus exposed in vivo to cypermethrin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poletta, G L; Gigena, F; Loteste, A; Parma, M J; Kleinsorge, E C; Simoniello, M F

    2013-11-01

    Agricultural chemicals can induce genetic alterations on aquatic organisms that have been associated with effects on growth, reproduction and population dynamics. The evaluation of DNA damage in fish using the comet assay (CA) frequently involves the utilization of erythrocytes. However, epithelial gill cells (EGC) can be more sensitive, as they are constantly dividing and in direct contact with potentially stressing compounds from the aquatic environment. The aim of the present study was to evaluate (1) the sensitivity and suitability of epithelial gill cells of Prochilodus lineatus in response to different genotoxic agents through the application of the CA, (2) the induction of DNA damage in this cell population after in vivo exposure to cypermethrin. Baseline value of the CA damage index (DI) for EGC of juvenile P. lineatus was 144.68±5.69. Damage increased in a dose-dependent manner after in vitro exposure of EGC to methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) and H2O2, two known genotoxic agents. In vivo exposure of fish to cypermethrin induced a significant increase in DNA DI of EGC at 0.150μg/l (DI: 239.62±6.21) and 0.300μg/l (270.63±2.09) compared to control (150.25±4.38) but no effect was observed at 0.075μg/l (168.50±10.77). This study shows that EGC of this species are sensitive for the application of the CA, demonstrating DNA damage in response to alkylation (MMS), oxidative damage (H2O2), and to the insecticide cypermethryn. These data, together with our previous study on DNA damage induction on erythrocytes of this species, provides useful information for future work involving biomonitoring in regions where P. lineatus is naturally exposed to pesticides and other genotoxic agents. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Approaches to diagnosis and detection of cassava brown streak ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) has been a problem in the East African coastal cassava growing areas for more than 70 years. The disease is caused by successful infection with Cassava Brown Streak Virus (CBSV) (Family, Potyviridae: Genus, Ipomovirus). Diagnosis of CBSD has for long been primarily leaf ...

  3. Time-resolved brightness measurements by streaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrance, Joshua S.; Speirs, Rory W.; McCulloch, Andrew J.; Scholten, Robert E.

    2018-03-01

    Brightness is a key figure of merit for charged particle beams, and time-resolved brightness measurements can elucidate the processes involved in beam creation and manipulation. Here we report on a simple, robust, and widely applicable method for the measurement of beam brightness with temporal resolution by streaking one-dimensional pepperpots, and demonstrate the technique to characterize electron bunches produced from a cold-atom electron source. We demonstrate brightness measurements with 145 ps temporal resolution and a minimum resolvable emittance of 40 nm rad. This technique provides an efficient method of exploring source parameters and will prove useful for examining the efficacy of techniques to counter space-charge expansion, a critical hurdle to achieving single-shot imaging of atomic scale targets.

  4. Sweep time performance of optic streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhebin; Yang Dong; Zhang Huige

    2012-01-01

    The sweep time performance of the optic streak camera (OSC) is of critical importance to its application. The systematic analysis of full-screen sweep velocity shows that the traditional method based on the averaged velocity and its nonlinearity would increase the uncertainty of sweep time and can not reflect the influence of the spatial distortion of OSC. A elaborate method for sweep time has been developed with the aid of full-screen sweep velocity and its uncertainty. It is proved by the theoretical analysis and experimental study that the method would decrease the uncertainty of sweep time within 1%, which would improve the accuracy of sweep time and the reliability of OSC application. (authors)

  5. Early larvae ontogeny of the Neotropical fishes: Prochilodus costatus and P. argenteus (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, José Enemir; Sales, Naiara Guimarães; dos Santos, Marcella Lourenço; Arantes, Fábio Pereira; Godinho, Hugo Pereira

    2016-06-01

    Early development of fish larvae is a highly dynamic process and its study may provide important information about ontogenetic development, bioenergetic growth, behaviour, taxonomic characteristics for identification in natural environments, identification of spawning areas, and population monitoring. With the aim to provide knowledge about their growth and behaviour, to support larval rearing, and also taxonomic purposes, we studied the life history of the Prochilodus argenteus and P. costatus from hatching until the complete absorption of the yolk. Larvae were obtained through artificial reproduction at the Hydrobiology and Aquaculture Station of Três Marias, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Immediately after hatching, 100 larvae of each species were put in two plastic incubators for conditioning. On a daily basis, larvae behavior was recorded and 14 larvae of each species were collected to analyse body morphology. On the first day after hatching, larvae of P. costatus and P. argenteus showed an elongated and transparent body; the yolk sac was filled with individualized yolk globules. In both species, the embryonic fin rounded the caudal region of the body, the retina was non-pigmented and the gut was obliterated. At the second day post-hatching, larvae of both species dendritic chromatophores had emerged, the mouth was obliterated and the pectoral fin was observed. The larvae showed 38-43 myomeres in P. costatus and 42-43 in P. argenteus. For both species, the gas bladder was inflated and the lumen of the gut was already open. On the third day post-hatching, the mouth of P. costatus and P. argenteus was already open in a sub-terminal position; the retina was pigmented; the gill arches had lamellar protrusions and were partially covered by the operculum. On the fourth day post-hatching, the pigmentation pattern was maintained with greater intensity; the mouth occupied a terminal position, the yolk sac was almost completely reabsorbed, and the pectoral and caudal fins

  6. Migration and spawning of radio-tagged zulega Prochilodus argenteus in a dammed Brazilian river

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godinho, Alexandre L.; Kynard, B.

    2006-01-01

    It is difficult for agencies to evaluate the impacts of the many planned dams on Sa??o Francisco River, Brazil, migratory fishes because fish migrations are poorly known. We conducted a study on zulega Prochilodus argenteus, an important commercial and recreational fish in the Sa??o Francisco River, to identify migrations and spawning areas and to determine linear home range. During two spawning seasons (2001-2003), we radio-tagged fish in three main-stem reaches downstream of Tre??s Marias Dam (TMD), located at river kilometer (rkm) 2,109. We tagged 10 fish at Tre??s Marias (TM), which is 5 km downstream of TMD; 12 fish at Pontal, which is 28 km downstream of TMD and which includes the mouth of the Abaete?? River, and 10 fish at Cilga, which is 45 km downstream of TMD. Late-stage (ripe) adults tagged in each area during the spawning season remained at or near the tagging site, except for four Cilga fish that went to Pontal and probably spawned. The Pontal area at the Abaete?? River mouth was the most important spawning site we found. Prespawning fish moved back and forth between main-stem staging areas upstream of the Abaete?? River mouth and Pontal for short visits. These multiple visits were probably needed as ripe fish waited for spawning cues from a flooding Abaete?? River. Some fish homed to prespaw ning staging areas, spawning areas, and nonspawning areas. The migratory style of zulega was dualistic, with resident and migratory fish. Total linear home range was also dualistic, with small (<26-km) and large (53-127-km) ranges. The locations of spawning areas and home ranges suggest that the Pontal group (which includes Cilga fish) is one population that occupies about 110 km. The Pontal population overlaps a short distance with a population located downstream of Cilga. Movements of late-stage TM adults suggest that the TM group is a separate population, possibly with connections to populations upstream of TMD. ?? Copyright by the American Fisheries Society

  7. Manejo de la primera alimentación del bocachico ( Prochilodus magdalenae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Atencio-García

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available En el Centro de Investigación Piscícola de la Universidad de Córdoba se realizaron dos experimentos; en elprimero, el objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de diferentes presas en el manejo de la primera alimentación delbocachico Prochilodus magdalenae y en el segundo, con la mejor presa del ensayo anterior, determinar eltiempo mínimo de manejo de la primera alimentación. En ambos casos las post-larvas fueron sembradas a 50/L en acuario de 5 L. En el primer experimento se evaluaron las siguientes presas: nauplios de Artemia (NA,cistos descapsulados de Artemia (CA, zooplancton silvestre tamizado entre 125-160 µm (Z125-160 y zooplanctonsilvestre tamizado entre 250-400 µm (Z250-400, ofrecidas durante cinco días a razón de 5 Presa/mL. Además,un grupo de post-larvas fue sometida a ayuno. Las mayores ganancias de peso y longitud total la registraron laspost-larvas alimentadas con NA (2.0±1.8 mg, 1.8±0.9 mm y Z250-400 (2.0±1.1 mg, 1.6±0.5 mm. Lasobrevivencia de las post-larvas alimentadas con NA (73.2±10.7% fue mayor a las registradas en los demástratamientos (P0.05. Mientras que latasa de crecimiento específico (G osciló entre 17.1 (5 días y 22.3 %/día (3 días, sin observarse diferenciasestadísticas significativas (P>0.05. Las post-larvas alimentadas durante 3, 5 y 7 días presentaron las mejoressobrevivencias (92.2±6.2, 93.3±4.3, 95.6±3.9% respectivamente cuando fueron sometidas a la prueba deresistencia al estrés. Las post-larvas alimentadas por un solo día mostraron la menor sobrevivencia al sersometidas a esta prueba (87±1%. Los resultados del estudio sugieren que nauplios de Artemia o zooplanctonsilvestre en le rango de 250-400 mm, libre de predadores, son presas adecuada para el manejo de la primeraalimentación al menos durante 3 días antes de ser sembradas en estanques en tierra.

  8. Seminal characteristics and reproductive indexes of curimba (“Prochilodus lineatus” in different reproductive period Características seminais e índices reprodutivos de curimba ("Prochilodus lineatus" em diferentes períodos reprodutivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Diana Navarro

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, seminal characteristics and reproductive index from males e females of curimba (Prochilodus lineatus were evaluated in different months of the reproductive period. The study was realized in the Laboratory of Reproduction of Itutinga Environmental Station of the Energetic Company of Minas Gerais State (EAI-CEMIG and in the Laboratory of Physiology and Pharmacology of DMV/UFLA, during the reproductive period (between November and January in three different reproductive period (year I: 2003/2004; year II: 2004/2005; year III: 2005/2006. After the hormonal treatment, the weight of females spawning was measured. Also, 20µL of semen from each male were collected to analyze the motility, duration of the motility and spermatic concentration. 8 hours after the fertilization, the fertility rate was measured. The average mobility duration and seminal volume did not present significant differences among months of the reproductive period. However, the sperm concentration increased significantly in January. In November, the spawning weight was statistically lower, compared to December and January. The highest fertility rate was observed in December. Therefore, we can conclude that, in December and January, the reproductive index for Prochilodus lineatus was better.Foram avaliadas características seminais e índices reprodutivos de fêmeas e machos de curimba (Prochilodus lineatus em diferentes meses dos períodos reprodutivos. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Reprodução da Estação Ambiental de Itutinga da Companhia Energética de Minas Gerais (EAI-CEMIG e no Laboratório de Fisiologia e Farmacologia do DMV/UFLA, entre os meses de novembro e janeiro, em três períodos reprodutivos (ano I: 2003/2004; ano II: 2004/2005; ano III: 2005/2006. Após o tratamento hormonal, realizaram-se pesagens da desova de cada fêmea. Coletaram-se também 20µL de sêmen para análises de motilidade, duração da motilidade e concentra

  9. Vitamin E and reduced glutathione in Prochilodus lineatus (curimba semen cryopreservation (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella A. J. Paula

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the addition of antioxidants vitamin E and reduced glutathione on curimba (Prochilodus lineatus semen cryopreservation and compared sodium bicarbonate solution and distilled water as activators. The experiment was conducted at the environmental station of CEMIG, in Itutinga-MG, Brazil, between December/2009 and January/2010. Semen samples (n = 7 with semen motility above 80% were diluted in cryoprotectant solutions composed of 10% methanol, 15% lactose and containing different concentrations of antioxidants: 50 (VE50, 100 (VE100 and 250 (VE250 µM of vitamin E, and 0.5 (RG0.5, 1.0 (RG1.0 and 1.5 (RG1.5 mM of reduced glutathione. A solution without antioxidants was used as a control. The semen was diluted at a ratio of 1:4 (100 ìL semen:400 ∝L cryoprotectant solution. The toxicity of the solutions was evaluated by investigating semen motility after 10 min in the solution. The rest of the diluted semen was placed into 0.5 mL straws maintained in nitrogen vapour for 24 hours and packed into a nitrogen liquid cylinder for four days. The samples were thawed in a water bath at 60°C for 8 s and the rate (% and duration (s of semen activation with distilled water or sodium bicarbonate was evaluated. In the toxicity test, we found that vitamin E and reduced glutathione were not toxic to curimba semen at any of the tested concentrations (P>0.05. The duration of motility was longer (P0.05. Thus, the antioxidants vitamin E and reduced glutathione did not improve the quality of cryopreserved curimba semen, but they did not cause toxic effects to the semen in natura and they did not decrease its quality during cryopreservation.Este estudo avaliou a adição de antioxidantes vitamina E e glutationa reduzida no sêmen criopreservado de curimba (Prochilodus lineatus e comparou solução de bicarbonato de sódio e água destilada como ativadores. O experimento foi conduzido na estação ambiental da CEMIG, em Itutinga-MG, entre

  10. Morphological biomarkers in Prochilodus lineatus (pisces, prochilodontidae) for environmental impact assessment in the region of the Baixada Maranhense, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Janaína Gomes; Andrade, Ticianne de Sousa de Oliveira Mota; Castro, Jonatas da Silva; Sodré, Camilla Fernanda Lima; Carvalho-Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes; Junior, Audálio Rebelo Torres

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the types of histopathological lesions found in gills of Prochilodus lineatus of the Environmental Protection Area of the Baixada Maranhense region (Brazil). Fish were collected in Mearim river. Sampling took place in October, November and December 2014. We have purchased 30 samples of fish from local fishermen. In the laboratory fish gills were removed, and then fixed in 10% formalin solution and kept into alcohol 70% to the usual histological processing. The tissue was performed by light microscopy and findings were photomicrographed in light microscope - ZEIS. The following lesions were identified: epithelial displacement, the marginal channel shift a start vascular congestion, hyperplasia and merging multiple slides; epithelial disruption, edema, vascular congestion, total fusion of lamellae and disorganization of secondary lamellae. These changes express a response of the body to some xenobiontes. Morphological changes in the gills may represent adaptive strategies for conservation of some biological functions when animals are facing changes in the water quality

  11. Morphological biomarkers in Prochilodus lineatus (pisces, prochilodontidae) for environmental impact assessment in the region of the Baixada Maranhense, Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Janaína Gomes [Master Program in Aquatic Resources and Fishery (PPGRAP/UEMA), State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Superintendency of Biodiversity and Protected Areas of the Secretariat of Environment and Natural Resources of Maranhão (SEMA), Brazil janainnadantas@gmail.com (Brazil); Andrade, Ticianne de Sousa de Oliveira Mota; Castro, Jonatas da Silva [Master Program in Aquatic Resources and Fishery (PPGRAP/UEMA), State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Sodré, Camilla Fernanda Lima [Degree in Biological Sciences, State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Carvalho-Neta, Raimunda Nonata Fortes [Department of Chemistry and Biology, State University of Maranhão (Brazil); Junior, Audálio Rebelo Torres [Department of Limnology and Oceanography, Federal University of Maranhão (Brazil)

    2015-12-31

    This study aimed to identify the types of histopathological lesions found in gills of Prochilodus lineatus of the Environmental Protection Area of the Baixada Maranhense region (Brazil). Fish were collected in Mearim river. Sampling took place in October, November and December 2014. We have purchased 30 samples of fish from local fishermen. In the laboratory fish gills were removed, and then fixed in 10% formalin solution and kept into alcohol 70% to the usual histological processing. The tissue was performed by light microscopy and findings were photomicrographed in light microscope - ZEIS. The following lesions were identified: epithelial displacement, the marginal channel shift a start vascular congestion, hyperplasia and merging multiple slides; epithelial disruption, edema, vascular congestion, total fusion of lamellae and disorganization of secondary lamellae. These changes express a response of the body to some xenobiontes. Morphological changes in the gills may represent adaptive strategies for conservation of some biological functions when animals are facing changes in the water quality.

  12. Intraspecific crosses resulting in the first occurrence of eight and nine B chromosomes in Prochilodus lineatus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Aparecida Voltolin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available B chromosomes are supernumerary elements present in about 15% of eukaryotic species and are most frequently heterochromatic, behave parasitically, show a transmission rate higher than standard (A chromosomes, and can provoke harmful effects on carriers. In the current work, Prochilodus lineatus individuals carrying eight and nine B chromosomes were obtained by induced crossing performed involving breeders with different B chromosome numbers in their cells. The high B chromosome numbers found in the offspring were recorded for the first time in this species. The use of cytogenetic techniques applied in the present study revealed that regardless of the increase in number of B chromosomes in the genome of these individuals, those elements did not presented active genes, and showed their normal heterochromatic characteristic.

  13. Postprocessing method to clean up streaks due to noisy detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuy, H.K.; Mattson, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports that occasionally, one of the thousands of detectors in a CT scanner will intermittently produce erroneous data, creating streaks in the reconstructed image. The authors propose a method to identify and clean up the streaks automatically. To find the rays along which the data values are bad, a binary image registering the edges of the original image is created. Forward projection is applied to the binary image to single out edges along rays. Data along views containing the identified bad rays are estimated by means of forward projecting the original image. Back projection of the negative of the estimated convolved data along these views onto the streaky image will remove streaks from the image. Image enhancement is achieved by means of back projecting the convolved data estimated from the image after the streak removal along views of bad rays

  14. traits and resistance to maize streak virus disease in kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Crop Science Journal, Vol. 14. No. 4, pp. ... Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, Muguga-South, P.O. Box 30148, Nairobi, Kenya .... streak disease has been identified in various maize recycling and development of pure-lines at.

  15. Triggered streak and framing rotating-mirror cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huston, A.E.; Tabrar, A.

    1975-01-01

    A pulse motor has been developed which enables a mirror to be rotated to speeds in excess of 20,000 rpm with 10 -4 s. High-speed cameras of both streak and framing type have been assembled which incorporate this mirror drive, giving streak writing speeds up to 2,000ms -1 , and framing speeds up to 500,000 frames s -1 , in each case with the capability of triggering the camera from the event under investigation. (author)

  16. Streak detection and analysis pipeline for optical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, J.; Granvik, M.; Torppa, J.; Muinonen, K.; Poikonen, J.; Lehti, J.; Säntti, T.; Komulainen, T.; Flohrer, T.

    2014-07-01

    We describe a novel data processing and analysis pipeline for optical observations of moving objects, either of natural (asteroids, meteors) or artificial origin (satellites, space debris). The monitoring of the space object populations requires reliable acquisition of observational data to support the development and validation of population models, and to build and maintain catalogues of orbital elements. The orbital catalogues are, in turn, needed for the assessment of close approaches (for asteroids, with the Earth; for satellites, with each other) and for the support of contingency situations or launches. For both types of populations, there is also increasing interest to detect fainter objects corresponding to the small end of the size distribution. We focus on the low signal-to-noise (SNR) detection of objects with high angular velocities, resulting in long and faint object trails, or streaks, in the optical images. The currently available, mature image processing algorithms for detection and astrometric reduction of optical data cover objects that cross the sensor field-of-view comparably slowly, and, particularly for satellites, within a rather narrow, predefined range of angular velocities. By applying specific tracking techniques, the objects appear point-like or as short trails in the exposures. However, the general survey scenario is always a 'track-before-detect' problem, resulting in streaks of arbitrary lengths. Although some considerations for low-SNR processing of streak-like features are available in the current image processing and computer vision literature, algorithms are not readily available yet. In the ESA-funded StreakDet (Streak detection and astrometric reduction) project, we develop and evaluate an automated processing pipeline applicable to single images (as compared to consecutive frames of the same field) obtained with any observing scenario, including space-based surveys and both low- and high-altitude populations. The algorithmic

  17. Criopreservação do sêmen de curimba (Prochilodus lineatus mediante adição de diferentes diluidores, ativadores e crioprotetores Cryopreservation of curimba (Prochilodus lineatus semen after addition of different diluters, activators and cryoprotectants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis David Solis Murgas

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Amostras de sêmen de cinco espécimes de Prochilodus lineatus (Valencienes, 1847 foram utilizadas para avaliação dos efeitos tóxicos e crioprotetores de seis soluções à base de BTS (Beltsville Thawing Solution® 4,5% enriquecidas com metanol e DMSO nas concentrações de 10% (A = BTS 4,5% + Metanol 10%; B = BTS 4,5% + DMSO 10%; C = BTS 4,5% + KCl 0,072% + metanol 10%; D = BTS 4,5% + KCl 0,072% + DMSO 10%; E = BTS 4,5% + KI 0,036% + metanol 10%; e F = BTS 4,5% + KI 0,036% + DMSO 10%. Foram avaliadas ainda três soluções ativadoras (água destilada, NaHCO3 60 mM e NaHCO3 119 mM, antes e após o congelamento. Estudaram-se a taxa e a duração da motilidade espermática. Não houve diferença significativa entre as soluções crioprotetoras utilizadas. O sêmen ativado por NaHCO3 60 e 119 mM apresentou as maiores taxas de motilidade espermática. A ativação por NaHCO3 119 mM possibilitou as maiores durações de motilidade no sêmen de P. lineatus.Semen samples of five specimens of Prochilodus lineatus (Valencienes, 1847 were used to test the toxic and cryoprotectants effects of six solutions based on BTS (Beltsville Thawing Solution® 4.5%: A - BTS 4.5% + Methanol 10%; B - BTS 4.5% + DMSO 10%; C - BTS 4.5% + KCl 0.072% + Methanol 10%; D - BTS 4.5% + KCl 0.072% + DMSO 10%; E - BTS 4.5% + KI 0.036% + Methanol 10% and F - BTS 4.5% + KI 0.036% + DMSO 10%. The effect of other three activator solutions (Distillated Water, NaHCO3 60 mM and NaHCO3 119 mM on the rate and duration of sperm motility were also evaluated before and after freezing. No significant differences were observed among the cryoprotectant solutions. Sperm motility rates for P. lineatus were higher for semen activated by NaHCO3 60mM and NaHCO3 119mM, which propitiated the highest sperm motility duration.

  18. Angioid streaks, clinical course, complications, and current therapeutic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilias Georgalas

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ilias Georgalas1, Dimitris Papaconstantinou2, Chrysanthi Koutsandrea2, George Kalantzis2, Dimitris Karagiannis2, Gerasimos Georgopoulos2, Ioannis Ladas21Department of Ophthalmology, “G. Gennimatas” Hospital of Athens, NHS, Athens, Greece; 2Department of Ophthalmology, “G. Gennimatas” Hospital of Athens, University of Athens, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Angioid streaks are visible irregular crack-like dehiscences in Bruch’s membrane that are associated with atrophic degeneration of the overlying retinal pigmented epithelium. Angioid streaks may be associated with pseudoxanthoma elasticum, Paget’s disease, sickle-cell anemia, acromegaly, Ehlers–Danlos syndrome, and diabetes mellitus, but also appear in patients without any systemic disease. Patients with angioid streaks are generally asymptomatic, unless the lesions extend towards the foveola or develop complications such as traumatic Bruch’s membrane rupture or macular choroidal neovascularization (CNV. The visual prognosis in patients with CNV secondary to angioid streaks if untreated, is poor and most treatment modalities, until recently, have failed to limit the devastating impact of CNV in central vision. However, it is likely that treatment with antivascular endothelial growth factor, especially in treatment-naive eyes to yield favorable results in the future and this has to be investigated in future studies.Keywords: angioid streaks, pseudoxanthoma elasticum, choroidal neovascularization

  19. Orientation tuning of contrast masking caused by motion streaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apthorp, Deborah; Cass, John; Alais, David

    2010-08-01

    We investigated whether the oriented trails of blur left by fast-moving dots (i.e., "motion streaks") effectively mask grating targets. Using a classic overlay masking paradigm, we varied mask contrast and target orientation to reveal underlying tuning. Fast-moving Gaussian blob arrays elevated thresholds for detection of static gratings, both monoptically and dichoptically. Monoptic masking at high mask (i.e., streak) contrasts is tuned for orientation and exhibits a similar bandwidth to masking functions obtained with grating stimuli (∼30 degrees). Dichoptic masking fails to show reliable orientation-tuned masking, but dichoptic masks at very low contrast produce a narrowly tuned facilitation (∼17 degrees). For iso-oriented streak masks and grating targets, we also explored masking as a function of mask contrast. Interestingly, dichoptic masking shows a classic "dipper"-like TVC function, whereas monoptic masking shows no dip and a steeper "handle". There is a very strong unoriented component to the masking, which we attribute to transiently biased temporal frequency masking. Fourier analysis of "motion streak" images shows interesting differences between dichoptic and monoptic functions and the information in the stimulus. Our data add weight to the growing body of evidence that the oriented blur of motion streaks contributes to the processing of fast motion signals.

  20. A compact large-format streak tube for imaging lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Dandan; Luo, Duan; Tian, Liping; Lu, Yu; Chen, Ping; Wang, Junfeng; Sai, Xiaofeng; Wen, Wenlong; Wang, Xing; Xin, Liwei; Zhao, Wei; Tian, Jinshou

    2018-04-01

    The streak tubes with a large effective photocathode area, large effective phosphor screen area, and high photocathode radiant sensitivity are essential for improving the field of view, depth of field, and detectable range of the multiple-slit streak tube imaging lidar. In this paper, a high spatial resolution, large photocathode area, and compact meshless streak tube with a spherically curved cathode and screen is designed and tested. Its spatial resolution reaches 20 lp/mm over the entire Φ28 mm photocathode working area, and the simulated physical temporal resolution is better than 30 ps. The temporal distortion in our large-format streak tube, which is shown to be a non-negligible factor, has a minimum value as the radius of curvature of the photocathode varies. Furthermore, the photocathode radiant sensitivity and radiant power gain reach 41 mA/W and 18.4 at the wavelength of 550 nm, respectively. Most importantly, the external dimensions of our streak tube are no more than Φ60 mm × 110 mm.

  1. Acute effects of cadmium on osmoregulation of the freshwater teleost Prochilodus lineatus: Enzymes activity and plasma ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Alexandre O.F. da [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal, UEL, Londrina (Brazil); Programa Multicêntrico de Pós-graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, UEL, Londrina (Brazil); Centro de Ciências Humanas e da Educação, UENP, Jacarezinho (Brazil); Martinez, Cláudia B.R., E-mail: cbueno@uel.br [Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal, UEL, Londrina (Brazil); Programa Multicêntrico de Pós-graduação em Ciências Fisiológicas, UEL, Londrina (Brazil)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • Cd effects were evaluated on plasma ions and ATPases of Prochilodus lineatus. • Fish were exposed to 1 and 10 μg Cd L{sup −1} for 24 and 96 h. • Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase and carbonic anhydrase decreased in gills and kidney after Cd exposure. • Gill Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase and plasma Ca{sup 2+} decreased after Cd exposure. • Cd concentrations set by Brazilian guidelines affect Ca{sup 2+} regulation of P. lineatus. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a trace element that is very toxic to fish. It is commonly found in surface waters contaminated with industrial effluents. When dissolved in water, Cd can rapidly cause physiological changes in the gills and kidneys of freshwater fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of Cd on the osmoregulation of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Juvenile fish were exposed to Cd at two concentrations [1 (Cd1) and 10 (Cd10) μg L{sup −1}] for 24 and 96 h. The effects of Cd were evaluated through the analysis of ions (Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, Ca{sup 2+}, and Cl{sup −}) and plasma osmolality, and by measuring the activities of enzymes involved in osmoregulation obtained from the gills and kidney. Fish exposed to Cd for 24 and 96 h showed a decrease in Na{sup +}/K{sup +}-ATPase activity in the gills and kidney. The activity of carbonic anhydrase decreased in the gills after 24 h and in both tissues after 96 h of Cd exposure. The gill Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase activity also decreased with Cd exposure, with a concomitant drop in the plasma concentration of Ca{sup 2+}. Despite the hypocalcemia, there were no changes in the concentration of the ions Na{sup +}, K{sup +}, and Cl{sup −} or in plasma osmolality. Among the enzymes involved in ion transport, H{sup +}-ATPase was the only enzyme that showed increased activity in gills, whereas its activity in kidney remained unchanged. The results of this study demonstrate that waterborne Cd at the maximum concentrations set by Brazilian guidelines for

  2. Acute effects of cadmium on osmoregulation of the freshwater teleost Prochilodus lineatus: Enzymes activity and plasma ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Alexandre O.F. da; Martinez, Cláudia B.R.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Cd effects were evaluated on plasma ions and ATPases of Prochilodus lineatus. • Fish were exposed to 1 and 10 μg Cd L −1 for 24 and 96 h. • Na + /K + -ATPase and carbonic anhydrase decreased in gills and kidney after Cd exposure. • Gill Ca 2+ -ATPase and plasma Ca 2+ decreased after Cd exposure. • Cd concentrations set by Brazilian guidelines affect Ca 2+ regulation of P. lineatus. - Abstract: Cadmium (Cd) is a trace element that is very toxic to fish. It is commonly found in surface waters contaminated with industrial effluents. When dissolved in water, Cd can rapidly cause physiological changes in the gills and kidneys of freshwater fish. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of Cd on the osmoregulation of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Juvenile fish were exposed to Cd at two concentrations [1 (Cd1) and 10 (Cd10) μg L −1 ] for 24 and 96 h. The effects of Cd were evaluated through the analysis of ions (Na + , K + , Ca 2+ , and Cl − ) and plasma osmolality, and by measuring the activities of enzymes involved in osmoregulation obtained from the gills and kidney. Fish exposed to Cd for 24 and 96 h showed a decrease in Na + /K + -ATPase activity in the gills and kidney. The activity of carbonic anhydrase decreased in the gills after 24 h and in both tissues after 96 h of Cd exposure. The gill Ca 2+ -ATPase activity also decreased with Cd exposure, with a concomitant drop in the plasma concentration of Ca 2+ . Despite the hypocalcemia, there were no changes in the concentration of the ions Na + , K + , and Cl − or in plasma osmolality. Among the enzymes involved in ion transport, H + -ATPase was the only enzyme that showed increased activity in gills, whereas its activity in kidney remained unchanged. The results of this study demonstrate that waterborne Cd at the maximum concentrations set by Brazilian guidelines for freshwater affects the gills and kidney functions of P. lineatus. Acute exposure to

  3. Characteristics of uranium oxide cathode for neutron streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niki, H.; Itoga, K.; Yamanaka, M.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamanaka, C.

    1986-01-01

    In laser fusion research, time-resolved neutron measurements require 20ps resolution in order to obtain the time history of the D-T burn. Uranium oxide was expected to be a sensitive material as a cathode of a neutron streak camera because of its large fission cross section. The authors report their measurements of some characteristics of the uranium oxide cathode connected to a conventional streak tube. 14 MeV neutron signal were observed as the bright spots on a TV monitor using a focus mode opration. Detection efficiency was ∼ 1 x 10 -6 for 1 μm thick cathode. Each signal consisted of more than several tens of components, which were corresponding to the secondary electrons dragged out from the cathode by a fission fragment. Time resolution is thought to be limited mainly by the transit time spread of the secondary electrons. 14ps resolution was obtained by a streak mode operation for a single fission event

  4. A time-resolved image sensor for tubeless streak cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasutomi, Keita; Han, SangMan; Seo, Min-Woong; Takasawa, Taishi; Kagawa, Keiichiro; Kawahito, Shoji

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a time-resolved CMOS image sensor with draining-only modulation (DOM) pixels for tube-less streak cameras. Although the conventional streak camera has high time resolution, the device requires high voltage and bulky system due to the structure with a vacuum tube. The proposed time-resolved imager with a simple optics realize a streak camera without any vacuum tubes. The proposed image sensor has DOM pixels, a delay-based pulse generator, and a readout circuitry. The delay-based pulse generator in combination with an in-pixel logic allows us to create and to provide a short gating clock to the pixel array. A prototype time-resolved CMOS image sensor with the proposed pixel is designed and implemented using 0.11um CMOS image sensor technology. The image array has 30(Vertical) x 128(Memory length) pixels with the pixel pitch of 22.4um. .

  5. Sweep devices for picosecond image-converter streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunin, B.; Miehe, J.A.; Sipp, B.; Schelev, M.Ya.; Serduchenko, J.N.; Thebault, J.

    1979-01-01

    Four different sweep devices based on microwave tubes, avalanche transistors, krytrons, and laser-triggered spark gaps are treated in detail. These control circuits are developed for picosecond image-converter cameras and generate sweep pulses providing streak speeds in the range of 10 7 to 5x10 10 cm/sec with maximum time resolution better than 10 -12 sec. Special low-jitter triggering schemes reduce the jitter to less than 5x10 -11 sec. Some problems arising in the construction and matching of the sweep devices and image-streak tube are discussed. Comparative parameters of nanosecond switching elements are presented. The results described can be used by other authors involved in streak camera development

  6. Streak artifacts on Kidney CT: Ionic vs nonionic contrast media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Eun Ok; Kim, Won Hong; Jung, Myung Suk; Kim, Yong Hoon; Hur, Gham

    1993-01-01

    The authors reviewed findings of enhanced abdominal computed tomography (CT) scans to know the difference between a higher dose of conventional ionic contrast media(iothalamate meglumine) and a lower dose of a new, nonionic contrast material(ioversol). One hundred adult patients were divided into two groups. Each group consisted of 50 patients. Iothalamate meglumine and ioversol were intravenously administered in each group. The radio of the male to female in the former was 28:22, and the latter 29:21. We examine the degree of renal streak artifact and measure the Hounsfield number of urine in renal collecting system. There were significant differences of the degree of the streak artifact depending upon the osmolality of contrast media used and that was related with urine CT number(P value<0.005). We authors conclude that nonionic low osmolar contrast media is prone to cause streak artifacts and distortions of renal image than conventional ionic high osmolar contrast media

  7. Picosecond X-ray streak camera dynamic range measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, C., E-mail: celine.zuber@cea.fr; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Gontier, D.; Raimbourg, J.; Rubbelynck, C.; Trosseille, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fronty, J.-P.; Goulmy, C. [Photonis SAS, Avenue Roger Roncier, BP 520, 19106 Brive Cedex (France)

    2016-09-15

    Streak cameras are widely used to record the spatio-temporal evolution of laser-induced plasma. A prototype of picosecond X-ray streak camera has been developed and tested by Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives to answer the Laser MegaJoule specific needs. The dynamic range of this instrument is measured with picosecond X-ray pulses generated by the interaction of a laser beam and a copper target. The required value of 100 is reached only in the configurations combining the slowest sweeping speed and optimization of the streak tube electron throughput by an appropriate choice of high voltages applied to its electrodes.

  8. Design of neutron streak camera for fusion diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.L.; Kalibjian, R.; Singh, M.S.

    1982-06-01

    The D-T burn time for advanced laser-fusion targets is calculated to be very short, 2 . Each fission fragment leaving the cathode generates 400 secondary electrons that are all < 20 eV. These electrons are focussed to a point with an extractor and an anode, and are then purified with an electrostatic deflector. The electron beam is streaked and detected with the standard streak camera techniques. Careful shielding is needed for x-rays from the fusion target and general background. It appears that the neutron streak camera can be a viable and unique tool for studying temporal history of fusion burns in D-T plasmas of a few keV ion temperature

  9. Streak camera imaging of single photons at telecom wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgaier, Markus; Ansari, Vahid; Eigner, Christof; Quiring, Viktor; Ricken, Raimund; Donohue, John Matthew; Czerniuk, Thomas; Aßmann, Marc; Bayer, Manfred; Brecht, Benjamin; Silberhorn, Christine

    2018-01-01

    Streak cameras are powerful tools for temporal characterization of ultrafast light pulses, even at the single-photon level. However, the low signal-to-noise ratio in the infrared range prevents measurements on weak light sources in the telecom regime. We present an approach to circumvent this problem, utilizing an up-conversion process in periodically poled waveguides in Lithium Niobate. We convert single photons from a parametric down-conversion source in order to reach the point of maximum detection efficiency of commercially available streak cameras. We explore phase-matching configurations to apply the up-conversion scheme in real-world applications.

  10. Genetic diversity of Prochilodus lineatus stocks using in the stocking program of Tietê River, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Ribeiro

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Assess the genetic diversity in four brood stocks and one juvenile stock of curimba Prochilodus lineatus in a Hydropower plant in São Paulo - Brazil, using the Tietê River stocking program. Materials and methods. Five RAPD primers were used to amplify the extracted DNA from 150 fin-clip samples. Results. Fifty-nine fragments were polymorphic, 52 had frequencies with significant differences (p<0.05, 45 had low frequencies, 54 were excluded, and two were fixed fragments. High values for polymorphic fragments (71.19% to 91.53% and Shannon index (0.327 to 0.428 were observed. The genetic divergence values within each stock were greater than 50%. Most of the genetic variation was found within the groups through the AMOVA analysis, which was confirmed by the results of the identity and genetic distance. High ancestry levels (FST among the groups value indicated high and moderate genetic differentiation. The estimates of number of migrants by generation (Nm indicated low levels of gene flow. High and moderate genetic divergence between groups (0.58 to 0.83 was observed. Conclusions. The results indicate high variability within the stocks, and genetic differentiation among them. The fish stocks analyzed represent a large genetic base that will allow the fish technicians to release juveniles without genetic risks to wild populations present in the river. These genetic procedures may be used as models for other migratory species, including those threatened by extinction.

  11. Pesticides residues in the Prochilodus costatus (Valenciennes, 1850) fish caught in the São Francisco River, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Fabiano A; Reis, Lilian P G; Soto-Blanco, Benito; Melo, Marília M

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticides in the fish Prochilodus costatus caught in São Francisco River, one of most important rivers in Brazil. Thirty-six fish were captured in three different areas, and samples of the dorsal muscle and pooled viscera were collected for toxicological analysis. We evaluated the presence of 150 different classes of insecticides, fungicides, herbicides and acaricides by multiresidue analysis technique using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), with the limit of detection of 5 ppb. In this study, organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides were detected at the highest levels in the caught fish. Among the 41 organophosphorus pesticides surveyed, nine types were detected (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, dichlorvos, disulfoton, ethion, etrimfos, phosalone, phosmet and pyrazophos) in the muscle, viscera pool, or both in 22 (61.1%) fish. Sampled tissues of 20 (55.6%) fish exhibited at least one of the eight evaluated carbamate pesticides and their metabolites: aldicarb, aldicarb sulfoxide, carbaryl, carbofuran, carbosulfan, furathiocarb, methomyl and propoxur. Fungicides (carbendazim, benalaxyl, kresoxim-methyl, trifloxystrobin, pyraclostrobin and its metabolite BF 500 pyraclostrobin), herbicides (pyridate and fluasifop p-butyl), acaricide (propargite) and pyrethroid (flumethrin) were also detected. In conclusion, P. costatus fish caught in the São Francisco River contained residues of 17 different pesticides, in both muscles and the viscera pool, indicating heavy environmental contamination by pesticides in the study area.

  12. Experimental assessment of the effects of a Neotropical nocturnal piscivore on juvenile native and invasive fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra F. G. N. Santos

    Full Text Available We experimentally examined the predator-prey relationships between juvenile spotted sorubim Pseudoplastystoma corruscans and young-of-the-year invasive and native fish species of the Paraná River basin, Brazil. Three invasive (peacock bass Cichla piquiti, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, and channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus and two native (yellowtail tetra Astyanax altiparanae and streaked prochilod Prochilodus lineatus fish species were offered as prey to P. corruscans in 300 L aquaria with three habitat complexity treatments (0%, 50% and 100% structure-covered. Prey survival was variable through time and among species (C. piquiti < O. niloticus < A. altiparanae < P. lineatus < I. punctatus, depending largely on species-specific prey behavior but also on prey size and morphological defenses. Habitat complexity did not directly affect P. corruscans piscivory but some prey species changed their microhabitat use and shoaling behavior among habitat treatments in predator's presence. Pseudoplatystoma corruscans preyed preferentially on smaller individuals of those invasive species with weak morphological defensive features that persisted in a non-shoaling behavior. Overall, our results contrast with those in a companion experiment using a diurnal predator, suggesting that nocturnal piscivores preferentially prey on different (rather diurnal fish species and are less affected by habitat complexity. Our findings suggest that recovering the native populations of P. corruscans might help controling some fish species introduced to the Paraná River basin, particularly C. piquiti and O. niloticus, whose parental care is expected to be weak or null at night.

  13. MR imaging of medullary streaks in osteosclerosis: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hak Soo; Joo, Kyung Bin; Park, Tae Soo; Song, Ho Taek; Kim, Yong Soo; Park, Dong Woo; Park, Choong Ki

    2000-01-01

    We present a case of medullary sclerosis of the appendicular skeleton in a patient with chronic renal insufficiency for whom MR imaging findings were characteristic. T1- and T2-weighted MR images showed multiple vertical lines (medullary streaks) of low signal intensity in the metaphyses and diaphyses of the distal femur and proximal tibia

  14. Cassava brown streak disease effects on leaf metabolites and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava brown streak disease effects on leaf metabolites and pigment accumulation. ... Total reducing sugar and starch content also dropped significantly (-30 and -60%, respectively), much as NASE 14 maintained a relatively higher amount of carbohydrates. Leaf protein levels were significantly reduced at a rate of 0.07 ...

  15. Soft x-ray streak camera for laser fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.

    1981-04-01

    This thesis reviews the development and significance of the soft x-ray streak camera (SXRSC) in the context of inertial confinement fusion energy development. A brief introduction of laser fusion and laser fusion diagnostics is presented. The need for a soft x-ray streak camera as a laser fusion diagnostic is shown. Basic x-ray streak camera characteristics, design, and operation are reviewed. The SXRSC design criteria, the requirement for a subkilovolt x-ray transmitting window, and the resulting camera design are explained. Theory and design of reflector-filter pair combinations for three subkilovolt channels centered at 220 eV, 460 eV, and 620 eV are also presented. Calibration experiments are explained and data showing a dynamic range of 1000 and a sweep speed of 134 psec/mm are presented. Sensitivity modifications to the soft x-ray streak camera for a high-power target shot are described. A preliminary investigation, using a stepped cathode, of the thickness dependence of the gold photocathode response is discussed. Data from a typical Argus laser gold-disk target experiment are shown

  16. Avoiding acidic region streaking in two-dimensional gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary figure 6. 2DE gel images ... Number of acidic streaks. Fedyunin et al. 2012. 4.02. 6. Zuo et al. 2000. 2.54. 9. Valenete et ... CE, 3rd 2009 Proteasomal protein degradation in ... Nandakumar MP, Shen J, Raman B and Marten MR.

  17. Improved approach to characterizing and presenting streak camera performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiedwald, J.D.; Jones, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    The performance of a streak camera recording system is strongly linked to the technique used to amplify, detect and quantify the streaked image. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) streak camera images have been recorded both on film and by fiber-optically coupling to charge-coupled devices (CCD's). During the development of a new process for recording these images (lens coupling the image onto a cooled CCD) the definitions of important performance characteristics such as resolution and dynamic range were re-examined. As a result of this development, these performance characteristics are now presented to the streak camera user in a more useful format than in the past. This paper describes how these techniques are used within the Laser Fusion Program at LLNL. The system resolution is presented as a modulation transfer function, including the seldom reported effects that flare and light scattering have at low spatial frequencies. Data are presented such that a user can adjust image intensifier gain and pixel averaging to optimize the useful dynamic range in any particular application

  18. Laparoscopic Removal of Streak Gonads in Turner Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelberger, Adrienne; Mathews, Shyama; Andikyan, Vaagn; Chuang, Linus

    To demonstrate the skills necessary for complete resection of bilateral streak gonads in Turner syndrome. Video case presentation with narration highlighting the key techniques used. The video was deemed exempt from formal review by our institutional review board. Turner syndrome is a form of gonadal dysgenesis that affects 1 in 2500 live births. Patients often have streak gonads and may present with primary amenorrhea or premature ovarian failure. Patients with a mosaic karyotype that includes a Y chromosome are at increased risk for gonadoblastoma and subsequent transformation into malignancy. Gonadectomy is recommended for these patients, typically at adolescence. Streak gonads can be difficult to identify, and tissue margins are often in close proximity to critical retroperitoneal structures. Resection can be technically challenging and requires a thorough understanding of retroperitoneal anatomy and precise dissection techniques to ensure complete removal. Laparoscopic approach to bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy of streak gonads. Retroperitoneal dissection and ureterolysis are performed, with the aid of the Ethicon Harmonic Ace, to ensure complete gonadectomy. Careful and complete resection of gonadal tissue in the hands of a skilled laparoscopic surgeon is key for effective cancer risk reduction surgery in Turner syndrome mosaics. Copyright © 2016 AAGL. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Significance and transmission of maize streak virus disease in Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... soil nutrients, altitude and temperature on the biology of maize streak virus (MSV) / vector populations is discussed. ... status of maize host plants and its effects on population dynamics of Cicadulina mbila Naudé. (Homoptera: ..... time necessary for the leafhopper to reach the mesophyll of the leaf and ingest ...

  20. Reliable and repeatable characterization of optical streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charest, Michael R. Jr.; Torres, Peter III; Silbernagel, Christopher T.; Kalantar, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility. To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information.

  1. Reliable and Repeatable Characterization of Optical Streak Cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, D; Charest, M; Torres III, P; Charest, M

    2008-01-01

    Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information

  2. Reliable and Repeatable Characterization of Optical Streak Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Charest Jr., Peter Torres III, Christopher Silbernagel, and Daniel Kalantar

    2008-10-31

    Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information.

  3. Reliable and Repeatable Characterication of Optical Streak Cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalantar, D; Charest, M; Torres III, P; Charest, M

    2008-05-06

    Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser experiments at facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electrical components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases, the characterization data are applied to the raw data images to correct for the nonlinearities. In order to characterize an optical streak camera, a specific set of data is collected, where the response to defined inputs are recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, and temporal resolution from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information.

  4. Effects of water pH on gamete activation, embryonic development, and larval normality in Prochilodus lineatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Antônio Sanches

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of breeding water pH on the spermatic motility, artificial fertilization, and initial development of offspring in curimba, Prochilodus lineatus. After hormonal induction, we conducted gamete activation, artificial fertilization, and embryo incubation in water with pH values of 4.43 ± 0.13, 5.82 ± 0.14, 7.37 ± 0.10, 8.21 ± 0.06, and 9.57 ± 0.16. When the water pH was 6.65, spermatic motility was maintained for ?25.21 s (P < 0.05. The highest fertilization rates (P < 0.05 were obtained when the water pH ranged from 5.82 ± 0.14 to 8.21 ± 0.06, and the highest hatching rates (P < 0.05 were observed when the water pH was 7.37 ± 0.10. A water pH of between 7.37 ± 0.10 and 8.21 ± 0.06 resulted in more complete formation of the perivitelline space (P < 0.05; additionally, embryos incubated in alkaline waters produced a higher percentage of normal larvae (P < 0.05, despite increased mortality levels. Our results indicate that the pH of the water used for gamete activation, artificial oocyte fertilization, and incubation of eggs and larvae of P. lineatus should be ~7, in order to promote successful breeding and normal larval production.

  5. Aspectos biométricos y reproductivos de Boquichico Prochilodus nigricans Agassiz, 1829 (Pisces: Prochilodontidae en Ucayali, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José C. Riofrío Q.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El conocimiento de la biología y pesquería de una especie explotada es esencial para un manejo racional y una producción sostenida. De febrero a diciembre de 1994 se colectó información de una de las especies más importantes por los volúmenes de desembarque en Ucayali, el boquichico (Prochilodus nigricans. Se analizaron aspectos biométricos (relación longitud total - peso total: LTPT y reproductivos (proporción por sexos, época de reproducción, tallas de madurez de esta especie. La relación LT-PT no mostró diferencias significativas entre las regresiones de machos y hembras (análisis de variancias residual F0,05 proponiéndose el empleo de una ecuación conjunta para la especie de la forma PT = 0,0211 LT 2,8592. La proporción sexual total no mostró diferencias significativas (χ 2 0,05 al asumir una relación 1:1. El análisis de la progresión de los estadios de madurez confirma la reproducción durante la temporada de elevación del nivel del río Ucayali (octubre-enero. La talla de madurez calculada para los machos fue de 24,5 cm y para las hembras de 26.1 cm, recomendándose esta última para el manejo de la pesquería.

  6. DNA fragmentation and membrane damage of bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae (Ostariophysi: Prochilodontidae sperm following cryopreservation with dimethylsulfoxide and glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gregorio Martínez

    Full Text Available The endangered bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae is a native freshwater fish of Colombia, the most captured species locally and one of the most important species for ex-situ conservation (germplasm banks. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three concentrations of Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO (5%, 10%, 15% and three of glucose (305, 333, 361 mM in the extender on spermatic DNA fragmentation (F-DNA (by Halomax®, Chromatin dispersion and membrane damage (D-Me (by eosin-nigrosin staining. After assessment of sperm quality by computer analysis of motility, one part of semen from males was diluted separately with three parts of extender and filled into 0.5 ml straws. Freezing was carried out in liquid nitrogen vapor dry shipper for 30 minutes and thawed at 60ºC for 8 seconds in a water bath and evaluated for the percentage of cells found with F-DNA and D-Me. The results demonstrated that cryopreservation causes greater F-DNA (13.62 ± 1.6% to 28.91 ± 3.25 and D-Me (24.27 ± 1.1% to 58.33 ± 2.81% when compared with pre-freezing semen (PFS (6.71 ± 1.54% and 2.34 ± 0.5%, respectively for F-DNA and D-Me. A significant interaction was found between DMSO and glucose concentration in this experiment. Use of extender: 10% DMSO + 305 mM glucose + 12% chicken egg yolk and, 10% DMSO + 333 mM glucose + 12% chicken egg yolk, allow for lower F-DNA and D-Me during cryopreservation of bocachico semen. A high correlation between F-DNA and D-Me was found (r = 0.771.

  7. Diel and seasonal movements of grumatã Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1836 (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae in the Sinos River, Southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NA. Pesoa

    Full Text Available Prochilodus lineatus is a reophilic migratory species of economical importance for local fisheries which is widely distributed in Brazil. The present study investigated diel and seasonal movement patterns, spawning migration and habitat use of P. lineatus in the Sinos River, Southern Brazil. Between August 2002 and March 2004, 19 grumatãs were tagged internally with digitally coded radio transmitters. Tracking was conducted weekly by boat or aircraft, and six fixed data loggers recorded movements of tagged fish. Results showed that the mean distance covered per fish and day was positively related with fish weight (p = 0.03; n = 19. Grumatã showed preference for river streches surrounded by wetlands (p < 0.001; n = 286. Their diel activity pattern displayed one peak at 7 hours, and a second at 15 hours. During the night, activity was significantly reduced (p = 0.01. The seasonal movements pattern showed increased activity in October 2002 - March 2003 and from October 2003 to January 2004. Multiple regression analysis did not show a significant relationship between distance covered and temperature or water level (p = 0.116; n = 19. No synchronized long distance spawning migrations were observed. The mean distance covered by the individuals/day showed a negative significant relationship with number of tracking days (p = 0.022; n = 19, indicating a higher probability of being captured for more mobile individuals. The preservation of the still existing wetlands and reduction of the fishing pressure are essential for the future conservation of the grumatã population of the Sinos River.

  8. rf streak camera based ultrafast relativistic electron diffraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, P; Moody, J T; Scoby, C M; Gutierrez, M S; Tran, T

    2009-01-01

    We theoretically and experimentally investigate the possibility of using a rf streak camera to time resolve in a single shot structural changes at the sub-100 fs time scale via relativistic electron diffraction. We experimentally tested this novel concept at the UCLA Pegasus rf photoinjector. Time-resolved diffraction patterns from thin Al foil are recorded. Averaging over 50 shots is required in order to get statistics sufficient to uncover a variation in time of the diffraction patterns. In the absence of an external pump laser, this is explained as due to the energy chirp on the beam out of the electron gun. With further improvements to the electron source, rf streak camera based ultrafast electron diffraction has the potential to yield truly single shot measurements of ultrafast processes.

  9. Electron streaking in the autoionization region of H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Alicia; González-Castrillo, Alberto; Martín, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    We use a UV-pump/IR-probe scheme, combining a single attosecond UV pulse and a 750 nm IR pulse, to explore laser-assisted photoionization of the hydrogen molecule in the autoionization region. The electron energy distributions exhibit unusual streaking patterns that are explored for different angles of the electron ejection with respect to the polarization vector and the molecular axis. Moreover, by controlling the time delay between the pulses, we observe that one can suppress the autoionization channel. (paper)

  10. Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, M. J.; Upadhyay, J.; Deshpande, P. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P.

    2010-01-01

    A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

  11. Electro-optical design of a long slit streak tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Liping; Tian, Jinshou; Wen, Wenlong; Chen, Ping; Wang, Xing; Hui, Dandan; Wang, Junfeng

    2017-11-01

    A small size and long slit streak tube with high spatial resolution was designed and optimized. Curved photocathode and screen were adopted to increase the photocathode working area and spatial resolution. High physical temporal resolution obtained by using a slit accelerating electrode. Deflection sensitivity of the streak tube was improved by adopting two-folded deflection plates. The simulations indicate that the photocathode effective working area can reach 30mm × 5mm. The static spatial resolution is higher than 40lp/mm and 12lp/mm along scanning and slit directions respectively while the physical temporal resolution is higher than 60ps. The magnification is 0.75 and 0.77 in scanning and slit directions. And also, the deflection sensitivity is as high as 37mm/kV. The external dimension of the streak tube are only ∅74mm×231mm. Thus, it can be applied to laser imaging radar system for large field of view and high range precision detection.

  12. Slope streaks on Mars: A new “wet” mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreslavsky, Mikhail A.; Head, James W.

    2009-06-01

    Slope steaks are one of the most intriguing modern phenomena observed on Mars. They have been mostly interpreted as some specific type of granular flow. We propose another mechanism for slope streak formation on Mars. It involves natural seasonal formation of a modest amount of highly concentrated chloride brines within a seasonal thermal skin, and runaway propagation of percolation fronts. Given the current state of knowledge of temperature regimes and the composition and structure of the surface layer in the slope streak regions, this mechanism is consistent with the observational constraints; it requires an assumption that a significant part of the observed chlorine to be in form of calcium and ferric chloride, and a small part of the observed hydrogen to be in form of water ice. This "wet" mechanism has a number of appealing advantages in comparison to the widely accepted "dry" granular flow mechanism. Potential tests for the "wet" mechanism include better modeling of the temperature regime and observations of the seasonality of streak formation.

  13. Reliable and Repeatable Characterization of Optical Streak Cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michael R. Charest, Peter Torres III, Christopher Silbernagel

    2008-01-01

    Optical streak cameras are used as primary diagnostics for a wide range of physics and laser performance verification experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To meet the strict accuracy requirements needed for these experiments, the systematic nonlinearities of the streak cameras (attributed to nonlinearities in the optical and electronic components that make up the streak camera system) must be characterized. In some cases the characterization information is used as a guide to help determine how experiment data should be taken. In other cases the characterization data is used to 'correct' data images, to remove some of the nonlinearities. In order to obtain these camera characterizations, a specific data set is collected where the response to specific known inputs is recorded. A set of analysis software routines has been developed to extract information such as spatial resolution, dynamic range, temporal resolution, etc., from this data set. The routines are highly automated, requiring very little user input and thus provide very reliable and repeatable results that are not subject to interpretation. An emphasis on quality control has been placed on these routines due to the high importance of the camera characterization information

  14. A novel simultaneous streak and framing camera without principle errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jingzhen, L.; Fengshan, S.; Ningwen, L.; Xiangdong, G.; Bin, H.; Qingyang, W.; Hongyi, C.; Yi, C.; Xiaowei, L.

    2018-02-01

    A novel simultaneous streak and framing camera with continuous access, the perfect information of which is far more important for the exact interpretation and precise evaluation of many detonation events and shockwave phenomena, has been developed. The camera with the maximum imaging frequency of 2 × 106 fps and the maximum scanning velocity of 16.3 mm/μs has fine imaging properties which are the eigen resolution of over 40 lp/mm in the temporal direction and over 60 lp/mm in the spatial direction and the framing frequency principle error of zero for framing record, and the maximum time resolving power of 8 ns and the scanning velocity nonuniformity of 0.136%~-0.277% for streak record. The test data have verified the performance of the camera quantitatively. This camera, simultaneously gained frames and streak with parallax-free and identical time base, is characterized by the plane optical system at oblique incidence different from space system, the innovative camera obscura without principle errors, and the high velocity motor driven beryllium-like rotating mirror, made of high strength aluminum alloy with cellular lateral structure. Experiments demonstrate that the camera is very useful and reliable to take high quality pictures of the detonation events.

  15. Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, M J; Upadhyay, J; Deshpande, P P; Sharma, M L; Navathe, C P

    2010-08-01

    A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

  16. Design of microcontroller based system for automation of streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, M. J.; Upadhyay, J.; Deshpande, P. P.; Sharma, M. L.; Navathe, C. P. [Laser Electronics Support Division, RRCAT, Indore 452013 (India)

    2010-08-15

    A microcontroller based system has been developed for automation of the S-20 optical streak camera, which is used as a diagnostic tool to measure ultrafast light phenomenon. An 8 bit MCS family microcontroller is employed to generate all control signals for the streak camera. All biasing voltages required for various electrodes of the tubes are generated using dc-to-dc converters. A high voltage ramp signal is generated through a step generator unit followed by an integrator circuit and is applied to the camera's deflecting plates. The slope of the ramp can be changed by varying values of the capacitor and inductor. A programmable digital delay generator has been developed for synchronization of ramp signal with the optical signal. An independent hardwired interlock circuit has been developed for machine safety. A LABVIEW based graphical user interface has been developed which enables the user to program the settings of the camera and capture the image. The image is displayed with intensity profiles along horizontal and vertical axes. The streak camera was calibrated using nanosecond and femtosecond lasers.

  17. Proteína bruta e energia digestível em dietas para alevinos de curimbatá (Prochilodus affins Crude protein and digestible energy in the diets for curimbatá fingerlings (Prochilodus affins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Antonio Delmondes Bomfim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando-se determinar as exigências de proteína bruta (PB em função do nível de energia digestível (ED da dieta para alevinos de curimbatá (Prochilodus affins, foram utilizados 256 peixes com peso inicial de 2,72 ± 0,11 g, mantidos em 32 aquários de 100 L, dotados de abastecimento de água, temperatura controlada e aeração individuais. O experimento foi realizado seguindo-se esquema fatorial 4 x 2 (quatro níveis de PB: 18,0; 22,0; 26,0; e 30,0%, combinados com dois níveis de ED: 2.700 e 3.000 kcal/kg, em um delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com quatro repetições e oito peixes por unidade experimental. Os peixes foram alimentados ad libitum em duas refeições diárias durante 78 dias. Avaliaram-se o ganho de peso, o consumo aparente de racão, a conversão alimentar aparente, a taxa de crescimento específico, a taxa de eficiência protéica, a eficiência de retenção de nitrogênio, a umidade, a proteína e a gordura corporais e as porcentagens de nitrogênio e de gordura no ganho de peso. Verificou-se que não houve interação dos níveis de PB ´ ED, à exceção da porcentagem de gordura no ganho de peso. Com o nível de 3.000 kcal de ED/kg, obtiveram-se peixes com maiores níveis de matéria seca, gordura corporal e porcentagem de gordura no ganho de peso. Concluiu-se que a exigência de PB e ED para alevinos de curimbatá é de 26,05% e 2.700 kcal/kg, respectivamente, que corresponde a uma relação ED:PB de 10,36 kcal de ED/g de PB, por proporcionar as melhores respostas em ganho de peso e composição de carcaça.Two hundred and fifty six curimbatá (Prochilodus affins fingerlings averaging initial weight of 2.72 ± 0.11 g, stocked in 32 aquariums (100 L with water renewal, controlled temperature and individual aeration, were used to determine the dietary crude protein (CP requirements, according to the digestible energy level (DE. The experiment was carried out in to a 4 x 2 factorial scheme (four CP levels: 18

  18. Transition due to streamwise streaks in a supersonic flat plate boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2016-12-01

    Transition induced by stationary streaks undergoing transient growth in a supersonic flat plate boundary layer flow is studied using numerical computations. While the possibility of strong transient growth of small-amplitude stationary perturbations in supersonic boundary layer flows has been demonstrated in previous works, its relation to laminar-turbulent transition cannot be established within the framework of linear disturbances. Therefore, this paper investigates the nonlinear evolution of initially linear optimal disturbances that evolve into finite amplitude streaks in the downstream region, and then studies the modal instability of those streaks as a likely cause for the onset of bypass transition. The nonmodal evolution of linearly optimal stationary perturbations in a supersonic, Mach 3 flat plate boundary layer is computed via the nonlinear plane-marching parabolized stability equations (PSE) for stationary perturbations, or equivalently, the perturbation form of parabolized Navier-Stokes equations. To assess the effect of the nonlinear finite-amplitude streaks on transition, the linear form of plane-marching PSE is used to investigate the instability of the boundary layer flow modified by the spanwise periodic streaks. The onset of transition is estimated using an N -factor criterion based on modal amplification of the secondary instabilities of the streaks. In the absence of transient growth disturbances, first mode instabilities in a Mach 3, zero pressure gradient boundary layer reach N =10 at Rex≈107 . However, secondary instability modes of the stationary streaks undergoing transient growth are able to achieve the same N -factor at Rex<2 ×106 when the initial streak amplitude is sufficiently large. In contrast to the streak instabilities in incompressible flows, subharmonic instability modes with twice the fundamental spanwise wavelength of the streaks are found to have higher amplification ratios than the streak instabilities at fundamental

  19. DNA fragmentation and membrane damage of bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae (Ostariophysi: Prochilodontidae sperm following cryopreservation with dimethylsulfoxide and glucose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Gregorio Martínez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The endangered bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae is a native freshwater fish of Colombia, the most captured species locally and one of the most important species for ex-situ conservation (germplasm banks. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of three concentrations of Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO (5%, 10%, 15% and three of glucose (305, 333, 361 mM in the extender on spermatic DNA fragmentation (F-DNA (by Halomax®, Chromatin dispersion and membrane damage (D-Me (by eosin-nigrosin staining. After assessment of sperm quality by computer analysis of motility, one part of semen from males was diluted separately with three parts of extender and filled into 0.5 ml straws. Freezing was carried out in liquid nitrogen vapor dry shipper for 30 minutes and thawed at 60ºC for 8 seconds in a water bath and evaluated for the percentage of cells found with F-DNA and D-Me. The results demonstrated that cryopreservation causes greater F-DNA (13.62 ± 1.6% to 28.91 ± 3.25 and D-Me (24.27 ± 1.1% to 58.33 ± 2.81% when compared with pre-freezing semen (PFS (6.71 ± 1.54% and 2.34 ± 0.5%, respectively for F-DNA and D-Me. A significant interaction was found between DMSO and glucose concentration in this experiment. Use of extender: 10% DMSO + 305 mM glucose + 12% chicken egg yolk and, 10% DMSO + 333 mM glucose + 12% chicken egg yolk, allow for lower F-DNA and D-Me during cryopreservation of bocachico semen. A high correlation between F-DNA and D-Me was found (r = 0.771.O curimba Prochilodus magdalenae, é uma espécie nativa de água doce da Colômbia ameaçada de extinção, sendo a mais capturada localmente e uma das mais importantes para a conservação ex-situ (bancos de germoplasma. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de três concentrações de dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO (5%, 10%, 15% e três de glicose (305, 333, 361 mM no diluente sobre a fragmentação do ADN espermático (F-DNA (através de Halomax®, dispersão da cromatina e danos em

  20. Intellectual streaking: The value of teachers exposing minds (and hearts).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Margaret; Molloy, Elizabeth

    2017-12-01

    As teachers we often ask learners to be vulnerable and yet present ourselves as high status, knowledgeable experts, often with pre-prepared scripts. This paper investigates the metaphoric notion of "intellectual streaking" - the nimble exposure of a teacher's thought processes, dilemmas, or failures - as a way of modeling both reflection-in-action and resilience. While there is a tension between credibility and vulnerability, both of which are necessary for trust, we argue that taking a few risks and revealing deficits in knowledge or performance can be illuminating and valuable for all parties.

  1. Angioid streaks in a case of Camurati–Engelmann disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Betül Tugcu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Camurati–Engelmann disease (CED is a rare autosomal dominant disease with various phenotypic expressions. The hallmark of the disease is bilateral symmetric diaphyseal hyperostosis of the long bones with progressive involvement of the metaphysis. Ocular manifestations occur rarely and mainly result from bony overgrowth of the orbit and optic canal stenosis. We report a case of CED showing angioid streaks (ASs in both fundi with no macular involvement and discuss the possible theories of the pathogenesis of AS in this disease.

  2. Mechanism for propagation of the step leader of streak lightning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubev, A.I.; Zolotovskil, V.I.; Ivanovskil, A.V.

    1992-01-01

    A hypothetical scheme for the development of the step leader of streak lightning is discussed. The mathematical problem of modeling the propagation of the leader in this scheme is stated. The main parameters of the leader are estimated: the length and propagation velocity of the step, the average propagation velocity, etc. This is compared with data from observations in nature. The propagation of the leader is simulated numerically. Results of the calculation are presented for two 'flashes' of the step leader. 25 refs., 6 figs

  3. Prevalence and histopathology of Neoechinorhynchus curemai Noronha, 1973 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae in Prochilodus lineatus Valenciennes, 1836 from Volta Grande Reservoir, MG, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. MARTINS

    Full Text Available The present work studied the prevalence and histopathology of Neoechinorhynchus curemai Noronha, 1973 (Acanthocephala: Neoechinorhynchidae from curimbatá, Prochilodus lineatus Valenciennes, 1836. Eighteen fishes with averages of 46.7 + 1.1 cm length and 1,674.8 + 75.6 g weight were collected with net, bimonthly from December 1995 thru December 1996 in the hydroelectric power station of Volta Grande Reservoir (Cemig, Minas Gerais, Brazil. From analysed fishes, 15 were infected with acanthocephalans in the intestine (prevalence 83.3%. The greatest mean intensity occurred in August 1996 with 66.5 (16 to 208 parasites. Histopathological analysis showed complete desquamation of the intestinal epithelium with severe hyperplasia and hypertrofia of the goblet cells. Severe inflammatory reaction at the submucosa, displacement of their sheaf, associated with oedema and mononuclear and eosinophilic infiltration were observed.

  4. Population dynamics of the migratory fish Prochilodus lineatus in a neotropical river: the relationships with river discharge, flood pulse, El Niño and fluvial megafan behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinke J. M. Stassen

    Full Text Available The relative importance of flood pulse dynamics and megafan behaviour for the Sábalo (Prochilodus lineatus catches in the neotropical Pilcomayo River is studied. The Sábalo catches can mainly be explained by decreased river discharges in the preceding years resulting in smaller inundated areas during rainy season floods and thereby in a decreased area of feeding grounds for the fishes. The decreased river discharges and the related decline of Sábalo catches in the 1990's can be linked to the 90-95 El Niño event. In 2007 the Sábalo catches were comparable to the catches before the "El Niño" event. The connectivity (continuity between the main river and flood plain areas, which is influenced by sedimentation processes, is also of great importance and very probably plays a more important role since the late 1990's.

  5. Seletividade alimentar de organismos-alimento por formas jovens de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e curimba Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 = Selective feeding of food organisms by fish larvae of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandeyara Ribeiro Marques

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a seleção alimentar de organismos-alimento por formas jovens de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus e curimba (Prochilodus lineatus com diferentes idades (6, 12, 19 e 26 dias, na presença e ausência de Pistia stratiotes. Foram utilizados quatrotratamentos (T1 = pacu + P. stratiotes; T2 = pacu; T3 = curimba + P. stratiotes; T4 = curimba e quatro repetições. A cada sete dias, foram coletadas 24 larvas de cada espécie de peixe dos tanques, sendo estas mantidas em jejum por 24 horas. Depois de distribuídas nos aquários com plâncton, as larvas permaneceram por três horas, sendocoletadas e fixadas para análise, juntamente com as amostras de água. Os tratos digestórios das larvas foram retirados e analisados sob microscópio óptico. Observaram-se diferenças estatísticas na seletividade alimentar de organismos planctônicos por larvas de mesmaespécie, em diferentes idades e também entre larvas de espécies diferentes, com mesma idade, não diferindo quanto à presença ou ausência de P. stratiotes. As formas jovens de pacu e curimba selecionaram organismos similares aos seis dias de idade, passando por alterações até o 26º dia. À medida que se desenvolveram, as larvas de pacu passaram a selecionar cladóceros e ostrácodos e as de curimba, protozoários e algas.Theobjective was to evaluate the feeding selection of food organisms for two species of fish larvae (pacu and curimba at different ages (6, 12, 19 and 26 days after eclosion, in the presence or absence of Pistia stratiotes. Four treatments were used (T1 = pacu + P. stratiotes; T2 = pacu; T3 = curimba + P. stratiotes; T4 = curimba and four replications. Every seven days, 24 fish larvae of each species were collected, and kept without food for 24 hours. Afterbeing distributed in the aquariums with plankton, the larvae stayed for three hours, and were collected and prepared for analysis, along with the water samples. The digestive tract of the fish larvae were

  6. Automated computer analysis of plasma-streak traces from SCYLLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, R.L.; Jahoda, F.C.; Kruger, R.P.

    1977-01-01

    An automated computer analysis technique that locates and references the approximate centroid of single- or dual-streak traces from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory SCYLLAC facility is described. The technique also determines the plasma-trace width over a limited self-adjusting region. The plasma traces are recorded with streak cameras on Polaroid film, then scanned and digitized for processing. The analysis technique uses scene segmentation to separate the plasma trace from a reference fiducial trace. The technique employs two methods of peak detection; one for the plasma trace and one for the fiducial trace. The width is obtained using an edge-detection, or slope, method. Timing data are derived from the intensity modulation of the fiducial trace. To smooth (despike) the output graphs showing the plasma-trace centroid and width, a technique of ''twicing'' developed by Tukey was employed. In addition, an interactive sorting algorithm allows retrieval of the centroid, width, and fiducial data from any test shot plasma for post analysis. As yet, only a limited set of sixteen plasma traces has been processed using this technique

  7. Microprocessor-controlled wide-range streak camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Amy E.; Hollabaugh, Craig

    2006-08-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  8. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amy E. Lewis; Craig Hollabaugh

    2006-01-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera's user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized

  9. Automated computer analysis of plasma-streak traces from SCYLLAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whiteman, R.L.; Jahoda, F.C.; Kruger, R.P.

    1977-11-01

    An automated computer analysis technique that locates and references the approximate centroid of single- or dual-streak traces from the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory SCYLLAC facility is described. The technique also determines the plasma-trace width over a limited self-adjusting region. The plasma traces are recorded with streak cameras on Polaroid film, then scanned and digitized for processing. The analysis technique uses scene segmentation to separate the plasma trace from a reference fiducial trace. The technique employs two methods of peak detection; one for the plasma trace and one for the fiducial trace. The width is obtained using an edge-detection, or slope, method. Timing data are derived from the intensity modulation of the fiducial trace. To smooth (despike) the output graphs showing the plasma-trace centroid and width, a technique of ''twicing'' developed by Tukey was employed. In addition, an interactive sorting algorithm allows retrieval of the centroid, width, and fiducial data from any test shot plasma for post analysis. As yet, only a limited set of the plasma traces has been processed with this technique

  10. STREAK CAMERA MEASUREMENTS OF THE APS PC GUN DRIVE LASER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dooling, J. C.; Lumpkin, A. H.

    2017-06-25

    We report recent pulse-duration measurements of the APS PC Gun drive laser at both second harmonic and fourth harmonic wavelengths. The drive laser is a Nd:Glass-based chirped pulsed amplifier (CPA) operating at an IR wavelength of 1053 nm, twice frequency-doubled to obtain UV output for the gun. A Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera and an M5675 synchroscan unit are used for these measurements; the synchroscan unit is tuned to 119 MHz, the 24th subharmonic of the linac s-band operating frequency. Calibration is accomplished both electronically and optically. Electronic calibration utilizes a programmable delay line in the 119 MHz rf path. The optical delay uses an etalon with known spacing between reflecting surfaces and is coated for the visible, SH wavelength. IR pulse duration is monitored with an autocorrelator. Fitting the streak camera image projected profiles with Gaussians, UV rms pulse durations are found to vary from 2.1 ps to 3.5 ps as the IR varies from 2.2 ps to 5.2 ps.

  11. Microprocessor-controlled, wide-range streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amy E. Lewis, Craig Hollabaugh

    2006-09-01

    Bechtel Nevada/NSTec recently announced deployment of their fifth generation streak camera. This camera incorporates many advanced features beyond those currently available for streak cameras. The arc-resistant driver includes a trigger lockout mechanism, actively monitors input trigger levels, and incorporates a high-voltage fault interrupter for user safety and tube protection. The camera is completely modular and may deflect over a variable full-sweep time of 15 nanoseconds to 500 microseconds. The camera design is compatible with both large- and small-format commercial tubes from several vendors. The embedded microprocessor offers Ethernet connectivity, and XML [extensible markup language]-based configuration management with non-volatile parameter storage using flash-based storage media. The camera’s user interface is platform-independent (Microsoft Windows, Unix, Linux, Macintosh OSX) and is accessible using an AJAX [asynchronous Javascript and XML]-equipped modem browser, such as Internet Explorer 6, Firefox, or Safari. User interface operation requires no installation of client software or browser plug-in technology. Automation software can also access the camera configuration and control using HTTP [hypertext transfer protocol]. The software architecture supports multiple-simultaneous clients, multiple cameras, and multiple module access with a standard browser. The entire user interface can be customized.

  12. Relationships between early spring wheat streak mosaic severity levels and grain yield: Implications for management decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic (WSM) caused by Wheat streak mosaic virus, which is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella), is a major yield-limiting disease in the Texas High Plains. In addition to its impact on grain production, the disease reduces water-use efficiency by affecting root develo...

  13. Characterization of X-ray streak cameras for use on Nova

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalantar, D.H.; Bell, P.M.; Costa, R.L.; Hammel, B.A.; Landen, O.L.; Orzechowski, T.J.; Hares, J.D.; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A.K.L.

    1996-09-01

    There are many different types of measurements that require a continuous time history of x-ray emission that can be provided with an x-ray streak camera. In order to properly analyze the images that are recorded with the x-ray streak cameras operated on Nova, it is important to account for the streak characterization of each camera. We have performed a number of calibrations of the streak cameras both on the bench as well as with Nova disk target shots where we use a time modulated laser intensity profile (self-beating of the laser) on the target to generate an x-ray comb. We have measured the streak camera sweep direction and spatial offset, curvature of the electron optics, sweep rate, and magnification and resolution of the electron optics

  14. Betting Decision Under Break-Streak Pattern: Evidence from Casino Gaming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Lawrence Hoc Nang; So, Amy Siu Ian; Law, Rob

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive bias is prevalent among gamblers, especially those with gambling problems. Grounded in the heuristics theories, this study contributes to the literature by examining a cognitive bias triggered by the break streak pattern in the casino setting. We postulate that gamblers tend to bet on the latest outcome when there is a break-streak pattern. Moreover, three determinants of the betting decision under break-streak pattern, including the streak length of the alternative outcome, the frequency of the latest outcome, and gender, were identified and examined in this study. A non-participatory observational study was conducted among the Cussec gamblers in a casino in Macao. An analysis of 1229 bets confirms our postulation, particularly when the streak of the alternative outcome is long, the latest outcome is frequent, and the gamblers are females. The findings provide meaningful implications for casino management and public policymakers regarding the minimization of gambling harm.

  15. Fabry-Perot interferometry using an image-intensified rotating-mirror streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, W.L.; Stacy, H.L.

    1983-01-01

    A Fabry-Perot velocity interferometer system is described that uses a modified rotating mirror streak camera to recrod the dynamic fringe positions. A Los Alamos Model 72B rotating-mirror streak camera, equipped with a beryllium mirror, was modified to include a high aperture (f/2.5) relay lens and a 40-mm image-intensifier tube such that the image normally formed at the film plane of the streak camera is projected onto the intensifier tube. Fringe records for thin (0.13 mm) flyers driven by a small bridgewire detonator obtained with a Model C1155-01 Hamamatsu and Model 790 Imacon electronic streak cameras are compared with those obtained with the image-intensified rotating-mirror streak camera (I 2 RMC). Resolution comparisons indicate that the I 2 RMC gives better time resolution than either the Hamamatsu or the Imacon for total writing times of a few microseconds or longer

  16. Diving-related visual loss in the setting of angioid streaks: report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angulo Bocco, Maria I; Spielberg, Leigh; Coppens, Greet; Catherine, Janet; Verougstraete, Claire; Leys, Anita M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to report diving-related visual loss in the setting of angioid streaks. Observational case reports of two patients with angioid streaks suffering sudden visual loss immediately after diving. Two young adult male patients presented with visual loss after diving headfirst. Funduscopy revealed angioid streaks, peau d'orange, subretinal hemorrhages, and ruptures of Bruch membrane. Choroidal neovascularization developed during follow-up. Both patients had an otherwise uneventful personal and familial medical history. In patients with angioid streaks, diving headfirst can lead to subretinal hemorrhages and traumatic ruptures in Bruch membrane and increase the risk of maculopathy. Ophthalmologists should caution patients with angioid streaks against diving headfirst.

  17. Detection, Occurrence, and Survey of Rice Stripe and Black-Streaked Dwarf Diseases in Zhejiang Province, China

    OpenAIRE

    Heng-mu ZHANG; Hua-di WANG; Jian YANG; Michael J ADAMS; Jian-ping CHEN

    2013-01-01

    The major viral diseases that occur on rice plants in Zhejiang Province, eastern China, are stripe and rice black-streaked dwarf diseases. Rice stripe disease is only caused by rice stripe tenuivirus (RSV), while rice black-streaked dwarf disease can be caused by rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (RBSDV) and/or southern rice black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (SRBSDV). Here we review the characterization of these viruses, methods for their detection, and extensive surveys showing their occurren...

  18. Major QTL Conferring Resistance to Rice Bacterial Leaf Streak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Bacterial leaf streak (BLS) is one of the important limiting factors to rice production in southern China and other tropical and sub-tropical areas in Asia. Resistance to BLS was found to be a quantitative trait and no major resistant gene was located in rice until date. In the present study, a new major quantitative trait locus (QTL) conferring resistance to BLS was identified from a highly resistant variety Dular by the employment of Dular/Balilla (DB) and Dular/IR24 (DI) segregation populations and was designated qBLSR-11-1. This QTL was located between the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers RM120 and RM441 on chromosome 11 and could account for 18.1-21.7% and 36.3% of the variance in DB and DI populations, respectively. The genetic pattern of rice resistance to BLS was discussed.

  19. StreakDet data processing and analysis pipeline for space debris optical observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jenni; Flohrer, Tim; Muinonen, Karri; Granvik, Mikael; Torppa, Johanna; Poikonen, Jonne; Lehti, Jussi; Santti, Tero; Komulainen, Tuomo; Naranen, Jyri

    We describe a novel data processing and analysis pipeline for optical observations of space debris. The monitoring of space object populations requires reliable acquisition of observational data, to support the development and validation of space debris environment models, the build-up and maintenance of a catalogue of orbital elements. In addition, data is needed for the assessment of conjunction events and for the support of contingency situations or launches. The currently available, mature image processing algorithms for detection and astrometric reduction of optical data cover objects that cross the sensor field-of-view comparably slowly, and within a rather narrow, predefined range of angular velocities. By applying specific tracking techniques, the objects appear point-like or as short trails in the exposures. However, the general survey scenario is always a “track before detect” problem, resulting in streaks, i.e., object trails of arbitrary lengths, in the images. The scope of the ESA-funded StreakDet (Streak detection and astrometric reduction) project is to investigate solutions for detecting and reducing streaks from optical images, particularly in the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) domain, where algorithms are not readily available yet. For long streaks, the challenge is to extract precise position information and related registered epochs with sufficient precision. Although some considerations for low-SNR processing of streak-like features are available in the current image processing and computer vision literature, there is a need to discuss and compare these approaches for space debris analysis, in order to develop and evaluate prototype implementations. In the StreakDet project, we develop algorithms applicable to single images (as compared to consecutive frames of the same field) obtained with any observing scenario, including space-based surveys and both low- and high-altitude populations. The proposed processing pipeline starts from the

  20. Flat-field response and geometric distortion measurements of optical streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.S.; Drake, R.P.; Jones, B.A.; Wiedwald, J.D.

    1987-08-01

    To accurately measure pulse amplitude, shape, and relative time histories of optical signals with an optical streak camera, it is necessary to correct each recorded image for spatially-dependent gain nonuniformity and geometric distortion. Gain nonuniformities arise from sensitivity variations in the streak-tube photocathode, phosphor screen, image-intensifier tube, and image recording system. These nonuniformities may be severe, and have been observed to be on the order of 100% for some LLNL optical streak cameras. Geometric distortion due to optical couplings, electron-optics, and sweep nonlinearity not only affects pulse position and timing measurements, but affects pulse amplitude and shape measurements as well. By using a 1.053-μm, long-pulse, high-power laser to generate a spatially and temporally uniform source as input to the streak camera, the combined effects of flat-field response and geometric distortion can be measured under the normal dynamic operation of cameras with S-1 photocathodes. Additionally, by using the same laser system to generate a train of short pulses that can be spatially modulated at the input of the streak camera, we can effectively create a two-dimensional grid of equally-spaced pulses. This allows a dynamic measurement of the geometric distortion of the streak camera. We will discuss the techniques involved in performing these calibrations, will present some of the measured results for LLNL optical streak cameras, and will discuss software methods to correct for these effects. 6 refs., 6 figs

  1. Earth aeolian wind streaks: Comparison to wind data from model and stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Zada, A. L.; Maman, S.; Blumberg, D. G.

    2017-05-01

    Wind streak is a collective term for a variety of aeolian features that display distinctive albedo surface patterns. Wind streaks have been used to map near-surface winds and to estimate atmospheric circulation patterns on Mars and Venus. However, because wind streaks have been studied mostly on Mars and Venus, much of the knowledge regarding the mechanism and time frame of their formation and their relationship to the atmospheric circulation cannot be verified. This study aims to validate previous studies' results by a comparison of real and modeled wind data with wind streak orientations as measured from remote-sensing images. Orientations of Earth wind streaks were statistically correlated to resultant drift direction (RDD) values calculated from reanalysis and wind data from 621 weather stations. The results showed good agreement between wind streak orientations and reanalysis RDD (r = 0.78). A moderate correlation was found between the wind streak orientations and the weather station data (r = 0.47); a similar trend was revealed on a regional scale when the analysis was performed by continent, with r ranging from 0.641 in North America to 0.922 in Antarctica. At sites where wind streak orientations did not correspond to the RDDs (i.e., a difference of 45°), seasonal and diurnal variations in the wind flow were found to be responsible for deviation from the global pattern. The study thus confirms that Earth wind streaks were formed by the present wind regime and they are indeed indicative of the long-term prevailing wind direction on global and regional scales.

  2. Stabilization of the hypersonic boundary layer by finite-amplitude streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Jie; Fu, Song; Hanifi, Ardeshir

    2016-02-01

    Stabilization of two-dimensional disturbances in hypersonic boundary layer flows by finite-amplitude streaks is investigated using nonlinear parabolized stability equations. The boundary-layer flows at Mach numbers 4.5 and 6.0 are studied in which both first and second modes are supported. The streaks considered here are driven either by the so-called optimal perturbations (Klebanoff-type) or the centrifugal instability (Görtler-type). When the streak amplitude is in an appropriate range, i.e., large enough to modulate the laminar boundary layer but low enough to not trigger secondary instability, both first and second modes can effectively be suppressed.

  3. Improvements in Off-Center Focusing in an X-ray Streak Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J W; Weber, F; Holder, J P; Bell, P M

    2003-01-01

    Due to the planar construction of present x-ray streak tubes significant off-center defocusing is observed in both static and dynamic images taken with one-dimensional resolution slits. Based on the streak tube geometry curved photocathodes with radii of curvature ranging from 3.5 to 18 inches have been fabricated. We report initial off-center focusing performance data on the evaluation of these ''improved'' photocathodes in an X-ray streak camera and an update on the theoretical simulations to predict the optimum cathode curvature

  4. PRODUÇÃO DE LARVAS DE CURIMBATÁ (Prochilodus scrofa SUBMETIDAS A DIFERENTES DENSIDADES DE ESTOCAGEM E NÍVEIS DE PROTEÍNA BRUTA NAS DIETAS PRODUCTION IN CURIMBATÁ (Prochilodus scrofa LARVAE, EXPOSED TO DIFFERENT STOCKING DENSITY AND DIFFERENT CRUDE PROTEIN LEVELS ON THE DIETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina Ribeiro Dias Koberstein

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Prochilodus é amplamente distribuído pela América do Sul, incluindo várias espécies que apresenta certo grau de endemismo nas diferentes bacias. Essas espécies alimentam-se basicamente de detritos orgânicos, organismos do benton, e alimentações artificiais. O objetivo deste estudo foi testar três densidades de estocagem (0,5, 0,75, e 1 larva/litro e dietas contendo dois níveis diferentes de proteína bruta (35 e 40% PB nos parâmetros do crescimento e na taxa da sobrevivência do curimbatá, Prochilodus scrofa. As larvas foram estocadas em aquários experimentais de 100 litros, mantidos com volume de 60 litros, com o fluxo de água contínuo, proveniente de poço semi-artesiano. A maior média foi proporcionada pela ração com 40% de PB (1,66g ± 0,21. As diferenças foram significativas para os efeitos dos teores de PB sobre o ganho de peso e densidades de estocagem, na sobrevivência das larvas. Para o ganho de peso, as melhores médias foram obtidas com nível de 40% de PB (2,50g ± 0,40 e para a sobrevivência, as melhores taxas foram 94,45% ± 19,32 e 78,87% ± 19,32 nas densidades de 0,5 e 0,75 larvas/litro, respectivamente.Fish of the genus Prochilodus is widely spread in South America, showing endemic characteristics in some basins. It feeds basically on organic detritus, benton organisms, and artificial feeds. The purpose of this study was to test three stocking densities (0.5, 0.75, and 1 fry/L and diets with two different crude protein levels (35 and 40% CP on the growth parameters and survival rate of curimbatá, Prochilodus scrofa. Larvae were stocked in 100L aquaria containing 60L, supplied with continuous water flow coming from an artesian well. There was a significant effect (P<0.05 of the 40% CP diet on growth (body weight = 1.66g ± 0.21 of fish stocked at 0.5 fry/L, at the 30th experimental day. At the 68th day, fish fed the 40% CP diet achieved the highest (P < 0.05 final body weight (2.50g ± 0.40, and

  5. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndunguru, Joseph; Sseruwagi, Peter; Tairo, Fred; Stomeo, Francesca; Maina, Solomon; Djinkeng, Appolinaire; Kehoe, Monica; Boykin, Laura M.

    2015-01-01

    Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa’s most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this research, doubling the genomic sequences available in the public domain for these viruses. These new sequences disprove the assumption that the viruses are limited by agro-ecological zones, show that current diagnostic primers are insufficient to provide confident diagnosis of these viruses and give rise to the possibility that there may be as many as four distinct species of virus. Utilizing NGS sequencing technologies and proper phylogenetic practices will rapidly increase the solution to sustainable cassava production. PMID:26439260

  6. Analyses of Twelve New Whole Genome Sequences of Cassava Brown Streak Viruses and Ugandan Cassava Brown Streak Viruses from East Africa: Diversity, Supercomputing and Evidence for Further Speciation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Ndunguru

    Full Text Available Cassava brown streak disease is caused by two devastating viruses, Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV which are frequently found infecting cassava, one of sub-Saharan Africa's most important staple food crops. Each year these viruses cause losses of up to $100 million USD and can leave entire families without their primary food source, for an entire year. Twelve new whole genomes, including seven of CBSV and five of UCBSV were uncovered in this research, doubling the genomic sequences available in the public domain for these viruses. These new sequences disprove the assumption that the viruses are limited by agro-ecological zones, show that current diagnostic primers are insufficient to provide confident diagnosis of these viruses and give rise to the possibility that there may be as many as four distinct species of virus. Utilizing NGS sequencing technologies and proper phylogenetic practices will rapidly increase the solution to sustainable cassava production.

  7. Structured photocathodes for improved high-energy x-ray efficiency in streak cameras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opachich, Y. P., E-mail: opachiyp@nv.doe.gov; Huffman, E.; Koch, J. A. [National Security Technologies, LLC, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Hatch, B.; Landen, O. L.; MacPhee, A. G.; Nagel, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Chen, N.; Gopal, A.; Udin, S. [Nanoshift LLC, Emeryville, California 94608 (United States); Feng, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Hilsabeck, T. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We have designed and fabricated a structured streak camera photocathode to provide enhanced efficiency for high energy X-rays (1–12 keV). This gold coated photocathode was tested in a streak camera and compared side by side against a conventional flat thin film photocathode. Results show that the measured electron yield enhancement at energies ranging from 1 to 10 keV scales well with predictions, and that the total enhancement can be more than 3×. The spatial resolution of the streak camera does not show degradation in the structured region. We predict that the temporal resolution of the detector will also not be affected as it is currently dominated by the slit width. This demonstration with Au motivates exploration of comparable enhancements with CsI and may revolutionize X-ray streak camera photocathode design.

  8. Quantitative trait loci for resistance to maize streak virus disease in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. ... development ... Biotechnology Center, Kenya Agricultural Research Institute, P.O. Box 58711-00200, Nairobi, ... Maize streak virus disease is an important disease of maize in Kenya.

  9. O papel do dimetilsulfóxido na criopreservação de sêmen de Curimba (Prochilodus lineatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Sergio Varela Junior

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available  A criopreservação de sêmen de Curimba (Prochilodus lineatus é de importância ecológica e comercial. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes concentrações (2, 5, 8 e 11% de dimetilsulfóxido (DMSO diluído em Betsville Thawing Solution (BTS sobre a qualidade do sêmen de Curimba pós-descongelamento. Foram analisadas a taxa e período de motilidade, viabilidade espermática, integridade da membrana plasmática e do DNA, funcionalidade mitocondrial, e taxa de fertilização e eclosão. A membrana plasmática e a integridade do DNA a uma concentração de DMSO de 11% obtiveram melhores resultados que na concentração de 5% (p <0,05. Contudo, o tratamento de 5% de DMSO resultou em um aumento da latência e uma maior taxa de fertilização e de eclosão, com as demais qualidades do esperma sendo semelhante ao de sêmen fresco. Os resultados deste estudo indicam que 5% de DMSO é ideal para a criopreservação do sêmen Curimba. .

  10. Effect of anesthetic, tag size, and surgeon experience on postsurgical recovering after implantation of electronic tags in a neotropical fish: Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1837 (Characiformes: Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João M. Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Implantation of telemetry transmitters in fish can be affected by different parameters. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of type of anesthetic, tag size, and surgeon experience on surgical and postsurgical wound healing in the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus . In total, eighty fish were surgically implanted with telemetry transmitters and forty fish were kept as controls. Forty fish were implanted with a small tag and other forty were implanted with a large tag. Similarly, forty fish were anesthetized with eugenol and forty fish were anesthetized by electroanesthesia, and forty surgeries were performed by an expert surgeon and forty surgeries were performed by novice surgeons. At the end of the experimental period seventeen (21.3% tagged fish had postsurgical complications, including death (1.3%, tag expulsion (2.5%, antenna migration (2.5%, and infection (15%. Tag size was the key determinant for postsurgical complications. Surgical details and postsurgical wound healing were not affected by type of anesthetic. Incision size, duration of surgery, and wound area were significantly affected by tag size and surgeon experience, and the number of sutures was significantly affected by tag size only. The results indicate that successful implantation of telemetry transmitters is dependent upon surgeon experience and tag size.

  11. Validación del Protocolo de Reproducción de Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus brachypomus y Prochilodus nigricans en Condiciones Controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorgio Verdi Olivares

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Protocolos aplicados a las diferentes etapas de la reproducción  inducida: tratamiento hormonal, incubación, manejo de larvas, y manejo de alevines en los peces de consumo humano Colossoma macropomum (gamitana, Piaractus brachypomus (paco y Prochilodus nigricans (boquichico fueron evaluados en el marco del proyecto UNAP “Cátedra CONCYTEC en Acuicultura Tropical” con el propósito de establecer los adecuados procedimientos en la búsqueda de una óptima productividad acuícola y una mejor rentabilidad económica en Loreto. Con este objetivo se utilizaron como inductores: para gamitana, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 6,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos; Para machos y hembras de paco, Conceptal en dosis total de 2,6 ml/kg en hembras y 1,0 ml/kg en machos; y para boquichico, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 4,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos. El desove se produjo en 11±2 horas; la eclosión ocurre después de 22 horas a partir de la fecundación, con tasas promedios superiores al 70% y tasas de sobrevivencia, aún cundo por debajo del 50%, garantiza una alta producción de alevines.

  12. Validación del Protocolo de Reproducción de Colossoma macropomum, Piaractus brachypomus y Prochilodus nigricans en Condiciones Controladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorgio Verdi-Olivares

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Protocolos aplicados a las diferentes etapas de la reproducción  inducida: tratamiento hormonal, incubación, manejo de larvas, y manejo de alevines en los peces de consumo humano Colossoma macropomum (gamitana, Piaractus brachypomus (paco y Prochilodus nigricans (boquichico fueron evaluados en el marco del proyecto UNAP “Cátedra CONCYTEC en Acuicultura Tropical” con el propósito de establecer los adecuados procedimientos en la búsqueda de una óptima productividad acuícola y una mejor rentabilidad económica en Loreto. Con este objetivo se utilizaron como inductores: para gamitana, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 6,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos; Para machos y hembras de paco, Conceptal en dosis total de 2,6 ml/kg en hembras y 1,0 ml/kg en machos; y para boquichico, Pituitaria de Carpa con dosis total de 4,0 mg/kg en hembras y 2,0 mg/kg en machos. El desove se produjo en 11±2 horas; la eclosión ocurre después de 22 horas a partir de la fecundación, con  tasas promedios superiores al 70% y tasas de sobrevivencia, aún cundo por debajo del 50%, garantiza una alta producción de alevines.

  13. Laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera for the temporal characterization of ultrashort processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuette, Bernd

    2011-09-01

    In this work, a novel laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera is presented. It allows for a pulse length characterization of femtosecond (fs) extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses by a cross-correlation with terahertz (THz) pulses generated with a Ti:sapphire laser. The XUV pulses are emitted by a source of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in which an intense near-infrared (NIR) fs laser pulse is focused into a gaseous medium. The design and characterization of a high-intensity THz source needed for the streak camera is also part of this thesis. The source is based on optical rectification of the same NIR laser pulse in a lithium niobate crystal. For this purpose, the pulse front of the NIR beam is tilted via a diffraction grating to achieve velocity matching between NIR and THz beams within the crystal. For the temporal characterization of the XUV pulses, both HHG and THz beams are focused onto a gas target. The harmonic radiation creates photoelectron wavepackets which are then accelerated by the THz field depending on its phase at the time of ionization. This principle adopted from a conventional streak camera and now widely used in attosecond metrology. The streak camera presented here is an advancement of a terahertz-field-driven streak camera implemented at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). The advantages of the laser-based streak camera lie in its compactness, cost efficiency and accessibility, while providing the same good quality of measurements as obtained at FLASH. In addition, its flexibility allows for a systematic investigation of streaked Auger spectra which is presented in this thesis. With its fs time resolution, the terahertz-field-driven streak camera thereby bridges the gap between attosecond and conventional cameras. (orig.)

  14. Laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera for the temporal characterization of ultrashort processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuette, Bernd

    2011-09-15

    In this work, a novel laser-based terahertz-field-driven streak camera is presented. It allows for a pulse length characterization of femtosecond (fs) extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulses by a cross-correlation with terahertz (THz) pulses generated with a Ti:sapphire laser. The XUV pulses are emitted by a source of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in which an intense near-infrared (NIR) fs laser pulse is focused into a gaseous medium. The design and characterization of a high-intensity THz source needed for the streak camera is also part of this thesis. The source is based on optical rectification of the same NIR laser pulse in a lithium niobate crystal. For this purpose, the pulse front of the NIR beam is tilted via a diffraction grating to achieve velocity matching between NIR and THz beams within the crystal. For the temporal characterization of the XUV pulses, both HHG and THz beams are focused onto a gas target. The harmonic radiation creates photoelectron wavepackets which are then accelerated by the THz field depending on its phase at the time of ionization. This principle adopted from a conventional streak camera and now widely used in attosecond metrology. The streak camera presented here is an advancement of a terahertz-field-driven streak camera implemented at the Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH). The advantages of the laser-based streak camera lie in its compactness, cost efficiency and accessibility, while providing the same good quality of measurements as obtained at FLASH. In addition, its flexibility allows for a systematic investigation of streaked Auger spectra which is presented in this thesis. With its fs time resolution, the terahertz-field-driven streak camera thereby bridges the gap between attosecond and conventional cameras. (orig.)

  15. Streak detection and analysis pipeline for space-debris optical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jenni; Poikonen, Jonne; Säntti, Tero; Komulainen, Tuomo; Torppa, Johanna; Granvik, Mikael; Muinonen, Karri; Pentikäinen, Hanna; Martikainen, Julia; Näränen, Jyri; Lehti, Jussi; Flohrer, Tim

    2016-04-01

    We describe a novel data-processing and analysis pipeline for optical observations of moving objects, either of natural (asteroids, meteors) or artificial origin (satellites, space debris). The monitoring of the space object populations requires reliable acquisition of observational data, to support the development and validation of population models and to build and maintain catalogues of orbital elements. The orbital catalogues are, in turn, needed for the assessment of close approaches (for asteroids, with the Earth; for satellites, with each other) and for the support of contingency situations or launches. For both types of populations, there is also increasing interest to detect fainter objects corresponding to the small end of the size distribution. The ESA-funded StreakDet (streak detection and astrometric reduction) activity has aimed at formulating and discussing suitable approaches for the detection and astrometric reduction of object trails, or streaks, in optical observations. Our two main focuses are objects in lower altitudes and space-based observations (i.e., high angular velocities), resulting in long (potentially curved) and faint streaks in the optical images. In particular, we concentrate on single-image (as compared to consecutive frames of the same field) and low-SNR detection of objects. Particular attention has been paid to the process of extraction of all necessary information from one image (segmentation), and subsequently, to efficient reduction of the extracted data (classification). We have developed an automated streak detection and processing pipeline and demonstrated its performance with an extensive database of semisynthetic images simulating streak observations both from ground-based and space-based observing platforms. The average processing time per image is about 13 s for a typical 2k-by-2k image. For long streaks (length >100 pixels), primary targets of the pipeline, the detection sensitivity (true positives) is about 90% for

  16. Black leaf streak disease affects starch metabolism in banana fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Lorenzo de Amorim; Castelan, Florence Polegato; Shitakubo, Renata; Hassimotto, Neuza Mariko Aymoto; Purgatto, Eduardo; Chillet, Marc; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2013-06-12

    Black leaf streak disease (BLSD), also known as black sigatoka, represents the main foliar disease in Brazilian banana plantations. In addition to photosynthetic leaf area losses and yield losses, this disease causes an alteration in the pre- and postharvest behavior of the fruit. The aim of this work was to investigate the starch metabolism of fruits during fruit ripening from plants infected with BLSD by evaluating carbohydrate content (i.e., starch, soluble sugars, oligosaccharides, amylose), phenolic compound content, phytohormones, enzymatic activities (i.e., starch phosphorylases, α- and β-amylase), and starch granules. The results indicated that the starch metabolism in banana fruit ripening is affected by BLSD infection. Fruit from infested plots contained unusual amounts of soluble sugars in the green stage and smaller starch granules and showed a different pattern of superficial degradation. Enzymatic activities linked to starch degradation were also altered by the disease. Moreover, the levels of indole-acetic acid and phenolic compounds indicated an advanced fruit physiological age for fruits from infested plots.

  17. Spatiotemporal mechanical variation reveals critical role for rho kinase during primitive streak morphogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henkels, Julia; Oh, Jaeho; Xu, Wenwei; Owen, Drew; Sulchek, Todd; Zamir, Evan

    2013-02-01

    Large-scale morphogenetic movements during early embryo development are driven by complex changes in biochemical and biophysical factors. Current models for amniote primitive streak morphogenesis and gastrulation take into account numerous genetic pathways but largely ignore the role of mechanical forces. Here, we used atomic force microscopy (AFM) to obtain for the first time precise biomechanical properties of the early avian embryo. Our data reveal that the primitive streak is significantly stiffer than neighboring regions of the epiblast, and that it is stiffer than the pre-primitive streak epiblast. To test our hypothesis that these changes in mechanical properties are due to a localized increase of actomyosin contractility, we inhibited actomyosin contractility via the Rho kinase (ROCK) pathway using the small-molecule inhibitor Y-27632. Our results using several different assays show the following: (1) primitive streak formation was blocked; (2) the time-dependent increase in primitive streak stiffness was abolished; and (3) convergence of epiblast cells to the midline was inhibited. Taken together, our data suggest that actomyosin contractility is necessary for primitive streak morphogenesis, and specifically, ROCK plays a critical role. To better understand the underlying mechanisms of this fundamental process, future models should account for the findings presented in this study.

  18. Characterization results from several commercial soft X-ray streak cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stradling, G. L.; Studebaker, J. K.; Cavailler, C.; Launspach, J.; Planes, J.

    The spatio-temporal performance of four soft X-ray streak cameras has been characterized. The objective in evaluating the performance capability of these instruments is to enable us to optimize experiment designs, to encourage quantitative analysis of streak data and to educate the ultra high speed photography and photonics community about the X-ray detector performance which is available. These measurements have been made collaboratively over the space of two years at the Forge pulsed X-ray source at Los Alamos and at the Ketjak laser facility an CEA Limeil-Valenton. The X-ray pulse lengths used for these measurements at these facilities were 150 psec and 50 psec respectively. The results are presented as dynamically-measured modulation transfer functions. Limiting temporal resolution values were also calculated. Emphasis is placed upon shot noise statistical limitations in the analysis of the data. Space charge repulsion in the streak tube limits the peak flux at ultra short experiments duration times. This limit results in a reduction of total signal and a decrease in signal to no ise ratio in the streak image. The four cameras perform well with 20 1p/mm resolution discernable in data from the French C650X, the Hadland X-Chron 540 and the Hamamatsu C1936X streak cameras. The Kentech X-ray streak camera has lower modulation and does not resolve below 10 1p/mm but has a longer photocathode.

  19. Control of Vascular Streak Dieback Disease of Cocoa with Flutriafol Fungicides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Febrilia Nur'aini

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vascular streak dieback caused by the fungus Oncobasidium theobromae is one of the important diseases in cocoa crop in Indonesia. One approach to control the disease is by using fungicides. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of class triazole fungicides to the intensity of the vascular streak dieback disease on cocoa seedling phase, immature and mature cocoa. Experiments were conducted in Kotta Blater, PTPN XII and Kaliwining, Indonesian  Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute. Flutriafol 250 g/l with a concentration 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,15% foliar sprayed on cocoa seedlings, immature and mature cocoa. Active compound combination of Azoxystrobin and Difenoconazole with 0,1% concentration used as a comparation fungicides. The result showed that Flutriafol with 0,05%, 0,1% and 0,15% concentration and Azoxystrobin & Difenoconazol with 0,1% concentration could suppress the vascular streak dieback disease on seedlings. On immature plants, the application of Flutriafol was not effectively suppress the vascular streak dieback disease whereas the fungicide comparison could suppress with the efficacy level of 46.22%. On mature plants,both of fungicides could not suppress the vascular streak dieback disease. Key words: Fungicide, cocoa, vascular streak dieback, triazole, flutriafol, azoxystrobin+difenoconazol

  20. Flat-field response and geometric distortion measurements of optical streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, D.S.; Drake, R.P.; Jones, B.A.; Wiedwald, J.D.

    1987-01-01

    To accurately measure pulse amplitude, shape, and relative time histories of optical signals with an optical streak camera, it is necessary to correct each recorded image for spatially-dependent gain nonuniformity and geometric distortion. Gain nonuniformities arise from sensitivity variations in the streak-tube photocathode, phosphor screen, image-intensifier tube, and image recording system. By using a 1.053-μm, long-pulse, high-power laser to generate a spatially and temporally uniform source as input to the streak camera, the combined effects of flat-field response and geometric distortion can be measured under the normal dynamic operation of cameras with S-1 photocathodes. Additionally, by using the same laser system to generate a train of short pulses that can be spatially modulated at the input of the streak camera, the authors can create a two-dimensional grid of equally-spaced pulses. This allows a dynamic measurement of the geometric distortion of the streak camera. The author discusses the techniques involved in performing these calibrations, present some of the measured results for LLNL optical streak cameras, and will discuss software methods to correct for these effects

  1. Effects of Hot Streak Shape on Rotor Heating in a High-Subsonic Single-Stage Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Gundy-Burlet, Karen L.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Experimental data have shown that combustor temperature non-uniformities can lead to the excessive heating of first-stage rotor blades in turbines. This heating of the rotor blades can lead to thermal fatigue and degrade turbine performance. The results of recent studies have shown that variations in the circumferential location (clocking) of the hot streak relative to the first-stage vane airfoils can be used to minimize the adverse effects of the hot streak. The effects of the hot streak/airfoil count ratio on the heating patterns of turbine airfoils have also been evaluated. In the present investigation, three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes simulations have been performed for a single-stage high-pressure turbine operating in high subsonic flow. In addition to a simulation of the baseline turbine, simulations have been performed for circular and elliptical hot streaks of varying sizes in an effort to represent different combustor designs. The predicted results for the baseline simulation show good agreement with the available experimental data. The results of the hot streak simulations indicate: that a) elliptical hot streaks mix more rapidly than circular hot streaks, b) for small hot streak surface area the average rotor temperature is not a strong function of hot streak temperature ratio or shape, and c) hot streaks with larger surface area interact with the secondary flows at the rotor hub endwall, generating an additional high temperature region.

  2. C.C.D. readout of a picosecond streak camera with an intensified C.C.D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemonier, M.; Richard, J.C.; Cavailler, C.; Mens, A.; Raze, G.

    1984-08-01

    This paper deals with a digital streak camera readout device. The device consists in a low light level television camera made of a solid state C.C.D. array coupled to an image intensifier associated to a video-digitizer coupled to a micro-computer system. The streak camera images are picked-up as a video signal, digitized and stored. This system allows the fast recording and the automatic processing of the data provided by the streak tube

  3. Novel technique for addressing streak artifact in gated dual-source MDCT angiography utilizing ECG-editing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Laura T.; Boll, Daniel T. [Duke University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Box 3808, Durham, NC (United States)

    2008-11-15

    Streak artifact is an important source of image degradation in computed tomographic imaging. In coronary MDCT angiography, streak artifact from pacemaker leads in the SVC can render segments of the right coronary artery uninterpretable. With current technology in clinical practice, there is no effective way to eliminate streak artifact in coronary MDCT angiography entirely. We propose a technique to minimize the impact of streak artifact in retrospectively gated coronary MDCT angiography by utilizing small shifts in the reconstruction window. In our experience, previously degraded portions of the coronary vasculature were able to be well evaluated using this technique. (orig.)

  4. The effect of wall temperature distribution on streaks in compressible turbulent boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhao; Tao, Yang; Xiong, Neng; Qian, Fengxue

    2018-05-01

    The thermal boundary condition at wall is very important for the compressible flow due to the coupling of the energy equation, and a lot of research works about it were carried out in past decades. In most of these works, the wall was assumed as adiabatic or uniform isothermal surface; the flow over a thermal wall with some special temperature distribution was seldom studied. Lagha studied the effect of uniform isothermal wall on the streaks, and pointed out that higher the wall temperature is, the longer the streak (POF, 2011, 23, 015106). So, we designed streamwise stripes of wall temperature distribution on the compressible turbulent boundary layer at Mach 3.0 to learn the effect on the streaks by means of direct numerical simulation in this paper. The mean wall temperature is equal to the adiabatic case approximately, and the width of the temperature stripes is in the same order as the width of the streaks. The streak patterns in near-wall region with different temperature stripes are shown in the paper. Moreover, we find that there is a reduction of friction velocity with the wall temperature stripes when compared with the adiabatic case.

  5. The origin and structure of streak-like instabilities in laminar boundary layer flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gollner, Michael; Miller, Colin; Tang, Wei; Finney, Mark

    2017-11-01

    Streamwise streaks are consistently observed in wildland fires, at the base of pool fires, and in other heated flows within a boundary layer. This study examines both the origin of these structures and their role in influencing some of the macroscopic properties of the flow. Streaks were reproduced and characterized via experiments on stationary heated strips and liquid and gas-fueled burners in laminar boundary layer flows, providing a framework to develop theory based on both observed and measured physical phenomena. The incoming boundary layer was established as the controlling mechanism in forming streaks, which are generated by pre-existing coherent structures, while the amplification of streaks was determined to be compatible with quadratic growth of Rayleigh-Taylor Instabilities, providing credence to the idea that the downstream growth of streaks is strongly tied to buoyancy. These local instabilities were also found to affect macroscopic properties of the flow, including heat transfer to the surface, indicating that a two-dimensional assumption may fail to adequately describe heat and mass transfer during flame spread and other reacting boundary layer flows. This work was supported by NSF (CBET-1554026) and the USDA-FS (13-CS-11221637-124).

  6. Histopatologia de fígado, rim e baço de piaractus mesopotamicus, prochilodus lineatus e pseudoplatystoma fasciatum parasitados por myxosporídios, capturados no Rio Aquidauana, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil Histopathology of liver, kidney and spleen of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum infected by myxosporean parasite, caugth in Aquidauana River, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane M. de Campos

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo descreveu a histopatologia de rim, baço e fígado de Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus e Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, parasitados por mixosporídios, capturados no Rio Aquidauana, MS. Após necropsia, amostras do fígado, rim cefálico e baço foram colhidas, fixadas em formalina a 10 % tamponada e processadas de acordo com a rotina histológica. Os cortes foram feitos à espessura de 5 μm e corados com hematoxilina-eosina. Foram encontrados Myxobolus porofilus em P. lineatus, M. colossomatis em P. mesopotamicus e Myxobolus spp. nas três espécies de hospedeiros. Cistos de mixosporídios no exame histopatológico foram vistos no fígado e baço de P. mesopotamicus. Mais de 50% das amostras de fígado de P mesopotamicus e P lineatus apresentou hepatodistrofia difusa. Mais de 80 % das amostras de fígado de P. fasciatum apresentou formações hialinas concêntricas e esteatose em 50% das amostras. Em 95,23 % das amostras de rins de P. mesopotamicus, foram observadas alterações teciduais, e em mais de 60 % dos casos nefrodistrofia difusa moderada e congestão de sinusóides glomerulares. Alterações teciduais nas amostras de rins de P. lineatus foram observadas em menos de 20 % da amostra. No baço dos peixes ora examinados não foram encontradas lesões dignas de relato.Histological analysis of kidney, spleen and liver of Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum, infected by myxosporean, caugth in Aquidauana river, MS, was studied. After necropsy, samples of liver, previous kidney and spleen were fixed in 10 % buffered formalin and processed followed histological routine methods. Sections of 5 μm were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Myxobolusporofilus, M. colossomatis and were found in P. lineatus, in P. mesopotamicus respectively and Myxobolus spp. Were also found in all three species of fish. Myxosporideans cysts in the liver and spleen of P mesopotamicus were also related. Up

  7. X-ray streak camera for observation of tightly pinched relativistic electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.J.

    1977-01-01

    A pinhole camera is coupled with a Pilot-B scintillator and image-intensified TRW streak camera to study pinched electron beam profiles via observation of anode target bremsstrahlung. Streak intensification is achieved with an EMI image intensifier operated at a gain of up to 10 6 which allows optimizing the pinhole configuration so that resolution is simultaneously limited by photon-counting statistics and pinhole geometry. The pinhole used is one-dimensional and is fabricated by inserting uranium shims with hyperbolic curved edges between two 5-cm-thick lead blocks. The loss of spatial resolution due to the x-ray transmission through the perimeter of the pinhole is calculated and a streak photograph of a Gamble I pinched beam interacting with a brass anode is presented

  8. Absolute calibration method for fast-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Frogget, Brent; Oliver, Bryan Velten; Maron, Yitzhak; Droemer, Darryl W.; Crain, Marlon D.

    2010-01-01

    This report outlines a convenient method to calibrate fast (<1ns resolution) streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems. Such a system is used to collect spectral data on plasmas generated in the A-K gap of electron beam diodes fielded on the RITS-6 accelerator (8-12MV, 140-200kA). On RITS, light is collected through a small diameter (200 micron) optical fiber and recorded on a fast streak camera at the output of 1 meter Czerny-Turner monochromator (F/7 optics). To calibrate such a system, it is necessary to efficiently couple light from a spectral lamp into a 200 micron diameter fiber, split it into its spectral components, with 10 Angstroms or less resolution, and record it on a streak camera with 1ns or less temporal resolution.

  9. Performance of Laser Megajoule’s x-ray streak camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, C., E-mail: celine.zuber@cea.fr; Bazzoli, S.; Brunel, P.; Burillo, M.; Gontier, D.; Moreau, I.; Oudot, G.; Rubbelynck, C.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Trosseille, C. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Fronty, J. P.; Goulmy, C. [Photonis France SAS, Avenue Roger Roncier, BP 520, 19106 Brive Cedex (France)

    2016-11-15

    A prototype of a picosecond x-ray streak camera has been developed and tested by Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique et aux Énergies Alternatives to provide plasma-diagnostic support for the Laser Megajoule. We report on the measured performance of this streak camera, which almost fulfills the requirements: 50-μm spatial resolution over a 15-mm field in the photocathode plane, 17-ps temporal resolution in a 2-ns timebase, a detection threshold lower than 625 nJ/cm{sup 2} in the 0.05–15 keV spectral range, and a dynamic range greater than 100.

  10. Multiple biomarker responses in Prochilodus lineatus subjected to short-term in situ exposure to streams from agricultural areas in Southern Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vieira, Carlos Eduardo Delfino [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Costa, Patrícia Gomes [Laboratório de Microcontaminantes Orgânicos e Ecotoxicologia — Instituto de Oceanografia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Lunardelli, Bruna; Fernandes de Oliveira, Luciana [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Costa Cabrera, Liziara da [Laboratório de Análise de Compostos Orgânicos e Metais — Escola de Química e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Risso, Wagner Ezequiel [Laboratório de Ecofisiologia Animal — Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná (Brazil); Primel, Ednei Gilberto [Laboratório de Análise de Compostos Orgânicos e Metais — Escola de Química e Alimentos, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande, Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); and others

    2016-01-15

    In order to assess the quality of streams susceptible to contamination by pesticides we apply biochemical and genotoxic biomarkers in the Neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus submitted to in situ tests. Fish were caged, for 96 h, in two streams located in areas with intensive use of pesticides, the Apertados (AP) and the Jacutinga (JC), and in a small stream (Godoy stream — GD) found inside a forest fragment adjacent to a State Park. Biochemical parameters, such as biotransformation enzymes 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) and glutathione-S-transferase (GST), non-protein thiols (NPSH), lipoperoxidation (LPO), protein carbonylation (PCO) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were evaluated in various fish organs, as well as genotoxic biomarkers (damage to DNA and occurrence of micronuclei and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities). Samples of water and sediment were collected for analysis of metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cd and Zn), organochloride pesticides, and triazine and glyphosate herbicides. We observed an increase in liver GST activity in fish at AP and gill GST activity in fish at JC. An increase in liver LPO was also observed in fish exposed to AP and JC. The same animals also exhibited increased DNA damage and erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) compared to the fish kept in GD. A number of compounds showed concentrations higher than the permitted levels, in particular, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), its metabolites dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), heptachloride, diclofluanid and aldrins. These pesticides were detected at higher concentrations in water and sediment samples from AP, followed by JC and GD. The Integrated Biomarker Response Index (IBR) indicated that AP and JC (AP: 21.7 > JC: 18.5 > GD: 12.6) have the worst environmental quality. Integrated biomarker analysis revealed that the alterations observed related well with the levels of environmental contaminants

  11. Efectos de la concentración de glucosa sobre la activación de la movilidad espermática en bocachico Prochilodus magdalenae (Pisces, Characiformes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Martínez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar la concentración de glucosa no activadora de la movilidad espermática como componente de futuros diluyentes para la crioconservación de semen de Prochilodus magdalenae. Materiales y métodos. Se analizó semen inactivo de tres machos obtenido por inducción hormonal. Una submuestra de 0.25 µL de semen de cada macho fue depositada sobre una cámara de Makler y evaluada usando diferentes concentraciones de glucosa (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 y 10% mediante la adición de 75 µL de cada solución sobre el semen (n=3. De cada solución se determinó la osmolaridad, siendo de 0, 62, 124, 186, 250, 310, 360, 410, 472, 536 y 620 mOsm/kg, respectivamente, así como la del plasma seminal (~250���300 mOsm/kg. Mediante el software Sperm Class Analyzer (SCA se determinó la velocidad curvilínea (VCL y recta (VSL (µm/seg, movilidad rápida (%, media (% y lenta (% y el porcentaje de espermatozoides inmóviles. El tiempo de activación de la movilidad (segundos se obtuvo por cronometraje y visualización bajo microscopio de campo claro. Resultados. Concentraciones de 0 a 5% de glucosa produjeron activación de la movilidad espermática, no obstante, a partir de glucosa al 6% no fue detectada activación visual; sin embargo, SCA detectó movilidad total (7.2%, VCL (5.1 µm/seg y VSL (1.7 µm/seg. A partir de glucosa al 7% el SCA detectó 100% de inmovilidad, no adquirida posteriormente con agua destilada. Conclusiones. La concentración de glucosa tiene efecto determinante en la viabilidad y activación de semen fresco. Una concentración de 6% de glucosa puede ser utilizada como solución no activadora de la movilidad espermática en futuros diluyentes para la crioconservación de semen de esta especie.

  12. Optical Comb Generation for Streak Camera Calibration for Inertial Confinement Fusion Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ronald Justin; Terence Davies; Frans Janson; Bruce Marshall; Perry Bell; Daniel Kalantar; Joseph Kimbrough; Stephen Vernon; Oliver Sweningsen

    2008-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is coming on-line to support physics experimentation for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and Stockpile Stewardship (SS). Optical streak cameras are an integral part of the experimental diagnostics instrumentation at NIF. To accurately reduce streak camera data a highly accurate temporal calibration is required. This article describes a technique for simultaneously generating a precise +/- 2 ps optical marker pulse (fiducial reference) and trains of precisely timed, short-duration optical pulses (so-called 'comb' pulse trains) that are suitable for the timing calibrations. These optical pulse generators are used with the LLNL optical streak cameras. They are small, portable light sources that, in the comb mode, produce a series of temporally short, uniformly spaced optical pulses, using a laser diode source. Comb generators have been produced with pulse-train repetition rates up to 10 GHz at 780 nm, and somewhat lower frequencies at 664 nm. Individual pulses can be as short as 25-ps FWHM. Signal output is via a fiber-optic connector on the front panel of the generator box. The optical signal is transported from comb generator to streak camera through multi-mode, graded-index optical fiber

  13. X-ray streak-camera study of the dynamics of laser-imploded microballoons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Key, M.H.; Lamb, M.J.; Lewis, C.L.S.; Moore, A.; Evans, R.G.

    1979-01-01

    The time and space development of the x-ray emission from the irradiated target surface and the implosion core in laser-compressed glass microballoons is recorded by x-ray streak photography. The experimental variation of implosion time with target mass and laser energy is considered and compared with computer modeling of the implosion

  14. Pedicle streaking: A novel and simple aid in pedicle positioning in free tissue transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Aggarwal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The pedicle positioning in free tissue transfer is critical to its success. Long thin pedicles are especially prone to this complication where even a slight twist in the perforator can result in flap loss. Pedicles passing through the long tunnels are similarly at risk. Streaking the pedicle with methylene blue is a simple and safe method which increases the safety of free tissue transfer. Materials and Methods: Once the flap is islanded on the pedicle and the vascularity of the flap is confirmed, the pedicle is streaked with methylene blue dye at a distance of 6-7 mm. The streaking starts from the origin of the vessels and continued distally on to the under surface of flap to mark the complete course of the pedicle in alignment. The presence of streaking in some parts and not in rest indicates twist in the pedicle. Observation and Results: Four hundred and sixty five free flaps have been done at our centre in the last 5 years. The overall success rate of free flaps is 95.3% (22 free flap failures. There has not been a single case of pedicle twist leading to flap congestion and failure. Conclusion: This simple and novel method is very reliable for pedicle positioning avoiding any twist necessary for successful free tissue transfer.

  15. Nuclear import of Maize fine streak virus proteins in Drosophila S2 cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize fine streak virus (MFSV) is a member of the genus Nucleorhabdovirus, family Rhabdoviridae and is transmitted by the leafhopper Graminella nigrifons. The virus replicates in both its plant host and in its insect vector. Nucleorhabdoviruses replicate in the nucleus and assemble at the inner nu...

  16. Streak camera measurements of laser pulse temporal dispersion in short graded-index optical fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerche, R.A.; Phillips, G.E.

    1981-01-01

    Streak camera measurements were used to determine temporal dispersion in short (5 to 30 meter) graded-index optical fibers. Results show that 50-ps, 1.06-μm and 0.53-μm laser pulses can be propagated without significant dispersion when care is taken to prevent propagation of energy in fiber cladding modes

  17. Evaluation of banana hybrids for tolerance to black leaf streak (Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet) in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Puerto Rico, bananas (including plantains) are important agricultural commodities; their combined production totaled 133,500 tons in 2008. Black leaf streak (BLS) and Sigatoka leaf spot diseases, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis and M. musicola, respectively, are responsible for significant los...

  18. Two-color spatial and temporal temperature measurements using a streaked soft x-ray imager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moore, A. S., E-mail: alastair.moore@physics.org; Ahmed, M. F.; Soufli, R.; Pardini, T.; Hibbard, R. L.; Bailey, C. G.; Bell, P. M.; Hau-Riege, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Benstead, J.; Morton, J.; Guymer, T. M.; Garbett, W. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Skidmore, J. W. [Directorate Science and Technology, AWE Aldermaston, Reading RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Bedzyk, M.; Shoup, M. J.; Regan, S. P.; Agliata, T.; Jungquist, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Schmidt, D. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); and others

    2016-11-15

    A dual-channel streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed and used on high energy-density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility. This streaked imager creates two images of the same x-ray source using two slit apertures and a single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror. Thin filters are used to create narrow band pass images at 510 eV and 360 eV. When measuring a Planckian spectrum, the brightness ratio of the two images can be translated into a color-temperature, provided that the spectral sensitivity of the two images is well known. To reduce uncertainty and remove spectral features in the streak camera photocathode from this photon energy range, a thin 100 nm CsI on 50 nm Al streak camera photocathode was implemented. Provided that the spectral shape is well-known, then uncertainties on the spectral sensitivity limits the accuracy of the temperature measurement to approximately 4.5% at 100 eV.

  19. POD analysis of the instability mode of a low-speed streak in a laminar boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Si-Chao; Pan, Chong; Wang, Jin-Jun; Rinoshika, Akira

    2017-12-01

    The instability of one single low-speed streak in a zero-pressure-gradient laminar boundary layer is investigated experimentally via both hydrogen bubble visualization and planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement. A single low-speed streak is generated and destabilized by the wake of an interference wire positioned normal to the wall and in the upstream. The downstream development of the streak includes secondary instability and self-reproduction process, which leads to the generation of two additional streaks appearing on either side of the primary one. A proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis of PIV measured velocity field is used to identify the components of the streak instability in the POD mode space: for a sinuous/varicose type of POD mode, its basis functions present anti-symmetric/symmetric distributions about the streak centerline in the streamwise component, and the symmetry condition reverses in the spanwise component. It is further shown that sinuous mode dominates the turbulent kinematic energy (TKE) through the whole streak evolution process, the TKE content first increases along the streamwise direction to a saturation value and then decays slowly. In contrast, varicose mode exhibits a sustained growth of the TKE content, suggesting an increasing competition of varicose instability against sinuous instability.

  20. Substituição da Proteína do Farelo de Soja pela Proteína do Farelo de Canola em Rações para Alevinos de Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus V. Replacement of Soybean Meal Protein by Canola Meal Protein in "Curimbatá" (Prochilodus lineatus V. Fingerling Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Maria Galdioli

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivando verificar a influência da substituição da proteína do farelo de soja (FS pela proteína do farelo de canola (FC, em rações para alevinos de curimbatá, foram utilizados 120 animais com peso médio de 1,88 ± 0,82 g e comprimento total médio de 5,40 ± 0,99 cm, distribuídos em um delineamento inteiramente casualizado com seis tratamentos e quatro repetições em aquários de vidro (50 L, com cinco alevinos por unidade experimental. As rações foram formuladas para serem isoprotéicas (26,00%, isocálcicas (0,90% e isofosfóricas (0,70%, com níveis crescentes de substituição da proteína do FS pela do FC (0,00; 20,00; 40,00; 60,00; 80,00 e 100,00%, o que correspondeu a 0,00; 8,03; 16,10; 24,10; 32,15 e 43,12% de inclusão do FC nas rações e fornecidas por um período de 30 dias. Os parâmetros físico-químicos da água foram medidos a cada sete dias. Observou-se redução linear do ganho de peso e da taxa de eficiência protéica e aumento linear da taxa de conversão alimentar, com aumento da inclusão do FC nas rações. A taxa de sobrevivência e o custo de ração/kg ganho não foram afetados com o uso do FC nas rações. Os valores da temperatura da água, do pH e da condutividade elétrica permaneceram dentro dos níveis adequados. Concluiu-se que o aumento dos níveis de inclusão da proteína do farelo de canola nas rações para alevinos de curimbatá acarretou redução no desempenho dos mesmos.The influence of the substitution of soybean meal protein (SM by canola meal protein (CM in Prochilodus lineatus fingerling diets was verified. One hundred and twenty specimens, averaging weight 1.88±0.82g and total length 5.40±0.99cm, was assigned to a completely randomized randomized design, with six treatments and four replicates, in a 50 L glass aquarium, with five fingerlings in each experimental unit. Isoprotein (26.00%, isocalcium (0.90% and isophosphorus (0.70% diets were formulated with increasing replacement

  1. Effects of liming and development of Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus larvae on the abundance of zooplankton in fish ponds Efeitos da calagem e desenvolvimento do Curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus na abundância do zooplâncton em viveiros de piscicultura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thécia Alfenas Silva Valente Paes

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We aimed to evaluate the influence of the correction of the water alkalinity in the fish ponds on the density of zooplankton under a period they were stocked with larvae of Prochilodus lineatus, a neotropical fish called "Curimbatá". METHODS: We used a factorial design completely randomized. In one plot (2 ponds there was no correction of the alkalinity of the water (20 mg CaCO3.L-1 and in two others, this variable was adjusted weekly to values around 30 and 60 mg CaCO3.L-1 ¹, with two replicates each. Zooplankton was sampled weekly and the experiment lasted 63 days. RESULTS: Significant differences in the density of the zooplankton over time (F = 6.78, p OBJETIVO: Nosso objetivo foi avaliar a influencia da correção da alcalinidade da água em viveiros de piscicultura na densidade do zooplâncton em período em que foram estocados com larvas de Prochilodus lineatus, um peixe neotropical denominado "Curimbatá". MÉTODOS: Foi utilizado um delineamento experimental fatorial, inteiramente causualizado. Em um tratamento (2 viveiros, não houve correção da alcalinidade da água, e em outros dois viveiros, a alcalinidade foi ajustada semanalmente para valores em torno de 30 e 60 mg CaCO3.L-1, com duas réplicas cada. Os organismos zooplanctônicos foram coletados semanalmente durante 63 dias. RESULTADOS: Diferenças significativas foram observadas na densidade do zooplâncton ao longo do tempo (F = 6,78, p < 0,05 e um decréscimo acentuado na densidade do zooplâncton foi observado da primeira para a segunda semana, e pequenos aumentos sucessivos na densidade da quarta semana até o final do experimento. Ao considerar todo o período experimental, a alcalinidade corrigida para 60 mg CaCO3.L-1 resultou em maiores densidades de zooplâncton. Ocorreram grandes mudanças na composição zooplanctônica. Rotifera foram dominantes no início do experimento e Cladocera e Copepoda nas últimas semanas, possivelmente devido a uma interação da

  2. Morphometric characteristics of Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes 1847, of the migratory and resident stocks of the river Mogí-Guaçu, São Paulo State, Brazil=Características morfométricas do curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus dos estoques migradores e residentes do rio Mogi-Guaçu, Estado de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Fragoso Machado

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The species Prochilodus lineatus, with great commercial relevance in the rivers Grande, Pardo and Mogi-Guaçu, is characterized by the formation of great shoals which are capable of developing wide migratory displacements. Current assay evaluates, by means of the morphometric characteristics and age, whether the curimbatás (P. lineatus of different migratory and resident stocks form a single population, with interactivities among the sub-populations during the ‘piracema’ period (reproduction migration. A completely randomized plot with a 4 x 2 factorial scheme, with four stocks (one resident and three migratory as factors and two genders (male and female, with thirty replicates, was employed, with each fish taken as an experimental unit. An 80.19% variation for the first principal component and an 8.09% variation for the second principal component were reported as provided by the ten morphometric variables of resident and migratory stocks. The resident stock had the highest rate for the whole morphometric variables. There was superposition of individual scores of the same characteristics among the migratory stocks. Significant predominance of males was observed among resident stocks and migratory stocks I and II. Morphometric similarity verified among the migratory stocks showed a single population, with small inter-population variations.A espécie Prochilodus lineatus é de grande importância comercial na região dos rios Grande, Pardo e Mogi-Guaçu e tem como característica a formação de grandes cardumes, apta a desenvolver amplos deslocamentos migratórios. O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar, por meio das características morfométricas e etária, se os curimbatás (P. lineatus dos diferentes estoques migradores e residentes constituem uma única população, havendo interação entre as sub-populações no período de piracema (migração reprodutiva. Utilizou-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 x 2

  3. Estratificacion espacial y comportamiento de Prochilodus scrofa en distintas fases del ciclo de vida, en la planici de inundacion del alto rio Parana y embalse de Itaipu, Parana, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Agostinho, A.A.; Vazzoler, A.E.A. de; Gomes, L.C.; Okada, E.K.

    1993-01-01

    Les poissons du genre #Prochilodus scrofa$ ont un comportement migratoire et présentent une répartition différenciée dans les bassins des fleuves d'Amérique du Sud. Les migrations et le cycle de la reproduction de #P. scrofa$ ont éété étudiés dans un secteur du Haut Parana, comprenant la retenue d'Itaipu, un bief du fleuve, ses affluents et la plaine d'inondation autour de Porto Rico (23°43'S-53°10'W/25°33'S-54°35'W). Les études ont porté d'octobre 1986 à septembre 1988. En octobre, une fract...

  4. Improving the off-axis spatial resolution and dynamic range of the NIF X-ray streak cameras (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacPhee, A. G., E-mail: macphee2@llnl.gov; Hatch, B. W.; Bell, P. M.; Bradley, D. K.; Datte, P. S.; Landen, O. L.; Palmer, N. E.; Piston, K. W.; Rekow, V. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Dymoke-Bradshaw, A. K. L.; Hares, J. D. [Kentech Instruments Ltd., Isis Building, Howbery Park, Wallingford, Oxfordshire OX10 8BD (United Kingdom); Hassett, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States); Meadowcroft, A. L. [AWE Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Hilsabeck, T. J.; Kilkenny, J. D. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record.

  5. Improving the off-axis spatial resolution and dynamic range of the NIF X-ray streak cameras (invited).

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, A G; Dymoke-Bradshaw, A K L; Hares, J D; Hassett, J; Hatch, B W; Meadowcroft, A L; Bell, P M; Bradley, D K; Datte, P S; Landen, O L; Palmer, N E; Piston, K W; Rekow, V V; Hilsabeck, T J; Kilkenny, J D

    2016-11-01

    We report simulations and experiments that demonstrate an increase in spatial resolution of the NIF core diagnostic x-ray streak cameras by at least a factor of two, especially off axis. A design was achieved by using a corrector electron optic to flatten the field curvature at the detector plane and corroborated by measurement. In addition, particle in cell simulations were performed to identify the regions in the streak camera that contribute the most to space charge blurring. These simulations provide a tool for convolving synthetic pre-shot spectra with the instrument function so signal levels can be set to maximize dynamic range for the relevant part of the streak record.

  6. A Demographic Model to Evaluate Population Declines in the Endangered Streaked Horned Lark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaine F. Camfield

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Streaked Horned Lark (Eremophila alpestris strigata is listed as endangered by the State of Washington, USA and by Canada under the Species at Risk Act and is also classified as a federal candidate for listing under the Endangered Species Act in the USA. A substantial portion of Streaked Horned Lark habitat has been lost or degraded, and range contraction has occurred in Oregon, Washington, and British Columbia. We estimate the vital rates (fecundity, adult and juvenile survival and population growth rate (λ for Streaked Horned Larks breeding in Washington, USA and conduct a Life-Stage Simulation Analysis (LSA to evaluate which vital rate has the greatest influence on λ. We simulated changes in the three vital rates to examine how much they would need to be adjusted either independently or in concert to achieve a stable Streaked Horned Lark population (λ = 1. We also evaluated which fecundity component (the number of fledglings per egg laid or renesting interval had the greatest impact on λ. The estimate of population growth suggests that Streaked Horned Larks in Washington are declining rapidly (λ = 0.62 ± 0.10 and that local breeding sites are not sustainable without immigration. The LSA results indicate that adult survival had the greatest influence on λ, followed by juvenile survival and fecundity. However, increases in vital rates led to λ = 1 only when adult survival was raised from 0.47 to 0.85, juvenile survival from 0.17 to 0.58, and fecundity from 0.91 to 3.09. Increases in breeding success and decreases in the renesting interval influenced λ similarly; however, λ did not reach 1 even when breeding success was raised to 100% or renesting intervals were reduced to 1 day. Only when all three vital rates were increased simultaneously did λ approach 1 without requiring highly unrealistic increases in each vital rate. We conclude that conservation activities need to target all or multiple vital rates to be successful. The

  7. Indicadores do desenvolvimento gonadal e nutricional de Prochilodus cearensis (Steindachner, 1911 (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae no açude Itans/Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2027 Gonadal and nutritional indexes influencing the reproductive behavior of Prochilodus cearensis (Steindachner, 1911 (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae in Itans water reservoir, Caicó, Rio Grande do N - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v25i2.2027

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helio de Castro Bezerra Gurgel

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Analisaram-se alguns aspectos da reprodução e do estado nutricional de 213 exemplares (160 fêmeas e 53 machos de Prochilodus cearensis no açude Itans/ Caicó no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte, Brasil, no período de abril de 1996 a janeiro de 1997. As médias dos valores dos índices gônadossomático e gonadal apresentaram-se mais elevadas para fêmeas e machos no mês de janeiro. O índice de repleção foi semelhante entre os sexos. O fator de condição (ø mostrou-se mais elevado no período que antecede à reprodução. Não foi observada correlação significativa entre os fatores abióticos e o ciclo reprodutivo da espécie. No entanto, a presença de indivíduos com gônadas preparadas para a reprodução no trimestre que antecede ao das chuvas sugere que a desova possa estar condicionada a sua ocorrênciaThe aim of this study was to investigate the influence of gonadal and nutritional index on reproductive behavior of Prochilodus cearensis (Steindachner, 1911 (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae in Itans water reservoir, Caicó, Rio Grande do Norte. 213 animals were used (160 females and 53 males and collected from Itans water reservoir during the period from April 1996 to January 1997. The highest Gonadossomatic and Gonadal Index values were obtained for females and males from December to February. The repletion index was similar for males and females. The condition factor (ø showed the highest value just before reproduction. Data collected suggest that reproductive cycle in this species is not directly related to abiotic factors

  8. Criopreservação do sêmen de Prochilodus brevis: meios de congelação e taxas de descongelação

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Teixeira Nunes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available O Prochilodus brevis é um peixe reofílico, importante componente do ecossistema fluvial e apreciado na culinária nordestina. No entanto, ações antrópicas têm ameaçado sua sobrevivência. Desta forma, surge, nos pesquisadores, o interesse no desenvolvimento de protocolos de conservação do material genético, como a criopreservação seminal. Logo, a determinação do meio de congelação e da taxa de descongelação adequados, são passos fundamentais que possibilitarão a utilização dessa biotecnologia na produção de curimatã comum, reduzindo os riscos à sua sobrevivência. Portanto, o objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes meios de congelação e taxas de descongelação sobre a qualidade do sêmen criopreservado de P. brevis. Para isso, 18 horas antes da coleta de sêmen, os machos receberam dose única de extrato hipofisário de carpa. Cada animal foi sedado com solução à base de eugenol e o sêmen foi coletado. As amostras foram diluídas em quatro meios de congelação (5% Glicose + Metilglicol 10%; 5% Glicose + DMSO 10%; 0,9% NaCl + Metilglicol 10%; 0,9% NaCl + DMSO 10% envasadas em palhetas de 0,25 mL e congeladas em vapor de nitrogênio líquido. O sêmen foi descongelado após sete dias em três taxas de descongelação: 25 °C 30 s-1; 30 °C 16 s-1; 40 °C 12 s-1. Foram feitas as análises de motilidade, vitalidade e morfologia com auxílio de sistema automatizado de análise seminal (CASA. As características do sêmen in natura assemelharam-se, em sua maioria, às encontradas na literatura. Para os parâmetros analisados, o sêmen in natura apresentou qualidade seminal superior a todos os tratamentos com o sêmen criopreservado (p 0,05. Para o sêmen criopreservado, os maiores índices foram alcançados quando se utilizou DMSO e as taxas de descongelação de 30 °C 16 s-1 ou 40 °C 12 s-1. Quanto à análise morfológica, a maior porcentagem de espermatozoides normais foi obtida utilizando as

  9. Simultaneous streak and frame interferometry for electron density measurements of laser produced plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quevedo, H. J., E-mail: hjquevedo@utexas.edu; McCormick, M.; Wisher, M.; Bengtson, Roger D.; Ditmire, T. [Center for High Energy Density Science, Department of Physics, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2016-01-15

    A system of two collinear probe beams with different wavelengths and pulse durations was used to capture simultaneously snapshot interferograms and streaked interferograms of laser produced plasmas. The snapshots measured the two dimensional, path-integrated, electron density on a charge-coupled device while the radial temporal evolution of a one dimensional plasma slice was recorded by a streak camera. This dual-probe combination allowed us to select plasmas that were uniform and axisymmetric along the laser direction suitable for retrieving the continuous evolution of the radial electron density of homogeneous plasmas. Demonstration of this double probe system was done by measuring rapidly evolving plasmas on time scales less than 1 ns produced by the interaction of femtosecond, high intensity, laser pulses with argon gas clusters. Experiments aimed at studying homogeneous plasmas from high intensity laser-gas or laser-cluster interaction could benefit from the use of this probing scheme.

  10. Temporal resolution limit estimation of x-ray streak cameras using a CsI photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang; Gu, Li; Zong, Fangke; Zhang, Jingjin; Yang, Qinlao, E-mail: qlyang@szu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-08-28

    A Monte Carlo model is developed and implemented to calculate the characteristics of x-ray induced secondary electron (SE) emission from a CsI photocathode used in an x-ray streak camera. Time distributions of emitted SEs are investigated with an incident x-ray energy range from 1 to 30 keV and a CsI thickness range from 100 to 1000 nm. Simulation results indicate that SE time distribution curves have little dependence on the incident x-ray energy and CsI thickness. The calculated time dispersion within the CsI photocathode is about 70 fs, which should be the temporal resolution limit of x-ray streak cameras that use CsI as the photocathode material.

  11. Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is a host-specific long-distance transport determinant in oat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viral determinants involved in systemic infection of hosts by monocot-infecting plant viruses are poorly understood. Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV, genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) exclusively infects monocotyledonous crops such as wheat, oat, barley, maize, triticale, and rye. Previously, ...

  12. Initial tests of the dual-sweep streak camera system planned for APS particle-beam diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A.; Yang, B.; Gai, W.; Cieslik, W.

    1995-01-01

    Initial tests of a dual-sweep streak system planned for use on the Advanced Photon Source (APS) have been performed using assets of the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) facility. The short light pulses from the photoelectric injector drive laser in both the visible (λ=496 nm, Δt∼1.5 ps (FWHM)), and the ultraviolet (λ=248 nm, Δt∼5 ps (FWHM)) were used. Both a UV-visible S20 photocathode streak tube and a UV-to-x-ray Au photocathode streak tube were tested. Calibration data with an etalon were also obtained. A sample of dual-sweep streak data using optical synchrotron radiation on the APS injector synchrotron is also presented

  13. Cassava brown streak disease in Rwanda, the associated viruses and disease phenotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munganyinka, E; Ateka, E M; Kihurani, A W; Kanyange, M C; Tairo, F; Sseruwagi, P; Ndunguru, J

    2018-02-01

    Cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) was first observed on cassava ( Manihot esculenta ) in Rwanda in 2009. In 2014 eight major cassava-growing districts in the country were surveyed to determine the distribution and variability of symptom phenotypes associated with CBSD, and the genetic diversity of cassava brown streak viruses. Distribution of the CBSD symptom phenotypes and their combinations varied greatly between districts, cultivars and their associated viruses. The symptoms on leaf alone recorded the highest (32.2%) incidence, followed by roots (25.7%), leaf + stem (20.3%), leaf + root (10.4%), leaf + stem + root (5.2%), stem + root (3.7%), and stem (2.5%) symptoms. Analysis by RT-PCR showed that single infections of Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) were most common (74.2% of total infections) and associated with all the seven phenotypes studied. Single infections of Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) were predominant (15.3% of total infections) in CBSD-affected plants showing symptoms on stems alone. Mixed infections (CBSV + UCBSV) comprised 10.5% of total infections and predominated in the combinations of leaf + stem + root phenotypes. Phylogenetic analysis and the estimates of evolutionary divergence, using partial sequences (210 nt) of the coat protein gene, revealed that in Rwanda there is one type of CBSV and an indication of diverse UCBSV. This study is the first to report the occurrence and distribution of both CBSV and UCBSV based on molecular techniques in Rwanda.

  14. Molecular characterization of Banana streak virus isolate from Musa Acuminata in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuang, Jun; Wang, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xin; Liu, Zhi-Xin

    2011-12-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV), a member of genus Badnavirus, is a causal agent of banana streak disease throughout the world. The genetic diversity of BSVs from different regions of banana plantations has previously been investigated, but there are relatively few reports of the genetic characteristic of episomal (non-integrated) BSV genomes isolated from China. Here, the complete genome, a total of 7722bp (GenBank accession number DQ092436), of an isolate of Banana streak virus (BSV) on cultivar Cavendish (BSAcYNV) in Yunnan, China was determined. The genome organises in the typical manner of badnaviruses. The intergenic region of genomic DNA contains a large stem-loop, which may contribute to the ribosome shift into the following open reading frames (ORFs). The coding region of BSAcYNV consists of three overlapping ORFs, ORF1 with a non-AUG start codon and ORF2 encoding two small proteins are individually involved in viral movement and ORF3 encodes a polyprotein. Besides the complete genome, a defective genome lacking the whole RNA leader region and a majority of ORF1 and which encompasses 6525bp was also isolated and sequenced from this BSV DNA reservoir in infected banana plants. Sequence analyses showed that BSAcYNV has closest similarity in terms of genome organization and the coding assignments with an BSV isolate from Vietnam (BSAcVNV). The corresponding coding regions shared identities of 88% and -95% at nucleotide and amino acid levels, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis also indicated BSAcYNV shared the closest geographical evolutionary relationship to BSAcVNV among sequenced banana streak badnaviruses.

  15. Molecular confirmation of Maize rayado fino virus as the Brazilian corn streak virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond,Rosemarie Wahnbaeck; Bedendo,Ivan Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), present in various countries in Latin America, has shown similarities to corn streak virus that occurs in Brazil, regarding pathogenic, serological and histological characteristics. In the current report both virus were molecularly compared to confirm the similarities between them. MRFV was identified by nucleic acid hybridization in samples of maize tissues exhibiting symptoms of "corn stunt" disease, collected from two Brazilian States - São Paulo and Minas G...

  16. ANTIOXIDANT EFFECTS OF L-SERINE AGAINST FATTY STREAK FORMATION IN HYPERCHOLESTEROLEMIC ANIMALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Movahedian

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available   Abstract INTRODUCTION: Peroxidation of blood lipoproteins is regarded as a key event in the development of atherosclerosis. Evidence suggests that oxidative modification of amino acids in low-density lipoprotein (LDL particles leads to its convert into an atherogenic form, which is taken up by macrophages. Therefore the reduction of oxidative modification of lipoproteins by increasing plasma antioxidant capacity may prevent cardiovascular disease. methods: In this study, the antioxidant and anti-fatty streak effects of L-serine were investigated in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Rabbits were randomly divided into three groups which were fed high-cholesterol diet (hypercholesterolemic control group, high-cholesterol + L-serine diet (treatment group, and normal diet (control for twelve weeks and then blood samples were obtained to measure plasma cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high-density lipoprotein (HDL, low-density lipoprotein (LDL, antioxidant capacity (AC, malondialdehyde (MDA, and conjugated dienes (CDS. Right and left coronary arteries were also obtained for histological evaluation. results: No significant difference was observed in plasma cholesterol, TG, HDL, LDL and CDS levels between treatment and hypercholesterolemic control groups (P>0.05. The levels of plasma MDA and AC were 0.29‌ µM and 56%, respectively in the treatment group which showed a significant change in comparison with hypercholesterolemic control groups (P<0.05. The mean size of produced fatty streak also showed significant reduction in the treatment group compared to the hypercholesterolemic group (P<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that L-serine has antioxidant and anti-fatty streak effects without any influence on plasma lipid levels in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.     Keywords: Atherosclerosis, cholesterol, L-serine, antioxidant, lipids, fatty streak.

  17. Ultrafast streak and framing technique for the observation of laser driven shock waves in transparent solid targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Kessel, C.G.M.; Sachsenmaier, P.; Sigel, R.

    1975-01-01

    Shock waves driven by laser ablation in plane transparent plexiglass and solid hydrogen targets have been observed with streak and framing techniques using a high speed image converter camera, and a dye laser as a light source. The framing pictures have been made by mode locking the dye laser and using a wide streak slit. In both materials a growing hemispherical shock wave is observed with the maximum velocity at the onset of laser radiation. (author)

  18. Rho kinase activity controls directional cell movements during primitive streak formation in the rabbit embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankova, Viktoria; Tsikolia, Nikoloz; Viebahn, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    During animal gastrulation, the specification of the embryonic axes is accompanied by epithelio-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the first major change in cell shape after fertilization. EMT takes place in disparate topographical arrangements, such as the circular blastopore of amphibians, the straight primitive streak of birds and mammals or in intermediate gastrulation forms of other amniotes such as reptiles. Planar cell movements are prime candidates to arrange specific modes of gastrulation but there is no consensus view on their role in different vertebrate classes. Here, we test the impact of interfering with Rho kinase-mediated cell movements on gastrulation topography in blastocysts of the rabbit, which has a flat embryonic disc typical for most mammals. Time-lapse video microscopy, electron microscopy, gene expression and morphometric analyses of the effect of inhibiting ROCK activity showed - besides normal specification of the organizer region - a dose-dependent disruption of primitive streak formation; this disruption resulted in circular, arc-shaped or intermediate forms, reminiscent of those found in amphibians, fishes and reptiles. Our results reveal a crucial role of ROCK-controlled directional cell movements during rabbit primitive streak formation and highlight the possibility that temporal and spatial modulation of cell movements were instrumental for the evolution of gastrulation forms. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  19. Picosecond Streaked K-Shell Spectroscopy of Near Solid-Density Aluminum Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, C. R.; Nilson, P. M.; Ivancic, S. T.; Mileham, C.; Froula, D. H.; Golovkin, I. E.

    2016-10-01

    The thermal x-ray emission from rapidly heated solid targets containing a buried-aluminum layer was measured. The targets were driven by high-contrast 1 ω or 2 ω laser pulses at focused intensities up to 1 ×1019W/Wcm2 cm2 . A streaked x-ray spectrometer recorded the Al Heα and lithium-like satellite lines with 2-ps temporal resolution and moderate resolving power (E/E ΔE 700). Time-integrated measurements over the same spectral range were used to correct the streaked data for variations in photocathode sensitivity. Line widths and intensity ratios from the streaked data were interpreted using a collisional radiative atomic model to provide the average plasma conditions in the buried layer as a function of time. It was observed that the resonance line tends toward lower photon energies at high electron densities. The measured shifts will be compared to predicted shifts from Stark-operator calculations at the inferred plasma conditions. This material is based upon work supported by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944, the office of Fusion Energy Sciences Award Number DE-SC0012317, and the Stewardship Science Graduate Fellowship Grant Number DE-NA0002135.

  20. Development of intelligent control system for X-ray streak camera in diagnostic instrument manipulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Chengquan [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Wu, Shengli, E-mail: slwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Tian, Jinshou [Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Liu, Zhen [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Fang, Yuman [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Gao, Guilong; Liang, Lingliang [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China); Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Wen, Wenlong [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2015-11-01

    An intelligent control system for an X ray streak camera in a diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIM) is proposed and implemented, which can control time delay, electric focusing, image gain adjustment, switch of sweep voltage, acquiring environment parameters etc. The system consists of 16 A/D converters and 16 D/A converters, a 32-channel general purpose input/output (GPIO) and two sensors. An isolated DC/DC converter with multi-outputs and a single mode fiber were adopted to reduce the interference generated by the common ground among the A/D, D/A and I/O. The software was designed using graphical programming language and can remotely access the corresponding instrument from a website. The entire intelligent control system can acquire the desirable data at a speed of 30 Mb/s and store it for later analysis. The intelligent system was implemented on a streak camera in a DIM and it shows a temporal resolution of 11.25 ps, spatial distortion of less than 10% and dynamic range of 279:1. The intelligent control system has been successfully used in a streak camera to verify the synchronization of multi-channel laser on the Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility.

  1. A new streaked soft x-ray imager for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benstead, J., E-mail: james.benstead@awe.co.uk; Morton, J.; Guymer, T. M.; Garbett, W. J.; Rubery, M. S.; Skidmore, J. W. [AWE, Aldermaston, Reading, Berkshire RG7 4PR (United Kingdom); Moore, A. S.; Ahmed, M. F.; Soufli, R.; Pardini, T.; Hibbard, R. L.; Bailey, C. G.; Bell, P. M.; Hau-Riege, S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bedzyk, M.; Shoup, M. J.; Reagan, S.; Agliata, T.; Jungquist, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Schmidt, D. W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); and others

    2016-05-15

    A new streaked soft x-ray imager has been designed for use on high energy-density (HED) physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility based at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. This streaked imager uses a slit aperture, single shallow angle reflection from a nickel mirror, and soft x-ray filtering to, when coupled to one of the NIF’s x-ray streak cameras, record a 4× magnification, one-dimensional image of an x-ray source with a spatial resolution of less than 90 μm. The energy band pass produced depends upon the filter material used; for the first qualification shots, vanadium and silver-on-titanium filters were used to gate on photon energy ranges of approximately 300–510 eV and 200–400 eV, respectively. A two-channel version of the snout is available for x-ray sources up to 1 mm and a single-channel is available for larger sources up to 3 mm. Both the one and two-channel variants have been qualified on quartz wire and HED physics target shots.

  2. Target 3-D reconstruction of streak tube imaging lidar based on Gaussian fitting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qingyu; Niu, Lihong; Hu, Cuichun; Wu, Lei; Yang, Hongru; Yu, Bing

    2018-02-01

    Streak images obtained by the streak tube imaging lidar (STIL) contain the distance-azimuth-intensity information of a scanned target, and a 3-D reconstruction of the target can be carried out through extracting the characteristic data of multiple streak images. Significant errors will be caused in the reconstruction result by the peak detection method due to noise and other factors. So as to get a more precise 3-D reconstruction, a peak detection method based on Gaussian fitting of trust region is proposed in this work. Gaussian modeling is performed on the returned wave of single time channel of each frame, then the modeling result which can effectively reduce the noise interference and possesses a unique peak could be taken as the new returned waveform, lastly extracting its feature data through peak detection. The experimental data of aerial target is for verifying this method. This work shows that the peak detection method based on Gaussian fitting reduces the extraction error of the feature data to less than 10%; utilizing this method to extract the feature data and reconstruct the target make it possible to realize the spatial resolution with a minimum 30 cm in the depth direction, and improve the 3-D imaging accuracy of the STIL concurrently.

  3. Precise measurement of a subpicosecond electron single bunch by the femtosecond streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uesaka, M.; Ueda, T.; Kozawa, T.; Kobayashi, T.

    1998-01-01

    Precise measurement of a subpicosecond electron single bunch by the femtosecond streak camera is presented. The subpicosecond electron single bunch of energy 35 MeV was generated by the achromatic magnetic pulse compressor at the S-band linear accelerator of nuclear engineering research laboratory (NERL), University of Tokyo. The electric charge per bunch and beam size are 0.5 nC and the horizontal and vertical beam sizes are 3.3 and 5.5 mm (full width at half maximum; FWHM), respectively. Pulse shape of the electron single bunch is measured via Cherenkov radiation emitted in air by the femtosecond streak camera. Optical parameters of the optical measurement system were optimized based on much experiment and numerical analysis in order to achieve a subpicosecond time resolution. By using the optimized optical measurement system, the subpicosecond pulse shape, its variation for the differents rf phases in the accelerating tube, the jitter of the total system and the correlation between measured streak images and calculated longitudinal phase space distributions were precisely evaluated. This measurement system is going to be utilized in several subpicosecond analyses for radiation physics and chemistry. (orig.)

  4. Development of intelligent control system for X-ray streak camera in diagnostic instrument manipulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Chengquan; Wu, Shengli; Tian, Jinshou; Liu, Zhen; Fang, Yuman; Gao, Guilong; Liang, Lingliang; Wen, Wenlong

    2015-01-01

    An intelligent control system for an X ray streak camera in a diagnostic instrument manipulator (DIM) is proposed and implemented, which can control time delay, electric focusing, image gain adjustment, switch of sweep voltage, acquiring environment parameters etc. The system consists of 16 A/D converters and 16 D/A converters, a 32-channel general purpose input/output (GPIO) and two sensors. An isolated DC/DC converter with multi-outputs and a single mode fiber were adopted to reduce the interference generated by the common ground among the A/D, D/A and I/O. The software was designed using graphical programming language and can remotely access the corresponding instrument from a website. The entire intelligent control system can acquire the desirable data at a speed of 30 Mb/s and store it for later analysis. The intelligent system was implemented on a streak camera in a DIM and it shows a temporal resolution of 11.25 ps, spatial distortion of less than 10% and dynamic range of 279:1. The intelligent control system has been successfully used in a streak camera to verify the synchronization of multi-channel laser on the Inertial Confinement Fusion Facility

  5. Oct4 is required ~E7.5 for proliferation in the primitive streak.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian DeVeale

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Oct4 is a widely recognized pluripotency factor as it maintains Embryonic Stem (ES cells in a pluripotent state, and, in vivo, prevents the inner cell mass (ICM in murine embryos from differentiating into trophectoderm. However, its function in somatic tissue after this developmental stage is not well characterized. Using a tamoxifen-inducible Cre recombinase and floxed alleles of Oct4, we investigated the effect of depleting Oct4 in mouse embryos between the pre-streak and headfold stages, ~E6.0-E8.0, when Oct4 is found in dynamic patterns throughout the embryonic compartment of the mouse egg cylinder. We found that depletion of Oct4 ~E7.5 resulted in a severe phenotype, comprised of craniorachischisis, random heart tube orientation, failed turning, defective somitogenesis and posterior truncation. Unlike in ES cells, depletion of the pluripotency factors Sox2 and Oct4 after E7.0 does not phenocopy, suggesting that ~E7.5 Oct4 is required within a network that is altered relative to the pluripotency network. Oct4 is not required in extraembryonic tissue for these processes, but is required to maintain cell viability in the embryo and normal proliferation within the primitive streak. Impaired expansion of the primitive streak occurs coincident with Oct4 depletion ∼E7.5 and precedes deficient convergent extension which contributes to several aspects of the phenotype.

  6. A maize resistance gene functions against bacterial streak disease in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bingyu; Lin, Xinghua; Poland, Jesse; Trick, Harold; Leach, Jan; Hulbert, Scot

    2005-10-25

    Although cereal crops all belong to the grass family (Poacea), most of their diseases are specific to a particular species. Thus, a given cereal species is typically resistant to diseases of other grasses, and this nonhost resistance is generally stable. To determine the feasibility of transferring nonhost resistance genes (R genes) between distantly related grasses to control specific diseases, we identified a maize R gene that recognizes a rice pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, which causes bacterial streak disease. Bacterial streak is an important disease of rice in Asia, and no simply inherited sources of resistance have been identified in rice. Although X. o. pv. oryzicola does not cause disease on maize, we identified a maize gene, Rxo1, that conditions a resistance reaction to a diverse collection of pathogen strains. Surprisingly, Rxo1 also controls resistance to the unrelated pathogen Burkholderia andropogonis, which causes bacterial stripe of sorghum and maize. The same gene thus controls resistance reactions to both pathogens and nonpathogens of maize. Rxo1 has a nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat structure, similar to many previously identified R genes. Most importantly, Rxo1 functions after transfer as a transgene to rice, demonstrating the feasibility of nonhost R gene transfer between cereals and providing a valuable tool for controlling bacterial streak disease.

  7. Genetic Analysis of Streaked and Abnormal Floret Mutant st-fon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-xi CHEN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available A double mutant with streaked leaf and abnormal floret was found and temporarily named streaked leaf and floral organ number mutant (st-fon. For this mutant, besides white streak appeared on culm, leaves and panicles, the number of floral organs increased and florets cracked. The extreme phenotype was that several small florets grew from one floret or branch rachis in small florets extended and developed into panicles. By using transmission electron microscope to observe the ultrastructure of white histocytes of leaves at the seedling stage, the white tissues which showed abnormal plastids, lamellas and thylakoids could not develop into normal chloroplast, and the development of chloroplast was blocked at the early growth stage of plastid. Scanning electron microscope and paraffin section were also used to observe the development of floral organs, and the results indicated that the development of floral meristem was out of order and unlimited, whereas in the twisty leaves, vascular bundle sheath cells grew excessively, or some bubbly cells increased. Genetic analyses carried out by means of cross and backcross with four normal-leaf-color materials revealed that the mutant is of cytoplasm inheritance.

  8. Development of a Data Reduction Algorithm for Optical Wide Field Patrol (OWL) II: Improving Measurement of Lengths of Detected Streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Youp; Choi, Jin; Roh, Dong-Goo; Park, Maru; Jo, Jung Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Park, Young-Sik; Bae, Young-Ho; Park, Jang-Hyun; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Choi, Young-Jun; Cho, Sungki; Choi, Eun-Jung

    2016-09-01

    As described in the previous paper (Park et al. 2013), the detector subsystem of optical wide-field patrol (OWL) provides many observational data points of a single artificial satellite or space debris in the form of small streaks, using a chopper system and a time tagger. The position and the corresponding time data are matched assuming that the length of a streak on the CCD frame is proportional to the time duration of the exposure during which the chopper blades do not obscure the CCD window. In the previous study, however, the length was measured using the diagonal of the rectangle of the image area containing the streak; the results were quite ambiguous and inaccurate, allowing possible matching error of positions and time data. Furthermore, because only one (position, time) data point is created from one streak, the efficiency of the observation decreases. To define the length of a streak correctly, it is important to locate the endpoints of a streak. In this paper, a method using a differential convolution mask pattern is tested. This method can be used to obtain the positions where the pixel values are changed sharply. These endpoints can be regarded as directly detected positional data, and the number of data points is doubled by this result.

  9. Streak-photographic investigation of shock wave emission after laser-induced plasma formation in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noack, Joachim; Vogel, Alfred

    1995-05-01

    The shock wave emission after dielectric breakdown in water was investigated to assess potential shock wave effects in plasma mediated tissue ablation and intraocular photodisruption. Of particular interest was the dependence of shock wave pressure as a function of distance from the plasma for different laser pulse energies. We have generated plasmas in water with a Nd:YAG laser system delivering pulses of 6 ns duration. The pulses, with energies between 0.4 and 36 mJ (approximately equals 180 times threshold), were focused into a cuvette containing distilled water. The shock wave was visualized with streak photography combined with a schlieren technique. An important advantage of this technique is that the shock position as a function of time can directly be obtained from a single streak and hence a single event. Other methods (e.g. flash photography or passage time measurements between fixed locations) in contrast rely on reproducible events. Using the shock wave speed obtained from the streak images, shock wave peak pressures were calculated providing detailed information on the propagation of the shock. The shock peak pressure as a function of distance r from the optical axis was found to decrease faster than 1/r2 in regions up to distances of 100-150 micrometers . For larger distances it was found to be roughly proportional to 1/r. The scaling law for maximum shock pressure p, at a given distance was found to be proportional to the square root of the laser pulse energy E for distances of 50-200 micrometers from the optical axis.

  10. A sampling ultra-high-speed streak camera based on the use of a unique photomultiplier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marode, Emmanuel

    An apparatus reproducing the ''streak'' mode of a high-speed camera is proposed for the case of a slit AB whose variations in luminosity are repetitive. A photomultiplier, analysing the object AB point by point, and a still camera, photographing a slit fixed on the oscilloscope screen parallel to the sweep direction are placed on a mobile platform P. The movement of P assures a time-resolved analysis of AB. The resolution is of the order of 2.10 -9 s, and can be improved [fr

  11. Deflection system of a high-speed streak camera in the form of a delay line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korzhenevich, I.M.; Fel'dman, G.G.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the operation of a meander deflection system, well-known in oscillography, when it is used to scan the image in a streak-camera tube. Effects that are specific to high-speed photography are considered. It is shown that such a deflection system imposes reduced requirements both on the steepness and on the duration of the linear leading edges of the pulses of the spark gaps that generate the sweep voltage. An example of the design of a meander deflection system whose sensitivity is a factor of two higher than for a conventional system is considered. 5 refs., 3 figs

  12. Loop-mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay to Rapidly Detect Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus in Quarantined Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwon Lee

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We developed a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP method to rapidly diagnose Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV during quarantine inspections of imported wheat, corn, oats, and millet. The LAMP method was developed as a plant quarantine inspection method for the first time, and its simplicity, quickness, specificity and sensitivity were verified compared to current reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and nested PCR quarantine methods. We were able to quickly screen for WSMV at quarantine sites with many test samples; thus, this method is expected to contribute to plant quarantine inspections.

  13. Binding constants of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus Coat Protein with ferulic acid derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longlu Ran

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The data present binding constants between ferulic acid derivatives and the Coat Protein (P10 by fluorescence titration in this article, which is hosted in the research article entitled “Interaction Research on an Antiviral Molecule that Targets the Coat Protein of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus’’ (Ran et al., 2017 [1]. The data include fluorescence quenching spectrum, Stern–Volmer quenching constants, and binding parameters. In this article, a more comprehensive data interpretation and analysis is explained.

  14. Commissioning of the advanced light source dual-axis streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinkson, J.; Keller, R.; Byrd, J.

    1997-05-01

    A dual-axis camera, Hamamatsu model C5680, has been installed on the Advanced Light Source photon-diagnostics beam-line to investigate electron-beam parameters. During its commissioning process, the camera has been used to measure single-bunch length vs. current, relative bunch charge in adjacent RF buckets, and bunchphase stability. In this paper the authors describe the visible-light branch of the diagnostics beam-line, the streak-camera installation, and the timing electronics. They will show graphical results of beam measurements taken during a variety of accelerator conditions

  15. Fiber scintillator/streak camera detector for burn history measurement in inertial confinement fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyanaga, N.; Ohba, N.; Fujimoto, K.

    1997-01-01

    To measure the burn history in an inertial confinement fusion experiment, we have developed a new neutron detector based on plastic scintillation fibers. Twenty-five fiber scintillators were arranged in a geometry compensation configuration by which the time-of-flight difference of the neutrons is compensated by the transit time difference of light passing through the fibers. Each fiber scintillator is spliced individually to an ultraviolet optical fiber that is coupled to a streak camera. We have demonstrated a significant improvement of sensitivity compared with the usual bulk scintillator coupled to a bundle of the same ultraviolet fibers. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Comparisons among paternal half-sib families by fulton and alometric condition factors and growth rate in curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus / Comparações entre famílias de meio irmãos paterno através do fator de condição de Fulton, alométrico e a taxa de crescimento em curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian Cristina Borosky

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The determination of the condition factor in fish has been done to inform the growth, reproduction and survival in a specific environment. With the objective of comparing groups of paternal half-sibs it was conducted an experiment at the Fish Station of the State University of Londrina. It was used a sample of 253 fishes, sons of 10 Curimbata (Prochilodus lineatus reproducers. In order to verify the possibility of their use in selection, Fulton and alometric condition factors were determined, as well as the growth rate. The results suggested that the progeny of the majority of the reproducers presented negative alometric growth (b A determinação do fator de condição em peixes tem sido feita para informar o crescimento, reprodução e sobrevivência em um determinado ambiente. Com o objetivo de comparar grupos de meio-irmãos paterno, foi realizado um experimento na Estação de Piscicultura da Universidade Estadual de Londrina, em uma amostra constituida de 253 animais, filhos de 10 reprodutores curimbatá (Prochilodus lineatus. Foi determinado o cálculo do fator de condição de Fulton, alométrico e a taxa de crescimento para verificar a possibilidade de seleção para essas características. Os resultados indicam que a maioria dos reprodutores apresentam crescimento alométrico negativo, representado por b < 3,0, a exceção de um reprodutor cuja progênie apresentou crescimento isométrico (b = 3,0. A identificação dos reprodutores cujas progênies tiveram maior taxa de crescimento foi através do fator de condição alométrico. O fator de condição de Fulton que utiliza para o cálculo o coeficiente de regressão de b = 3,0 não se mostrou viável. A seleção para a melhora das características fator de condição alométrico e taxa de crescimento é possível com a utilização da seleção pela progênie, pois a herdabilidade para essas características é baixa (h2 = 0,20.

  17. Persistence of Smectic-A Oily Streaks into the Nematic Phase by UV Irradiation of Reactive Mesogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ines Gharbi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Thin smectic liquid crystal films with competing boundary conditions (planar and homeotropic at opposing surfaces form well-known striated structures known as “oily streaks”, which are a series of hemicylindrical caps that run perpendicular to the easy axis of the planar substrate. The streaks vanish on heating into the nematic phase, where the film becomes uniform and exhibits hybrid alignment. On adding sufficient reactive mesogen and polymerizing, the oily streak texture is maintained on heating through the entire nematic phase until reaching the bulk isotropic phase, above which the texture vanishes. Depending on the liquid crystal thickness, the oily streak structure may be retrieved after cooling, which demonstrates the strong impact of the polymer backbone on the liquid crystal texture. Polarizing optical, atomic force, and scanning electron microscopy data are presented.

  18. Synchronization of streak and framing camera measurements of an intense relativistic electron beam propagating through gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidman, D.J.; Murphy, D.P.; Myers, M.C.; Meger, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    The expansion of the radius of a 5 MeV, 20 kA, 40 ns electron beam from SuperIBEX during propagation through gas is being measured. The beam is generated, conditions, equilibrated, and then passed through a thin foil that produces Cherenkov light, which is recorded by a streak camera. At a second location, the beam hits another Cherenkov emitter, which is viewed by a framing camera. Measurements at these two locations can provide a time-resolved measure of the beam expansion. The two measurements, however, must be synchronized with each other, because the beam radius is not constant throughout the pulse due to variations in beam current and energy. To correlate the timing of the two diagnostics, several shots have been taken with both diagnostics viewing Cherenkov light from the same foil. Experimental measurements of the Cherenkov light from one foil viewed by both diagnostics will be presented to demonstrate the feasibility of correlating the diagnostics with each other. Streak camera data showing the optical fiducial, as well as the final correlation of the two diagnostics, will also be presented. Preliminary beam radius measurements from Cherenkov light measured at two locations will be shown

  19. Epistatic determinism of durum wheat resistance to the wheat spindle streak mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Yan; Bonnefoy, Michel; Viader, Véronique; Ardisson, Morgane; Rode, Nicolas O; Poux, Gérard; Roumet, Pierre; Marie-Jeanne, Véronique; Ranwez, Vincent; Santoni, Sylvain; Gouache, David; David, Jacques L

    2017-07-01

    The resistance of durum wheat to the Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is controlled by two main QTLs on chromosomes 7A and 7B, with a huge epistatic effect. Wheat spindle streak mosaic virus (WSSMV) is a major disease of durum wheat in Europe and North America. Breeding WSSMV-resistant cultivars is currently the only way to control the virus since no treatment is available. This paper reports studies of the inheritance of WSSMV resistance using two related durum wheat populations obtained by crossing two elite cultivars with a WSSMV-resistant emmer cultivar. In 2012 and 2015, 354 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) were phenotyped using visual notations, ELISA and qPCR and genotyped using locus targeted capture and sequencing. This allowed us to build a consensus genetic map of 8568 markers and identify three chromosomal regions involved in WSSMV resistance. Two major regions (located on chromosomes 7A and 7B) jointly explain, on the basis of epistatic interactions, up to 43% of the phenotypic variation. Flanking sequences of our genetic markers are provided to facilitate future marker-assisted selection of WSSMV-resistant cultivars.

  20. Cheap streak camera based on the LD-S-10 intensifier tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashevsky, Boris E.; Krutik, Mikhail I.; Surovegin, Alexander L.

    1992-01-01

    Basic properties of a new streak camera and its test results are reported. To intensify images on its screen, we employed modular G1 tubes, the LD-A-1.0 and LD-A-0.33, enabling magnification of 1.0 and 0.33, respectively. If necessary, the LD-A-0.33 tube may be substituted by any other image intensifier of the LDA series, the choice to be determined by the size of the CCD matrix with fiber-optical windows. The reported camera employs a 12.5- mm-long CCD strip consisting of 1024 pixels, each 12 X 500 micrometers in size. Registered radiation was imaged on a 5 X 0.04 mm slit diaphragm tightly connected with the LD-S- 10 fiber-optical input window. Electrons escaping the cathode are accelerated in a 5 kV electric field and focused onto a phosphor screen covering a fiber-optical plate as they travel between deflection plates. Sensitivity of the latter was 18 V/mm, which implies that the total deflecting voltage was 720 V per 40 mm of the screen surface, since reversed-polarity scan pulses +360 V and -360 V were applied across the deflection plate. The streak camera provides full scan times over the screen of 15, 30, 50, 100, 250, and 500 ns. Timing of the electrically or optically driven camera was done using a 10 ns step-controlled-delay (0 - 500 ns) circuit.

  1. Inactivation of the Huntington's disease gene (Hdh impairs anterior streak formation and early patterning of the mouse embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conlon Ronald A

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Huntingtin, the HD gene encoded protein mutated by polyglutamine expansion in Huntington's disease, is required in extraembryonic tissues for proper gastrulation, implicating its activities in nutrition or patterning of the developing embryo. To test these possibilities, we have used whole mount in situ hybridization to examine embryonic patterning and morphogenesis in homozygous Hdhex4/5 huntingtin deficient embryos. Results In the absence of huntingtin, expression of nutritive genes appears normal but E7.0–7.5 embryos exhibit a unique combination of patterning defects. Notable are a shortened primitive streak, absence of a proper node and diminished production of anterior streak derivatives. Reduced Wnt3a, Tbx6 and Dll1 expression signify decreased paraxial mesoderm and reduced Otx2 expression and lack of headfolds denote a failure of head development. In addition, genes initially broadly expressed are not properly restricted to the posterior, as evidenced by the ectopic expression of Nodal, Fgf8 and Gsc in the epiblast and T (Brachyury and Evx1 in proximal mesoderm derivatives. Despite impaired posterior restriction and anterior streak deficits, overall anterior/posterior polarity is established. A single primitive streak forms and marker expression shows that the anterior epiblast and anterior visceral endoderm (AVE are specified. Conclusion Huntingtin is essential in the early patterning of the embryo for formation of the anterior region of the primitive streak, and for down-regulation of a subset of dynamic growth and transcription factor genes. These findings provide fundamental starting points for identifying the novel cellular and molecular activities of huntingtin in the extraembryonic tissues that govern normal anterior streak development. This knowledge may prove to be important for understanding the mechanism by which the dominant polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin determines the loss of neurons in

  2. Inactivation of the Huntington's disease gene (Hdh) impairs anterior streak formation and early patterning of the mouse embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woda, Juliana M; Calzonetti, Teresa; Hilditch-Maguire, Paige; Duyao, Mabel P; Conlon, Ronald A; MacDonald, Marcy E

    2005-08-18

    Huntingtin, the HD gene encoded protein mutated by polyglutamine expansion in Huntington's disease, is required in extraembryonic tissues for proper gastrulation, implicating its activities in nutrition or patterning of the developing embryo. To test these possibilities, we have used whole mount in situ hybridization to examine embryonic patterning and morphogenesis in homozygous Hdh(ex4/5) huntingtin deficient embryos. In the absence of huntingtin, expression of nutritive genes appears normal but E7.0-7.5 embryos exhibit a unique combination of patterning defects. Notable are a shortened primitive streak, absence of a proper node and diminished production of anterior streak derivatives. Reduced Wnt3a, Tbx6 and Dll1 expression signify decreased paraxial mesoderm and reduced Otx2 expression and lack of headfolds denote a failure of head development. In addition, genes initially broadly expressed are not properly restricted to the posterior, as evidenced by the ectopic expression of Nodal, Fgf8 and Gsc in the epiblast and T (Brachyury) and Evx1 in proximal mesoderm derivatives. Despite impaired posterior restriction and anterior streak deficits, overall anterior/posterior polarity is established. A single primitive streak forms and marker expression shows that the anterior epiblast and anterior visceral endoderm (AVE) are specified. Huntingtin is essential in the early patterning of the embryo for formation of the anterior region of the primitive streak, and for down-regulation of a subset of dynamic growth and transcription factor genes. These findings provide fundamental starting points for identifying the novel cellular and molecular activities of huntingtin in the extraembryonic tissues that govern normal anterior streak development. This knowledge may prove to be important for understanding the mechanism by which the dominant polyglutamine expansion in huntingtin determines the loss of neurons in Huntington's disease.

  3. Monitoramento e conservação genética de populações naturais de Prochilodus lineatus dos rios Pardo, Mogi-Guaçu e Tietê, São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.M. Lopera-Barrero

    Full Text Available RESUMO O objetivo do presente estudo foi determinar a diversidade e a estrutura genética de seis populações naturais de Prochilodus lineatus em usinas hidrelétricas (UHE dos rios Pardo (UHE Limoeiro - LMO, Mogi-Guaçu (UHE Mogi-Guaçu - MOG e Tietê (UHE Promissão - PRO, UHE Barra Bonita - BAB, UHE Nova Avanhandava - NAV e UHE Bariri - BAR. Foi encontrado um total de 47 alelos, com tamanhos entre 118pb e 330pb. Os resultados de heterozigosidade média observada (0,490 a 0,625 refletiram uma alta variabilidade genética intrapopulacional. Os valores de distância genética (0,149 a 0,773, Fst (0,006 a 0,218 e Nm (1,2 a 4,2 mostraram a presença de similaridade genética entre as populações. De acordo com a AMOVA, houve maior variação dentro das populações do que entre elas. O dendograma mostrou a formação de dois agrupamentos (LMO-PRO-MOG e BAR-BAB-NAV. Concluiu-se que as populações naturais apresentaram alta variabilidade genética, com similaridade genética entre elas, possivelmente causada pelo programa de repovoamento realizado nesses rios.

  4. Seletividade alimentar de organismos-alimento por formas jovens de pacu Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 e curimba Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.523 Selective feeding of food organisms by fish larvae of Piaractus mesopotamicus (Holmberg, 1887 and Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i2.523

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Bento Fernandes

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a seleção alimentar de organismos-alimento por formas jovens de pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus e curimba (Prochilodus lineatus com diferentes idades (6, 12, 19 e 26 dias, na presença e ausência de Pistia stratiotes. Foram utilizados quatro tratamentos (T1 = pacu + P. stratiotes; T2 = pacu; T3 = curimba + P. stratiotes; T4 = curimba e quatro repetições. A cada sete dias, foram coletadas 24 larvas de cada espécie de peixe dos tanques, sendo estas mantidas em jejum por 24 horas. Depois de distribuídas nos aquários com plâncton, as larvas permaneceram por três horas, sendo coletadas e fixadas para análise, juntamente com as amostras de água. Os tratos digestórios das larvas foram retirados e analisados sob microscópio óptico. Observaram-se diferenças estatísticas na seletividade alimentar de organismos planctônicos por larvas de mesma espécie, em diferentes idades e também entre larvas de espécies diferentes, com mesma idade, não diferindo quanto à presença ou ausência de P. stratiotes. As formas jovens de pacu e curimba selecionaram organismos similares aos seis dias de idade, passando por alterações até o 26º dia. À medida que se desenvolveram, as larvas de pacu passaram a selecionar cladóceros e ostrácodos e as de curimba, protozoários e algas.The objective was to evaluate the feeding selection of food organisms for two species of fish larvae (pacu and curimba at different ages (6, 12, 19 and 26 days after eclosion, in the presence or absence of Pistia stratiotes. Four treatments were used (T1 = pacu + P. stratiotes; T2 = pacu; T3 = curimba + P. stratiotes; T4 = curimba and four replications. Every seven days, 24 fish larvae of each species were collected, and kept without food for 24 hours. After being distributed in the aquariums with plankton, the larvae stayed for three hours, and were collected and prepared for analysis, along with the water samples. The digestive tract of the fish larvae

  5. Numerical Investigation on the Influence of Hot Streak Temperature Ratio in a High-Pressure Stage of Vaneless Counter-Rotating Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Qingjun

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of recent studies have shown that combustor exit temperature distortion can cause excessive heat load of high-pressure turbine (HPT rotor blades. The heating of HPT rotor blades can lead to thermal fatigue and degrade turbine performance. In order to explore the influence of hot streak temperature ratio on the temperature distributions of HPT airfoil surface, three-dimensional multiblade row unsteady Navier-Stokes simulations have been performed in a vaneless counter-rotating turbine (VCRT. The hot streak temperature ratios from 1.0 (without hot streak to 2.4 were used in these numerical simulations, including 1.0, 1.2, 1.6, 2.0, and 2.4 temperature ratios. The hot streak is circular in shape with a diameter equal to 25% of the span. The center of the hot streak is located at 50% of span and 0% of pitch (the leading edge of the HPT stator vane. The predicted results show that the hot streak is relatively unaffected as it migrates through the HPT stator. The hot streak mixes with the vane wake and convects towards the pressure surface (PS of the HPT rotor when it moves over the vane surface of the HPT stator. The heat load of the HPT rotor increases with the increase of the hot streak temperature ratio. The existence of the inlet temperature distortion induces a thin layer of cooler air in the HPT rotor, which separates the PS of the HPT rotor from the hotter fluid. The numerical results also indicating the migration characteristics of the hot streak in the HPT rotor are predominated by the combined effects of secondary flow and buoyancy. The combined effects that induce the high-temperature fluid migrate towards the hub on the HPT rotor. The effect of the secondary flow on the hotter fluid increases as the hot streak temperature ratio is increased. The influence of buoyancy is directly proportional to the hot streak temperature ratio. The predicted results show that the increase of the hot streak temperature ratio trends to increase

  6. Wheat streak mosaic virus coat protein is a determinant for vector transmission by the wheat curl mite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus; family Potyviridae), is transmitted by the wheat curl mite (Aceria tosichella Keifer). The requirement of coat protein (CP) for WSMV transmission by the wheat curl mite was examined using a series of viable deletion and point mutations. Mite trans...

  7. β-Catenin Regulates Primitive Streak Induction through Collaborative Interactions with SMAD2/SMAD3 and OCT4

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funa, Nina Sofi Ayumi; Schachter, Karen; Lerdrup, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Canonical Wnt and Nodal signaling are both required for induction of the primitive streak (PS), which guides organization of the early embryo. The Wnt effector b-catenin is thought to function in these early lineage specification decisions via transcriptional activation of Nodal signaling. Here, we...... specification. This study provides mechanistic insight into how Wnt signaling controls early cell lineage decisions....

  8. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a costeffective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chrom...

  9. 78 FR 24199 - Streak Products, Inc. v. UTi, United States, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Complaint and Assignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-24

    ... FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION [Docket No. 13--04] Streak Products, Inc. v. UTi, United States, Inc...,'' against UTi, United States, Inc. (``UTi''), hereinafter ``Respondent.'' Complainant states that it is a... therefore, has violated 46 U.S.C. 41104(2). Complainant also alleges that ``UTi engaged in an unfair or...

  10. Picosecond streak camera diagnostics of CO2 laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaanimagi, P.A.; Marjoribanks, R.S.; Sancton, R.W.; Enright, G.D.; Richardson, M.C.

    1979-01-01

    The interaction of intense laser radiation with solid targets is currently of considerable interest in laser fusion studies. Its understanding requires temporal knowledge of both laser and plasma parameters on a picosecond time scale. In this paper we describe the progress we have recently made in analysing, with picosecond time resolution, various features of intense nanosecond CO 2 laser pulse interaction experiments. An infrared upconversion scheme, having linear response and <20 ps temporal resolution, has been utilized to characterise the 10 μm laser pulse. Various features of the interaction have been studied with the aid of picosecond IR and x-ray streak cameras. These include the temporal and spatial characteristics of high harmonic emission from the plasma, and the temporal development of the x-ray continuum spectrum. (author)

  11. Bilateral choroidal neovascularization response to unilateral intravitreal Ranibizumab injection in a patient with angioid streaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otacílio de Oliveira Maia Júnior

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Report of a 48 year-old male with bilateral decrease in vision due to choroidal neovascularization secondary to angioid streaks. Best corrected visual acuity was 20/80 in the right eye and counting fingers at 2 meters on the left eye. Patient underwent intravitreal injection of Ranibizumab (Lucentis in the eye with worse visual acuity. Fifteen days after treatment patient reported better visual acuity on the fellow eye, which was measured to be 20/25. Treatment result was evaluated with visual acuity and optical coherence tomography. The effect of ranibizumab was observed in the treated eye, but the fellow eye had complete resolution of the choroidal neovascularization complex. This result may be a response to systemic absorption of the medication.

  12. Effective data-domain noise and streak reduction for X-ray CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Zhi; Zamyatin, Alexander A. [Toshiba Medical Research Institute USA, Inc., Vernon Hills, IL (United States); Akino, Naruomi [Toshiba Medical System Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)

    2011-07-01

    Streaks and noise caused by photon starvation can seriously impair the diagnostic value of the CT imaging. Existing processing methods often have several parameters to tune. The parameters can be ad hoc to the data sets. Iterative methods can achieve better results, however, at the cost of more hardware resources or longer processing time. This paper reports a new scheme of adaptive Gaussian filtering, which is based on the diffusion-derived scale-space concept. In scale-space view, filtering by Gaussians of different sizes is similar to decompose the data into a sequence of scales. The scale measure, which is the variance of the filter, should be linearly related to the noise standard deviation instead of the variance of the noise. This is a fundamental deviation in the way of using filters. The new filter has only one parameter that remains stable once tuned. Singlepass processing can usually reach the desired results. (orig.)

  13. Lasers and laser applications. Imaging implosion dynamics: The x-ray pinhole/streak camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Attwood, D.T.

    1976-01-01

    A Livermore-developed x-ray-sensitive streak camera was combined with a unique x-ray pinhole camera to make dynamic photographs of laser-irradiated fusion target implosions. These photographs show x radiation emitted from the imploding shell during its 100-ps implosion; they are the first continuous observations of an imploding laser-driven fusion capsule. The diagnostic system has a time resolution of 15 ps and a spatial resolution of about 6 μm. Results agree very well with those predicted by our LASNEX calculations, confirming that the essential physics are correctly described in the code and providing further confidence in the soundness of this approach to inertial confinement fusion

  14. Time-resolved measurements with streaked diffraction patterns from electrons generated in laser plasma wakefield

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhaohan; Nees, John; Hou, Bixue; Krushelnick, Karl; Thomas, Alec; Beaurepaire, Benoît; Malka, Victor; Faure, Jérôme

    2013-10-01

    Femtosecond bunches of electrons with relativistic to ultra-relativistic energies can be robustly produced in laser plasma wakefield accelerators (LWFA). Scaling the electron energy down to sub-relativistic and MeV level using a millijoule laser system will make such electron source a promising candidate for ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) applications due to the intrinsic short bunch duration and perfect synchronization with the optical pump. Recent results of electron diffraction from a single crystal gold foil, using LWFA electrons driven by 8-mJ, 35-fs laser pulses at 500 Hz, will be presented. The accelerated electrons were collimated with a solenoid magnetic lens. By applying a small-angle tilt to the magnetic lens, the diffraction pattern can be streaked such that the temporal evolution is separated spatially on the detector screen after propagation. The observable time window and achievable temporal resolution are studied in pump-probe measurements of photo-induced heating on the gold foil.

  15. Towards jitter free synchronization of synchroscan streak cameras by noisy periodic laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunin, B.; Heisel, F.; Miehe, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    In connection with the parameters characterizing the phase noise in cw mode-locked lasers and under the employ of streak cameras operated by sinewave deflection, the timing capabilities of the measuring system for two commonly used synchronization techniques are discussed by stochastic description. Especially, the power spectrum of the sweep signal versus the laser phase noise is examined in detail. The theoretical results are used to interpret experimental observations recorded by means of actively and passively mode-locked lasers. One of the interesting applications of synchroscan operations to metrology is the determination of short-term instabilities of the oscillator on a time scale near to the period. (author) 12 refs.; 3 figs

  16. The ECM moves during primitive streak formation--computation of ECM versus cellular motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evan A Zamir

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Galileo described the concept of motion relativity--motion with respect to a reference frame--in 1632. He noted that a person below deck would be unable to discern whether the boat was moving. Embryologists, while recognizing that embryonic tissues undergo large-scale deformations, have failed to account for relative motion when analyzing cell motility data. A century of scientific articles has advanced the concept that embryonic cells move ("migrate" in an autonomous fashion such that, as time progresses, the cells and their progeny assemble an embryo. In sharp contrast, the motion of the surrounding extracellular matrix scaffold has been largely ignored/overlooked. We developed computational/optical methods that measure the extent embryonic cells move relative to the extracellular matrix. Our time-lapse data show that epiblastic cells largely move in concert with a sub-epiblastic extracellular matrix during stages 2 and 3 in primitive streak quail embryos. In other words, there is little cellular motion relative to the extracellular matrix scaffold--both components move together as a tissue. The extracellular matrix displacements exhibit bilateral vortical motion, convergence to the midline, and extension along the presumptive vertebral axis--all patterns previously attributed solely to cellular "migration." Our time-resolved data pose new challenges for understanding how extracellular chemical (morphogen gradients, widely hypothesized to guide cellular trajectories at early gastrulation stages, are maintained in this dynamic extracellular environment. We conclude that models describing primitive streak cellular guidance mechanisms must be able to account for sub-epiblastic extracellular matrix displacements.

  17. Streaked x-ray spectrometer having a discrete selection of Bragg geometries for Omega

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millecchia, M.; Regan, S. P.; Bahr, R. E.; Romanofsky, M.; Sorce, C. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623-1299 (United States)

    2012-10-15

    The streaked x-ray spectrometer (SXS) is used with streak cameras [D. H. Kalantar, P. M. Bell, R. L. Costa, B. A. Hammel, O. L. Landen, T. J. Orzechowski, J. D. Hares, and A. K. L. Dymoke-Bradshaw, in 22nd International Congress on High-Speed Photography and Photonics, edited by D. L. Paisley and A. M. Frank (SPIE, Bellingham, WA, 1997), Vol. 2869, p. 680] positioned with a ten-inch manipulator on OMEGA [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)] and OMEGA EP [L. J. Waxer et al., Presented at CLEO/QELS 2008, San Jose, CA, 4-9 May 2008 (Paper JThB1)] for time-resolved, x-ray spectroscopy of laser-produced plasmas in the 1.4- to 20-keV photon-energy range. These experiments require measuring a portion of this photon-energy range to monitor a particular emission or absorption feature of interest. The SXS relies on a pinned mechanical reference system to create a discrete set of Bragg reflection geometries for a variety of crystals. A wide selection of spectral windows is achieved accurately and efficiently using this technique. It replaces the previous spectrometer designs that had a continuous Bragg angle adjustment and required a tedious alignment calibration procedure. The number of spectral windows needed for the SXS was determined by studying the spectral ranges selected by OMEGA users over the last decade. These selections are easily configured in the SXS using one of the 25 discrete Bragg reflection geometries and one of the six types of Bragg crystals, including two curved crystals.

  18. Relationship between the shoot characteristics and plant resistance to vascular-streak dieback on cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Wahyu Soesilo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Vascular-streak dieback (Oncobasidium theobromae is a serious disease on cocoa damaging the vegetative tissue especially on the branches and leaves. This research was aimed to identify the relationship between characteristics of sprouting ability and VSD resistance to confirm the response of cocoa to pruning treatment on VSD control and developing criteria for selection. Trial was carried out at Kaliwining Experimental Station of ICCRI, a VSD-endemic area by using 668 plants of hybrid populayion which were derivated from intercrossing among seven clones performing different response to VSD. The resistance was evaluated by scoring the plant damage with the scale of 0-6 on drought season in the year of 2009 and 2011. The characteristics of sprouting ability was assessed by recording the pruned trees for the variables of the number of re-growth shoot, shoot height, number of new shoot per pruned branches, shoot diameter and number of leaves per shoot. It was analyzed that the variables of the number of shoot per pruned branches, shoot diameter, shoot height and number of leaves per shoot were not significantly correlated to the score of VSD damage. Grouping of the resistance also performed similar results whereas mean of the sprouting variables were not different among group but the percentage of sprouted branches tend to be higher with the higher of the resistance (lower score. This result confirmed any mechanism of tolerance on VSD resistance by accelerating shoot rejuvenation on resistant plant. Key words : vascular-streak diaback, cocoa, resistance, characteristics of sprouting

  19. Visceral endoderm and the primitive streak interact to build the fetal-placental interface of the mouse gastrula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Adriana M; Downs, Karen M

    2017-12-01

    Hypoblast/visceral endoderm assists in amniote nutrition, axial positioning and formation of the gut. Here, we provide evidence, currently limited to humans and non-human primates, that hypoblast is a purveyor of extraembryonic mesoderm in the mouse gastrula. Fate mapping a unique segment of axial extraembryonic visceral endoderm associated with the allantoic component of the primitive streak, and referred to as the "AX", revealed that visceral endoderm supplies the placentae with extraembryonic mesoderm. Exfoliation of the AX was dependent upon contact with the primitive streak, which modulated Hedgehog signaling. Resolution of the AX's epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by Hedgehog shaped the allantois into its characteristic projectile and individualized placental arterial vessels. A unique border cell separated the delaminating AX from the yolk sac blood islands which, situated beyond the limit of the streak, were not formed by an EMT. Over time, the AX became the hindgut lip, which contributed extensively to the posterior interface, including both embryonic and extraembryonic tissues. The AX, in turn, imparted antero-posterior (A-P) polarity on the primitive streak and promoted its elongation and differentiation into definitive endoderm. Results of heterotopic grafting supported mutually interactive functions of the AX and primitive streak, showing that together, they self-organized into a complete version of the fetal-placental interface, forming an elongated structure that exhibited A-P polarity and was composed of the allantois, an AX-derived rod-like axial extension reminiscent of the embryonic notochord, the placental arterial vasculature and visceral endoderm/hindgut. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Compact streak camera for the shock study of solids by using the high-pressure gas gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayama, Kunihito; Mori, Yasuhito

    1993-01-01

    For the precise observation of high-speed impact phenomena, a compact high-speed streak camera recording system has been developed. The system consists of a high-pressure gas gun, a streak camera, and a long-pulse dye laser. The gas gun installed in our laboratory has a muzzle of 40 mm in diameter, and a launch tube of 2 m long. Projectile velocity is measured by the laser beam cut method. The gun is capable of accelerating a 27 g projectile up to 500 m/s, if helium gas is used as a driver. The system has been designed on the principal idea that the precise optical measurement methods developed in other areas of research can be applied to the gun study. The streak camera is 300 mm in diameter, with a rectangular rotating mirror which is driven by an air turbine spindle. The attainable streak velocity is 3 mm/microsecond(s) . The size of the camera is rather small aiming at the portability and economy. Therefore, the streak velocity is relatively slower than the fast cameras, but it is possible to use low-sensitivity but high-resolution film as a recording medium. We have also constructed a pulsed dye laser of 25 - 30 microsecond(s) in duration. The laser can be used as a light source of observation. The advantage for the use of the laser will be multi-fold, i.e., good directivity, almost single frequency, and so on. The feasibility of the system has been demonstrated by performing several experiments.

  1. Transcriptional changes of rice in response to rice black-streaked dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed M S; Ji, Wen; Wang, Muyue; Bian, Shiquan; Xu, Meng; Wang, Weiyun; Zhang, Jiangxiang; Xu, Zhihao; Yu, Meimei; Liu, Qiaoquan; Zhang, Changquan; Zhang, Honggen; Tang, Shuzhu; Gu, Minghong; Yu, Hengxiu

    2017-09-10

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, causes significant economic losses in rice production in China and many other Asian countries. Although a great deal of effort has been made to elucidate the interactions among the virus, insect vectors, host and environmental conditions, few RBSDV proteins involved in pathogenesis have been identified, and the biological basis of disease development in rice remains largely unknown. Transcriptomic information associated with the disease development in rice would be helpful to unravel the biological mechanism. To determine how the rice transcriptome changes in response to RBSDV infection, we carried out RNA-Seq to perform a genome-wide gene expression analysis of a susceptible rice cultivar KTWYJ3. The transcriptomes of RBSDV-infected samples were compared to those of RBSDV-free (healthy) at two time points (time points are represented by group I and II). The results derived from the differential expression analysis in RBSDV-infected libraries vs. healthy ones in group I revealed that 102 out of a total of 281 significant differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were up-regulated and 179 DEGs were down-regulated. Of the 2592 identified DEGs in group II, 1588 DEGs were up-regulated and 1004 DEGs were down-regulated. A total of 66 DEGs were commonly identified in both groups. Of these 66 DEGs, expression patterns for 36 DEGs were similar in both groups. Our analysis demonstrated that some genes related to disease defense and stress resistance were up-regulated while genes associated with chloroplast were down-regulated in response to RBSDV infection. In addition, some genes associated with plant-height were differentially expressed. This result indicates those genes might be involved in dwarf symptoms caused by RBSDV. Taken together, our results provide a genome-wide transcriptome analysis for rice plants in response to RBSDV infection which may contribute to the

  2. Comparing the regional epidemiology of the cassava mosaic and cassava brown streak virus pandemics in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, J P; Jeremiah, S C; Obiero, H M; Maruthi, M N; Ndyetabula, I; Okao-Okuja, G; Bouwmeester, H; Bigirimana, S; Tata-Hangy, W; Gashaka, G; Mkamilo, G; Alicai, T; Lava Kumar, P

    2011-08-01

    The rapid geographical expansion of the cassava mosaic disease (CMD) pandemic, caused by cassava mosaic geminiviruses, has devastated cassava crops in 12 countries of East and Central Africa since the late 1980s. Region-level surveys have revealed a continuing pattern of annual spread westward and southward along a contiguous 'front'. More recently, outbreaks of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) were reported from Uganda and other parts of East Africa that had been hitherto unaffected by the disease. Recent survey data reveal several significant contrasts between the regional epidemiology of these two pandemics: (i) severe CMD radiates out from an initial centre of origin, whilst CBSD seems to be spreading from independent 'hot-spots'; (ii) the severe CMD pandemic has arisen from recombination and synergy between virus species, whilst the CBSD pandemic seems to be a 'new encounter' situation between host and pathogen; (iii) CMD pandemic spread has been tightly linked with the appearance of super-abundant Bemisia tabaci whitefly vector populations, in contrast to CBSD, where outbreaks have occurred 3-12 years after whitefly population increases; (iv) the CMGs causing CMD are transmitted in a persistent manner, whilst the two cassava brown streak viruses appear to be semi-persistently transmitted; and (v) different patterns of symptom expression mean that phytosanitary measures could be implemented easily for CMD but have limited effectiveness, whereas similar measures are difficult to apply for CBSD but are potentially very effective. An important similarity between the pandemics is that the viruses occurring in pandemic-affected areas are also found elsewhere, indicating that contrary to earlier published conclusions, the viruses per se are unlikely to be the key factors driving the two pandemics. A diagrammatic representation illustrates the temporal relationship between B. tabaci abundance and changing incidences of both CMD and CBSD in the Great Lakes region

  3. Overall comparison of subpicosecond electron beam diagnostics by the polychromator, the interferometer and the femtosecond streak camera

    CERN Document Server

    Watanabe, T; Yoshimatsu, T; Sasaki, S; Sugiyama, Y; Ishi, K; Shibata, Y; Kondo, Y; Yoshii, K; Ueda, T; Uesaka, M

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of longitudinal bunch length of subpicosecond and picosecond electron beams have been performed by three methods with three radiation sources at the 35 MeV S-band twin liner accelerators at Nuclear Engineering Research Laboratory, University of Tokyo. The methods we adopt are the femtosecond streak camera with a nondispersive reflective optics, the coherent transition radiation (CTR) Michelson interferometer and the 10 ch polychromator that detects the spectrum of CTR and coherent diffraction radiation (CDR). The measurements by the two CTR methods were independently done with the streak camera and their results were consistent with one another. As a result, the reliability of the polychromator for the diagnostics of less than picosecond electron bunch and the usefulness of the diagnostics for the single shot measurement were verified. Furthermore, perfect nondestructive diagnostics for subpicosecond bunches was performed utilizing CDR interferometry. Then the good agreement between CDR interfero...

  4. Molecular insights into Cassava brown streak virus susceptibility and resistance by profiling of the early host response

    OpenAIRE

    Anjanappa, Ravi B; Mehta, Devang; Okoniewski, Michal J; Szabelska-Berȩsewicz, Alicja; Gruissem, Wilhelm; Vanderschuren, Hervé

    2018-01-01

    Cassava brown streak viruses (CBSVs) are responsible for significant cassava yield losses in eastern sub-Saharan Africa. To study the possible mechanisms of plant resistance to CBSVs we inoculated CBSV-susceptible and -resistant cassava varieties with a mixed infection of CBSVs using top-cleft grafting. Transcriptome profiling of the two cassava varieties was performed at the earliest time-point of full infection (28 days after grafting) in the susceptible scions. The expression of genes enco...

  5. Streaks of Life: The Introduction and Translation of a Passage from the Autobiography of Ethel Smyth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Dragičević

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the translated passage, taken from the autobiography of Ethel Smyth, Streaks of Life, the author writes about the position of women in music, her own position—that of a female composer in the early 20th century England. The author speaks of terror and the patronizing diction of patriarchal society. She continues with a critique of media representations, but mostly focuses on difficulties in the attempts to place one’s (woman’s artwork in public space. Despite the fact that she was romantically involved with women throughout her life and wrote about them in her other autobiographical texts, she refuses to connect lesbian identity with her work—perhaps the reason lies in the ‘safety’ of being in a closet, or because of her perceived irrelevance of lesbian identities towards artist’s output. What she emphasizes more is a woman’s perspective—reasonably so, since she was deeply involved with the suffrage movement. In her descriptions, she considers economic and political contexts of the First World War era, which gave the opportunity of holding a (temporary job for women—both in factories and in orchestras. At the end, she returns to specifics of women’s position in society, and calls for a rebellion against the tyranny of the patriarchy.

  6. Effect of rosella extract on development of fatty streaks lesions in female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. R. Al-Kennany

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to explore the effect of rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa on female rats on oxidative stress which induced by 0.5% H2O2. Oxidative stress has been investigated via tissue (aorta and heart malonadyaldehyde (MDA as indirect lipid peroxidation index. For atherosclerotic lesions follow up light microscopical technique has been applied. The result elucidate significant reduction in lipid profit parameters namely: low density lipoprotein (LDL-c, triglycerides, very low density lipoprotein (vLDL-c, atherogenic index and significant elevation in high density lipoprotein (HDL-c in few animals treated with H2O2 and rosella extract, parallely, this research illustrate reduction in aorta and heart MDA concentration, concomitant with significant rising in glutathione (GSH level. Histopathologically, this study revealed fatty streaks associated with infiltration of mononuclear inflammatory cells have been detected after 60 days, in animal treated with rosella revealed reduction in lipid vacuoles and proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMcs in media toward intimal layers after 40 days from treatment.

  7. Drivers Behind Adoption Of Cassava Brown Streak Disease Control Measures In Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyirahorana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Cassava Brown Streak Disease CBSD continues to spread and its effect on productivity remains at high level losses 50- 100 in Sub-Saharan Africa. However there is little knowledge about the drivers of adoption on CBSD control measures in Rwanda. Thus this study investigated the drivers to adopt CBSD control measures in Rwanda during 2015-2016 agricultural seasons. A total of 152 households were randomly sampled in Bugesera and Ruhango districts where cassava demonstration plots are established. A multi stage sampling techniques was used. A structured questionnaire was used to collect data from respondents. Logistic regression analysis was employed to estimate drivers behind adoption of CBSD control measures. The key factors that influenced adoption of CBSD control measures was farm size farmers experience access to credit period of plantation access to demonstration plot. In order to increase adoption of CBSD control measures policy makers and implementers in Rwanda should improve farmers social economic and Insistutional characteristics sensitize and mobilize farmers on the importance of adopting the CBSD control measures.

  8. Research on the underwater target imaging based on the streak tube laser lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zihao; Tian, Zhaoshuo; Zhang, Yanchao; Bi, Zongjie; Yang, Gang; Gu, Erdan

    2018-03-01

    A high frame rate streak tube imaging lidar (STIL) for real-time 3D imaging of underwater targets is presented in this paper. The system uses 532nm pulse laser as the light source, the maximum repetition rate is 120Hz, and the pulse width is 8ns. LabVIEW platform is used in the system, the system control, synchronous image acquisition, 3D data processing and display are realized through PC. 3D imaging experiment of underwater target is carried out in a flume with attenuation coefficient of 0.2, and the images of different depth and different material targets are obtained, the imaging frame rate is 100Hz, and the maximum detection depth is 31m. For an underwater target with a distance of 22m, the high resolution 3D image real-time acquisition is realized with range resolution of 1cm and space resolution of 0.3cm, the spatial relationship of the targets can be clearly identified by the image. The experimental results show that STIL has a good application prospect in underwater terrain detection, underwater search and rescue, and other fields.

  9. Hairpin RNA Targeting Multiple Viral Genes Confers Strong Resistance to Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangquan Wang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV belongs to the genus Fijivirus in the family of Reoviridae and causes severe yield loss in rice-producing areas in Asia. RNA silencing, as a natural defence mechanism against plant viruses, has been successfully exploited for engineering virus resistance in plants, including rice. In this study, we generated transgenic rice lines harbouring a hairpin RNA (hpRNA construct targeting four RBSDV genes, S1, S2, S6 and S10, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the putative core protein, the RNA silencing suppressor and the outer capsid protein, respectively. Both field nursery and artificial inoculation assays of three generations of the transgenic lines showed that they had strong resistance to RBSDV infection. The RBSDV resistance in the segregating transgenic populations correlated perfectly with the presence of the hpRNA transgene. Furthermore, the hpRNA transgene was expressed in the highly resistant transgenic lines, giving rise to abundant levels of 21–24 nt small interfering RNA (siRNA. By small RNA deep sequencing, the RBSDV-resistant transgenic lines detected siRNAs from all four viral gene sequences in the hpRNA transgene, indicating that the whole chimeric fusion sequence can be efficiently processed by Dicer into siRNAs. Taken together, our results suggest that long hpRNA targeting multiple viral genes can be used to generate stable and durable virus resistance in rice, as well as other plant species.

  10. Hairpin RNA Targeting Multiple Viral Genes Confers Strong Resistance to Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fangquan; Li, Wenqi; Zhu, Jinyan; Fan, Fangjun; Wang, Jun; Zhong, Weigong; Wang, Ming-Bo; Liu, Qing; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Zhou, Tong; Lan, Ying; Zhou, Yijun; Yang, Jie

    2016-05-11

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) belongs to the genus Fijivirus in the family of Reoviridae and causes severe yield loss in rice-producing areas in Asia. RNA silencing, as a natural defence mechanism against plant viruses, has been successfully exploited for engineering virus resistance in plants, including rice. In this study, we generated transgenic rice lines harbouring a hairpin RNA (hpRNA) construct targeting four RBSDV genes, S1, S2, S6 and S10, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the putative core protein, the RNA silencing suppressor and the outer capsid protein, respectively. Both field nursery and artificial inoculation assays of three generations of the transgenic lines showed that they had strong resistance to RBSDV infection. The RBSDV resistance in the segregating transgenic populations correlated perfectly with the presence of the hpRNA transgene. Furthermore, the hpRNA transgene was expressed in the highly resistant transgenic lines, giving rise to abundant levels of 21-24 nt small interfering RNA (siRNA). By small RNA deep sequencing, the RBSDV-resistant transgenic lines detected siRNAs from all four viral gene sequences in the hpRNA transgene, indicating that the whole chimeric fusion sequence can be efficiently processed by Dicer into siRNAs. Taken together, our results suggest that long hpRNA targeting multiple viral genes can be used to generate stable and durable virus resistance in rice, as well as other plant species.

  11. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa in Central Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Raza

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1–97.6% and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8–97.1%. Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum, Nicotiana occidentalis, Chenopodium glaucum, and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.

  12. Lucerne transient streak virus; a Recently Detected Virus Infecting Alfafa (Medicago sativa) in Central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raza, Ahmed; Al-Shahwan, Ibrahim M; Abdalla, Omer A; Al-Saleh, Mohammed A; Amer, Mahmoud A

    2017-02-01

    A survey was conducted to determine the status of Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) in three high-yielding alfalfa regions in central Saudi Arabia (Riyadh, Qassim, and Hail) during 2014. Three hundred and eight symptomatic alfalfa, and seven Sonchus oleraceus samples were collected. DAS-ELISA indicated that 59 of these samples were positive to LTSV. Two isolates of LTSV from each region were selected for molecular studies. RT-PCR confirmed the presence of LTSV in the selected samples using a specific primer pair. Percentage identity and homology tree comparisons revealed that all Saudi isolates were more closely related to each other but also closely related to the Canadian isolate-JQ782213 (97.1-97.6%) and the New Zealand isolate-U31286 (95.8-97.1%). Comparing Saudi isolates of LTSV with ten other sobemoviruses based on the coat protein gene sequences confirmed the distant relationship between them. Eleven out of fourteen plant species used in host range study were positive to LTSV. This is the first time to document that Trifolium alexandrinum , Nicotiana occidentalis , Chenopodium glaucum , and Lathyrus sativus are new host plant species for LTSV and that N. occidentalis being a good propagative host for it.

  13. Electron streaking and dissociation in laser-assisted photoionization of molecular hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palacios, Alicia; González-Castrillo, Alberto; Martín, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    We report ab initio calculations on laser-assisted photoionization of the hydrogen molecule in the energy region where autoionization from doubly excited states is expected to occur. We use a UV-pump/IR-probe scheme in which an isolated attosecond UV pulse and a 750 nm IR pulse are combined. The IR pulse has a relatively low intensity (10 12 W cm −2 ), which allows us to perform a perturbative analysis of the calculated ionization probabilities differential in either electron or nuclear energy or both. We show that, for dissociative ionization, the electron energy distributions as a function of time delay exhibit unusual streaking patterns that are due to the presence of autoionizing states. These patterns significantly differ from the standard ones observed in direct single ionization of atoms and molecules. We also show that, by using such a pump–probe scheme, one can suppress autoionization from doubly excited states for time delays between 0 and 4 fs. (paper)

  14. Statistical iterative reconstruction for streak artefact reduction when using multidetector CT to image the dento-alveolar structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J; Hayakawa, Y; Kober, C

    2014-01-01

    When metallic prosthetic appliances and dental fillings exist in the oral cavity, the appearance of metal-induced streak artefacts is not avoidable in CT images. The aim of this study was to develop a method for artefact reduction using the statistical reconstruction on multidetector row CT images. Adjacent CT images often depict similar anatomical structures. Therefore, reconstructed images with weak artefacts were attempted using projection data of an artefact-free image in a neighbouring thin slice. Images with moderate and strong artefacts were continuously processed in sequence by successive iterative restoration where the projection data was generated from the adjacent reconstructed slice. First, the basic maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm was applied. Next, the ordered subset-expectation maximization algorithm was examined. Alternatively, a small region of interest setting was designated. Finally, the general purpose graphic processing unit machine was applied in both situations. The algorithms reduced the metal-induced streak artefacts on multidetector row CT images when the sequential processing method was applied. The ordered subset-expectation maximization and small region of interest reduced the processing duration without apparent detriments. A general-purpose graphic processing unit realized the high performance. A statistical reconstruction method was applied for the streak artefact reduction. The alternative algorithms applied were effective. Both software and hardware tools, such as ordered subset-expectation maximization, small region of interest and general-purpose graphic processing unit achieved fast artefact correction.

  15. A Robust In-Situ Warp-Correction Algorithm For VISAR Streak Camera Data at the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labaria, George R.; Warrick, Abbie L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Kalantar, Daniel H.

    2015-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a 192-beam pulsed laser system for high-energy-density physics experiments. Sophisticated diagnostics have been designed around key performance metrics to achieve ignition. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) is the primary diagnostic for measuring the timing of shocks induced into an ignition capsule. The VISAR system utilizes three streak cameras; these streak cameras are inherently nonlinear and require warp corrections to remove these nonlinear effects. A detailed calibration procedure has been developed with National Security Technologies (NSTec) and applied to the camera correction analysis in production. However, the camera nonlinearities drift over time, affecting the performance of this method. An in-situ fiber array is used to inject a comb of pulses to generate a calibration correction in order to meet the timing accuracy requirements of VISAR. We develop a robust algorithm for the analysis of the comb calibration images to generate the warp correction that is then applied to the data images. Our algorithm utilizes the method of thin-plate splines (TPS) to model the complex nonlinear distortions in the streak camera data. In this paper, we focus on the theory and implementation of the TPS warp-correction algorithm for the use in a production environment.

  16. A Robust In-Situ Warp-Correction Algorithm For VISAR Streak Camera Data at the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Labaria, George R. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Warrick, Abbie L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Celliers, Peter M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kalantar, Daniel H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-01-12

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is a 192-beam pulsed laser system for high-energy-density physics experiments. Sophisticated diagnostics have been designed around key performance metrics to achieve ignition. The Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) is the primary diagnostic for measuring the timing of shocks induced into an ignition capsule. The VISAR system utilizes three streak cameras; these streak cameras are inherently nonlinear and require warp corrections to remove these nonlinear effects. A detailed calibration procedure has been developed with National Security Technologies (NSTec) and applied to the camera correction analysis in production. However, the camera nonlinearities drift over time, affecting the performance of this method. An in-situ fiber array is used to inject a comb of pulses to generate a calibration correction in order to meet the timing accuracy requirements of VISAR. We develop a robust algorithm for the analysis of the comb calibration images to generate the warp correction that is then applied to the data images. Our algorithm utilizes the method of thin-plate splines (TPS) to model the complex nonlinear distortions in the streak camera data. In this paper, we focus on the theory and implementation of the TPS warp-correction algorithm for the use in a production environment.

  17. RNAi-mediated resistance to rice black-streaked dwarf virus in transgenic rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mohamed M S; Bian, Shiquan; Wang, Muyue; Zhao, Jing; Zhang, Bingwei; Liu, Qiaoquan; Zhang, Changquan; Tang, Shuzhu; Gu, Minghong; Yu, Hengxiu

    2017-04-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, causes significant economic losses in rice production in China and many other Asian countries. Development of resistant varieties by using conventional breeding methods is limited, as germplasm with high level of resistance to RBSDV have not yet been found. One of the most promising methods to confer resistance against RBSDV is the use of RNA interference (RNAi) technology. RBSDV non-structural protein P7-2, encoded by S7-2 gene, is a potential F-box protein and involved in the plant-virus interaction through the ubiquitination pathway. P8, encoded by S8 gene, is the minor core protein that possesses potent active transcriptional repression activity. In this study, we transformed rice calli using a mini-twin T-DNA vector harboring RNAi constructs of the RBSDV genes S7-2 or S8, and obtained plants harboring the target gene constructs and the selectable marker gene, hygromycin phosphotransferase (HPT). From the offspring of these transgenic plants, we obtained selectable marker (HPT gene)-free plants. Homozygous T 5 transgenic lines which harbored either S7-2-RNAi or S8-RNAi exhibited high level resistance against RBSDV under field infection pressure from indigenous viruliferous small brown planthoppers. Thus, our results showed that RNA interference with the expression of S7-2 or S8 genes seemed an effective way to induce high level resistance in rice against RBSD disease.

  18. Neutron Radiation Shielding For The NIF Streaked X-Ray Detector (SXD) Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, P; Holder, J; Young, B; Kalantar, D; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2006-01-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is preparing for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) scheduled in 2010. The NIC is comprised of several ''tuning'' physics subcampaigns leading up to a demonstration of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition. In some of these experiments, time-resolved x-ray imaging of the imploding capsule may be required to measure capsule trajectory (shock timing) or x-ray ''bang-time''. A capsule fueled with pure tritium (T) instead of a deutriun-tritium (DT) mixture is thought to offer useful physics surrogacy, with reduced yields of up to 5e14 neutrons. These measurements will require the use of the NIF streak x-ray detector (SXD). The resulting prompt neutron fluence at the planned SXD location (∼1.7 m from the target) would be ∼1.4e9/cm 2 . Previous measurements suggest the onset of significant background at a neutron fluence of ∼ 1e8/cm 2 . The radiation damage and operational upsets which starts at ∼1e8 rad-Si/sec must be factored into an integrated experimental campaign plan. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to predict the neutron and gamma/x-ray fluences and radiation doses for the proposed diagnostic configuration. A possible shielding configuration is proposed to mitigate radiation effects. The primary component of this shielding is an 80 cm thickness of Polyethylene (PE) between target chamber center (TCC) and the SXD diagnostic. Additionally, 6-8 cm of PE around the detector provide from the large number of neutrons that scatter off the inside of the target chamber. This proposed shielding configuration reduces the high-energy neutron fluence at the SXD by approximately a factor ∼50

  19. Neutron Radiation Shielding For The NIF Streaked X-Ray Detector (SXD) Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, P; Holder, J; Young, B; Kalantar, D; Eder, D; Kimbrough, J

    2006-11-02

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is preparing for the National Ignition Campaign (NIC) scheduled in 2010. The NIC is comprised of several ''tuning'' physics subcampaigns leading up to a demonstration of Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) ignition. In some of these experiments, time-resolved x-ray imaging of the imploding capsule may be required to measure capsule trajectory (shock timing) or x-ray ''bang-time''. A capsule fueled with pure tritium (T) instead of a deutriun-tritium (DT) mixture is thought to offer useful physics surrogacy, with reduced yields of up to 5e14 neutrons. These measurements will require the use of the NIF streak x-ray detector (SXD). The resulting prompt neutron fluence at the planned SXD location ({approx}1.7 m from the target) would be {approx}1.4e9/cm{sup 2}. Previous measurements suggest the onset of significant background at a neutron fluence of {approx} 1e8/cm{sup 2}. The radiation damage and operational upsets which starts at {approx}1e8 rad-Si/sec must be factored into an integrated experimental campaign plan. Monte Carlo analyses were performed to predict the neutron and gamma/x-ray fluences and radiation doses for the proposed diagnostic configuration. A possible shielding configuration is proposed to mitigate radiation effects. The primary component of this shielding is an 80 cm thickness of Polyethylene (PE) between target chamber center (TCC) and the SXD diagnostic. Additionally, 6-8 cm of PE around the detector provide from the large number of neutrons that scatter off the inside of the target chamber. This proposed shielding configuration reduces the high-energy neutron fluence at the SXD by approximately a factor {approx}50.

  20. Evaluation of dynamic range for LLNL streak cameras using high contrast pulsed and pulse podiatry on the Nova laser system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.B.; Weiland, T.L.; Prior, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a standard LLNL streak camera that has been used to analyze high contrast pulses on the Nova laser facility. These pulses have a plateau at their leading edge (foot) with an amplitude which is approximately 1% of the maximum pulse height. Relying on other features of the pulses and on signal multiplexing, we were able to determine how accurately the foot amplitude was being represented by the camera. Results indicate that the useful single channel dynamic range of the instrument approaches 100:1

  1. Method: a single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping method for Wheat streak mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon increased the concern about the potential for terrorist attacks on many vulnerable sectors of the US, including agriculture. The concentrated nature of crops, easily obtainable biological agents, and highly detrimental impacts make agroterrorism a potential threat. Although procedures for an effective criminal investigation and attribution following such an attack are available, important enhancements are still needed, one of which is the capability for fine discrimination among pathogen strains. The purpose of this study was to develop a molecular typing assay for use in a forensic investigation, using Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) as a model plant virus. Method This genotyping technique utilizes single base primer extension to generate a genetic fingerprint. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the coat protein and helper component-protease genes were selected as the genetic markers for this assay. Assay optimization and sensitivity testing was conducted using synthetic targets. WSMV strains and field isolates were collected from regions around the world and used to evaluate the assay for discrimination. The assay specificity was tested against a panel of near-neighbors consisting of genetic and environmental near-neighbors. Result Each WSMV strain or field isolate tested produced a unique SNP fingerprint, with the exception of three isolates collected within the same geographic location that produced indistinguishable fingerprints. The results were consistent among replicates, demonstrating the reproducibility of the assay. No SNP fingerprints were generated from organisms included in the near-neighbor panel, suggesting the assay is specific for WSMV. Using synthetic targets, a complete profile could be generated from as low as 7.15 fmoles of cDNA. Conclusion The molecular typing method presented is one tool that could be incorporated into the forensic

  2. Method: a single nucleotide polymorphism genotyping method for Wheat streak mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Stephanie M; Payton, Mark; Allen, Robert W; Melcher, Ulrich; Carver, Jesse; Fletcher, Jacqueline

    2012-05-17

    The September 11, 2001 attacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon increased the concern about the potential for terrorist attacks on many vulnerable sectors of the US, including agriculture. The concentrated nature of crops, easily obtainable biological agents, and highly detrimental impacts make agroterrorism a potential threat. Although procedures for an effective criminal investigation and attribution following such an attack are available, important enhancements are still needed, one of which is the capability for fine discrimination among pathogen strains. The purpose of this study was to develop a molecular typing assay for use in a forensic investigation, using Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) as a model plant virus. This genotyping technique utilizes single base primer extension to generate a genetic fingerprint. Fifteen single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within the coat protein and helper component-protease genes were selected as the genetic markers for this assay. Assay optimization and sensitivity testing was conducted using synthetic targets. WSMV strains and field isolates were collected from regions around the world and used to evaluate the assay for discrimination. The assay specificity was tested against a panel of near-neighbors consisting of genetic and environmental near-neighbors. Each WSMV strain or field isolate tested produced a unique SNP fingerprint, with the exception of three isolates collected within the same geographic location that produced indistinguishable fingerprints. The results were consistent among replicates, demonstrating the reproducibility of the assay. No SNP fingerprints were generated from organisms included in the near-neighbor panel, suggesting the assay is specific for WSMV. Using synthetic targets, a complete profile could be generated from as low as 7.15 fmoles of cDNA. The molecular typing method presented is one tool that could be incorporated into the forensic science tool box after a thorough

  3. Aluminum-coated optical fibers as efficient infrared timing fiducial photocathodes for synchronizing x-ray streak cameras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; MacGowan, B.J.

    1991-01-01

    The timing fiducial system at the Nova Two-Beam Facility allows time-resolved x-ray and optical streak camera data from laser-produced plasmas to be synchronized to within 30 ps. In this system, an Al-coated optical fiber is inserted into an aperture in the cathode plate of each streak camera. The coating acts as a photocathode for a low-energy pulse of 1ω (λ = 1.054 μm) light which is synchronized to the main Nova beam. The use of the fundamental (1ω) for this fiducial pulse has been found to offer significant advantages over the use of the 2ω second harmonic (λ = 0.53 μm). These advantages include brighter signals, greater reliability, and a higher relative damage threshold, allowing routine use without fiber replacement. The operation of the system is described, and experimental data and interpretations are discussed which suggest that the electron production in the Al film is due to thermionic emission. The results of detailed numerical simulations of the relevant thermal processes, undertaken to model the response of the coated fiber to 1ω laser pulses, are also presented, which give qualitative agreement with experimental data. Quantitative discrepancies between the modeling results and the experimental data are discussed, and suggestions for further research are given

  4. ERK inhibition promotes neuroectodermal precursor commitment by blocking self-renewal and primitive streak formation of the epiblast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yang; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Zhang, Xiaoxin; Zhai, Yanhua; Lu, Xukun; Ma, Haixia; Zhu, Kai; Zhao, Tongbiao; Jiao, Jianwei; Zhao, Zhen-Ao; Li, Lei

    2018-01-05

    Pluripotent stem cells hold great promise for regenerative medicine. However, before clinical application, reproducible protocols for pluripotent stem cell differentiation should be established. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling plays a central role for the self-renewal of epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs), but its role for subsequent germ layer differentiation is still ambiguous. We proposed that ERK could modulate differentiation of the epiblast. PD0325901 was used to inhibit ERK activation during the differentiation of embryonic stem cells and EpiSCs. Immunofluorescence, western blot analysis, real-time PCR and flow cytometry were used to detect germ layer markers and pathway activation. We demonstrate that the ERK phosphorylation level is lower in neuroectoderm of mouse E7.5 embryos than that in the primitive streak. ERK inhibition results in neural lineage commitment of epiblast. Mechanistically, PD0325901 abrogates the expression of primitive streak markers by β-catenin retention in the cytoplasm, and inhibits the expression of OCT4 and NANOG during EpiSC differentiation. Thus, EpiSCs differentiate into neuroectodermal lineage efficiently under PD0325901 treatment. These results suggest that neuroectoderm differentiation does not require extrinsic signals, supporting the default differentiation of neural lineage. We report that a single ERK inhibitor, PD0325901, can specify epiblasts and EpiSCs into neural-like cells, providing an efficient strategy for neural differentiation.

  5. Effectiveness of several dosage formula of oil and nano emulsion of citronella against vascular streak dieback (VSD) disease on cocoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noveriza, R.; Trisno, J.; Rahma, H.; Yuliani, S.; Reflin; Martinius

    2018-02-01

    The disease of Vascular streak dieback (VSD) is a deadly disease of cocoa plants, because it attacks the vascular tissue of cocoa at growing point of the plant. In West Sumatra the disease was first reported in 2015 with an incidence of disease range 58.82% - 100% and an intensity of disease range 24.29% - 44.7%. The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of dosage application of oil formula and nano emulsion of citronella formula against Vascular streak dieback (VSD) disease on cocoa plants in West Sumatra (in Padang Pariaman District and Limapuluh Kota District). The results showed that the percentage of VSD disease attacks in both testing sites was 100%. The oil and nano emulsion of citronella formulas can reduce the intensity of VSD disease on cocoa plants in West Sumatra, particularly in Padang Pariaman District and Limapuluh Kota District. The reduction of VSD intensity in Padang Pariaman district ranged from 8.32 to 21.13%; while in Limapuluh Kota district ranged from 4.33 to 11.80%. The nano emulsion of citronella formulation is effective to suppress the intensity of VSD disease on cocoa plants at doses 0.1% (≥ 30% of effectiveness level).

  6. Avoiding acidic region streaking in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis: case study with two bacterial whole cell protein extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Arnab; Varshney, Umesh; Pal, Debnath

    2014-09-01

    Acidic region streaking (ARS) is one of the lacunae in two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) of bacterial proteome. This streaking is primarily caused by nucleic acid (NuA) contamination and poses major problem in the downstream processes like image analysis and protein identification. Although cleanup and nuclease digestion are practiced as remedial options, these strategies may incur loss in protein recovery and perform incomplete removal of NuA. As a result, ARS has remained a common observation across publications, including the recent ones. In this work, we demonstrate how ultrasound wave can be used to shear NuA in plain ice-cooled water, facilitating the elimination of ARS in the 2DE gels without the need for any additional sample cleanup tasks. In combination with a suitable buffer recipe, IEF program and frequent paper-wick changing approach, we are able to reproducibly demonstrate the production of clean 2DE gels with improved protein recovery and negligible or no ARS. We illustrate our procedure using whole cell protein extracts from two diverse organisms, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium smegmatis. Our designed protocols are straightforward and expected to provide good 2DE gels without ARS, with comparable times and significantly lower cost.

  7. Effects of Hot Streak and Phantom Cooling on Heat Transfer in a Cooled Turbine Stage Including Particulate Deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bons, Jeffrey [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Ameri, Ali [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2016-01-08

    The objective of this research effort was to develop a validated computational modeling capability for the characterization of the effects of hot streaks and particulate deposition on the heat load of modern gas turbines. This was accomplished with a multi-faceted approach including analytical, experimental, and computational components. A 1-year no cost extension request was approved for this effort, so the total duration was 4 years. The research effort succeeded in its ultimate objective by leveraging extensive experimental deposition studies complemented by computational modeling. Experiments were conducted with hot streaks, vane cooling, and combinations of hot streaks with vane cooling. These studies contributed to a significant body of corporate knowledge of deposition, in combination with particle rebound and deposition studies funded by other agencies, to provide suitable conditions for the development of a new model. The model includes the following physical phenomena: elastic deformation, plastic deformation, adhesion, and shear removal. It also incorporates material property sensitivity to temperature and tangential-normal velocity rebound cross-dependencies observed in experiments. The model is well-suited for incorporation in CFD simulations of complex gas turbine flows due to its algebraic (explicit) formulation. This report contains model predictions compared to coefficient of restitution data available in the open literature as well as deposition results from two different high temperature turbine deposition facilities. While the model comparisons with experiments are in many cases promising, several key aspects of particle deposition remain elusive. The simple phenomenological nature of the model allows for parametric dependencies to be evaluated in a straightforward manner. This effort also included the first-ever full turbine stage deposition model published in the open literature. The simulations included hot streaks and simulated vane cooling

  8. Comparative analysis of virus-derived small RNAs within cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) infected with cassava brown streak viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogwok, Emmanuel; Ilyas, Muhammad; Alicai, Titus; Rey, Marie E C; Taylor, Nigel J

    2016-04-02

    Infection of plant cells by viral pathogens triggers RNA silencing, an innate antiviral defense mechanism. In response to infection, small RNAs (sRNAs) are produced that associate with Argonaute (AGO)-containing silencing complexes which act to inactivate viral genomes by posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS). Deep sequencing was used to compare virus-derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) in cassava genotypes NASE 3, TME 204 and 60444 infected with the positive sense single-stranded RNA (+ssRNA) viruses cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV), the causal agents of cassava brown streak disease (CBSD). An abundance of 21-24nt vsRNAs was detected and mapped, covering the entire CBSV and UCBSV genomes. The 21nt vsRNAs were most predominant, followed by the 22 nt class with a slight bias toward sense compared to antisense polarity, and a bias for adenine and uracil bases present at the 5'-terminus. Distribution and frequency of vsRNAs differed between cassava genotypes and viral genomes. In susceptible genotypes TME 204 and 60444, CBSV-derived sRNAs were seen in greater abundance than UCBSV-derived sRNAs. NASE 3, known to be resistant to UCBSV, accumulated negligible UCBSV-derived sRNAs but high populations of CBSV-derived sRNAs. Transcript levels of cassava homologues of AGO2, DCL2 and DCL4, which are central to the gene-silencing complex, were found to be differentially regulated in CBSV- and UCBSV-infected plants across genotypes, suggesting these proteins play a role in antiviral defense. Irrespective of genotype or viral pathogen, maximum populations of vsRNAs mapped to the cytoplasmic inclusion, P1 and P3 protein-encoding regions. Our results indicate disparity between CBSV and UCBSV host-virus interaction mechanisms, and provide insight into the role of virus-induced gene silencing as a mechanism of resistance to CBSD. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Realization of an optical multi and mono-channel analyzer, associated to a streak camera. Application to metrology of picosecond low intensity luminous pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, J.M.

    1985-02-01

    An electronic system including a low light level television tube (Nocticon) to digitize images from streak cameras is studied and realized. Performances (sensibility, signal-to-noise ratio) are studied and compared with a multi-channel analyzer using a linear network of photodiodes. It is applied to duration and amplitude measurement of short luminous pulses [fr

  10. Isolation and characterization of the mating type locus of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Conde, L.; Waalwijk, C.; Canto-Canché, B.B.; Kema, G.H.J.; Crous, P.W.; James, A.C.; Abeln, E.C.A.

    2007-01-01

    Idiomorphs mat1-1 and mat1-2 from Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana, were isolated. Degenerate oligos were used to amplify the HMG box of the mat1-2 idiomorph from M. fijiensis, showing homology with the HMG box of Mycosphaerella graminicola. Using a

  11. Variable number of tandem repeat markers in the genome sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana (Musa spp)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garcia, S.A.L.; Lee, van der T.A.J.; Ferreira, C.F.; Lintel Hekkert, te B.; Zapater, M.F.; Goodwin, S.B.; Guzmán, M.; Kema, G.H.J.; Souza, M.T.

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT. We searched the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis for molecular markers that would allow population genetics analysis of this plant pathogen. M. fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease, also known as black Sigatoka, is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas

  12. Genomic and phylogenetic evidence that Maize rough dwarf and Rice black-streaked dwarf fijiviruses should be classified as different geographic strains of a single species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, L; Lv, M-F; Yang, J; Chen, J-P; Zhang, H-M

    Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD) has long been known as one of the most devastating viral diseases of maize worldwide and is caused by single or complex infection by four fijiviruses: Maize rough dwarf virus (MRDV) in Europe and the Middle East, Mal de Rio Cuarto virus (MRCV) in South America, rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), and Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV or Rice black-streaked dwarf virus 2, RBSDV-2) in East Asia. These are currently classified as four distinct species in the genus Fijivirus, family Reoviridae, but their taxonomic status has been questioned. To help resolve this, the nucleotide sequences of the ten genomic segments of an Italian isolate of MRDV have been determined, providing the first complete genomic sequence of this virus. Its genome has 29144 nucleotides and is similar in organization to those of RBSDV, SRBSDV, and MRCV. The 13 ORFs always share highest identities (81.3-97.2%) with the corresponding ORFs of RBSDV and phylogenetic analyses of the different genome segments and ORFs all confirm that MRDV clusters most closely with RBSDV and that MRCV and SRBSDV are slightly more distantly related. The results suggest that MRDV and RBSDV should be classified as different geographic strains of the same virus species and we suggest the name cereal black-streaked dwarf fijivirus (CBSDV) for consideration.

  13. Development of VNTR Markers to Assess Genetic Diversity of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease in Bananas (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causal agent of black leaf streak (BLS) disease in bananas. This pathogen threatens global banana production as the main export cultivars are highly susceptible. As a consequence, commercial banana plantations must be protected chemically with fungicides; up to 40 app...

  14. Variable Number of Tandem Repeat Markers in the Genome Sequence of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, the Causal Agent of Black Leaf Streak Disease of Banana (Musa spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease (commonly known as black Sigatoka), is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently the whole genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. This sequence was screened for the presence of Variable Num...

  15. Ecological Fitness of Non-vector Planthopper Sogatella furcifera on Rice Plants Infected with Rice Black Streaked Dwarf Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-chan HE

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the effects of rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV-infested rice plants on the ecological parameters and its relevant defensive and detoxification enzymes of white-backed planthopper (WBPH in laboratory for exploring the relationship between RBSDV and the non-vector planthopper. The results showed that nymph survival rate, female adult weight and fecundity, and egg hatchability of WBPH fed on RBSDV-infested rice plants did not markedly differ from those on healthy plants, whereas the female adult longevity and egg duration significantly shortened on diseased plants. Furthermore, significantly higher activities of defensive enzymes (dismutase, catalase and peroxidase and detoxification enzymes (acetylcholinesterase, carboxylesterase and glutathione S-transferase were found in WBPH adults fed on infected plants. Results implied that infestation by RBSDV increased the ecological fitness of non-vector planthopper population.

  16. Streak electronic camera with slow-scanning storage tube used in the field of high-speed cineradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marilleau, J.; Bonnet, L.; Garcin, G.; Guix, R.; Loichot, R.

    The cineradiographic machine designed for measurements in the field of detonics consists of a linear accelerator associated with a braking target, a scintillator and a remote controlled electronic camera. The quantum factor of X-ray detection and the energetic efficiency of the scintillator are given. The electronic camera is built upon a deflection-converter tube (RCA C. 73 435 AJ) coupled by optical fibres to a photosensitive storage tube (TH-CSF Esicon) used in a slow-scanning process with electronic recording of the information. The different parts of the device are described. Some capabilities such as data processing numerical outputs, measurements and display are outlined. A streak cineradiogram of a typical implosion experiment is given [fr

  17. Isolation and characterization of subgenomic DNAs encapsidated in 'single' T = 1 isometric particles of Maize streak virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casado, Carolina G.; Javier Ortiz, G.; Padron, Eric; Bean, Samantha J.; McKenna, Robert; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Boulton, Margaret I.

    2004-01-01

    'Single' T = 1 isometric particles of Maize streak virus (MSV) have been isolated from infected maize leaves. Biochemical and genetic characterizations show that these particles contain subgenomic (sg) MSV DNA encapsidated by the MSV coat protein. The largest sg DNA is 1.56 kb, slightly larger than half genome size, although sg DNAs as small as 0.2 kb were also cloned. The sg DNAs are not infectious, and they do not appear to play a role in the pathogenicity of MSV. This is the first report of sg DNAs for MSV and, to our knowledge, the first time that encapsidated sg DNAs have been characterized at the sequence level for any geminivirus. These data will assist in our investigations into the role of genomic DNA in the formation of the unique geminate capsid architecture of the Geminiviridae

  18. Streaked spectrometry using multilayer x-ray-interference mirrors to investigate energy transport in laser-plasma applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stradling, G.L.; Barbee, T.W. Jr.; Henke, B.L.; Campbell, E.M.; Mead, W.C.

    1981-08-01

    Transport of energy in laser-produced plasmas is scrutinized by devising spectrally and temporally identifiable characteristics in the x-ray emission history which identify the heat-front position at various times in the heating process. Measurements of the relative turn-on times of these characteristics show the rate of energy transport between various points. These measurements can in turn constrain models of energy transport phenomena. We are time-resolving spectrally distinguishable subkilovolt x-ray emissions from different layers of a disk target to examine the transport rate of energy into the target. A similar technique is used to measure the lateral expansion rate of the plasma spot. A soft x-ray streak camera with 15-psec temporal resolution is used to make the temporal measurements. Spectral discrimination of the incident signal is provided by multilayer x-ray interference mirrors

  19. Development and performance test of picosecond pulse x-ray excited streak camera system for scintillator characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yoshikawa, Akira

    2010-01-01

    To observe time and wavelength-resolved scintillation events, picosecond pulse X-ray excited streak camera system is developed. The wavelength range spreads from vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) to near infrared region (110-900 nm) and the instrumental response function is around 80 ps. This work describes the principle of the newly developed instrument and the first performance test using BaF 2 single crystal scintillator. Core valence luminescence of BaF 2 peaking around 190 and 220 nm is clearly detected by our system, and the decay time turned out to be of 0.7 ns. These results are consistent with literature and confirm that our system properly works. (author)

  20. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: a white-backed planthopper transmitted fijivirus threadening rice production in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohui eZhou

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV, a nonenveloped icosahedral virus with a genome of 10 double-stranded RNA segments, is a novel species in the genus Fijivirus (family Reoviridae first recognized in 2008. Rice plants infected with this virus exhibit symptoms similar to those caused by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus. Since 2009, the virus has rapidly spread and caused serious rice losses in East and Southeast Asia. Significant progress has been made in recent years in understanding this disease, especially about the functions of the viral genes, rice–virus–insect interactions, and epidemiology and control measures. The virus can be efficiently transmitted by the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera in a persistent circulative propagative manner but cannot be transmitted by the brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens and small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus. Rice, maize, Chinese sorghum (Coix lacryma-jobi and other grass weeds can be infected via WBPH. However, only rice plays a major role in the virus infection cycle because of the vector's preference. In Southeast Asia, WBPH is a long-distance migratory rice pest. The disease cycle can be described as follows: SRBSDV and its WBPH vector overwinter in warm tropical or sub-tropical areas; viruliferous WBPH adults carry the virus from south to north via long-distance migration in early spring, transmit the virus to rice seedlings in the newly colonized areas, and lay eggs on the infected seedlings; the next generation of WBPHs propagate on infected seedlings, become viruliferous, disperse, and cause new disease outbreaks. Several molecular and serological methods have been developed to detect SRBSDV in plant tissues and individual insects. Control measures based on protection from WBPH, including seedbed coverage, chemical seed treatments, and chemical spraying of seedlings, have proven effective in China.

  1. Terpene Profile, Leaf Anatomy, and Enzyme Activity of Resistant and Susceptible Cocoa Clonesto Vascular Streak Dieback Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prawoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Vascular-streak dieback (VSD, Oncobasidium theobromae is the most prevalent disease of Theobroma cacao L. in Indonesia. This study aims to analyze resistance mechanism to VSD based on terpene profile, leaf anatomy, chitinase, and peroxidase study. Resistant clones of Sulawesi 1 and Sca 6 and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used for terpene profile, leaf anatomy analysis, chitinase, peroxides, polyphenol, lignin, and cellulose analysis. Those clones and KEE 2, KKM 22 and ICS 13 were used for peroxides analysis. For trichome study, the resistant clones of Sulawesi 1, Sca 6, KEE 2, and KKM 22, and susceptible clones of ICS 60 and TSH 858 were used. GCMS analysis showed that chromatogram pattern of resistant and susceptible groups were quite similar, but resistant clones contained 22% more components than the susceptible ones. Resistant clones contained groups of pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, while those substances on usceptible clones were absent. Trichome was thicker on younger leaf, and its density on the basal was higher than that on the middle and tip leaf parts. Trichome density of resistant clone was not always thicker than that of susceptible ones. On resistant clones, stomatal density was lower and width of stomate pits was narrower, while thickness of epidermis layer and pallisade parenchym were higher. Polyphenol content of resistant clones were higher but lignin and cellulose of both groups were similar. Chitinase activity which has a role in hydrolysis of mycelia cell wall was higher on the resistant clones, but peroxides which has a role in polymeration of lignin biosynthesis was similar between both groups. It is concluded that groups of terpene pinene, decane, myrcene, and octadecanoic acid, thickness of leaf epidermis, density and width of stomata pit, and chitinase activity plays important role in cocoa resistance to VSD. Key words: Theobroma cacaoL., clone, vascular-streak dieback, resistance, leaf

  2. The effect of germinated fenugreek seeds and clofibrat on blood cholesterol level and aortic fatty streak in rabbit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    bahram delfan

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is the excess of fat and stiffness of arteries sidewalls in which specific areas of the circulatory system are involved, causing specific signs based on the involved area, the characteristics of the lesion, and the severity of involvement. The only factor necessary to cause atherosclerosis is the high level of LDL cholesterol. Today, drugs such as lovastatin, clofibrate, and Klystramyn are applied to reduce LDL and increase HDL levels. Material and methods: The effect of fenugreek seeds without any drugs or with clofibrat on blood lipids profile and fatty streak forming were evaluated in 25 male healthy rabbits. The rabbits were divided into 5 group of 5 and received the following diets and drugs for 45 days: Group Ι, normal diet without any drugs Group Π, high cholesterol diet without any drugs Group ΙΙΙ, high cholesterol diet in addition to germinated fenugreek seeds powder (600 mg bid Group ΙV, high cholesterol diet in addition to clofibrat (50 mg bid and GroupV, high cholesterol diet in addition to clofibrat (50 mg bid and germinated fenugreek seeds powder (600 mg bid. The blood samples were collected after overnight fasting at the beginning and at the end of the test period and were estimated for lipids profile. Also autopsy and aortic cross-sectional sampling was conducted for microscopic study after the experiment. Result: The serum total cholesterol, LDL, and triglyceride levels of groups ΙΙΙ, ΙV,V increased less than those in group Π but HDL levels in groups ΙΙΙ, ΙV and V increased more than that in group Π (P<0.001. Furthermore, the intensity of fatty streak was less in group V. Conclusion: This result indicates the usefulness of fenugreek seeds in the management of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis (P<0.05

  3. Identification and Removal of High Frequency Temporal Noise in a Nd:YAG Macro-Pulse Laser Assisted with a Diagnostic Streak Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent Marlett; Ke-Xun Sun

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of a reference streak camera (SC) to diagnose laser performance and guide modifications to remove high frequency noise from Bechtel Nevada's long-pulse laser. The upgraded laser exhibits less than 0.1% high frequency noise in cumulative spectra, exceeding National Ignition Facility (NIF) calibration specifications. Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments require full characterization of streak cameras over a wide range of sweep speeds (10 ns to 480 ns). This paradigm of metrology poses stringent spectral requirements on the laser source for streak camera calibration. Recently, Bechtel Nevada worked with a laser vendor to develop a high performance, multi-wavelength Nd:YAG laser to meet NIF calibration requirements. For a typical NIF streak camera with a 4096 x 4096 pixel CCD, the flat field calibration at 30 ns requires a smooth laser spectrum over 33 MHz to 68 GHz. Streak cameras are the appropriate instrumentation for measuring laser amplitude noise at these very high frequencies since the upper end spectral content is beyond the frequency response of typical optoelectronic detectors for a single shot pulse. The SC was used to measure a similar laser at its second harmonic wavelength (532 nm), to establish baseline spectra for testing signal analysis algorithms. The SC was then used to measure the new custom calibration laser. In both spatial-temporal measurements and cumulative spectra, 6-8 GHz oscillations were identified. The oscillations were found to be caused by inter-surface reflections between amplifiers. Additional variations in the SC spectral data were found to result from temperature instabilities in the seeding laser. Based on these findings, laser upgrades were made to remove the high frequency noise from the laser output

  4. Clonagem e purificação de fragmento da proteína capsidial de Banana streak OL virus Cloning and purification of Banana streak OL virus coat protein fragment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Lombardi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi clonar e induzir a expressão de fragmento da proteína capsidial de Banana streak OL virus (BSOLV-CP em Escherichia coli, bem como purificar a proteína recombinante obtida. Empregou-se um par de iniciadores específicos para amplificar, em PCR, um fragmento de aproximadamente 390 pb, da região codificadora da porção central da BSOLV-CP. O fragmento obtido foi clonado em vetor pGEM-T Easy, subclonado em vetor pQE-30 e transformado em células de E. coli M15 (pREP4 por choque térmico. A expressão da proteína foi induzida por tiogalactopiranosídeo de isopropila (IPTG, e a proteína recombinante BSOLV-rcCP de 14 kDa foi detectada em Western blot e Dot blot. A expressão da proteína BSOLV-rcCP abre novas possibilidades para a obtenção de antígenos para a produção de antissoros contra o BSOLV.The objective of this work was to clone and to induce the expression of a fragment of Banana streak OL virus coat protein (BSOLV-CP in Escherichia coli, as well as to purify the obtained recombinant protein. Two specific primers were used for the PCR-amplification of approximately 390-bp fragment of the codifying region of the BSOLV-CP central portion. The obtained fragment was cloned in pGEM-T Easy vector, subcloned in pQE-30 expression vector and transformed into competent E. coli M15 (pREP4 cells by heat shock. The protein expression was induced by isopropyl thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG and the 14-kDa BSOLV-rcCP recombinant protein was detected in Western and Dot blotting. The expression of the BSOLV-rcCP protein enables new approaches to the obtention of antigens for the antisera production against BSOLV.

  5. Molecular Genetic Analysis and Evolution of Segment 7 in Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Zhou

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV causes maize rough dwarf disease or rice black-streaked dwarf disease and can lead to severe yield losses in maize and rice. To analyse RBSDV evolution, codon usage bias and genetic structure were investigated in 111 maize and rice RBSDV isolates from eight geographic locations in 2013 and 2014. The linear dsRNA S7 is A+U rich, with overall codon usage biased toward codons ending with A (A3s, S7-1: 32.64%, S7-2: 29.95% or U (U3s, S7-1: 44.18%, S7-2: 46.06%. Effective number of codons (Nc values of 45.63 in S7-1 (the first open reading frame of S7 and 39.96 in S7-2 (the second open reading frame of S7 indicate low degrees of RBSDV-S7 codon usage bias, likely driven by mutational bias regardless of year, host, or geographical origin. Twelve optimal codons were detected in S7. The nucleotide diversity (π of S7 sequences in 2013 isolates (0.0307 was significantly higher than in 2014 isolates (0.0244, P = 0.0226. The nucleotide diversity (π of S7 sequences in isolates from Jinan (0.0391 was higher than that from the other seven locations (P < 0.01. Only one S7 recombinant was detected in Baoding. RBSDV isolates could be phylogenetically classified into two groups according to S7 sequences, and further classified into two subgroups. S7-1 and S7-2 were under negative and purifying selection, with respective Ka/Ks ratios of 0.0179 and 0.0537. These RBSDV populations were expanding (P < 0.01 as indicated by negative values for Tajima's D, Fu and Li's D, and Fu and Li's F. Genetic differentiation was detected in six RBSDV subpopulations (P < 0.05. Absolute Fst (0.0790 and Nm (65.12 between 2013 and 2014, absolute Fst (0.1720 and Nm (38.49 between maize and rice, and absolute Fst values of 0.0085-0.3069 and Nm values of 0.56-29.61 among these eight geographic locations revealed frequent gene flow between subpopulations. Gene flow between 2013 and 2014 was the most frequent.

  6. Construction of Double Right-Border Binary Vector Carrying Non-Host Gene Rxol Resistant to Bacterial Leaf Streak of Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Mei-rong; XIA Zhi-hui; ZHAI Wen-xue; XU Jian-long; ZHOU Yong-li; LI Zhi-kang

    2008-01-01

    Rxol cloned from maize is a non-host gene resistant to bacterial leaf streak of rice. pCAMBIA1305-1 with Rxol was digested with Sca Ⅰ and NgoM Ⅳ and the double right-border binary vector pMNDRBBin6 was digested with Hpa Ⅰ and Xma Ⅰ.pMNDRBBin6 carrying the gene Rxol was acquired by ligation of blunt-end and cohesive end. The results of PCR, restriction enzyme analysis and sequencing indicated that the Rxol gene had been cloned into pMNDRBBin6. This double right-border binary vector,named as pMNDRBBin6-Rxol, will play a role in breeding marker-free plants resistant to bacterial leaf streak of rice by genetic transformation.

  7. The effect of strong pitch angle scattering on the use of artificial auroral streaks for echo detection - Echo 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, R.L.; Steffen, J.E.; Winckler, J.R.

    1986-01-01

    During the Echo 5 experiment launched 13 November 1979 from the Poker Flat Research Range (Fairbanks, Alaska), a 0.75 A, 37 keV electron beam was injected both up and down the field line to test the use of optical and X-ray methods to detect the beam as it interacted with the atmosphere below the rocket for both the downward injections (markers) and the upward injected electrons which mirrored at the Southern Hemisphere and returned echoes. The artificial auroral streaks created by the markers were easily visible on the ground TV system but the large intensity of photons produced around the rocket masked any response to the markers by the on-board photometers and X-ray detectors. No echoes were detected with any of the detection systems although the power in some of the upward injections was 7.6 times the power in a detected downward injection thus setting an upper limit on the loss-cone echo flux. The magnitude of the bounce averaged pitch angle diffusion coefficient necessary to explain the lack of observable echoes was found to be 4 x 10 -4 S -1 . It was found that an equatorial wave electric field of 11 mVm -1 would account for the lack of echoes. Such fields should cause strong pitch angle scattering of up to 10 keV natural electrons and thus be consistent with the presence of diffuse aurora on the Echo 5 trajectory. (author)

  8. Influence of rice black streaked dwarf virus on the ecological fitness of non-vector planthopper Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hong-Xing; He, Xiao-Chan; Zheng, Xu-Song; Yang, Ya-Jun; Lu, Zhong-Xian

    2014-08-01

    Rice black streak dwarf virus (RBSDV) is transmitted by the small brown planthopper (SBPH), Laodelphax striatellus (Fallen). Non-vector rice brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål), shares the same host rice plants with SBPH in paddy fields. The changes in nutritional composition of rice plants infected by RBSDV and the ecological fitness of BPH feeding on the infected plants were studied under both artificial climate chamber and field conditions. Contents of 16 detected amino acids and soluble sugar in RBSDV infected rice plants were higher than those in the healthy ones. On the diseased plants BPH had significantly higher nymphal survival rates, nymphal duration of the males, weight of the female adults, as well as egg hatchability compared to BPH being fed on healthy plants. However, there was no obvious difference in female nymph duration, longevity and fecundity. Defense enzymes (superoxidase dismutase, SOD and catalase, CAT) and detoxifying enzymes (carboxylesterase, CAE and glutathione S-transferase, GST) in BPH adults fed on diseased plants had markedly higher activities. The results indicate rice plants infected by RBSDV improved the ecological fitness of the brown planthopper, a serious pest but not a transmitter of the RBSDV virus. © 2013 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  9. Understanding the immune system architecture and transcriptome responses to southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus in Sogatella furcifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin; Tang, Nan; Gao, Xinlei; Guo, Dongyang; Chang, Zhaoxia; Fu, Yating; Akinyemi, Ibukun A; Wu, Qingfa

    2016-11-02

    Sogatella furcifera, the white-backed planthopper (WBPH), has become one of the most destructive pests in rice production owing to its plant sap-sucking behavior and efficient transmission of Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) in a circulative, propagative and persistent manner. The dynamic and complex SRBSDV-WBPH-rice plant interaction is still poorly understood. In this study, based on a homology-based genome-wide analysis, 348 immune-related genes belonging to 28 families were identified in WBPH. A transcriptome analysis of non-viruliferous (NVF) and viruliferous groups with high viral titers (HVT) and median viral titers (MVT) revealed that feeding on SRBSDV-infected rice plants has a significant impact on gene expression, regardless of viral titers in insects. We identified 278 up-regulated and 406 down-regulated genes shared among the NVF, MVT, and HVT groups and detected significant down-regulation of primary metabolism-related genes and oxidoreductase. In viruliferous WBPH with viral titer-specific transcriptome changes, 1,906 and 1,467 genes exhibited strict monotonically increasing and decreasing expression, respectively. The RNAi pathway was the major antiviral response to increasing viral titers among diverse immune responses. These results clarify the responses of immune genes and the transcriptome of WBPH to SRBSDV and improve our knowledge of the functional relationship between pathogen, vector, and host.

  10. Jasmonic acid-mediated defense suppresses brassinosteroid-mediated susceptibility to Rice black streaked dwarf virus infection in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuqing; Zhang, Hehong; Sun, Zongtao; Li, Junmin; Hong, Gaojie; Zhu, Qisong; Zhou, Xuebiao; MacFarlane, Stuart; Yan, Fei; Chen, Jianping

    2017-04-01

    Plant hormones play a vital role in plant immune responses. However, in contrast to the relative wealth of information on hormone-mediated immunity in dicot plants, little information is available on monocot-virus defense systems. We used a high-throughput-sequencing approach to compare the global gene expression of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV)-infected rice plants with that of healthy plants. Exogenous hormone applications and transgenic rice were used to test RBSDV infectivity and pathogenicity. Our results revealed that the jasmonic acid (JA) pathway was induced while the brassinosteroid (BR) pathway was suppressed in infected plants. Foliar application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) or brassinazole (BRZ) resulted in a significant reduction in RBSDV incidence, while epibrassinolide (BL) treatment increased RBSDV infection. Infection studies using coi1-13 and Go mutants demonstrated JA-mediated resistance and BR-mediated susceptibility to RBSDV infection. A mixture of MeJA and BL treatment resulted in a significant reduction in RBSDV infection compared with a single BL treatment. MeJA application efficiently suppressed the expression of BR pathway genes, and this inhibition depended on the JA coreceptor OsCOI1. Collectively, our results reveal that JA-mediated defense can suppress the BR-mediated susceptibility to RBSDV infection. © 2016 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2016 New Phytologist Trust.

  11. Streak-Camera Measurements with High Currents in PEP-II and Variable Optics in SPEAR3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, Weixeng; Fisher, Alan, a Corbett, Jeff; /SLAC

    2008-06-05

    A dual-axis, synchroscan streak camera was used to measure longitudinal bunch profiles in three storage rings at SLAC: the PEP-II low- and high-energy rings, and SPEAR3. At high currents, both PEP rings exhibit a transient synchronous-phase shift along the bunch train due to RF-cavity beam loading. Bunch length and profile asymmetry were measured along the train for a range of beam currents. To avoid the noise inherent in a dual-axis sweep, we accumulated single-axis synchroscan images while applying a 50-ns gate to the microchannel plate. To improve the extinction ratio, an upstream mirror pivoting at 1 kHz was synchronized with the 2kHz MCP gate to deflect light from other bunches off the photocathode. Bunch length was also measured on the HER as a function of beam energy. For SPEAR3 we measured bunch length as a function of single-bunch current for several lattices: achromatic, low-emittance and low momentum compaction. In the first two cases, resistive and reactive impedance components can be extracted from the longitudinal bunch profiles. In the low-alpha configurations, we observed natural bunch lengths approaching the camera resolution, requiring special care to remove instrumental effects, and saw evidence of periodic bursting.

  12. Phylogeny of Banana Streak Virus reveals recent and repetitive endogenization in the genome of its banana host (Musa sp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Philippe; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2009-07-01

    Banana streak virus (BSV) is a plant dsDNA pararetrovirus (family Caulimoviridae, genus badnavirus). Although integration is not an essential step in the BSV replication cycle, the nuclear genome of banana (Musa sp.) contains BSV endogenous pararetrovirus sequences (BSV EPRVs). Some BSV EPRVs are infectious by reconstituting a functional viral genome. Recent studies revealed a large molecular diversity of episomal BSV viruses (i.e., nonintegrated) while others focused on BSV EPRV sequences only. In this study, the evolutionary history of badnavirus integration in banana was inferred from phylogenetic relationships between BSV and BSV EPRVs. The relative evolution rates and selective pressures (d(N)/d(S) ratio) were also compared between endogenous and episomal viral sequences. At least 27 recent independent integration events occurred after the divergence of three banana species, indicating that viral integration is a recent and frequent phenomenon. Relaxation of selective pressure on badnaviral sequences that experienced neutral evolution after integration in the plant genome was recorded. Additionally, a significant decrease (35%) in the EPRV evolution rate was observed compared to BSV, reflecting the difference in the evolution rate between episomal dsDNA viruses and plant genome. The comparison of our results with the evolution rate of the Musa genome and other reverse-transcribing viruses suggests that EPRVs play an active role in episomal BSV diversity and evolution.

  13. Evolution of endogenous sequences of banana streak virus: what can we learn from banana (Musa sp.) evolution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayral, Philippe; Blondin, Laurence; Guidolin, Olivier; Carreel, Françoise; Hippolyte, Isabelle; Perrier, Xavier; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line

    2010-07-01

    Endogenous plant pararetroviruses (EPRVs) are viral sequences of the family Caulimoviridae integrated into the nuclear genome of numerous plant species. The ability of some endogenous sequences of Banana streak viruses (eBSVs) in the genome of banana (Musa sp.) to induce infections just like the virus itself was recently demonstrated (P. Gayral et al., J. Virol. 83:6697-6710, 2008). Although eBSVs probably arose from accidental events, infectious eBSVs constitute an extreme case of parasitism, as well as a newly described strategy for vertical virus transmission in plants. We investigated the early evolutionary stages of infectious eBSV for two distinct BSV species-GF (BSGFV) and Imové (BSImV)-through the study of their distribution, insertion polymorphism, and structure evolution among selected banana genotypes representative of the diversity of 60 wild Musa species and genotypes. To do so, the historical frame of host evolution was analyzed by inferring banana phylogeny from two chloroplast regions-matK and trnL-trnF-as well as from the nuclear genome, using 19 microsatellite loci. We demonstrated that both BSV species integrated recently in banana evolution, circa 640,000 years ago. The two infectious eBSVs were subjected to different selective pressures and showed distinct levels of rearrangement within their final structure. In addition, the molecular phylogenies of integrated and nonintegrated BSVs enabled us to establish the phylogenetic origins of eBSGFV and eBSImV.

  14. Association Mapping of Quantitative Trait Loci in Spring Wheat Landraces Conferring Resistance to Bacterial Leaf Streak and Spot Blotch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tika B. Adhikari

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial leaf streak (BLS, caused by pv. (Smith et al. Bragard et al., and spot blotch (SB, caused by (S. Ito & Kurib. Drechs. ex Dastur, are two emerging diseases of wheat ( L.. To achieve sustainable disease management strategies and reduce yield losses, identifying new genes that confer quantitative resistance would benefit resistance breeding efforts. The main objective of this study was to use association mapping (AM with 832 polymorphic Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT markers to identify genomic regions associated with resistance to BLS and SB in 566 spring wheat landraces. From data analysis of this diverse panel of wheat accessions, we discovered five novel genomic regions significantly associated with resistance to BLS on chromosomes 1A, 4A, 4B, 6B, and 7D. Similarly, four genomic regions were found to be associated with resistance to SB on chromosomes 1A, 3B, 7B, and 7D. A high degree of linkage disequilibrium (LD decayed over short genetic distance in the set of wheat accessions studied, and some of these genomic regions appear to be involved in multiple disease resistance (MDR. These results suggest that the AM approach provides a platform for discovery of resistance conditioned by multiple genes with quantitative effects, which could be validated and deployed in wheat breeding programs.

  15. Light field driven streak-camera for single-shot measurements of the temporal profile of XUV-pulses from a free-electron laser; Lichtfeld getriebene Streak-Kamera zur Einzelschuss Zeitstrukturmessung der XUV-Pulse eines Freie-Elektronen Lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fruehling, Ulrike

    2009-10-15

    The Free Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) is a source for highly intense ultra short extreme ultraviolet (XUV) light pulses with pulse durations of a few femtoseconds. Due to the stochastic nature of the light generation scheme based on self amplified spontaneous emission (SASE), the duration and temporal profile of the XUV pulses fluctuate from shot to shot. In this thesis, a THz-field driven streak-camera capable of single pulse measurements of the XUV pulse-profile has been realized. In a first XUV-THz pump-probe experiment at FLASH, the XUV-pulses are overlapped in a gas target with synchronized THz-pulses generated by a new THz-undulator. The electromagnetic field of the THz light accelerates photoelectrons produced by the XUV-pulses with the resulting change of the photoelectron momenta depending on the phase of the THz field at the time of ionisation. This technique is intensively used in attosecond metrology where near infrared streaking fields are employed for the temporal characterisation of attosecond XUV-Pulses. Here, it is adapted for the analysis of pulse durations in the few femtosecond range by choosing a hundred times longer far infrared streaking wavelengths. Thus, the gap between conventional streak cameras with typical resolutions of hundreds of femtoseconds and techniques with attosecond resolution is filled. Using the THz-streak camera, the time dependent electric field of the THz-pulses was sampled in great detail while on the other hand the duration and even details of the time structure of the XUV-pulses were characterized. (orig.)

  16. Tomato yellow vein streak virus: relationship with Bemisia tabaci biotype B and host range Tomato yellow vein streak virus: interação com a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e gama de hospedeiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Firmino

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV is a putative species of begomovirus, which was prevalent on tomato crops in São Paulo State, Brazil, until 2005. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the interaction between ToYVSV and its vector Bemisia tabaci biotype B and to identify alternative hosts for the virus. The minimum acquisition and inoculation access periods of ToYVSV by B. tabaci were 30 min and 10 min, respectively. Seventy five percent of tomato-test plants were infected when the acquisition and inoculation access periods were 24 h. The latent period of the virus in the insect was 16 h. The ToYVSV was retained by B. tabaci until 20 days after acquisition. First generation of adult whiteflies obtained from viruliferous females were virus free as shown by PCR analysis and did not transmit the virus to tomato plants. Out of 34 species of test-plants inoculated with ToYVSV only Capsicum annuum, Chenopodium amaranticolor, C. quinoa, Datura stramonium, Gomphrena globosa, Nicotiana clevelandii and N. tabacum cv. TNN were susceptible to infection. B. tabaci biotype B was able to acquire the virus from all these susceptible species, transmitting it to tomato plants.O Tomato yellow vein streak virus (ToYVSV é uma espécie putativa de begomovirus que infecta o tomateiro (Solanum lycopersicon em diversas regiões do Brasil onde se cultiva essa solanácea, sendo a espécie prevalente no estado de São Paulo até 2005. Estudou-se a interação do ToYVSV com a Bemisia tabaci biótipo B e identificaram-se hospedeiras alternativas deste vírus. Os períodos de acesso mínimo de aquisição (PAA e de inoculação (PAI foram de 30 min e 10 min, respectivamente. A porcentagem de plantas infectadas chegou até cerca de 75% após um PAA e PAI de 24 h. O período de latência do vírus no vetor foi de 16 horas. O ToYVSV foi retido pela B. tabaci até 20 dias após a aquisição do vírus. Não foi detectada transmissão do vírus para prog

  17. Transcriptome of the Plant Virus Vector Graminella nigrifrons, and the Molecular Interactions of Maize fine streak rhabdovirus Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuting; Cassone, Bryan J.; Bai, Xiaodong; Redinbaugh, Margaret G.; Michel, Andrew P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) are plant-phloem feeders that are known for their ability to vector plant pathogens. The black-faced leafhopper (Graminella nigrifrons) has been identified as the only known vector for the Maize fine streak virus (MFSV), an emerging plant pathogen in the Rhabdoviridae. Within G. nigrifrons populations, individuals can be experimentally separated into three classes based on their capacity for viral transmission: transmitters, acquirers and non-acquirers. Understanding the molecular interactions between vector and virus can reveal important insights in virus immune defense and vector transmission. Results RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) was performed to characterize the transcriptome of G. nigrifrons. A total of 38,240 ESTs of a minimum 100 bp were generated from two separate cDNA libraries consisting of virus transmitters and acquirers. More than 60% of known D. melanogaster, A. gambiae, T. castaneum immune response genes mapped to our G. nigrifrons EST database. Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) showed significant down-regulation of three genes for peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRP – SB1, SD, and LC) in G. nigrifrons transmitters versus control leafhoppers. Conclusions Our study is the first to characterize the transcriptome of a leafhopper vector species. Significant sequence similarity in immune defense genes existed between G. nigrifrons and other well characterized insects. The down-regulation of PGRPs in MFSV transmitters suggested a possible role in rhabdovirus transmission. The results provide a framework for future studies aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of plant virus vector competence. PMID:22808205

  18. Transcriptome of the plant virus vector Graminella nigrifrons, and the molecular interactions of maize fine streak rhabdovirus transmission.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Leafhoppers (HEmiptera: Cicadellidae are plant-phloem feeders that are known for their ability to vector plant pathogens. The black-faced leafhopper (Graminella nigrifrons has been identified as the only known vector for the Maize fine streak virus (MFSV, an emerging plant pathogen in the Rhabdoviridae. Within G. nigrifrons populations, individuals can be experimentally separated into three classes based on their capacity for viral transmission: transmitters, acquirers and non-acquirers. Understanding the molecular interactions between vector and virus can reveal important insights in virus immune defense and vector transmission. RESULTS: RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq was performed to characterize the transcriptome of G. nigrifrons. A total of 38,240 ESTs of a minimum 100 bp were generated from two separate cDNA libraries consisting of virus transmitters and acquirers. More than 60% of known D. melanogaster, A. gambiae, T. castaneum immune response genes mapped to our G. nigrifrons EST database. Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR showed significant down-regulation of three genes for peptidoglycan recognition proteins (PGRP - SB1, SD, and LC in G. nigrifrons transmitters versus control leafhoppers. CONCLUSIONS: Our study is the first to characterize the transcriptome of a leafhopper vector species. Significant sequence similarity in immune defense genes existed between G. nigrifrons and other well characterized insects. The down-regulation of PGRPs in MFSV transmitters suggested a possible role in rhabdovirus transmission. The results provide a framework for future studies aimed at elucidating the molecular mechanisms of plant virus vector competence.

  19. Introgression of chromosome segments from multiple alien species in wheat breeding lines with wheat streak mosaic virus resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, N; Heslop-Harrison, Js Pat; Ahmad, H; Graybosch, R A; Hein, G L; Schwarzacher, T

    2016-08-01

    Pyramiding of alien-derived Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) resistance and resistance enhancing genes in wheat is a cost-effective and environmentally safe strategy for disease control. PCR-based markers and cytogenetic analysis with genomic in situ hybridisation were applied to identify alien chromatin in four genetically diverse populations of wheat (Triticum aestivum) lines incorporating chromosome segments from Thinopyrum intermedium and Secale cereale (rye). Out of 20 experimental lines, 10 carried Th. intermedium chromatin as T4DL*4Ai#2S translocations, while, unexpectedly, 7 lines were positive for alien chromatin (Th. intermedium or rye) on chromosome 1B. The newly described rye 1RS chromatin, transmitted from early in the pedigree, was associated with enhanced WSMV resistance. Under field conditions, the 1RS chromatin alone showed some resistance, while together with the Th. intermedium 4Ai#2S offered superior resistance to that demonstrated by the known resistant cultivar Mace. Most alien wheat lines carry whole chromosome arms, and it is notable that these lines showed intra-arm recombination within the 1BS arm. The translocation breakpoints between 1BS and alien chromatin fell in three categories: (i) at or near to the centromere, (ii) intercalary between markers UL-Thin5 and Xgwm1130 and (iii) towards the telomere between Xgwm0911 and Xbarc194. Labelled genomic Th. intermedium DNA hybridised to the rye 1RS chromatin under high stringency conditions, indicating the presence of shared tandem repeats among the cereals. The novel small alien fragments may explain the difficulty in developing well-adapted lines carrying Wsm1 despite improved tolerance to the virus. The results will facilitate directed chromosome engineering producing agronomically desirable WSMV-resistant germplasm.

  20. A requirement for FGF signalling in the formation of primitive streak-like intermediates from primitive ectoderm in culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiqiang Zheng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Embryonic stem (ES cells hold considerable promise as a source of cells with therapeutic potential, including cells that can be used for drug screening and in cell replacement therapies. Differentiation of ES cells into the somatic lineages is a regulated process; before the promise of these cells can be realised robust and rational methods for directing differentiation into normal, functional and safe cells need to be developed. Previous in vivo studies have implicated fibroblast growth factor (FGF signalling in lineage specification from pluripotent cells. Although FGF signalling has been suggested as essential for specification of mesoderm and endoderm in vivo and in culture, the exact role of this pathway remains unclear. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a culture model based on early primitive ectoderm-like (EPL cells we have investigated the role of FGF signalling in the specification of mesoderm. We were unable to demonstrate any mesoderm inductive capability associated with FGF1, 4 or 8 signalling, even when the factors were present at high concentrations, nor any enhancement in mesoderm formation induced by exogenous BMP4. Furthermore, there was no evidence of alteration of mesoderm sub-type formed with addition of FGF1, 4 or 8. Inhibition of endogenous FGF signalling, however, prevented mesoderm and favoured neural differentiation, suggesting FGF signalling was required but not sufficient for the differentiation of primitive ectoderm into primitive streak-like intermediates. The maintenance of ES cell/early epiblast pluripotent marker expression was also observed in cultures when FGF signalling was inhibited. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: FGF signalling has been shown to be required for the differentiation of primitive ectoderm to neurectoderm. This, coupled with our observations, suggest FGF signalling is required for differentiation of the primitive ectoderm into the germ lineages at gastrulation.

  1. Detecção e análise da variabilidade de seqüências do Banana streak virus (BSV em bananeiras no Brasil Detection and analysis of Banana streak virus (BSV sequences variability of banana from Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Figueiredo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A técnica de PCR utilizando-se "primers" degenerados para o gênero Badnavirus foi utilizada para a detecção e análise da variabilidade de seqüências do Banana streak virus (BSV provenientes de bananeiras. A partir desta metodologia seqüências do vírus puderam ser detectadas em cultivares diplóides (AA, triplóides (AAA; AAB e tetraplóides (AAAB. Foram encontrados quatro padrões de seqüência do BSV (estirpes BSVBR-1, BSVBR-2, BSVBR-3 e BSVBR-4, diferenciadas através da análise do perfil eletroforético das amostras amplificadas. A estirpe BSVBR-1 prevalece nos estados do Acre, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Piauí, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Santa Catarina, e São Paulo, enquanto que, a estirpe BSVBR-2 foi encontrada em amostras oriundas do Amazonas e do Ceará. As estirpes BSVBR-3 e BSVBR-4 foram encontradas apenas no Ceará. Este trabalho revela a presença de diferentes estirpes do BSV no Brasil, bem como a existência de cultivares de bananeiras sadias e livres de seqüências virais do BSV integradas ao seu genoma.PCR assay using degenerate primers, designed to Badnavirus genus, was used to detect and analyse the variability of BSV strains sequences from banana. The virus was detected in diploid (AA, triploids (AAA; AAB and tetraploids (AAAB banana cultivars. Four BSV sequences patterns (BSVBR-1, BSVBR-2, BSVBR-3 and BSVBR-4 strains were found, and distinguished by eletrophoresis. The strain BSVBR-1 was found in the states of Acre, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Goiás, Minas Gerais, Piauí, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Santa Catarina and São Paulo, while BSVBR-2 strain was detected in the states of Amazonas and Ceará. BSVBR-3 and BSVBR-4 strains were found only in the state of Ceará. This work demonstrated the presence of different BSV strains in Brazil and the existence of health banana cultivars as well as cultivars free of BSV integrated sequences.

  2. Code-assisted discovery of TAL effector targets in bacterial leaf streak of rice reveals contrast with bacterial blight and a novel susceptibility gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raul A Cernadas

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial leaf streak of rice, caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc is an increasingly important yield constraint in this staple crop. A mesophyll colonizer, Xoc differs from X. oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo, which invades xylem to cause bacterial blight of rice. Both produce multiple distinct TAL effectors, type III-delivered proteins that transactivate effector-specific host genes. A TAL effector finds its target(s via a partially degenerate code whereby the modular effector amino acid sequence identifies nucleotide sequences to which the protein binds. Virulence contributions of some Xoo TAL effectors have been shown, and their relevant targets, susceptibility (S genes, identified, but the role of TAL effectors in leaf streak is uncharacterized. We used host transcript profiling to compare leaf streak to blight and to probe functions of Xoc TAL effectors. We found that Xoc and Xoo induce almost completely different host transcriptional changes. Roughly one in three genes upregulated by the pathogens is preceded by a candidate TAL effector binding element. Experimental analysis of the 44 such genes predicted to be Xoc TAL effector targets verified nearly half, and identified most others as false predictions. None of the Xoc targets is a known bacterial blight S gene. Mutational analysis revealed that Tal2g, which activates two genes, contributes to lesion expansion and bacterial exudation. Use of designer TAL effectors discriminated a sulfate transporter gene as the S gene. Across all targets, basal expression tended to be higher than genome-average, and induction moderate. Finally, machine learning applied to real vs. falsely predicted targets yielded a classifier that recalled 92% of the real targets with 88% precision, providing a tool for better target prediction in the future. Our study expands the number of known TAL effector targets, identifies a new class of S gene, and improves our ability to predict functional targeting.

  3. Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the black leaf streak pathogen of banana: progress towards understanding pathogen biology and detection, disease development, and the challenges of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchill, Alice C L

    2011-05-01

    Banana (Musa spp.) is grown throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The fruits are a key staple food in many developing countries and a source of income for subsistence farmers. Bananas are also a major, multibillion-dollar export commodity for consumption primarily in developed countries, where few banana cultivars are grown. The fungal pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis causes black leaf streak disease (BLSD; aka black Sigatoka leaf spot) on the majority of edible banana cultivars grown worldwide. The fact that most of these cultivars are sterile and unsuitable for the breeding of resistant lines necessitates the extensive use of fungicides as the primary means of disease control. BLSD is a significant threat to the food security of resource-poor populations who cannot afford fungicides, and increases the environmental and health hazards where large-acreage monocultures of banana (Cavendish subgroup, AAA genome) are grown for export. Mycosphaerella fijiensis M. Morelet is a sexual, heterothallic fungus having Pseudocercospora fijiensis (M. Morelet) Deighton as the anamorph stage. It is a haploid, hemibiotrophic ascomycete within the class Dothideomycetes, order Capnodiales and family Mycosphaerellaceae. Its taxonomic placement is based on DNA phylogeny, morphological analyses and cultural characteristics. Mycosphaerella fijiensis is a leaf pathogen that causes reddish-brown streaks running parallel to the leaf veins, which aggregate to form larger, dark-brown to black compound streaks. These streaks eventually form fusiform or elliptical lesions that coalesce, form a water-soaked border with a yellow halo and, eventually, merge to cause extensive leaf necrosis. The disease does not kill the plants immediately, but weakens them by decreasing the photosynthetic capacity of leaves, causing a reduction in the quantity and quality of fruit, and inducing the premature ripening of fruit harvested from infected plants. Although Musa spp. are the

  4. Development of miniaturized proximity focused streak tubes for visible light and x-ray applications. Final report and progress, April-September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuny, J.J.; Knight, A.J.

    1978-02-01

    Research performed to develop miniaturized proximity focused streak camera tubes (PFST) for application in the visible and the x-ray modes of operation is described. The objective of this research was to provide an engineering design and to fabricate a visible and an x-ray prototype tube to be provided to LASL for test and evaluation. Materials selection and fabrication procedures, particularly the joining of beryllium to a suitable support ring for use as the x-ray window, are described in detail. The visible and x-ray PFST's were successfully fabricated

  5. Evaluation of dynamic range for LLNL streak cameras using high contrast pulses and pulse podiatry'' on the Nova laser system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, J.B.; Weiland, T.L.; Prior, J.A.

    1990-07-01

    A standard LLNL streak camera has been used to analyze high contrast pulses on the Nova laser facility. These pulses have a plateau at their leading edge (foot) with an amplitude which is approximately 1% of the maximum pulse height. Relying on other features of the pulses and on signal multiplexing, we were able to determine how accurately the foot amplitude was being represented by the camera. Results indicate that the useful single channel dynamic range of the instrument approaches 100:1. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Time- and wavelength-resolved luminescence evaluation of several types of scintillators using streak camera system equipped with pulsed X-ray source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Yuki, E-mail: f.yuki@mail.tagen.tohoku.ac.j [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Yanagida, Takayuki; Fujimoto, Yutaka; Yokota, Yuui; Kamada, Kei [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Kawaguchi, Noriaki [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Research and Development Division, Tokuyama., Co. Ltd., ICR-Building, Minamiyoshinari, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Ishizu, Sumito [Research and Development Division, Tokuyama., Co. Ltd., ICR-Building, Minamiyoshinari, Aoba-ku, Sendai (Japan); Uchiyama, Koro; Mori, Kuniyoshi [Hamamatsu Photonics K.K., 325-6, Sunayama-cho, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka 430-8587 (Japan); Kitano, Ken [Vacuum and Optical Instruments, 2-18-18 Shimomaruko, Ota, Tokyo 146-0092 (Japan); Nikl, Martin [Institute of Physics ASCR, Cukrovarnicka 10, Prague 6, 162-53 (Czech Republic); Yoshikawa, Akira [Institute of Multidisciplinary Research for Advanced Materials, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); NICHe, Tohoku University, 6-6-10 Aoba, Aramaki, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8579 (Japan)

    2011-04-01

    To design new scintillating materials, it is very important to understand detailed information about the events, which occurred during the excitation and emission processes under the ionizing radiation excitation. We developed a streak camera system equipped with picosecond pulsed X-ray source to observe time- and wavelength-resolved scintillation events. In this report, we test the performance of this new system using several types of scintillators including bulk oxide/halide crystals, transparent ceramics, plastics and powders. For all samples, the results were consistent with those reported previously. The results demonstrated that the developed system is suitable for evaluation of the scintillation properties.

  7. Vascular Streak Dieback of cacao in Southeast Asia and Melanesia: in planta detection of the pathogen and a new taxonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Gary J; Ismaiel, Adnan; Rosmana, Ade; Junaid, Muhammad; Guest, David; McMahon, Peter; Keane, Philip; Purwantara, Agus; Lambert, Smilja; Rodriguez-Carres, Marianela; Cubeta, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD) disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) in Southeast Asia and Melanesia is caused by a basidiomycete (Ceratobasidiales) fungus Oncobasidium theobromae (syn. =Thanatephorus theobromae). The most characteristic symptoms of the disease are green-spotted leaf chlorosis or, commonly since about 2004, necrotic blotches, followed by senescence of leaves beginning on the second or third flush behind the shoot apex, and blackening of infected xylem in the vascular traces at the leaf scars resulting from the abscission of infected leaves. Eventually the shoot apex is killed and infected branches die. In susceptible cacao the fungus may grow through the xylem down into the main stem and kill a mature cacao tree. Infections in the stem of young plants prior to the formation of the first 3-4 lateral branches usually kill the plant. Basidiospores released from corticioid basidiomata developed on leaf scars or along cracks in the main vein of infected leaves infect young leaves. The pathogen commonly infects cacao but there are rare reports from avocado. As both crops are introduced to the region, the pathogen is suspected to occur asymptomatically in native vegetation. The pathogen is readily isolated but cultures cannot be maintained. In this study, DNA was extracted from pure cultures of O. theobromae obtained from infected cacao plants sampled from Indonesia. The internal transcribed spacer region (ITS), consisting of ITS1, 5.8S ribosomal RNA and ITS2, and a portion of nuclear large subunit (LSU) were sequenced. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences placed O. theobromae sister to Ceratobasidium anastomosis groups AG-A, AG-Bo, and AG-K with high posterior probability. Therefore the new combination Ceratobasidium theobromae is proposed. A PCR-based protocol was developed to detect and identify C. theobromae in plant tissue of cacao enabling early detection of the pathogen in plants. A second species of Ceratobasidium, Ceratobasidium ramicola

  8. A novel method for transmitting southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus to rice without insect vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lu; Shi, Jing; Cao, Lianlian; Zhang, Guoping; Wang, Wenli; Hu, Deyu; Song, Baoan

    2017-08-15

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has spread from the south of China to the north of Vietnam in the past few years, and has severely influenced rice production. However, previous study of traditional SRBSDV transmission method by the natural virus vector, the white-backed planthopper (WBPH, Sogatella furcifera), in the laboratory, researchers are frequently confronted with lack of enough viral samples due to the limited life span of infected vectors and rice plants and low virus acquisition and inoculation efficiency by the vector. Meanwhile, traditional mechanical inoculation of virus only apply to dicotyledon because of the higher content of lignin in the leaves of the monocot. Therefore, establishing an efficient and persistent-transmitting model, with a shorter virus transmission time and a higher virus transmission efficiency, for screening novel anti-SRBSDV drugs is an urgent need. In this study, we firstly reported a novel method for transmitting SRBSDV in rice using the bud-cutting method. The transmission efficiency of SRBSDV in rice was investigated via the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method and the replication of SRBSDV in rice was also investigated via the proteomics analysis. Rice infected with SRBSDV using the bud-cutting method exhibited similar symptoms to those infected by the WBPH, and the transmission efficiency (>80.00%), which was determined using the PCR method, and the virus transmission time (30 min) were superior to those achieved that transmitted by the WBPH. Proteomics analysis confirmed that SRBSDV P1, P2, P3, P4, P5-1, P5-2, P6, P8, P9-1, P9-2, and P10 proteins were present in infected rice seedlings infected via the bud-cutting method. The results showed that SRBSDV could be successfully transmitted via the bud-cutting method and plants infected SRBSDV exhibited the symptoms were similar to those transmitted by the WBPH. Therefore, the use of the bud-cutting method to generate a cheap, efficient, reliable supply of

  9. Endophytic Association of Trichoderma asperellum within Theobroma cacao Suppresses Vascular Streak Dieback Incidence and Promotes Side Graft Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosmana, Ade; Nasaruddin, Nasaruddin; Hendarto, Hendarto; Hakkar, Andi Akbar; Agriansyah, Nursalim

    2016-09-01

    Trichoderma species are able to persist on living sapwood and leaves of cacao ( Theobroma cacao ) in an endophytic relationship. In this research, we evaluated the ability of Trichodema asperellum introduced at the incision site in the bark for side grafting with the concentration of 4 g/10 mL, 4 g/100 mL, and 4 g/1,000 mL (suspended in water) in suppressing vascular streak dieback (VSD) incidence and promoting growth of side grafts in the field. The incidence of VSD in two local clones of cacao, MCC1 and M04, without application of T. asperellum was 71.2% and 70.1% at 21 wk after grafting, respectively. However, when the two clones were treated with a concentration of 4 g/10 mL T. asperellum , the incidence was 20.6% and 21.7%, respectively, compared to 29.1% and 20.9% at 4 g/100 mL and 18.2% and 15.6% at 4 g/1,000 mL. By comparing to the control, the treatment with the same concentrations of T. asperellum listed above, the total number of stomata in MCC1 decreased by 41.9%, 30.2%, and 14.0% and in M04 by 30.5%, 21.9%, and -2.5% (exception), respectively. Otherwise, the total area of stomata opening increased by 91.4%, 99.7%, and 28.6% in MCC1 and by 203.8%, 253.5%, and 35.9% in M04, respectively. Furthermore, the number of buds and branches treated with a mixture concentration on the the two clones increased by 90.7% and 21.7%, respectively. These data showed that the application of T. asperellum to cacao scions while grafting can decrease VSD incidence in side grafts and increase growth of grafts in addition to decreasing total number of stomata, increasing total area of opened stomata, and increasing number of buds and branches.

  10. Potential applications of a dual-sweep streak camera system for characterizing particle and photon beams of VUV, XUV, and x-ray FELS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The success of time-resolved imaging techniques in the Characterization of particle beams and photon beams of the recent generation of L-band linac-driven or storage ring FELs in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet wavelength regions can be extended to the VUV, XUV, and x-ray FELs. Tests and initial data have been obtained with the Hamamatsu C5680 dual-sweep streak camera system which includes a demountable photocathode (thin Au) assembly and a flange that allows windowless operation with the transport vacuum system. This system can be employed at wavelengths shorter than 100 nm and down to 1 {Angstrom}. First tests on such a system at 248-nm wavelengths have been performed oil the Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) drive laser source. A quartz window was used at the tube entrance aperture. A preliminary test using a Be window mounted on a different front flange of the streak tube to look at an x-ray bremsstrahlung source at the AWA was limited by photon statistics. This system`s limiting resolution of {sigma}{approximately}1.1 ps observed at 248 nm would increase with higher incoming photon energies to the photocathode. This effect is related to the fundamental spread in energies of the photoelectrons released from the photocathodes. Possible uses of the synchrotron radiation sources at the Advanced Photon Source and emerging short wavelength FELs to test the system will be presented.

  11. Variable number of tandem repeat markers in the genome sequence of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, the causal agent of black leaf streak disease of banana (Musa spp).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, S A L; Van der Lee, T A J; Ferreira, C F; Te Lintel Hekkert, B; Zapater, M-F; Goodwin, S B; Guzmán, M; Kema, G H J; Souza, M T

    2010-11-09

    We searched the genome of Mycosphaerella fijiensis for molecular markers that would allow population genetics analysis of this plant pathogen. M. fijiensis, the causal agent of banana leaf streak disease, also known as black Sigatoka, is the most devastating pathogen attacking bananas (Musa spp). Recently, the entire genome sequence of M. fijiensis became available. We screened this database for VNTR markers. Forty-two primer pairs were selected for validation, based on repeat type and length and the number of repeat units. Five VNTR markers showing multiple alleles were validated with a reference set of isolates from different parts of the world and a population from a banana plantation in Costa Rica. Polymorphism information content values varied from 0.6414 to 0.7544 for the reference set and from 0.0400 and 0.7373 for the population set. Eighty percent of the polymorphism information content values were above 0.60, indicating that the markers are highly informative. These markers allowed robust scoring of agarose gels and proved to be useful for variability and population genetics studies. In conclusion, the strategy we developed to identify and validate VNTR markers is an efficient means to incorporate markers that can be used for fungicide resistance management and to develop breeding strategies to control banana black leaf streak disease. This is the first report of VNTR-minisatellites from the M. fijiensis genome sequence.

  12. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Sun

    Full Text Available Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén. RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  13. Large-grazing-angle, multi-image Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope as the front end to a high-resolution streak camera for OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchev, O.V.; Hayes, L.J.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Knauer, J.P.; Marshall, F.J.; Meyerhofer, D.D.

    2003-01-01

    A high-resolution x-ray microscope with a large grazing angle has been developed, characterized, and fielded at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. It increases the sensitivity and spatial resolution in planar direct-drive hydrodynamic stability experiments, relevant to inertial confinement fusion research. It has been designed to work as the optical front end of the PJX - a high-current, high-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera. Optical design optimization, results from numerical ray tracing, mirror-coating choice, and characterization have been described previously [O. V. Gotchev, et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2178 (2003)]. This work highlights the optics' unique mechanical design and flexibility and considers certain applications that benefit from it. Characterization of the microscope's resolution in terms of its modulation transfer function over the field of view is shown. Recent results from hydrodynamic stability experiments, diagnosed with the optic and the PJX, are provided to confirm the microscope's advantages as a high-resolution, high-throughput x-ray optical front end for streaked imaging

  14. Large-Grazing-Angle, Multi-Image Kirkpatrick-Baez Microscope as the Front End to a High-Resolution Streak Camera for OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchev, O.V.; Hayes, L.J.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Knauer, J.P.; Marshall, F.J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2003-01-01

    (B204)A new, high-resolution x-ray microscope with a large grazing angle has been developed, characterized, and fielded at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. It increases the sensitivity and spatial resolution in planar direct-drive hydrodynamic stability experiments, relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. It has been designed to work as the optical front end of the PJX-a high-current, high-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera. Optical design optimization, results from numerical ray tracing, mirror-coating choice, and characterization have been described previously [O. V. Gotchev, et al./Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2178 (2003)]. This work highlights the optics' unique mechanical design and flexibility and considers certain applications that benefit from it. Characterization of the microscope's resolution in terms of its modulation transfer function (MTF) over the field of view is shown. Recent results from hydrodynamic stability experiments, diagnosed with the optic and the PJX, are provided to confirm the microscope's advantages as a high-resolution, high-throughput x-ray optical front end for streaked imaging

  15. Overexpression of rice black-streaked dwarf virus p7-1 in Arabidopsis results in male sterility due to non-dehiscent anthers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng; Yuan, Xia; Xu, Qiufang; Zhou, Tong; Fan, Yongjian; Zhou, Yijun

    2013-01-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a member of the genus Fijivirus in the family Reoviridae, is propagatively transmitted by the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus Fallén). RBSDV causes rice black-streaked dwarf and maize rough dwarf diseases, which lead to severe yield losses in crops in China. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, the functions of the nonstructural protein P7-1 are still largely unknown. To investigate the role of the P7-1 protein in virus pathogenicity, transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants were generated in which the P7-1 gene was expressed under the control of the 35S promoter. The RBSDV P7-1-transgenic Arabidopsis plants (named P7-1-OE) were male sterility. Flowers and pollen from P7-1-transgenic plants were of normal size and shape, and anthers developed to the normal size but failed to dehisce. The non-dehiscent anthers observed in P7-1-OE were attributed to decreased lignin content in the anthers. Furthermore, the reactive oxygen species levels were quite low in the transgenic plants compared with the wild type. These results indicate that ectopic expression of the RBSDV P7-1 protein in A. thaliana causes male sterility, possibly through the disruption of the lignin biosynthesis and H2O2-dependent polymerization pathways.

  16. A fast, noniterative approach for accelerated high-temporal resolution cine-CMR using dynamically interleaved streak removal in the power-spectral encoded domain with low-pass filtering (DISPEL) and modulo-prime spokes (MoPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaji, Keigo; Patel, Mita B; Cantrell, Charles G; Tanaka, Akiko; Marino, Marco; Tamura, Satoshi; Wang, Hui; Wang, Yi; Carroll, Timothy J; Ota, Takeyoshi; Patel, Amit R

    2017-07-01

    To introduce a pair of accelerated non-Cartesian acquisition principles that when combined, exploit the periodicity of k-space acquisition, and thereby enable acquisition of high-temporal cine Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR). The mathematical formulation of a noniterative, undersampled non-Cartesian cine acquisition and reconstruction is presented. First, a low-pass filtering step that exploits streaking artifact redundancy is provided (i.e., Dynamically Interleaved Streak removal in the Power-spectrum Encoded domain with Low-pass filtering [DISPEL]). Next, an effective radial acquisition for the DISPEL approach that exploits the property of prime numbers is described (i.e., Modulo-Prime Spoke [MoPS]). Both DISPEL and MoPS are examined using numerical simulation of a digital heart phantom to show that high-temporal cine-CMR is feasible without removing physiologic motion vs aperiodic interleaving using Golden Angles. The combined high-temporal cine approach is next examined in 11 healthy subjects for a time-volume curve assessment of left ventricular systolic and diastolic performance vs conventional Cartesian cine-CMR reference. The DISPEL method was first shown using simulation under different streak cycles to allow separation of undersampled radial streaking artifacts from physiologic motion with a sufficiently frequent streak-cycle interval. Radial interleaving with MoPS is next shown to allow interleaves with pseudo-Golden-Angle variants, and be more compatible with DISPEL against irrational and nonperiodic rotation angles, including the Golden-Angle-derived rotations. In the in vivo data, the proposed method showed no statistical difference in the systolic performance, while diastolic parameters sensitive to the cine's temporal resolution were statistically significant (P cine). We demonstrate a high-temporal resolution cine-CMR using DISPEL and MoPS, whose streaking artifact was separated from physiologic motion. © 2017 American Association of Physicists

  17. The reduction of image noise and streak artifact in the thoracic inlet during low dose and ultra-low dose thoracic CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, N S; Prezelj, E; Burey, P; Menezes, R J; Blobel, J; Ursani, A; Kashani, H; Siewerdsen, J H

    2010-01-01

    Increased pixel noise and streak artifact reduce CT image quality and limit the potential for radiation dose reduction during CT of the thoracic inlet. We propose to quantify the pixel noise of mediastinal structures in the thoracic inlet, during low-dose (LDCT) and ultralow-dose (uLDCT) thoracic CT, and assess the utility of new software (quantum denoising system and BOOST3D) in addressing these limitations. Twelve patients had LDCT (120 kV, 25 mAs) and uLDCT (120 kV, 10 mAs) images reconstructed initially using standard mediastinal and lung filters followed by the quantum denoising system (QDS) to reduce pixel noise and BOOST3D (B3D) software to correct photon starvation noise as follows: group 1 no QDS, no B3D; group 2 B3D alone; group 3 QDS alone and group 4 both QDS and B3D. Nine regions of interest (ROIs) were replicated on mediastinal anatomy in the thoracic inlet, for each patient resulting in 3456 data points to calculate pixel noise and attenuation. QDS reduced pixel noise by 18.4% (lung images) and 15.8% (mediastinal images) at 25 mAs. B3D reduced pixel noise by ∼8% in the posterior thorax and in combination there was a 35.5% reduction in effective radiation dose (E) for LDCT (1.63-1.05 mSv) in lung images and 32.2% (1.55-1.05 mSv) in mediastinal images. The same combination produced 20.7% reduction (0.53-0.42 mSv) in E for uLDCT, for lung images and 17.3% (0.51-0.42) for mediastinal images. This quantitative analysis of image quality confirms the utility of dedicated processing software in targeting image noise and streak artifact in thoracic LDCT and uLDCT images taken in the thoracic inlet. This processing software potentiates substantial reductions in radiation dose during thoracic LDCT and uLDCT.

  18. An operon for production of bioactive gibberellin A4 phytohormone with wide distribution in the bacterial rice leaf streak pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Raimund; Turrini, Paula C G; Nett, Ryan S; Leach, Jan E; Verdier, Valérie; Van Sluys, Marie-Anne; Peters, Reuben J

    2017-05-01

    Phytopathogens have developed elaborate mechanisms to attenuate the defense response of their host plants, including convergent evolution of complex pathways for production of the GA phytohormones, which were actually first isolated from the rice fungal pathogen Gibberella fujikuroi. The rice bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola (Xoc) has been demonstrated to contain a biosynthetic operon with cyclases capable of producing the universal GA precursor ent-kaurene. Genetic (knock-out) studies indicate that the derived diterpenoid serves as a virulence factor for this rice leaf streak pathogen, serving to reduce the jasmonic acid-mediated defense response. Here the functions of the remaining genes in the Xoc operon are elucidated and the distribution of the operon in X. oryzae is investigated in over 100 isolates. The Xoc operon leads to production of the bioactive GA 4 , an additional step beyond production of the penultimate precursor GA 9 mediated by the homologous operons recently characterized from rhizobia. Moreover, this GA biosynthetic operon was found to be widespread in Xoc (> 90%), but absent in the other major X. oryzae pathovar. These results indicate selective pressure for production of GA 4 in the distinct lifestyle of Xoc, and the importance of GA to both fungal and bacterial pathogens of rice. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  19. The impact of dynamic data assimilation on the numerical simulations of the QE II cyclone and an analysis of the jet streak influencing the precyclogenetic environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manobianco, John; Uccellini, Louis W.; Brill, Keith F.; Kuo, Ying-Hwa

    1992-01-01

    A mesoscale numerical model is combined with a dynamic data assimilation via Newtonian relaxation, or 'nudging', to provide initial conditions for subsequent simulations of the QE II cyclone. Both the nudging technique and the inclusion of supplementary data are shown to have a large positive impact on the simulation of the QE II cyclone during the initial phase of rapid cyclone development. Within the initial development period (from 1200 to 1800 UTC 9 September 1978), the dynamic assimilation of operational and bogus data yields a coherent two-layer divergence pattern that is not well defined in the model run using only the operational data and static initialization. Diagnostic analysis based on the simulations show that the initial development of the QE II storm between 0000 UTC 9 September and 0000 UTC 10 September was embedded within an indirect circulation of an intense 300-hPa jet streak, was related to baroclinic processes extending throughout a deep portion of the troposphere, and was associated with a classic two-layer mass-divergence profile expected for an extratropical cyclone.

  20. Behavior of occurrence of Banana Streak virus in in vitro propagated plants from cultivars of Musa hybrids FHIA-20 and FHIA-21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orelvis Portal

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The losses taken place by the black and yellow Sigatoka have impelled the introduction to the country of the tetraploid hybrids from FHIA, however, at the present time, the high incidence of Banana Streak Virus in these hybrids is well known. To evaluate the effect of the micropropagatión process, on the fluctuations of the viral concentration in the tissue, they were introduced to the in vitro propagation positive and negative plants serologically tested of the cultivars FHIA 20 and 21, previously indexed in field (DAS-ELISA, later on they passed to phase of adaptation to evaluate the derived results of the diagnosis tests carried out after 3-6 months of transplanted. As a result of the DAS-ELISA carried out to the plants in phase of adaptation (37 22.2 % of the negative plants, indexed in field, was positive, while 68.4 % of the positive plants, indexed in field, was negative, in both cases all the plants were positive to the diagnosis for PCR. In some cases, given the implication of the obtained results, was used the ISEM as technique of diagnostic, for the corroboration of the same ones. Key Words: badnavirus, diagnostic, in vitro culture, Musa

  1. Identification and profiling of conserved and novel microRNAs in Laodelphax striatellus in response to rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Min Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding endogenous RNA molecules that play important roles in various biological processes. This study examined microRNA profiles of Laodelphax striatellus using the small RNA libraries derived from virus free (VF and rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV infected (RB insects. A total of 59 mature miRNAs (46 miRNA families were identified as conserved insect miRNAs in both VF and RB libraries. Among these conserved miRNAs, 24 were derived from the two arms of 12 miRNA precursors. Nine conserved L. striatellus miRNAs were up-regulated and 12 were down-regulated in response to RBSDV infection. In addition, a total of 20 potential novel miRNA candidates were predicted in the VF and RB libraries. The miRNA transcriptome profiles and the identification of L. striatellus miRNAs differentially expressed in response to RBSDV infection will contribute to future studies to elucidate the complex miRNA-mediated regulatory network activated by pathogen challenge in insect vectors.

  2. Characterization of rice black-streaked dwarf virus- and rice stripe virus-derived siRNAs in singly and doubly infected insect vector Laodelphax striatellus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junmin Li

    Full Text Available Replication of RNA viruses in insect cells triggers an antiviral defense that is mediated by RNA interference (RNAi which generates viral-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs. However, it is not known whether an antiviral RNAi response is also induced in insects by reoviruses, whose double-stranded RNA genome replication is thought to occur within core particles. Deep sequencing of small RNAs showed that when the small brown planthopper (Laodelphax striatellus was infected by Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV (Reoviridae; Fijivirus, more viral-derived siRNAs accumulated than when the vector insect was infected by Rice stripe virus (RSV, a negative single-stranded RNA virus. RBSDV siRNAs were predominantly 21 and 22 nucleotides long and there were almost equal numbers of positive and negative sense. RBSDV siRNAs were frequently generated from hotspots in the 5'- and 3'-terminal regions of viral genome segments but these hotspots were not associated with any predicted RNA secondary structures. Under laboratory condition, L. striatellus can be infected simultaneously with RBSDV and RSV. Double infection enhanced the accumulation of particular genome segments but not viral coat protein of RBSDV and correlated with an increase in the abundance of siRNAs derived from RBSDV. The results of this study suggest that reovirus replication in its insect vector potentially induces an RNAi-mediated antiviral response.

  3. Low Temperature Storage of Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus-Infected Rice Plants Cannot Sustain Virus Transmission by the Vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danfeng; Li, Pei; Han, Yongqiang; Lei, Wenbin; Hou, Maolin

    2016-02-01

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a novel virus transmitted by white-backed planthopper Sogatella furcifera (Hováth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae). Due to low virus transmission efficiency by the planthopper, researchers are frequently confronted with shortage of viruliferous vectors or infected rice plants, especially in winter and the following spring. To find new ways to maintain virus-infected materials, viral rice plants were stored at -80°C for 45 or 140 d and evaluated as virus sources in virus transmission by the vector. SRBSDV virions were not degraded during storage at -80°C as indicated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and reverse transcription real-time PCR detection. The planthopper nymphs fed on the infected thawed plants for 48 h survived at about 40% and showed positive detection of SRBSDV, but they lost the virus after feeding for another 20 d (the circulative transmission period) on noninfected plants. Transmission electron microscope images indicated broken capsid of virions in infected thawed leaves in contrast to integrity capsid of virions in infected fresh leaves. These results show that low temperature storage of SRBSDV-infected rice plants cannot sustain virus transmission by white-backed planthopper. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Interaction Research on the Antiviral Molecule Dufulin Targeting on Southern Rice Black Streaked Dwarf Virus P9-1 Nonstructural Protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchao Wang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ern rice black streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV causes severe harm to rice production. Unfortunately, studies on effective antiviral drugs against SRBSDV and interaction mechanism of antiviral molecule targeting on SRBSDV have not been reported. This study found dufulin (DFL, an ideal anti-SRBSDV molecule, and investigated the interactions of DFL targeting on the nonstructural protein P9-1. The biological sequence information and bonding characterization of DFL to four kinds of P9-1 protein were described with fluorescence titration (FT and microscale thermophoresis (MST assays. The sequence analysis indicated that P9-1 had highly-conserved C- and N-terminal amino acid residues and a hypervariable region that differed from 131 aa to 160 aa. Consequently, wild-type (WT-His-P9-1, 23 C-terminal residues truncated (TR-ΔC23-His-P9-1, 6 N-terminal residues truncated (TR-ΔN6-His-P9-1, and Ser138 site-directed (MU-138-His-P9-1 mutant proteins were expressed. The FT and MST assay results indicated that DFL bounded to WT-His-P9-1 with micromole affinity and the 23 C-terminal amino acids were the potential targeting site. This system, which combines a complete sequence analysis, mutant protein expression, and binding action evaluating system, could further advance the understanding of the interaction abilities between antiviral drugs and their targets.

  5. Assessment of reference gene stability in Rice stripe virus and Rice black streaked dwarf virus infection rice by quantitative Real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Peng; Lu, Rongfei; Sun, Feng; Lan, Ying; Shen, Wenbiao; Du, Linlin; Zhou, Yijun; Zhou, Tong

    2015-10-24

    Stably expressed reference gene(s) normalization is important for the understanding of gene expression patterns by quantitative Real-time PCR (RT-qPCR), particularly for Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) that caused seriously damage on rice plants in China and Southeast Asia. The expression of fourteen common used reference genes of Oryza sativa L. were evaluated by RT-qPCR in RSV and RBSDV infected rice plants. Suitable normalization reference gene(s) were identified by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. UBQ 10 + GAPDH and UBC + Actin1 were identified as suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization under RSV and RBSDV infection, respectively. When using multiple reference genes, the expression patterns of OsPRIb and OsWRKY, two virus resistance genes, were approximately similar with that reported previously. Comparatively, by using single reference gene (TIP41-Like), a weaker inducible response was observed. We proposed that the combination of two reference genes could obtain more accurate and reliable normalization of RT-qPCR results in RSV- and RBSDV-infected plants. This work therefore sheds light on establishing a standardized RT-qPCR procedure in RSV- and RBSDV-infected rice plants, and might serve as an important point for discovering complex regulatory networks and identifying genes relevant to biological processes or implicated in virus.

  6. Label-Free Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Chitosan Oligosaccharide-Treated Rice Infected with Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Anming; Yu, Lu; Chen, Zhuo; Zhang, Shanxue; Shi, Jing; Zhao, Xiaozhen; Yang, Yuanyou; Hu, Deyu; Song, Baoan

    2017-05-18

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) has spread from thesouth of China to the north of Vietnam in the past few years and severelyinfluenced rice production. Its long incubation period and early symptoms are not evident; thus, controlling it is difficult. Chitosan oligosaccharide (COS) is a green plant immunomodulator. Early studies showed that preventing and controlling SRBSDV have a certain effect and reduce disease infection rate, but its underlying controlling and preventing mechanism is unclear. In this study, label-free proteomics was used to analyze differentially expressed proteins in rice after COS treatment. The results showed that COS can up-regulate the plant defense-related proteins and down-regulate the protein expression levels of SRBSDV. Meanwhile, quantitative real-time PCR test results showed that COS can improve defense gene expression in rice. Moreover, COS can enhance the defense enzymatic activities of peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase through mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascade pathway, and enhance the rice disease resistance.

  7. Interactive Effects of Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus Infection of Host Plant and Vector on Performance of the Vector, Sogatella furcifera (Homoptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Wenbin; Liu, Danfeng; Li, Pei; Hou, Maolin

    2014-10-01

    Performance of insect vectors can be influenced by the viruses they transmit, either directly by infection of the vectors or indirectly via infection of the host plants. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a propagative virus transmitted by the white-backed planthopper, Sogatella furcifera (Hovath). To elucidate the influence of SRBSDV on the performance of white-backed planthopper, life parameters of viruliferous and nonviruliferous white-backed planthopper fed rice seedlings infected or noninfected with SRBSDV were measured using a factorial design. Regardless of the infection status of the rice plant host, viruliferous white-backed planthopper nymphs took longer to develop from nymph to adult than did nonviruliferous nymphs. Viruliferous white-backed planthopper females deposited fewer eggs than nonviruliferous females and both viruliferous and nonviruliferous white-backed planthopper females laid fewer eggs on infected than on noninfected plants. Longevity of white-backed planthopper females was also affected by the infection status of the rice plant and white-backed planthopper. Nonviruliferous white-backed planthopper females that fed on infected rice plants lived longer than the other three treatment groups. These results indicate that the performance of white-backed planthopper is affected by SRBSDV either directly (by infection of white-backed planthopper) or indirectly (by infection of rice plant). The extended development of viruliferous nymphs and the prolonged life span of nonviruliferous adults on infected plants may increase their likelihood of transmitting virus, which would increase virus spread. © 2014 Entomological Society of America.

  8. Metal-induced streak artifact reduction using iterative reconstruction algorithms in x-ray computed tomography image of the dentoalveolar region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Jian; Hayakawa, Yoshihiko; Kannenberg, Sven; Kober, Cornelia

    2013-02-01

    The objective of this study was to reduce metal-induced streak artifact on oral and maxillofacial x-ray computed tomography (CT) images by developing the fast statistical image reconstruction system using iterative reconstruction algorithms. Adjacent CT images often depict similar anatomical structures in thin slices. So, first, images were reconstructed using the same projection data of an artifact-free image. Second, images were processed by the successive iterative restoration method where projection data were generated from reconstructed image in sequence. Besides the maximum likelihood-expectation maximization algorithm, the ordered subset-expectation maximization algorithm (OS-EM) was examined. Also, small region of interest (ROI) setting and reverse processing were applied for improving performance. Both algorithms reduced artifacts instead of slightly decreasing gray levels. The OS-EM and small ROI reduced the processing duration without apparent detriments. Sequential and reverse processing did not show apparent effects. Two alternatives in iterative reconstruction methods were effective for artifact reduction. The OS-EM algorithm and small ROI setting improved the performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A numerical algorithm to evaluate the transient response for a synchronous scanning streak camera using a time-domain Baum–Liu–Tesche equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pei, Chengquan [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); Tian, Jinshou [Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Wu, Shengli, E-mail: slwu@mail.xjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China); He, Jiai [School of Computer and Communication, Lanzhou University of Technology, Lanzhou, Gansu 730050 (China); Liu, Zhen [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049 (China)

    2016-10-01

    The transient response is of great influence on the electromagnetic compatibility of synchronous scanning streak cameras (SSSCs). In this paper we propose a numerical method to evaluate the transient response of the scanning deflection plate (SDP). First, we created a simplified circuit model for the SDP used in an SSSC, and then derived the Baum–Liu–Tesche (BLT) equation in the frequency domain. From the frequency-domain BLT equation, its transient counterpart was derived. These parameters, together with the transient-BLT equation, were used to compute the transient load voltage and load current, and then a novel numerical method to fulfill the continuity equation was used. Several numerical simulations were conducted to verify this proposed method. The computed results were then compared with transient responses obtained by a frequency-domain/fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, and the accordance was excellent for highly conducting cables. The benefit of deriving the BLT equation in the time domain is that it may be used with slight modifications to calculate the transient response and the error can be controlled by a computer program. The result showed that the transient voltage was up to 1000 V and the transient current was approximately 10 A, so some protective measures should be taken to improve the electromagnetic compatibility.

  10. A numerical algorithm to evaluate the transient response for a synchronous scanning streak camera using a time-domain Baum–Liu–Tesche equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei, Chengquan; Tian, Jinshou; Wu, Shengli; He, Jiai; Liu, Zhen

    2016-01-01

    The transient response is of great influence on the electromagnetic compatibility of synchronous scanning streak cameras (SSSCs). In this paper we propose a numerical method to evaluate the transient response of the scanning deflection plate (SDP). First, we created a simplified circuit model for the SDP used in an SSSC, and then derived the Baum–Liu–Tesche (BLT) equation in the frequency domain. From the frequency-domain BLT equation, its transient counterpart was derived. These parameters, together with the transient-BLT equation, were used to compute the transient load voltage and load current, and then a novel numerical method to fulfill the continuity equation was used. Several numerical simulations were conducted to verify this proposed method. The computed results were then compared with transient responses obtained by a frequency-domain/fast Fourier transform (FFT) method, and the accordance was excellent for highly conducting cables. The benefit of deriving the BLT equation in the time domain is that it may be used with slight modifications to calculate the transient response and the error can be controlled by a computer program. The result showed that the transient voltage was up to 1000 V and the transient current was approximately 10 A, so some protective measures should be taken to improve the electromagnetic compatibility.

  11. The diagnostic value and histologic correlate of distinct patterns of shiny white streaks for the diagnosis of melanoma: A retrospective, case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verzi, Anna Eliza; Quan, Victor L; Walton, Kara E; Martini, Mary C; Marghoob, Ashfaq A; Garfield, Erin M; Kong, Betty Y; Isales, Maria Cristina; VandenBoom, Timothy; Zhang, Bin; West, Dennis P; Gerami, Pedram

    2018-05-01

    Shiny white streaks (SWSs) are best visualized with polarized dermoscopy and correlate with dermal fibroplasia histopathologically. SWSs have been described at higher frequencies in melanomas than in benign nevi. We assessed the diagnostic value of different patterns of SWSs and their histologic correlate in melanocytic lesions. Polarized dermoscopic images of 1507 histopathologically diagnosed melanocytic neoplasms were analyzed for presence and pattern of SWSs. Histology was also reviewed for correlation. Among 1507 melanocytic neoplasms, SWSs were observed in 31 of 144 melanomas (22%) and 22 of 1363 benign neoplasms (1.6%) (P < .001). The sensitivity and specificity of SWSs for melanoma were 22% and 98%, respectively. Diffuse SWSs exhibited the greatest diagnostic value for melanoma, with sensitivity of 11.8% and specificity of 99.5%. Focal central and peripheral SWSs were comparable in diagnostic significance. The presence of SWSs was highly uncommon in dysplastic nevi, whereas in certain benign subgroups of nevi such as Spitz nevi and atypical genital special site nevi, SWSs were not uncommon. Diffuse SWSs correlated with greater breadth of deep fibroplasia than focal SWSs (P = .009), and SWSs correlated with greater Breslow depth among melanomas (P = .007). This study was retrospective. Polarized dermoscopy is a valuable diagnostic tool in the identification of SWSs, a feature that is highly specific for melanoma. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. An alternative scanning protocol to eliminate perivenous streak artifacts in thoracic spiral computed tomography. The usefulness of ankle vein contrast injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Masaki; Ogino, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Masato; Ohba, Satoru; Andoh, Keiichi; Kitase, Masanori; Goodman, P.C.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to eliminate perivenous streak artifact from contrast-enhanced thoracic spiral CT using superficial ankle vein injection (ankle vein method). Forty-four consecutive inpatients had thoracic spiral CT following ankle vein method and were compared to 30 patients who had conventional antecubital vein injection. Non-ionic 300 mg/mL contrast material were injected at 1-1.5 mL/sec with a power injector. Twenty mL of normal saline was injected immediately thereafter as a flushing bolus. Qualitative scores of perivenous artifact (1 to 5=extensive) and vascular enhancement (1 to 5=excellent) were recorded. Complications were investigated clinically. The mean score of perivenous artifact was 1 with the ankle vein method and 4.4 with the conventional method (P<.0001). Scores of pulmonary artery opacification were almost equal (4.2 and 4.5 respectively, P=.11). No complications were observed. The ankle vein method is an effective method to prevent perivenous artifact during thoracic spiral CT. (author)

  13. Population structure within lineages of Wheat streak mosaic virus derived from a common founding event exhibits stochastic variation inconsistent with the deterministic quasi-species model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, Roy; Stenger, Drake C.

    2005-01-01

    Structure of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) populations derived from a common founding event and subjected to serial passage at high multiplicity of infection (MOI) was evaluated. The founding population was generated by limiting dilution inoculation. Lineages of known pedigree were sampled at passage 9 (two populations) and at passage 15, with (three populations) or without mixing (four populations) of lineages at passage 10. Polymorphism within each population was assessed by sequencing 17-21 clones containing a 1371 nt region (WSMV-Sidney 81 nts 8001-9371) encompassing the entire coat protein cistron and flanking regions. Mutation frequency averaged ∼5.0 x 10 -4 /nt across all populations and ranged from 2.4 to 11.6 x 10 -4 /nt within populations, but did not consistently increase or decrease with the number of passages removed from the founding population. Shared substitutions (19 nonsynonymous, 10 synonymous, and 3 noncoding) occurred at 32 sites among 44 haplotypes. Only four substitutions became fixed (frequency = 100%) within a population and nearly one third (10/32) never achieved a frequency of 10% or greater in any sampled population. Shared substitutions were randomly distributed with respect to genome position, with transitions outnumbering transversions 5.4:1 and a clear bias for A to G and U to C substitutions. Haplotype composition of each population was unique with complexity of each population varying unpredictably, in that the number and frequency of haplotypes within a lineage were not correlated with number of passages removed from the founding population or whether the population was derived from a single or mixed lineage. The simplest explanation is that plant virus lineages, even those propagated at high MOI, are subject to frequent, narrow genetic bottlenecks during systemic movement that result in low effective population size and stochastic changes in population structure upon serial passage

  14. Functional replacement of Wheat streak mosaic virus HC-Pro with the corresponding cistron from a diverse array of viruses in the family Potyviridae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenger, Drake C.; French, Roy

    2004-01-01

    Helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of Wheat streak mosaic virus strain Sidney 81 (WSMV-Sidney 81) was systematically replaced with the corresponding cistron derived from four strains of WSMV (Type, TK1, CZ, and El Batan 3), the tritimovirus Oat necrotic mottle virus (ONMV), the rymoviruses Agropyron mosaic virus (AgMV) and Hordeum mosaic virus (HoMV), or the potyviruses Tobacco etch virus (TEV) and Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV). These HC-Pro proteins varied in amino acid sequence identity shared with HC-Pro of WSMV-Sidney 81 from high (strains of WSMV at ∼86-99%) to moderate (ONMV at 70%) to low (rymoviruses and potyviruses at ∼15-17%). Surprisingly, all chimeric viral genomes examined were capable of systemic infection of wheat upon inoculation with RNA transcripts produced in vitro. HC-Pro replacements derived from tritimoviruses did not alter host range relative to WSMV-Sidney 81, as each of these chimeric viruses was able to systemically infect wheat, oat, and corn line SDp2. These results indicate that differences in host range among tritimoviruses, including the inability of ONMV to infect wheat or the inability of WSMV strains Type and El Batan 3 to infect SDp2 corn, are not determined by HC-Pro. In contrast, all chimeric viruses bearing HC-Pro replacements derived from rymoviruses or potyviruses were unable to infect SDp2 corn and oat. Collectively, these results indicate that HC-Pro from distantly related virus species of the family Potyviridae are competent to provide WSMV-Sidney 81 with all functions necessary for infection of a permissive host (wheat) and that virus-host interactions required for systemic infection of oat and SDp2 corn are more stringent. Changes in symptom severity or mechanical transmission efficiency observed for some chimeric viruses further suggest that HC-Pro affects virulence in WSMV

  15. MicroRNAs responding to southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus infection and their target genes associated with symptom development in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Donglin; Mou, Guiping; Wang, Kang; Zhou, Guohui

    2014-09-22

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a recently emerged rice virus that has spread across Asia. This devastating virus causes rice plants to produce a variety of symptoms during different growth stages. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) comprise a large group of 21-24-nt RNA molecules that are important regulators of plant development processes and stress responses. In this study, we used microarray profiling to investigate rice miRNAs responding to SRBSDV infection at 3, 9, 15, and 20 days post-inoculation (dpi). Expression levels of 56 miRNAs were altered in SRBSDV-infected rice plants, with these changes classified into eight different regulation patterns according to their temporal expression dynamics. Fourteen miRNAs belonging to six families (miR164, R396, R530, R1846, R1858, and R2097) were significantly regulated at 20 dpi. We used RT-qPCR to search for expression level correlations between members of these families and their putative targets at 3, 9, and 15 dpi. Some members of the miR164, R396, R530, and R1846 families were found to be positively or negatively correlated with their respective targets during 3-15 days after SRBSDV infection, whereas in more cases the rice miRNAs were not in correlation with their targets along the post-inoculation period, suggesting that some additional factors may be involved in rice miRNA-target interactions. The reported functions of rice genes targeted by the miR164, R396, R530, R1846, and R1858 families indicated that these genes are associated with symptom development. These results provide insights into miRNA-mediated SRBSDV-rice interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Keefektivan Trichoderma harzianum sebagai Agens Pengendali Hayati Penyakit Pembuluh kayu (Vascular Streak Dieback Pada Tanaman Kakao Klon ICCRI 03 dan TSH 858

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    joko susiyanto

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAKPenyakit Pembuluh Kayu (PPK/ Vascular Streak Dieback (VSD merupakan penyakit penting yang menyerang perkebunan kakao yang disebabkan oleh patogen Oncobasidium theobromae. Penggunaan cendawan Trichoderma harzianum sebagai agens antagonis karena mempunyai kemampuan dalam menghambat pertumbuhan cendawan patogen. Pengujian keefektivan cendawan T. harzianum isolat Jember dan isolat Banyuwangi pada beberapa konsentrasi dalam mengendalikan penyakit pembuluh kayu (PPK/VSD telah dilaksanakan dikebun percobaan pusat penelitian kopi dan kakao Indonesia. Penelitian ini dilaksanakan selama 3 bulan dan pengamatan setiap minggu. Perlakuan yang digunakan dalam keefektivan yaitu: (1 T. harzianum isolat Jember dengan konsentrasi 108 spora/ml, (2 T. harzianum isolat Jember dengan konsentrasi 109 spora/ml, (3 T. harzianum isolat Jember dengan konsentrasi 1010 spora/ml, (4 T. harzianum isolat Banyuwangi konsentrasi 108 spora/ml, (5 T. harzianum isolat Banyuwangi konsentrasi 109 spora/ml, (6 T. harzianum isolat Banyuwangi konsentrasi 1010 spora/ml, dan Kontrol menggunakan air bersih. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa T. harzianum  baik isolat Jember dan Banyuwangi cukup efektif menekan perkembangan penyakit pembuluh kayu (PPK/VSD. Perlakuan T. harzianum terbaik dalam mengendalikan penyakit (PPK/VSD ditunjukkan oleh perlakuan T. harzianum  isolat Jember  109 spora/ml dengan nilai IP sebesar 0,71 % pada klon ICCRI 03, sedangkan pada klon TSH 858 isolat Banyuwangi konsentrasi 1010 spora/ml dengan nilai 7,38%. Kategori Tingkat Efikasi (TE tertinggi ditunjukkan oleh perlakuan isolat Jember konsentrasi 109 spora/ml dengan nilai sebesar 95,3% pada klon ICCRI 03, sedangkan pada klon TSH 858 isolat banyuwangi konsentrasi  1010 spora/ml dengan nilai 80,55%. Hasil uji t tanpa memperhatikan perlakuan pada Tingkat Efikasi (TE klon ICCRI 03 menunjukkan hasil berbeda nyata dengan nilai TE lebih tinggi/terbaik bila dibandingkan dengan nilai TE klon TSH 858. 

  17. 4D display of the outflow track of embryonic-chick hearts (HH 14-19) using a high speed streak mode OCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Siyu; Wang, Rui; Goodwin, Richard L.; Markwald, Roger R.; Borg, Thomas K.; Runyan, Raymond B.; Gao, Zhi

    2013-02-01

    Congenital Heart Disease (CHD) is the most common congenital malformation in newborns in the US. Although knowledge of CHD is limited, altered hemodynamic conditions are suspected as the factor that stimulates cardiovascular cell response, resulting in the heart morphology remodeling that ultimately causes CHDs. Therefore, one of recent efforts in CHD study is to develop high-speed imaging tools to correlate the rapidly changing hemodynamic condition and the morphological adaptations of an embryonic heart in vivo. We have developed a high-speed streak mode OCT that works at the center wavelength of 830 nm and is capable of providing images (292x220 μm2) of the outflow tract of an embryonic chick heart at the rate of 1000 Hz. The modality can provide a voxel resolution in the range of 10 μm3, and the spectral resolution allows a depth range of 1.63 mm. In the study reported here, each of the 4D images of an outflow tract was recorded for 2 seconds. The recording was conducted every 2 hours (HH17 to HH18), 3 hours (HH14 to HH17), and 4 hours (HH18 to HH19). Because of the fast scan speed, there is no need for postacquisition processing such as use of gating techniques to provide a fine 3D structure. In addition, more details of the outflow tract are preserved in the recorded images. The 4D images can be used in the future to determine the role of blood flow in CHD development.

  18. Manual versus automated streaking system in clinical microbiology laboratory: Performance evaluation of Previ Isola for blood culture and body fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Qute; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jong Wan; Kwon, Gye Cheol; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2018-01-04

    The process of plate streaking has been automated to improve routine workflow of clinical microbiology laboratories. Although there were many evaluation reports about the inoculation of various body fluid samples, few evaluations have been reported for blood. In this study, we evaluated the performance of automated inoculating system, Previ Isola for various routine clinical samples including blood. Blood culture, body fluid, and urine samples were collected. All samples were inoculated on both sheep blood agar plate (BAP) and MacConkey agar plate (MCK) using Previ Isola and manual method. We compared two methods in aspect of quality and quantity of cultures, and sample processing time. To ensure objective colony counting, an enumeration reading reference was made through a preliminary experiment. A total of 377 nonduplicate samples (102 blood culture, 203 urine, 72 body fluid) were collected and inoculated. The concordance rate of quality was 100%, 97.0%, and 98.6% in blood, urine, and other body fluids, respectively. In quantitative aspect, it was 98.0%, 97.0%, and 95.8%, respectively. The Previ Isola took a little longer to inoculate the specimen than manual method, but the hands-on time decreased dramatically. The shortened hands-on time using Previ Isola was about 6 minutes per 10 samples. We demonstrated that the Previ Isola showed high concordance with the manual method in the inoculation of various body fluids, especially in blood culture sample. The use of Previ Isola in clinical microbiology laboratories is expected to save considerable time and human resources. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) directly affects the feeding and reproduction behavior of its vector, Sogatella furcifera (Horváth) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hongxing; He, Xiaochan; Zheng, Xusong; Yang, Yajun; Tian, Junce; Lu, Zhongxian

    2014-03-24

    Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a recently discovered member of the genus Fijivirus and it is transmitted by the rice whitebacked planthopper (WBPH), Sogatella furcifera (Horváth). It was found that SRBSDV infected vectors might contribute negatively to the WBPH population, although the longer nymphal period might benefit viral acquisition, transmission and increase infection rate. The interaction between SRBSDV and its vector need to be further explored to gain better understanding of the dispersal of WBPH and the spread of virus disease, in particular the feeding and reproduction behavior of viruliferous WBPH. Newly hatched nymphs of WBPH were fed on healthy rice plant after feeding on SRBSDV-infected rice plants for 2 h, and newly emerged adults were numbered and tested. Feeding behaviors of WBPH adults were monitored electronically within a Faraday cage using a Giga-4 DC EPG amplifier. The newly emerged adults were paired, and the fecundity and egg hatchability were investigated. WBPH was molecularly identified for SRBSDV when they dead. According to the identification results, data on viruliferous and non-viruliferous WBPH were collected and analyzed. Feeding behavior of viruliferous WBPH was different from those of non-viruliferous WBPH. Frequency of phloem sap ingestion of viruliferous WBPH increased significantly, however the total feeding duration did not increase markedly. When both WBPH parents were infected with SRBSDV, their fecundity and hatchability of the eggs produced were significant lower than those of normal WBPH parents. However, if only one of the parents was viruliferous, fecundity and egg hatchability were only slightly affected. Viruliferous WBPH fed on the phloem more frequently than non-viruliferous WBPH and can thus contribute to virus transmission. When both vector parents are viruliferous fecundity and hatchability of the eggs were significantly reduced. However when only one of the parents WBPH was viruliferous

  20. Cryoseism Vibrational Movement and Sorting of Detritus of Mars' Regolith Bedforms (E.G., ~ Streaks, Gullies): a New, Dry, Midsummer Antarctic Analogue Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, A. B.

    2015-12-01

    "SNAP!, CRACK!, POP!" The sounds reverberated across newly shaded permafrost of unusual talus aprons (Ford & Andersen, 1967; J. Geol., 75, 722-732) of interior Antarctica (lats. >84°S; Thiel, Pensacola mtns.), coming from ice cracking under tensile failure (cryoseisms). Apron regoliths show conspicuously reversed downslope particle-size sorting and downslope-oriented lineations (debris-cleared tracts; stone stripes) formed by vibrational movement of detritus by midsummer, diurnal cracking of ice. Moving laterally by vibrations away from cracks, with downslope component by gravity, finer detritus becomes concentrated downslope from coarser debris of initial cliff fall — winnowed, as if on a gigantic vibrating shaking table. Slopes outside shade zones remain free of cracking. Diurnal midday shading of solar-warmed, debris-mantled permafrost- and glacier-surface ice at low ambient midsummer temperatures produces high strain-loading rates that exceed tensile toughness of inhomogeneous, polycrystalline ice containing zones of older but sealed cracks. This dry, mechanical, cryoseism mechanism is here proposed also for now waterless Mars and other icy Solar System bodies. Regolith features of Mars' cryosphere may appear different from anrarctic analogues owing to likely operation over tens if not hundreds of millions of years longer than on Earth. The strain distributions in tensile failure of ice better explain a common spacing uniformity of many martian linear features than others' proposed origins, and for some "active" streaks and gully channels, TARS, RSL and dune-slipface channels, as well as for dune orthogonality, diurnal moonquakes and asteroid-regolith detrital sorting (e.g., "rubble-pile" 25143-Itokawa). Because periodic shade from topography (canyons, craters, etc.) is needed, the mechanism is not expected on flattish terrains where more normal annual cooling rates produce the common polygonal tensile fracturing of ice

  1. Characteristics of siRNAs derived from Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus in infected rice and their potential role in host gene regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Donglin; Zhou, Guohui

    2017-02-10

    Virus-derived siRNAs (vsiRNAs)-mediated RNA silencing plays important roles in interaction between plant viruses and their hosts. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) is a newly emerged devastating rice reovirus with ten dsRNA genomic segments. The characteristics of SRBSDV-derived siRNAs and their biological implications in SRBSDV-rice interaction remain unexplored. VsiRNAs profiling from SRBSDV-infected rice samples was done via small RNA deep sequencing. The putative rice targets of abundantly expressed vsiRNAs were bioinformatically predicted and subjected to functional annotation. Differential expression analysis of rice targets and RNA silencing components between infected and healthy samples was done using RT-qPCR. The vsiRNA was barely detectable at 14 days post infection (dpi) but abundantly present along with elevated expression level of the viral genome at 28 dpi. From the 28-dpi sample, 70,878 reads of 18 ~ 30-nt vsiRNAs were recognized (which mostly were 21-nt and 22-nt), covering 75 ~ 91% of the length of the ten genomic segments respectively. 86% of the vsiRNAs had a rice genes, including several types of host resistance or pathogenesis related genes encoding F-box/LRR proteins, receptor-like protein kinases, universal stress proteins, tobamovirus multiplication proteins, and RNA silencing components OsDCL2a and OsAGO17 respectively, some of which showed down regulation in infected plants in RT-qPCR. GO and KEGG classification showed that a majority of the predicted targets were related to cell parts and cellular processes and involved in carbohydrate metabolism, translation, and signal transduction. The silencing component genes OsDCL2a, OsDCL2b, OsDCL4, and OsAGO18 were down regulated, while OsAGO1d, OsAGO2, OsRDR1 and OsRDR6 were up regulated, significantly, upon SRBSDV infection. SRBSDV can regulate the expression of rice RNA silencing pathway components and the virus might compromise host defense and influence host

  2. Heritable, De Novo Resistance to Leaf Rust and Other Novel Traits in Selfed Descendants of Wheat Responding to Inoculation with Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifers, Dallas L.; Haber, Steve; Martin, Terry J.; McCallum, Brent D.

    2014-01-01

    Stable resistance to infection with Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) can be evolved de novo in selfing bread wheat lines subjected to cycles of WSMV inoculation and selection of best-performing plants or tillers. To learn whether this phenomenon might be applied to evolve resistance de novo to pathogens unrelated to WSMV, we examined the responses to leaf rust of succeeding generations of the rust- and WSMV-susceptible cultivar ‘Lakin’ following WSMV inoculation and derived rust-resistant sublines. After three cycles of the iterative protocol five plants, in contrast to all others, expressed resistance to leaf and stripe rust. A subset of descendant sublines of one of these, ‘R1’, heritably and uniformly expressed the new trait of resistance to leaf rust. Such sublines, into which no genes from a known source of resistance had been introgressed, conferred resistance to progeny of crosses with susceptible parents. The F1 populations produced from crosses between, respectively, susceptible and resistant ‘Lakin’ sublines 4-3-3 and 4-12-3 were not all uniform in their response to seedling inoculation with race TDBG. In seedling tests against TDBG and MKPS races the F2s from F1 populations that were uniformly resistant had 3∶1 ratios of resistant to susceptible individuals but the F2s from susceptible F1 progenitors were uniformly susceptible. True-breeding lines derived from resistant individuals in F2 populations were resistant to natural stripe and leaf rust inoculum in the field, while the ‘Lakin’ progenitor was susceptible. The next generation of six of the ‘Lakin’-derived lines exhibited moderate to strong de novo resistance to stem rust races TPMK, QFCS and RKQQ in seedling tests while the ‘Lakin’ progenitor was susceptible. These apparently epigenetic effects in response to virus infection may help researchers fashion a new tool that expands the range of genetic resources already available in adapted germplasm. PMID:24497941

  3. Improvements in streaking nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrick, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    In this type of reactor atomic nuclei are stripped of their electron shells by heating to form a very high temperature plasma which is passed at high speed through a chamber in which they are forced into contact with a 'wall' formed by a unidirectional stream of photons from continuous laser beams. In this way it should be possible to brush off from the surface of the nuclei protons and neutrons, with release of their binding energy. The energy thus produced can be subjected to much more gentle control than with a fission or fusion reactor. Furthermore, if this concept can be successfully applied to elements of high atomic number which are normally regarded as stable and unfissionable, a vast new source of nuclear energy release will have been made available. It also seems possible that an atomic nucleus might be spun sufficiently in such a reactor to disintegrate it completely into nucleons by simple centrifugal action, with great release of binding energy. The reactor described has a central body with radial ducts through which the nuclei are passed, and a number of lasers are provided whose beams are arranged so that the nuclei are discharged at the cross-over point of two or more laser beams which form a corner at the junction of two or more photon walls. (U.K.)

  4. Evaluation of Rice Resistance to Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus and Rice Ragged Stunt Virus through Combined Field Tests, Quantitative Real-Time PCR, and Proteome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenchao; Yu, Lu; Jin, Linhong; Wang, Wenli; Zhao, Qi; Ran, Longlu; Li, Xiangyang; Chen, Zhuo; Guo, Rong; Wei, Yongtian; Yang, Zhongcheng; Liu, Enlong; Hu, Deyu; Song, Baoan

    2017-02-22

    Diseases caused by southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) and rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) considerably decrease grain yield. Therefore, determining rice cultivars with high resistance to SRBSDV and RRSV is necessary. In this study, rice cultivars with high resistance to SRBSDV and RRSV were evaluated through field trials in Shidian and Mangshi county, Yunnan province, China. SYBR Green I-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to quantitatively detect virus gene expression levels in different rice varieties. The following parameters were applied to evaluate rice resistance: acre yield (A.Y.), incidence of infected plants (I.I.P.), virus load (V.L.), disease index (D.I.), and insect quantity (I.Q.) per 100 clusters. Zhongzheyou1 (Z1) and Liangyou2186 (L2186) were considered the most suitable varieties with integrated higher A.Y., lower I.I.P., V.L., D.I. and I.Q. In order to investigate the mechanism of rice resistance, comparative label-free shotgun liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomic approaches were applied to comprehensively describe the proteomics of rice varieties' SRBSDV tolerance. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-related proteins in Z1 and L2186 may result in the superior resistance of these varieties compared with Fengyouxiangzhan (FYXZ).

  5. Successful application of FTA Classic Card technology and use of bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase for large-scale field sampling and cloning of complete maize streak virus genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owor, Betty E; Shepherd, Dionne N; Taylor, Nigel J; Edema, Richard; Monjane, Adérito L; Thomson, Jennifer A; Martin, Darren P; Varsani, Arvind

    2007-03-01

    Leaf samples from 155 maize streak virus (MSV)-infected maize plants were collected from 155 farmers' fields in 23 districts in Uganda in May/June 2005 by leaf-pressing infected samples onto FTA Classic Cards. Viral DNA was successfully extracted from cards stored at room temperature for 9 months. The diversity of 127 MSV isolates was analysed by PCR-generated RFLPs. Six representative isolates having different RFLP patterns and causing either severe, moderate or mild disease symptoms, were chosen for amplification from FTA cards by bacteriophage phi29 DNA polymerase using the TempliPhi system. Full-length genomes were inserted into a cloning vector using a unique restriction enzyme site, and sequenced. The 1.3-kb PCR product amplified directly from FTA-eluted DNA and used for RFLP analysis was also cloned and sequenced. Comparison of cloned whole genome sequences with those of the original PCR products indicated that the correct virus genome had been cloned and that no errors were introduced by the phi29 polymerase. This is the first successful large-scale application of FTA card technology to the field, and illustrates the ease with which large numbers of infected samples can be collected and stored for downstream molecular applications such as diversity analysis and cloning of potentially new virus genomes.

  6. Molecular confirmation of Maize rayado fino virus as the Brazilian corn streak virus Confirmação molecular do 'Maize rayado fino virus' como vírus da estria do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Wahnbaeck Hammond

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV, present in various countries in Latin America, has shown similarities to corn streak virus that occurs in Brazil, regarding pathogenic, serological and histological characteristics. In the current report both virus were molecularly compared to confirm the similarities between them. MRFV was identified by nucleic acid hybridization in samples of maize tissues exhibiting symptoms of "corn stunt" disease, collected from two Brazilian States - São Paulo and Minas Gerais. The coat protein gene and 3'non-translated region of MRFV were amplified from infected tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using MRFV-specific primers, and were characterized by nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the cloned PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis of the relationships between the Brazilian isolates and isolates obtained from Latin America and the United States reveals a close relationship to isolates from Brazil, Peru and Bolivia. Results support the proposal that the Brazilian corn streak virus be regarded as an isolate of MRFV and provide evidence for the presence of MRFV in "corn stunt' disease in Brazil.O vírus do rayado fino do milho (MRFV, presente em vários países da América Latina, tem mostrado semelhança ao vírus da risca do milho que ocorre no Brasil, em relação a características patogênicas, sorológicas e histológicas. No presente trabalho, ambos os vírus foram comparados molecularmente, visando confirmar a similaridade entre os mesmos. O MRFV foi identificado por hibridização de ácido nucléico em amostras de tecido que apresentavam sintomas de enfezamento, coletadas nos estados de São Paulo e Minas Gerais. O gene da capa protéica e a região 3' não traduzida do MRFV foram amplificados, a partir de tecidos infectados, através da transcrição reversa por reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR, usando-se os iniciadores específicos para o vírus, obtendo-se a seq

  7. Rice black streaked dwarf virus P7-2 forms a SCF complex through binding to Oryza sativa SKP1-like proteins, and interacts with GID2 involved in the gibberellin pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Tao

    Full Text Available As a core subunit of the SCF complex that promotes protein degradation through the 26S proteasome, S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1 plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes, including gibberellin (GA, jasmonate, ethylene, auxin and light responses. P7-2 encoded by Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a devastating viral pathogen that causes severe symptoms in infected plants, interacts with SKP1 from different plants. However, whether RBSDV P7-2 forms a SCF complex and targets host proteins is poorly understood. In this study, we conducted yeast two-hybrid assays to further explore the interactions between P7-2 and 25 type I Oryza sativa SKP1-like (OSK proteins, and found that P7-2 interacted with eight OSK members with different binding affinity. Co-immunoprecipitation assay further confirmed the interaction of P7-2 with OSK1, OSK5 and OSK20. It was also shown that P7-2, together with OSK1 and O. sativa Cullin-1, was able to form the SCF complex. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid assays revealed that P7-2 interacted with gibberellin insensitive dwarf2 (GID2 from rice and maize plants, which is essential for regulating the GA signaling pathway. It was further demonstrated that the N-terminal region of P7-2 was necessary for the interaction with GID2. Overall, these results indicated that P7-2 functioned as a component of the SCF complex in rice, and interaction of P7-2 with GID2 implied possible roles of the GA signaling pathway during RBSDV infection.

  8. Rice black streaked dwarf virus P7-2 forms a SCF complex through binding to Oryza sativa SKP1-like proteins, and interacts with GID2 involved in the gibberellin pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tao; Zhou, Cui-Ji; Wang, Qian; Chen, Xiang-Ru; Sun, Qian; Zhao, Tian-Yu; Ye, Jian-Chun; Wang, Ying; Zhang, Zong-Ying; Zhang, Yong-Liang; Guo, Ze-Jian; Wang, Xian-Bing; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2017-01-01

    As a core subunit of the SCF complex that promotes protein degradation through the 26S proteasome, S-phase kinase-associated protein 1 (SKP1) plays important roles in multiple cellular processes in eukaryotes, including gibberellin (GA), jasmonate, ethylene, auxin and light responses. P7-2 encoded by Rice black streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV), a devastating viral pathogen that causes severe symptoms in infected plants, interacts with SKP1 from different plants. However, whether RBSDV P7-2 forms a SCF complex and targets host proteins is poorly understood. In this study, we conducted yeast two-hybrid assays to further explore the interactions between P7-2 and 25 type I Oryza sativa SKP1-like (OSK) proteins, and found that P7-2 interacted with eight OSK members with different binding affinity. Co-immunoprecipitation assay further confirmed the interaction of P7-2 with OSK1, OSK5 and OSK20. It was also shown that P7-2, together with OSK1 and O. sativa Cullin-1, was able to form the SCF complex. Moreover, yeast two-hybrid assays revealed that P7-2 interacted with gibberellin insensitive dwarf2 (GID2) from rice and maize plants, which is essential for regulating the GA signaling pathway. It was further demonstrated that the N-terminal region of P7-2 was necessary for the interaction with GID2. Overall, these results indicated that P7-2 functioned as a component of the SCF complex in rice, and interaction of P7-2 with GID2 implied possible roles of the GA signaling pathway during RBSDV infection.

  9. Rice black-streaked dwarf virus P6 self-interacts to form punctate, viroplasm-like structures in the cytoplasm and recruits viroplasm-associated protein P9-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jialin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV, a member of the genus Fijivirus within the family Reoviridae, can infect several graminaceous plant species including rice, maize and wheat, and is transmitted by planthoppers. Although several RBSDV proteins have been studied in detail, functions of the nonstructural protein P6 are still largely unknown. Results In the current study, we employed yeast two-hybrid assays, bimolecular fluorescence complementation and subcellular localization experiments to show that P6 can self-interact to form punctate, cytoplasmic viroplasm-like structures (VLS when expressed alone in plant cells. The region from residues 395 to 659 is necessary for P6 self-interaction, whereas two polypeptides (residues 580-620 and 615-655 are involved in the subcellular localization of P6. Furthermore, P6 strongly interacts with the viroplasm-associated protein P9-1 and recruits P9-1 to localize in VLS. The P6 395-659 region is also important for the P6-P9-1 interaction, and deleting any region of P9-1 abolishes this heterologous interaction. Conclusions RBSDV P6 protein has an intrinsic ability to self-interact and forms VLS without other RBSDV proteins or RNAs. P6 recruits P9-1 to VLS by direct protein-protein interaction. This is the first report on the functionality of RBSDV P6 protein. P6 may be involved in the process of viroplasm nucleation and virus morphogenesis.

  10. Hot Streak Characterization in Serpentine Exhaust Nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-26

    computational results with experiments at General Electric (GE) Aircraft Engines. They used the CFD code PEPSI -G, a three-dimensional, subsonic, PNS...the treatment of flow separation. The PEPSI -G code did not allow for reverse flow but instead substituted a small positive value for any cells where...aforementioned PEPSI -G code was used with a first-order marching scheme and one-dimensional pressure field correction), some results and hypotheses are

  11. Lydia Shattuck: "A Streak of the Modern."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmurak, Carole B.; Handler, Bonnie S.

    1991-01-01

    Lydia Shattuck was responsible for the excellence in science instruction at Mount Holyoke Seminary. Shattuck graduated in 1851 and remained there as a faculty member, specializing in chemistry and botany. One of the first women to join scientific societies, she helped enlarge the sphere of women engaged in scientific research. (SM)

  12. Picosecond x-ray streak camera studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasyanov, Yu.S.; Malyutin, A.A.; Richardson, M.C.; Chevokin, V.K.

    1975-01-01

    Some initial results of direct measurement of picosecond x-ray emission from laser-produced plasmas are presented. A PIM-UMI 93 image converter tube, incorporating an x-ray sensitive photocathode, linear deflection, and three stages of image amplification was used to analyse the x-ray radiation emanating from plasmas produced from solid Ti targets by single high-intensity picosecond laser pulses. From such plasmas, the x-ray emission typically persisted for times of 60psec. However, it is shown that this detection system should be capable of resolving x-ray phenomena of much shorter duration. (author)

  13. The Secret of the Winning Streak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolley, Thomas E.; du Sautoy, Marcus P. F.

    2011-01-01

    In 2006, Marcus du Sautoy delivered the Royal Institution Christmas Lectures on the subject of mathematics. From this, a workshop was created using ideas illustrated in the programme. A group of mathematical students from the University of Oxford, known as Marcus' Marvellous Mathemagicians, were trained in this workshop and now travel to schools…

  14. Electron accelerating unit for streak image tubes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The simulation results show that the accelerating unit improves both the spatial and temporal .... This electron emission process is simulated as a statistical sample in terms of Monte ... solver using above method in MATLAB language. First the .... semiconductors and insulators: Models and measurements. J. Phys. Rev.

  15. Imacon 600 ultrafast streak camera evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, T.C.; Coleman, L.W.

    1975-01-01

    The Imacon 600 has a number of designed in disadvantages for use as an ultrafast diagnostic instrument. The unit is physically large (approximately 5' long) and uses an external power supply rack for the image intensifier. Water cooling is required for the intensifier; it is quiet but not conducive to portability. There is no interlock on the cooling water. The camera does have several switch selectable sweep speeds. This is desirable if one is working with both slow and fast events. The camera can be run in a framing mode. (MOW)

  16. HEAVY ION FUSION SCIENCE VIRTUAL NATIONAL LABORATORY 2nd QUARTER 2010 MILESTONE REPORT. Develop the theory connecting pyrometer and streak camera spectrometer data to the material properties of beam heated targets and compare to the data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, R.M.; Barnard, J.J.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Henestroza, E.; Lidia, S.M.; Ni, P.A.

    2010-01-01

    This milestone has been accomplished. We have extended the theory that connects pyrometer and streak spectrometer data to material temperature on several fronts and have compared theory to NDCX-I experiments. For the case of NDCX-I, the data suggests that as the metallic foils are heated they break into droplets (cf. HIFS VNL Milestone Report FY 2009 Q4). Evaporation of the metallic surface will occur, but optical emission should be directly observable from the solid or liquid surface of the foil or from droplets. However, the emissivity of hot material may be changed from the cold material and interference effects will alter the spectrum emitted from small droplets. These effects have been incorporated into a theory of emission from droplets. We have measured emission using streaked spectrometry and together with theory of emission from heated droplets have inferred the temperature of a gold foil heated by the NDCX-I experiment. The intensity measured by the spectrometer is proportional to the emissivity times the blackbody intensity at the temperature of the foil or droplets. Traditionally, a functional form for the emissivity as a function of wavelength (such as a quadratic) is assumed and the three unknown emissivity parameters (for the case of a quadratic) and the temperature are obtained by minimizing the deviations from the fit. In the case of the NDCX-I experiment, two minima were obtained: at 7200 K and 2400 K. The best fit was at 7200 K. However, when the actual measured emissivity of gold was used and when the theoretical corrections for droplet interference effects were made for emission from droplets having radii in the range 0.2 to 2.0 microns, the corrected emissivity was consistent with the 2400 K value, whereas the fit emissivity at 7200 K shows no similarity to the corrected emissivity curves. Further, an estimate of the temperature obtained from beam heating is consistent with the lower value. This exercise proved to be a warning to be skeptical

  17. Development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish Prochilodus argenteus (Characiformes, Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alcione Eneida Santos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the digestive system in larvae of the Neotropical fish P. argenteus was analyzed histologically. On the 3rd day after hatching, the digestive system comprised oropharyngeal cavity, esophagus and simple undifferentiated tube. Since secreting cells, positive to Alcian Blue (AB, were found in the esophagus, digestive activity in the initial phase had occurred. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the esophagus was positive for AB and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS stain. The stomach was fully differentiated, with the cardiac, fundic and pyloric regions. Different regions of the epithelium were characterized by basic and acidic secreting cells (AB and PAS positive. On the 18 and 28th days after hatching, the intestine was long, coiled and divided into proximal, middle and distal segments with pyloric ceca. Secreting cells in different regions of the gut were either positive or negative for AB and PAS. Results showed that larvae of P. argenteus exhibited digestive activity on the third day after hatching, with fully differentiated stomach and intestines on the 18 and 28th days and their different regions featuring secreting cells.

  18. EVALUACIÓN DEL POLICULTIVO DE BOCACHICO Prochilodus magdalenae Y TILAPA Oreochromis niloticus UTILIZANDO SUPERFICIES FIJADORAS DE PERIFITON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. J. García

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available La piscicultura es una actividad importante para satisfacer la demanda alimenticia de una población en crecimiento y en su práctica es necesario desarrollar tecnologías responsables con el ambiente. El policultivo de tilapia-bocachico es relevante por la importancia de estas especies a nivel nacional; tilapia por sus características zootécnicas, y bocachico por su hábito alimentario detritívoro-iliófago, recientemente visto como un pez ecológico. El cultivo basado en perifiton permitiría un sistema altamente eficiente y más limpio, pues aporta alimento natural a los peces y mejora la calidad del agua. Para evaluar el efecto del perifiton sobre el desempeño del policultivo tilapia-bocachico, se ejecutó un experimento durante ocho meses en 18 estanques de 90 m2, con 2,6 tilapias/ m2 y 0,7 bocachicos/m2, sin fertilización; como sustrato para perifiton se instalaron de forma vertical tubos plásticos (3,3 tubos/m2, que se constituyeron en una variable por evaluar. Adicionalmente, tres estrategias alimentarias fueron evaluadas: 0 (sin alimento, alimentación con ración del 20% de proteína bruta (PB y alimentación con ración del 25% de PB. Se utilizó un diseño factorial 2x3 en bloques completos al azar con tres repeticiones por tratamiento y se analizaron datos productivos mediante ANOVA con un modelo lineal general (P < 0,05. No fueron encontrados efectos del sustrato sobre los parámetros estudiados. Hubo efectos simples de la estrategia alimentaria sobre el desempeño de los peces. Por lo pronto, puede ser concluido que la producción basada en perifiton no genera problemas en el sistema ni en los peces y que se requiere más investigación para consolidar la tecnología.

  19. Image-converter streak cameras with very high gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    A new camera is described with slit scanning and very high photonic gain (G=5000). Development of the technology of tubes and microchannel plates has enabled integration of such an amplifying element in an image converter tube which does away with the couplings and the intermediary electron-photon-electron conversions of the classical converter systems having external amplification. It is thus possible to obtain equal or superior performance while retaining considerable gain for the camera, great compactness, great flexibility in use, and easy handling. (author)

  20. X-ray streak and framing camera techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, L.W.; Attwood, D.T.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews recent developments and applications of ultrafast diagnostic techniques for x-ray measurements. These techniques, based on applications of image converter devices, are already capable of significantly important resolution capabilities. Techniques capable of time resolution in the sub-nanosecond regime are being considered. Mechanical cameras are excluded from considerations as are devices using phosphors or fluors as x-ray converters

  1. Metal artifact reduction method using metal streaks image subtraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pua, Rizza D.; Cho, Seung Ryong

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have been dedicated for metal artifact reduction (MAR); however, the methods are successful to varying degrees depending on situations. Sinogram in-painting, filtering, iterative method are some of the major categories of MAR. Each has its own merits and weaknesses. A combination of these methods or hybrid methods have also been developed to make use of the different benefits of two techniques and minimize the unfavorable results. Our method focuses on the in-paitning approach and a hybrid MAR described by Xia et al. Although in-painting scheme is an effective technique in reducing the primary metal artifacts, a major drawback is the reintroduction of new artifacts that can be caused by an inaccurate interpolation process. Furthermore, combining the segmented metal image to the corrected nonmetal image in the final step of a conventional inpainting approach causes an issue of incorrect metal pixel values. Our proposed method begins with a sinogram in-painting approach and ends with an image-based metal artifact reduction scheme. This work provides a simple, yet effective solution for reducing metal artifacts and acquiring the original metal pixel information. The proposed method demonstrated its effectiveness in a simulation setting. The proposed method showed image quality that is comparable to the standard MAR; however, quantitatively more accurate than the standard MAR

  2. Avoiding acidic region streaking in two-dimensional gel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-07-21

    Jul 21, 2014 ... 1Bioinformatics Centre, Supercomputer Education and Research Centre and 2Department of ... has made 2DE a popular instrument in modern proteomics ...... Proteomics study on the hepatoprotective effects of traditional.

  3. cassava brown streak disease effects on leaf metabolites

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Plate 1. Progression of CBSD in cassava leaves with scores 1= leaf from clean plant, no CBSD, 2 = Mild CBSD leaf veinal ... absorb the excess water, after which they were rolled ..... to low carbon dioxide exchange, as observed in sugar cane ...

  4. Detection of banana streak virus (BSV) Tamil Nadu isolate (India ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-10-09

    641 003, Tamil Nadu, India. 2Department of Fruit Crops, ... Hence, attempts were made for diagnosis of BSV and to study the serological relationship with ... Among the five virus diseases of banana, disease caused by banana ...

  5. Ductile streaks in precision grinding of hard and brittle materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    Department of Manufacturing & Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical ..... thesis, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Johor ... Mon T T 2003 Chemical mechanical polishing of optical glass subjected to ...

  6. Improvements in centrifugal nuclear disintegration or 'streaked nuclei' reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedrick, A.P.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to the so-called 'Centrifugal Nucleon Disintegrator Reactor' (CND) in which it is proposed to release the binding energy between nucleons of high atomic number by applying a violent spin to the nuclei. The reactor described comprises means for producing atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons by heating to form a high temperature plasma. The reactor comprises an outer cylinder having a polished bore, an inner cylinder coaxial with the outer cylinder, the inner cylinder having a number of holes. A number of light beams are directed non-radially on to the bore and undergo reflections therefrom so as to create around the inner cylinder a coaxial cylindrical wall of unidirectionally moving light photons. Means are provided for introducing the nuclei into the inner cylinder, passing then out through the holes therein, and urging them against the photon wall. The direction of the light beams is slightly non-horizontal so that their reflections from the bore trace out a very closely coiled helix, extending the photon wall up the length of the inner cylinder through which the plasmatic nuclei are admitted. (U.K.)

  7. Feijoeiro manteiga, planta-teste para os vírus de vira-cabeça e da necrose branca do fumo A bean variety useful as a local-lesion test plant for tomato spotted wilt and Brazilian tobacco streak viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Costa

    1957-01-01

    mistura de búfer e sulfito de sódio deu o maior aumento.Out of 200 bean varieties tested, plants of the var. Manteiga were the most sensitive to tomato spotted wilt (TSW and Brazilian tobacco streak (BTS viruses. The inoculated plants developed local chlorotic spots adequate for counts within 3-6 days after inoculation with the TSW virus; pin point or rings in 2-4 days following inoculation with the BTS virus. Bean plants with the primary leaves 2/3 expanded or slightly older gave better results for the TSW virus, whereas they were more sensitive to BTS virus when 2/3 expanded or slightly younger. The TSW virus did not become systemic in the bean plants. Most strains of the BTS virus also did not become systemic in the inoculated plants. A yellow strain of this virus usually did. Sodium sulfite at 0.01 M added to the infected tissues during extraction of the inoculum increased the number of lesions formed in the bean leaves inoculated with the TSW virus; the increase was greater when extraction was made in presence of phosphate buffer at pH 7 and at the concentration of 0.1 M. A mixture of buffer and sulfite did not cause a greater increase than buffer alone. Por the BTS virus the addition of sodium sulfite at 0.01 M during extraction gave a large increase in the number of lesions; buffer alone caused only a small increase, but a mixture of buffer and sodium sulfite gave the highest increase. Phosphate buffer at 0.05 M and with pH 7 or 8, added prior to extraction, gave a higher number of lesions in case of both viruses than the same concentration of buffer at pH 5 or 6. The use of butter at concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.0125 M were tried and did not cause great differences in the number of local lesions, but the best ones seemed to be 0.05 or 0.025 M. Four concentrations of sodium sulfite, 0.1, 0.05, 0.025, and 0.0125 M were compared as diluents for the same inocula in presence of phosphate buffer. The two lowest ones gave the highest number of lesions for both

  8. X-ray imaging of JET. A design study for a streak camera application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, J.E.; Hobby, M.G.

    1980-03-01

    A single dimensional imaging system is proposed which will image a strip of the JET plasma up to 320 times per shot with a time resolution of better than 50 μs using the bremsstrahlung X-rays. The images are obtained by means of a pinhole camera followed by an X-ray image intensifier system the output of which is in turn digitised by a photodiode array. The information is stored digitally in a fast memory and is immediately available for display or analysis. (author)

  9. Genetic insights into Graminella nigrifrons competence for Maize fine streak virus infection and transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Insects are critical for the spread of most plant virus diseases, with >75% of plant viruses depending on an insects for transmission to new, uninfected hosts. However, little is known about the molecular and cellular factors in the insect that are important for virus transmission. The black-faced l...

  10. Infection of cowpea protoplasts with sonchus yellow net virus and festuca leaf streak virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van N.A.M.

    1986-01-01

    The advantages of protoplast systems for plant virus research have been frequently reviewed (Zaitlin & Beachy, 1974; Takebe, 1975; Muhlbach, 1982; Sander & Mertens, 1984). Relatively little attention has been given to the limitations of such a system.

    Protoplasts do not

  11. Physico-chemical characterization of banana varieties resistant to black leaf streak disease for industrial purposes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossana Catie Bueno de Godoy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Cultivated bananas have very low genetic diversity making them vulnerable to diseases such as black-Sigatoka leaf spot. However, the decision to adopt a new banana variety needs to be based on a robust evaluation of agronomical and physical-chemical characteristics. Here, we characterize new banana varieties resistant to black-Sigatoka leaf spot and compare them to the most widely used traditional variety (Grand Naine. Each variety was evaluated for a range of physic-chemical attributes associated with industrial processing and flavor: pH, TTA, TSS/TTA, total sugars, reducing sugars and non-reducing sugars, humidity, total solids and yield. The Thap Maeo variety had the highest potential as a substitute for the Grand Naine variety, having higher levels of total soluble solids, reducing sugars, total sugars and humidity. The Caipira and FHIA 2 varieties also performed well in comparison with the Grand Naine variety. Cluster analysis indicated that the Grand Naine variety was closely associated with varieties from the Gross Michel subgroup (Bucaneiro, Ambrosia and Calipso and the Caipira variety, all of which come from the same AAA genomic group. It was concluded that several of the new resistant varieties could potentially substitute the traditional variety in areas affected by black-Sigatoka leaf spot disease.

  12. Absolute calibration method for nanosecond-resolved, time-streaked, fiber optic light collection, spectroscopy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnston, Mark D.; Oliver, Bryan V.; Droemer, Darryl W.; Frogget, Brent; Crain, Marlon D.; Maron, Yitzhak

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a convenient and accurate method to calibrate fast ( 2 /steradian/nm). Error analysis shows this method to be accurate to within +/– 20%, which represents a high level of accuracy for this type of measurement.

  13. Ethanolic extract of Artemisia aucheri induces regression of aorta wall fatty streaks in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, S; Dinani, N Jafari; Madani, H; Mahzouni, P

    2008-05-01

    Artemisia aucheri is a native-growing plant which is widely used in Iranian traditional medicine. This study was designed to evaluate the effects of A. aucheri on regression of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Twenty five rabbits were randomly divided into five groups of five each and treated 3-months as follows: 1: normal diet, 2: hypercholesterolemic diet (HCD), 3 and 4: HCD for 60 days and then normal diet and normal diet + A. aucheri (100 mg x kg(-1) x day(-1)) respectively for an additional 30 days (regression period). In the regression period dietary use of A. aucheri in group 4 significantly decreased total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol, while HDL-cholesterol was significantly increased. The atherosclerotic area was significantly decreased in this group. Animals, which received only normal diet in the regression period showed no regression but rather progression of atherosclerosis. These findings suggest that A. aucheri may cause regression of atherosclerotic lesions.

  14. Diversity of banana streak-inducing viruses in Nigeria and Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-06-16

    Jun 16, 2006 ... decorated BSV-like particles or bacilliform particles which did not at all react with the antibodies available. This proved, the ... disease which occurs worldwide in banana and plantains. (Musa spp.) and which is .... overnight at 20°C. After rinsing with 40 drops of distilled water, each grid was negatively ...

  15. ISOCHROMOSOME-18Q IN A GIRL WITH HOLOPROSENCEPHALY, DIGEORGE ANOMALY, AND STREAK OVARIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANESSEN, AJ; SCHOOTS, CJF; VANLINGEN, RA; MOURITS, MJE; TUERLINGS, JHAM; LEEGTE, B

    1993-01-01

    We report on the clinical and pathologic findings in a girl with isochromosome 18q (46, XX,i(18q)) who had combined manifestations of monosomy 18p and trisomy 18q. Major congenital anomalies included premaxillary agenesis, alobar holoprosenphaly, double outlet right ventricle, DiGeorge anomaly and

  16. High speed streak techniques for measuring the growth of spark channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suleebka, P.

    1975-01-01

    The manner of expansion of an electric spark channel is of interest in the understanding of such phenomena as lightning. The development of a camera suitable for photography of this expansion is described, with some results for hydrogen. (author)

  17. A maize resistance gene functions against bacterial streak disease in rice

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Bingyu; Lin, Xinghua; Poland, Jesse; Trick, Harold; Leach, Jan; Hulbert, Scot

    2005-01-01

    Although cereal crops all belong to the grass family (Poacea), most of their diseases are specific to a particular species. Thus, a given cereal species is typically resistant to diseases of other grasses, and this nonhost resistance is generally stable. To determine the feasibility of transferring nonhost resistance genes (R genes) between distantly related grasses to control specific diseases, we identified a maize R gene that recognizes a rice pathogen, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, wh...

  18. Structure of Temperature Field on a Wall in Turbulent Flow (Statistics of Thermal Streaks, Heat Transfer)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hetsroni, G.; Mosyak, A.; Rozenblit, R.; Yarin, L.P.

    1998-01-01

    The present work deals with an experimental study of a temperature field on the wall in turbulent flow. The measurements of the local, instantaneous and average temperature of the wall were carried out by the hot-foil infrared technique. The detailed data on the average and fluctuation temperature distributions are presented. It is shown that temperature fluctuations, as normalized by the difference between the temperatures of the undisturbed fluid and the wall, do not change

  19. First Report of Paraburkholderia andropogonis Causing Bacterial Leaf Streak of Strelitzia reginae in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird-of-Paradise (Strelitzia reginae Banks) is a commonly grown ornamental in Hawaii. In March 2014, a nursery located in Panaewa on the eastern side of Hawaii Island noticed that a few liners of Bird-of-Paradise that were imported from Florida had water soaked lesions. By April 2014 a majority of t...

  20. Migration of the curimbatá Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836) (Pisces, Prochilodontidae) at the waterfall "Cachoeira de Emas" of the Mogi-Guaçu river--São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capeleti, A R; Petrere, M

    2006-05-01

    In this paper, we counted the ascending curimbatás at the fish ladder at the Cachoeira de Emas from October, 1992 to September, 1993 in one whole day (24 h period) per month at different observation points in the dam for 5 min every hour. Most of the fish (80%) were counted not in the fish ladder itself, but in two adjacent spillways at its left, perhaps due to the comparatively increased flow as they are narrower than the ladder. The bulk of the migration occurred in September/October. We inspected the degree of injury of the fish in order to examine the hypothesis that larger fish are less injured, however no conclusion was reached. The degree of injury varied between different points and in different months of the year.

  1. Migration of the curimbatá Prochilodus lineatus (Valenciennes, 1836 (Pisces, Prochilodontidae at the waterfall "Cachoeira de Emas" of the Mogi-Guaçu river - São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Capeleti

    Full Text Available In this paper, we counted the ascending curimbatás at the fish ladder at the Cachoeira de Emas from October, 1992 to September, 1993 in one whole day (24 h period per month at different observation points in the dam for 5 min every hour. Most of the fish (80% were counted not in the fish ladder itself, but in two adjacent spillways at its left, perhaps due to the comparatively increased flow as they are narrower than the ladder. The bulk of the migration occurred in September/October. We inspected the degree of injury of the fish in order to examine the hypothesis that larger fish are less injured, however no conclusion was reached. The degree of injury varied between different points and in different months of the year.

  2. Spatially-resolved velocities of thermally-produced spray droplets using a velocity-divided Abel inversion of photographed streaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawaguchi, Y.; Kobayashi, N.; Yamagata, Y.; Miyazaki, F.; Yamasaki, M.; Muraoka, K.

    2017-10-01

    Droplet velocities of thermal spray are known to have profound effects on important coating qualities, such as adhesive strength, porosity, and hardness, for various applications. For obtaining the droplet velocities, therefore, the TOF (time-of-flight) technique has been widely used, which relies on observations of emitted radiation from the droplets, where all droplets along the line-of-sight contribute to signals. Because droplets at and near the flow axis mostly contribute coating layers, it has been hoped to get spatially resolved velocities. For this purpose, a velocity-divided Abel inversion was devised from CMOS photographic data. From this result, it has turned out that the central velocity is about 25% higher than that obtained from the TOF technique for the case studied (at the position 150 mm downstream of the plasma spray gun, where substrates for spray coatings are usually placed). Further implications of the obtained results are discussed.

  3. Effects of thyroidal, gonadal and adrenal hormones on tissue respiration of streaked frog, Rana limnocharis, at low temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, B B; Chakrabarty, P

    1990-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro effects of thyroidal, gonadal and adrenal hormones were studied on the rate of liver and skeletal muscle respiration in both the sexes of R. limnocharis during active and inactive phases of the annual activity cycle. Triiodothyronine (L-T3) and thyroxine (L-T4) did not stimulate tissue (liver and muscle) respiration in any of the experiments irrespective of season, sex and temperature. Testosterone, estradiol and corticosterone stimulated O2 uptake significantly irrespective of season, sex and temperature. Adrenaline and nor-adrenaline also stimulated tissue respiration significantly during the winter month. Since the ambient temperature was low even during the active phase (max. temperature 21 degrees C), it seems that the frog might have developed tissue sensitivity for gonadal and adrenal hormones at low temperatures when thyroid hormones are calorigenically ineffective.

  4. Characteristics of the streak clays of the hyacinth gold deposit by the techniques of DRX and AT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trueba Gaetano, R.; Cabrera Diaz, I.; Casanova Gomez, A.; Aguila Terry, A.; Martinez Montalvo, A.; Canel Carreras, L.; Rodriguez Garcia, J. C.; Alonso Perez, J. A.

    2016-01-01

    It is exposed the investigative work of the mineralogical characteristics of different types of clays present in the veins of the Oro Jacinto deposit through the use of XRD and TA analytical techniques, supported by a study of particle size in the range of 2 mm to 63 μm. Significant feature of these samples is that being crushed they generated high content of fine material below 0.074 mm. This size particles range is presented between 17.68% and 50.78% of samples volume, majority particles being smaller than 0.063 mm, this interstratificated fine material with different types of clay makes the fraction below 74 μm present characteristics of clayey material. The results of XRD analysis and comparative Thermo gravimetric that are achieved for samples of 'Jacinto' gold vein deposit indicate that the clays presented in the fine fractions are: chlorite-montmorillonite; illite; hidromoscovite and muscovite, which turned out to be higher in samples of the grain B eatriz . During the ores formation process of the veins S ur Elena , it is evident that the hydrothermal fluids that led to the formation of the rocks, experienced greater degree of alteration during its transformation into argillite, which is manifested in three mineralogical regularities: Low crystallinity of the chlorite-montmorillonite clay. Transformation of muscovite - hidromoscovite into illite. Presence of abundant calcite in some samples. Higher concentrations of iron oxides (goethite). (Author)

  5. Streaks to rings to vortex grids: generic patterns in transient convective spin up of an evaporating fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, J-Q; Patterson, M D; Wettlaufer, J S

    2010-07-23

    We observe the transient formation of a ringed pattern state during spin up of an evaporating fluid on a time scale of order a few Ekman spin up times. The ringed state is probed using infrared thermometry and particle image velocimetry and it is demonstrated to be a consequence of the transient balance between Coriolis and viscous forces which dominate inertia, each of which are extracted from the measured velocity field. The breakdown of the ringed state is quantified in terms of the antiphasing of these force components which drives a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and we show that the resulting vortex grid spacing scales with the ring wavelength. This is the fundamental route to quasi-two-dimensional turbulent vortex flow and thus may have implications in astrophysics and geophysics wherein rotating convection is ubiquitous.

  6. Evasion of short interfering RNA-directed antiviral silencing in Musa acuminata persistently infected with six distinct banana streak pararetroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajeswaran, Rajendran; Seguin, Jonathan; Chabannes, Matthieu; Duroy, Pierre-Olivier; Laboureau, Nathalie; Farinelli, Laurent; Iskra-Caruana, Marie-Line; Pooggin, Mikhail M

    2014-10-01

    Vegetatively propagated crop plants often suffer from infections with persistent RNA and DNA viruses. Such viruses appear to evade the plant defenses that normally restrict viral replication and spread. The major antiviral defense mechanism is based on RNA silencing generating viral short interfering RNAs (siRNAs) that can potentially repress viral genes posttranscriptionally through RNA cleavage and transcriptionally through DNA cytosine methylation. Here we examined the RNA silencing machinery of banana plants persistently infected with six pararetroviruses after many years of vegetative propagation. Using deep sequencing, we reconstructed consensus master genomes of the viruses and characterized virus-derived and endogenous small RNAs. Consistent with the presence of endogenous siRNAs that can potentially establish and maintain DNA methylation, the banana genomic DNA was extensively methylated in both healthy and virus-infected plants. A novel class of abundant 20-nucleotide (nt) endogenous small RNAs with 5'-terminal guanosine was identified. In all virus-infected plants, 21- to 24-nt viral siRNAs accumulated at relatively high levels (up to 22% of the total small RNA population) and covered the entire circular viral DNA genomes in both orientations. The hotspots of 21-nt and 22-nt siRNAs occurred within open reading frame (ORF) I and II and the 5' portion of ORF III, while 24-nt siRNAs were more evenly distributed along the viral genome. Despite the presence of abundant viral siRNAs of different size classes, the viral DNA was largely free of cytosine methylation. Thus, the virus is able to evade siRNA-directed DNA methylation and thereby avoid transcriptional silencing. This evasion of silencing likely contributes to the persistence of pararetroviruses in banana plants. We report that DNA pararetroviruses in Musa acuminata banana plants are able to evade DNA cytosine methylation and transcriptional gene silencing, despite being targeted by the host silencing machinery generating abundant 21- to 24-nucleotide short interfering RNAs. At the same time, the banana genomic DNA is extensively methylated in both healthy and virus-infected plants. Our findings shed light on the siRNA-generating gene silencing machinery of banana and provide a possible explanation why episomal pararetroviruses can persist in plants whereas true retroviruses with an obligatory genome-integration step in their replication cycle do not exist in plants. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Total Variation-Based Reduction of Streak Artifacts, Ring Artifacts and Noise in 3D Reconstruction from Optical Projection Tomography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michálek, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 6 (2015), s. 1602-1615 ISSN 1431-9276 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH13028; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-12412S Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : optical projection tomography * microscopy * artifacts * total variation * data mismatch Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 1.730, year: 2015

  8. Not all streaks are the same: Individual differences in risk preferences during runs of gains and losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher T. Ball

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Runs of gains and losses are particularly salient to decision makers because of their perceived departure from randomness, as well as their immediate impact on the financial status of the decision makers. Past research has focused on decision making biases that relate to faulty conceptions of chance and luck, such as the gambler's fallacy and the hot hand effect. Participants in the current study bet on the outcomes of a long sequence of simulated coin tosses. Risk preferences were found to change as a function of run valence (i.e., losses vs. gains, run length, and financial status. Individuals were found to differ in the effect of all of these factors, in their responses to runs of gains and losses in sequential risky choice.

  9. Development and characterization of the first infectious clone of alfalfa latent virus, a strain of Pea streak virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) is a natural host plant for many plant pathogens including fungi, bacteria, nematodes and viruses. Alfalfa latent virus (ALV) is a member of the carlavirus group and occurs symptomlessly in alfalfa. The first complete genomic sequence of the ALV that was recently obtained i...

  10. Study of pomegranate (Punica granatum L. peel extract containing anthocyanins on fatty streak formation in the renal arteries in hypercholesterolemic rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sharifiyan

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that consumption of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins (polyphenol content 1 g/kg diet despite of a significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity cannot protect the kidneys from hypercholesterolemia-induced damages during the treatment period.

  11. Positive selection and intragenic recombination contribute to high allelic diversity in effector genes of Mycosphaerella fijiensis, causal agent of the black leaf streak disease of banana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stergiopoulos, I.; Cordovez da Cunha, V.; Okmen, B.; Beenen, H.G.; Kema, G.H.J.; Wit, de P.J.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    Previously, we have determined the nonhost-mediated recognition of the MfAvr4 and MfEcp2 effector proteins from the banana pathogen Mycosphaerella fijiensis in tomato, by the cognate Cf-4 and Cf-Ecp2 resistance proteins, respectively. These two resistance proteins could thus mediate resistance

  12. Study of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract containing anthocyanins on fatty streak formation in the renal arteries in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifiyan, Fatemeh; Movahedian-Attar, Ahmad; Nili, Nafiseh; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the supplementation of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins on atherosclerotic plaque formation induced by hypercholesterolemia was investigated in renal arteries in rabbits. After the determination of polyphenol and anthocyanin's content of P. granatum peel hydroalcoholic extract, 30 male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. They were fed basic diet, hypercholesterolemic diet and hypercholesterolemic diet along with P. granatum peel extract (polyphenolic content for each rabbit 1 g/kg diet) for 2 month. Blood samples were collected at the begging, middle and end of the study in order to measure lipid concentration and oxidative and antioxidative status variables, and renal arteries were taken for the assessment of atherosclerotic plaques at the end of the study. The results reveal that P. granatum peel extract significantly increases serum antioxidant capacity in the extract recipient group in comparison with hypercholesterolemic control (P 0.05). The results of this study indicate that consumption of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins (polyphenol content 1 g/kg diet) despite of a significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity cannot protect the kidneys from hypercholesterolemia-induced damages during the treatment period.

  13. Influences of a-tocopherol on cholesterol metabolism and fatty streak development in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice fed an atherogenic diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peluzio M.C.G.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Although the role of oxidized lipoproteins is well known in atherogenesis, the role of vitamin E supplementation is still controversial. There is also little information about cholesterol metabolism (hepatic concentration and fecal excretion in the new models of atherosclerosis. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of moderate vitamin E supplementation on cholesterol metabolism and atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E (apo E-deficient mice. Apo E-deficient mice were fed an atherogenic diet containing 40 or 400 mg/kg of alpha-tocopherol acetate for 6 weeks. Total cholesterol in serum and liver and 3-OH-alpha-sterols in feces, and fecal excretion of bile acids were determined and histological analyses of aortic lesion were performed. A vitamin E-rich diet did not affect body weight, food intake or serum cholesterol. Serum and hepatic concentrations of cholesterol as well as sterol concentration in feces were similar in both groups. However, when compared to controls, the alpha-tocopherol-treated mice showed a reduction of about 60% in the atherosclerotic lesions when both the sum of lesion areas and the average of the largest lesion area were considered. These results demonstrate that supplementation of moderate doses of alpha-tocopherol was able to slow atherogenesis in apo E-deficient mice and to reduce atherogenic lipoproteins without modifying the hepatic pool or fecal excretion of cholesterol and bile acids.

  14. Estudio de la Microestructura y de las propiedades reológicas de geles de concentrado proteico de sabalo (prochilodus platensis en relación a la etapa de lavado con soluciones de H3PO4 y NaHCO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Agustina Reinheimer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available El concentrado de proteínas de pescado (CPP es el músculo del pescado desmenuzado y exento de huesos, piel,carne oscura y de espinas, que es lavado varias veces con agua y escurrido hasta la proporción de agua original.Aquí se estudió el efecto en la composición físico-química, sobre la microestructura y las propiedades reológicas degeles de CPP utilizando diferentes soluciones de agua de lavado en la obtención de CPP de sábalo (Prochilodusplatensis. Al mismo tiempo se evaluó la extracción de proteínas durante el lavado, y el análisis de las propiedadesreológicas de los geles obtenidos. Los geles de CPP de sábalo obtenidos mediante el método de lavado (0.05%H3PO4, 0.2% NaHCO3 y 0.2% NaCl presentaron un contenido aceptable de proteínas, el menor contenido demateria grasa, y la textura más aceptable, confirmada por la reología y la microestructura, mostrando mejorasrespecto de los obtenidos por el método convencional.

  15. Genetic characterization of fin fish species from the Warri River at ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-07-02

    Jul 2, 2014 ... Genetic characterization of fin fish species from the. Warri River at Ubeji, Niger Delta, Nigeria. Asagbra ..... Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus brasiliensis and Steindachneridion scripta) from Uruguay River basin. Brazilian Archives Biol. Tech. 49(4):589-598. Saad YM, Shaden-Hanafi M, Essa MA, Guerges AA ...

  16. Short-term cold storage of sperm from six neotropical characiformes fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Marques

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Sperm of the following Neotropical Characiformes fish species were tested for cold storage: Brycon lundii, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Leporinus elongatus, Leporinus friderici, Prochilodus lineatus and Prochilodus marggravii. Each sperm sample was split into two aliquots. The first was placed into a plastic bag with air or oxygen and the second, in a plastic tube with air. The samples were maintained at temperatures between 1.7-4.9 ºC. The rate of sperm motility was estimated using a 50 mM NaCl solution as the activating solution. The shortest sperm storage duration (7 h was recorded for L. friderici, when the sperm motility rate reached ~ 30%, whereas the longest duration (20 h was obtained with the sperm of P. lineatus. A fertilisation test using Prochilodus marggravii sperm refrigerated for 8 h yielded 88-90% of viable embryos. The refrigerated storage method could be of practical applications, especially in fish reproductive management at hatchery stations.O sêmen das seguintes espécies de Characiformes neotropicais foi testado para armazenamento em ambiente resfriado: Brycon lundii, Piaractus mesopotamicus, Leporinus elongatus, Leporinus friderici, Prochilodus lineatus e Prochilodus marggravii. Amostras de sêmen, obtidas por massagem da parede celômica, foram armazenadas em saco plástico com ar ou oxigênio ou em tubo plástico com ar, e mantidas resfriadas entre 1,7-4,9º C. A taxa de motilidade espermática foi estimada usando-se NaCl 50 mM como solução ativadora. O sêmen com menor duração de viabilidade (7 h foi o de L. friderici, quando a taxa de motilidade espermática alcançou ~30%, enquanto que o de maior duração (20 h foi o de P. lineatus. A fertilização de ovócitos utilizando sêmen refrigerado por 8 h de Prochilodus marggravii produziu 88-90% de embriões viáveis. O método de armazenamento desenvolvido neste trabalho tem aplicações práticas, especialmente no manejo reprodutivo de peixes em estações de

  17. Practical issues of retrieving isolated attosecond pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang He; Chini, Michael; Khan, Sabih D; Chen, Shouyuan; Gilbertson, Steve; Feng Ximao; Mashiko, Hiroki; Chang Zenghu

    2009-01-01

    The attosecond streaking technique is used for the characterization of isolated extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulses. This type of measurement suffers from low photoelectron counts in the streaked spectrogram, and is thus susceptible to shot noise. For the retrieval of few- or mono-cycle attosecond pulses, high-intensity streaking laser fields are required, which cause the energy spectrum of above-threshold ionized (ATI) electrons to overlap with that of the streaked photoelectrons. It is found by using the principal component generalized projections algorithm that the XUV attosecond pulse can accurately be retrieved for simulated and experimental spectrograms with a peak value of 50 or more photoelectron counts. Also, the minimum streaking intensity is found to be more than 50 times smaller than that required by the classical streaking camera for retrieval of pulses with a spectral bandwidth supporting 90 as transform-limited pulse durations. Furthermore, spatial variation of the streaking laser intensity, collection angle of streaked electrons and time delay jitter between the XUV pulse and streaking field can degrade the quality of the streaked spectrogram. We find that even when the XUV and streaking laser focal spots are comparable in size, the streaking electrons are collected from a 4π solid angle, or the delay fluctuates by more than the attosecond pulse duration, the attosecond pulses can still be accurately retrieved. In order to explain the insusceptibility of the streaked spectrogram to these factors, the linearity of the streaked spectrogram with respect to the streaking field is derived under the saddle point approximation.

  18. Deep Joint Rain Detection and Removal from a Single Image

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Wenhan; Tan, Robby T.; Feng, Jiashi; Liu, Jiaying; Guo, Zongming; Yan, Shuicheng

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we address a rain removal problem from a single image, even in the presence of heavy rain and rain streak accumulation. Our core ideas lie in the new rain image models and a novel deep learning architecture. We first modify an existing model comprising a rain streak layer and a background layer, by adding a binary map that locates rain streak regions. Second, we create a new model consisting of a component representing rain streak accumulation (where individual streaks cannot b...

  19. Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 june 2011–31 july 2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, F. Keith; Bell, James J.; Bogdanowicz, Steven M.

    2011-01-01

    This article documents the addition of 112 microsatellite marker loci and 24 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Agelaius phoeniceus, Austrolittorina cincta, Circus cyaneus......, Circus macrourus, Circus pygargus, Cryptocoryne · purpurea Ridl. nothovar. purpurea, Mya arenaria, Patagioenas squamosa, Prochilodus mariae, Scylla serrata and Scytalopus speluncae. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Cryptocoryne · purpurea nothovar. purpurea, Cryptocoryne affinis...

  20. Antagonistic properties of microogranisms associated with cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antagonistic properties of indigenous microflora from cassava starch, flour and grated cassava were investigated using the conventional streak, novel ring and well diffusion methods. Antagonism was measured by zone of inhibition between the fungal plug and bacterial streak/ring. Bacillus species were more effective ...

  1. Ion diode optics: measurement of divergence and aiming of beams for transport to light-ion ICF targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krastelev, E.G.; Kniazev, B.A.; Lindholm, F.; Hammer, D.A.; Kusse, B.R.; Greenly, J.B.

    1996-01-01

    Diagnostic development for measurements of anode plasma structure and ion beam local aiming and micro-divergence are being developed on the COBRA accelerator at Cornell University. Results of streaked-scintillator and tracer target beam diagnostics, and streaked anode light imaging are described. (author). 5 figs., 1 ref

  2. Ion diode optics: measurement of divergence and aiming of beams for transport to light-ion ICF targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krastelev, E G; Kniazev, B A; Lindholm, F; Hammer, D A; Kusse, B R; Greenly, J B [Cornell Univ., Ithaca, NY (United States). Lab. of Plasma Studies

    1997-12-31

    Diagnostic development for measurements of anode plasma structure and ion beam local aiming and micro-divergence are being developed on the COBRA accelerator at Cornell University. Results of streaked-scintillator and tracer target beam diagnostics, and streaked anode light imaging are described. (author). 5 figs., 1 ref.

  3. Sadhana | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ductile streaks were obtained more easily with pyrex rather than with BK 7 glass thus necessitating very little time for polishing. Ductile streaks appeared in abundance on germanium rather than silicon. Both the novel grinding techniques were used on CNC machining centres. pp 925-932. Machining and metrology systems ...

  4. Proceedings of the 18th international congress on high speed photography and photonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1988-01-01

    The subjects addressed at the conference presented in this book include image converter and intensifier cameras; opto-mechanical high speed cameras; X-ray generator and radiography; and Holography and interferometry. The papers include Flash x-ray cineradiography; New picosecond synchroscan streak image tube; and Streak camera CCD readout system

  5. 78 FR 61505 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Taylor's...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... final rule as appropriate. Comments From Peer Reviewers In accordance with our peer review policy... designation for the streaked horned lark. The Tribe is currently working with the Service and the Corps to... maintaining and protecting habitat for listed species (including the streaked horned lark and western snowy...

  6. A study of the optimal conditions for glucoamylases obtained from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    (2004) as modified by Okoye et al. (2013). Tiger nut starch was fractionated into amylose and amylopectin. The wet amylopectin was left open on shelve to allow micro- organisms to grow on it. A loop of each organism was streaked onto potato dextrose agar PDA under the flame of Bunsen burner. Streaks were made from ...

  7. Sexual dimorphism and plumage characteristics of juvenile Cape ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Juveniles, or birds in their first year, were genetically sexed. Standardised photographs were taken of plucked juvenile breast feathers and analysed using Adobe Photoshop. Pixel counts were taken to analyse the streak coverage of a single feather. A scale from 0 to 3 was used to score streak intensity of the entire breast.

  8. Video deraining and desnowing using temporal correlation and low-rank matrix completion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hwan; Sim, Jae-Young; Kim, Chang-Su

    2015-09-01

    A novel algorithm to remove rain or snow streaks from a video sequence using temporal correlation and low-rank matrix completion is proposed in this paper. Based on the observation that rain streaks are too small and move too fast to affect the optical flow estimation between consecutive frames, we obtain an initial rain map by subtracting temporally warped frames from a current frame. Then, we decompose the initial rain map into basis vectors based on the sparse representation, and classify those basis vectors into rain streak ones and outliers with a support vector machine. We then refine the rain map by excluding the outliers. Finally, we remove the detected rain streaks by employing a low-rank matrix completion technique. Furthermore, we extend the proposed algorithm to stereo video deraining. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm detects and removes rain or snow streaks efficiently, outperforming conventional algorithms.

  9. EVEN-SKIPPED HOMEOBOX 1 controls human ES cell differentiation by directly repressing GOOSECOID expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kalisz, Mark; Winzi, Maria Karin; Bisgaard, Hanne Cathrine

    2012-01-01

    (EVX1) and GOOSECOID (GSC) regulate cell fate decisions in streak-like progenitors derived from human ES cells exposed to BMP4 and/or activin. We found that EVX1 repressed GSC expression and promoted formation of posterior streak-like progeny in response to BMP4, and conversely that GSC repressed EVX1...... expression and was required for development of anterior streak-like progeny in response to activin. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that EVX1 bound to the GSC 5'-flanking region in BMP4 treated human ES cells, and band shift assays identified two EVX1 binding sites in the GSC 5'-region......TGFß signaling patterns the primitive streak, yet little is known about transcriptional effectors that mediate the cell fate choices during streak-like development in mammalian embryos and in embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we demonstrate that cross-antagonistic actions of EVEN-SKIPPED HOMEOBOX 1...

  10. Transition Delay in Hypersonic Boundary Layers via Optimal Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    The effect of nonlinear optimal streaks on disturbance growth in a Mach 6 axisymmetric flow over a 7deg half-angle cone is investigated in an e ort to expand the range of available techniques for transition control. Plane-marching parabolized stability equations are used to characterize the boundary layer instability in the presence of azimuthally periodic streaks. The streaks are observed to stabilize nominally planar Mack mode instabilities, although oblique Mack mode disturbances are destabilized. Experimentally measured transition onset in the absence of any streaks correlates with an amplification factor of N = 6 for the planar Mack modes. For high enough streak amplitudes, the transition threshold of N = 6 is not reached by the Mack mode instabilities within the length of the cone, but subharmonic first mode instabilities, which are destabilized by the presence of the streaks, reach N = 6 near the end of the cone. These results suggest a passive flow control strategy of using micro vortex generators to induce streaks that would delay transition in hypersonic boundary layers.

  11. Nonlinear Transient Growth and Boundary Layer Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Parabolized stability equations (PSE) are used in a variational approach to study the optimal, non-modal disturbance growth in a Mach 3 at plate boundary layer and a Mach 6 circular cone boundary layer. As noted in previous works, the optimal initial disturbances correspond to steady counter-rotating streamwise vortices, which subsequently lead to the formation of streamwise-elongated structures, i.e., streaks, via a lift-up effect. The nonlinear evolution of the linearly optimal stationary perturbations is computed using the nonlinear plane-marching PSE for stationary perturbations. A fully implicit marching technique is used to facilitate the computation of nonlinear streaks with large amplitudes. To assess the effect of the finite-amplitude streaks on transition, the linear form of plane- marching PSE is used to investigate the instability of the boundary layer flow modified by spanwise periodic streaks. The onset of bypass transition is estimated by using an N- factor criterion based on the amplification of the streak instabilities. Results show that, for both flow configurations of interest, streaks of sufficiently large amplitude can lead to significantly earlier onset of transition than that in an unperturbed boundary layer without any streaks.

  12. International Congress on High Speed Photography and Photonics, 17th, Pretoria, Republic of South Africa, Sept. 1-5, 1986, Proceedings. Volumes 1 & 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDowell, M. W.; Hollingworth, D.

    1986-01-01

    The present conference discusses topics in mining applications of high speed photography, ballistic, shock wave and detonation studies employing high speed photography, laser and X-ray diagnostics, biomechanical photography, millisec-microsec-nanosec-picosec-femtosec photographic methods, holographic, schlieren, and interferometric techniques, and videography. Attention is given to such issues as the pulse-shaping of ultrashort optical pulses, the performance of soft X-ray streak cameras, multiple-frame image tube operation, moire-enlargement motion-raster photography, two-dimensional imaging with tomographic techniques, photochron TV streak cameras, and streak techniques in detonics.

  13. Intensified CCD for ultrafast diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, J.; Tripp, G.; Coleman, L.

    1978-01-01

    Many of the present laser fusion diagnostics are recorded on either ultrafast streak cameras or on oscilloscopes. For those experiments in which a large volume of data is accumulated, direct computer processing of the information becomes important. We describe an approach which uses a RCA 52501 back-thinned CCD sensor to obtain direct electron readouts for both the streak camera and the CRT. Performance of the 100 GHz streak camera and the 4 GHz CRT are presented. Design parameters and computer interfacing for both systems are described in detail

  14. “Hot Hand” in the National Basketball Association Point Spread Betting Market: A 34-Year Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Waggoner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Several articles have looked at factors that affect the adjustments of point spreads, based on hot hands or streaks, for smaller durations of time. This study examines these effects for 34 regular seasons in the National Basketball Association (NBA. Estimating a Seemingly Unrelated Regression model using all 34 seasons, all streaks significantly impacted point spreads and difference in actual points. When estimating each season individually, differences emerged particularly examining winning and losing streaks of six games or more. The results indicate both the presence of momentum effects and the gambler’s fallacy.

  15. Experimental analysis of control mechanisms in somite segmentation in avian embryos. II. Reduction of material in the gastrula stages of the chick.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellairs, R; Veini, M

    1984-02-01

    A new theory of control of somite segmentation in chick embryos is proposed. This supposses that tiny clusters of already programmed cells are present throughout the presumptive somite area at stage 4, but that in order to fulfill their destiny they probably depend on the addition of further cells from the primitive streak. Evidence is based on the two groups of experiments: a) Experiments involving transection across the primitive streak at various stages, (which results in a 'tail' which possesses mesodermal derivatives) and across the segmental plate (which results in a 'tail' lacking mesodermal derivatives). b) Experiments in which parts of embryos have been explanted with or without their primitive streak. It is suggested that the initial clusters of pre-programmed cells move further and further posteriorly, developing into somitomeres (the precursors of true somites) only as they receive re-inforcements from the primitive streak or, ultimately, from the tail bud.

  16. Nuclear test experimental science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S.

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research

  17. Personal computer (PC) based image processing applied to fluid mechanics research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y.-C.; Mclachlan, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    A PC based image processing system was employed to determine the instantaneous velocity field of a two-dimensional unsteady flow. The flow was visualized using a suspension of seeding particles in water, and a laser sheet for illumination. With a finite time exposure, the particle motion was captured on a photograph as a pattern of streaks. The streak pattern was digitized and processsed using various imaging operations, including contrast manipulation, noise cleaning, filtering, statistical differencing, and thresholding. Information concerning the velocity was extracted from the enhanced image by measuring the length and orientation of the individual streaks. The fluid velocities deduced from the randomly distributed particle streaks were interpolated to obtain velocities at uniform grid points. For the interpolation a simple convolution technique with an adaptive Gaussian window was used. The results are compared with a numerical prediction by a Navier-Stokes commputation.

  18. Personal Computer (PC) based image processing applied to fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Y.-C.; Mclachlan, B. G.

    1987-01-01

    A PC based image processing system was employed to determine the instantaneous velocity field of a two-dimensional unsteady flow. The flow was visualized using a suspension of seeding particles in water, and a laser sheet for illumination. With a finite time exposure, the particle motion was captured on a photograph as a pattern of streaks. The streak pattern was digitized and processed using various imaging operations, including contrast manipulation, noise cleaning, filtering, statistical differencing, and thresholding. Information concerning the velocity was extracted from the enhanced image by measuring the length and orientation of the individual streaks. The fluid velocities deduced from the randomly distributed particle streaks were interpolated to obtain velocities at uniform grid points. For the interpolation a simple convolution technique with an adaptive Gaussian window was used. The results are compared with a numerical prediction by a Navier-Stokes computation.

  19. Farmers have their say “where the water world meets” | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-26

    Jan 26, 2011 ... These statements were all contained in a short video shown to 50 delegates ... wastes to enhance food production, demonstrate an inventive streak that ... Industrial and domestic waste, for example, ends up in water and soil ...

  20. Catalase activity of cassava (Manihot esculenta) plant under African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    . E-mail: sabastina.amoako@kintampo-hrc.org. Tel: +233543550743. Abbreviations: CBSD, Cassava brown streak disease; ACMV, African cassava mosaic virus; ROS, reactive oxygen species; H2O2, hydrogen peroxide; BSA, bovine serum ...

  1. Antimicrobial Synergic Effect of Allicin and Silver Nanoparticles on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Faculty of Pharmacy, Zabol University of Medical Sciences, Zabol, Iran, 4Department of ... Milan State University, Via G. Celoria 2, 20133, Milan, Italy .... on solid nutrient agar by making streaks on the surface of .... personnel in a Burn center.

  2. The genomes of Mycosphaerella graminicola and M. fijiensis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goodwin, S.B.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2014-01-01

    Mycosphaerella graminicola (synonym: Zymoseptoria tritici) and Mycosphaerella fijiensis in the Ascomycetes order Capnodiales are economically important pathogens causing Septoria tritici blotch of wheat and black Sigatoka or leaf streak of banana, respectively. Both diseases occur wherever their

  3. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop : Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E.; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F.; de Jong, Tristan V.; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fereira, Claudia Fortes; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza, Manoel; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A. J.; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zapater, Marie-Francoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires frequent

  4. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) -- Head

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will be asked to maintain your position without movement as much as possible. You will usually be ... to streak artifacts from the metallic objects. Patient movement can have the same effect. A very irregular ...

  5. MRI of the Chest

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... will be asked to maintain your position without movement as much as possible. You will usually be ... to streak artifacts from the metallic objects. Patient movement can have the same effect. A very irregular ...

  6. Nuclear test experimental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research.

  7. Experimental characterisation of a novel viscoelastic rectifier design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian Ejlebjærg; Okkels, Fridolin; Szabo, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A planar microfluidic system with contractions and obstacles is characterized in terms of anisotropic flow resistance due to viscoelastic effects. The working mechanism is illustrated using streak photography, while the diodicity performance is quantified by pressure drop measurements. The point ...

  8. Gas flow and thermal mixing in a helically wound tube bundle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiger, H.D.

    1980-07-01

    The thermal dissipation of a hot gas streak flowing across a segment of a helically wound tube bundle and the bypass flow streaming between the tubes and the bundle wall were investigated experimentally in the range of 8000 < Re < 50,000. Two different modes of creating a hot streak were employed. A planar hot streak was (1) injected at the entrance to the tube bundle and (2) generated by electrically heating several tubes past the bundle inlet. In the first case the mixing occurs in a region of lower turbulence since it occurs near the bundle inlet. In the second case the mixing occurs in a region of higher turbulence since the flow has already passed over several tube rows before the hot streak is generated

  9. PHYTOPHTHORA MEGAKARYA: A REVIEW ON ITS STATUS AS A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    2015-02-23

    Feb 23, 2015 ... broom, swollen shoot virus, vascular streak dieback, and monilia ..... evidence of alternative hosts of the pathogen. Phytophthora .... efficacy of fungicide treatment. ..... or derivatives thereof, reduced necrosis of cacao leaf discs ...

  10. In vitro antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of crude extract ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-10-20

    Oct 20, 2008 ... Candida albicans (ATCC10231) and Penicillum notatum (ATCC. 2091). ... a laminar flow before streaking with 18 h old bacterial cultures. The ..... relationship, and quantitative structure-activity relationaship studies. Antimicrob ...

  11. Symbiotic and phenotypic diversity of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-05-23

    May 23, 2011 ... root nodule bacteria known as Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viciae. ... nodules, as before by streaking on Yeast-extract mannitol agar medium ... Colony morphology was characterized on YEMA according to. (Ahmed et al.

  12. Growth on solid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Karen; Brent, Roger

    2002-08-01

    Detailed protocols are provided for titering and isolating bacterial colonies by serial dilutions, or alternatively by streaking or spreading a plate. Support protocols describe replica plating as well as methods for storing strains as agar stabs or frozen glycerol stocks.

  13. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 7, No 25 (2008)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Transgenic crops: Current challenges and future perspectives · EMAIL FREE .... for the production and use of artemisinin derivatives against falciparum malaria in ... of maize streak virus disease in Africa and options for management: A review ...

  14. High resolution time- and 2-dimensional space-resolved x-ray imaging of plasmas at NOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landen, O.L.

    1992-01-01

    A streaked multiple pinhole camera technique, first used by P. Choi et al. to record time- and 2-D space-resolved soft X-ray images of plasma pinches, has been implemented on laser plasmas at NOVA. The instrument is particularly useful for time-resolved imaging of small sources ( 2.5 key imaging, complementing the existing 1--3 key streaked X-ray microscope capabilities at NOVA

  15. The multifocal electroretinogram (mfERG) in the pig

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voss Kyhn, Maria; Kiilgaard, Jens Folke; Lopez, Ana Garcia

    2007-01-01

    To establish a method allowing multifocal electroretinography (mfERG) recording with simultaneous fundus monitoring on anaesthetized pigs. In addition we characterize the peaks of the porcine mfERG trace, and compare the visual streak area with the optic nerve head, a known non-response area....... Finally we illustrate the feasibility of the method by performing mfERG after an induced laser burn in the visual streak....

  16. Performance of Copan WASP for Routine Urine Microbiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiblier, Chantal; Jetter, Marion; Rominski, Mark; Mouttet, Forouhar; Böttger, Erik C.; Keller, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared a manual workup of urine clinical samples with fully automated WASPLab processing. As a first step, two different inocula (1 and 10 μl) and different streaking patterns were compared using WASP and InoqulA BT instrumentation. Significantly more single colonies were produced with the10-μl inoculum than with the 1-μl inoculum, and automated streaking yielded significantly more single colonies than manual streaking on whole plates (P < 0.001). In a second step, 379 clinical urine samples were evaluated using WASP and the manual workup. Average numbers of detected morphologies, recovered species, and CFUs per milliliter of all 379 urine samples showed excellent agreement between WASPLab and the manual workup. The percentage of urine samples clinically categorized as positive or negative did not differ between the automated and manual workflow, but within the positive samples, automated processing by WASPLab resulted in the detection of more potential pathogens. In summary, the present study demonstrates that (i) the streaking pattern, i.e., primarily the number of zigzags/length of streaking lines, is critical for optimizing the number of single colonies yielded from primary cultures of urine samples; (ii) automated streaking by the WASP instrument is superior to manual streaking regarding the number of single colonies yielded (for 32.2% of the samples); and (iii) automated streaking leads to higher numbers of detected morphologies (for 47.5% of the samples), species (for 17.4% of the samples), and pathogens (for 3.4% of the samples). The results of this study point to an improved quality of microbiological analyses and laboratory reports when using automated sample processing by WASP and WASPLab. PMID:26677255

  17. High speed photography, videography, and photonics V; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 17-19, 1987

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Howard C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in high-speed optical and electrooptic devices are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics examined include data quantification and related technologies, high-speed photographic applications and instruments, flash and cine radiography, and novel ultrafast methods. Also considered are optical streak technology, high-speed videographic and photographic equipment, and X-ray streak cameras. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, sample images, and tables of numerical data are provided.

  18. Growth and Characterization of Nanostructured Glass Ceramic Scintillators for Miniature High-Energy Radiation Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    rise time was resolved using Kerr gating technique with 8 ps resolution. Spectro -temporal dynamics was resolved using streak camera and tunable pump...mol% CeF3 doped glass under UV light irradiation). Fig. 5. Radioluminescence (RL) spectra of all the CeF3 doped glasses...technique with 8 ps resolution. Spectro -temporal dynamics was resolved using streak camera and tunable pump at second/third harmonic (400/267nm) and XUV

  19. Turbulent Coolant Dispersion in the Wake of a Turbine Vane Trailing Edge

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    streak injection point. A bulk flow of 0.3 liters per minute supplies the three hot streaks, which are individually metered to ensure isokinetic ...the model sizes are limited to tens of centimeters, with flow velocities of a few meters per second. The Prandtl and Schmidt numbers of the working...channel illustrated in Figures 2.7, 2.8 and 2.9. Metered flow is delivered to the apparatus through a 38 mm diameter hose. Two successive diffusing

  20. High throughput multiplex real time PCR assay for the simultaneous quantification of DNA and RNA viruses infecting cassava plants

    OpenAIRE

    Otti, Gerald; Bouvaine, Sophie; Kimata, Bernadetha; Mkamillo, Geoffrey; Kumar, Lava; Tomlins, Keith; Maruthi, M.N.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To develop a multiplex TaqMan-based real-time PCR assay (qPCR) for the simultaneous detection and quantification of both RNA and DNA viruses affecting cassava (Manihot esculenta) in eastern Africa.\\ud \\ud Methods and Results: The diagnostic assay was developed for two RNA viruses; Cassava brown streak virus (CBSV) and Uganda cassava brown streak virus (UCBSV) and two predominant DNA viruses; African cassava mosaic virus (ACMV) and East African cassava mosaic virus (EACMV), which cause t...

  1. High speed photography, videography, and photonics V; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, Aug. 17-19, 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, H.C.

    1988-01-01

    Recent advances in high-speed optical and electrooptic devices are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics examined include data quantification and related technologies, high-speed photographic applications and instruments, flash and cine radiography, and novel ultrafast methods. Also considered are optical streak technology, high-speed videographic and photographic equipment, and X-ray streak cameras. Extensive diagrams, drawings, graphs, sample images, and tables of numerical data are provided

  2. Compuestos organoclorados residuales en dos especies ícticas de la Ciénaga Grande del Bajo Sinú, Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edineldo Lans C

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinación de niveles de pesticidas organoclorados (POCs en especies ícticas, procedentes de la Ciénaga Grande del Bajo Sinú, Materiales y métodos. Se usó un cromatógrafo de gases (Perkin Elmer Autosystem XL con detector captura de electrones y columna capilar 5% de difenil y 95% de dimetilpolisiloxano, de 30 m, 0.25 mm de diámetro interno y 0.25 μm de espesor de película. Las especies estudiadas fueron: bocachico (Prochilodus magdalenae y moncholo (Hoplias malabaricus, durante las estaciones seca y húmeda. Resultados. El porcentaje de recuperación de los pesticidas determinados se registró entre 80 y 84%, mientras que los límites de detección y cuanficación fueron 0.02 a 0.18 ng/g y 0.2 a 1.8 ng/g respectivamente. La desviación estándar relativa permaneció por debajo del 7% en todos los casos. De los pesticidas organoclorados investigados, en las dos especies se detectaron el a-clordano, endrín y aldrín. Se observó que a medida que aumenta el peso y el tamaño del pez, aumenta la concentración de los plaguicidas en una de las especies. Los niveles de concentración de los POCs estuvieron en el intervalo de 0.35-3.75 y 0.48-5.49 ng/g para el moncholo (Hoplias malabaricus and bocachico (Prochilodus magdalenae respectivamente. Conclusiones. La frecuencia de aparición de POCs y los niveles detectados en las especies podrían ser consecuencia de actividades antropogénicas realizadas en los alrededores de la ciénaga. La correlación entre las medidas biométricas y la concentración depende de la especie íctica. Las concentraciones encontradas en las especies estudiadas, Hoplias malabaricus y Prochilodus magdalenae no representan toxicidad letal inmediata.

  3. First cytogenetic analysis of Ichthyoelephas humeralis (Günther, 1860 by conventional and molecular methods with comments on the karyotypic evolution in Prochilodontidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro Nirchio Tursellino

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available We used conventional cytogenetic techniques (Giemsa, C-banding, Ag-NOR, and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH with 5S and 18S rDNA probes to investigate the karyotype and cytogenetic characteristics of Ichthyoelephas humeralis (Günther, 1860 from Ecuador. The specimens studied have a karyotype with 2n=54 biarmed chromosomes (32 M + 22 SM and C-positive heterochromatin located on the centromeric, pericentromeric, interstitial, and terminal regions of some chromosomes. The nucleolus organizer regions occurred terminally on the long arm of chromosome pair 2. FISH confirmed the presence of only one 18S rDNA cluster with nonsyntenic localization with the 5S rDNA. Cytogenetic data allow us to refute the earlier morphological hypothesis of a sister relationship between Semaprochilodus Fowler, 1941 and Ichthyoelephas Posada Arango, 1909 and support the molecular proposal that Ichthyoelephas is a sister group to the monophyletic clade containing Prochilodus Agassiz, 1829 and Semaprochilodus.

  4. Ictiofauna and fishing in the surroundines of Penedo, Alagoas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Carlos Soares

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight months of data collection revealed the profile of fishing production in the region of lower São Francisco. Catches consist of up to approximately 22 species, of which five are the most common: Prochilodus argenteus, Leporinus spp., Anchoviella vaillantii, Centropomus spp. and Eugerres brasilianus. The fishing fleet that is active in the region is made up of non-motorized canoes, motorized canoes and boats, and the vast majority employ the most common types of fishing nets and other fishing gear. The CPUE (Catch per Unit Effort ranged from 2.5kg/fisherman/day to 4.5kg/fisherman/day during the months analyzed.

  5. Fish farming of native species in Colombia: current situation and perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cruz-Casallas, P. E.; Medina-Robles, V. M.; Velasco-Santamaria, Y. M.

    2011-01-01

    . The Colombian pisciculture is based on red Tilapia Oreochromis sp. (Linnaeus), Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) and cachama blanca Piaractus brachypomus (Cuvier), which currently represent around 96% of the total national production. The remaining 4% comes from other farmed species such as bocachico......In Colombia and the rest of the world, the decrease in capture fisheries production has turned the aquaculture into an alternative source of protein for the populations food security as well as an important productive activity, generating employment and income for the rural communities...... Prochilodus magdalenae (Steindachner), carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) and yamu Brycon amazonicus (Spix & Agassiz). From the three main fish species, cachama blanca is the only native species, which has shown excellent performance in pond farming due to its rusticity, omnivorous habits, docility, meat quality...

  6. Assessment of human health risk associated with methylmercury in the imported fish marketed in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Gandara, Fabio; Herrera-Herrera, Claudia; Pinedo-Hernández, José; Marrugo-Negrete, José; Díez, Sergi

    2018-08-01

    The decline in marine and freshwaters catches in recent years in Colombia has led to a change in dietary habits, with an increase in the purchase and consumption of imported fish. This is of particular concern as fish are sometimes caught in mercury-contaminated waters, and are subsequently sold canned or uncanned. In addition, canned tuna has received little attention as it is widely assumed that concentrations are low. In this study, total mercury (THg) and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations were evaluated in three imported fish species marketed in Colombia, Prochilodus lineatus, Prochilodus reticulatus, and Pangasianodon hypophthalmus, plus four brands of canned tuna and one of sardines. One brand of tuna showed the highest mean concentrations of THg (0.543 ± 0.237 μg/g, wet weight, ww) and MeHg (0.518 ± 0.337 μg/g ww), while concentrations in P. hypophthalmus were approximately 30 times lower (≈0.02 µg/g ww). The estimated weekly intake (EWI) in children was above the provisional tolerable weekly intake (PTWI) of MeHg established by the Joint FAO/World Health Organization (WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 2007, 1.6 μg/kg body weight (bw) per week, for all the canned tuna brands. Values for adults were below PTWI, whereas for women of childbearing age, values were above PTWI only for brand D of canned tuna. The estimate of the potential risk indicated that MeHg levels in canned tuna can generate negative effects in vulnerable groups, while the EWI of fresh fish did not pose a threat to the general population. Therefore, establishing strategies to address the high consumption of canned tuna, and continuous monitoring to control commercial food, are recommended to decrease Hg exposure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Mercury exposure through fish consumption in riparian populations at reservoir Guri, using nuclear techniques, Bolivar State, Venezuela

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermudez, Dario; Gali, Gladys; Milano, S.; Paolini, J.; Venegas, Gladys; Carvajal, M.; Marquez, Oscar

    2002-01-01

    In the reservoir Guri located at the south of Venezuela in Bolivar State has occurred the bioaccumulation process. Several studies have demonstrated it. In samples of 42 specimens of carnivorous trophic level, the average value of total mercury was 1.90 mg/g with a maximum of 6.04 mg/g. As first job it was necessary to identify and classify the infrastructures of each town according to their use due to the lack of updated demographic information. In this investigation is described the home characteristics with relation to its residence conditions and work status of home bosses through the design and application of a survey by home in two communities nearby reservoir Guri: 'La Paragua' and 'El Manteco'. A simple questionnaire was also designed and applied where home bosses were asked for the weekly frequency of consumption of fish, especially those of carnivorous habits as well as the quantity in grams consumed per week. Homes were better structured at 'La Paragua' than at 'El Manteco' but in the latest the monthly income by home was bigger nevertheless, it does not meet the requirements of the basic basket in Venezuela of US $ 323 for a four people family. The overall consumption of fish per week was twice higher at 'El Manteco' (1,485 kg) than at 'La Paragua' (678 kg). The fish specie consumed as first priority at 'La Paragua' was Prochilodus rubrotaeniatus ('Coporo') which is of detritivorous alimentary habits while the second more consumed was Cichla ocellaris ('Pavon') of carnivorous alimentary habits. On the opposite side, at 'El Manteco' the first priority of fish was Cichla ocellaris ('Pavon') while the second one was for Prochilodus rubrotaeniatus ('Coporo'). Next step will be the organic mercury analysis in hair samples and the nutritional profile in individuals from the selected homes: 36 at 'La Paragua' and 50 at 'El Manteco' towns. (author)

  8. Stabilization of Hypersonic Boundary Layers by Linear and Nonlinear Optimal Perturbations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes, Pedro; Choudhari, Meelan M.; Li, Fei

    2017-01-01

    The effect of stationary, finite-amplitude, linear and nonlinear optimal perturbations on the modal disturbance growth in a Mach 6 axisymmetric flow over a 7 deg. half-angle cone with 0:126 mm nose radius and 0:305 m length is investigated. The freestream parameters (M = 6, Re(exp 1) = 18 x 10(exp. 6) /m) are selected to match the flow conditions of a previous experiment in the VKI H3 hypersonic tunnel. Plane-marching parabolized stability equations are used in conjunction with a partial-differential equation based planar eigenvalue analysis to characterize the boundary layer instability in the presence of azimuthally periodic streaks. The streaks are observed to stabilize nominally planar Mack mode instabilities, although oblique Mack mode and first-mode disturbances are destabilized. Experimentally measured transition onset in the absence of any streaks correlates with an amplification factor of N = 6 for the planar Mack modes. For high enough streak amplitudes, the transition threshold of N = 6 is not reached by the Mack mode instabilities within the length of the cone; however, subharmonic first-mode instabilities, which are destabilized by the presence of the streaks, do reach N = 6 near the end of the cone. The highest stabilization is observed at streak amplitudes of approximately 20 percent of the freestream velocity. Because the use of initial disturbance profiles based on linear optimal growth theory may yield suboptimal control in the context of nonlinear streaks, the computational predictions are extended to nonlinear optimal growth theory. Results show that by using nonlinearly optimal perturbation leads to slightly enhanced stabilization of plane Mack mode disturbances as well as reduced destabilization of subharmonic first-mode disturbances.

  9. Biochemical study on changes of artery with age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Takanori

    1979-01-01

    The study was made in order to elucidate the aging phenomenon by focussing on the structural changes of elastin in aorta. Human thoracic aorta was separated in to three layers (intima, media and externa), and further intima was divided to three parts (normal, plaque and fatty streak part). Those parts were quantitatively determined on chemical substances, such as elastin, triglyceride, cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus. While experimental arteriosclerosis was made on rats with the load of cholesterol, and aorta of experimental rats were labeled with 45 CaCl 2 . Finally Ca ++ binding site on elastin was examined by, separating 45 Ca binding elastin from 45 Ca labeled aorta. Following results were obtained: 1) The elastin contents of human thoracic aorta decreased with age, especially in intima and fatty streak. 2) The cholesterol, calcium and phosphorus contents increased with age in, all layers of human thoracic aorta and remarkable decreases of them were observed in plaque and in fatty streak. 3) The elastin of fatty streak in human thoracic aorta was rich in aspartic acid, glutamic acid, serine and hydroxyproline compared with amino acid contents of that of normal part. 4) The 45 Ca binding peptide was separated from 45 Ca binding elastin extracted from experimentally induced arteriosclerosis by thin layer chromatography and it was characteristic peptide containing aspartic acid, glutamic acid, threonine, serine, glycine and alanine. This characteristic amino acid contents was in good agreement with increased amino acid contents in the elastin from fatty streak of human thoracic aorta. (author)

  10. Attosecond delay in the molecular photoionization of asymmetric molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chacón, Alexis; Ruiz, Camilo

    2018-02-19

    We report theoretical calculations of the delay in photoemission from CO with particular emphasis on the role of the ultrafast electronic bound dynamics. We study the delays in photoionization in the HOMO and HOMO-1 orbitals of the CO molecule by looking into the stereo Wigner time delay technique. That compares the delay in photoemission from electrons emitted to the left and right to extract structural and dynamical information of the ionization process. For this we apply two techniques: The attosecond streak camera and the time of flight technique. Although they should provide the same results we have found large discrepancies of up to 36 in the case of HOMO, while for the HOMO-1 we obtain the same results with the two techniques. We have found that the large time delays observed in the HOMO orbital with the streaking technique are a consequence of the resonant transition triggered by the streaking field. This resonant transition produces a bound electron wavepacket that modifies the measurements of delay in photoionization. As a result of this observation, our technique allows us to reconstruct the bound wavepacket dynamics induced by the streaking field. By measuring the expected value of the electron momentum along the polarization direction after the streaking field has finished, we can recover the relative phase between the complex amplitudes of the HOMO and LUMO orbitals. These theoretical calculations pave the way for the measurement of ultrafast bound-bound electron transitionsand its crucial role for the delay in photoemission observation.

  11. Gambler's fallacy, hot hand belief, and the time of patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongbin Wang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The gambler's fallacy and the hot hand belief have been classified as two exemplars of human misperceptions of random sequential events. This article examines the times of pattern occurrences where a fair or biased coin is tossed repeatedly. We demonstrate that, due to different pattern composition, two different statistics (mean time and waiting time can arise from the same independent Bernoulli trials. When the coin is fair, the mean time is equal for all patterns of the same length but the waiting time is the longest for streak patterns. When the coin is biased, both mean time and waiting time change more rapidly with the probability of heads for a streak pattern than for a non-streak pattern. These facts might provide a new insight for understanding why people view streak patterns as rare and remarkable. The statistics of waiting time may not justify the prediction by the gambler's fallacy, but paying attention to streaks in the hot hand belief appears to be meaningful in detecting the changes in the underlying process.

  12. Efficacy of periodically rotated overlapping parallel lines with enhanced reconstruction (PROPELLER) for shoulder magnetic resonance (MR) imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagatomo, Kazuya, E-mail: nkgzmyn.1103@gmail.com [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yabuuchi, Hidetake, E-mail: h-yabu@med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Yamasaki, Yuzo, E-mail: yyama@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Clinical Radiology, Graduate of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Narita, Hiroshi, E-mail: hiroshi.narita.ty@hitachi.com [Hitachi Medical Corporation, 3-26-29 Hakataekimae, Hakata-ku, Fukuoka 812-0011 (Japan); Kumazawa, Seiji, E-mail: s_kmzw@hs.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Kojima, Tsukasa, E-mail: k.tsukasa.0910@gmail.com [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Sakai, Noriyuki, E-mail: noriyuki.sakai0602@gmail.com [Department of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, 3-1-1 Maidashi, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8582 (Japan); Masaki, Masahumi, E-mail: m-masaki@kimura-hosp.or.jp [Department of Radiology, Kimura Hospital, 2-13-19 Chiyo, Hakata-ku, Fukuoka 812-0044 (Japan); Kimura, Hiroshi, E-mail: h-kimura@kimura-hosp.or.jp [Department of Surgery, Kimura Hospital, 2-13-19 Chiyo, Hakata-ku, Fukuoka 812-0044 (Japan)

    2016-10-15

    Objectives: To elucidate the utility of PROPELLER for motion artefact reduction on shoulder MRI and to examine the influence of streak artefacts on diagnosis of clinical images. Methods: 15 healthy volunteers and 48 patients underwent shoulder MRI with/without PROPELLER (coronal oblique proton density-fast spin echo [PD-FSE], sagittal oblique T2-FSE). In a volunteer study, all sequences were performed in both static and exercise-loaded conditions. Two radiologists graded artefacts and delineation of various anatomical structures in the volunteer study and motion and streak artefacts in the clinical study. Mean scores were compared between sequences with/without PROPELLER. In the clinical study, mean scores of motion artefacts were compared with mean scores of streak artefacts. Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used for all comparisons. Results: In both studies, PROPELLER significantly reduced motion artefacts (P < 0.05). In the volunteer study, it significantly improved delineations in sagittal oblique images in the exercise-loaded condition (P < 0.05). In the clinical study, streak artefacts appeared dominantly on images with PROPELLER (P < 0.05), but influenced diagnosis to a lesser extent than motion artefacts. Conclusion: PROPELLER can reduce motion artefacts in shoulder MRI. While it does cause streak artefacts, it affects diagnosis to a lesser extent.

  13. Photocathode development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinrichs, C.K.; Estrella, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    A research program for the development of photocathodes for use in streak image tubes is described. This is one task in the development of a high-resolution, high-speed x-ray streak camera system whose primary application is for diagnostics in underground nuclear testing. There are three objectives in the photocathode development program: (1) the development of new x-ray photocathodes compatible with the requirements of streak tubes; (2) the development of the capability to process high-quality visible light photocathodes as well as x-ray photocathodes; and (3) the design and construction of a transfer photocathode system. Design and construction of all the major components of the transfer photocathode system were completed. Assembly should be completed in early FY 80

  14. Variable features on Mars - Preliminary Mariner 9 television results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagan, C.; Veverka, J.; Fox, P.; Dubisch, R.; Lederberg, J.; Levinthal, E.; Quam, L.; Tucker, R.; Pollack, J. B.; Smith, B. A.

    1972-01-01

    Systematic Mariner 9 photography of a range of Martian surface features, observed with all three photometric angles approximately invariant, reveals three general categories of albedo variations: (1) an essentially uniform contrast enhancement due to the dissipation of the dust storm; (2) the appearance of splotches, irregular dark markings at least partially related to topography; and (3) the development of both bright and dark linear streaks, generally emanating from craters. Some splotches and streaks vary on characteristic timescales of about two weeks; they have characteristic dimensions of kilometers to tens of kilometers. The morphology and variability of streaks and splotches, and the resolution of at least one splotch into an extensive dune system, implicate windblown dust as the principal agent of Martian albedo differences and variability.

  15. Laue image analysis. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenhough, T.J.; Shrive, A.K.

    1994-01-01

    Many Laue diffraction patterns from crystals of particular biological or chemical interest are of insufficient quality for their analysis to be feasible. In many cases, this is because of pronounced streaking of the spots owing to either large mosaic spread or disorder introduced during reactions in the crystal. Methods for the analysis of exposures exhibiting radial or near-radial streaking are described, along with their application in Laue diffraction studies of form-II crystals of Met-tRNA synthetase and a photosynthetic reaction centre from Rhodobacter sphaeroides. In both cases, variable elliptical radial masking has led to significant improvements in data quality and quantity and exposures that previously were too streaked to process may now be analysed. These masks can also provide circular profiles as a special case for processing high-quality Laue exposures and spatial-overlap deconvolution may be performed using the elliptical or circular masks. (orig.)

  16. High speed photography, videography, and photonics III; Proceedings of the Meeting, San Diego, CA, August 22, 23, 1985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponseggi, B. G. (Editor); Johnson, H. C. (Editor)

    1985-01-01

    Papers are presented on the picosecond electronic framing camera, photogrammetric techniques using high-speed cineradiography, picosecond semiconductor lasers for characterizing high-speed image shutters, the measurement of dynamic strain by high-speed moire photography, the fast framing camera with independent frame adjustments, design considerations for a data recording system, and nanosecond optical shutters. Consideration is given to boundary-layer transition detectors, holographic imaging, laser holographic interferometry in wind tunnels, heterodyne holographic interferometry, a multispectral video imaging and analysis system, a gated intensified camera, a charge-injection-device profile camera, a gated silicon-intensified-target streak tube and nanosecond-gated photoemissive shutter tubes. Topics discussed include high time-space resolved photography of lasers, time-resolved X-ray spectrographic instrumentation for laser studies, a time-resolving X-ray spectrometer, a femtosecond streak camera, streak tubes and cameras, and a short pulse X-ray diagnostic development facility.

  17. Fast imaging applications in the Nuclear Test Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lear, R.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of fast imaging employ both streak cameras and fast framing techniques. Image intensifier tubes are gated to provide fast two-dimensional shutters of 2 to 3 ns duration with shatter ratios of greater than 10 6 and resolution greater than 10 4 pixels. Shutters of less than 1 ns have been achieved with experimental tubes. Characterization data demonstrate the importance of tube and pulser design. Streak cameras are used to simultaneously record temporal and intensity information from up to 200 spatial points. Streak cameras are combined with remote readout for downhole uses and are coupled to fiber optic cables for uphole uses. Optical wavelength multiplexing is being studied as a means of compressing additional image data onto optical fibers. Performance data demonstrate trade-offs between image resolution and system sensitivity

  18. Carry on winning: the gamblers' fallacy creates hot hand effects in online gambling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Juemin; Harvey, Nigel

    2014-05-01

    People suffering from the hot-hand fallacy unreasonably expect winning streaks to continue whereas those suffering from the gamblers' fallacy unreasonably expect losing streaks to reverse. We took 565,915 sports bets made by 776 online gamblers in 2010 and analyzed all winning and losing streaks up to a maximum length of six. People who won were more likely to win again (apparently because they chose safer odds than before) whereas those who lost were more likely to lose again (apparently because they chose riskier odds than before). However, selection of safer odds after winning and riskier ones after losing indicates that online sports gamblers expected their luck to reverse: they suffered from the gamblers' fallacy. By believing in the gamblers' fallacy, they created their own hot hands. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Nitrile versus Latex for Glove Juice Sampling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy F Landers

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to explore the utility of nitrile gloves as a replacement for latex surgical gloves in recovering bacteria from the hands. Two types of nitrile gloves were compared to latex gloves using the parallel streak method. Streaks of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus were made on tryptic soy agar plates, and the zones of inhibition were measured around pieces of glove material placed on the plates. Latex gloves produced a mean zone of inhibition of 0.28 mm, compared to 0.002 mm for nitrile gloves (p<.001. While the parallel streak method is not intended as a quantitative estimate of antimicrobial properties, these results suggest that nitrile may be a viable alternative to latex in glove juice sampling methods, since nitrile avoids the risk of latex exposure.

  20. Aspergillus triggers phenazine production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Britt Guillaume; Jelsbak, Lars; Søndergaard, Ib

    in the contact area of A. niger, A. flavus, A. oryzae, but not A. fumigatus. In addition, other metabolites with UV chromophores similar to the phenazines were only found in the contact zone between Aspergillus and Pseudomonas. No change in secondary metabolite profiles were seen for the Aspergilli, when......Objectives: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen, commonly infecting cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Aspergilli, especially Aspergillus fumigatus, are also frequently isolated from CF patients. Our aim was to examine the possible interaction between P. aeruginosa and different...... Aspergillus species. Methods: A suspension of fungal spores was streaked onto WATM agar plates. After 24 hours incubation at 37 °C, a P. aeruginosa overnight culture was streaked out perpendicular to the fungal streak. The plates were incubated at 37 °C for five days, examined and plugs were extracted...

  1. Molecular dynamics studies of tweed and ω-phase instabilities in B2Ni62.5Al37.5 alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becquart, C.; Clapp, P.C.; Rifkin, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    Diffuser TEM and x-ray data has been reported by several research groups that has been interpreted in terms of both tweed and ω-phase instabilities. This patent describes computer simulations of 1,024 atom arrays that were run at various temperatures using the Voter-Chen Embedded Atom Method interactions. If the extra Ni atoms were placed at random on the Al sub-lattice of the B2 structure, at low temperatures both left-angle 110 right-angle and left-angle 112 right-angle diffuse streaking were observed in reciprocal lattice plots, indicative of tweed and ω-phase instabilities, respectively. The atomic displacements causing the left-angle 110 right-angle diffuse streaking could generally be classified as {110} left-angle 1 - 10 right-angle local shears, in agreement with accepted models of tweed. However, the displacements producing the left-angle 112 right-angle streaking were best described as coordinated atom row motions in left-angle 111 right-angle interplanar collapse. Both types of diffuse streaking deceased with increasing temperature, but the left-angle 110 right-angle type was stronger at all temperatures and persisted to higher temperatures. Furthermore, the atomic displacements producing the streaking were static at low temperatures (persistence times greater than 1000 vibrational periods) but became dynamic at higher temperatures (persistence times of the order of a few vibrational periods). Another interesting result was that by merely rearranging the extra Ni atoms into an ordered superlattice pattern, virtually no diffuse streaking of any type was observed at any temperature, strongly suggesting that compositional disorder (or other kinds of point defects) are essential to induce tweed instabilities

  2. Behavior of implanted hydrogen in ferritic/martensitic steels under irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, F.; Takahashi, H.; Ohnuki, S.; Nagasaki, R.

    1988-07-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the behavior of hydrogen under irradiation in ferritic/martensitic stainless steel Fe-10Cr-2Mo-1Ni. Hydrogen was implanted into the specimens by ion accelerator or chemical cathodic charging method, followed by electron irradiation in a HVEM at temperatures from room temperature to 773 K. Streaks in the electron diffraction patterns were observed only during electron irradiation at 623-723 K. From these results it is suggested that the occurrence of the streak pattern is due to the formation of radiation-induced complexes of Ni or Cr with hydrogen along directions.

  3. First measurements of electron-beam transit times and micropulse elongation in a photoelectric injector at the High-Brightness Accelerator FEL (HIBAF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A.H.; Carlsten, B.E.; Feldman, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    Key aspects of the dynamics of a photoelectric injector (PEI) on the Los Alamos High-Brightness Accelerator FEL (HIBAF) facility have been investigated using a synchroscan streak camera. By phase-locking the streak camera sweep to the reference 108.3 MHz rf signal, the variations of micropulse temporal elongations (30 to 80% over the drive-laser pulse length) and of transit times (25 ps for a 16{degree}-phase change) were observed for the first time. These results were in good agreement with PARMELA simulations. 2 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Chirped Auger electron emission due to field-assisted post-collision interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonitz M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the Auger decay in the temporal domain by applying a terahertz streaking light field. Xenon and krypton atoms were studied by implementing the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH as well as a source of high-order harmonic radiation combined with terahertz pulses from an optical rectification source. The observed linewidth asymmetries in the streaked spectra suggest a chirped Auger electron emission which is understood in terms of field-assisted post-collision interaction. The experimentally obtained results agree well with model calculations.

  5. Bunch length measurements in the SLC damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, F.J.; Limberg, T.; Minty, M.; Ross, M.

    1993-05-01

    The synchrotron light of the SLC damping ring was used to measure the bunch length with a streak camera at different times in the damping cycle. There are bunch length oscillations after injection, different equilibrium length during the cycle due to rf manipulations to avoid microwave instability oscillations, and just before extraction there is a longitudinal phase space rotation (bunch muncher) to shorten the bunch length. Measurements under these different conditions are presented and compared with BPM pulse height signals. Calibration and adjustment issues and the connection of the streak camera to the SLC control system are also discussed

  6. Observation of GEO Satellite Above Thailand’s Sky

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasonsuwan, K.; Wannawichian, S.; Kirdkao, T.

    2017-09-01

    The direct observations of Geostationary Orbit (GEO) satellites above Thailand’s sky by 0.7-meters telescope were proceeded at Inthanon Mt., Chiang Mai, Thailand. The observation took place at night with Sidereal Stare Mode (SSM). With this observing mode, the moving object will appear as a streak. The star identification for image calibration is based on (1) a star catalogue, (2) the streak detection of the satellite using the software and (3) the extraction of the celestial coordinate of the satellite as a predicted position. Finally, the orbital elements for GEO satellites were calculated.

  7. Time response characteristics of X-ray detector system on Silex-Ⅰ laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Rongqing; He Xiao'an; Li Hang; Du Huabing; Zhang Haiying; Cao Zhurong

    2013-01-01

    On the Silex-Ⅰ laser facility, the time response characteristics of XRD detector were studied. A laser with a pulse of 32 fs and a wavelength of 800 nm was used to irradiate a plane Au target. X-ray calibrated method of time of exposure X-ray framing camera and time resolution of X-ray streak camera was explored. The time response characteristics of XRD detector and time process of X-ray emission were obtained from experiment. We obtained X-ray calibration method of time of exposure X-ray framing camera and time resolution of X-ray streak camera. (authors)

  8. Approaches to ultrafast neutron detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, C.L.; Kalibjian, R.; Singh, M.S.

    1984-01-01

    We discuss two approaches to obtain detectors of very high temporal resolution. In the first approach, uranium-coated cathode is used in a streak tube configuration. Secondary electrons accompanying the fission fragments from a neutron-uranium reaction are accelerated, focussed and energy analyzed through a pinhole and streaked. Calculations show that 20 ps time-resolution can be obtained. In the second approach, a uranium-coated cathode is integrated into a transmission line. State-of-the-art technology indicates that time resolution of 20 ps can be obtained by gating the cathode with a fast electric pulse

  9. Initial Demonstration of 9-MHz Framing Camera Rates on the FAST UV Drive Laser Pulse Trains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lumpkin, A. H. [Fermilab; Edstrom Jr., D. [Fermilab; Ruan, J. [Fermilab

    2016-10-09

    We report the configuration of a Hamamatsu C5680 streak camera as a framing camera to record transverse spatial information of green-component laser micropulses at 3- and 9-MHz rates for the first time. The latter is near the time scale of the ~7.5-MHz revolution frequency of the Integrable Optics Test Accelerator (IOTA) ring and its expected synchroton radiation source temporal structure. The 2-D images are recorded with a Gig-E readout CCD camera. We also report a first proof of principle with an OTR source using the linac streak camera in a semi-framing mode.

  10. Time-domain diagnostics in the picosecond regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lumpkin, A.H.

    1995-01-01

    The measurement of bunch length and longitudinal profile for microbunches of electrons and positrons in the ps and sub-ps regime will be a critical part of validating performance of proposed facilities. Data will be presented showing single-sweep streak camera results at σ res ∼ 68 fs and projected synchroscan sweep resolution at σ ∼ 600 fs. Additionally, an rf cavity operating in a transverse magnetic mode has recently been shown to produce σ res ∼ 280 fs when used with a low-emittance beam. The potential for dual-sweep streak work with σ res < 1 ps on the fast axis is also described

  11. A pesca de pequena escala no rio Madeira pelos desembarques ocorridos em Manicoré (Estado do Amazonas, Brasil Small-scale fishery at Madeira River by fish landings in Manicoré city (Amazon State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Soares Cardoso

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho teve como objetivo analisar o desembarque da pesca comercial na região do Médio rio Madeira, tendo como área focal o município de Manicoré, buscando identificar as espécies explotadas, os locais de pesca e sua contribuição para o abastecimento local de pescado. O desembarque foi amostrado diariamente, utilizando questionários aplicados aos pescadores após a comercialização do pescado. Foram desembarcadas no ano de 2002 aproximadamente 225,4 toneladas de pescado. Canoas motorizadas efetuaram mais expedições de pesca, entretanto os barcos de pesca desembarcaram uma maior produção. Os valores médios de desembarque foram de 11,2; 5,4 e 2,4 toneladas por mês para barcos, canoas e compradores de pescado respectivamente, sendo as capturas compostas por 32 espécies ou grupo de espécies, sendo jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp, pacu (Mylossoma duriventre, curimatá (Prochilodus nigricans, sardinha (Triportheus spp e jatuarana (Brycon spp, responsáveis por 75% do pescado desembarcado. Foram identificados 32 locais de pesca, sendo os mais explotados os rios Madeira e Manicoré, os lagos Acará e Boquerão e o igarapé Matupiri.The study aimed to analyze the landing of commercial fishing in Middle Madeira River, near Manicoré city, identifying the exploited species, fishing grounds and the contribution for the local supplying of fish. Fish landings were sampled daily, using questionnaires, given to fishermen after the fish sale. In 2002, 225.4 tons of fish were landed in Manicoré city. Motorized canoes undertook more fishing trips, but the higher fish landings were accomplished by boats. Mean values of fish landings were 11.2 tons/month, 5.4 tons/month and 2.4 tons/month for boats, motorized canoes and fish purchasers, respectively. 32 species or group of species were landed, with a predominance of jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp, pacu (Mylossoma duriventre, curimatá (Prochilodus nigricans, sardinha (Triportheus spp e jatuarana

  12. A pesca comercial na bacia do rio Madeira no estado de Rondônia, Amazônia brasileira The Commercial fisheries of the Madeira river basin in the Rondônia state, brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Rodrigues da Costa Doria

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo caracteriza quali e quantitativamente a atividade pesqueira comercial na bacia do rio Madeira, afluente do rio Amazonas, no trecho entre Guajará-Mirim e Porto Velho, estado de Rondônia. No período de janeiro a dezembro/2004, foram registrados 460 t, correspondendo 935 viagens. A análise dos dados oriundos do monitoramento dos desembarques demonstrou que a pesca na região tem caráter artesanal de pequena escala, destacando a maior participação das canoas motorizadas (131 unidades do que barcos pesqueiros (45 unidades; capacidade média: 3.000kg na frota pesqueira. Os peixes migradores jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans e filhote (Brachyplatystoma filamentosum se destacaram na composição das espécies desembarcadas. As informações técnicas geradas são importantes para subsidiar ações de ordenamento pesqueiro, bem como para avaliar futuras variações que possam ocorrer na atividade frente aos impactos dos empreendimentos hidrelétricos em construção na região.This study presents qualitative and quantitative information about commercial fishery in the basin of the Madeira River, tributary of the Amazon River, describing the fishing activity in the segment between Guajará-Mirim and Porto Velho, in Rondônia State. From January to December/2004, 219 fishermen and 935 trips were registered, corresponding to the capture of 460 t of fish. Data from fish landings demonstrate that fisheries in the region are small-scaled and point to a higher participation of small motorized canoes (130 units than of fishing boats (45 units; average capacity: 3000 kg in the fishing fleet. Migratory species like jaraqui (Semaprochilodus spp., dourada (Brachyplatystoma rousseauxii, sardinha (Triportheus spp., jatuarana/matrinxã (Brycon amazonicus e B. cephalus, curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans

  13. Avaliação do desembarque pesqueiro efetuado em Manacapuru, Amazonas, Brasil Evaluation of the Manacapuru fishing landings, Amazonas State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Gonçalves

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A atividade comercial pesqueira na Amazônia Central é predominantemente direcionada para Manaus, porém o perfil das atividades pesqueiras efetuadas nos demais centros também é fundamental para o planejamento do setor. Neste contexto, o presente trabalho visa caracterizar o perfil da produção pesqueira que abastece a cidade de Manacapuru, um dos principais centros urbanos da Amazônia Central. Os desembarques ocorreram a partir de canoas a remo, canoas motorizadas, barcos de pesca e recreios. A média mensal de pescado desembarcado foi de 175,36 ± 39,50 t em 2001 e de 172,13 ± 18,88 t em 2002, não apresentando diferença significativa entre anos (P>0,05. Dos 35 nomes específicos comuns registrados, observa-se que curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp., cubiu (Anodus spp., mapará (Hypophthalmus spp., e tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum foram os itens mais importantes nos dois anos, e piramutaba (Brachyplatystoma vaillantii em 2002. Sete sub-regiões foram visitadas pela frota pesqueira, destacando-se Baixo-Solimões e o rio Purus.The fishing commercial activity in Central Amazonia is mainly addressed for Manaus, even so the characteristics of the fishing activities directed to other important urban centers in the region are also fundamental for the planning of the sector. In this context, the present work seeks to characterize the profile of the fishing production that lands in the city of Manacapuru, one of the main urban centers of Central Amazon. Fish landings were done from non-motorized canoes, motorized canoes, fishing ships and pleasure boats. The monthly average of landed fish was of 175,36 ± 39,50 ton in 2001 and of 172,13 ± 18,88 ton in 2002, not presenting significant difference among years (P>0,05. Of the 35 registered common species names, it is observed that curimatã (Prochilodus nigricans, jaraquis (Semaprochilodus spp., cubiu (Anodus spp., mapará (Hypophthalmus spp., and tambaqui (Colossoma

  14. Obtención de secuencias microsatelitales especie especificas para Plagioscion magdalenae (Pisces:Sciaenidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Juliana Bayona-Vásquez

    2007-08-01

    en la parte baja de la cuenca del río Magdalena y en la cuenca del río San Jorge, Colombia, en donde cada vez su comercialización cobra fuerza debido al desplazamiento y disminución en los volúmenes de captura de otras especies como el bagre rayado y bocachico. Lo cual ha llevado a la comúnmente llamada pacora a catalogarse en estado de vulnerabilidad en las cuencas colombianas. Lo anterior, hace necesario la generación de información que sirva de sustento a programas de conservación y uso sostenible de la especie. Una primera aproximación a las poblaciones de P. magdalenae puede ser hecha a través de marcadores moleculares microsatelitales, útiles en trabajos de genética de poblaciones, conservación y manejo de recursos biológicos. Sin embargo, la principal dificultad de los microsatélites es que deben ser aislados de novo para aquellas especies que van a ser evaluadas por primera vez, lo que lleva a la necesidad de obtener primers para la especie. En este trabajo, inicialmente se obtuvo un ADN de buena calidad útil para amplificaciones a partir de muestras de músculo colectadas en cuatro puntos de la cuenca del río San Jorge; posteriormente, se aislaron primers microsatelitales especie-específicos para P. magdalenae mediante amplificación cruzada con primers de otras especies de peces lejanas, entre las cuales se encuentra: Pseudoplatystoma corruscans, Pimelodella chagressi, Prochilodus argenteus y Prochilodus costatus. Para lo anterior, fue necesario modificar y estandarizar protocolos de amplificación mediante cambios en temperatura de alineamiento y concentración de reactivos; y por último se realizó el secuenciamiento de regiones flanqueantes y motivos de repetición en aquellos sistemas que presentaron resultados positivos, de esta forma, se diseñaron primers de regiones microsatélite para la especie. De los trece sistemas evaluados, de las cuatro especies, se obtuvo amplificación positiva de seis. Por medio de la t

  15. Evaluation of the effects of pressure gradients on four Brazilian freshwater fish species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo dos Santos Pompeu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to experimentally evaluate the behavior of Brazilian freshwater fish species when submitted to a gradual increase in pressure, as well as sudden decompression's effects simulating the passage through a hydroelectric turbine. Four species from the São Francisco river basin were tested: Astyanax bimaculatus, Hypostomus sp., Leporinus reinhardti and Prochilodus costatus. For all of them mortality rates due to decompression were extremely low. However, the symptoms related to decompression, such as bulged eyes and hemorrhage, were not observed only in Hypostomus sp., and were more frequent the larger the pressure values were, considering the values from which decompression was performed. All these symptoms decreased significantly after 24 h of observation. With the increase in pressure inside the apparatus, the four tested species moved towards the upper levels. This behavior could make possoble the implementation of bypass downstream fish passages in dams constructed in Brazil.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar experimentalmente o comportamento de espécies brasileiras quando submetidas a um aumento gradual na pressão, bem como os efeitos de uma descompressão rápida simulando a passagem por uma turbina hidrelétrica. Quatro espécies da bacia do rio São Francisco foram testadas: Astyanax bimaculatus, Hypostomus sp., Leporinus reinhardti e Prochilodus costatus. Para todas elas as taxas de mortalidade devido à descompressão foram extremamente baixas. No entanto, sintomas relacionados à descompressão, como exoftalmia e hemorragia só não foram observados em Hypostomus sp., sendo mais freqüentes quanto maior o valor de pressão a partir do qual realizou-se a descompressão. Todos estes sintomas diminuíram significativamente após 24 horas de observação. Com o aumento da pressão no aparato, as espécies testadas se movimentaram em direção aos níveis superiores. Este comportamento sugere a possibilidade de se

  16. Hematology, micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in fishes from São Francisco river, Minas Gerais state, Brazil = Hematologia, micronúcleos e anomalias nucleares em peixes do rio São Francisco, Estado de Minas Gerais, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robson Seriani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the variables leukocytary, erythrocytary, frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in peripheral erythrocytes of Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus and Myleus micans from São Francisco river basin, Minas Gerais State, during the summer and winter. Thrombocytes, hematocrit and leukocyte of P.argenteus series, was influenced by climatic conditions. In P. maculatus, not were significant differences for all leukocytes and thrombocytes. In M. micans, values are unprecedented in the literature, with MCV and absolute number of leukocytes found superior to other species of the family Characidae. The frequency of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes, the three species not showed seasonal differences between the sites. However, the highest values were found in summer. Furthermore, we observed a positive correlation between the increase in the percentage of micronuclei with nuclear abnormalities.O presente estudo teve como objetivo, determinar as variáveis leucocitárias, eritrocíticas, freqüência de micronúcleos e anomaliasnucleares nos eritrócitos do sangue periférico de Prochilodus argenteus, Pimelodus maculatus e Myleus micans de um trecho da bacia do rio São Francisco, Minas Gerais, no verão e inverno. Trombóctios, hematócrito e a serie leucocítária de P.argenteus, foi influenciado pela sazonalidade. Em P. maculatus, não ocorreram diferenças significativas para todos os leucócitos e trombócitos. Em M. micans, os valores são inéditos na literatura, apresentando VCM e número absoluto de leucócitos superior ao encontrados para outras espécies dafamília Characidae. A freqüência de micronúcleos e de anomalias nucleares nos eritrócitos, nas três espécies não apresentou diferenças sazonais e entre os pontos amostrais. No entanto, os valores mais altos foram encontrados no verão. Além disso, foi possível observar correlação positiva entre o aumento da

  17. Variação temporal e espacial de ovos e de larvas das espécies de interesse para a pesca na sub-bacia do rio Miranda, Pantanal, Estado do Mato Grosso do Sul, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1314 Temporal and spatial variation of fish eggs and larvae of the main exploited species in the sub-basin of Miranda River, Pantanal wetland, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v27i3.1314

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keshyiu Nakatani

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Foi analisada a variação temporal de ovos e de larvas das principais espécies exploradas no Pantanal: Piaractus mesopotamicus; Prochilodus lineatus; Salminus maxillosus; Leporinus macrocephalus e Pseudoplatystoma spp., no rio Miranda. As coletas foram realizadas nos meses de outubro a março, quinzenalmente, de 1996 a 1999. O rio foi dividido em trecho superior, médio e inferior, com 15 pontos de coleta. Foram utilizadas rede de plâncton cônico-cilindrica, com fluxômetro, e as amostras fixadas em formol 4%. Para a identificação, utilizaram-se características morfológicas e merísticas, grau de flexão da notocorda e elementos da nadadeira caudal. No primeiro período, foram capturadas 5.979 larvas e 1.075 ovos; no segundo, 108.912 larvas e 1.836 ovos; no terceiro, 13.465 larvas e 1.855 ovos. A ANOVA, entre os anos e trechos do rio, foi significativa (F= 6.5, p >0,05 no trecho médio, indicando que a reprodução ocorre do trecho médio para o superior, nos meses de novembro a janeiroThe aim of this study was to analyze temporal variation of fish eggs and larvae of the main exploited species in Miranda river, Pantanal wetland (Piaractus mesopotamicus, Prochilodus lineatus, Salminus maxillosus, Leporinus macrocephalus, and Pseudoplatystoma spp., which were collected from October to March, biweekly, from 1996 to 1999. The river was divided into superior, medium and inferior sections, of 15 collection sites. Conical-cylindrical plankton net with a fluxometer and samples fixed in formol 4% were utilized. Morphological and meristic characteristics, notochord flexion degree and caudal fin elements were utilized for identification. A total of 5,979 larvae and 1,075 eggs were collected in the first period; 108,912 larvae and 1,836 eggs in the second; 13,465 larvae and 1,855 eggs in the third. Results showed that ANOVA, between the years and the river stretches, was significant (F = 6.5, p >0.05 in the medium section, which indicates that the

  18. Copépodes parasitos de fossas nasais de cinco espécies de peixes (Characiformes da planície de inundação do alto rio Paraná, Paraná, Brasil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.887 Parasitic copepods in the nasal fossae of five fish species (Characiformes from the upper Paraná river floodplain, Paraná, Brazil - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i4.887

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de los Angeles Perez Lizama

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo de copépodes parasitos de fossas nasais de peixes da planície de inundação do alto Rio Paraná. As coletas foram realizadas em diversos pontos da planície nos meses de março, junho e setembro de 2004. Foram coletados 73 exemplares de peixes da ordem Characiformes, de quatro famílias distintas, pertencentes a cinco espécies: Acestrorhynchus lacustris, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon borellii, Serrasalmus maculatus e Serrasalmus marginatus. Dentre os 73 peixes examinados, 53 encontravam-se parasitados por copépodes de fossas nasais, variando de 1 a 146 parasitos por peixe. Os parasitos encontrados pertenciam a três espécies conhecidas: Gamidactylus jaraquensis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984; Gamispatulus schizodontis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984 e Rhinergasilus piranhus Boeger & Thatcher, 1988. Diferenças foram observadas nas medidas corporais dos parasitos e na quantidade de espécies de parasitos por espécie de peixe em relação aos copépodes encontrados em estudos anteriores na região amazônica. O presente estudo constitui um dos poucos trabalhos de identificação de copépodes parasitos de fossas nasais de peixes da região Sul do Brazil.The present work had the objective to study parasitic copepods in the nasal fossae of fish from the upper Paraná river floodplain. Fish were captured in different locations of the floodplain in March, June and September, 2004. A total of 73 specimens (Characiformes were collected, belonging to 4 distinct families and 5 species: Acestrorhynchus lacustris (Acestrorhynchidae, Schizodon borellii (Anostomidae, Prochilodus lineatus (Prochilodontidae, Serrasalmus marginatus and Serrasalmus maculatus (Serrasalmidae. Among 73 fishes examined, 53 were parasitized by nasal fossae copepods, varying from 1 to 146 parasites per host. Parasites found belonged to 3 known species: Gamidactylus jaraquensis Thatcher & Boeger, 1984; Gamispatulus schizodontis Thatcher & Boeger

  19. The fish fauna in tropical rivers: The case of the Sorocaba river basin, SP, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welber Senteio Smith

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A survey was carried out on the fish species in the Sorocaba River basin, the main tributary of the left margin of the Tietê River, located in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. The species were collected with gill nets. After identification of the specimens, their relative abundance, weight and standard length were determined. Up to the present moment there are not any studies that focus this subject in this hydrographic basin. Fifty-three species, distributed in eighteen families and six orders were collected. Characiformes were represented by twenty-eight species, Siluriformes by seventeen species, the Gymnotiformes by three species, Perciformes and Cyprinodontiformes by two species, and the Synbranchiformes by one species. Among the collected species there were two exotic. The most abundant species were Astyanax fasciatus and Hypostomus ancistroides. In relation to total weight the most representative species were Hoplias malabaricus and Hypostomus ancistroides. Cyprinus carpio, Prochilodus lineatus, Schizodon nasutus and Hoplias malabaricus were the most representative species in relation to average weight. Largest standard length were recorded for Sternopygus macrurus, Steindachnerina insculpta, Eigenmannia aff. virescens and Cyprinus carpioSe realizó un análisis de las especies de peces de la cuenca del Río Sorocaba, el principal tributario de la margen izquierda del Río Tietê, localizado en el estado de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Las especies fueron recolectadas con redes agalleras. Luego de la identificación de los especímenes, fue determinada su abundancia relativa, peso, y longitud estandar. Hasta el presente, no hay ningún otro estudio que analice estos aspectos en dicha cuenca hidrográfica. Fueron recolectados 55 especies, distribuidas en 18 familias y 6 ordenes. Los Characiformes estuvieron representados por 28 especies, Siluriformes por 17 especies, Gymnotiformes por 3 especies, Perciformes y Cyprinodontiformes por 2 especies, y

  20. Application of high speed photography for high current vacuum arcs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Damstra, G.C.; Merck, W.F.H.; Vossen, J.W.G.L.; Janssen, M.F.P.; Bouwmeester, C.E.

    1998-01-01

    A high speed image detection system for 106 frames per second or 107 streaks per second has been developed for the testing of vacuum circuit breakers, using 10×16 optical fibres for light transfer to 160 fast photo diodes. The output of these diodes is multiplexed, AD converted in a 4 bit

  1. Self-inflicted bilateral orchidectomy precipitated by erotic bizarre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    power that enabled him to make any football club of his choice have a winning streak in the English Premiership. League. He cited instances of drops in the ratings of his favourite ... drug-induced as indicated by his drug and alcohol history.

  2. Hypercholesterolaemia in pregnancy as a predictor of adverse ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    support the fetus, the placenta, and the yolk sac have yet to be established, and those effects could markedly influence the outcome of pregnancy and long-term .... streak formation occurs in human fetal aortas and is greatly enhanced by maternal hypercholesterolemia. In- timal accumulation of low density lipoprotein and its.

  3. Coat protein deletion mutants elicit more severe symptoms than wild-type virus in multiple cereal hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The coat protein (CP) of Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV; genus Tritimovirus, family Potyviridae) tolerates deletion of amino acids 36 to 84 for efficient systemic infection of wheat. This study demonstrates that deletion of CP amino acids 58 to 84, but not 36 to 57, from WSMV genome induced severe ...

  4. Identification of an emergent bacterial blight of garlic in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Outbreaks of a bacterial blight disease occurred on garlic (Allium sativum) cultivars Roxo Caxiense, Quiteria and Cacador in Southern Brazil, and threatened the main production regions of Rio Grande do Sul State. Symptoms were characterized by watersoaked reddish streaks along the leaf midrib, follo...

  5. Sacrococcygeal teratoma: 10-year experience in upper Egypt

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    time of surgical approach, histopathology, recurrences, bladder and anorectal function, and cosmetic outcome. Results Forty-five patients with SCT were referred to the. Pediatric Surgical Unit. The time of referral was as follows: immediately after birth in ... is from pluripotent cells in Hensen's node of primitive streak, and they ...

  6. Effectiveness of gamma ray irradiation and ethyl methane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Survival rate and plantlet performance of DNKW001 in gamma ray + EMS 7uM treatment declined profoundly with increasing doses and LD50 was lower (104 Gy) than LD50 in gamma ray irradiation (177 Gy) alone. Variants of plantlets were detected in pre (white streaked leaf and bigger petiole with distorted leaf) and post ...

  7. Decision-Making Models of Remember-Know Judgments: Comment on Rotello, Macmillan, and Reeder (2004)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdock, Bennet

    2006-01-01

    The sum-difference theory of remembering and knowing (STREAK) provides a sophisticated account of many interactions in the remember-know (R-K) area (C. M. Rotello, N. A. Macmillan, & J. A. Reeder, 2004; see record 2004-15929-002). It assumes 2 orthogonal strength dimensions and oblique criterion planes. Another dual-process model (J. T. Wixted…

  8. Rochester scientist discovers new comet with Dark Energy Camera (DECam) at

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visiting Astronomers Guide Travel Information Questionnaire Vistor Support Questionaire Telescope Schedules time, seem to slowly jump from point to point. While searching our images one day, I was surprised to find a small streak of light with a tail, and like the Kuiper Belt objects it also jumped from point to

  9. Some new possibilities in direct visible and x ray measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gex, J.P.; Sauneuf, R.; Boutot, J.P.; Delmotte, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Subnanosecond photodetection measurements in visible and X ray range with vacuum cell and very thin microchannel plate phototube (coupled with a fast scintillator or not) in conjunction with fast oscilloscope (5 GHz) are presented. They are compared to those given by a visible or a gold photocathode X-ray streak camera (temporal resolution better than 20 ps). (author)

  10. Identification of genes that have undergone adaptive evolution in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta) is a vital food security crop and staple in Africa, yet cassava brown streak disease (CBSD) and cassava mosaic disease result in substantial yield losses. The aim of this study was to identify genes that have undergone positive selection during adaptive evolution, from CBSD resistant, tolerant ...

  11. What Is Macular Edema?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an Ophthalmologist Answers Would a macular wrinkle cause black streaks in my vision? Oct 05, 2017 When will I be able to see after vitrectomy surgery for a macular hole? Jan 24, 2016 Can Prolensa drops help a ...

  12. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 2, No 7 (2003)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Production of monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies against a Nigerian isolate of banana streak virus · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. B.O. Agindotan, G. Thottappilly, A. Uwaifo, S. Winter, 171-178 ...

  13. Reducing artifacts from varying projection truncations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Leise; Jørgensen, Jakob Sauer; Frikel, Jürgen

    We study samples with full and partial occlusion causing streak artifacts, and propose two modifications of filtered backprojection for artifact removal. Data is obtained by the SPring-8 synchrotron using a monochromatic parallel-beam scan [1]. Thresholding in the sinogram segments the metal...

  14. UV laser-driven shock-wave experiments at ultrahigh-pressures up to 5 TPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottet, F.; Hallouin, M.; Romain, J.P. (GRECO ILM, Laboratoire d' Enegetique et Detonique, ENSMA, 86 - Poitiers (France)); Fabbro, R.; Faral, B. (GRECO ILM, Laboratoire de Physique des Milieux Ionises, Ecole Polytechnique, 91 - Palaiseau (France))

    1984-11-01

    Laser-driven shock pressures up to 5 TPa at 0.26 ..mu..m wavelenth have been evaluated from measurements of shock velocity through thin metallic foils (Al, Au, Cu) by streak camera records of shock luminosity at the near face of the foil.

  15. UV laser-driven shock-wave experiments at ultrahigh-pressures up to 5 TPa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottet, F.; Hallouin, M.; Romain, J.P.; Fabbro, R.; Faral, B.

    1984-01-01

    Laser-driven shock pressures up to 5 TPa at 0.26 μm wavelenth have been evaluated from measurements of shock velocity through thin metallic foils (Al, Au, Cu) by streak camera records of shock luminosity at the near face of the foil

  16. Bacteriology of the Anterior Genitalia of the Domestic House Cat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bacteriology of the anterior genitalia of the domestic house cat was determined using vaginal swabs collected from sixty apparently healthy female domestic cats (20 kittens, 20 pregnant and 20 non-pregnant adults). The swabs were streaked on blood agar, Mac Conkey agar and eosin methylene blue agar plates ...

  17. Crystallization of Enzyme IIB of the Cellobiose-specific Phosphotransferase System of Escherichia coli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Montfort, Robert; Pijning, Tjaard; Kalk, Kornelis; Schuurman-Wolters, Gea K.; Reizer, Jonathan; Safer Jr., Milton H.; Robillard, George; Dijkstra, Bauke W.

    1994-01-01

    Crystals of enzyme IIB of the cellobiose-specific phosphotransferase system have been obtained from 15% polyethylene glycol 4000 using both streak-seeding and macroseeding techniques at 4°. Crystals were grown with the hanging drop method of vapour diffusion. Addition of 2-propanol and

  18. Nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mysels, K.J.; Shenoy, A.S.

    1976-01-01

    A nuclear reactor is described in which the core consists of a number of fuel regions through each of which regulated coolant flows. The coolant from neighbouring fuel regions is combined in a manner which results in an averaging of the coolant temperature at the outlet of the core. By this method the presence of hot streaks in the reactor is reduced. (UK)

  19. Refractive errors in presbyopic patients in Kano, Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Annals of African Medicine, Vol. ... Information extracted includes patient's age, sex, and types of refractive error. ... All patients had basic eye examination and streak retinoscopy at two third meter working distance. ... symptoms may start earlier or later than this age .... presbyopia was associated with reduced workers'.

  20. original article candida species amongst pregnant women in benin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    was used to streak Sabouraud Dextrose. Agar SDA (Oxoid, England) plates containing 0.5ml Chloramphenicol. (500mg,Pfizer) and incubated at 370C in triplicates. Uninoculated plain agar plates served as control for the inoculated ones. Discrete yeast colonies were subcultured on fresh SDA slants in. McCarthney bottles ...

  1. The Hot Hand Exists in Volleyball and Is Used for Allocation Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Markus; Gula, Bartosz; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2012-01-01

    The "hot hand" belief in sports refers to the conviction that a player has a higher chance of making a shot after two or three successful shots than after two or three misses (resulting in "streaks"). This belief is usually considered a cognitive fallacy, although it has been conjectured that in basketball the defense will…

  2. Validity of spherical quantitative refractometry: application to laser-produced plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benattar, R.; Popovics, C.

    1983-01-01

    We report an experimental laser technique of quantitative Schlieren imaging of spherical plasmas combined with streak camera recording. We show that quantitative refractometry applies for small values of refraction angles, i.e., when the law giving the refraction angle versus the impact parameter of rays passing through the plasma is a linearly decreasing function

  3. Addressing the ethical issues raised by synthetic human entities with embryo-like features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aach, John; Lunshof, Jeantine; Iyer, Eswar; Church, George M.

    2017-01-01

    The "14-day rule" for embryo research stipulates that experiments with intact human embryos must not allow them to develop beyond 14 days or the appearance of the primitive streak. However, recent experiments showing that suitably cultured human pluripotent stem cells can self organize and

  4. Production of Monoclonal and Polyclonal Antibodies against a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phil Berger

    Banana streak virus is serologically and genomically heterogenous worldwide and there has been the need to produce antibodies that can detect all known serotypes of this virus. Antibody production requires purified virus, since BSV titre is low in Musa tissues, there was the need for an efficient method of purifying the virus ...

  5. Gentamycin inhibits the growth of Malassezia pachydermatis in culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aspiroz, C.; Gilaberte, Y.; Rezusta, A.; Boekhout, T.; Rubio, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Malassezia pachydermatis is a yeast of importance in both veterinary and human medicine. Aims: To know if M. pachydermatis grow on micological media with high concentrations of gentamycin. Methods: Twenty M. pachydermatis strains were streaked on Sabouraud Dextrose Agar plates with

  6. Defense Gene Expression Associated with responses during the Biotrophic Phase of Mycosphaerella fjiensis Morelet, Infection in Banana.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, H.E.; Rodriguez-Arango, E.; Morales, J.; Kema, G.H.J.; Arango, R.E.

    2016-01-01

    Banana black leaf streak, caused by Mycosphaerella fijiensis M. Morelet, is a primary phytosanitary concern in export of this fruit around the world. To develop improved cultivars resistant to this disease, an understanding of host response to infection is necessary. In this study, we obtained

  7. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop: Banana Black Sigatoka Pathogen Pseudocercospora fijiensis (Synonym Mycosphaerella fijiensis) Genomes Reveal Clues for Disease Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E.; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F.; V. de Jong, Tristan; de Vries, Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fortes Fereira, Claudia; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza Manoel, Jr.; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Van der Lee, Theo A. J.; De Wit, Pierre J. G. M.; Zapater, Marie-Françoise; Zwiers, Lute-Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the ascomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis, inflicts huge costs on banana producers, due to crop losses and expenses for disease control. The global banana export trade relies on Cavendish clones that are highly susceptible to P.

  8. Combating a Global Threat to a Clonal Crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arango Isaza, Rafael E.; Diaz-Trujillo, Caucasella; Dhillon, Braham; Aerts, Andrea; Carlier, Jean; Crane, Charles F.; V. de Jong, Tristan; Vries, de Ineke; Dietrich, Robert; Farmer, Andrew D.; Fortes Fereira, Claudia; Garcia, Suzana; Guzman, Mauricio; Hamelin, Richard C.; Lindquist, Erika A.; Mehrabi, Rahim; Quiros, Olman; Schmutz, Jeremy; Shapiro, Harris; Reynolds, Elizabeth; Scalliet, Gabriel; Souza, Manoel; Stergiopoulos, Ioannis; Lee, van der Theo A.J.; Wit, de Pierre J.G.M.; Zapater, Marie Françoise; Zwiers, Lute Harm; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Goodwin, Stephen B.; Kema, Gert H.J.

    2016-01-01

    Black Sigatoka or black leaf streak disease, caused by the Dothideomycete fungus Pseudocercospora fijiensis (previously: Mycosphaerella fijiensis), is the most significant foliar disease of banana worldwide. Due to the lack of effective host resistance, management of this disease requires

  9. Untitled

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    be used for taking oscillation photographs. An analysis of the (a-axis 15 oscillation) diffraction pattern indicates the crystal to be 1T type with a = 3426A and c = 5'927A. The absence of arcing and streaks in the diffraction pattern indicates that the crystals are perfect. The diffraction pattern of the crystals heated to 600°C.

  10. Angioma serpiginosum with oesophageal papillomatosis is an X-linked dominant condition that maps to Xp11.3-Xq12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blinkenberg, Ellen O.; Brendehaug, Atle; Sandvik, Arne K.; Vatne, Oystein; Hennekam, Raoul C. M.; Houge, Gunnar

    2007-01-01

    We report on a four-generation family with localized subepidermal telangiectasias following Blaschko's lines (angioma serpiginosum). The vascular streaks are present at birth and progress slowly thereafter. In several family members papillomatosis of the entire oesophagus was found to be part of the

  11. DES BANANIERS PLANTAIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AISA

    INTEGRATED CONTROL OF BLACK SIGATOKA ( BLACK STREAKS DISEASE ; MRN) IN PLANTAIN (Musa, AAB, cv. Orishele) UNDER DIFFERENT PLANTING DENSITIES. The study conducted at the Azaguié Experiment Station of CNRA in Southern Côte d'Ivoire. (4°05' W ; 5°38' N) aims at assessing the effects of ...

  12. A Genetic Linkage Map of Mycosphaerella Fijiensis, using SSR and DArT Markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycosphaerella fijiensis is the causal agent of black leaf streak or Black Sigatoka disease in bananas. This pathogen threatens global banana production as the main export Cavendish cultivars are highly susceptible. Previously a genetic linkage map was generated predominantly using anonymous AFLP ma...

  13. Image correction for computed tomography to remove crosstalk artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, K.F.

    1990-01-01

    A correction method and apparatus for Computed Tomography (CT) which removes ring and streak artifacts from images by correcting for data contamination by crosstalk errors comprises subtracting from the output S o of a detector, a crosstalk factor derived from outputs of adjacent detectors. The crosstalk factors are obtained by scanning an off-centre phantom. (author)

  14. High resolution soft X-Ray spectrometer with 5-picosecond time-resolution for laser-produced plasma diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mexmain, J.M.; Bourgade, J.L.; Louis-Jacquet, M.; Mascureau, J. de; Sauneuf, R.; Schwob, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    A new XUV spectrometer designed to have a time-resolution of 3 ps and a spectral resolution of 0.1 A is described. It is basically a modified version of a Schwob-Fraenkel spectrometer, which is coupled to a new ultrafast electronic streak camera

  15. 49 CFR 213.113 - Defective rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... smooth, bright, or dark, round or oval surface substantially at a right angle to the length of the rail... in the head of the rail as a smooth, bright, or dark surface progressing until substantially at a... head, and extending into or through it. A crack or rust streak may show under the head close to the web...

  16. 49 CFR 213.337 - Defective rails.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... crystalline center or nucleus inside the head from which it spreads outward as a smooth, bright, or dark... a smooth, bright, or dark surface progressing until substantially at a right angle to the length of... through it. A crack or rust streak may show under the head close to the web or pieces may be split off the...

  17. Characteristic bacteriolytic activities of Staphylococcus hyicus.

    OpenAIRE

    Lämmler, C

    1989-01-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus demonstrated characteristic bacteriolytic activities towards a Micrococcus luteus reference strain. This lytic activity was demonstrated on medium containing M. luteus cells as large zones of transparency around the culture streak. Smaller zones of transparency were observed with Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus chromogenes, and some strains of Staphylococcus aureus but not with other coagulase-negative staphylococcal species. The distribution and extent of the...

  18. Reduction of artefacts caused by hip implants in CT-based attenuation-corrected PET images using 2-D interpolation of a virtual sinogram on an irregular grid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdoli, Mehrsima; de Jong, Johan R.; Pruim, Jan; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Zaidi, Habib

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Metallic prosthetic replacements, such as hip or knee implants, are known to cause strong streaking artefacts in CT images. These artefacts likely induce over-or underestimation of the activity concentration near the metallic implants when applying CT-based attenuation correction of positron

  19. Evaluation of bone response to titanium-coated polymethyl methacrylate resin (PMMA) implants by X-ray tomography.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shalabi, M.M.; Wolke, J.G.C.; Cuijpers, V.M.J.I.; Jansen, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    High-resolution three-dimensional data about the bone response to oral implants can be obtained by using microfocus computer tomography. However, a disadvantage is that metallic implants cause streaking artifacts due to scattering of X-rays, which prevents an accurate evaluation of the interfacial

  20. Quench-free concentration measurements in high-temperature systems by picosecond LIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buelter, A.; Rahmann, U.; Brockhinke, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the present work, a picosecond laser is used in conjunction with an intensified streak camera to study energy transfer processes in OH and to obtain quench-free results from the time-resolved spectra. Quantitative concentration profiles for OH and H are presented in a counterflow burner interacting with a vortex