WorldWideScience

Sample records for stray voltage update

  1. Stray voltage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, B.; Piercy, R.; Dick, P. [Kinetrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Transmission and Distribution Technologies

    2008-04-09

    This report discussed issues related to farm stray voltage and evaluated mitigation strategies and costs for limiting voltage to farms. A 3-phase, 3-wire system with no neutral ground was used throughout North America before the 1930s. Transformers were connected phase to phase without any electrical connection between the primary and secondary sides of the transformers. Distribution voltage levels were then increased and multi-grounded neutral wires were added. The earth now forms a parallel return path for the neutral current that allows part of the neutral current to flow continuously through the earth. The arrangement is responsible for causing stray voltage. Stray voltage causes uneven milk production, increased incidences of mastitis, and can create a reluctance to drink water amongst cows when stray voltages are present. Off-farm sources of stray voltage include phase unbalances, undersized neutral wire, and high resistance splices on the neutral wire. Mitigation strategies for reducing stray voltage include phase balancing; conversion from single to 3-phase; increasing distribution voltage levels, and changing pole configurations. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  2. The quality of stray radiation in the ovarian region in diagnostic X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, K.; Fiebach, B.J.O.; Fischer, P.G.; Loehr, E.

    1976-01-01

    Dose measurements (LiF-TLD) and recordings of stray radiation spectra (Ge(Li)-Detectors) in a phantom show that shielding of the ovaries against stray radiation is advisable even though the effectivity of this measure decreases at higher tube voltages. The exposure of the ovaries to stray radiation increases with increasing tube voltage; the radiation quality of the stray radiation is, for the most part, independent of the filter value. (orig./AK) [de

  3. Stray energy transfer during endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edward L; Madani, Amin; Overbey, Douglas M; Kiourti, Asimina; Bojja-Venkatakrishnan, Satheesh; Mikami, Dean J; Hazey, Jeffrey W; Arcomano, Todd R; Robinson, Thomas N

    2017-10-01

    Endoscopy is the standard tool for the evaluation and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. While the risk of complication is low, the use of energy devices can increase complications by 100-fold. The mechanism of increased injury and presence of stray energy is unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine if stray energy transfer occurs during endoscopy and if so, to define strategies to minimize the risk of energy complications. A gastroscope was introduced into the stomach of an anesthetized pig. A monopolar generator delivered energy for 5 s to a snare without contacting tissue or the endoscope itself. The endoscope tip orientation, energy device type, power level, energy mode, and generator type were varied to mimic in vivo use. The primary outcome (stray current) was quantified as the change in tissue temperature (°C) from baseline at the tissue closest to the tip of the endoscope. Data were reported as mean ± standard deviation. Using the 60 W coag mode while changing the orientation of the endoscope tip, tissue temperature increased by 12.1 ± 3.5 °C nearest the camera lens (p energy transfer (p = 0.04 and p = 0.002, respectively) as did utilizing the low-voltage cut mode (6.6 ± 0.5 °C, p energy transfer compared to a standard generator (1.5 ± 3.5 °C vs. 9.5 ± 0.8 °C, p energy is transferred within the endoscope during the activation of common energy devices. This could result in post-polypectomy syndrome, bleeding, or perforation outside of the endoscopist's view. Decreasing the power, utilizing low-voltage modes and/or an impedance-monitoring generator can decrease the risk of complication.

  4. Stray light analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Fest, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Stray light is defined as unwanted light in an optical system, a familiar concept for anyone who has taken a photograph with the sun in or near their camera's field of view. This book addresses stray light terminology, radiometry, and the physics of stray light mechanisms, such as surface roughness scatter and ghost reflections. The most-efficient ways of using stray light analysis software packages are included. The book also demonstrates how the basic principles are applied in the design, fabrication, and testing phases of optical system development.

  5. STRAY - An interactive program for the computation of stray radiation in infrared telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1987-01-01

    The STRAY program to model the amount of stray radiation reaching the focal plane of a well-baffled telescope is described. The STRAY telescope model is addressed, including the aperture shade, barrel baffle, optics, mirror sectioning and chopping, and off-axis points in focal plane. The possible illumination paths are shown, and calculation options using STRAY are discussed. The stored data and computational aspects of STRAY are addressed. STRAY is compared to the MINI-APART model, and applications of STRAY are described.

  6. Stray light reduction for Thomson scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Doebele, H.F.; Muraoka, K.

    1999-01-01

    In order to perform Thomson scattering in a gas discharge tube, the reduction of stray light is very important because of the very small Thomson cross-section. By introducing a sodium absorption cell as a notch filter, we can reduce the measured stray light considerably. Then we have to use a dye

  7. Evaluation of stray radiofrequency radiation emitted by electrosurgical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, M; Maggi, S

    2006-01-01

    Electrosurgery refers to the passage of a high-frequency, high-voltage electrical current through the body to achieve the desired surgical effects. At the same time, these procedures are accompanied by a general increase of the electromagnetic field in an operating room that may expose both patients and personnel to relatively high levels of radiofrequency radiation. In the first part of this study, we have taken into account the radiation emitted by different monopolar electrosurgical devices, evaluating the electromagnetic field strength delivered by an electrosurgical handle and straying from units and other electrosurgical accessories. As a summary, in the worst case a surgeon's hands are exposed to a continuous and pulsed RF wave whose magnetic field strength is 0.75 A m -1 (E-field 400 V m -1 ). Occasionally stray radiation may exceed ICNIRP's occupational exposure guidelines, especially close to the patient return plate. In the second part of this paper, we have analysed areas of particular concern to prevent electromagnetic interference with some life-support devices (ventilators and electrocardiographic devices), which have failed to operate correctly. Most clinically relevant interference occurred when an electrosurgery device was used within 0.3 m of medical equipment. In the appendix, we suggest some practical recommendations intended to minimize the potential for electromagnetic hazards due to therapeutic application of RF energy

  8. STRAY DOG DETECTION IN WIRED CAMERA NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prashanth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing surveillance systems impose high level of security on humans but lacks attention on animals. Stray dogs could be used as an alternative to humans to carry explosive material. It is therefore imperative to ensure the detection of stray dogs for necessary corrective action. In this paper, a novel composite approach to detect the presence of stray dogs is proposed. The captured frame from the surveillance camera is initially pre-processed using Gaussian filter to remove noise. The foreground object of interest is extracted utilizing ViBe algorithm. Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG algorithm is used as the shape descriptor which derives the shape and size information of the extracted foreground object. Finally, stray dogs are classified from humans using a polynomial Support Vector Machine (SVM of order 3. The proposed composite approach is simulated in MATLAB and OpenCV. Further it is validated with real time video feeds taken from an existing surveillance system. From the results obtained, it is found that a classification accuracy of about 96% is achieved. This encourages the utilization of the proposed composite algorithm in real time surveillance systems.

  9. Influence of stray light for divertor spectroscopy in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, Shin; Veshchev, Evgeny; Lisgo, Steve; Barnsley, Robin; Morgan, Philip; Walsh, Michael; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Sugie, Tatsuo; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The influence of stray light in the divertor spectroscopy system in ITER is quantitatively investigated using a ray tracing simulation. Simulation results show that the stray light is negligible at positions in the divertor where the plasma emission is strong. However, it is also shown that the stray light can be significantly greater than the real signal if the plasma intensity is low. Deuterium and beryllium emissions are used for the assessment; for beryllium cases in particular, since the emission profile may be non-uniform in the divertor region, the influence of stray light can be non-negligible at some positions, e.g., above the divertor dome

  10. Monitoring dc stray current corrosion at sheet pile structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Steel is discarded by railway owners as a material for underground structures near railway lines, due to uncertainty over increased corrosion by DC stray currents stemming from the traction power system. This paper presents a large scale field test in which stray currents interference of a sheet

  11. Stray light characteristics of the diffractive telescope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dun; Wang, Lihua; Yang, Wei; Wu, Shibin; Fan, Bin; Wu, Fan

    2018-02-01

    Diffractive telescope technology is an innovation solution in construction of large light-weight space telescope. However, the nondesign orders of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) may affect the imaging performance as stray light. To study the stray light characteristics of a diffractive telescope, a prototype was developed and its stray light analysis model was established. The stray light characteristics including ghost, point source transmittance, and veiling glare index (VGI) were analyzed. During the star imaging test of the prototype, the ghost images appeared around the star image as the exposure time of the charge-coupled device improving, consistent with the simulation results. The test result of VGI was 67.11%, slightly higher than the calculated value 57.88%. The study shows that the same order diffraction of the diffractive primary lens and correcting DOE is the main factor that causes ghost images. The stray light sources outside the field of view can illuminate the image plane through nondesign orders diffraction of the primary lens and contributes to more than 90% of the stray light flux on the image plane. In summary, it is expected that these works will provide some guidance for optimizing the imaging performance of diffractive telescopes.

  12. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  13. Stray light field dependence for large astronomical space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Bowers, Charles W.

    2017-09-01

    Future large astronomical telescopes in space will have architectures that expose the optics to large angular extents of the sky. Options for reducing stray light coming from the sky range from enclosing the telescope in a tubular baffle to having an open telescope structure with a large sunshield to eliminate solar illumination. These two options are considered for an on-axis telescope design to explore stray light considerations. A tubular baffle design will limit the sky exposure to the solid angle of the cone in front of the telescope set by the aspect ratio of the baffle length to Primary Mirror (PM) diameter. Illumination from this portion of the sky will be limited to the PM and structures internal to the tubular baffle. Alternatively, an open structure design will allow a large portion of the sky to directly illuminate the PM and Secondary Mirror (SM) as well as illuminating sunshield and other structure surfaces which will reflect or scatter light onto the PM and SM. Portions of this illumination of the PM and SM will be scattered into the optical train as stray light. A Radiance Transfer Function (RTF) is calculated for the open architecture that determines the ratio of the stray light background radiance in the image contributed by a patch of sky having unit radiance. The full 4π steradian of sky is divided into a grid of patches, with the location of each patch defined in the telescope coordinate system. By rotating the celestial sky radiance maps into the telescope coordinate frame for a given pointing direction of the telescope, the RTF may be applied to the sky brightness and the results integrated to get the total stray light from the sky for that pointing direction. The RTF data generated for the open architecture may analyzed as a function of the expanding cone angle about the pointing direction. In this manner, the open architecture data may be used to directly compare to a tubular baffle design parameterized by allowed cone angle based on the

  14. Fast and accurate modeling of stray light in optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jean-Claude

    2017-11-01

    The first problem to be solved in most optical designs with respect to stray light is that of internal reflections on the several surfaces of individual lenses and mirrors, and on the detector itself. The level of stray light ratio can be considerably reduced by taking into account the stray light during the optimization to determine solutions in which the irradiance due to these ghosts is kept to the minimum possible value. Unhappily, the routines available in most optical design software's, for example CODE V, do not permit all alone to make exact quantitative calculations of the stray light due to these ghosts. Therefore, the engineer in charge of the optical design is confronted to the problem of using two different software's, one for the design and optimization, for example CODE V, one for stray light analysis, for example ASAP. This makes a complete optimization very complex . Nevertheless, using special techniques and combinations of the routines available in CODE V, it is possible to have at its disposal a software macro tool to do such an analysis quickly and accurately, including Monte-Carlo ray tracing, or taking into account diffraction effects. This analysis can be done in a few minutes, to be compared to hours with other software's.

  15. Stray capacitances in the watt balance operation: electrostatic forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Mana, G.

    2014-01-01

    In a watt balance, stray capacitances exist between the coil and the magnet. Since the electric current flowing in the coil creates a difference in electric potentials between the coil and magnet, their electrostatic interactions must be taken into account. This paper reports the results of a fin......In a watt balance, stray capacitances exist between the coil and the magnet. Since the electric current flowing in the coil creates a difference in electric potentials between the coil and magnet, their electrostatic interactions must be taken into account. This paper reports the results...

  16. Stray radiation and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite /IRAS/ telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, R. J.; Harned, R.; Breault, R. P.; Malugin, R.

    1981-01-01

    Stray light control is a major consideration in the design of infrared cryogenically cooled telescopes such as the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). The basic design of the baffle system, and the placement, shape, and coating of the secondary support struts for the telescope subsystem are described. The intent of this paper is to highlight the stray light problems encountered while designing the system, and to illustrate how computer analysis can be a useful design aid. Scattering measurements of the primary mirror, and a full system level scatter measurement are presented. Comparisons of predicted performance with the measured results are also presented.

  17. Aerial firing and stray bullet injuries: a rising tide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Asad; Tahir, Syed Mohammad; Makhdoom, Asadullah; Shaikh, Abdul Razaque; Siddique, Akmal Jamal

    2015-04-01

    Aerial firing is shooting, using fire arm, into the air usually during a celebration. This observational study aimed to quantify magnitude and impact of stray bullet injuries by aerial firing at surgical emergencies of the Liaquat University Hospital (a university hospital), Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan from January 2009 to December 2010 (2 years). During the study period, 144 firearm injuries due to stray bullet reported to the A and E departments of the university hospital. All patients referred to surgical unit providing emergency cover on that day irrespective of the severity of the injury for medico-legal reasons. For this study, the cases were divided into those having trivial injury and do not require any active surgical intervention and those having serious injury mandating surgical intervention. One hundred and two cases of stray bullet injury sustained trivial injury and followed as outpatients after an overnight period of indoor hospitalization; however, 42 patients with stray bullet injuries requiring surgical intervention were hospitalized. The most common events leading to aerial firing and stray bullet injuries were marriage ceremonies, followed by a political rallies and New Year celebrations. Stray bullet injury also reported after aerial firing on cricket/hockey team victories, Pakistan Independence Day (14th August), cultural day in Sindh and Basant (Kite) festival in Punjab. The most frequent sites with serious stray bullet injury were chest (15), head and neck (10), abdomen (9) and limbs (8), respectively. Surgical interventions performed included chest intubation, exploration of wound tract to retrieve bullet if lodged superficially and was palpable, laparotomy to managed intra-abdominal injury, reduction of fracture site followed by reconstruction, flap reconstruction and graft for nonhealing wound. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19 days. No mortality was observed in this series of patients. We conclude that the prevalence of aerial

  18. Prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites in stray dogs in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 246 faecal samples were collected between October 2015 to February 2016, 154 from stray dogs in Harare and 92 from rural dogs in Arcturas, Goromonzi and Christon Bank. The samples were examined by flotation and sedimentation methods and helminth eggs identified and EPG counted. Of the 246 samples, ...

  19. Stray dog meat consumption and rabies | Wiwanitkit | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stray dog meat consumption and rabies. V Wiwanitkit. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v14i3.41 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  20. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  1. Stray-electron accumulation and effects in HIF accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Furman, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Stoltz, P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Stray electrons can be introduced in positive-charge accelerators for heavy ion fusion (or other applications) as a result of ionization of ambient gas or gas released from walls due to halo-ion impact, or as a result of secondary-electron emission. Electron accumulation is impacted by the ion beam potential, accelerating fields, multipole magnetic fields used for beam focus, and the pulse duration. We highlight the distinguishing features of heavy-ion accelerators as they relate to stray-electron issues, and present first results from a sequence of simulations to characterize the electron cloud that follows from realistic ion distributions. Also, we present ion simulations with prescribed random electron distributions, undertaken to begin to quantify the effects of electrons on ion beam quality

  2. Individual monitoring in high-energy stray radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Stevenson, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the lack of passive or active devices that could be considered as personal dosemeters in high-energy stray fields one can at present only perform individual monitoring around high energy accelerators. Of all detectors currently available it is shown that the NTA film is the most suitable method for individually monitoring the neutron exposure of more than 3000 persons regularly, reliably, and cost effectively like at CERN. (author)

  3. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis infection in stray dogs from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bogićević

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease with worldwide distribution. With regards to the population of stray dogs, the disease is facilitated due to their lifestyle and the lack of anti-parasitic protection. The aim of this study was to provide serological data on the presence of a specific Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies in stray dogs, originating from 7 municipalities in Serbia. During the period from April 2013 to June 2014, 217 canine sera were submitted to the laboratory of the Department of Infectious Diseases of Animals and Bees, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Belgrade. An immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT was performed to detect antibodies to Ehrlichia canis (cut off, 1:50. Seropositive dogs were found in 5 out of 7 counties with a seroprevalence varying from 3.57% to 20% and an overall seroprevalence of 11.06% (24/217. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of infection and the host age or gender. Results showed that stray dogs contribute to maintaining and spreading of Ehrlichia canis in Serbia. Due to the close relationship between people and dogs, it is of great importance to constantly monitor and improve prevention of this disease.

  4. Energy Harvesting from the Stray Electromagnetic Field around the Electrical Power Cable for Smart Grid Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farid Ullah

    For wireless sensor node (WSN) applications, this paper presents the harvesting of energy from the stray electromagnetic field around an electrical power line. Inductive and capacitive types of electrodynamic energy harvesters are developed and reported. For the produced energy harvesters, solid core and split-core designs are adopted. The inductive energy harvester comprises a copper wound coil which is produced on a mild steel core. However, the capacitive prototypes comprise parallel, annular discs separated by Teflon spacers. Moreover, for the inductive energy harvesters' wound coil and core, the parametric analysis is also performed. A Teflon housing is incorporated to protect the energy harvester prototypes from the harsh environmental conditions. Among the inductive energy harvesters, prototype-5 has performed better than the other harvesters and produces a maximum rms voltage of 908 mV at the current level of 155 A in the power line. However, at the same current flow, the capacitive energy harvesters produce a maximum rms voltage of 180 mV. The alternating output of the prototype-5 is rectified, and a super capacitor (1 F, 5.5 V) and rechargeable battery (Nickel-Cadmium, 3.8 V) are charged with it. Moreover, with the utilization of a prototype-5, a self-powered wireless temperature sensing and monitoring system for an electrical transformer is also developed and successfully implemented.

  5. Usage of ray tracing transfer matrix to mitigate the stray light for ITER spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, S.; Veshchev, E.; Barnsley, R.; Walsh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Stray light formed by the reflection of photons on inner wall from a bright divertor region can be a serious issue in spectroscopic measurement systems in ITER. In this study, we propose a method to mitigate the influence of stray light using a ray tracing analysis. Usually, a ray tracing simulation requires a time consuming runs. We constructed transfer matrices based on the ray tracing simulation results and used them to demonstrate the influence of stray light. It is shown that the transfer matrix can be used to reconstruct the emission profile by considering the influence of the stray light without any additional ray tracing runs. Mitigation of the stray light in ITER divertor impurity monitor was demonstrated, and a method of prediction of the stray light level for the scrape off layer spectroscopy from divertor region was proposed. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  6. WIDESPREAD OF STRAY DOGS: METHODS FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM IN CERTAIN REGIONS OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamed Katica; Nedzad Gradascevic; Nejra Hadzimusic; Zarema Obradovic; Ramo Mujkanovic; Esad Mestric; Senad Coloman; Muhamed Dupovac

    2017-01-01

    Stray dogs are the ones not microchipped, which live across the streets and other public surfaces unattended, and so represent a serious public-health problem. Lack of human support for the stray dogs causes a range of problems - from territorial status to ensuring food. Such conditions force them to activate a self-preservation mechanism and return to natural behavioral patterns. Regarding the fact that several thousands of stray dogs were recorded in observed regions of Bosnia and Herze...

  7. Identification and mitigation of stray laser light in the Thomson scattering system on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, C. M.; Borchardt, M. T.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Falkowski, A. F.; Morton, L. A.; Thomas, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) records excessive levels of stray Nd:YAG laser light. Stray light saturates the 1064 nm spectral channel in all polychromators, which prevents absolute electron density measurements via Rayleigh scattering calibration. Furthermore, stray light contaminates adjacent spectral channels for r/a ≥ 0.75, which renders the diagnostic unable to make electron temperature measurements at these radii. In situ measurements of stray light levels during a vacuum vessel vent are used to identify stray light sources and strategies for reduction of stray light levels. Numerical modeling using Zemax OpticStudio supports these measurements. The model of the vacuum vessel and diagnostic includes synthetic collection optics to enable direct comparison of measured and simulated stray light levels. Modeling produces qualitatively similar stray light distributions to MST measurements, and quantifies the mitigation effects of stray light mitigation strategies prior to implementation.

  8. Identification and mitigation of stray laser light in the Thomson scattering system on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, C. M., E-mail: cjacobson@wisc.edu; Borchardt, M. T.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Falkowski, A. F.; Morton, L. A.; Thomas, M. A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) records excessive levels of stray Nd:YAG laser light. Stray light saturates the 1064 nm spectral channel in all polychromators, which prevents absolute electron density measurements via Rayleigh scattering calibration. Furthermore, stray light contaminates adjacent spectral channels for r/a ≥ 0.75, which renders the diagnostic unable to make electron temperature measurements at these radii. In situ measurements of stray light levels during a vacuum vessel vent are used to identify stray light sources and strategies for reduction of stray light levels. Numerical modeling using Zemax OpticStudio supports these measurements. The model of the vacuum vessel and diagnostic includes synthetic collection optics to enable direct comparison of measured and simulated stray light levels. Modeling produces qualitatively similar stray light distributions to MST measurements, and quantifies the mitigation effects of stray light mitigation strategies prior to implementation.

  9. A method to measure internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; Li, Zhou; He, Fengyun; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2017-03-01

    The suppression level of internal stray radiation is a key criterion for infrared imaging systems, especially for high-precision cryogenic infrared imaging systems. To achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures, a measurement method, which is based on radiometric calibration, is presented in this paper. First of all, the calibration formula is deduced considering the integration time, and the effect of ambient temperature on internal stray radiation is further analyzed in detail. Then, an approach is proposed to measure the internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures. By calibrating the system under two ambient temperatures, the quantitative relation between the internal stray radiation and the ambient temperature can be acquired, and then the internal stray radiation of the cryogenic infrared imaging system under various ambient temperatures can be calculated. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can be used to measure internal stray radiation with high accuracy at various ambient temperatures and integration times. The proposed method has some advantages, such as simple implementation and the capability of high-precision measurement. The measurement results can be used to guide the stray radiation suppression and to test whether the internal stray radiation suppression performance meets the requirement or not.

  10. Big city consultants shut down our pool : a shocking community pool gets checked for stray voltage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lynch, P. [Power Line Systems Engineering Inc., Markham, ON (Canada)

    2009-12-15

    This article discussed an investigation conducted at a community pool where swimmers complained of receiving electrical shocks both in the pool and on the pool's deck area. Electrical measurements taken at the pool revealed current flows from the pool water to various points around the deck area. Measured current flow in the pool area was 30 amps even when the main pool service breaker was opened to shut off power to the entire facility. Thirty amps of primary neutral current was then measured on the primary side aerial neutral in front of the pool. A 10 amp primary feeder from the pool joined up with the complex's primary neutral wire to increase the neutral current to 40 amps. The combined 40 amps current then returned to the secondary side of a nearby utility transformer substation. The study showed that the underground wet low-resistance grounded surface area of the pool was attracting the 30 amps of utility current from the surrounding ground area. The local utility disconnected the primary and secondary neutral interconnection at the pool's main 600-volt step-down transformer. The pool deck was removed in order to install additional copper bonding grounds. In order to avert serious injuries, many experts propose that all electric utilities should be required by law to reconfigure their power systems to prevent primary power neutral currents from entering private buildings. 1 tab., 2 figs.

  11. Measurement of stray EC radiation on W7-AS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, F.; Hirsch, M.; Cirant, S.; Erckmann, V.; Granucci, G.; Kasparek, W.; Laqua, H. P.; Muzzini, V.; Nowak, S.; Radau, S.

    2001-10-01

    In the framework of a collaboration between IFP-CNR Milano, IPP Garching/Greifswald and IPF Stuttgart, a set of four millimeterwave probes has been installed in W7-AS stellarator at selected positions of the inner vessel wall. Their purpose is to observe RF stray radiation during operation in presence of strong level of Electron Cyclotron (EC) waves, used for plasma start-up, heating and current drive. The aim of these measurements is to benchmark two complementary theoretical models for the distribution of the stray radiation in the vessel. From these codes, quantitative predictions are expected for the spatial distribution of the RF wall load and the RF-impact on in-vessel components in large future devices such as W7-X and, possibly, ITER. This input is important to optimize the wall armour and select rf-compatible in-vessel materials. We present first measurements from different heating and startup scenarios, with up to 800 kW of injected power at 140 GHz and different launching geometries. An analysis of measurements performed on FTU using a previous version of sniffer probe is also presented.

  12. Carbon Nanotubes on Titanium Substrates for Stray Light Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Getty, Stephanie; Quijada, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    A method has been developed for growing carbon nanotubes on a titanium substrate, which makes the nano tubes ten times blacker than the current state-of-the-art paints in the visible to near infrared. This will allow for significant improvement of stray light performance in scientific instruments, or any other optical system. Because baffles, stops, and tubes used in scientific observations often undergo loads such as vibration, it is critical to develop this surface treatment on structural materials. This innovation optimizes the carbon nano - tube growth for titanium, which is a strong, lightweight structural material suitable for spaceflight use. The steps required to grow the nanotubes require the preparation of the surface by lapping, and the deposition of an iron catalyst over an alumina stiction layer by e-beam evaporation. In operation, the stray light controls are fabricated, and nanotubes (multi-walled 100 microns in length) are grown on the surface. They are then installed in the instruments or other optical devices.

  13. Measurement of stray EC radiation on W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, F.; Cirant, S.; Granucci, G.; Muzzini, V.; Nowak, S.; Hirsch, M.; Erckmann, V.; Laqua, H.P.; Radau, S.; Kasparek, W.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of a collaboration between IFP-CNR Milano, IPP Garching/Greifswald and IPF Stuttgart, a set of four millimeterwave probes has been installed in W7-AS stellarator at selected positions of the inner vessel wall. Their purpose is to observe RF stray radiation during operation in presence of strong level of Electron Cyclotron (EC) waves, used for plasma start-up, heating and current drive. The aim of these measurements is to benchmark two complementary theoretical models for the distribution of the stray radiation in the vessel. From these codes, quantitative predictions are expected for the spatial distribution of the RF wall load and the RF-impact on in-vessel components in large future devices such as W7-X and, possibly, ITER. This input is important to optimize the wall armour and select rf-compatible in-vessel materials. We present first measurements from different heating and startup scenarios, with up to 800 kW of injected power at 140 GHz and different launching geometries. An analysis of measurements performed on FTU using a previous version of sniffer probe is also presented

  14. A degradation model for stray current induced corrosion in underground reinforced concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of stray currents on durability and reinforcement corrosion of underground concrete structures. Cathodic protection of underground pipelines are stationary sources of stray current interference with concrete, and rail traction systems are non-stationary sources. The

  15. Stray current vs anodic polarization in reinforced mortar: a comparative study on steel corrosion behaviour in both regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhipei; Koleva, D.A.; van Breugel, K.

    2015-01-01

    Stray current arising from direct current electrified traction systems and then circulat-ing in reinforced concrete structures may initiate corrosion or even accelerate existing corrosion processes on embedded reinforcement. Therefore, stray-current induced corrosion of nearby reinforced concrete

  16. Electrolytic corrosion of water pipeline system in the remote distance from stray currents—Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Zakowski​

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Case study of corrosion failure of urban water supply system caused by the harmful effects of stray currents was presented. The failure occurred at a site distant from the sources of these currents namely the tramway and railway traction systems. Diagnosis revealed the stray currents flow to pipeline over a remote distance of 800/1000 m from the point of failure. At the point of failure stray currents flowed from the pipeline to the ground through external insulation defects, causing the process of electrolytic corrosion of the metal. Long distance between the affected section of the pipeline and the sources of stray currents excludes the typical protection against stray currents in the form of electrical polarized drainage. Corrosion protection at this point can be achieved by using the earthing electrodes made of magnesium, which will also provide cathodic current protection as galvanic anode.

  17. Capacitive divider for output voltage measurement of intense electron beam accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Desheng; Yi Lingzhi; Yu Binxiong; Hong Zhiqiang; Liu Jinliang

    2012-01-01

    A kind of simple-mechanism, easy-disassembly self-integrating capacitive divider used for measuring diode output voltage of intense electron beam accelerator (IEBA) is developed. The structure of the capacitive divider is described, and the capacitance value of the capacitive divider is calculated by theoretical analysis and electromagnetic simulation. The dependence of measurement voltage on electrical parameters such as stray capacitance, earth capacitance of front resistance is obtained by PSpice simulation. Measured waveforms appear overshoot phenomenon when stray capacitance of front resistance is larger, and the wavefront will be affected when earth capacitance of front resistance is larger. The diode output voltage waveforms of intense electron beam accelerator, are measured by capacitive divider and calibrated by water resistance divider, which is accordance with that measured by a resistive divider, the division ratio is about 563007. The designed capacitive divider can be used to measure high-voltage pulse with 100 ns full width at half maximum. (authors)

  18. Some aspects of stray losses in large power transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, Zvonimir

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some results of the investigation of stray losses in power transformers that are caused by high-current loops. The investigation was focused on: a) additional losses in tank cover around high-current bushings and the way of their reduction, b) extra leakage flux and additional losses due to high current delta-connections. The insertion of nonmagnetic gaps between the phase bushings reduces the extra cover losses more than three times. A nonmagnetic plate around the high-current bushings reduces these extra losses practically to zero. The extra losses due to the high-current delta-connections could be significant for the transformer loss level. These extra losses could be controlled (reduced) by the design layout of the delta-connections. (Author)

  19. ON THE INVERSION OF STOKES PROFILES WITH LOCAL STRAY-LIGHT CONTAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining the magnetic properties of non-resolved structures in the solar photosphere is always challenging and problems arise because the inversion is carried out through the numerical minimization of a merit function that depends on the proposed model. We investigate the reliability of inversions in which the stray-light contamination is obtained from the same observations as a local average. In this case, we show that it is fundamental to include the covariance between the observed Stokes profiles and the stray-light contamination. The ensuing modified merit function of the inversion process penalizes large stray-light contaminations simply because of the presence of positive correlations between the observables and the stray light, fundamentally produced by spatially variable systematics. We caution that if the wrong merit function is used, artificially large stray-light contaminations might be inferred. Since this effect disappears if the stray-light contamination is obtained as an average over the full field of view, we recommend taking into account stray-light contamination using a global approach.

  20. Pitfalls and artifacts in measuring absorption spectra and kinetics: the effect of stray light in the UV and red regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czapski, Gideon; Ozeri, Yair; Goldstein, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Effects of stray light on absorption spectrum and kinetics are discussed. The extent of the stray light depends on the light source, monochromator, wavelength set by the instrument and the absorption of the sample at this wavelength. Effects of the stray light on the shape of the spectrum and the extinction coefficients are shown. Methods for determining the existence and extent of stray light are suggested and are especially relevant for studies using pulse radiolysis, flash photolysis, and stopped-flow techniques. The literature examples for artifacts due to stray light are presented for kinetics and absorption spectra

  1. Stray current monitoring at Nuremberg subway; Streustromueberwachung bei der U-Bahn Nuernberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, M.; Halfmann, U.; Schneider, E. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). TS EL EN 2; Roesch, N. [VAG Verkehrs-AG Nuernberg, FA/SA - Starkstromanlagen, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    Operating DC traction systems requires protective measures against the effects of stray currents. Damage by corrosion could occur both at railway and third party installations. The continuous effectiveness of protective measures needs to be monitored and recorded during revenue operation, and shall be capable to be demonstrated to supervising authorities. Measuring the rail-to-earth potential within the traction network under operational conditions, combined with centralized analysis, visualization, signaling and archiving is a straightforward and efficient method of stray current monitoring. For more than one year, the stray current monitoring system SITRAS SMS {sup registered} has been undergoing successful field application at the Nuremberg Subway. (orig.)

  2. Convergence of highly parallel stray field calculation using the fast multipole method on irregular meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmesi, P.; Abert, C.; Bruckner, F.; Suess, D.

    2018-05-01

    Fast stray field calculation is commonly considered of great importance for micromagnetic simulations, since it is the most time consuming part of the simulation. The Fast Multipole Method (FMM) has displayed linear O(N) parallelization behavior on many cores. This article investigates the error of a recent FMM approach approximating sources using linear—instead of constant—finite elements in the singular integral for calculating the stray field and the corresponding potential. After measuring performance in an earlier manuscript, this manuscript investigates the convergence of the relative L2 error for several FMM simulation parameters. Various scenarios either calculating the stray field directly or via potential are discussed.

  3. Simplified magnetic circuit for the calculation of the stray magnetic flux through the shell gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collarin, P.; Piovan, R. [Associazioni EURATOM-ENEA-CNR-Univ. di Padova (Italy). Gruppo di Padova per Ricerche sulla Fusione

    1995-12-31

    Significant toroidal magnetic field perturbations, stray flux at the shell gaps and current mismatching in the coils of the toroidal field winding are measured during the start-up and the flat-top phases of RFX. These phenomena are consistent with large and wall locked MHD modes: at first some m = 1 modes evolve separately one after the other, afterwards they concur to a wide and localized plasma perturbation that persists during the flat-top. These perturbations are heavily influenced by the stray magnetic flux through the shell gaps. Hence a magnetic circuit that mainly considers the magnetic reluctance of the conducting shell gaps has been developed in order to estimate this stray flux and, therefore, to evaluate the stabilizing capability of the shell. The observation of the MHD modes, the description of the equivalent magnetic network, the estimation of the stray flux and the comparison with the experimental measurements are reported in the paper.

  4. Simplified magnetic circuit for the calculation of the stray magnetic flux through the shell gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collarin, P.; Piovan, R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant toroidal magnetic field perturbations, stray flux at the shell gaps and current mismatching in the coils of the toroidal field winding are measured during the start-up and the flat-top phases of RFX. These phenomena are consistent with large and wall locked MHD modes: at first some m = 1 modes evolve separately one after the other, afterwards they concur to a wide and localized plasma perturbation that persists during the flat-top. These perturbations are heavily influenced by the stray magnetic flux through the shell gaps. Hence a magnetic circuit that mainly considers the magnetic reluctance of the conducting shell gaps has been developed in order to estimate this stray flux and, therefore, to evaluate the stabilizing capability of the shell. The observation of the MHD modes, the description of the equivalent magnetic network, the estimation of the stray flux and the comparison with the experimental measurements are reported in the paper

  5. Stray dogs and cats as potential sources of soil contamination with zoonotic parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szwabe

    2017-03-01

    Cat faeces represent a more important potential source of environmental contamination with zoonotic parasites than dog faeces. Among the detected parasites of stray dogs and cats, Toxocara present an important zoonotic risk for the local human population, especially children.

  6. Symptoms and Cognitive Effects of Exposure to Magnetic Stray Fields of MRI Scanners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vocht, Frank Gérard de

    2006-01-01

    People working routinely with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems report a number of symptoms related to their presence in the inhomogeneous static magnetic fields (the stray field) surrounding these scanners. Experienced symptoms and neurobehavioral performance among engineers manufacturing

  7. Counteracting Animal Homelessness and Providing Care for Stray Animals as a Task of a Commune

    OpenAIRE

    Szalewska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of Polish binding law acts allows one to assume that, on normative level, the obligation of public administration to provide care for stray animals is deeply embedded. Both the Animal Protection Act, as well as the Act on Maintaining Cleanliness, indicate the tasks of a commune in the scope of providing care for stray animals, catching homeless animals and counteracting their homelessness. Simultaneously, the analysis of jurisdiction, and inquiries as well as considerations emerg...

  8. The Disturbing Effect of the Stray Magnetic Fields on Magnetoimpedance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The disturbing effect of the stray magnetic fields of Fe-based amorphous ribbons on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI sensor has been investigated systematically in this paper. Two simple methods were used for examining the disturbing effect of the stray magnetic fields of ribbons on the GMI sensor. In order to study the influence of the stray magnetic fields on the GMI effect, the square-shaped amorphous ribbons were tested in front, at the back, on the left and on the top of a meander-line GMI sensor made up of soft ferromagnetic films, respectively. Experimental results show that the presence of ribbons in front or at the back of GMI sensor shifts the GMI curve to a lower external magnetic field. On the contrary, the presence of ribbons on the left or on the top of the GMI sensor shifts the GMI curve to a higher external magnetic field, which is related to the coupling effect of the external magnetic field and the stray magnetic fields. The influence of the area and angle of ribbons on GMI was also studied in this work. The GMI sensor exhibits high linearity for detection of the stray magnetic fields, which has made it feasible to construct a sensitive magnetometer for detecting the typical stray magnetic fields of general soft ferromagnetic materials.

  9. PCR-Based Molecular Characterization of Toxocara spp. Using Feces of Stray Cats: A Study from Southwest Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Rahim, Fakher; Tavalla, Mahdi; Abdizadeh, Rahman; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Feces of stray cat are potential sources of gastrointestinal parasites and play a crucial role in spreading and transmitting parasite eggs, larvae, and oocysts through contamination of soil, food, or water. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection in stray cats in Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. Eggs of Toxocara spp. in feces of stray cats were detected by the sucrose flotation method, and identification was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequ...

  10. A study on protozoan infections (Giardia, Entamoeba, Isoapora and Cryptosporidium in stray dogs in Ilam province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kakekhani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Giardia, Entamoeba, Isospora and Cryptosporidium are important protozoan parastites that caused diarrhea in human and animals. In the present study, fecal samples were collected fresh, directly from the rectum of 112 stray dogs in Ilam province. Giardia and Entamoeba were concentrated by using the formalin ether sedimentation method followed by the trichrome and iodine staining technique andCryptosporidium  oocysts  were  concentrated  by  using  the  formalin  ether  sedimentation  method  followed by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Of 112 stray dogs, protozoan infections were detected from feces of 46 dogs (41.07% that Giardia infection was detected from feces of 21 dogs (18.75%, Isospora 17 (15.17%, Cryptosporidium 8 (7.14% and synchronization infection to 2 protozoan in 9 dogs (8.03% and to 3 protozoan in 3 (2.67%. In the present study not observed to Entamoeba. No statistically significant differences in prevalence of protozoan parasites occurred between female (34.21 % and male (55.5 % stray dogs (p>0/05. But statistically significant differences in prevalence occurred between 1≥0 and 0 ≥1 stray dogs (p>0/05. So that stray dogs of Ilam province can cause infection of human water and food sources.

  11. [Influence of different multifocal intraocular lens concepts on retinal stray light parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmer, A; Rabsilber, T M; Mannsfeld, A; Sanchez, M J; Holzer, M P; Auffarth, G U

    2011-10-01

    Multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOL) are known to induce various photic phenomena depending on the optical principle. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between stray light measurements performed with the C-Quant (Oculus, Germany) and the results of a subjective patient questionnaire. In this study three different MIOLs were compared: AMO ReZoom (refractive design, n=10), AMO ZM900 (diffractive design, n=10) and Oculentis Mplus (near segment design, n=10). Cataract and refractive patients were enrolled in the study. Functional results were evaluated at least 3 months postoperatively followed by stray light measurements and a subjective questionnaire. Surgery was performed for all patients without complications. The three groups were matched for age, IOL power and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA). Significantly different stray light (median) values log(s) were found (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05): 1.12 log (refractive), 1.13 log (segment) and 1.28 log (diffractive). The subjective questionnaire did not show differences in glare perception but refractive MIOL patients noticed more halos surrounding light sources than the diffractive and segment MIOL patients. Stray light and subjective photopic phenomena do not show any basic correlation. Measurements in patients with refractive MIOLs showed less stray light than near segment or diffractive MIOLs. However, refractive MIOLs induced more halos compared to the other groups analyzed.

  12. A survey of gastrointestinal helminth of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeastern of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraili, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canids are reservoir for some zoonoses helminthic disease. They are one of main public health problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of gastrointestinal helminthic infection of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeaster of Iran. In this descriptive study, 30 stray dogs were euthanized, intestine was removed by necropsy. Then, the intestines was opened by scalpel and their contents passed through mesh sieve. The helminth were collected. The nematodes were preserved in 70% ethanol with 5% glycerin and cestodes were preserved in 70% ethanol. The cestodes were stained by acetocarmine. The nematodes were cleared by lactophenol. The genus and species of helminth were identified by identification keys. Twenty two (73.3% of stray dogs had at least one intestinal helminthic infection. Recovered helminth from stray dogs include: Taenia hydatigena (53.3%, Taenia ovis (20%, Taenia multiceps (6.6%, Mesocestoides spp (10%, Toxocara canis (23.3%, Toxocara cati (3.3%. Data showed that the stray dogs in Zabol city harbor some important zoonoses helminth parasite like Toxocara.

  13. Seroepidemiological survey of helminthic parasites of stray dogs in Sari City, northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Ishirzad; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi; Amouei, Afsaneh; Mobedi, Iraj

    2011-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of helminthic parasites in stray dogs' population especially zoonotic infections and to identify potential risk factors in the different areas of Sari city in Caspian area, north of Iran. During the period from April to September 2007, 50 stray dogs were collected from urban areas of Sari city. Recovered parasites were fixed in alcohol and stained by carmine then observed by microscope. The taxonomic study was carried out by measuring different parts of the body of helminthes and statistical tests were performed using the Chi-square test. A total of 27 adult and 23 juvenile stray dogs were collected and the overall prevalence rate of infection was 90%. The three most common helminthes were Toxocara canis (60%), Ancylostoma caninum (46%) and Dipylidium caninum (36%). Other parasites were Uncinaria stenocephala (12%), Taenia hydatigena (6%), Spirocerca lupi (6%), Dirofilaria immitis (6%), Toxascaris leonina (2%), Rictularia sp. (2%), Taenia ovis (2%) and Taenia taeniformis (2%). Five species of zoonotic helminthes recovered were T. canis, A. caninum, U. stenocephala, D. caninum and D. immitis. Hookworm infections (58%) were more common significantly in the young stray dogs (p caninum, T. canis and U. stenocephala, there was significant difference between juvenile and adult dogs (p < 0.05). The results highlight the potential role of stray dogs for transmission of helminthic parasites particularly zoonotic parasites that are a significant risk to human health.

  14. Experimental observations of stray current effects on steel fibres embedded in mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, A.O.S.; Carsana, M.; Geiker, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    It is known that stray direct current can cause corrosive damage over time to bar reinforced concrete, but knowledge on the consequences to steel fibre reinforced concrete is limited. This paper presents analyses and corresponding results from an experimental program (parametric study) investigat......It is known that stray direct current can cause corrosive damage over time to bar reinforced concrete, but knowledge on the consequences to steel fibre reinforced concrete is limited. This paper presents analyses and corresponding results from an experimental program (parametric study......) investigating the conditions required for current to be picked up by embedded steel fibres or reinforcement (rebars). The experiments showed that there is a clear ‘length effect’ related to the susceptibility of stray current being picked up by embedded steel (fibres or rebars): the shorter the reinforcement...

  15. The impact of microwave stray radiation to in-vessel diagnostic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Hathiramani, D.; Baldzuhn, J.; Biedermann, C.; Cardella, A.; Erckmann, V.; König, R.; Köppen, M.; Zhang, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Association, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Oosterbeek, J.; Brand, H. von der; Parquay, S. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, department Technische Natuurkunde, working group for Plasma Physics and Radiation Technology, Den Doelch 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jimenez, R. [Centro de Investigationes Energeticas, Medioambientales y Technológicas, Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Collaboration: W7-X Teasm

    2014-08-21

    Microwave stray radiation resulting from unabsorbed multiple reflected ECRH / ECCD beams may cause severe heating of microwave absorbing in-vessel components such as gaskets, bellows, windows, ceramics and cable insulations. In view of long-pulse operation of WENDELSTEIN-7X the MIcrowave STray RAdiation Launch facility, MISTRAL, allows to test in-vessel components in the environment of isotropic 140 GHz microwave radiation at power load of up to 50 kW/m{sup 2} over 30 min. The results show that both, sufficient microwave shielding measures and cooling of all components are mandatory. If shielding/cooling measures of in-vessel diagnostic components are not efficient enough, the level of stray radiation may be (locally) reduced by dedicated absorbing ceramic coatings on cooled structures.

  16. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Emily; Rand, Jacquie; Collecott, Sheila; Paterson, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Microchip identification has become an important tool to reunite stray dogs and cats with their owners, and is now compulsory in most states of Australia. Improvement of the microchipping system in Australia is limited by a lack of published Australian data documenting the problems experienced by shelter staff when using microchip data to contact the owner of a stray animal. In this study we determine the character and frequency of inaccurate microchip data to identify weaknesses in the current microchipping system. This information could be used to develop strategies that increase the accuracy of microchip data that will increase the reclaiming of stray animals. Abstract A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258) and cats (n = 6950) entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37%) had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%), all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%), and the microchip not registered (14%). A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%). The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals—87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of

  17. Characterization of diode valve in medium voltage dc/dc converter for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dincan, Catalin Gabriel; Kjær, Philip Carne

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for characterization of medium voltage (MV), medium frequency (MF) rectifier diode valve. The intended application is for 10MW dc/dc converters used in DC offshore wind turbines. Sensitivity to semiconductor component parameter variation, snubber component tolera...... tolerance, influence of temperature and stray capacitance are analyzed. It is concluded that the largest impact on sensitivity is given by reverse recovery charge variation and differences of temperature between adjacent devices....

  18. Controlling stray electric fields on an atom chip for experiments on Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, D.; Machluf, S.; Soudijn, M. L.; Naber, J. B.; van Druten, N. J.; van Linden van den Heuvell, H. B.; Spreeuw, R. J. C.

    2018-02-01

    Experiments handling Rydberg atoms near surfaces must necessarily deal with the high sensitivity of Rydberg atoms to (stray) electric fields that typically emanate from adsorbates on the surface. We demonstrate a method to modify and reduce the stray electric field by changing the adsorbate distribution. We use one of the Rydberg excitation lasers to locally affect the adsorbed dipole distribution. By adjusting the averaged exposure time we change the strength (with the minimal value less than 0.2 V /cm at 78 μ m from the chip) and even the sign of the perpendicular field component. This technique is a useful tool for experiments handling Rydberg atoms near surfaces, including atom chips.

  19. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected ...

  20. Response of dairy cattle to transient voltages and magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinemann, D.J.; Laughlin, N.K.; Stetson, L.E.

    1995-01-01

    Stray voltages in dairy facilities have been studied since the 1970's. Previous research using steady-state ac and dc voltages has defined cow-contact voltage levels which may cause behavior and associated production problems. This research was designed to address concerns over possible effects of transient voltages and magnetic fields on dairy cows. Dairy cows response to transient voltages and magnetic fields was measured. The waveforms of the transient voltages applied were: 5 cycles of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 83 ms, 1 cycle of 60-Hz ac with a total pulse time of 16 ms, and 1 cycle of an ac square wave (spiking positive and negative) of 2-ms duration. Alternating magnetic fields were produced by passing 60-Hz ac fundamental frequency with 2nd and 3rd harmonic and random noise components in metal structures around the cows. The maximum magnetic field associated with this current flow was in excess of 4 G. A wide range of sensitivity to transient voltages was observed among cows. Response levels from 24 cows to each transient exposure were normally distributed. No responses to magnetic fields were observed

  1. Effect of stray current on corrosion behavior of reinforcing steel: importance of cell geometry and orientation with respect to the electrical field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhipei; Koleva, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    Stray current circulating in reinforced concrete structures may initiate corrosion or accelerate existing corrosion processes on embedded reinforcement. In some cases, the range of dangerous or unwanted interactions of stray currents under favorable conditions (environment), is much broader than is

  2. Email Reminders Increase the Frequency That Pet Owners Update Their Microchip Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Goodwin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Stray animals with incorrect microchip details are less likely to be reclaimed, and unclaimed strays are at increased risk of euthanasia. A retrospective cohort study was performed using 394,747 cats and 904,909 dogs registered with Australia’s largest microchip database to describe animal characteristics, determine whether annual email reminders increased the frequency that owners updated their information, and to compare frequencies of microchip information updates according to pet and owner characteristics. More than twice as many dogs (70% than cats (30% were registered on the database; the most numerous pure-breeds were Ragdoll cats and Staffordshire Bull Terrier dogs, and the number of registered animals per capita varied by Australian state or territory. Owners were more likely (p < 0.001 to update their details soon after they were sent a reminder email, compared to immediately before that email, and there were significant (p < 0.001 differences in the frequency of owner updates by state or territory of residence, animal species, animal age, and socioeconomic index of the owner’s postcode. This research demonstrates that email reminders increase the probability of owners updating their details on the microchip database, and this could reduce the percentages of stray animals that are unclaimed and subsequently euthanized.

  3. Voltage regulating circuit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2005-01-01

    A voltage regulating circuit comprising a rectifier (2) for receiving an AC voltage (Vmains) and for generating a rectified AC voltage (vrec), and a capacitor (3) connected in parallel with said rectified AC voltage for providing a DC voltage (VDC) over a load (5), characterized by a unidirectional

  4. Rf Discharge Impedance Measurements Using a New Method to Determine the Stray Impedances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Hoog, de F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The impedance of a capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge in a tubular fluorescent lamp filled with neon and mercury is measured. The stray impedances in the electrical network are determined using a new method that requires no extra instruments. The reflection of power is used to determine

  5. Gastrointestinal Helminths and Ectoparasites in the Stray Cats (Felidae: Felis catus) of Ahar Municipality, Northwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAKHCHALI, Mohammad; HAJIPOUR, Nasser; MALEKZADEH-VIAYEH, Reza; ESMAEILNEJAD, Bijan; NEMATI-HARAVANI, Taher; FATHOLLAHZADEH, Mohammad; JAFARI, Rasool

    2017-01-01

    Background: The stray cats are considered as the sources of emerging humans and domestic livestock pathogens and the zoonoses of public health importance. The present study was aimed to elucidate intestinal helminth infections and infestation with ectoparasites of the stray cats of Ahar City, northwestern Iran. Methods: Totally, 51 stray cats were randomly trapped from different parts of the city between Mar and Nov 2013. The cats were assessed for ectoparasites by hair brushing, skin scraping, acetate tape preparation and othic swabs. They were euthanized and inspected for helminths infection. Results: Overall prevalence of helminths and flea were 44/51 (86.3%) and 31/51 (60.78%), respectively. The infection rates were significantly different among different age groups (PDipylidium caninum (29.41%), T. hydatigena (19.6%)) were identified. The predominant infectious helminths in all the infected cats were T. cati (86.3% with egg per gram of feces 27.75±9). Of the 270 collected fleas, two species of Ctenocephalides felis (80%) and C. canis (20%) were notably frequent in the cats aged 2-3-year-old. The average number of fleas per each infected cat was recorded as 5.29, with no incidence of cross-infection. Conclusion: The results indicated the high rate of helminths infections and flea infestation in the urban stray cats of which Toxocara cati and Ctenocephalides felis may play important roles as zoonotic agents in the region. PMID:28761492

  6. Measurement of stray neutron doses inside the treatment room from a proton pencil beam scanning system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mojzeszek, N.; Farah, J.; Klodowska, M.; Ploc, Ondřej; Stolarczyk, L.; Waligorski, M. P. R.; Olko, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2017), s. 80-84 ISSN 1120-1797 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : secondary neutrons * proton therapy * pencil beam scanning systtems * out-of-field doses * stray neutron doses * TEPC Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Radiology, nuclear medicine and medical imaging Impact factor: 1.990, year: 2016

  7. Internal stray radiation measurement for cryogenic infrared imaging systems using a spherical mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; He, Fengyun; Li, Zhou; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2017-06-10

    Internal stray radiation is a key factor that influences infrared imaging systems, and its suppression level is an important criterion to evaluate system performance, especially for cryogenic infrared imaging systems, which are highly sensitive to thermal sources. In order to achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation, an approach is proposed, which is based on radiometric calibration using a spherical mirror. First of all, the theory of spherical mirror design is introduced. Then, the calibration formula considering the integration time is presented. Following this, the details regarding the measurement method are presented. By placing a spherical mirror in front of the infrared detector, the influence of internal factors of the detector on system output can be obtained. According to the calibration results of the infrared imaging system, the output caused by internal stray radiation can be acquired. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to validate the theory proposed in this paper. Experimental results show that the measurement results are in good accordance with the theoretical analysis, and demonstrate that the proposed theories are valid and can be employed in practical applications. The proposed method can achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation at arbitrary integration time and ambient temperatures. The measurement result can be used to evaluate whether the suppression level meets the system requirement.

  8. Experimental Study on the Influence of AC Stray Current on the Cathodic Protection of Buried Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingmiao Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The size of the damaged area of the coating and its position on the pipeline impacted the cathodic protection potential, and there was a damaged area of the greatest impact value. When damaged area was 300 mm2, the IR drop was the largest, and this situation could easily lead to inadequate protection; when the parallel spacing between pipeline and interference source was unchanged, the measured value curves of cathodic protection potential presented “U” shaped trend with the increasing stray current interference intensity. Under certain parallel spacing between pipeline and interference source, high alternating stray current intensity would cause serious negative offsets, so that the overprotection of the pipeline occurred, and make the coating crack; there was a parallel threshold length. When less than the threshold, the pipe-ground potential increases rapidly with the parallel length increasing. In order to judge whether a pipeline was interference by AC stray current and the risk of stray current corrosion, we should make a comprehensive analysis of the cathodic protection energizing potential, the switch-off potential, AC pipe-soil potential, IR drops, and so on.

  9. Monitoring DC stray current interference of steel sheet pile structures in railway environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Steel structures near DC powered railways are expected to be affected by stray current interference. This causes accelerated corrosion rates. Therefore steel is often not used as a building material in these cases, although certain advantages over the alternative material concrete exist. These

  10. Gastrointestinal parasites in stray and shelter cats in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Figueiredo Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasingly urban nature of the population has led many people to choose independent pets, such as cats. This situation has also made it possible for these animals to be abandoned, thus increasing the numbers of cats on the streets and in shelters. These animals can act as a source of infection for other hosts. Between 2014 and 2015, the frequency of gastrointestinal parasites in captive and stray cats in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro was analyzed. Ninety-one fecal samples were collected from captive cats and 172 from stray cats. Centrifugal sedimentation and flotation techniques were used. The frequency of parasites among the stray cats was 77.3%, and this was significantly higher than the frequency observed in captive cats (49.5%. Helminths were detected more frequently, and hookworms were the parasites most detected. Toxocara cati, Cystoisospora sp. and Dipylidium caninum were also detected. No statistical difference in the frequency of parasites was observed between the sexes among the captive cats. However, among the stray cats, males (85.5% presented higher positivity than females (71.8%. The high frequency of hookworms, which are the agent for “cutaneous larva migrans” in humans, shows the need to control parasitic infections among the cats studied.

  11. The Design, Construction and Test of stray light suppression baffles for the CHAMP satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Stellar Compass, to be delivered from IAU to the CHAMP project, requires some kind of stray-light suppressing shade to be mounted in front of the lens, in order to minimize the thermal impact and to maximize the performance envelope when subjected to non-stellar external light sources...

  12. Stray light correction on array spectroradiometers for optical radiation risk assessment in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlier-Salsi, A

    2014-01-01

    The European directive 2006/25/EC requires the employer to assess and, if necessary, measure the levels of exposure to optical radiation in the workplace. Array spectroradiometers can measure optical radiation from various types of sources; however poor stray light rejection affects their accuracy. A stray light correction matrix, using a tunable laser, was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). As tunable lasers are very expensive, the purpose of this study was to implement this method using only nine low power lasers; other elements of the correction matrix being completed by interpolation and extrapolation. The correction efficiency was evaluated by comparing CCD spectroradiometers with and without correction and a scanning double monochromator device as reference. Similar to findings recorded by NIST, these experiments show that it is possible to reduce the spectral stray light by one or two orders of magnitude. In terms of workplace risk assessment, this spectral stray light correction method helps determine exposure levels, with an acceptable degree of uncertainty, for the majority of workplace situations. The level of uncertainty depends upon the model of spectroradiometers used; the best results are obtained with CCD detectors having an enhanced spectral sensitivity in the UV range. Thus corrected spectroradiometers require a validation against a scanning double monochromator spectroradiometer before using them for risk assessment in the workplace. (paper)

  13. Stray dog and cat laws and enforcement in Czech Republic and in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Voslářvá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing numbers of stray dogs and cats have posed serious public-health, socioeconomic, political and animal-welfare problems in many EU countries. Stray animal population control is a complex issue and there are no easy solutions. Recognising the importance of the issue the European Commission has, since 2007, actively contributed to the elaboration of the first global welfare standards for the control of dog populations in the framework of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE. Problem-solving approaches vary in different countries as there is no common European Community legislation dealing with stray animal control. In this paper the authors describe the characteristics of the stray dog and cat problem in general and focus on existing European legislation. A comparative overview of policies and measures in place in the Czech Republic and in Italy is made to observe the differences between the two countries and understand the different needs in each, considering their historical and social differences (i.e. a post-communist eastern country vs a western country and founder member of what is now the European Union.

  14. A review on stray current-induced steel corrosion in infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhipei; Koleva, D.A.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    Metallic corrosion can cause substantial damage at various levels and in almost all types of infrastructure. For metallic corrosion to occur, a certain external environment and the presence of corrodents are the prerequisites. Stray current-induced corrosion, however, is a rather underestimated

  15. Comment on "Density functional theory is straying from the path toward the exact functional"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2017-01-01

    Medvedev et al (Reports, 6 January 2017, p. 49) argue that recent density functionals stray from the path toward exactness. This conclusion rests on very compact 1s2 and 1s22s2 systems favored by the Hartree-Fock picture. Comparison to actual energies for the same systems indicates that the "stra...

  16. Comparison of stray light in spectrometer systems using a low cost monochromatic light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Lindén, Johannes; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    We present an experimental setup that is under development for automated stray light characterization of spectrometers. The setup uses a tuneable monochromator which enables this characterization on relatively cost low equipment. We present the measured line spread functions for two spectrometers...

  17. Stray light correction on array spectroradiometers for optical radiation risk assessment in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlier-Salsi, A

    2014-12-01

    The European directive 2006/25/EC requires the employer to assess and, if necessary, measure the levels of exposure to optical radiation in the workplace. Array spectroradiometers can measure optical radiation from various types of sources; however poor stray light rejection affects their accuracy. A stray light correction matrix, using a tunable laser, was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). As tunable lasers are very expensive, the purpose of this study was to implement this method using only nine low power lasers; other elements of the correction matrix being completed by interpolation and extrapolation. The correction efficiency was evaluated by comparing CCD spectroradiometers with and without correction and a scanning double monochromator device as reference. Similar to findings recorded by NIST, these experiments show that it is possible to reduce the spectral stray light by one or two orders of magnitude. In terms of workplace risk assessment, this spectral stray light correction method helps determine exposure levels, with an acceptable degree of uncertainty, for the majority of workplace situations. The level of uncertainty depends upon the model of spectroradiometers used; the best results are obtained with CCD detectors having an enhanced spectral sensitivity in the UV range. Thus corrected spectroradiometers require a validation against a scanning double monochromator spectroradiometer before using them for risk assessment in the workplace.

  18. Improvement the Capacity of Cockcroft-Walton High Voltage Source from 300 kV/20 mA to 500 kV/20 mA for Accelerating Voltage of Electron Beam Machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suprapto; Djasiman

    2002-01-01

    The improvement capacity of Cockcroft-Walton high voltage source from 300 kV/20 mA to 500 kV/mA has been carrying out. To improve the capacity of high voltage source was done by means of increasing the stage number of voltage multiplier from 11 to 18 and its output voltage measuring resistance. Each stage of voltage multiplier consists of 2 capacitors and 2 circuits of high voltage diode. This voltage multiplier is constructed using main components of high voltage capacitor and high voltage diode each of 0.22 μF/50 kV and UF 5408 respectively. To avoid stray discharge and corona it was provided with high voltage electrode and corona ring. The test result indicated that the output voltage obtained from 16 stages was 350 kV according to operating condition of 25 MΩ resistive load and first stage voltage of 28.5 kV with oscillator frequency of 24 Hz. That condition requires anode voltage and current of 5.5 kV and 2.5 A respectively. The no load test for 16 stages indicates 400 kV of output voltage and 28.5 kV first stage voltage. Efficiency of high voltage source was 48 % at 6.75 kW of output power. The expected test of 500 kV with 18 stages of voltage multiplier can not be carried out because of some restrictive of loading system. From the test result can be predicted that the output voltage of 500 kV with 18 stages of voltage multiplier requires 31.2 kV of first stage voltage. Then the expected high voltage source of Cockcroft-Walton is capable as accelerating voltage source for Electron Beam Machine with energy of 500 kV. (author)

  19. Study of Intestinal Helminthes of Stray Dogs and Thir Public Heath Importance in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Rahmati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal helminthesof dogs are a serious threat to human health and may cause dangerous diseases such as: hydatidosis and visceral larva migrans, that which cause severe complications in human. Th aim of this study was to determine the prevalenceof intestinal helminthes of stray dogs in Hamadan city, Iran.. Methods: A total of 103 stray dogswere shot in the inner and around of the city in year 2015. Following necropsy, the intestines' contents of dogs were examined for helminthes macroscopically. Thn, the collected worms, aftr washing with saline,were counted and identifid according to being Nematode, Cestodeor Acantcephala. Thn, collected Nematodes were put in glass containers containing 70% ethanol-glycerine and Cestodes aftr processing on slides were put in the 10% formalin. To identify the species of helminthes, the Cestodes were stained using carmine acid and Nematodes were cleared in lacto-phenol. Results: Result indicated that, 74(71.8%stray dogs were infected at least by one species of intestinal helminthes. Th species of parasites were as follows: Echinococcus granulosus 37.9%, Dipylidium caninum 51.5%, Toxocara canis 19.4%, Taenia hydatigena 24.3%, T. multiceps 2.9%, T. ovis 1.9%, Mesocest oideslineatus 4.9%, and Acantho cephala 5.8%. Thre was no association between insex, season and region with prevalence of intestinal helminthes (P 0.05 between the prevalence of intestinal helminthes and dogs' age. Conclusions: Ths study indicatesd that,infection rate of helminthes in stray dogs is washigh in Hamadan city. Thse parasites are important in terms of human health and economic aspects. Threfore, it is more essential that public health authoritiesto develop control strategies for stray dogs population.

  20. A novel water resistor divider with a coaxial low-voltage arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Wei; Chen, Weiqing; Mao, Congguang; Zeng, Jiangtao

    2010-03-01

    A new style high voltage resistor divider made of saline solution has been constructed and tested. A coaxial construction is used on the low-voltage arm, as the signal extraction electrode, which can increase the attenuation ratio of the divider. The time response of divider limited by the stray parameter also can be improved. Comparing the results of calibrated experiment with the commonly used equal size copper sulfate dividers, the new probe has nearly five times increase in the attenuation ratio. The time response of the new style divider in the dimension of 30 mm in diameter and 400 mm in length can reach to 1 ns.

  1. Low-cost wireless voltage & current grid monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hines, Jacqueline [SenSanna Inc., Arnold, MD (United States)

    2016-12-31

    This report describes the development and demonstration of a novel low-cost wireless power distribution line monitoring system. This system measures voltage, current, and relative phase on power lines of up to 35 kV-class. The line units operate without any batteries, and without harvesting energy from the power line. Thus, data on grid condition is provided even in outage conditions, when line current is zero. This enhances worker safety by detecting the presence of voltage and current that may appear from stray sources on nominally isolated lines. Availability of low-cost power line monitoring systems will enable widespread monitoring of the distribution grid. Real-time data on local grid operating conditions will enable grid operators to optimize grid operation, implement grid automation, and understand the impact of solar and other distributed sources on grid stability. The latter will enable utilities to implement eneygy storage and control systems to enable greater penetration of solar into the grid.

  2. FRMAC Updates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, P.

    1995-01-01

    This talks describes updates in the following updates in FRMAC publications concerning radiation emergencies: Monitoring and Analysis Manual; Evaluation and Assessment Manual; Handshake Series (Biannual) including exercises participated in; environmental Data and Instrument Transmission System (EDITS); Plume in a Box with all radiological data stored onto a hand-held computer; and courses given

  3. Barged/In-river steelhead migrant data - Evaluation of methods to reduce straying rates of barged juvenile steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of this study are to develop methods to reduce wandering and straying of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that are collected and barged from the Snake River...

  4. Laboratory data on Snake River steelhead - Evaluation of methods to reduce straying rates of barged juvenile steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of this study are to develop methods to reduce wandering and straying of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that are collected and barged from the Snake River...

  5. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegemann, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Stegemann@bam.de [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko [HZB Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Kreutzbruck, Marc [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); IKT, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth. - Highlights: • Comparison of magnetic microstructure with neutron diffraction stress analysis. • High spatial resolution magnetic stray field images of hypereutectoid TIG welds. • Spatial variations of the stray fields are below the magnetic field of the earth. • GMR spin valve gradiometer arrays adapted for the evaluation of magnetic microstructures. • Magnetic stray fields are closely linked to microstructure of the material.

  6. Searching for O-X-B mode-conversion window with monitoring of stray microwave radiation in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igami, H.; Kubo, S.; Laqua, H. P.; Nagasaki, K.; Inagaki, S.; Notake, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Mutoh, T.; LHD Experimental Group

    2006-01-01

    In the Large Helical Device, the stray microwave radiation is monitored by using so-called sniffer probes during electron cyclotron heating. In monitoring the stray radiation, we changed the microwave beam injection angle and search the O-X-B mode-conversion window to excite electron Bernstein waves (EBWs). When the microwave beam is injected toward the vicinity of the predicted O-X-B mode-conversion window, the electron temperature rises in the central part of overdense plasmas. In that case, the stray radiation level near the injection antenna becomes low. These results indicate that monitoring the stray radiation near the injection antenna is helpful in confirming the effectiveness of excitation of EBWs simply without precise analysis

  7. A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites of stray cats in northern region of Nile delta, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda E Khalafalla

    Full Text Available A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%, Toxascaris leonina (5%, Dipylidium caninum (5%, Capillaria spp. (3%, Taenia taeniformis (22% and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%, four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%, Sarcocyst spp. (1%, Isospora spp. (2% and Giardia spp. (2% and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2% and mites eggs (13%. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region.

  8. Stray light suppression in the Goddard IRAM 2-Millimeter Observer (GISMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, E. H.; Benford, D. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J. G.; Wollack, E. J.

    2012-09-01

    The Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer (GISMO) is an 8x16 Transition Edge Sensor (TES) array of bolometers built as a pathfinder for TES detector development efforts at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. GISMO has been used annually at the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM) 30 meter telescope since 2007 under engineering time and was opened in the spring of 2012 to the general astronomical community. The spring deployment provided an opportunity to modify elements of the room temperature optics before moving the instrument to its new permanent position in the telescope receiver cabin. This allowed for the possibility to extend the cryostat, introduce improved cold baffling and thus further optimize the stray light performance for final astronomical use of the instrument, which has been completed and validated. We will demonstrate and discuss several of the methods used to quantify and limit the influence of stray light in the GISMO camera.

  9. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan E

    2005-10-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected with FeLV and FIV. Seroprevalence for FIV in cats from Ottawa is similar to that found in other nonrandom studies of cats in North America.

  10. A Survey Study on Gastrointestinal Parasites of Stray Cats in Northern Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafalla, Reda E.

    2011-01-01

    A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%), Toxascaris leonina (5%), Dipylidium caninum (5%), Capillaria spp. (3%), Taenia taeniformis (22%) and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%), four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%), Sarcocyst spp. (1%), Isospora spp. (2%) and Giardia spp. (2%) and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2%) and mites eggs (13%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region. PMID:21760884

  11. Stray cats are more frequently infected with zoonotic protists than pet cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvac, Martin; Hofmannova, Lada; Ortega, Ynes; Holubova, Nikola; Horcickova, Michaela; Kicia, Marta; Hlaskova, Lenka; Kvetonova, Dana; Sak, Bohumil; McEvoy, John

    2017-12-06

    Faecal samples were collected from cats kept as pets (n = 120) and stray cats (n = 135) in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia) and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis (Kunstler, 1882), Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi Desportes, Le Charpentier, Galian, Bernard, Cochand-Priollet, Lavergne, Ravisse et Modigliani, 1985 by PCR analysis of the small-subunit of rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis) and ITS (microsporidia) genes. Sequence analysis of targeted genes revealed the presence of C. felis Iseki, 1979, G. intestinalis assemblage F, E. cuniculi Levaditi, Nicolau et Schoen, 1923 genotype II, and E. bieneusi genotype D. There was no correlation between the occurrence of detected parasites and sex, presence of diarrhoea or drug treatment (drug containing pyrantel and praziquantel). Compared to pet cats (7%), stray cats (30%) were statistically more frequently infected with protist parasites and overall may present a greater risk to human health.

  12. Investigations of prevalence of antibodies to B.canis in stray dogs in territory of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers investigations of stray dogs in the territory of the city of Belgrade. A total of 184 blood serum samples were examined for the presence of antibodies specific to Brucella canis. The method of slow agglutination in a test tube with 2- mercaptoethanol was used in the diagnostic procedure. Of the 184 examined serums, 49 (26.63% had a titer of 1/50, 25 serums had a titer of 1/100 (13.58%, while 20 serums had a titer equal to or bigger than 1/200 (10.87%. Furthermore, 15 samples of full blood from serologiclly negative animals were also presented for isolation. The bacteriological finding for these samples was negative. The obtained results indicate that the number of seropositive stray dogs in the territory of Belgrade is extremely high and that 10.87% of the testes animals are definitely infected with Brucella canis.

  13. Voltage linear transformation circuit design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Lucas R. W.; Jin, Moon-Seob; Scott, R. Phillip; Luder, Ryan J.; Hart, Michael

    2017-09-01

    Many engineering projects require automated control of analog voltages over a specified range. We have developed a computer interface comprising custom hardware and MATLAB code to provide real-time control of a Thorlabs adaptive optics (AO) kit. The hardware interface includes an op amp cascade to linearly shift and scale a voltage range. With easy modifications, any linear transformation can be accommodated. In AO applications, the design is suitable to drive a range of different types of deformable and fast steering mirrors (FSM's). Our original motivation and application was to control an Optics in Motion (OIM) FSM which requires the customer to devise a unique interface to supply voltages to the mirror controller to set the mirror's angular deflection. The FSM is in an optical servo loop with a wave front sensor (WFS), which controls the dynamic behavior of the mirror's deflection. The code acquires wavefront data from the WFS and fits a plane, which is subsequently converted into its corresponding angular deflection. The FSM provides +/-3° optical angular deflection for a +/-10 V voltage swing. Voltages are applied to the mirror via a National Instruments digital-to-analog converter (DAC) followed by an op amp cascade circuit. This system has been integrated into our Thorlabs AO testbed which currently runs at 11 Hz, but with planned software upgrades, the system update rate is expected to improve to 500 Hz. To show that the FSM subsystem is ready for this speed, we conducted two different PID tuning runs at different step commands. Once 500 Hz is achieved, we plan to make the code and method for our interface solution freely available to the community.

  14. Detection of Hepatozoon canis in stray dogs and cats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Rungphisutthipongse, Opart; Maruyama, Soichi; Schaefer, John J; Stich, Roger W

    2006-10-01

    A rapidly increasing stray animal population in Bangkok has caused concern regarding transmission of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine if stray animals in Bangkok are a potential reservoir of Hepatozoon, a genus of tick-borne parasites that has received little attention in Thailand. Blood samples were collected from stray companion animals near monasteries in 42 Bangkok metropolitan districts. Both dogs and cats were sampled from 26 districts, dogs alone from 4 districts and cats alone from 12 districts. Samples were collected from a total of 308 dogs and 300 cats. Light microscopy and an 18 S rRNA gene-based PCR assay were used to test these samples for evidence of Hepatozoon infection. Gamonts were observed in blood smears for 2.6% of dogs and 0.7% of cats by microscopy. The PCR assay detected Hepatozoon in buffy coats from 11.4% of dogs and 32.3% of cats tested. The prevalence of infection was the same between male and female dogs or cats, and PCR-positive dogs and cats were found in 36.6% and 36.8% of the districts surveyed, respectively. There was an association between the percentages of PCR-positive dogs and cats in districts where both host species were sampled. Sequences of representative amplicons were closest to those reported for H. canis. These results represent the first molecular confirmation that H. canis is indigenous to Thailand. The unexpectedly high prevalence of Hepatozoon among stray cats indicates that their role in the epizootiology of hepatozoonosis should be investigated.

  15. Gastrointestinal and ectoparasites from urban stray dogs in Fortaleza (Brazil): high infection risk for humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpel, Sven; Heukelbach, Jörg; Pothmann, David; Rückert, Sonja

    2010-08-01

    Dogs are important definite or reservoir hosts for zoonotic parasites. However, only few studies on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in urban areas in Brazil are available. We performed a comprehensive study on parasites of stray dogs in a Brazilian metropolitan area. We included 46 stray dogs caught in the urban areas of Fortaleza (northeast Brazil). After euthanization, dogs were autopsied. Ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs were examined for the presence of parasites. Faecal samples were collected and analysed using merthiolate iodine formaldehyde concentration method. A total of nine different parasite species were found, including five endoparasite (one protozoan, one cestode and three nematode species) and four ectoparasite species (two flea, one louse and one tick species). In the intestinal content, 3,162 specimens of four helminth species were found: Ancylostoma caninum (prevalence, 95.7%), Dipylidium caninum (45.7%), Toxocara canis (8.7%) and Trichuris vulpis (4.3%). A total of 394 ectoparasite specimens were identified, including Rhipicephalus sanguineus (prevalence, 100.0%), Heterodoxus spiniger (67.4%), Ctenocephalides canis (39.1%) and Ctenocephalides felis (17.4%). In the faeces, intestinal parasites were detected in 38 stray dogs (82.6%), including oocysts of Giardia sp. (2.2%) and eggs of the nematode A. caninum (82.6%). Neither eggs nor larval stages of D. caninum, T. canis or T. vulpis were detected in dog faeces. Sensitivity of faecal examination for A. caninum was 86.4% (95% confidence interval, 72.0-94.3) but zero percentage for the other intestinal helminth species. Our data show that stray dogs in northeast Brazil carry a multitude of zoonotic ecto- and endoparasites, posing a considerable risk for humans. With the exception of A. caninum, sensitivity of faecal examination was negligible.

  16. Gastrointestinal Helminths and Ectoparasites in the Stray Cats (Felidae: Felis catus of Ahar Municipality, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad YAKHCHALI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stray cats are considered as the sources of emerging humans and domestic livestock pathogens and the zoonoses of public health importance. The present study was aimed to elucidate intestinal helminth infections and infestation with ectoparasites of the stray cats of Ahar City, northwestern Iran.Methods: Totally, 51 stray cats were randomly trapped from different parts of the city between Mar and Nov 2013. The cats were assessed for ectoparasites by hair brushing, skin scraping, acetate tape preparation and othic swabs. They were euthanized and inspected for helminths infection.Results: Overall prevalence of helminths and flea were 44/51 (86.3% and 31/51 (60.78%, respectively. The infection rates were significantly different among different age groups (P<0.05. Of the 282 isolated helminths, three species of nematodes (Toxocara cati (86.3%, T. leonina (11.77%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme (5.9% and four species of cestodes (Taenia taeniaeformis (64.7%, Mesocestoides lineatus (49.02%, Dipylidium caninum (29.41%, T. hydatigena (19.6% were identified. The predominant infectious helminths in all the infected cats were T. cati (86.3% with egg per gram of feces 27.75±9. Of the 270 collected fleas, two species of Ctenocephalides felis (80% and C. canis (20% were notably frequent in the cats aged 2-3-year-old. The average number of fleas per each infected cat was recorded as 5.29, with no incidence of cross-infection.Conclusion: The results indicated the high rate of helminths infections and flea infestation in the urban stray cats of which Toxocara cati and Ctenocephalides felis may play important roles as zoonotic agents in the region.

  17. Monitoring millimeter wave stray radiation during ECRH operation at ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, M.; Honecker, F.; Monaco, F.; Schmid-Lorch, D.; Schütz, H.; Stober, J.; Wagner, D.

    2012-09-01

    Due to imperfection of the single path absorption, ECRH at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) is always accompanied by stray radiation in the vacuum vessel. New ECRH scenarios with O2 and X3 heating schemes extend the operational space, but they have also the potential to increase the level of stray radiation. There are hazards for invessel components. Damage on electric cables has already been encountered. It is therefore necessary to monitor and control the ECRH with respect to the stray radiation level. At AUG a system of Sniffer antennas equipped with microwave detection diodes is installed. The system is part of the ECRH interlock circuit. We notice, however, that during plasma operation the variations of the Sniffer antenna signal are very large. In laboratory measurements we see variations of up to 20 dB in the directional sensitivity and we conclude that an interference pattern is formed inside the copper sphere of the antenna. When ECRH is in plasma operation at AUG, the plasma is acting as a phase and mode mixer for the millimeter waves and thus the interference pattern inside the sphere changes with the characteristic time of the plasma dynamics. In order to overcome the difficulty of a calibrated measurement of the average stray radiation level, we installed bolometer and pyroelectric detectors, which intrinsically average over interference structures due to their large active area. The bolometer provides a robust calibration but with moderate temporal resolution. The pyroelectric detector provides high sensitivity and a good temporal resolution, but it raises issues of possible signal drifts in long pulses.

  18. Monitoring millimeter wave stray radiation during ECRH operation at ASDEX Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to imperfection of the single path absorption, ECRH at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG is always accompanied by stray radiation in the vacuum vessel. New ECRH scenarios with O2 and X3 heating schemes extend the operational space, but they have also the potential to increase the level of stray radiation. There are hazards for invessel components. Damage on electric cables has already been encountered. It is therefore necessary to monitor and control the ECRH with respect to the stray radiation level. At AUG a system of Sniffer antennas equipped with microwave detection diodes is installed. The system is part of the ECRH interlock circuit. We notice, however, that during plasma operation the variations of the Sniffer antenna signal are very large. In laboratory measurements we see variations of up to 20 dB in the directional sensitivity and we conclude that an interference pattern is formed inside the copper sphere of the antenna. When ECRH is in plasma operation at AUG, the plasma is acting as a phase and mode mixer for the millimeter waves and thus the interference pattern inside the sphere changes with the characteristic time of the plasma dynamics. In order to overcome the difficulty of a calibrated measurement of the average stray radiation level, we installed bolometer and pyroelectric detectors, which intrinsically average over interference structures due to their large active area. The bolometer provides a robust calibration but with moderate temporal resolution. The pyroelectric detector provides high sensitivity and a good temporal resolution, but it raises issues of possible signal drifts in long pulses.

  19. Generation of strong inhomogeneous stray fields by high-anisotropy permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samofalov, V.N. [National Technical University Kharkov Polytechnical Institute, 21 Frunze St., 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: samofalov@kpi.kharkov.ua; Ravlik, A.G. [National Technical University Kharkov Polytechnical Institute, 21 Frunze St., 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine); Belozorov, D.P. [National Scientific Center Kharkov Institute of Physics and Techonology, NAS of Ukraine, 1 Akademicheskaja St., 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Avramenko, B.A. [National Technical University Kharkov Polytechnical Institute, 21 Frunze St., 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2004-10-01

    Magnetic stray fields for systems of permanent magnets with high magnetic anisotropy are calculated and measured. It is shown that intensity of these fields exceeds value of an induction of a material of magnets in some time. Besides, these fields are characterized by high gradients, and size H-bar H can reach values up to10{sup 10}-10{sup 11}Oe{sup 2}/cm. Estimations of extremely achievable fields and their gradients are made.

  20. Decoding of digital magnetic recording with longitudinal magnetization of a tape from a magneto-optical image of stray fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovskii, F. V.; Mansvetova, E. G.

    2017-05-01

    For digital magnetic recording of encoded information with longitudinal magnetization of the tape, the connection between the domain structure of a storage medium and magneto-optical image of its stray fields obtained using a magnetic film with a perpendicular anisotropy and a large Faraday rotation has been studied. For two-frequency binary code without returning to zero, an algorithm is developed, that allows uniquely decoding of the information recorded on the tape based on analysis of an image of stray fields.

  1. A PARASITOLOGIC AND MOLECULAR SURVEY OF HEPATOZOON CANIS INFECTION IN STRAY DOGS IN NORTHEAST OF IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Ali; Razmi, Gholamreza

    2018-05-15

    Canine hepatozoonosis, caused by H. canis, is a tick-borne disease in domestic and wild dogs that is transmitted by ingestion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. The aim of the study was to detect H. canis in stray dogs in Iran using blood smear examination and molecular techniques. From October 2014 to September 2015, 150 EDTA blood samples were collected from stray dogs in the northeast region of Iran. Blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of Hepatozoon gamonts; whole blood was evaluated by PCR, with subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Hepatozoon spp. Gamonts were observed in the neutrophils of 5/150 (3.3%) blood smears, whereas Hepatozoon spp. 18S rDNA was detected in 12/150 (8.0%) blood samples from stray dogs. There was a good agreement between microscopy and PCR methods. (Kappa= 0.756). The highest rate of infection was seasonally detected in the summer (pHepatozoon spp infection was not significant by gender and age factors (p>0.05). The alignment analysis of the sequenced samples showed ≥99% similarity with other nucleotide sequences of Hepatozoon spp. in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree also revealed that the nucleotide sequences in this study were clustered in the H. canis clade and different from the H. felis and H. americanum clades. According to the results, it is concluded that H. canis infection is present among dogs in northeastern region of Iran.

  2. An epidemiological survey on intestinal helminths of stray dogs in Mashhad, North-east of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamapour, Seyed Rasoul; Borji, Hassan; Nagibi, Abolghasem

    2015-06-01

    This research was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in stray dogs in the northeast of Iran, with special attention to those parasites that can be transmitted to human. In this experiment, a total of 72 adult and 18 juvenile stray dogs were collected and necropsied for the presence of helminth parasites from October 2011 to August 2012. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was 86 % (95 % CI: 79.2-92.8 %). The observed helminths of the gastrointestinal tract were listed as follows: Toxocara canis (29 %), Toxascaris leonina (7 %), Ancylostoma caninum (2 %), Taenia hydatigena (43 %), Dipylidium caninum (39 %), Echinococcus granulosus (38 %), Mesocestoides lineatus (16 %), Taenia multiceps (11 %), Taenia ovis (3 %). There were no significant differences for the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths between female (83.6 %) and male (89.7 %) and between young (89 %) and adult (72.2 %) animals. However, the prevalence of E. granulosus, T. hydatigena and D. caninum showed an increasing trend with increasing host age, significantly. Based on our data, it is important to point out the presence of zoonotic agents, namely E. granulosus and T. canis in stray dogs in the investigated area. Due to its impact on public health, appropriate control measures should be taken and it is recommended to determine the most appropriate preventive methods.

  3. THE SOCIETY’S PERCEPTION OF THE LIFE QUALITY AND POPULATION CONTROL OF STRAY DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Fernando Batista Moutinho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In most Brazilian municipalities there is an overpopulation of stray dogs, which causes problems to the urban order, the environment and the public health, in addition to mistreatment to these dogs. In such context we foresee the need of developing actions targeting the population control of these animals. This essay aims at knowing the perception of social actors, such as managers of entities responsible for control actions, managers of NGOs working with animal protection and population in general with respect to the life quality and population control of stray dogs. Questionnaires were used on samples of individuals of these three groups and the data thereof were analyzed with descriptive statistics techniques and frequency comparison. The results allowed us to conclude that the society’s perception of population control and life quality of these animals bear important differences under the viewpoint of the three evaluated groups; however, they also bear significant similarities, especially with respect to the perception of the responsibility for the development of population control actions, the acceptance of using public funds intended to public health in control actions, the classification of such population density as large and the poor life quality of these animals. population control, social perception, stray dog.,

  4. Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarhos Seimenis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re‑emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective.

  5. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lancaster

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258 and cats (n = 6950 entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37% had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%, all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%, and the microchip not registered (14%. A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%. The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals—87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of microchip data to facilitate the reclaiming of stray dogs and cats.

  6. IMPLEMENTASI MODEL PEMBELAJARAN TWO STAY TWO STRAY DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KRITIS KELAS V SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf Setia Wardana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of mathematics are to equip students with the ability to think logically, analytical, systematically, critically, and creatively, as well as the ability to cooperate. Based on observations in elementary school, there are 40% of students have not reached KKM and students have lack of critical abilities to understand math problems, and they have low activity of the study. One of models that can be applied is Two Stay Two Stray. The study used True Experimental Design with Posttest-Only Control Design. The population in this study was all fifth grade students of SD Negeri Semarang Rejosari 03. Data of critical thinking skills of the students in average on test of critical thinking skills mastery was 3.31 ≥ 2.67, it can be said to have a complete description. The conclusion is a model of Two Stay Two Stray being effective for critical thinking skills and mathematics learning outcomes of fifth grade students in SD Negeri Rejosari 03 Semarang. Keywords: two stay two stray model, critical thinking ability.

  7. High voltage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, M.

    1991-01-01

    Industrial processes usually require electrical power. This power is used to drive motors, to heat materials, or in electrochemical processes. Often the power requirements of a plant require the electric power to be delivered at high voltage. In this paper high voltage is considered any voltage over 600 V. This voltage could be as high as 138,000 V for some very large facilities. The characteristics of this voltage and the enormous amounts of power being transmitted necessitate special safety considerations. Safety must be considered during the four activities associated with a high voltage electrical system. These activities are: Design; Installation; Operation; and Maintenance

  8. Circular Updates

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Circular Updates are periodic sequentially numbered instructions to debriefing staff and observers informing them of changes or additions to scientific and specimen...

  9. Email Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/listserv.html Email Updates To use the sharing features on this ... view your email history or unsubscribe. Prevent MedlinePlus emails from being marked as "spam" or "junk" To ...

  10. Voltage regulator for generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naoi, K

    1989-01-17

    It is an object of this invention to provide a voltage regulator for a generator charging a battery, wherein even if the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator rises abnormally high, possible thermal breakage of the semiconductor elements constituting the voltage regulator can be avoided. A feature of this invention is that the semiconductor elements can be protected from thermal breakage, even at an abnormal ambient temperature rise at the voltage regulator for the battery charging generator, by controlling a maximum conduction ratio of a power transistor in the voltage regulator in accordance with the temperature at the voltage regulator. This is achieved through a switching device connected in series to the field coil of the generator and adapted to be controlled in accordance with an output voltage of the generator and the ambient temperature at the voltage regulator. 6 figs.

  11. Automatic voltage imbalance detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobbett, Ronald E.; McCormick, J. Byron; Kerwin, William J.

    1984-01-01

    A device for indicating and preventing damage to voltage cells such as galvanic cells and fuel cells connected in series by detecting sequential voltages and comparing these voltages to adjacent voltage cells. The device is implemented by using operational amplifiers and switching circuitry is provided by transistors. The device can be utilized in battery powered electric vehicles to prevent galvanic cell damage and also in series connected fuel cells to prevent fuel cell damage.

  12. Shielding of the NBI boxes against W7-X magnetic stray fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kick, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: Kick@arcor.de; Sielanko, Juliusz [Maria Curie Sklodowska University, Pl. M. C. Sklodowskie 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Heinemann, Bernd; Riedl, Rudolf; Speth, Eckehart; Staebler, Albrecht [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), besides ECRH, is foreseen as one of the main heating devices at the W7-X stellarator currently under construction at IPP Greifswald, Germany. In a final stage 20 MW of NBI heating power will be installed generated by two NBI boxes of the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) type. Since magnetic fields generally affect the trajectories of charged particles, essentially all the NBI boxes - including ion sources, acceleration sections, neutralisers and deflection magnets - must be shielded against the stray fields of W7-X. In the magnetic stray fields of W7-X there exist significant radial and toroidal components whereas at tokamaks the vertical components are dominant. The power loads on the ion dump and the protecting structures of the deflecting magnets and the beam lines caused by residual beam ions, therefore, will be strongly different. Thus the shielding concept of AUG cannot simply be taken over, but must be carefully redesigned in order to remain below the critical power limits. New modelling calculations of the magnetic shielding, the ion trajectories and the resulting power loads have been carried out for the 'high iota' and 'low shear' experimental scenarios of W7-X. The fields taken for these calculations are modelled by averaging the calculated W7-X stray fields on the one hand, and by fields generated by two-hypothetical-planar coils perpendicular to the x-y plane, on the other hand. The shielding concept for W7-X mainly consist of iron plates in the outer side regions of the boxes and as little magnetic material as possible inside the boxes.

  13. Fast space-varying convolution using matrix source coding with applications to camera stray light reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianing; Bouman, Charles A; Allebach, Jan P

    2014-05-01

    Many imaging applications require the implementation of space-varying convolution for accurate restoration and reconstruction of images. Here, we use the term space-varying convolution to refer to linear operators whose impulse response has slow spatial variation. In addition, these space-varying convolution operators are often dense, so direct implementation of the convolution operator is typically computationally impractical. One such example is the problem of stray light reduction in digital cameras, which requires the implementation of a dense space-varying deconvolution operator. However, other inverse problems, such as iterative tomographic reconstruction, can also depend on the implementation of dense space-varying convolution. While space-invariant convolution can be efficiently implemented with the fast Fourier transform, this approach does not work for space-varying operators. So direct convolution is often the only option for implementing space-varying convolution. In this paper, we develop a general approach to the efficient implementation of space-varying convolution, and demonstrate its use in the application of stray light reduction. Our approach, which we call matrix source coding, is based on lossy source coding of the dense space-varying convolution matrix. Importantly, by coding the transformation matrix, we not only reduce the memory required to store it; we also dramatically reduce the computation required to implement matrix-vector products. Our algorithm is able to reduce computation by approximately factoring the dense space-varying convolution operator into a product of sparse transforms. Experimental results show that our method can dramatically reduce the computation required for stray light reduction while maintaining high accuracy.

  14. It’s a Dog’s Life: International Tourists’ Perceptions of the Stray Dog Population of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Strickland

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the international tourists’ perception of the stray dog population of Bhutan as little or no mention of the increasing stray dog population and their impact on tourism has been documented. After personally visiting the Kingdom on many occasions, it is evident that the stray dog population is increasing in dog numbers in major cities. The problems arising are negative comments by tourists relating to the stray dog population that are starting to appear in social media that may impact the visitor experience and the perception of Bhutan’s tourism industry. Veterinary science is aware of both increasing dog populations and the control of diseases such as Rabies however the author can find no evidence regarding challenges for the tourism industry. The problem is aided by no local veterinary clinics, no laws regarding dog governance, little funding for sterilization programs and being predominately a Buddhist country that cannot ‘cull’ animals. Using qualitative analysis from international tourist focus groups who were visiting Bhutan, this study highlights the perceptions of tourists regarding the stray dog population and how it may impact on visitor expectations. The paper suggests options that local government, Bhutanese nationals and visitors can do to assist the issue based on visitor feedback. Future research may include comparisons with other cities or countries to examine if it is a global issue or unique to Bhutan.

  15. Identification of Zoonotic Parasites isolated from Stray Dogs in Bojnurd County Located in North-East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Arzamani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dog can represent as an important source of zoonotic disease and important health problem for human. They can carry dangerous parasitic diseases such as hydatidosis, toxocariasis and Coenurus cerebralis to humans and animals. This study was performed in order to determine the prevalence and intensity of zoonotic parasites among stray dogs from Bojnurd, the capital city of North Khorasan province in North West of Iran. During a program performing by Bojnurd municipal on the slow killing of stray dogs, 32 dogs from Jun 2013 till March 2015 were selected. At necropsy their alimentary canals were removed and to identify the species of helminthes, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid. Intestinal protozoan parasites were detected with parasitological methods. 28 (87.5% of 32 stray dogs infected at least with one helminth. Seven species of cestodes were isolated from examined dogs and three species of nematode were detected. Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. detected from fecal samples. This is the first study of the prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites in dogs in this area. It seems control of bearing stray dogs can help human health and reduction economic losses caused by stray dog’s zoonotic parasites.

  16. PCR-based molecular characterization of Toxocara spp. using feces of stray cats: a study from Southwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Rahim, Fakher; Tavalla, Mahdi; Abdizadeh, Rahman; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Feces of stray cat are potential sources of gastrointestinal parasites and play a crucial role in spreading and transmitting parasite eggs, larvae, and oocysts through contamination of soil, food, or water. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection in stray cats in Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. Eggs of Toxocara spp. in feces of stray cats were detected by the sucrose flotation method, and identification was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. Of the 140 fecal samples that were randomly collected from public environments during the months of January to May 2012, 45% were found to harbour Toxocara spp. eggs. The highest prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs was found in the central area of Ahvaz city (28.6%). T. canis eggs were found in 4 (6.34%) of the 63 positive samples. Stray cats are found in parks, playgrounds, and other public places and may be a potential contamination risk. Identification of Toxocara spp. using molecular methods is sufficiently sensitive to detect low levels of parasites and identify the different Toxocara spp. in feces. The relatively high prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection may continue to increase due to lack of effective environmental hygiene control in Iran. Consequently, there is a need to plan adequate programs to detect, identify, and control this infection as well as stray cats in the region.

  17. PCR-based molecular characterization of Toxocara spp. using feces of stray cats: a study from Southwest Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Khademvatan

    Full Text Available Feces of stray cat are potential sources of gastrointestinal parasites and play a crucial role in spreading and transmitting parasite eggs, larvae, and oocysts through contamination of soil, food, or water. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection in stray cats in Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. Eggs of Toxocara spp. in feces of stray cats were detected by the sucrose flotation method, and identification was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and DNA sequencing. Of the 140 fecal samples that were randomly collected from public environments during the months of January to May 2012, 45% were found to harbour Toxocara spp. eggs. The highest prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs was found in the central area of Ahvaz city (28.6%. T. canis eggs were found in 4 (6.34% of the 63 positive samples. Stray cats are found in parks, playgrounds, and other public places and may be a potential contamination risk. Identification of Toxocara spp. using molecular methods is sufficiently sensitive to detect low levels of parasites and identify the different Toxocara spp. in feces. The relatively high prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection may continue to increase due to lack of effective environmental hygiene control in Iran. Consequently, there is a need to plan adequate programs to detect, identify, and control this infection as well as stray cats in the region.

  18. Induced radioactivity of materials by stray radiation fields at an electron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Rokni, S H; Gwise, T; Liu, J C; Roesler, S

    2002-01-01

    Samples of soil, water, aluminum, copper and iron were irradiated in the stray radiation field generated by the interaction of a 28.5 GeV electron beam in a copper-dump in the Beam Dump East facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The specific activity induced in the samples was measured by gamma spectroscopy and other techniques. In addition, the isotope production in the samples was calculated with detailed Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. The calculated activities are compared to the experimental values and differences are discussed.

  19. Some observations on stray magnetic fields and power outputs from short-wave diathermy equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, R.W.M.; Dunscombe, P.B.

    1984-04-01

    Recent years have seen increasing interest in the possible hazards arising from the use of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Relatively large and potentially hazardous fields are to be found in the vicinity of short-wave and microwave equipment used in physiotherapy departments to produce therapeutic temperature rises. This note reports the results of measurements of the stray magnetic field and power output of a conventional short-wave diathermy unit when applied to tissue-equivalent phantoms. The dependence of these quantities on the variables, i.e. power setting of the unit, capacitor plate size, phantom size and phantom-capacitor plate separation, are discussed.

  20. A report on the alimentary canal helminthic infestation of stray and pet dogs in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Gharedaghi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available From September to December 2007, fecal specimens of 100 stray and pet dogs in Tabriz were examined by saturated salt flotation and Telmann sedimentation methods to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infestation. Helminth infestation was encountered in 31 (31% of the fecal samples examined. The eggs of two different cestodes and three different nematodes were identified in the contaminated fecal samples. The helminth eggs found were identified as Taenia hydatigena (4%, Dipylidium caninum (6%, Toxocara canis (10%, Ancylostoma caninum (6% and Trichuris vulpis (5%. No trematoda eggs and nematode larvae were found in this study.

  1. Humoral immune response to Dipylidium caninum infection of stray dogs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J W; Liao, W T

    2002-04-02

    Two kinds of homogeneous proglottid, mature and gravid, of Dipylidium caninum were used as the antigens for immunodiagnosis of canine dipylidiosis in stray dogs in Tainan, Taiwan. The ELISA was performed on 30 serum samples; 24 from dipylidiosis, four from ancylostomosis and two from toxocariosis. The ELISA have specificity and sensitive of 100 and 50% for mature proglottid extract, and 75 and 100%, respectively, for gravid proglottid extract. EITB technique showed two major peptide bands of 94.8 and 97.9kDa were recognized in the sera pool of infected dogs.

  2. A Choice Experiment Analysis of the Management of the Stray Dog Population in the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Siettou, Christina; Fraser, Iain; Fraser, Rob

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a pilot study investigating the public’s view on the pet overpopulation problem. The Choice Experiment aims to understand the UK public’s awareness of the issue, its views and its willingness to participate and pay for a reduction in the rate of animals being “put to sleep”. Our preliminary results indicate that the public are willing to pay to keep healthy stray dogs alive for longer in Local Authority kennels beyond the current seven day statutory per...

  3. Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Beijing strain infection in a stray dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D.C. Parsons

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in dogs is rarely reported and has not previously been documented in South Africa. A case of a stray Maltese crossbreed dog with extensive multifocal pulmonary tuberculosis due to M. tuberculosis is described. Pulmonary granulomas in this case were poorly encapsulated and contained large numbers of acid-fast bacteria, highlighting the potential for infected companion animals to excrete the pathogen. Treatment of canine tuberculosis is generally not advised, and for this reason, euthanasia of diseased animals must be advocated in most instances. Physicians and veterinarians must be aware that companion animals with active disease caused by M. tuberculosis could act as a potential source of infection.

  4. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faircloth, D C

    2013-01-01

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered. (author)

  5. Technological Aspects: High Voltage

    CERN Document Server

    Faircloth, D.C.

    2013-12-16

    This paper covers the theory and technological aspects of high-voltage design for ion sources. Electric field strengths are critical to understanding high-voltage breakdown. The equations governing electric fields and the techniques to solve them are discussed. The fundamental physics of high-voltage breakdown and electrical discharges are outlined. Different types of electrical discharges are catalogued and their behaviour in environments ranging from air to vacuum are detailed. The importance of surfaces is discussed. The principles of designing electrodes and insulators are introduced. The use of high-voltage platforms and their relation to system design are discussed. The use of commercially available high-voltage technology such as connectors, feedthroughs and cables are considered. Different power supply technologies and their procurement are briefly outlined. High-voltage safety, electric shocks and system design rules are covered.

  6. Molecular detection of blood pathogens and their impacts on levels of packed cell volume in stray dogs from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Piratae

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of blood parasite infection in stray dogs by PCR technique and the association between levels of packed cell volume (PCV and blood parasitic infection in stray dogs. Methods: A total of 65 blood samples were collected from stray dogs in animal quarantine station from Mahasarakham, Thailand to evaluate the levels of PCV before molecular screening for tick-borne pathogens infection. Results: Stray dogs were positive with one or more pathogens in 44 (67.69% out of 65 blood samples. Ehrlichia canis [43.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 38.1–48.1] was the most common blood pathogen found infecting in stray dogs in Mahasarakham Province, followed by Anaplasma platys (29.2%, 95% CI: 24.2–34.2, Hepatozoon canis (12.3%, 95% CI: 7.3–17.3 and Babesia canis vogeli (6.2%, 95% CI: 1.2–11.2, respectively. Moreover, co-infections with two pathogens were identified in 11 (16.9% of dogs examined and two (2.9% dogs were coinfections with three pathogens. Statistically significant relationship between the PCV levels and Ehrlichia canis infection was found (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study indicated that blood pathogens are spreading in stray dogs and they are potentially high risk of agent transmission to human via exposure with tick vectors. It was also the first report of Anaplasma platys infection in dogs in north-eastern part of Thailand.

  7. Detection of Helminth Eggs and Identification of Hookworm Species in Stray Cats, Dogs and Soil from Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandee Tun

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin-ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%-79.9%, in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%, Toxocara (11.1%, Trichuris (8.4%, Spirometra (7.4% and Ascaris (2.4%. The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p < 0.001. Only three genera of helminths were detected in soil samples with the prevalence of 23% (95% CI = 15.1%-31%, consisting of hookworms (16.6%, Ascaris (4% and Toxocara (2.4%. The molecular identification of hookworm species revealed that Ancylostoma ceylanicum was dominant in both faecal and soil samples. The dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections.

  8. Detection of Helminth Eggs and Identification of Hookworm Species in Stray Cats, Dogs and Soil from Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Sandee; Ithoi, Init; Mahmud, Rohela; Samsudin, Nur Izyan; Kek Heng, Chua; Ling, Lau Yee

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats) and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin-ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%-79.9%), in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%), Toxocara (11.1%), Trichuris (8.4%), Spirometra (7.4%) and Ascaris (2.4%). The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections.

  9. High voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Rizk, Farouk AM

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by a new revival of worldwide interest in extra-high-voltage (EHV) and ultra-high-voltage (UHV) transmission, High Voltage Engineering merges the latest research with the extensive experience of the best in the field to deliver a comprehensive treatment of electrical insulation systems for the next generation of utility engineers and electric power professionals. The book offers extensive coverage of the physical basis of high-voltage engineering, from insulation stress and strength to lightning attachment and protection and beyond. Presenting information critical to the design, selec

  10. High voltage test techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Kind, Dieter

    2001-01-01

    The second edition of High Voltage Test Techniques has been completely revised. The present revision takes into account the latest international developments in High Voltage and Measurement technology, making it an essential reference for engineers in the testing field.High Voltage Technology belongs to the traditional area of Electrical Engineering. However, this is not to say that the area has stood still. New insulating materials, computing methods and voltage levels repeatedly pose new problems or open up methods of solution; electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) or components and systems al

  11. Observability of Low Voltage grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin-Loeches, Ruben Sánchez; Iov, Florin; Kemal, Mohammed Seifu

    2017-01-01

    Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid ...... an updated state of the art on DSSE-AMI based, adaptive data collection techniques and database management system types. Moreover, the ongoing Danish RemoteGRID project is presented as a realistic case study.......Low Voltage (LV) distribution power grids are experiencing a transformation from a passive to a more active role due to the increasing penetration of distributed generation, heat pumps and electrical vehicles. The first step towards a smarter operation of LV electrical systems is to provide grid....... It becomes unrealistic to provide near real time full observability of the LV grid by applying Distribution System State Estimation (DSSE) utilizing the classical data collection and storage/preprocessing techniques. This paper investigates up-todate the observability problem in LV grids by providing...

  12. Antibody Detection to Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV in stray cats in Ahvaz, southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosallanejad, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of FIV in stray cat's population of Ahvaz different area. Serum samples were collected from 90 cats from 2005 to 2007. The studied cats were divided into two age groups (3 years and based on clinical signs (such as lymphadenopathy, periodontal diseases, gingivitis, abscess and cashecsi into two groups also. The results were analyzed using Fischer's exact test and Chi-square analysis. Prevalence to FIV antibodies in these cats was 15.55% (14 of 90 by means of ELISA Test Kit, indicating that this virus is present in the ecosystem. The infection had more prevalence in cats above 3 years (78.6%; 11 of 14 compared with cats less than 3 years (21.4%; 3 of 14. Statistical analysis showed significant difference between different age groups (P0.05. Three out of 12 cases (25% which had clinical signs and 11 out of 78 cases (14.1% which hadn’t clinical signs were seropositive. There was no significant difference between the two groups also (P>0.05. This study showed that FIV exist among cat's population of Ahvaz area and separation of companion and stray cats is very important for prevention of disease transmission to companion cats.

  13. A survey of ectoparasite infestations in stray dogs of Gwang-ju City, Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Jeong Hyun; Kwon, Jung Kee; Cho, Ho Seong; Cho, Kyoung Oh; Lee, Yu Jin; Abd El-Aty, A M; Abdel-Aty, A M; Shin, Sung Shik

    2008-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the incidence of ectoparasite infestation among stray dogs in Gwang-ju City, Republic of Korea. A total of 103 stray dogs collected in the Animal Shelter of Gwang-ju City from November 2003 to August 2005 were investigated in this study. Ectoparasites of one or more genera were detected in 45.6% (47 / 103) of the dogs examined for dermatologic lesions and/or skin scrapings (from 3-5 affected areas). Otodectes cynotis was found to be the most frequent parasite (22.3%, 23 / 103), followed by Sarcoptes scabiei var canis (19.4%, 20 / 103), Ctenocephalides canis (6.8%, 7 / 103), Demodex canis (4.9%, 5 / 103), and Trichodectes canis (1.0%, 1 / 103). Monospecific infestation was found in 83.0% (39 / 47) of the affected dogs, whereas concurrent infestations with 2 or more ectoparasites per animal were found in 17.0% (8 / 47) of the affected dogs. Trichodectes canis is reported for the first time in the Republic of Korea. Dogs less than 1 yr old were more heavily infected than other age groups (66.7%), and small-sized dogs of less than 3 kg body weight were more heavily infected than larger dogs (41.7%).

  14. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Eslami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Sem­nan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production.Methods: During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid.Results: Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80% harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80% followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%, Toxocara canis (22%, Mesocestoides lineatus (12%, Taenia multiceps (10% and Dipylidium caninum (4%. The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1-3 ex­cept for that of E. granulosus (645. No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001 as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001.Conclusion: Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths re­ported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes.

  15. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, A; Ranjbar-Bahadori, Sh; Meshgi, B; Dehghan, M; Bokaie, S

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production. Methods During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid. Results Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80%) harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80%) followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%), Toxocara canis (22%), Mesocestoides lineatus (12%), Taenia multiceps (10%) and Dipylidium caninum (4%). The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1–3) except for that of E. granulosus (645). No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001) as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001). Conclusion Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths reported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes. PMID:22347264

  16. Community perception regarding rabies prevention and stray dog control in urban slums in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Mrudu; Riyaz Basha, S; Thangaraj, Selvi

    2012-12-01

    The lack of community awareness about rabies control is a major issue that thwarts efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess community knowledge and attitudes about rabies, rabies prevention and stray dog control in an urban slum community and (2) to determine the factors that influence rabies awareness in urban slums. Using a systematic random sampling strategy, 185 participants were selected from 8 urban slums. The data were collected by direct interview using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. In the study population, 74.1% of the participants had heard about rabies, and 54.1% knew that rabies is a fatal disease. Only 33.5% of the interviewees felt that people in the community had a role to play in controlling the stray dog population. Gender, age and educational status were significantly associated with rabies awareness. Our study indicates that there are gaps in the knowledge and attitudes of individuals living in urban slums regarding rabies prevention and control. Efforts to promote awareness should be targeted at men, older people and uneducated individuals. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Controlling trapping potentials and stray electric fields in a microfabricated ion trap through design and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles Doret, S; Amini, Jason M; Wright, Kenneth; Volin, Curtis; Killian, Tyler; Ozakin, Arkadas; Denison, Douglas; Hayden, Harley; Pai, C-S; Slusher, Richart E; Harter, Alexa W

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum information processing with trapped ions have demonstrated the need for new ion trap architectures capable of holding and manipulating chains of many (>10) ions. Here we present the design and detailed characterization of a new linear trap, microfabricated with scalable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) techniques, that is well-suited to this challenge. Forty-four individually controlled dc electrodes provide the many degrees of freedom required to construct anharmonic potential wells, shuttle ions, merge and split ion chains, precisely tune secular mode frequencies, and adjust the orientation of trap axes. Microfabricated capacitors on dc electrodes suppress radio-frequency pickup and excess micromotion, while a top-level ground layer simplifies modeling of electric fields and protects trap structures underneath. A localized aperture in the substrate provides access to the trapping region from an oven below, permitting deterministic loading of particular isotopic/elemental sequences via species-selective photoionization. The shapes of the aperture and radio-frequency electrodes are optimized to minimize perturbation of the trapping pseudopotential. Laboratory experiments verify simulated potentials and characterize trapping lifetimes, stray electric fields, and ion heating rates, while measurement and cancellation of spatially-varying stray electric fields permits the formation of nearly-equally spaced ion chains. (paper)

  18. Gastrointestinal Helminthic Parasites in Stray Cats (Felis catus from North of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaei-Doust

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthic parasites and also play a major role in transmitting of these parasites through faecal contamination of soil, food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the species of gastrointestinal helminthes parasites in stray cats from a rural area of Bandar-e-Anzali, Iran.Method: Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 50 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus after capturing them by trapping from different regions of the city and humanely euthanatized in Bandar-e-Anzali, a port in the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, from March to November 2003. Results: The prevalence of infection was 90%, with those of individual parasites being Diplopylidium nolleri 54%, Phy­saloptera praeputialis 32%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme 20%, Joyeuxiella pasqualei 10%, Toxocara cati 8%, Pterygoderma­tites affinis 6%, Ancylostoma caninum 4%, and Taenia taeniaeformis 2%. Concurrent infections with two or more parasites were recorded in 34% of the individuals. In relation to the sex, the differences were not significant. Conclusion: P. praeputialis, T. cati, D. nolleri and sometime J. pasqualei are the commonest Helminthes in cats. This is the first reported isolation of P. affinis and A. caninum infections from cats in Iran.

  19. Stray-field-induced Faraday contributions in wide-field Kerr microscopy and -magnetometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markó, D.; Soldatov, I.; Tekielak, M.; Schäfer, R.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic domain contrast in wide-field Kerr microscopy on bulk specimens can be substantially distorted by non-linear, field-dependent Faraday rotations in the objective lens that are caused by stray-field components emerging from the specimen. These Faraday contributions, which were detected by Kerr-magnetometry on grain-oriented iron–silicon steel samples, are thoroughly elaborated and characterized. They express themselves as a field-dependent gray-scale offset to the domain contrast and in highly distorted surface magnetization curves if optically measured in a wide field Kerr microscope. An experimental method to avoid such distortions is suggested. In the course of these studies, a low-permeability part in the surface magnetization loop of slightly misoriented (110)-surfaces in iron–silicon sheets was discovered that is attributed to demagnetization effects in direction perpendicular to the sheet surface. - Highlights: • Magnetizing a finite sample in a Kerr microscope leads to sample-generated stray-fields. • They cause non-linear, field- and position-dependent Faraday rotations in the objective. • This leads to a modulation of the Kerr contrast and to distorted MOKE loops. • A method to compensate these Faraday rotations is presented

  20. Effects of stray lights on Faraday rotation measurement for polarimeter-interferometer system on EAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Z Y; Liu, H Q; Ding, W X; Chen, J; Brower, D L; Lian, H; Wang, S X; Li, W M; Yao, Y; Zeng, L; Jie, Y X

    2018-01-01

    A double-pass radially view 11 chords polarimeter-interferometer system has been operated on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak and provides important current profile information for plasma control. Stray light originating from spurious reflections along the optical path (unwanted reflections from various optical components/mounts and transmissive optical elements such as windows, waveplates, and lens as well as the detectors) and also direct feedback from the retro-reflector used to realize the double-pass configuration can both contribute to contamination of the Faraday rotation measurement accuracy. Modulation of the Faraday rotation signal due to the interference from multiple reflections is observable when the interferometer phase (plasma density) varies with time. Direct reflection from the detector itself can be suppressed by employing an optical isolator consisting of a λ/4-waveplate and polarizer positioned in front of the mixer. A Faraday angle oscillation during the density ramping up (or down) can be reduced from 5°-10° to 1°-2° by eliminating reflections from the detector. Residual modulation arising from misalignment and stray light from other sources must be minimized to achieve accurate measurements of Faraday rotation.

  1. Bidirectional reflectance distribution function /BRDF/ measurements of stray light suppression coatings for the Space Telescope /ST/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The paper considers the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of black coatings used on stray light suppression systems for the Space Telescope (ST). The ST stray light suppression requirement is to reduce earth, moon, and sun light in the focal plane to a level equivalent to one 23 Mv star per square arcsecond, an attenuation of 14 orders of magnitude. It is impractical to verify the performance of a proposed baffle system design by full scale tests because of the large size of the ST, so that a computer analysis is used to select the design. Accurate computer analysis requires a knowledge of the diffuse scatter at all angles from the surface of the coatings, for all angles of incident light. During the early phases of the ST program a BRDF scanner was built at the Marshall Space Flight Center to study the scatter from black materials; the measurement system is described and the results of measurements on samples proposed for use on the ST are presented.

  2. Evidence of Gate Voltage Oscillations during Short Circuit of Commercial 1.7 kV/ 1 kA IGBT Power Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reigosa, Paula Diaz; Wu, Rui; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evidence of critical gate voltage oscillations in 1.7 kV/1 kA Insulated-Gate Bipolar Transistor (IGBT) power modules under short circuit conditions. A 6 kA/1.1 kV Non-Destructive Test (NDT) set up for repeatable short circuit tests has been built with a 40 nH stray inducta...

  3. Design and development of high voltage and high frequency center tapped transformer for HVDC test generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thaker, Urmil; Saurabh Kumar; Amal, S.; Baruah, U.K.; Bhatt, Animesh

    2015-01-01

    A High Voltage center tapped transformer for high frequency application had been designed, fabricated, and tested. It was designed as a part of 200 kV HVDC Test Generator. The High Frequency operation of transformer increases power density. Therefore it is possible to reduce power supply volume. The step up ratio in High Voltage transformer is limited due to stray capacitance and leakage inductance. The limit was overcome by winding multi secondary outputs. Switching frequency of transformer was 15.8 kHz. Input and output voltages of transformer were 270V and 16.5kV-0V-16.5kV respectively. Power rating of transformer is 7kVA. High Voltage transformer with various winding and core arrangement was fabricated to check variation in electrical characteristics. The transformer used a ferrite core (E Type) and nylon insulated primary and secondary bobbins. Two set of E-E geometry cores had been stacked in order to achieve the estimated core volume. Compared with traditional high voltage transformer, this transformer had good thermal behavior, good line insulation properties and a high power density. In this poster, design procedures, development stages and test results of high voltage and high frequency transformer are presented. Results of various parameters such as transformer loss, temperature rise, insulation properties, impedance of primary and secondary winding, and voltage regulation are discussed. (author)

  4. Effects of different levels of intraocular stray light on kinetic perimetry findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Hirasawa

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different levels of intraocular stray light on kinetic perimetry findings.Twenty-five eyes of 25 healthy young participants were examined by automated kinetic perimetry (Octopus 900 using Goldmann stimuli III4e, I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e. Each stimulus was presented with a velocity of 3°/s at 24 meridians with 15° intervals. Four levels of intraocular stray light were induced using non-white opacity filter (WOF filters and WOFs applied to the clear plastic eye covers of the participants. The visual acuity, pupil diameter, isopter area, and kinetic sensitivity of each meridian were analyzed for each WOF density.Visual acuity deteriorated with increasing WOF densities (p < 0.01. With a visual acuity of 0.1 LogMAR units, the isopter areas for III4e, I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e decreased by -32.7 degree2 (-0.2%, -255.7 degree2 (-2.6%, -381.2 degree2 (-6.2%, -314.8 degree2 (-12.8%, and -59.2 degree2 (-15.2%, respectively; kinetic sensitivity for those stimuli decreased by -0.1 degree (-0.1%, -0.8 degree (-1.4%, -1.6 degree (-3.7%, -2.7 degree (-9.7%, and -1.7 degree (-16.2%, respectively. The pupil diameter with each WOF density was not significantly different.Kinetic perimetry measurements with a high-intensity stimulus (i.e., III4e were unaffected by intraocular stray light. In contrast, measurements with the I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e stimuli, especially I2e and I1e, were affected. Changes in the shape of the isopter resulting from opacity must be monitored, especially in cases of smaller and lower-intensity stimuli.

  5. MRI-related static magnetic stray fields and postural body sway: a double-blind randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nierop, Lotte E; Slottje, Pauline; Kingma, Herman; Kromhout, Hans

    2013-07-01

    We assessed postural body sway performance after exposure to movement induced time-varying magnetic fields in the static magnetic stray field in front of a 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Using a double blind randomized crossover design, 30 healthy volunteers performed two balance tasks (i.e., standing with eyes closed and feet in parallel and then in tandem position) after standardized head movements in a sham, low exposure (on average 0.24 T static magnetic stray field and 0.49 T·s(-1) time-varying magnetic field) and high exposure condition (0.37 T and 0.70 T·s(-1)). Personal exposure to static magnetic stray fields and time-varying magnetic fields was measured with a personal dosimeter. Postural body sway was expressed in sway path, area, and velocity. Mixed-effects model regression analysis showed that postural body sway in the parallel task was negatively affected (P < 0.05) by exposure on all three measures. The tandem task revealed the same trend, but did not reach statistical significance. Further studies are needed to investigate the possibility of independent or synergetic effects of static magnetic stray field and time-varying magnetic field exposure. In addition, practical safety implications of these findings, e.g., for surgeons and others working near magnetic resonance imaging scanners need to be investigated. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Measurement of stray radiation within a scanning proton therapy facility: EURADOS WG9 intercomparison exercise of active dosimetry systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farah, J.; Mares, V.; Romero-Exposito, M.; Trinkl, S.; Domingo, C.; Dufek, V.; Klodowska, M.; Kubančák, Ján; Knezevic, Z.; Ploc, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2015), s. 2572-2584 ISSN 0094-2405 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : scanning proton therapy * measurement of stray neutrons * spectrometry * ambient dose eyuivalent * intercomparison Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.496, year: 2015

  7. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piratae, Supawadee; Pimpjong, Kiattisak; Vaisusuk, Kotchaphon; Chatan, Wasupon

    2015-01-01

    Canine tick borne diseases showing distribution worldwide have caused morbidity and mortality in dogs. This study observed the mainly tick borne pathogens described for dogs in Thailand, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli. From May to July 2014, blood samples were collected from 79 stray dogs from 7 districts of Mahasarakham province to molecular surveyed for 16s rRNA gene of E. canis and 18s rRNA gene of H. canis and B. canis vogeli. Twenty eight (35.44%) of stray dogs showed the infection with tick borne pathogens. The prevalence of E. canis infection was the highest with 21.5% (17/79). DNA of H. canis and B. canis vogeli were detected at the prevalence of 10.1% (8/79) and 6.3% (5/79), respectively. Co-infection between E. canis and B. canis vogeli were identified in 2 (2.5%) dogs. The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens are circulation in the canine population in Mahasarakham province. This study is the first report on prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham, a province in northern part of Thailand. This data providing is important to understand the prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli infection in stray dogs in this region, which will assist in the management of these blood parasite.

  8. PENGARUH PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF TWO STAY TWO STRAY BERPENDEKAT AN SETS TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR KIMIA SISWA SMA NEGERI 1 COMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Setiawan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pembelajaran kooperatif two stay two stray berpendekatan SETS terhadap hasil belajar siswa. Desain eksperimen yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah quasi experimental design. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran kooperatif two stay two stray berpendekatan SETS berpengaruh signitikan terhadap hasil belajar pada materi pokok teori asam basa dengan kontribusi koefisien determinasi sebesar 25%. Selain itu, pembelajaran juga mencapai ketuntasan belajar klasikal sebesar 37 dari 43 siswa, sehingga pembelajaran tersebut termasuk efektif.This study aimed to determine the effect of two stay two stray cooperative learning with SETS approach on student learning outcomes. Experimental design used in this study is a quasi experimental design. The results showed that two stay two stray cooperative learning with SETS approach have a significant effect on learning outcomes in acid-base theory of the subject matter with the contribution of the determination coefficient of 25%. In addition, the study also achieved mastery learning classical by 37 of the 43 students, so that it includes effective learning.

  9. What's in a name? Perceptions of stray and feral cat welfare and control in Aotearoa, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnworth, Mark J; Campbell, Joanna; Adams, Nigel J

    2011-01-01

    New Zealanders (n = 354) rated the acceptability of lethal and nonlethal cat control methods and the importance of conservation and welfare. Lethal control was more acceptable for feral cats than strays; for nonlethal control, the inverse was true. More than concern for the welfare of cats subjected to control, perceived conservation benefits, risk of disease transfer, and companion cat welfare dictated the acceptability of control measures. Similarly, the welfare consideration for groups of cats differed, transitioning from companion (highest) to feral (lowest). Differences in attitudes toward acceptability of control methods were evident. In particular, nonhuman animal professionals ranked lethal control as more acceptable than did nonanimal professionals. Cat caregivers (owners) considered both conservation and welfare issues of greater importance than did nonowners. Owners ranked the acceptability of nonlethal control methods higher for stray cats, but not feral, than did nonowners. This research indicates that the use of the terms stray and feral may have significant impact on cats in New Zealand. There is also a greater consideration of conservation values than of welfare in stray and feral cat control.

  10. Radiation protection measurements with the variance-covariance method in the stray radiation fields from photon and proton therapy facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillhök, J.; Persson, L.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2017-01-01

    , the dose-average lineal energy, the dose-average quality factor and the dose equivalent. The neutron component measured by the detectors at the proton beam was studied through Monte Carlo simulations using the code MCNP6. In the photon beam the stray absorbed dose ranged between 0.3 and 2.4 μGy per monitor...

  11. Possibility of reducing stray losses and parasitic torques in two-phase emergency feeding of induction motors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schreier, Luděk; Bendl, Jiří; Chomát, Miroslav; Klíma, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2006), s. 109-131 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/04/0215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : induction motor * emergency operation of electrical drives * stray losses Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  12. An estimate of the radiation-induced cancer risk from the whole-body stray radiation exposure in neutron radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    1980 BEIR III risk factors have been used to estimate the secondary cancer risks from the whole-body stray radiation exposures occurring in neutron radiotherapy. Risks were calculated using linear, linear-quadratic and quadratic dose-response models for the gamma component of the stray radiation. The linear dose-response model was used to calculate risk for the neutron component of the stray radiation. These estimates take into consideration for the first time the age and sex distribution of patients undergoing neutron therapy. Changes in risk as a function of the RBE (10-100) assigned to the stray neutron radiation component have also been assessed. Excess risks in neutron-treated patients have been compared with excess risks for photon-treated patients and with the expected incidence of cancer in a normal population having the same age and sex distribution. Results indicate that it will be necessary to tolerate a higher incidence of secondary cancers in patients undergoing fast neutron therapy than is the case with conventional photon therapy. For neutron RBEs of less than 50 the increased risk is only a fraction of the normal expected incidence of cancer in this population. Comparison of the radiation-induced risk with reported normal tissue complication rates in the treatment volume indicates that the excess cancer risk is substantially lower than the risk from other late normal tissue effects. (author)

  13. Reduction of ballistic spin scattering in a spin-FET using stray electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemnes, G A; Manolescu, A; Gudmundsson, V

    2012-01-01

    The quasi-bound states which appear as a consequence of the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling, introduce a strongly irregular behavior of the spin-FET conductance at large Rashba parameter. Moreover, the presence of the bulk inversion asymmetry, i.e. the Dresselhaus SO coupling, may compromise the spin-valve effect even at small values of the Rashba parameter. However, by introducing stray electric fields in addition to the SO couplings, we show that the effect of the SO induced quasi-bound states can be tuned. The oscillations of the spin-resolved conductance become smoother and the control of the spin-FET characteristics becomes possible. For the calculations we employ a multi-channel scattering formalism, based on the R-matrix method extended to spin transport, in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus SO couplings.

  14. Specific feature of magnetooptical images of stray fields of magnets of various geometrical shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. E.; Koveshnikov, A. V.; Andreev, S. V.

    2017-08-01

    Specific features of magnetooptical images (MOIs) of stray fields near the faces of prismatic hard magnetic elements have been studied. Attention has primarily been focused on MOIs of fields near faces oriented perpendicular to the magnetic moment of hard magnetic elements. With regard to the polar sensitivity, MOIs have practically uniform brightness and geometrically they coincide with the figures of the bases of the elements. With regard to longitudinal sensitivity, MOIs consist of several sectors, the number of which is determined by the number of angles of the image. Each angle is divided by the bisectrix into two sectors of different brightnesses; therefore, the MOI of a triangular magnet consists of three sectors. A rectangle consists of four sectors separated by the bisectrices of the interior angles. In all types of figures, these lines converge at the center of the figure and form a singular point of the source or sink type.

  15. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and intestinal parasites in stray cats from Nigde, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengi Dündar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated by the Sabin-Feldman Dye test (SFDT in 72 stray cats from Nigde, Turkey. A total of 55 (76.4% of the analysed sera had antibodies to T. gondii. The seropositivity of T. gondii was 77.1% in male and 75.7% in female cats (P>0.05. Faeces of these cats were also examined by zinc sulphate flotation method for the presence of parasite oocysts and eggs of other parasites. Two protozoan parasites were identified as Isospora spp. (12.5% and Eimeria spp. (4.1% in cats. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any faecal samples analysed. Two parasitic helminth species were observed: Toxocara cati (15.2% and Toxascaris leonina (20.8%. These common ascarids were recorded for the first time in cats from Nigde.

  16. A high-power spatial filter for Thomson scattering stray light reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, J. P.; Litzner, K. D.; Mauel, M. E.; Maurer, D. A.; Navratil, G. A.; Pedersen, T. S.

    2011-03-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) is routinely used to measure electron temperature and density during plasma discharges. Avalanche photodiodes in a five-channel interference filter polychromator measure scattered light from a 6 ns, 800 mJ, 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser pulse. A low cost, high-power spatial filter was designed, tested, and added to the laser beamline in order to reduce stray laser light to levels which are acceptable for accurate Rayleigh calibration. A detailed analysis of the spatial filter design and performance is given. The spatial filter can be easily implemented in an existing Thomson scattering system without the need to disturb the vacuum chamber or significantly change the beamline. Although apertures in the spatial filter suffer substantial damage from the focused beam, with proper design they can last long enough to permit absolute calibration.

  17. Countering the stray magnetic field of the CUSP trap by using additional coils

    CERN Document Server

    Thole, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    The ASACUSA experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN tries to measure the Hyperfine Structure (HFS) of Antihydrogen (H ̄) using a Rabi spectroscopy set-up. In measuring this HFS it will yield a very precise test of CPT-symmetry. For this set-up to work a homogeneous magnetic field is needed in the cavity where the Hyperfine transition of H ̄ occurs. Due to the stray fields from the CUSP trap, where H ̄ is produced, additional coils are needed to counter these fields. It is found, using COMSOL simulations, that two coils are suitable for this. Leading to a relative standard deviation of the magnetic field of σB/B = 1.06%.

  18. Neutron measurements in the stray field produced by 158 GeV/c lead ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Foglio Para, A.; Nava, E.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses measurements carried out at CERN in the stray radiation field produced by 158 GeV/c 208 Pb 82+ ions. The purpose was to test and intercompare the response of several detectors, mainly neutron measuring devices, and to determine the neutron spectral fluence as well as the microdosimetric (absorbed dose and dose equivalent) distributions in different locations around the shielding. Both active instruments and passive dosimeters were employed, including different types of Andersson-Braun rem counters, a tissue equivalent proportional counter, a set of superheated drop detectors, a Bonner sphere system and different types of ion chambers. Activation measurements with 12 C plastic scintillators and with 32 S pellets were also performed to assess the neutron yield of high energy lead ions interacting with a thin gold target. The results are compared with previous measurements and with measurements made during proton runs. (author)

  19. Stray dogs and cats as potential sources of soil contamination with zoonotic parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwabe, Katarzyna; Blaszkowska, Joanna

    2017-03-22

    The main source of many zoonoses is soil contaminated with feline and canine faeces. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray dogs and cats adopted in Lodz shelter (Poland). In total, 163 faecal samples were collected from 95 dogs and 68 cats from 2011 to 2012. The samples were processed by sedimentation techniques using Mini Parasep®SF. Six parasite genera belonging to protozoa, cestoda, and nematoda, were found in dogs, while eight were found in cats. Out of the 163 fecal samples, 37.4% were positive for the presence at least one species of intestinal parasites. The majority of positive dog samples contained eggs from Toxocara and Trichuris genera, and the family Ancylostomatidae, while Toxocara and Taenia eggs, as well as Cystoisospora oocysts, predominated in cat faeces. A significantly higher prevalence of parasites was noted in cats (48.5%) than in dogs (29.5%) (χ2=6.15, P=0.013). The Toxocara genus was the most prevalent parasite in both populations; eggs were found in 27.9% and 16.8% of cats and dogs, respectively. Animals younger than 12 months of age showed higher infection rates with Toxocara, but differences were not statistically significant. The average numbers of Toxocara eggs/gram of faeces in positive puppy and kitten samples were over 5 and 7 times higher than in older dogs and cats, respectively. Mixed infection were found in dogs (5.3%) and cats (8.8%). Cat faeces represent a more important potential source of environmental contamination with zoonotic parasites than dog faeces. Among the detected parasites of stray dogs and cats, Toxocara present an important zoonotic risk for the local human population, especially children.

  20. Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors for Bartonella Infection in Tunisian Stray Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhiria, Jaber; Chomel, Bruno B; Ben Hamida, Taoufik; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Fleischman, Drew A; Christopher, Mary M; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Farver, Thomas B

    2017-06-01

    Bartonellae are blood-borne and vector-transmitted pathogens, some are zoonotic, which have been reported in several Mediterranean countries. Transmission from dogs to humans is suspected, but has not been clearly demonstrated. Our objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella bovis (as a proxy for Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii) in stray dogs from Tunisia, identify the Bartonella species infecting the dogs and evaluate potential risk factors for canine infection. Blood samples were collected between January and November 2013 from 149 dogs in 10 Tunisian governorates covering several climatic zones. Dog-specific and geographic variables were analyzed as potential risk factors for Bartonella spp. seropositivity and PCR-positivity. DNA was extracted from the blood of all dogs and tested by PCR for Bartonella, targeting the ftsZ and rpoB genes. Partial sequencing was performed on PCR-positive dogs. Twenty-nine dogs (19.5%, 95% confidence interval: 14-27.4) were seropositive for one or more Bartonella species, including 17 (11.4%) for B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, 14 (9.4%) for B. henselae, 13 (8.4%) for B. clarridgeiae, and 7 (4.7%) for B. bovis. Statistical analysis revealed a few potential risk factors, mainly dog's age and breed, latitude and average winter temperature. Twenty-two (14.8%) dogs, including 8 of the 29 seropositive dogs, were PCR-positive for Bartonella based on the ftsZ gene, with 18 (81.8%) of these 22 dogs also positive for the rpoB gene. Partial sequencing showed that all PCR-positive dogs were infected with Candidatus B. merieuxii. Dogs from arid regions and regions with cold average winter temperatures were less likely to be PCR-positive than dogs from other climatic zones. The widespread presence of Bartonella spp. infection in Tunisian dogs suggests a role for stray dogs as potential reservoirs of Bartonella species in Tunisia.

  1. based dynamic voltage restorer

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    operation due to presence of increased use of nonlinear loads (computers, microcontrollers ... simulations of a dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) was achieved using MATLAB/Simulink. ..... using Discrete PWM generator, then the IGBT inverter.

  2. High voltage engineering fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Kuffel, E; Hammond, P

    1984-01-01

    Provides a comprehensive treatment of high voltage engineering fundamentals at the introductory and intermediate levels. It covers: techniques used for generation and measurement of high direct, alternating and surge voltages for general application in industrial testing and selected special examples found in basic research; analytical and numerical calculation of electrostatic fields in simple practical insulation system; basic ionisation and decay processes in gases and breakdown mechanisms of gaseous, liquid and solid dielectrics; partial discharges and modern discharge detectors; and over

  3. Low-voltage gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glyavin, M. Yu.; Zavolskiy, N. A.; Sedov, A. S.; Nusinovich, G. S.

    2013-01-01

    For a long time, the gyrotrons were primarily developed for electron cyclotron heating and current drive of plasmas in controlled fusion reactors where a multi-megawatt, quasi-continuous millimeter-wave power is required. In addition to this important application, there are other applications (and their number increases with time) which do not require a very high power level, but such issues as the ability to operate at low voltages and have compact devices are very important. For example, gyrotrons are of interest for a dynamic nuclear polarization, which improves the sensitivity of the nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. In this paper, some issues important for operation of gyrotrons driven by low-voltage electron beams are analyzed. An emphasis is made on the efficiency of low-voltage gyrotron operation at the fundamental and higher cyclotron harmonics. These efficiencies calculated with the account for ohmic losses were, first, determined in the framework of the generalized gyrotron theory based on the cold-cavity approximation. Then, more accurate, self-consistent calculations for the fundamental and second harmonic low-voltage sub-THz gyrotron designs were carried out. Results of these calculations are presented and discussed. It is shown that operation of the fundamental and second harmonic gyrotrons with noticeable efficiencies is possible even at voltages as low as 5–10 kV. Even the third harmonic gyrotrons can operate at voltages about 15 kV, albeit with rather low efficiency (1%–2% in the submillimeter wavelength region).

  4. Current-Voltage Characteristics of DC Discharge in Micro Gas Jet Injected into Vacuum Environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matra, K; Furuta, H; Hatta, A

    2013-01-01

    A current-voltage characteristic of direct current (DC) gas discharge operated in a micro gas jet injected into a secondary electron microscope (SEM) chamber is presented. Ar gas was injected through a 30 μm orifice gas nozzle (OGN) and was evacuated by an additional pump to keep the high vacuum environment. Gas discharges were ignited between the OGN as anode and a counter electrode of Si wafer. The discharge was self-pulsating in most of the cases while it was stable at lower pressure, larger gap length, and larger time averaged current. The self-pulsating discharge was oscillated by the RC circuit consisting of a stray capacitor and a large ballast resistor. The real time plots of voltage and current during the pulsating was investigated using a discharge model.

  5. Device for monitoring cell voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doepke, Matthias [Garbsen, DE; Eisermann, Henning [Edermissen, DE

    2012-08-21

    A device for monitoring a rechargeable battery having a number of electrically connected cells includes at least one current interruption switch for interrupting current flowing through at least one associated cell and a plurality of monitoring units for detecting cell voltage. Each monitoring unit is associated with a single cell and includes a reference voltage unit for producing a defined reference threshold voltage and a voltage comparison unit for comparing the reference threshold voltage with a partial cell voltage of the associated cell. The reference voltage unit is electrically supplied from the cell voltage of the associated cell. The voltage comparison unit is coupled to the at least one current interruption switch for interrupting the current of at least the current flowing through the associated cell, with a defined minimum difference between the reference threshold voltage and the partial cell voltage.

  6. High frequency breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Thanh Duy.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information about the effect of frequency on the breakdown voltage of an air gap at standard pressure and temperature, 76 mm Hg and O degrees C, respectively. The frequencies of interest are 47 MHz and 60 MHz. Additionally, the breakdown in vacuum is briefly considered. The breakdown mechanism is explained on the basis of collision and ionization. The presence of the positive ions produced by ionization enhances the field in the gap, and thus determines the breakdown. When a low-frequency voltage is applied across the gap, the breakdown mechanism is the same as that caused by the DC or static voltage. However, when the frequency exceeds the first critical value f c , the positive ions are trapped in the gap, increasing the field considerably. This makes the breakdown occur earlier; in other words, the breakdown voltage is lowered. As the frequency increases two decades or more, the second critical frequency, f ce , is reached. This time the electrons start being trapped in the gap. Those electrons that travel multiple times across the gap before reaching the positive electrode result in an enormous number of electrons and positive ions being present in the gap. The result is a further decrease of the breakdown voltage. However, increasing the frequency does not decrease the breakdown voltage correspondingly. In fact, the associated breakdown field intensity is almost constant (about 29 kV/cm).The reason is that the recombination rate increases and counterbalances the production rate, thus reducing the effect of the positive ions' concentration in the gap. The theory of collision and ionization does not apply to the breakdown in vacuum. It seems that the breakdown in vacuum is primarily determined by the irregularities on the surfaces of the electrodes. Therefore, the effect of frequency on the breakdown, if any, is of secondary importance

  7. Experimental investigation of the ECRH stray radiation during the start-up phase in Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseev, Dmitry; Laqua, Heinrich; Marsen, Stefan; Stange, Torsten; Braune, Harald; Erckmann, Volker; Gellert, Florian; Oosterbeek, Johann Wilhelm; Wenzel, Uwe

    2017-07-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) is the main heating mechanism in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (W7-X). W7-X is equipped with five absolutely calibrated sniffer probes that are installed in each of the five modules of the device. The sniffer probes monitor energy flux of unabsorbed ECRH radiation in the device and interlocks are fed with the sniffer probe signals. The stray radiation level in the device changes significantly during the start-up phase: plasma is a strong microwave absorber and during its formation the stray radiation level in sniffer probes reduces by more than 95%. In this paper, we discuss the influence of neutral gas pressure and gyrotron power on plasma breakdown processes.

  8. An easy way to measure accurately the direct magnetoelectric voltage coefficient of thin film devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poullain, Gilles, E-mail: gilles.poullain@ensicaen.fr; More-Chevalier, Joris; Cibert, Christophe; Bouregba, Rachid

    2017-01-15

    Tb{sub x}Dy{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}/Pt/Pb(Zr{sub x}, Ti{sub 1−x})O{sub 3} thin films were grown on Pt/TiO{sub 2}/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate by multi-target sputtering. The magnetoelectric voltage coefficient α{sup Η}{sub ΜΕ} was determined at room temperature using a lock-in amplifier. By adding, in series in the circuit, a capacitor of the same value as that of the device under test, we were able to demonstrate that the magnetoelectric device behaves as a voltage source. Furthermore, a simple way to subtract the stray voltage arising from the flow of eddy currents in the measurement set-up, is proposed. This allows the easy and accurate determination of the true magnetoelectric voltage coefficient. A large α{sup Η}{sub ΜΕ} of 8.3 V/cm. Oe was thus obtained for a Terfenol-D/Pt/PZT thin film device, without DC magnetic field nor mechanical resonance. - Highlights: • Magnetoelectric device behaves as a voltage source. • A simple way to subtract eddy currents during the measurement, is proposed.

  9. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii among Stray and Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Bohn T. Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. It is widespread in the environment and infects a variety of warm-blooded animals, causing miscarriages and birth problems. Previous studies in the Philippines have determined the seropositivity of T. gondii in humans. However, the seroprevalence of the parasite among household pets, par ticularly its feline def initive host, remains insufficient . This study aimed to: (1 determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies among domestic and stray cats in the Philippines; and, (2 to analyze the risk factors associated with seropositivity. Blood samples from 59 domestic and stray cats were collected and tested for T. gondii seropositivity using a commercially available indirect ELISA kit, while pet owners and handlers were given questionnaires about their cats. Thirteen or 22.03% of the cats were seropositive to T. gondii, and risk factor analysis revealed a significant difference between domestic and stray cats with regard to diet (p = 0.026, OR = 8.333, c = 0.299 and domestication (p = 0.039, OR = 5.000, c = 0.276. Cats fed with table food tested 31.43% seropositive compared to the 4.35% of those fed with cat food, whereas 33.33% of the stray cats were seropositive compared to 7.69% for domestic cats. Odds ratio test showed that the risk factors studied were associated with higher likelihood of T. gondii seropositivity. These results implicate diet and environment in the transmission dynamics of T. gondii among cats.

  10. Stray Cats Gastrointestinal Parasites and its Association With Public Health in Ahvaz City, South Western of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Abdizadeh, Rahman; Rahim, Fakher; Hashemitabar, Mahamoud; Ghasemi, Mohammad; Tavalla, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cats are the hosts for some zoonotic parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. which are important in medicine and veterinary. Studies on the prevalence of intestinal parasites of cats have received little attention in south west of Iran. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of parasites in stray cats in Ahvaz. Materials and Methods: Random sampling was carried out from January to May 2012. One hundred and forty fecal samples from stray cats were examined using sucrose flotation method. Results: Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 121 of the 140 (86.4%) examined samples. The parasites detected in stray cats were Toxocara spp. (45%, 63/140), Isospora spp. (21.4%, 30/140), nematode larvae (21.4%, 30/140), Taenia spp. (18.6%, 26/140), Sarcocystis spp. (17.1%, 24/140), Eimeria spp. (15%, 21/140), Blastocystis spp. (14.3%, 20/140), Giardia spp, (10.7%, 15/140), Physaloptera spp. (7.1%, 10/140), and amoeba cyst (5.7%, 8/140) respectively. The prevalence of infection by Joyexiella spp. and hook worms (4.3%, 6/140), for example, Dipylidium caninum (2.9%, 4/140) was similar; and the prevalence of infection by T. gondii and Dicrocoelium dendriticum was similar (1.4%, 2/140). Conclusions: Since the prevalence of zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites such as Toxocara spp. in stray cats is high, there is a need to plan adequate programs to control these zoonotic parasites. PMID:25485047

  11. Stray current induced corrosion in lightning rod cables of 525 kV power lines towers: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicki, F. R.; Negrisoli, M. E. M.; Franco, C. V.

    2003-01-01

    With the growth of several areas in modem society, the necessity to generate and carry electrical energy to big cities has greatly increased. Cables supported by power towers with galvanized steel foundation usually carry energy. As the foundations are underground they may cause high rates of corrosion. These are usually detected by a conventional potential measurement using a Cu/CuSO4 reference electrode. It is believed that corrosion results from stray currents that f...

  12. Prevalence of Protozoa and Gastrointestinal Helminthes in Stray Cats in Zanjan Province, North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Altome

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats and other felines act as definitive hosts for many intestinal parasites, some of which are responsible for several zoonotic diseases.  The aim of this study was to determine the type and prevalence of protozoa and gastrointestinal helminthes among stray cats. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. Digestive tracts of 100 stray cats in Zanjan Province, north-west of Iran were autopsied in order to recognize gastrointestinal helminthes and intestinal protozoan parasites. These cats were collected by baited cage trapped from October 2007 to September 2008. Gender and species of helminthes and protozoa were rec­ognized using authentic diagnostic criteria. Statistical evaluation was performed by SPSS version 14. Results: Forty-two percent of cats were infected with intestinal protozoan parasites, 33% were infected with cestodes and 39% infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Four species protozoan parasites and eight gastrointestinal helminthes were recovered from the animals, including Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium spp., Joyeuxiella pasqaulei, Toxocara cati, Phy­saloptera praeputialis, Rectalaria spp., Onicolla, Cystoisospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp . Conclusions: The high infection rate of Toxoplasma and some gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.

  13. Toxocara nematodes in stray cats from shiraz, southern iran: intensity of infection and molecular identification of the isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattaneh Mikaeili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara is a common nematode of cats in different parts of Iran. Despite the close association of cats with human, no attempt has been done so far for molecular identification of this nematode in the country. Therefore, current study was performed on identification of some isolates of Toxocara from stray cats in Shiraz, Fars Province, Southern Iran, based on morphological and molecular approaches, and also determination of intensity of infection.This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 stray cats trapped from different geographical areas of Shiraz in 2011. Adult male and female worms were recovered from digestive tract after dissection of cats. Morphological features using existing keys and PCR-sequencing of ITS-rDNA region and pcox1 mitochondrial l gene were applied for the delineating the species of the parasites.Eight out of 30 cats (26.7% were found infected with Toxocara nematodes. All the isolates were confirmed as Toxocara cati based on morphological features and the sequence of ribosomal and mitochondrial targets. Intensity of infection ranged from one to a maximum of 39 worms per cat, with a mean of 10.25±12.36, and higher abundance of female nematodes.The most prevalent ascaridoid nematode of stray cats in the study area was T. cati and female nematodes were more abundant than that of males. This issue has important role in spreading of eggs in the environment and impact on human toxocariasis.

  14. A Preliminary Study on the Helminth Fauna in Necropsied Stray Cats (Felis catus in Beni-Suef, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stray cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of endoparasites, particularly helminths, due to predating a wide range of both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, often of veterinary and zoonotic importance. Therefore, a total of 62 stray cats were necropsied in Beni-Suef province, Egypt and examined for helminth parasites. The overall prevalence of infection was 87.0%. The recovered helminths consisted of 10 species of trematodes (Heterophyes heterophyes, Pygidiopsis summa, H. nocens, Echinochasmus liliputanus, Alaria sp., Procerovum varium, Ascocotyle sp., Haplorchis sp., Prohemistomum vivax, Euparadistomum herpestesi, five cestodes (Dipylidium caninum, Diplopylidium acanthoterta, D. nolleri, Joyeuxiella sp. and Taenia taeniaeformis, and two nematodes (Toxascaris leonina and larvae of Anisakis simplex. The most prevalent helminths were Dipylidium caninum (62.9%, Toxascaris leonina (33.8%, Diplopylidium nolleri (22.5% and Echinochasmus liliputanus (6.45%. Thirty (48.39% cats were co-infected by one species, 22 (35.48% by two and three (4.84% by more than two species. It has been found that cats aged more than 3 years were the most infected. Both male and female cats were parasitized. The infection was the most prevalent in both summer and autumn. In conclusion, veterinarians must highlight more attention towards both stray and domestic cats, as they are considered reservoir hosts for a wide host range of parasites, particularly helminths, and the zoonotic importance of such parasites should be taken on consideration.

  15. Prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites in household and stray dogs in rural areas of Hamadan, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardarian, K; Maghsood, A H; Ghiasian, S A; Zahirnia, A H

    2015-06-01

    Zoonotic parasitic infections are a major global public and veterinary health problem and widespread among dogs. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray and household dogs in the rural areas of Hamadan district. During 2012, 1,500 fresh fecal samples from 243 household and 1,257 stray dogs were examined by using direct wet mount, simple zinc sulfate flotation, and Lugol's solution staining. Of 1,500 dogs, 20.4% were positive for intestinal parasites. Helminthes eggs were more frequently found in fecal samples than protozoan cysts or trophozoites (15.9% vs. 4.5%, respectively). Toxocara canis was the most frequently detected parasite, with a prevalence of 6.3%, followed by Taenia/Echinococcus spp. (2.9%), Isospora spp. (2.7%), and Toxascaris leonina (2.6%). Helminthes and protozoa were significantly more prevalent in household dogs than in stray dogs (Pparasites indicated that people residing in this area are at risk of exposure to these potentially hazardous zoonotic pathogens. Mass education of the general population is highly recommended to increase awareness of the potential for horizontal transmission of these parasitic infections from dogs to humans.

  16. Digital voltage discriminator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Zhicheng

    1992-01-01

    A digital voltage discriminator is described, which is synthesized by digital comparator and ADC. The threshold is program controllable with high stability. Digital region of confusion is approximately equal to 1.5 LSB. This discriminator has a single channel analyzer function model with channel width of 1.5 LSB

  17. High-voltage picoamperemeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bugl, Andrea; Ball, Markus; Boehmer, Michael; Doerheim, Sverre; Hoenle, Andreas; Konorov, Igor [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Ketzer, Bernhard [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Bonn (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Current measurements in the nano- and picoampere region on high voltage are an important tool to understand charge transfer processes in micropattern gas detectors like the Gas Electron Multiplier (GEM). They are currently used to e.g. optimize the field configuration in a multi-GEM stack to be used in the ALICE TPC after the upgrade of the experiment during the 2nd long shutdown of the LHC. Devices which allow measurements down to 1pA at high voltage up to 6 kV have been developed at TU Muenchen. They are based on analog current measurements via the voltage drop over a switchable shunt. A microcontroller collects 128 digital ADC values and calculates their mean and standard deviation. This information is sent with a wireless transmitting unit to a computer and stored in a root file. A nearly unlimited number of devices can be operated simultaneously and read out by a single receiver. The results can also be displayed on a LCD directly at the device. Battery operation and the wireless readout are important to protect the user from any contact to high voltage. The principle of the device is explained, and systematic studies of their properties are shown.

  18. Geomagnetism and Induced Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Razzaq, W.; Biller, R. D.

    2010-01-01

    Introductory physics laboratories have seen an influx of "conceptual integrated science" over time in their classrooms with elements of other sciences such as chemistry, biology, Earth science, and astronomy. We describe a laboratory to introduce this development, as it attracts attention to the voltage induced in the human brain as it…

  19. Mitigation of Unbalanced Voltage Sags and Voltage Unbalance in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Any problem with voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) etc. can be used to mitigate the voltage problems in the distribution system...... to unbalanced faults. The compensation of unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE distribution network is done by using the four STATCOM compensators already existing in the test grid. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0........ The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate unbalanced voltage sags and voltage unbalance in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and net-works like this. The voltage unbalances, for the tested cases in the CIGRE LV test network are mainly due to single phase loads and due...

  20. Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H; Warner, Nathaniel R; Down, Adrian; Poreda, Robert J; Osborn, Stephen G; Zhao, Kaiguang; Karr, Jonathan D

    2013-07-09

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are transforming energy production, but their potential environmental effects remain controversial. We analyzed 141 drinking water wells across the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province of northeastern Pennsylvania, examining natural gas concentrations and isotopic signatures with proximity to shale gas wells. Methane was detected in 82% of drinking water samples, with average concentrations six times higher for homes gas wells (P = 0.0006). Ethane was 23 times higher in homes gas wells (P = 0.0013); propane was detected in 10 water wells, all within approximately 1 km distance (P = 0.01). Of three factors previously proposed to influence gas concentrations in shallow groundwater (distances to gas wells, valley bottoms, and the Appalachian Structural Front, a proxy for tectonic deformation), distance to gas wells was highly significant for methane concentrations (P = 0.007; multiple regression), whereas distances to valley bottoms and the Appalachian Structural Front were not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.11, respectively). Distance to gas wells was also the most significant factor for Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses (P gas wells was the only statistically significant factor (P gas (4)He to CH4 in groundwater were characteristic of a thermally postmature Marcellus-like source in some cases. Overall, our data suggest that some homeowners living gas wells have drinking water contaminated with stray gases.

  1. Fauna of Zoontic Parasites of Stray Dogs in Yasouj Suburbs in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Moshfe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Dogs are among the closest animals to human residents and can by useful for human. A few of zoontic diseases are prevalent in Iran. Dogs are the reservoirs of many of these zoonosis and a major role in transmission of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the zoonotic parasitic fauna of stray dogs in Yasuj Materials & Methods: In this descriptive study which was conducted at Yasuj suburbs in 2008, 25 dogs’ corpses were necropsied and their tissues were studied for parasitic infections. Collected parasites were placed in special containers and stained for genus and species diagnosis based on their morphological features. The collected data were analyzed with the SPSS software, using descriptive analysis. Results: Of the 25 studied corpses, 23 dogs were infected with at least one parasite. Helminthic infections of dogs were consisted of: Taenia hydatigena, Mesocestoides sp., Echinococcus granulosus, Dipylidium caninum, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus and Spirocerca lupi. Conclusion: Four of six detected helminthes in in dogs in this study are zoonotic parasites which are important in human diseases. Among them larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus which causes hydatid cyst disease in human is very important. Control programs should be implemented in this region to prevent these zoonotic diseases.

  2. Detecting stray microwaves and nonequilibrium quasiparticles in thin films by single-electron tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saira, Olli-Pentti; Maisi, Ville; Kemppinen, Antti; Möttönen, Mikko; Pekola, Jukka

    2013-03-01

    Superconducting thin films and tunnel junctions are the building blocks of many state-of-the-art technologies related to quantum information processing, microwave detection, and electronic amplification. These devices operate at millikelvin temperatures, and - in a naive picture - their fidelity metrics are expected to improve as the temperature is lowered. However, very often one finds in the experiment that the device performance levels off around 100-150 mK. In my presentation, I will address three common physical mechanisms that can cause such saturation: stray microwaves, nonequilibrium quasiparticles, and sub-gap quasiparticle states. The new experimental data I will present is based on a series of studies on quasiparticle transport in Coulomb-blockaded normal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction devices. We have used a capacitively coupled SET electrometer to detect individual quasiparticle tunneling events in real time. We demonstrate the following record-low values for thin film aluminum: quasiparticle density nqp < 0 . 033 / μm3 , normalized density of sub-gap quasiparticle states (Dynes parameter) γ < 1 . 6 ×10-7 . I will also discuss some sample stage and chip designs that improve microwave shielding.

  3. Prevalence of selected infectious disease agents in stray cats in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ravicini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objective of the current study was to investigate the prevalence rates of the following infectious agents in 116 stray cats in the Barcelona area of Spain: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia felis, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia species, feline calicivirus (FCV, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species. Methods Serum antibodies were used to estimate the prevalence of exposure to A phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, B burgdorferi, Ehrlichia species and FIV; serum antigens were used to assess for infection by D immitis and FeLV; and molecular assays were used to amplify nucleic acids of Anaplasma species, Bartonella species, C felis, D immitis, Ehrlichia species, FCV, FHV-1, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species from blood and nasal or oral swabs. Results Of the 116 cats, 63 (54.3% had evidence of infection by Bartonella species, FeLV, FIV or a haemoplasma. Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species or Rickettsia species DNA was not amplified from these cats. A total of 18/116 cats (15.5% were positive for FCV RNA (six cats, Mycoplasma species DNA (six cats, FHV-1 DNA (three cats or C felis DNA (three cats. Conclusions and relevance This study documents that shelter cats in Catalonia are exposed to many infectious agents with clinical and zoonotic significance, and that flea control is indicated for cats in the region.

  4. Mitigation of Voltage Sags in CIGRE Low Voltage Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mustafa, Ghullam; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Any problem in voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) etc. are commonly used for the mitigation of voltage p....... The compensation of voltage sags in the different parts of CIGRE distribution network is done by using the four STATCOM compensators already existing in the test grid. The simulations are carried out in DIgSILENT power factory software version 15.0.......Any problem in voltage in a power network is undesirable as it aggravates the quality of the power. Power electronic devices such as Voltage Source Converter (VSC) based Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM), Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) etc. are commonly used for the mitigation of voltage...... problems in the distribution system. The voltage problems dealt with in this paper are to show how to mitigate voltage sags in the CIGRE Low Voltage (LV) test network and networks like this. The voltage sags, for the tested cases in the CIGRE LV test network are mainly due to three phase faults...

  5. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.; Abdelghany, Mohamed A.; Elsayed, Mohannad Yomn; Elshurafa, Amro M; Salama, Khaled N.

    2014-01-01

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  6. High Voltage Charge Pump

    KAUST Repository

    Emira, Ahmed A.

    2014-10-09

    Various embodiments of a high voltage charge pump are described. One embodiment is a charge pump circuit that comprises a plurality of switching stages each including a clock input, a clock input inverse, a clock output, and a clock output inverse. The circuit further comprises a plurality of pumping capacitors, wherein one or more pumping capacitors are coupled to a corresponding switching stage. The circuit also comprises a maximum selection circuit coupled to a last switching stage among the plurality of switching stages, the maximum selection circuit configured to filter noise on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage, the maximum selection circuit further configured to generate a DC output voltage based on the output clock and the output clock inverse of the last switching stage.

  7. High Voltage Seismic Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogacz, Adrian; Pala, Damian; Knafel, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    This contribution describes the preliminary result of annual cooperation of three student research groups from AGH UST in Krakow, Poland. The aim of this cooperation was to develop and construct a high voltage seismic wave generator. Constructed device uses a high-energy electrical discharge to generate seismic wave in ground. This type of device can be applied in several different methods of seismic measurement, but because of its limited power it is mainly dedicated for engineering geophysics. The source operates on a basic physical principles. The energy is stored in capacitor bank, which is charged by two stage low to high voltage converter. Stored energy is then released in very short time through high voltage thyristor in spark gap. The whole appliance is powered from li-ion battery and controlled by ATmega microcontroller. It is possible to construct larger and more powerful device. In this contribution the structure of device with technical specifications is resented. As a part of the investigation the prototype was built and series of experiments conducted. System parameter was measured, on this basis specification of elements for the final device were chosen. First stage of the project was successful. It was possible to efficiently generate seismic waves with constructed device. Then the field test was conducted. Spark gap wasplaced in shallowborehole(0.5 m) filled with salt water. Geophones were placed on the ground in straight line. The comparison of signal registered with hammer source and sparker source was made. The results of the test measurements are presented and discussed. Analysis of the collected data shows that characteristic of generated seismic signal is very promising, thus confirms possibility of practical application of the new high voltage generator. The biggest advantage of presented device after signal characteristics is its size which is 0.5 x 0.25 x 0.2 m and weight approximately 7 kg. This features with small li-ion battery makes

  8. Increased voltage photovoltaic cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, B.; Bickler, D. B.; Gallagher, B. D. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A photovoltaic cell, such as a solar cell, is provided which has a higher output voltage than prior cells. The improved cell includes a substrate of doped silicon, a first layer of silicon disposed on the substrate and having opposite doping, and a second layer of silicon carbide disposed on the first layer. The silicon carbide preferably has the same type of doping as the first layer.

  9. Detection of small number of Giardia in biological materials prepared from stray dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailikia, Leila; Ebrahimzade, Elahe; Shayan, Parviz; Amininia, Narges

    2017-12-20

    Giardia lamblia is an intestinal protozoa with intermittent and low shedding especially in dogs, and the detection of Giardia is accompanied with problems such as sampling and diagnostic method. The objective of this study was to detection of Giardia in biological materials with low number of parasite using parasitological and molecular methods, and also to determine whether the examined stray dogs harbor known zoonotic genotype of Giardia. For this aim 85 fecal and duodenal samples were studied from which 1 was positive by Trichrome staining of stool, 4 were positive by staining of duodenal samples. The nested PCR analysis with primers derived from 18 SrRNA showed that the specific PCR product could be amplified in 4 stool and 4 duodenal samples. All positive samples in staining analysis were also positive in nested PCR. No amplification could be observed by nested PCR with primers derived from β giardin gene due to the single copy of gene. Interestingly, the extracted DNA from old fixed stained Giardia positive smears could be also amplified with primers derived from 18SrRNA gene. The sequence analysis of nested PCR products showed that they belong to the genotype D. In conclusion, it is to denote that the Trichrome or Giemsa methods were not suitable for the detection of small number of this parasite in stool and the nested PCR with primers derived from 18S rRNA gene can replace the traditional methods successfully. For detection of Giardia in stool, primers derived from β giardin will not be recommended.

  10. Geographic distribution of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis infection in stray dogs of eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Ciucă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in the eastern part of Romania to assess the prevalence and geographical distribution of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs. Plasma samples were collected from 458 stray dogs hosted in shelters in 8 counties and tested serologically for the presence of heartworm. In addition, 45 blood samples from dogs of a shelter in Galati city were examined by the modified Knott and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. The immmunological assay showed a heartworm infection prevalence of 8.9% in the dogs. Optical density results for positive samples ranged between 0.217 and 2.683. Geographical information systems (GIS were used to produce overlays of distribution maps of D. immitis prevalence and predictive maps based on temperature suitability. High prevalence of D. immitis was found in the central East up to the northern border of the country, i.e. Galati county (60%, followed by the counties of Vaslui (12.0% and Iasi (7.7%. Out of 45 samples examined using the Knott test, 23 were positive for circulating microfilariae (51.1%, while 19 dogs were positive for D. immitis and 4 for both D. immitis and D. repens with the multiplex PCR test. The high prevalence for D. immitis shown in dogs in the Southeast (Galati, 42.2% also by multiplex PCR gave strong support to the results achieved by the serological tests. The present study confirms the ability of GIS to predict the distribution and epidemiology of dirofilariosis in different geographical territories as has been already demonstrated by the empirical epidemiological data obtained at the continental, national and intraregional levels.

  11. Suppressing voltage transients in high voltage power supplies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lickel, K.F.; Stonebank, R.

    1979-01-01

    A high voltage power supply for an X-ray tubes includes voltage adjusting means, a high voltage transformer, switch means connected to make and interrupt the primary current of the transformer, and over-voltage suppression means to suppress the voltage transient produced when the current is switched on. In order to reduce the power losses in the suppression means, an impedance is connected in the transformer primary circuit on operation of the switch means and is subsequently short-circuited by a switch controlled by a timer after a period which is automatically adjusted to the duration of the transient overvoltage. (U.K.)

  12. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of pet and stray dogs as a potential risk for human health in Bahir Dar town, north-western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadiwos Abere

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2011 to April 2012 to determine the prevalence and species of gastrointestinal (GI helminth parasites in pet and stray dogs as a potential risk for human health in Bahir Dar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A total of 384 and 46 faecal samples were collected from pet and stray dogs, respectively and xamined by using standard coprologic techniques. Results: The overall prevalence of GI helminth infection in pet and stray dogs was 75.26 and 84.78%, respectively. The detected parasites with their frequencies in pet dogs were Ancylostoma caninum (78.89%, Toxocara canis (39.79%, Dipylidium caninum (29.75%, Strongyloides stercoralis (29.06%, Taeniidae (23.87% and Trichuris vulpis (7.95%. Stray dogs were found more likely to be polyparasitized and presented higher prevalence of A. caninum, T. canis, S. stercoralis, Trichuris vulpis and Taeniidae (P < 0.05 than domiciled ones. Diphyllobothrium latum was detected only in 10.25% of stray dogs. Toxocara canis and A. caninum (P < 0.05 were detected more frequently in dogs with less than 6 months of age (P <0.05 than old age dogs. The sex or breed groups didn't significantly affect the prevalence of parasites. A significant variation was recorded (P < 0.05 between different feeding systems where higher prevalence was observed in uncontrolled feeding group (82.18% compared to controlled feeding (32.08%. Conclusion: Different gastrointestinal parasites in pet and stray dogs were identified in the study area that can potentially infect humans and cause serious public-health problems. Thus, concerted efforts should therefore be made to educate dog owners to embrace modern dog disease control programs and measures have to be taken on stray dogs. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 388-392

  13. Benchmarking of Voltage Sag Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede; Zou, Zhixiang

    2012-01-01

    The increased penetration of renewable energy systems, like photovoltaic and wind power systems, rises the concern about the power quality and stability of the utility grid. Some regulations for Low Voltage Ride-Through (LVRT) for medium voltage or high voltage applications, are coming into force...

  14. Charge-pump voltage converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, John P [Albuquerque, NM; Christenson, Todd R [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-03

    A charge-pump voltage converter for converting a low voltage provided by a low-voltage source to a higher voltage. Charge is inductively generated on a transfer rotor electrode during its transit past an inductor stator electrode and subsequently transferred by the rotating rotor to a collector stator electrode for storage or use. Repetition of the charge transfer process leads to a build-up of voltage on a charge-receiving device. Connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in series can generate higher voltages, and connection of multiple charge-pump voltage converters in parallel can generate higher currents. Microelectromechanical (MEMS) embodiments of this invention provide a small and compact high-voltage (several hundred V) voltage source starting with a few-V initial voltage source. The microscale size of many embodiments of this invention make it ideally suited for MEMS- and other micro-applications where integration of the voltage or charge source in a small package is highly desirable.

  15. Transient voltage sharing in series-coupled high voltage switches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available For switching voltages in excess of the maximum blocking voltage of a switching element (for example, thyristor, MOSFET or bipolar transistor such elements are often coupled in series - and additional circuitry has to be provided to ensure equal voltage sharing. Between each such series element and system ground there is a certain parasitic capacitance that may draw a significant current during high-speed voltage transients. The "open" switch is modelled as a ladder network. Analy­sis reveals an exponential progression in the distribution of the applied voltage across the elements. Overstressing thus oc­curs in some of the elements at levels of the total voltage that are significantly below the design value. This difficulty is overcome by grading the voltage sharing circuitry, coupled in parallel with each element, in a prescribed manner, as set out here.

  16. Coordinated Voltage Control of Distributed PV Inverters for Voltage Regulation in Low Voltage Distribution Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nainar, Karthikeyan; Pokhrel, Basanta Raj; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    2017-01-01

    This paper reviews and analyzes the existing voltage control methods of distributed solar PV inverters to improve the voltage regulation and thereby the hosting capacity of a low-voltage distribution network. A novel coordinated voltage control method is proposed based on voltage sensitivity...... optimization. The proposed method is used to calculate the voltage bands and droop settings of PV inverters at each node by the supervisory controller. The local controller of each PV inverter implements the volt/var control and if necessary, the active power curtailment as per the received settings and based...... on measured local voltages. The advantage of the proposed method is that the calculated reactive power and active power droop settings enable fair contribution of the PV inverters at each node to the voltage regulation. Simulation studies are conducted using DigSilent Power factory software on a simplified...

  17. Improvement of diagnostic techniques and electrical circuit in azo dye degradation by high voltage electrical discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Yongjun; Lei Lecheng; Zhang Xingwang; Zhou Minghua; Zhang Yi

    2008-01-01

    Fast electrical diagnostics and improvement of electrical circuits for methyl orange (MO) degradation by high voltage pulsed electrical discharge were investigated. To eliminate electromagnetic radiation, several effective methods were employed. RG 218 coaxial cable was substituted for the common transmission lines to transmit high voltage pulses, and multi-lines in parallel were earthed to avoid electromagnetic interference and, additionally, to reduce the stray inductance of the electrical circuit and increase the pulse rise rate to reduce the energy losses in the transmission system. The problem of the differences in the bandwidths of voltage and current probes causing an error in the calculation of energy dissipation was avoided by reducing the bandwidths of voltage and current measurements to the same value. The real discharge current was obtained by subtracting the capacitive current from the total current. The energy per pulse obtained in the reactor before and after improvement of the diagnostics and electrical circuit were 15.5 mJ and 26.8 mJ, respectively, and the energy efficiencies of MO degradation were 1.34 x 10 -9 mol/J and 1.95 x 10 -9 mol/J, respectively

  18. Analysis on voltage oscillation of a mid-frequency series resonant inverter for DRMP coils on J-TEXT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Long-jian, E-mail: liulongjian001@yeah.net [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Yu, Ke-xun; Zhang, Ming; Nan, Jie-yin; Jiang, Guo-zhong; Rao, Bo; Li, Xuan [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Electromagnetic Engineering and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Highlights: • The reason of high-voltage oscillation of a series resonant inverter for DRMP coils is analyzed. • The condition or method for reduction of high-voltage oscillation is discussed. • The considerations of dead time and switch frequency for reduction of high-voltage oscillation are discussed. - Abstract: This paper deals with the voltage oscillation of an AC power supply for generating dynamic magnetic perturbation (DRMP) on J-TEXT. The power supply is a series resonant inverter with a matching transformer. It was noted that the high-voltage oscillation at transformer primary side is caused by an interaction between the line inductance and the stray capacitance of the matching transformer at switching transitions. In order to reduce the high-voltage oscillation and consider the requirement for soft-switching technique simultaneously, the switching frequency should be chosen properly by fine-tuning. The dead time should be chosen according to the relative size of minimum required dead time for protection and the optimal dead time.

  19. 130 kV 130 A high voltage switching mode power supply for neutral beam injectors-Control issues and algorithms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganuza, D.; Garcia, F.; Zulaika, M.; Perez, A.; Jones, T.T.C.

    2005-01-01

    The company JEMA has delivered to the Joint European Torus (JET facility in Culham) two high voltage switching mode power supplies (HVSMPS) each rated 130 kVdc and 130 A. One HVSMPS feeds the grids of two PINI loads. This paper describes the main control issues and the algorithms developed for the project. The most demanding requirements from the control point of view is an absolute accuracy of ±1300 V and the possibility of performing up to 255 re-applications of the high voltage during a 20 s pulse. Keeping the output voltage ripple to the specified tolerance has been a major achievement of the control system. Since the output stage is formed of several modules (120) connected in series, their stray capacitance to ground significantly influences the individual contribution of each single module to the global output voltage. Two complementary techniques have been used to balance the effects of the stray capacities. The fast re-applications requirement has a significant impact on the intermediate dc link. This section is composed of a capacity of 0.83 F, which feeds the 120 invertor modules. The dc link is fed by a 12 pulse SCR rectifier, whose matching transformers are connected to the 36 kV grid. Every re-application and every voltage shutdown supposes a quasi-instantaneous power step of 17 MW. Fast open loop algorithms have been implemented in order to keep the dc link voltage within acceptable margins. Moreover, the HVSMPS output characteristics have to be maintained during the rapid and important voltage fluctuations of the 36 kV mains (28-37 kV). The general control system is based on a Simatic S7 PLC, and a SCADA user interface. Up to 1000 signals are acquired. The control system has shown to be also a useful tool to allow for a rapid and accurate identification of faults and their origin

  20. Sensing voltage across lipid membranes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Kenton J.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of electrical potentials across lipid bilayers by specialized membrane proteins is required for many fundamental cellular processes such as the generation and propagation of nerve impulses. These membrane proteins possess modular voltage-sensing domains, a notable example being the S1-S4 domains of voltage-activated ion channels. Ground-breaking structural studies on these domains explain how voltage sensors are designed and reveal important interactions with the surrounding lipid membrane. Although further structures are needed to fully understand the conformational changes that occur during voltage sensing, the available data help to frame several key concepts that are fundamental to the mechanism of voltage sensing. PMID:19092925

  1. An evaluation of safety guidelines to restrict exposure to stray radiofrequency radiation from short-wave diathermy units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, Nora [School of Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); O' Hare, Neil [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St James' s Hospital, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Gormley, John [School of Physiotherapy, Trinity College Dublin, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St James' s Hospital, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2004-07-07

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD), a form of radiofrequency radiation used therapeutically by physiotherapists, may be applied in continuous (CSWD) or pulsed (PSWD) mode using either capacitive or inductive methods. Stray radiation emitted by these units may exceed exposure guidelines close to the equipment. Discrepant guidelines exist on a safe distance from an operating unit for operators and other personnel. Stray electric (E-field) and magnetic (H-field) field strengths from 10 SWD units in six departments were examined using a PMM 8053 meter and two isotropic probes (EP-330, HP-032). A 5 l saline phantom completed the patient circuit. Measurements were recorded in eight directions between 0.5 m and 2 m at hip and eye levels while the units operated at maximum output and data compared to current guidelines. Results found stray fields from capacitive CSWD fell below operator limits at 2 m (E-field 4.8-39.8 V/m; H-field 0.015-0.072 A/m) and at 1 m for inductive CSWD (E-field 0-36 V/m; H-field 0.01-0.065 A/m). Capacitive PSWD fields fell below the limits at 1.5 m (E-field 1.2-19.9 V/m; H-field 0.002-0.045 A/m) and at 1m for inductive PSWD (E-field 0.7-4.0 V/m; H-field 0.009-0.03 A/m). An extra 0.5 m was required before fields fell below the guidelines for other personnel. These results demonstrate, under a worst case scenario, emissions from SWD exceed the guidelines for operators at distances currently recommended as safe. Future guidelines should include recommendations for personnel other than physiotherapists.

  2. An evaluation of safety guidelines to restrict exposure to stray radiofrequency radiation from short-wave diathermy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, Nora; O'Hare, Neil; Gormley, John

    2004-01-01

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD), a form of radiofrequency radiation used therapeutically by physiotherapists, may be applied in continuous (CSWD) or pulsed (PSWD) mode using either capacitive or inductive methods. Stray radiation emitted by these units may exceed exposure guidelines close to the equipment. Discrepant guidelines exist on a safe distance from an operating unit for operators and other personnel. Stray electric (E-field) and magnetic (H-field) field strengths from 10 SWD units in six departments were examined using a PMM 8053 meter and two isotropic probes (EP-330, HP-032). A 5 l saline phantom completed the patient circuit. Measurements were recorded in eight directions between 0.5 m and 2 m at hip and eye levels while the units operated at maximum output and data compared to current guidelines. Results found stray fields from capacitive CSWD fell below operator limits at 2 m (E-field 4.8-39.8 V/m; H-field 0.015-0.072 A/m) and at 1 m for inductive CSWD (E-field 0-36 V/m; H-field 0.01-0.065 A/m). Capacitive PSWD fields fell below the limits at 1.5 m (E-field 1.2-19.9 V/m; H-field 0.002-0.045 A/m) and at 1m for inductive PSWD (E-field 0.7-4.0 V/m; H-field 0.009-0.03 A/m). An extra 0.5 m was required before fields fell below the guidelines for other personnel. These results demonstrate, under a worst case scenario, emissions from SWD exceed the guidelines for operators at distances currently recommended as safe. Future guidelines should include recommendations for personnel other than physiotherapists

  3. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Robert; Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas; Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko; Kreutzbruck, Marc

    2017-03-01

    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth.

  4. Stray field signatures of Néel textured skyrmions in Ir/Fe/Co/Pt multilayer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagil, A.; Almoalem, A.; Soumyanarayanan, Anjan; Tan, Anthony K. C.; Raju, M.; Panagopoulos, C.; Auslaender, O. M.

    2018-05-01

    Skyrmions are nanoscale spin configurations with topological properties that hold great promise for spintronic devices. Here, we establish their Néel texture, helicity, and size in Ir/Fe/Co/Pt multilayer films by constructing a multipole expansion to model their stray field signatures and applying it to magnetic force microscopy images. Furthermore, the demonstrated sensitivity to inhomogeneity in skyrmion properties, coupled with a unique capability to estimate the pinning force governing dynamics, portend broad applicability in the burgeoning field of topological spin textures.

  5. Heat-pump performance: voltage dip/sag, under-voltage and over-voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J.B. Heffernan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Reverse cycle air-source heat-pumps are an increasingly significant load in New Zealand and in many other countries. This has raised concern over the impact wide-spread use of heat-pumps may have on the grid. The characteristics of the loads connected to the power system are changing because of heat-pumps. Their performance during under-voltage events such as voltage dips has the potential to compound the event and possibly cause voltage collapse. In this study, results from testing six heat-pumps are presented to assess their performance at various voltages and hence their impact on voltage stability.

  6. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon sp. in domestic and stray cats from Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Regañón, David; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Ayllón, Tania; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Baneth, Gad; Calleja-Bueno, Lydia; García-Sancho, Mercedes; Agulla, Beatriz; Sainz, Ángel

    2017-03-13

    Different species of apicomplexan protozoans of the genera Hepatozoon and Cytauxzoon can infect domestic cats, but their epidemiology and clinical relevance are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. and to identify associated risk factors and clinical and laboratory abnormalities in a population of cats from Madrid, Spain. Six hundred and forty-four client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain, were included in this study. DNA samples were analyzed by two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to detect a partial sequence of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. In order to evaluate possible associations between infection by these protozoans and epidemiological or clinical parameters, data were collected related to: the season of sample collection, age, gender, spayed/neutered status, breed, living area, lifestyle, outdoor access, contact with other animals, prey on wild animals, history of tick or flea infestation, travel history, ectoparasiticide treatment, previous blood transfusion, previous tetracycline administration in the last 60 days, Feline Leukemia virus (FeLV) and Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV) status, positivity to other vector-borne diseases, the presence or absence of clinical signs and hematological or biochemical alterations. DNA of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon sp. was amplified from the blood of 10 (1.6%) and 8 (1.2%) cats, respectively. Previous treatment with tetracyclines in the last 60 days, previous administration of blood transfusion, a decrease in haematocrit and an increase in creatinine were associated with Hepatozoon spp. infection. Cytauxzoon sp. infection was more frequent in samples collected during the winter months and in cats living in rural areas. This infection was associated with a FIV-positive status. Some of the cats that were positive for Hepatozoon spp. or Cytauxzoon sp. had been exposed to other vector

  7. Frequency-Domain Maximum-Likelihood Estimation of High-Voltage Pulse Transformer Model Parameters

    CERN Document Server

    Aguglia, D; Martins, C.D.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an offline frequency-domain nonlinear and stochastic identification method for equivalent model parameter estimation of high-voltage pulse transformers. Such kinds of transformers are widely used in the pulsed-power domain, and the difficulty in deriving pulsed-power converter optimal control strategies is directly linked to the accuracy of the equivalent circuit parameters. These components require models which take into account electric fields energies represented by stray capacitance in the equivalent circuit. These capacitive elements must be accurately identified, since they greatly influence the general converter performances. A nonlinear frequency-based identification method, based on maximum-likelihood estimation, is presented, and a sensitivity analysis of the best experimental test to be considered is carried out. The procedure takes into account magnetic saturation and skin effects occurring in the windings during the frequency tests. The presented method is validated by experim...

  8. High voltage isolation transformer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clatterbuck, C. H.; Ruitberg, A. P. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    A high voltage isolation transformer is provided with primary and secondary coils separated by discrete electrostatic shields from the surfaces of insulating spools on which the coils are wound. The electrostatic shields are formed by coatings of a compound with a low electrical conductivity which completely encase the coils and adhere to the surfaces of the insulating spools adjacent to the coils. Coatings of the compound also line axial bores of the spools, thereby forming electrostatic shields separating the spools from legs of a ferromagnetic core extending through the bores. The transformer is able to isolate a high constant potential applied to one of its coils, without the occurrence of sparking or corona, by coupling the coatings, lining the axial bores to the ferromagnetic core and by coupling one terminal of each coil to the respective coating encasing the coil.

  9. Low Voltage Ride-Through Capability of a Single-Stage Single-Phase Photovoltaic System Connected to the Low-Voltage Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2013-01-01

    The progressively growing of single-phase photovoltaic (PV) systems makes the Distribution System Operators (DSO) to update or revise the existing grid codes in order to guarantee the availability, quality and reliability of the electrical system. It is expected that the future PV systems connected...... to the low-voltage grid will be more active with functionalities of low voltage ride-through (LVRT) and the grid support capability, which is not the case today. In this paper, the operation principle is demonstrated for a single-phase grid-connected PV system in low voltage ride through operation in order...... to map future challenges. The system is verified by simulations and experiments. Test results show that the proposed power control method is effective and the single-phase PV inverters connected to low-voltage networks are ready to provide grid support and ride-through voltage fault capability...

  10. Factors affecting the prevalence of mange-mite infestations in stray dogs of Yucatán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Ortega-Pacheco, A; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Bolio, G M E

    2003-07-10

    The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting the prevalence of mange-mite infestations in stray dogs of Yucatán, Mexico. The study was carried out in 200 stray dogs of Mérida capital city of Yucatán, Mexico. Four samples (head, thoracic-abdominal area, extremities and ear) were taken from each animal by skin scraping and examined microscopically in 10% KOH solution to detect the presence of mites. Mites were also collected from the external ear canal of dogs using cotton-tipped swabs. The prevalence of different mite species was calculated. A primary screening was performed using 2xK contingency tables of exposure variables. All variables with PDemodex canis (23.0%) was the most frequent mite, followed by Sarcoptes scabei var. canis (7.0%) and Otodectes cynotis (3.5%). The following factors were found: body condition (bad, OR: 5.35, CI 95%: 1.66-17.3; regular, OR: 3.72, CI 95%: 1.39-9.99) and the presence of macroscopic lesions of dermatosis (OR: 42.80, CI 95%: 13.65-134.24).

  11. Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus taeniasis in stray dogs in the region of Constantine (North-East Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohil, K; Benchikh El Fegoun, M C; Gharbi, M

    2017-10-01

    In North Africa, the domestic dog is regarded as the main reservoir for infection by Echinococcus granulosus of domestic livestock and man. In Algeria, there is very little data on the rate of infestation of dogs, while the prevalence of E. granulosus in the definitive host is a very reliable marker of the potential risk of transmission of cystic tapeworm to humans and livestock. To find out this information, a survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of infection with E. granulosus in stray dogs in the region of Constantine (North-East Algeria). We autopsied and examined 120 stray dogs, 22 (18.3%) of which were infected with E. granulosus, with an average intensity of infestation of 249 worms. The prevalence in the area of survey was evaluated: 15.5% (14/90) and 26.6% (8/30) dogs were parasitized by E. granulosus in urban and rural areas respectively. The influence of age on the rate of infection was very marked. In addition, the appreciation of the prevalence of parasitism by cestodes as a whole showed that 56 (46.6%) animals out of 120 were infected. Facing such a situation of endemic tapeworm parasitism, with a potential risk of transmission to humans, there is an urgent need to take measures to control and break the epidemiological cycles of the parasite.

  12. Stray current induced corrosion in lightning rod cables of 525 kV power lines towers: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, F. R.; Negrisoli, M. E. M.; Franco, C. V.

    2003-01-01

    With the growth of several areas in modern society, the necessity to generate and carry electrical energy to big cities has greatly increased. Cables supported by power towers with galvanized steel foundation usually carry energy. As the foundations are underground they may cause high rates of corrosion. These are usually detected by a conventional potential measurement using a Cu/CuSO 4 reference electrode. It is believed that corrosion results from stray currents that flow through the ground to close the loop between neighboring towers. Stray currents originate in the lightning rod cables of the power line towers, induced by the strong electromagnetic and electric fields of the energized power lines. The intensity and direction of those currents were measured, indicating substantial values of both their AC and DC components. The potential of the tower ground system, measured in the perpendicular direction of the main axis of the power line, was plotted as a function of the distance to the tower base. The results clearly indicated the tendency to corrosive attack in the anodic towers as reflected by the slope of the plot, whereas no signs of corrosion could be found in the reverse slope, confirming the visual inspection of the foundation. The profile of the potential plots could be changed providing the electric insulation of the lightning rod cable. (Author) 8 refs

  13. An assessment of the stray light in 25 years of Dobson total ozone data at Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulakis, J.; Varotsos, C.; Cracknell, A. P.; Tzanis, C.; Neofytos, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of the Dobson spectrophotometer No. 118 to stray light interference. In this regard, a series of total ozone content measurements were carried out in Athens, Greece for air-mass values (μ) extending up to μ = 5. The monochromatic-heterochromatic stray light derived by Basher's model was used in order to evaluate the specific instrumental parameters which determine if this instrument suffers from this problem or not. The results obtained indicate that the measurements made by the Dobson instrument of the Athens station for air mass values up to 2.5, underestimates the total ozone content by 3.5 DU in average, or about 1 % of the station's mean total ozone content (TOC). The comparison of the values of the same parameters measured 15 years ago with the present ones indicates the good maintenance of the Dobson spectrophotometer No. 118. This fact is of crucial importance because the variability of the daily total ozone observations collected by the Athens Dobson Station since 1989 has proved to be representative to the variability of the mean total ozone observed over the whole mid-latitude zone of the Northern Hemisphere. This stresses the point that the Athens total ozone station, being the unique Dobson station in south-eastern Europe, may be assumed as a ground truth station for the reliable conversion of the satellite radiance observations to total ozone measurements.

  14. Message Collision Avoidance Protocols for Detecting Stray Nodes in a Scuba Diving Group Using Ultrasonic Multi-Hop Message Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Kaido

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in underwater communication and some progress has been made in this area. However, underwater communication is still immature compared with terrestrial communication. A prime reason for this is that the underwater environment is intrinsically not suitable for propagation of electric waves. Instead, ultrasonic waves are mainly used for underwater communication. Since ultrasonic waves cannot provide sufficient communication speed or capacity, they cannot use existing network technologies, which assume use of radio waves. In particular, communication in shallow water is still an uncharted territory. Few communication technologies are employed in environments where people enjoy scuba diving. This paper addresses problems faced by recreational scuba divers. It proposes constructing an ad hoc mesh-shaped network between divers within a group and use ultrasonic waves as transmission media in order to enable the detection of a stray diver. It also proposes a communication protocol in which messages are relayed in multiple hops, and a message collision avoidance method, which is intended to reduce the rate of packet loss caused by message propagation delay. We have implemented the proposed methods in a network simulator, and compared them with an existing communication method that has no message collision avoidance function, in terms of the packet loss rate, the stray driver detection rate, and the rate of the ability to communicate in multiple hops.

  15. Pulse-voltage fast generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valeev, R.I.; Nikiforov, M.G.; Kharchenko, A.F.

    1988-01-01

    The design is described and the test results of a four-channel pulse-voltage generator with maximum output voltage 200 kV are presented. The measurement results of generator triggering time depending on the value and polarity of the triggering voltage pulse for different triggering circuits are presented. The tests have shown stable triggering of all four channels of the generator in the range up to 40 % from selfbreakdown voltage. The generator triggering delay in the given range is <25 ns, asynchronism in channel triggering is <±1 ns

  16. Voltage Dependence of Supercapacitor Capacitance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szewczyk Arkadiusz

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electronic Double-Layer Capacitors (EDLC, called Supercapacitors (SC, are electronic devices that are capable to store a relatively high amount of energy in a small volume comparing to other types of capacitors. They are composed of an activated carbon layer and electrolyte solution. The charge is stored on electrodes, forming the Helmholtz layer, and in electrolyte. The capacitance of supercapacitor is voltage- dependent. We propose an experimental method, based on monitoring of charging and discharging a supercapacitor, which enables to evaluate the charge in an SC structure as well as the Capacitance-Voltage (C-V dependence. The measurement setup, method and experimental results of charging/discharging commercially available supercapacitors in various voltage and current conditions are presented. The total charge stored in an SC structure is proportional to the square of voltage at SC electrodes while the charge on electrodes increases linearly with the voltage on SC electrodes. The Helmholtz capacitance increases linearly with the voltage bias while a sublinear increase of total capacitance was found. The voltage on SC increases after the discharge of electrodes due to diffusion of charges from the electrolyte to the electrodes. We have found that the recovery voltage value is linearly proportional to the initial bias voltage value.

  17. Temporary over voltages in the high voltage networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vukelja, Petar; Naumov, Radomir; Mrvic, Jovan; Minovski, Risto

    2001-01-01

    The paper treats the temporary over voltages that may arise in the high voltage networks as a result of: ground faults, loss of load, loss of one or two phases and switching operation. Based on the analysis, the measures for their limitation are proposed. (Original)

  18. Computer controlled high voltage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunov, B; Georgiev, G; Dimitrov, L [and others

    1996-12-31

    A multichannel computer controlled high-voltage power supply system is developed. The basic technical parameters of the system are: output voltage -100-3000 V, output current - 0-3 mA, maximum number of channels in one crate - 78. 3 refs.

  19. A Voltage Quality Detection Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wei, Mu

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage quality detection method based on a phase-locked loop (PLL) technique. The technique can detect the voltage magnitude and phase angle of each individual phase under both normal and fault power system conditions. The proposed method has the potential to evaluate various...

  20. Voltage Controlled Dynamic Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Mahat, Pukar

    2013-01-01

    Future power system is expected to be characterized by increased penetration of intermittent sources. Random and rapid fluctuations in demands together with intermittency in generation impose new challenges for power balancing in the existing system. Conventional techniques of balancing by large...... central or dispersed generations might not be sufficient for future scenario. One of the effective methods to cope with this scenario is to enable demand response. This paper proposes a dynamic voltage regulation based demand response technique to be applied in low voltage (LV) distribution feeders....... An adaptive dynamic model has been developed to determine composite voltage dependency of an aggregated load on feeder level. Following the demand dispatch or control signal, optimum voltage setting at the LV substation is determined based on the voltage dependency of the load. Furthermore, a new technique...

  1. Transient voltage oscillations in coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chowdhuri, P.

    1985-01-01

    Magnet coils may be excited into internal voltage oscillations by transient voltages. Such oscillations may electrically stress the magnet's dielectric components to many times its normal stress. This may precipitate a dielectric failure, and the attendant prolonged loss of service and costly repair work. Therefore, it is important to know the natural frequencies of oscillations of a magnet during the design stage, and to determine whether the expected switching transient voltages can excite the magnet into high-voltage internal oscillations. The series capacitance of a winding significantly affects its natural frequencies. However, the series capacitance is difficult to calculate, because it may comprise complex capacitance network, consisting of intra- and inter-coil turn-to-turn capacitances of the coil sections. A method of calculating the series capacitance of a winding is proposed. This method is rigorous but simple to execute. The time-varying transient voltages along the winding are also calculated

  2. Molecular and serological surveillance of canine enteric viruses in stray dogs from Vila do Maio, Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Pedro; Duarte, Ana; Gil, Solange; Cartaxeiro, Clara; Malta, Manuel; Vieira, Sara; Tavares, Luis

    2014-04-23

    Infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. Prior to this study, no information was available concerning the incidence and prevalence of these viruses in Cape Verde archipelago. To provide information regarding the health status of the canine population in Vila do Maio, Maio Island, Cape Verde, 53 rectal swabs were collected from 53 stray dogs during 2010 and 93 rectal swabs and 88 blood samples were collected from 125 stray dogs in 2011. All rectal swabs (2010 n = 53; 2011 n = 93) were analysed for the presence of canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus nucleic acids by quantitative PCR methods. Specific antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus were also assessed (2011 n = 88).From the 2010 sampling, 43.3% (23/53) were positive for canine parvovirus DNA, 11.3% (6/53) for canine distemper virus RNA and 1.9% (1/53) for canine coronavirus RNA. In 2011, the prevalence values for canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus were quite similar to those from the previous year, respectively 44.1% (41/93), and 1.1% (1/93), but canine distemper virus was not detected in any of the samples analysed (0%, 0/93). Antibodies against canine parvovirus were detected in 71.6% (63/88) blood samples and the seroprevalence found for canine distemper virus was 51.1% (45/88). This study discloses the data obtained in a molecular and serological epidemiological surveillance carried out in urban populations of stray and domestic animals. Virus transmission and spreading occurs easily in large dog populations leading to high mortality rates particularly in unvaccinated susceptible animals. In addition, these animals can act as disease reservoirs for wild animal populations by occasional contact. Identification of susceptible wildlife of Maio Island is of upmost importance to evaluate the risk of pathogen spill over from

  3. What Do They Have That We Don't Have? Local Libraries and Distance Students: Why Do Students Stray and Can We Get Them Back?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Michele; LaDell-Thomas, Julie

    2014-01-01

    A significant number of distance students report they "stray" from their home universities by using local libraries, despite the fact that distance education librarians work hard to provide customized resources and services tailored to their programs and needs. Are public libraries and special libraries able to meet the research needs of…

  4. Design and testing of a magnetic shield for the Thomson scattering photomultiplier tubes in the stray fields of the ERASMUS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desoppere, E.; Van Oost, G.

    1983-01-01

    A multiple coaxial shield system has been designed for the photomultiplier tubes of the ERASMUS tokamak Thomson scattering diagnostic. A stray field of 75 x 10 -4 T was reduced to 0.01 x 10 -4 T for a field parallel to the tube axis, and to 0.03 x 10 -4 T for a perpendicular field

  5. Enabling Junction Temperature Estimation via Collector-Side Thermo-Sensitive Electrical Parameters through Emitter Stray Inductance in High-Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Li, Wuhua; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes the adoption of the inherent emitter stray inductance LeE in high-power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules as a new dynamic thermo-sensitive electrical parameter (d-TSEP). Furthermore, a family of 14 derived dynamic TSEP candidates has been extracted and classified...

  6. Visualization of gas dissolution following upward gas migration in porous media: Technique and implications for stray gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Ven, C. J. C.; Mumford, Kevin G.

    2018-05-01

    The study of gas-water mass transfer in porous media is important in many applications, including unconventional resource extraction, carbon storage, deep geological waste storage, and remediation of contaminated groundwater, all of which rely on an understanding of the fate and transport of free and dissolved gas. The novel visual technique developed in this study provided both quantitative and qualitative observations of gas-water mass transfer. Findings included interaction between free gas architecture and dissolved plume migration, plume geometry and longevity. The technique was applied to the injection of CO2 in source patterns expected for stray gas originating from oil and gas operations to measure dissolved phase concentrations of CO2 at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The data set is the first of its kind to provide high resolution quantification of gas-water dissolution, and will facilitate an improved understanding of the fundamental processes of gas movement and fate in these complex systems.

  7. Sensitivity Analysis and Stray Capacitance of Helical Flux Compression Generator with Multi Layer Filamentary Conductor in Rectangular Cross-Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Mosleh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to calculate the equivalent stray capacitance (SC of n-turn of the helical flux compression generator (HFCG coil with multi layer conductor wire filaments (MLCWF in the form of rectangular cross-section. This approach is based on vespiary regular hexagonal (VRH model. In this method, wire filaments of the generator coil are separated into many very small similar elementary cells. By the expanded explosion in the liner and move explosion to the end of the liner, the coil turns number will be reduced. So, the equivalent SC of the HFCG will increase. The results show that by progress of explosion and decrease of the turns’ number in the generator coil total capacitance of the generator increases until the explosion reaches to the second turn. When only one turn remains in the circuit, a decrease occurs in the total capacitance of the generator.

  8. Low-Energy Microfocus X-Ray Source for Enhanced Testing Capability in the Stray Light Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; O'Dell, Stephen; Kolodziejczak, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Research toward high-resolution, soft x-ray optics (mirrors and gratings) necessary for the next generation large x-ray observatories requires x-ray testing using a low-energy x-ray source with fine angular size (energy microfocus (approximately 0.1 mm spot) x-ray source from TruFocus Corporation that mates directly to the Stray Light Facility (SLF). MSFC X-ray Astronomy team members are internationally recognized for their expertise in the development, fabrication, and testing of grazing-incidence optics for x-ray telescopes. One of the key MSFC facilities for testing novel x-ray instrumentation is the SLF. This facility is an approximately 100-m-long beam line equipped with multiple x-ray sources and detectors. This new source adds to the already robust compliment of instrumentation, allowing MSFC to support additional internal and community x-ray testing needs.

  9. Intercomparison of radiation protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part III: Instrument response

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, M; Beck, P; Bedogni, R; Cale, E; Caresana, M; Domingo, C; Donadille, L; Dubourg, N; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernández, F; Ferrarini, M; Fiechtner, A; Fuchs, A; García, M J; Golnik, N; Gutermuth, F; Khurana, S; Klages, Th; Latocha, M; Mares, V; Mayer, S; Radon, T; Reithmeier, H; Rollet, S; Roos, H; Rühm, W; Sandri, S; Schardt, D; Simmer, G; Spurný, F; Trompier, F; Villa-Grasa, C; Weitzenegger, E; Wiegel, B; Wielunski, M; Wissmann, F; Zechner, A; Zielczyński, M

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has funded within its 6th Framework Programme a three-year project (2005–2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organizational framework for this project was provided by the European radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. Work Package 6 of CONRAD dealt with “complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces” and in this context it organised a benchmark exercise, which included both measurements and calculations, in a stray radiation field at a high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany. The aim was to intercompare the response of several types of active detectors and passive dosemeters in a well-characterised workplace field. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers are discussed in Rollet et al. (2008) and in Wiegel et al. (2008). This paper focuses on the intercomparison of the response of the dosemeters in terms of ambient dose equivalent. Th...

  10. Are Forecast Updates Progressive?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); Ph.H.B.F. Franses (Philip Hans); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractMacro-economic forecasts typically involve both a model component, which is replicable, as well as intuition, which is non-replicable. Intuition is expert knowledge possessed by a forecaster. If forecast updates are progressive, forecast updates should become more accurate, on average,

  11. Endoparasites of Stray Dogs in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeast Iran with Special Reference to Zoonotic Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Adinezadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To find out different species of helminthes and blood/tissue proto­zoan parasites of stray dogs and their potential role for transmission of zoonotic species to human in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, northeast Iran, during 2008-2009.Methods: Totally, 100 stray dogs were selected among Mashhad municipal collection from different sites of the city. Internal organs were examined for any parasites. Helminthes were identified based on morphological characteristics. Smears prepared from peripheral blood as well as liver, spleen and any skin lesion were stained by Giemsa and examined microscopically. Samples obtained from spleen were aseptically cultured in three culture media including NNN, Schneider’s Drosophila (HIMEDIA and RPMI1640 (GIBCO for isolation of Leishmania spp. The titer of anti-Leishmania and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were measured by direct agglutination test (DAT and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, respectively.Results: 84% of dogs were infected at least with one species of intestinal helminthes. The species of parasites and rate of infection were as follows: Taenia hydatigena (61%, Dipylidium caninum (46%, Mesocestoides lineatus (19%, Echinococcus granulosus (10%, Toxascaris leonina (53% and Toxocara canis (7%. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected by DAT in 8 dogs (8% at 1:320 titers and higher. Forty seven dogs (47% showed anti-Toxoplasma titer at 1:10 and 17 (17% showed titer of ≥1:100. No blood parasites were found in prepared blood smears.Conclusion: The high rate of parasitic infection and presence of zoonotic species

  12. On-chip high-voltage generator design design methodology for charge pumps

    CERN Document Server

    Tanzawa, Toru

    2016-01-01

    This book provides various design techniques for switched-capacitor on-chip high-voltage generators, including charge pump circuits, regulators, level shifters, references, and oscillators.  Readers will see these techniques applied to system design in order to address the challenge of how the on-chip high-voltage generator is designed for Flash memories, LCD drivers, and other semiconductor devices to optimize the entire circuit area and power efficiency with a low voltage supply, while minimizing the cost.  This new edition includes a variety of useful updates, including coverage of power efficiency and comprehensive optimization methodologies for DC-DC voltage multipliers, modeling of extremely low voltage Dickson charge pumps, and modeling and optimum design of AC-DC switched-capacitor multipliers for energy harvesting and power transfer for RFID.

  13. LOFT voltage insertion calibaration program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tillitt, D.N.; Miyasaki, F.S.

    1975-08-01

    The Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) Facility is an experimental facility built around a ''scaled'' version of a large pressurized water reactor (LPWR). Part of this facility is the Data Acquisition and Visual Display System (DAVDS) as defined by the LOFT System Design Document SDD 1.4.2C. The DAVDS has a 702 data channel recording capability of which 548 are recorded digitally. The DAVDS also contains a Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem used to inject precise and known voltage steps into the recording systems. The computer program that controls the Voltage Insertion Calibration Subsystem is presented. 7 references. (auth)

  14. Power-MOSFET Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W. N.; Gray, O. E.

    1982-01-01

    Ninety-six parallel MOSFET devices with two-stage feedback circuit form a high-current dc voltage regulator that also acts as fully-on solid-state switch when fuel-cell out-put falls below regulated voltage. Ripple voltage is less than 20 mV, transient recovery time is less than 50 ms. Parallel MOSFET's act as high-current dc regulator and switch. Regulator can be used wherever large direct currents must be controlled. Can be applied to inverters, industrial furnaces photovoltaic solar generators, dc motors, and electric autos.

  15. Modular High Voltage Power Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newell, Matthew R. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-18

    The goal of this project is to develop a modular high voltage power supply that will meet the needs of safeguards applications and provide a modular plug and play supply for use with standard electronic racks.

  16. Reliability criteria for voltage stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Carson W; Silverstein, Brian L [Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, OR (United States)

    1994-12-31

    In face of costs pressures, there is need to allocate scare resources more effectively in order to achieve voltage stability. This naturally leads to development of probabilistic criteria and notions of rick management. In this paper it is presented a discussion about criteria for long term voltage stability limited to the case in which the time frames are topically several minutes. (author) 14 refs., 1 fig.

  17. High voltage distributions in RPCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Y.; Muranishi, Y.; Nakamura, M.; Nakano, E.; Takahashi, T.; Teramoto, Y.

    1996-01-01

    High voltage distributions on the inner surfaces of RPCs electrodes were calculated by using a two-dimensional resistor network model. The calculated result shows that the surface resistivity of the electrodes should be high, compared to their volume resistivity, to get a uniform high voltage over the surface. Our model predicts that the rate capabilities of RPCs should be inversely proportional to the thickness of the electrodes if the ratio of surface-to-volume resistivity is low. (orig.)

  18. Macroeconomic Assessment of Voltage Sags

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan Küfeoğlu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The electric power sector has changed dramatically since the 1980s. Electricity customers are now demanding uninterrupted and high quality service from both utilities and authorities. By becoming more and more dependent on the voltage sensitive electronic equipment, the industry sector is the one which is affected the most by voltage disturbances. Voltage sags are one of the most crucial problems for these customers. The utilities, on the other hand, conduct cost-benefit analyses before going through new investment projects. At this point, understanding the costs of voltage sags become imperative for planning purposes. The characteristics of electric power consumption and hence the susceptibility against voltage sags differ considerably among different industry subsectors. Therefore, a model that will address the estimation of worth of electric power reliability for a large number of customer groups is necessary. This paper introduces a macroeconomic model to calculate Customer Voltage Sag Costs (CVSCs for the industry sector customers. The proposed model makes use of analytical data such as value added, annual energy consumption, working hours, and average outage durations and provides a straightforward, credible, and easy to follow methodology for the estimation of CVSCs.

  19. A matter of quantum voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sellner, Bernhard; Kathmann, Shawn M., E-mail: Shawn.Kathmann@pnnl.gov [Physical Sciences Division, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2014-11-14

    Voltages inside matter are relevant to crystallization, materials science, biology, catalysis, and aqueous chemistry. The variation of voltages in matter can be measured by experiment, however, modern supercomputers allow the calculation of accurate quantum voltages with spatial resolutions of bulk systems well beyond what can currently be measured provided a sufficient level of theory is employed. Of particular interest is the Mean Inner Potential (V{sub o}) – the spatial average of these quantum voltages referenced to the vacuum. Here we establish a protocol to reliably evaluate V{sub o} from quantum calculations. Voltages are very sensitive to the distribution of electrons and provide metrics to understand interactions in condensed phases. In the present study, we find excellent agreement with measurements of V{sub o} for vitrified water and salt crystals and demonstrate the impact of covalent and ionic bonding as well as intermolecular/atomic interactions. Certain aspects in this regard are highlighted making use of simple model systems/approximations. Furthermore, we predict V{sub o} as well as the fluctuations of these voltages in aqueous NaCl electrolytes and characterize the changes in their behavior as the resolution increases below the size of atoms.

  20. Performance evaluation of wideband bio-impedance spectroscopy using constant voltage source and constant current source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamadou, Youssoufa; Oh, Tong In; Wi, Hun; Sohal, Harsh; Farooq, Adnan; Woo, Eung Je; McEwan, Alistair Lee

    2012-01-01

    Current sources are widely used in bio-impedance spectroscopy (BIS) measurement systems to maximize current injection for increased signal to noise while keeping within medical safety specifications. High-performance current sources based on the Howland current pump with optimized impedance converters are able to minimize stray capacitance of the cables and setup. This approach is limited at high frequencies primarily due to the deteriorated output impedance of the constant current source when situated in a real measurement system. For this reason, voltage sources have been suggested, but they require a current sensing resistor, and the SNR reduces at low impedance loads due to the lower current required to maintain constant voltage. In this paper, we compare the performance of a current source-based BIS and a voltage source-based BIS, which use common components. The current source BIS is based on a Howland current pump and generalized impedance converters to maintain a high output impedance of more than 1 MΩ at 2 MHz. The voltage source BIS is based on voltage division between an internal current sensing resistor (R s ) and an external sample. To maintain high SNR, R s is varied so that the source voltage is divided more or less equally. In order to calibrate the systems, we measured the transfer function of the BIS systems with several known resistor and capacitor loads. From this we may estimate the resistance and capacitance of biological tissues using the least-squares method to minimize error between the measured transimpedance excluding the system transfer function and that from an impedance model. When tested on realistic loads including discrete resistors and capacitors, and saline and agar phantoms, the voltage source-based BIS system had a wider bandwidth of 10 Hz to 2.2 MHz with less than 1% deviation from the expected spectra compared to more than 10% with the current source. The voltage source also showed an SNR of at least 60 dB up to 2.2 MHz

  1. National Pediatric Program Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-01-01

    The book of the National Pediatric Program Update, issued by the Argentina Society of Pediatrics, describes important issues, including: effective treatment of addictions (drugs); defects of the neural tube; and the use of radiation imaging in diagnosis. [es

  2. Mitigation of voltage sags in the distribution system with dynamic voltage restorer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viglas, D.; Belan, A.

    2012-01-01

    Dynamic voltage restorer is a custom power device that is used to improve voltage sags or swells in electrical distribution system. The components of the Dynamic Voltage Restorer consist of injection transformers, voltage source inverter, passive filters and energy storage. The main function of the Dynamic voltage restorer is used to inject three phase voltage in series and in synchronism with the grid voltages in order to compensate voltage disturbances. This article deals with mitigation of voltage sags caused by three-phase short circuit. Dynamic voltage restorer is modelled in MATLAB/Simulink. (Authors)

  3. Measurement of stray radiation within a scanning proton therapy facility: EURADOS WG9 intercomparison exercise of active dosimetry systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, J., E-mail: jad.farah@irsn.fr; Trompier, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Pôle Radioprotection de l’Homme, BP17, Fontenay-aux-Roses 92260 (France); Mares, V.; Schinner, K.; Wielunski, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg 85764 (Germany); Romero-Expósito, M.; Domingo, C. [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra E-08193 (Spain); Trinkl, S. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany and Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, Garching 85748 (Germany); Dufek, V. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Břehová 7, Prague 115 19, Czech Republic and National Radiation Protection Institute, Bartoškova 28, Prague 140 00 (Czech Republic); Klodowska, M.; Liszka, M.; Stolarczyk, L.; Olko, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Kubancak, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Břehová 7, Prague 115 19, Czech Republic and Department of Radiation Dosimetry, Nuclear Physics Institute, Řež CZ-250 68 (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To characterize stray radiation around the target volume in scanning proton therapy and study the performance of active neutron monitors. Methods: Working Group 9 of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS WG9—Radiation protection in medicine) carried out a large measurement campaign at the Trento Centro di Protonterapia (Trento, Italy) in order to determine the neutron spectra near the patient using two extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometry (BSS) systems. In addition, the work focused on acknowledging the performance of different commercial active dosimetry systems when measuring neutron ambient dose equivalents, H{sup ∗}(10), at several positions inside (8 positions) and outside (3 positions) the treatment room. Detectors included three TEPCs—tissue equivalent proportional counters (Hawk type from Far West Technology, Inc.) and six rem-counters (WENDI-II, LB 6411, RadEye™ NL, a regular and an extended-range NM2B). Meanwhile, the photon component of stray radiation was deduced from the low-lineal energy transfer part of TEPC spectra or measured using a Thermo Scientific™ FH-40G survey meter. Experiments involved a water tank phantom (60 × 30 × 30 cm{sup 3}) representing the patient that was uniformly irradiated using a 3 mm spot diameter proton pencil beam with 10 cm modulation width, 19.95 cm distal beam range, and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field size. Results: Neutron spectrometry around the target volume showed two main components at the thermal and fast energy ranges. The study also revealed the large dependence of the energy distribution of neutrons, and consequently of out-of-field doses, on the primary beam direction (directional emission of intranuclear cascade neutrons) and energy (spectral composition of secondary neutrons). In addition, neutron mapping within the facility was conducted and showed the highest H{sup ∗}(10) value of ∼51 μSv Gy{sup −1}; this was measured at 1.15 m along the beam axis. H{sup ∗}(10) values

  4. Low-Energy Real-Time OS Using Voltage Scheduling Algorithm for Variable Voltage Processors

    OpenAIRE

    Okuma, Takanori; Yasuura, Hiroto

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time OS based on $ mu $ITRON using proposed voltage scheduling algorithm for variable voltage processors which can vary supply voltage dynamically. The proposed voltage scheduling algorithms assign voltage level for each task dynamically in order to minimize energy consumption under timing constraints. Using the presented real-time OS, running tasks with low supply voltage leads to drastic energy reduction. In addition, the presented voltage scheduling algorithm is ...

  5. Development of a New Cascade Voltage-Doubler for Voltage Multiplication

    OpenAIRE

    Toudeshki, Arash; Mariun, Norman; Hizam, Hashim; Abdul Wahab, Noor Izzri

    2014-01-01

    For more than eight decades, cascade voltage-doubler circuits are used as a method to produce DC output voltage higher than the input voltage. In this paper, the topological developments of cascade voltage-doublers are reviewed. A new circuit configuration for cascade voltage-doubler is presented. This circuit can produce a higher value of the DC output voltage and better output quality compared to the conventional cascade voltage-doubler circuits, with the same number of stages.

  6. Cavity Voltage Phase Modulation MD

    CERN Document Server

    Mastoridis, Themistoklis; Molendijk, John; Timko, Helga; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    The LHC RF/LLRF system is currently configured for extremely stable RF voltage to minimize transient beam loading effects. The present scheme cannot be extended beyond nominal beam current since the demanded power would exceed the peak klystron power and lead to saturation. A new scheme has therefore been proposed: for beam currents above nominal (and possibly earlier), the cavity phase modulation by the beam will not be corrected (transient beam loading), but the strong RF feedback and One-Turn Delay feedback will still be active for loop and beam stability in physics. To achieve this, the voltage set point will be adapted for each bunch. The goal of this MD was to test a new algorithm that would adjust the voltage set point to achieve the cavity phase modulation that would minimize klystron forward power.

  7. Design of shielded voltage divider for impulse voltage measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shohei; Kouno, Teruya; Maruyama, Yoshio; Kikuchi, Koji.

    1976-01-01

    The dividers used for the study of the insulation and electric discharge phenomena in high voltage equipments have the problems of the change of response characteristics owing to adjacent bodies and of induced noise. To improve the characteristics, the enclosed type divider shielded with metal has been investigated, and the divider of excellent response has been obtained by adopting the frequency-separating divider system, which is divided into two parts, resistance divider (lower frequency region) and capacitance divider (higher frequency region), for avoiding to degrade the response. Theoretical analysis was carried out in the cases that residual inductance can be neglected or can not be neglected in the small capacitance divider, and that the connecting wires are added. Next, the structure of the divider and the design of the electric field for the divider manufactured on the basis of the theory are described. The response characteristics were measured. The results show that 1 MV impulse voltage can be measured within the response time of 10 ns. Though this divider aims at the impulse voltage, the duration time of which is about that of standard lightning impulse, in view of the heat capacity because of the input resistance of 10.5 kΩ, it is expected that the divider can be applied to the voltage of longer duration time by increasing the input resistance in future. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  8. Unbalanced Voltage Compensation in Low Voltage Residential AC Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Douglass, Philip; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and test of a control algorithm for active front-end rectifiers that draw power from a residential AC grid to feed heat pump loads. The control algorithm is able to control the phase to neutral or phase to phase RMS voltages at the point of common coupling...

  9. The high voltage homopolar generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, J. H.; Gully, J. H.; Driga, M. D.

    1986-11-01

    System and component design features of proposed high voltage homopolar generator (HVHPG) are described. The system is to have an open circuit voltage of 500 V, a peak output current of 500 kA, 3.25 MJ of stored inertial energy and possess an average magnetic-flux density of 5 T. Stator assembly components are discussed, including the stator, mount structure, hydrostatic bearings, main and motoring brushgears and rotor. Planned operational procedures such as monitoring the rotor to full speed and operation with a superconducting field coil are delineated.

  10. Magnetic charge distribution and stray field landscape of asymmetric néel walls in a magnetically patterned exchange bias layer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingsem, Norbert; Ahrend, Florian; Vock, Silvia; Gottlob, Daniel; Krug, Ingo; Doganay, Hatice; Holzinger, Dennis; Neu, Volker; Ehresmann, Arno

    2017-12-01

    The 3D stray field landscape above an exchange bias layer system with engineered domain walls has been fully characterized by quantitative magnetic force microscopy (qMFM) measurements. This method is based on a complete quantification of the MFM tip’s imaging properties and the subtraction of its contribution from the measured MFM data by deconvolution in Fourier space. The magnetically patterned Ir17Mn83/Co70Fe30-exchange-bias-multilayers have been designed to contain asymmetric head-to-head (hh)/tail-to-tail (tt) Néel walls between domains of different magnetic anisotropies for potential use in guided particle transport. In the current application, qMFM reveals the effective magnetic charge profile on the surface of the sample—with high spatial resolution and in an absolute quantitative manner. These data enable to calculate the magnetostatic potential and the full stray field landscape above the sample surface. It has been successfully tested against: (i) micromagnetic simulations of the magnetization structure of a comparable exchange-bias layer system, (ii) measurements of the magnetization profile across the domain boundary with x-ray photoemission electron microscopy, and (iii) direct stray field measurements obtained by scanning Hall probe microscopy at elevated scan heights. This approach results in a quantitative determination of the stray field landscape at close distances to the sample surface, which will be of importance for remote magnetic particle transport applications in lab-on-a-chip devices. Furthermore, the highly resolving and quantitative MFM approach reveals details of the domain transition across the artificially structured phase boundary, which have to be attributed to a continuous change in the materials parameters across this boundary, rather than an abrupt one.

  11. Source-Sink Estimates of Genetic Introgression Show Influence of Hatchery Strays on Wild Chum Salmon Populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Jasper, James R.; Habicht, Christopher; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Rich; Marsh, Jennifer; Lewis, Bert; Creelman Fox, Elisabeth; Grauvogel, Zac; Rogers Olive, Serena D.; Grant, W. Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. H...

  12. SU-E-T-598: Parametric Equation for Quick and Reliable Estimate of Stray Neutron Doses in Proton Therapy and Application for Intracranial Tumor Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfrate, A; Farah, J; Sayah, R; Clairand, I [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-roses (France); De Marzi, L; Delacroix, S [Institut Curie Centre de Protontherapie d Orsay (CPO), Orsay (France); Herault, J [Centre Antoine Lacassagne (CAL) Cyclotron biomedical, Nice (France); Lee, C [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States); Bolch, W [Univ Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Development of a parametric equation suitable for a daily use in routine clinic to provide estimates of stray neutron doses in proton therapy. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) calculations using the UF-NCI 1-year-old phantom were exercised to determine the variation of stray neutron doses as a function of irradiation parameters while performing intracranial treatments. This was done by individually changing the proton beam energy, modulation width, collimator aperture and thickness, compensator thickness and the air gap size while their impact on neutron doses were put into a single equation. The variation of neutron doses with distance from the target volume was also included in it. Then, a first step consisted in establishing the fitting coefficients by using 221 learning data which were neutron absorbed doses obtained with MC simulations while a second step consisted in validating the final equation. Results: The variation of stray neutron doses with irradiation parameters were fitted with linear, polynomial, etc. model while a power-law model was used to fit the variation of stray neutron doses with the distance from the target volume. The parametric equation fitted well MC simulations while establishing fitting coefficients as the discrepancies on the estimate of neutron absorbed doses were within 10%. The discrepancy can reach ∼25% for the bladder, the farthest organ from the target volume. Finally, the validation showed results in compliance with MC calculations since the discrepancies were also within 10% for head-and-neck and thoracic organs while they can reach ∼25%, again for pelvic organs. Conclusion: The parametric equation presents promising results and will be validated for other target sites as well as other facilities to go towards a universal method.

  13. Resilient architecture design for voltage variation

    CERN Document Server

    Reddi, Vijay Janapa

    2013-01-01

    Shrinking feature size and diminishing supply voltage are making circuits sensitive to supply voltage fluctuations within the microprocessor, caused by normal workload activity changes. If left unattended, voltage fluctuations can lead to timing violations or even transistor lifetime issues that degrade processor robustness. Mechanisms that learn to tolerate, avoid, and eliminate voltage fluctuations based on program and microarchitectural events can help steer the processor clear of danger, thus enabling tighter voltage margins that improve performance or lower power consumption. We describe

  14. Stray dogs as indicators of Toxoplasma gondii distributed in the environment: the first report across an urban-rural gradient in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis is an important parasitic zoonosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii that is distributed world-wide and infects a variety of hosts. However, the prevalence of T. gondii in the environment (such as soil, water and food is largely unknown. Due to the technical difficulty in oocyst counting directly, an alternative assay using the serologic status of T. gondii in free-living animals, such as stray or free-living dogs, as an indicator, can be used to evaluate environmental contamination indirectly, as they are exposed to the same risk of infection as humans and other animals. Results In the present study, 231 stray or free-living dogs across an urban-rural gradient were examined to assess the frequency of T. gondii in the environment. Specific antibodies to T. gondii were found in 93 dogs (40.3% by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and no statistically significant differences were observed in seroprevalences of T. gondii between urban dogs (38.7% and rural dogs (41% (p > 0.05. Conclusions A high seroprevalence of T. gondii in stray or free-living dogs in the present study indicates that there would be a wide distribution and a constant infection pressure of T. gondii across an urban-rural gradient, and the oocysts of T. gondii in the environment would be an important source of infection for humans and other animals both in urban and rural areas in China.

  15. 3D Printing of Polymer-Bonded Rare-Earth Magnets With a Variable Magnetic Compound Fraction for a Predefined Stray Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian; Abert, Claas; Bruckner, Florian; Groenefeld, Martin; Schuschnigg, Stephan; Teliban, Iulian; Vogler, Christoph; Wautischer, Gregor; Windl, Roman; Suess, Dieter

    2017-08-25

    Additive manufacturing of polymer-bonded magnets is a recently developed technique, for single-unit production, and for structures that have been impossible to manufacture previously. Also, new possibilities to create a specific stray field around the magnet are triggered. The current work presents a method to 3D print polymer-bonded magnets with a variable magnetic compound fraction distribution. This means the saturation magnetization can be adjusted during the printing process to obtain a required external field of the manufactured magnets. A low-cost, end-user 3D printer with a mixing extruder is used to mix permanent magnetic filaments with pure polyamide (PA12) filaments. The magnetic filaments are compounded, extruded, and characterized for the printing process. To deduce the quality of the manufactured magnets with a variable magnetic compound fraction, an inverse stray field framework is developed. The effectiveness of the printing process and the simulation method is shown. It can also be used to manufacture magnets that produce a predefined stray field in a given region. This opens new possibilities for magnetic sensor applications. This setup and simulation framework allows the design and manufacturing of polymer-bonded permanent magnets, which are impossible to create with conventional methods.

  16. Comparison of the performance of different instruments in the stray neutron field around the CERN Proton Synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aza, Eleni; Caresana, Marco; Cassell, Christopher; Colombo, Valeria; Damjanovic, Sanja; Gilardoni, Simone; Manessi, Giacomo Paolo; Pangallo, Michel; Perrin, Daniel; Silari, Marco

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses an intercomparison campaign carried out in several locations around the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The locations were selected in order to perform the measurements in different stray field conditions. Various neutron detectors were employed: ionisation chambers, conventional and extended range rem counters, both commercial and prototype ones, including a novel instrument called LUPIN, specifically conceived to work in pulsed fields. The attention was focused on the potential differences in the instrument readings due to dead-time losses that are expected to affect most commercial units. The results show that the ionisation chambers and LUPIN agree well with the expected H*(10) values, as derived from FLUKA simulations, showing no relevant underestimations even in strongly pulsed fields. On the contrary, the dead-time losses of the other rem counters induced an underestimation in pulsed fields that was more important for instruments characterised by a higher dead time. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Non-Destructive Monitoring of Charge-Discharge Cycles on Lithium Ion Batteries using 7Li Stray-Field Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Joel A.; Dugar, Sneha; Zhong, Guiming; Dalal, Naresh S.; Zheng, Jim P.; Yang, Yong; Fu, Riqiang

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging provides a noninvasive method for in situ monitoring of electrochemical processes involved in charge/discharge cycling of batteries. Determining how the electrochemical processes become irreversible, ultimately resulting in degraded battery performance, will aid in developing new battery materials and designing better batteries. Here we introduce the use of an alternative in situ diagnostic tool to monitor the electrochemical processes. Utilizing a very large field-gradient in the fringe field of a magnet, stray-field-imaging (STRAFI) technique significantly improves the image resolution. These STRAFI images enable the real time monitoring of the electrodes at a micron level. It is demonstrated by two prototype half-cells, graphite∥Li and LiFePO4∥Li, that the high-resolution 7Li STRAFI profiles allow one to visualize in situ Li-ions transfer between the electrodes during charge/discharge cyclings as well as the formation and changes of irreversible microstructures of the Li components, and particularly reveal a non-uniform Li-ion distribution in the graphite. PMID:24005580

  18. Diagnosis of canine echinococcosis: comparison of coproantigen detection with necropsy in stray dogs and red foxes from northern Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shehabi F.S.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used as a diagnostic test for Echinococcus granulosus infection by detecting coproantigens in 94 stray dogs Canis familiaris and eight red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from northern Jordan. The results were analyzed in relation to actual helminth infection as revealed by necropsy. The infection rate of dogs with E. granulosus was 13.8 % with a worm load ranging between 3 - > 10,000 per infected dog. In contrast, eight of 13 E. granulosus infected dogs were coproantigen positive (overall sensitivity 61.5 %. The sensitivity increased to 87.5 % and 100 % in dogs harboring > 20 and > 100 worms/dog, respectively. The specificity of coproantigen-ELISA was 91 %. The greatest cross-reactivity was found in dogs infected with Dipylidium caninum. The positive and negative predictive values for the coproantigen-ELISA test were 50 % and 94.2 %, respectively. Thus, a coproantigen negative dog is most probably truly negative for E. granulosus. In contrast, a coproantigen positive dog may not be truly positive for E. granulosus, except if it has a high worm burden of > 100 worms/animal.

  19. Ectoparasites in urban stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel: differences in infestation patterns of fleas, ticks and permanent ectoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Baneth, G

    2014-09-01

    In a period cross-sectional study performed to examine ectoparasites on 340 stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel, 186 (54.7%) were infested with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 49 (14.4%) with the cat louse, Felicola subrostratus (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae), 41 (12.0%) with the ear mite, Otodectes cynotis (Astigmata: Psoroptidae), three (0.9%) with the fur mite, Cheyletiella blakei (Trobidiformes: Cheyletidae), two (0.6%) with the itch mite Notoedres cati (Astigmata: Sarcoptidae), and 25 (7.3%) with ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae), Rhipicephalus turanicus or Haemaphysalis adleri (Ixodida: Ixodidae). A higher number of flea infestations was observed in apparently sick cats (P < 0.05) and in cats aged < 6 months (P < 0.05). The proportion of flea-infested cats (P < 0.01), as well as the number of fleas per infested cat (P < 0.01), was higher in autumn than in other seasons. By contrast with findings in cats with flea infestations, rates of infestation with ticks were higher amongst cats with clinical signs (P < 0.01) and cats aged ≥ 6 months (P < 0.05). The high rates of ectoparasite infestation in the cats studied constitute a risk for the spread of vector-borne infections of zoonotic and veterinary importance. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. Intercomparison of radiation protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part III: Instrument response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silari, M.; Agosteo, S.; Beck, P.; Bedogni, R.; Cale, E.; Caresana, M.; Domingo, C.; Donadille, L.; Dubourg, N.; Esposito, A.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Fernandez, F.; Ferrarini, M.; Fiechtner, A.; Fuchs, A.; Garcia, M.J.; Golnik, N.; Gutermuth, F.; Khurana, S.; Klages, Th.

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has funded within its 6th Framework Programme a three-year project (2005-2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organizational framework for this project was provided by the European radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. Work Package 6 of CONRAD dealt with 'complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces' and in this context it organised a benchmark exercise, which included both measurements and calculations, in a stray radiation field at a high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany. The aim was to intercompare the response of several types of active detectors and passive dosemeters in a well-characterised workplace field. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers are discussed in Rollet et al. (2008) and in Wiegel et al. (2008). This paper focuses on the intercomparison of the response of the dosemeters in terms of ambient dose equivalent. The paper describes in detail the detectors employed in the experiment, followed by a discussion of the results. A comparison is also made with the H*(10) values predicted by the Monte Carlo simulations and those measured by the BSS systems.

  1. Voltage Weak DC Distribution Grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hailu, T.G.; Mackay, L.J.; Ramirez Elizondo, L.M.; Ferreira, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the behavior of voltage weak DC distribution systems. These systems have relatively small system capacitance. The size of system capacitance, which stores energy, has a considerable effect on the value of fault currents, control complexity, and system reliability. A number of

  2. Nonlinear electrokinetics at large voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazant, Martin Z [Department of Chemical Engineering and Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Sabri Kilic, Mustafa; Ajdari, Armand [Department of Mathematics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Storey, Brian D [Franklin W Olin College of Engineering, Needham, MA 02492 (United States)], E-mail: bazant@mit.edu

    2009-07-15

    The classical theory of electrokinetic phenomena assumes a dilute solution of point-like ions in chemical equilibrium with a surface whose double-layer voltage is of order the thermal voltage, k{sub B}T/e=25 mV. In nonlinear 'induced-charge' electrokinetic phenomena, such as ac electro-osmosis, several volts {approx}100k{sub B}T/e are applied to the double layer, and the theory breaks down and cannot explain many observed features. We argue that, under such a large voltage, counterions 'condense' near the surface, even for dilute bulk solutions. Based on simple models, we predict that the double-layer capacitance decreases and the electro-osmotic mobility saturates at large voltages, due to steric repulsion and increased viscosity of the condensed layer, respectively. The former suffices to explain observed high-frequency flow reversal in ac electro-osmosis; the latter leads to a salt concentration dependence of induced-charge flows comparable to experiments, although a complete theory is still lacking.

  3. High voltage power network construction

    CERN Document Server

    Harker, Keith

    2018-01-01

    This book examines the key requirements, considerations, complexities and constraints relevant to the task of high voltage power network construction, from design, finance, contracts and project management to installation and commissioning, with the aim of providing an overview of the holistic end to end construction task in a single volume.

  4. Voltage control of ferromagnetic resonance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziyao Zhou

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Voltage control of magnetism in multiferroics, where the ferromagnetism and ferroelectricity are simultaneously exhibiting, is of great importance to achieve compact, fast and energy efficient voltage controllable magnetic/microwave devices. Particularly, these devices are widely used in radar, aircraft, cell phones and satellites, where volume, response time and energy consumption is critical. Researchers realized electric field tuning of magnetic properties like magnetization, magnetic anisotropy and permeability in varied multiferroic heterostructures such as bulk, thin films and nanostructure by different magnetoelectric (ME coupling mechanism: strain/stress, interfacial charge, spin–electromagnetic (EM coupling and exchange coupling, etc. In this review, we focus on voltage control of ferromagnetic resonance (FMR in multiferroics. ME coupling-induced FMR change is critical in microwave devices, where the electric field tuning of magnetic effective anisotropic field determines the tunability of the performance of microwave devices. Experimentally, FMR measurement technique is also an important method to determine the small effective magnetic field change in small amount of magnetic material precisely due to its high sensitivity and to reveal the deep science of multiferroics, especially, voltage control of magnetism in novel mechanisms like interfacial charge, spin–EM coupling and exchange coupling.

  5. High voltage MOSFET switching circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1994-01-01

    The problem of source lead inductance in a MOSFET switching circuit is compensated for by adding an inductor to the gate circuit. The gate circuit inductor produces an inductive spike which counters the source lead inductive drop to produce a rectangular drive voltage waveform at the internal gate-source terminals of the MOSFET.

  6. Update of European bioethics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendtorff, Jacob Dahl

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an update of the research on European bioethics undertaken by the author together with Professor Peter Kemp since the 1990s, on Basic ethical principles in European bioethics and biolaw. In this European approach to basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw......, the principles of autonomy, dignity, integrity and vulnerability are proposed as the most important ethical principles for respect for the human person in biomedical and biotechnological development. This approach to bioethics and biolaw is presented here in a short updated version that integrates the earlier...... research in a presentation of the present understanding of the basic ethical principles in bioethics and biolaw....

  7. Sugammadex: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezri Tiberiu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this update is to provide recent knowledge and debates regarding the use of sugammadex in the fields of anesthesia and critical care. The review is not intended to provide a comprehensive description of sugammadex and its clinical use.

  8. Supreme Court Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    "Chief Justice Flubs Oath." "Justice Ginsburg Has Cancer Surgery." At the start of this year, those were the news headlines about the U.S. Supreme Court. But January 2009 also brought news about key education cases--one resolved and two others on the docket--of which school administrators should take particular note. The Supreme Court updates on…

  9. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation.We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  10. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Wednesday 14 June between 8.00 p.m. and midnight. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  11. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on between Monday 23 October 8.00 p.m. and Tuesday 24 October 2.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  12. Update of telephone exchange

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    As part of the upgrade of telephone services, the CERN switching centre will be updated on Monday 3 July between 8.00 p.m. and 3.00 a.m. Telephone services may be disrupted and possibly even interrupted during this operation. We apologise in advance for any inconvenience this may cause. CERN TELECOM Service

  13. [Cardiology update in 2016].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabus, Vincent; Tran, Van Nam; Regamey, Julien; Pascale, Patrizio; Monney, Pierre; Hullin, Roger; Vogt, Pierre

    2017-01-11

    In 2016 the European Society of Cardiology (ESC) published new guidelines. These documents update the knowledge in various fields such as atrial fibrillation, heart failure, cardiovascular prevention and dyslipidemia. Of course it is impossible to summarize these guidelines in detail. Nevertheless, we decided to highlight the major modifications, and to emphasize some key points that are especially useful for the primary care physician.

  14. OSATE Overview & Community Updates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-15

    update 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Delange /Julien 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK...main language capabilities Modeling patterns & model samples for beginners Error-Model examples EMV2 model constructs Demonstration of tools Case

  15. Stray current induced corrosion in lightning rod cables of 525 kV power lines towers: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcicki, F. R.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of several areas in modem society, the necessity to generate and carry electrical energy to big cities has greatly increased. Cables supported by power towers with galvanized steel foundation usually carry energy. As the foundations are underground they may cause high rates of corrosion. These are usually detected by a conventional potential measurement using a Cu/CuSO4 reference electrode. It is believed that corrosion results from stray currents that flow through the ground to close the loop between neighboring towers. Stray currents originate in the lightning rod cables of the power line towers, induced by the strong electromagnetic and electric fields of the energized power lines. The intensity and direction of those currents were measured, indicating substantial values of both their AC and DC components. The potential of the tower ground system, measured in the perpendicular direction of the main axis of the power line, was plotted as a function of the distance to the tower base. The results clearly indicated the tendency to corrosive attack in the anodic towers as reflected by the slope of the plot, whereas no signs of corrosion could be found in the reverse slope, confirming the visual inspection of the foundation. The profile of the potential plots could be changed providing the electric insulation of the lightning rod cable.

    Con el crecimiento de varias áreas en la sociedad moderna, la necesidad de generar y conducir la energía eléctrica a las grandes ciudades ha aumentado enormemente. La energía, normalmente, se transporta por cables sostenidos por torres de energía con base de acero galvanizado. Cuando las bases son subterráneas, pueden ocasionar altas tasas de corrosión. Estas, normalmente, se detectan por la medida convencional del potencial empleando un electrodo de referencia de Cu/CuSO4. Se cree que la corrosión es el resultado de corrientes perdidas que fluyen a través de la

  16. Distributed Secondary Voltage and Frequency Control for Islanded Microgrids with Uncertain Communication Links

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lu, Xiaoqing; Yu, Xinghuo; Lai, Jingang

    2017-01-01

    energy resources (DERs) in a MG to achieve the voltage/frequency restoration and active power sharing accuracy, respectively. In special, the secondary control inputs are merely updated at the end of each round of iteration, and thus each DER only needs to share information with its neighbors...... theory. The proposed controllers are implemented on local DERs, and thus no central controller is required. Moreover, the desired control objective can also be guaranteed even if all DERs are subject to internal uncertainties and external noises including initial voltage and/or frequency resetting errors...

  17. Analyzing randomly occurring voltage breakdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    During acceptance testing of high-vacuum neutron tubes, 40% of the tubes failed after experiencing high-voltage breakdowns during the aging process. Use of a digitizer in place of an oscilloscope revealed two types of breakdowns, only one of which affected acceptance testing. This information allowed redesign of the aging sequence to prevent tube damage and improve yield and quality of the final product

  18. Advances in high voltage engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Haddad, A

    2005-01-01

    This book addresses the very latest research and development issues in high voltage technology and is intended as a reference source for researchers and students in the field, specifically covering developments throughout the past decade. This unique blend of expert authors and comprehensive subject coverage means that this book is ideally suited as a reference source for engineers and academics in the field for years to come.

  19. Bacterial and protozoal agents of feline vector-borne diseases in domestic and stray cats from southern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) have emerged in recent years, showing a wider geographic distribution and increased global prevalence. In addition to their veterinary importance, domestic cats play a central role in the transmission cycles of some FVBD agents by acting as reservoirs and sentinels, a circumstance that requires a One Health approach. The aim of the present work was to molecularly detect feline vector-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance, and to assess associated risk factors in cats from southern Portugal. Methods Six hundred and forty-nine cats (320 domestic and 329 stray), from veterinary medical centres and animal shelters in southern Portugal, were studied. Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. infections were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in blood samples. Results One hundred and ninety-four (29.9%) cats were PCR-positive to at least one of the tested genera or complex of FVBD agents. Sixty-four (9.9%) cats were positive to Leishmania spp., 56 (8.6%) to Hepatozoon spp., 43 (6.6%) to Babesia spp., 35 (5.4%) to Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., 19 (2.9%) to Bartonella spp. and 14 (2.2%) to B. burgdorferi s.l. Thirty-three (5.1%) cats were positive to two (n = 29) or three (n = 4) genera/complex. Babesia vogeli, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon felis and Leishmania infantum were identified by DNA sequencing. Conclusions The occurrence of FVBD agents in southern Portugal, some of them with zoonotic character, emphasizes the need to alert the veterinary community, owners and public health authorities for the risk of infection. Control measures should be implemented to prevent the infection of cats, other vertebrate hosts and people. PMID:24655431

  20. Cognitive effects of head-movements in stray fields generated by a 7 Tesla whole-body MRI magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, F; Stevens, T; Glover, P; Sunderland, A; Gowland, P; Kromhout, H

    2007-05-01

    The study investigates the impact of exposure to the stray magnetic field of a whole-body 7 T MRI scanner on neurobehavioral performance and cognition. Twenty seven volunteers completed four sessions, which exposed them to approximately 1600 mT (twice), 800 mT and negligible static field exposure. The order of exposure was assigned at random and was masked by placing volunteers in a tent to hide their position relative to the magnet bore. Volunteers completed a test battery assessing auditory working memory, eye-hand co-ordination, and visual perception. During three sessions the volunteers were instructed to complete a series of standardized head movements to generate additional time-varying fields ( approximately 300 and approximately 150 mT.s(-1) r.m.s.). In one session, volunteers were instructed to keep their heads as stable as possible. Performance on a visual tracking task was negatively influenced (P<.01) by 1.3% per 100 mT exposure. Furthermore, there was a trend for performance on two cognitive-motor tests to be decreased (P<.10). No effects were observed on working memory. Taken together with results of earlier studies, these results suggest that there are effects on visual perception and hand-eye co-ordination, but these are weak and variable between studies. The magnitude of these effects may depend on the magnitude of time-varying fields and not so much on the static field. While this study did not include exposure above 1.6 T, it suggests that use of strong magnetic fields is not a significant confounder in fMRI studies of cognitive function. Future work should further assess whether ultra-high field may impair performance of employees working in the vicinity of these magnets. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people. PMID:28141857

  2. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Diakou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90% was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3% cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7% for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53 multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24% and Dipylidium caninum (2%, while a high number of examined animals (58.8% had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2% and Leishmania infantum (6.1%. DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people.

  3. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people.

  4. High-voltage CMOS detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehrler, F.; Blanco, R.; Leys, R.; Perić, I.

    2016-01-01

    High-voltage CMOS (HVCMOS) pixel sensors are depleted active pixel sensors implemented in standard commercial CMOS processes. The sensor element is the n-well/p-substrate diode. The sensor electronics are entirely placed inside the n-well which is at the same time used as the charge collection electrode. High voltage is used to deplete the part of the substrate around the n-well. HVCMOS sensors allow implementation of complex in-pixel electronics. This, together with fast signal collection, allows a good time resolution, which is required for particle tracking in high energy physics. HVCMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI and are considered as an option for both ATLAS and CLIC (CERN). Radiation tolerance and time walk compensation have been tested and results are presented. - Highlights: • High-voltage CMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI (Switzerland). • HVCMOS sensors are considered as an option for ATLAS (LHC/CERN) and CLIC (CERN). • Efficiency of more than 95% (99%) has been measured with (un-)irradiated chips. • The time resolution measured in the beam tests is nearly 100 ns. • We plan to improve time resolution and efficiency by using high-resistive substrate.

  5. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochi, Masafumi

    2003-01-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  6. High-voltage CMOS detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehrler, F., E-mail: felix.ehrler@student.kit.edu; Blanco, R.; Leys, R.; Perić, I.

    2016-07-11

    High-voltage CMOS (HVCMOS) pixel sensors are depleted active pixel sensors implemented in standard commercial CMOS processes. The sensor element is the n-well/p-substrate diode. The sensor electronics are entirely placed inside the n-well which is at the same time used as the charge collection electrode. High voltage is used to deplete the part of the substrate around the n-well. HVCMOS sensors allow implementation of complex in-pixel electronics. This, together with fast signal collection, allows a good time resolution, which is required for particle tracking in high energy physics. HVCMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI and are considered as an option for both ATLAS and CLIC (CERN). Radiation tolerance and time walk compensation have been tested and results are presented. - Highlights: • High-voltage CMOS sensors will be used in Mu3e experiment at PSI (Switzerland). • HVCMOS sensors are considered as an option for ATLAS (LHC/CERN) and CLIC (CERN). • Efficiency of more than 95% (99%) has been measured with (un-)irradiated chips. • The time resolution measured in the beam tests is nearly 100 ns. • We plan to improve time resolution and efficiency by using high-resistive substrate.

  7. Low voltage electron beam accelerators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ochi, Masafumi [Iwasaki Electric Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    2003-02-01

    Widely used electron accelerators in industries are the electron beams with acceleration voltage at 300 kV or less. The typical examples are shown on manufactures in Japan, equipment configuration, operation, determination of process parameters, and basic maintenance requirement of the electron beam processors. New electron beam processors with acceleration voltage around 100 kV were introduced maintaining the relatively high dose speed capability of around 10,000 kGy x mpm at production by ESI (Energy Science Inc. USA, Iwasaki Electric Group). The application field like printing and coating for packaging requires treating thickness of 30 micron or less. It does not require high voltage over 110 kV. Also recently developed is a miniature bulb type electron beam tube with energy less than 60 kV. The new application area for this new electron beam tube is being searched. The drive force of this technology to spread in the industries would be further development of new application, process and market as well as the price reduction of the equipment, upon which further acknowledgement and acceptance of the technology to societies and industries would entirely depend. (Y. Tanaka)

  8. Light-voltage conversion apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujioka, Yoshiki

    1987-09-19

    In a light-voltage conversion unit, when input signal is applied, the output signal to the control circuit has quick rise-up time and slow breaking time. In order to improve this, a short-circuit transistor is placed at the diode, and this transistor is forced ON, when an output signal to the control circuit is lowered down to a constant voltage, to short-circuit between the output terminals. This, however, has a demerit of high power consumption by a transistor. In this invention, by connecting a light-emitting element which gets ON at the first transition and a light-emitting element which gets ON at the last transition, placing a light receiving element in front of each light-emitting element, when an input signal is applied; thus a load is driven only with ON signal of each light-emitting element, eliminating the delay in the last transition. All of these give a quick responsive light-voltage conversion without unnecessary power consumption. (5 figs)

  9. [Development of residual voltage testing equipment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiaohui; Wu, Mingjun; Cao, Li; He, Jinyi; Deng, Zhensheng

    2014-07-01

    For the existing measurement methods of residual voltage which can't turn the power off at peak voltage exactly and simultaneously display waveforms, a new residual voltage detection method is put forward in this paper. First, the zero point of the power supply is detected with zero cross detection circuit and is inputted to a single-chip microcomputer in the form of pulse signal. Secend, when the zero point delays to the peak voltage, the single-chip microcomputer sends control signal to power off the relay. At last, the waveform of the residual voltage is displayed on a principal computer or oscilloscope. The experimental results show that the device designed in this paper can turn the power off at peak voltage and is able to accurately display the voltage waveform immediately after power off and the standard deviation of the residual voltage is less than 0.2 V at exactly one second and later.

  10. Symmetric voltage-controlled variable resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanelli, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Feedback network makes resistance of field-effect transistor (FET) same for current flowing in either direction. It combines control voltage with source and load voltages to give symmetric current/voltage characteristics. Since circuit produces same magnitude output voltage for current flowing in either direction, it introduces no offset in presense of altering polarity signals. It is therefore ideal for sensor and effector circuits in servocontrol systems.

  11. Ultra Low-Voltage Energy Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    if in a solar battery charger the level of illumination were to drop due to cloud cover, the diode would prevent discharging of the battery when...the source voltage becomes lower than battery voltage. The drawback of a simple circuit like this is that once the source voltage is lower than the...longer charged when the battery voltage is above the OV setting. Figure 13. Block diagram of BQ25504 circuit . (From [10]) 18 THIS PAGE

  12. Voltage Quality of Grid Connected Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede; Sun, Tao

    2004-01-01

    Grid connected wind turbines may cause quality problems, such as voltage variation and flicker. This paper discusses the voltage variation and flicker emission of grid connected wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators. A method to compensate flicker by using a voltage source converter...

  13. Manufacturing technology for practical Josephson voltage normals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohlmann, Johannes; Kieler, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    In this contribution we present the manufacturing technology for the fabrication of integrated superconducting Josephson serial circuits for voltage normals. First we summarize some foundations for Josephson voltage normals and sketch the concept and the setup of the circuits, before we describe the manufacturing technology form modern practical Josephson voltage normals.

  14. 49 CFR 234.221 - Lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Lamp voltage. 234.221 Section 234.221 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.221 Lamp voltage. The voltage at each lamp shall be...

  15. Bootstrapped Low-Voltage Analog Switches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard-Madsen, Jesper

    1999-01-01

    Novel low-voltage constant-impedance analog switch circuits are proposed. The switch element is a single MOSFET, and constant-impedance operation is obtained using simple circuits to adjust the gate and bulk voltages relative to the switched signal. Low-voltage (1-volt) operation is made feasible...

  16. Voltage generators of high voltage high power accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svinin, M.P.

    1981-01-01

    High voltage electron accelerators are widely used in modern radiation installations for industrial purposes. In the near future further increasing of their power may be effected, which enables to raise the efficiency of the radiation processes known and to master new power-consuming production in industry. Improvement of HV generators by increasing their power and efficiency is one of many scientific and engineering aspects the successful solution of which provides further development of these accelerators and their technical parameters. The subject is discussed in detail. (author)

  17. Sequence History Update Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanampompan, Teerapat; Gladden, Roy; Fisher, Forest; DelGuercio, Chris

    2008-01-01

    The Sequence History Update Tool performs Web-based sequence statistics archiving for Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO). Using a single UNIX command, the software takes advantage of sequencing conventions to automatically extract the needed statistics from multiple files. This information is then used to populate a PHP database, which is then seamlessly formatted into a dynamic Web page. This tool replaces a previous tedious and error-prone process of manually editing HTML code to construct a Web-based table. Because the tool manages all of the statistics gathering and file delivery to and from multiple data sources spread across multiple servers, there is also a considerable time and effort savings. With the use of The Sequence History Update Tool what previously took minutes is now done in less than 30 seconds, and now provides a more accurate archival record of the sequence commanding for MRO.

  18. Annual Pension Fund Update

    CERN Multimedia

    Pension Fund

    2011-01-01

    All members and beneficiaries of the Pension Fund are invited to attend the Annual Pension Fund Update to be held in the CERN Council Chamber on Tuesday 20 September 2011 from 10-00 to 12-00 a.m. Copies of the 2010 Financial Statements are available from departmental secretariats. Coffee and croissants will be served prior to the meeting as of 9-30 a.m.

  19. Medi SPICE : an update

    OpenAIRE

    Mc Caffery, Fergal; Dorling, Alec; Casey, Valentine

    2010-01-01

    peer-reviewed This paper provides an update on the development of a software process assessment and improvement model (Medi SPICE) specifically for the medical device industry. The development of Medi SPICE was launched at the SPICE 2009 Conference. Medi SPICE will consist of a Process Reference Model and a Process Assessment Model. The Medi SPICE Process Assessment Model will be used to perform conformant assessments of the software process capability of medical device suppliers in accord...

  20. Ontario Hydro's DSP update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    Ontario Hydro's Demand/Supply Plan (DSP), the 25 year plan which was submitted in December 1989, is currently being reviewed by the Environmental Assessment Board (EAB). Since 1989 there have been several changes which have led Ontario Hydro to update the original Demand/Supply Plan. This information sheet gives a quick overview of what has changed and how Ontario Hydro is adapting to that change

  1. Voltage Management in Unbalanced Low Voltage Networks Using a Decoupled Phase-Tap-Changer Transformer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coppo, Massimiliano; Turri, Roberto; Marinelli, Mattia

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies a medium voltage-low voltage transformer with a decoupled on load tap changer capability on each phase. The overall objective is the evaluation of the potential benefits on a low voltage network of such possibility. A realistic Danish low voltage network is used for the analysis...

  2. 76 FR 70721 - Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Staff Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD12-5-000] Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Staff Workshop Take notice that the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission will hold a Workshop on Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids on Thursday, December 1, 2011...

  3. Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You

    2016-06-22

    The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.

  4. Capacitor Voltages Measurement and Balancing in Flying Capacitor Multilevel Converters Utilizing a Single Voltage Sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farivar, Glen; Ghias, Amer M. Y. M.; Hredzak, Branislav

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a new method for measuring capacitor voltages in multilevel flying capacitor (FC) converters that requires only one voltage sensor per phase leg. Multiple dc voltage sensors traditionally used to measure the capacitor voltages are replaced with a single voltage sensor at the ac...... side of the phase leg. The proposed method is subsequently used to balance the capacitor voltages using only the measured ac voltage. The operation of the proposed measurement and balancing method is independent of the number of the converter levels. Experimental results presented for a five-level FC...

  5. Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamponi, Gerald Werner

    Voltage Gated Calcium Channels is the first comprehensive book in the calcium channel field, encompassing over thirty years of progress towards our understanding of calcium channel structure, function, regulation, physiology, pharmacology, and genetics. This book balances contributions from many of the leading authorities in the calcium channel field with fresh perspectives from risings stars in the area, taking into account the most recent literature and concepts. This is the only all-encompassing calcium channel book currently available, and is an essential resource for academic researchers at all levels in the areas neuroscience, biophysics, and cardiovascular sciences, as well as to researchers in the drug discovery area.

  6. Analysis of stray grain formation in single crystal CMSX-4 superalloy; Analyse der Bildung von Fehlkoernern in einer einkristallinen CMSX-4-Superlegierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmiela, Bartosz; Sozanska, Maria; Cwajna, Jan [Silesian Univ. of Technology, Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Materials Science; Szeliga, Dariusz [Rzeszow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Dept. of Materials Science; Jarczyk, Jerzy [ALD Vacuum Technologies, Hanau (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Modern single crystal (SX) turbine blades are fabricated by directional solidification using a grain selector. The grain selection process was investigated by numerical simulation and verified by the experiment. A coupled ProCAST and cellular automaton finite element (CAFE) model was used in this study. According to the latest literature data, we designed the grain selector. Simulation confirmed an optimal grain selection efficiency of the applied selector geometry. The obtained experimental results reveal the possibility of stray grain formation in SX castings with a designed selector, in contrast to the simulation results. (orig.)

  7. Prevalence of haemoparasites in pet, working and stray dogs of Assam and North-East India: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bhattacharjee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim:This research work is aimed to find out the prevalence of haemoparasitic infections in different categories of dogs.Materials and Methods: Out of 2104 dogs registered in the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex of the College ofVeterinary Science, Khanapara, Guwahati during January 2009 to December 2010, blood of 424 cases suspected forhaemoparasites on the basis of clinical history were microscopically examined in wet blood film and giemsa stained bloodsmears.Results: The prevalence was 57.31% in the hospital population comprising pet (58.03% and working (54.54% dogs and63.64% in stray dog population. A total of 7 species viz. Babesia gibsoni (47.16%, Ehrlichia (Anaplasma platys (8.49%,Dirofilaria immitis (2.83%, Ehrlichia canis (2.12%, Babesia canis (1.41%, Hepatozoon canis (1.41% and Ehrlichiaewingii (0.47% in single or mixed infections were recorded. B. gibsoni was found to be most predominant haemoprotozoanspecies. However, B. canis, the large form of Babesia was detected in very few dogs. Similarly, inclusion of E. platys insideblood platelets, although rare in occurrence, was more easily detectable than that of E. canis inside the monocytes andlymphocytes. Infection with D. immitis in pet dogs (2.38% was comparatively lower than in working dogs (4.54% and foundin single and mixed infections with B. gibsoni, B. canis and E. platys. Hepatozoon canis was recorded in 6 hospital dogs eitherin single or mixed infection with B. gibsoni and E. platys. Six species of haemoparasites namely B. gibsoni (47.72%, D.immitis (27.27%, E. platys (4.54%, E. canis (2.27%, E. ewingii (2.27% and H. canis (2.27% were detected in blood ofstray dogs. Trypanosoma evansi as recorded in dogs from other parts of the country was not detected in this study.Conclusion: Present findings led to a significant conclusion that Assam and adjoining states of North East region of India arehighly enzootic for the vector borne haemoparasites of dog.

  8. Protective immune response of oral rabies vaccine in stray dogs, corsacs and steppe wolves after a single immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhugunissov, K; Bulatov, Ye; Taranov, D; Yershebulov, Z; Koshemetov, Zh; Abduraimov, Ye; Kondibayeva, Zh; Samoltyrova, A; Amanova, Zh; Khairullin, B; Sansyzbay, A

    2017-11-01

    In this study the safety and protective immunity of an oral rabies vaccine, based on the live, modified rabies virus strain VRC-RZ2, was examined in stray dogs (Canis Sp.), corsacs (Vulpes corsac) and steppe wolves (Canis lupus campestris). In the safety group (dogs, n=6; corsacs, n=3; wolves, n=3) which was vaccinated with a 10-times field dose/animal, no animals showed any signs of disease or changes in behavior or appetite during the period of clinical observation, similar to the animals in the negative control group. Saliva samples taken from animals prior and post (5 th and 10 th days) vaccination failed to demonstrate rabies virus antigen. Observations of immunogenicity in vaccinated carnivores (dogs, corsacs and wolves) during a 180 day period showed the titers of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) in the blood sera of vaccinated dogs to be within 0.59-1.37 IU/mL. On 14 days post vaccination (dpv), all the wild carnivores had detectable levels of neutralizing antibodies, with mean titers ranging from 0.50 ± 0.07 IU/mL (for wolves) to 0.59 ± 0.10 IU/mL (for corsacs). Weeks after vaccination, all the vaccinated wolves and corsacs had higher levels of neutralizing antibodies: 0.70 ± 0.10 - 0.71 ± 0.08 IU/mL at 30 dpv, 1.06 ± 0.08 - 1.28 ± 0.21 IU/mL at 60 dpv and 0.41 ± 0.09 - 047 ± 0.06 at 180 dpv. The highest level of VNA (˃1.0 IU/ml) was detected at 60 dpv, in all vaccinated animals. After challenge all vaccinated dogs remained healthy for 180 days. Control animals (unvaccinated dogs) developed symptoms of rabies on day 6 post administration of a virulent virus and died of rabies on days 11-13. Of note, the VNA titers in all the wild carnivores (corsacs and wolves) immunized with VRC-RZ2 were higher than 0.5 IU/ml (0.59 ± 0.11 IU/ml), even as early as 14 days post vaccination. These, presumably protective, titers of antibodies to rabies virus were present in the dogs and wild carnivores examined in this study for at

  9. Beyond voltage-gated ion channels: Voltage-operated membrane proteins and cellular processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jianping; Chen, Xingjuan; Xue, Yucong; Gamper, Nikita; Zhang, Xuan

    2018-04-18

    Voltage-gated ion channels were believed to be the only voltage-sensitive proteins in excitable (and some non-excitable) cells for a long time. Emerging evidence indicates that the voltage-operated model is shared by some other transmembrane proteins expressed in both excitable and non-excitable cells. In this review, we summarize current knowledge about voltage-operated proteins, which are not classic voltage-gated ion channels as well as the voltage-dependent processes in cells for which single voltage-sensitive proteins have yet to be identified. Particularly, we will focus on the following. (1) Voltage-sensitive phosphoinositide phosphatases (VSP) with four transmembrane segments homologous to the voltage sensor domain (VSD) of voltage-gated ion channels; VSPs are the first family of proteins, other than the voltage-gated ion channels, for which there is sufficient evidence for the existence of the VSD domain; (2) Voltage-gated proton channels comprising of a single voltage-sensing domain and lacking an identified pore domain; (3) G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) that mediate the depolarization-evoked potentiation of Ca 2+ mobilization; (4) Plasma membrane (PM) depolarization-induced but Ca 2+ -independent exocytosis in neurons. (5) Voltage-dependent metabolism of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PtdIns[4,5]P 2 , PIP 2 ) in the PM. These recent discoveries expand our understanding of voltage-operated processes within cellular membranes. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Dual branch high voltage pulse generator for the beam extraction of the Large Hadron Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Bonthond, J; Ducimetière, L; Jansson, U; Vossenberg, Eugène B

    2002-01-01

    The LHC beam extraction kicker system, MKD, is composed of 15 fast kicker magnets per beam to extract the particles in one turn from the collider and to dispose them, after dilution, on an external absorber. Each magnet is powered by a separate pulse generator. The original single branch generator consisted of a discharge capacitor in series with a solid state closing switch left bracket 1 right bracket operating at 30 kV. In combination with a parallel freewheel diode stack this generator produced a current pulse of 2.7 mus rise time, 18.5 kA amplitude and about 1.8 ms fall time, of which only about 90 mus are needed to dump the beam. The freewheel diode circuit is equipped with a flat top current droop compensation network, consisting of a low voltage, low stray inductance, high current discharge capacitor. Extensive reliability studies have meanwhile suggested to further increase the operational safety of this crucial system by equipping each generator with two parallel branches. This paper presents the re...

  11. Stray Ecological Notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1964-01-01

    1. Scarcity of fruit setting. In some Malesian plants from the rain-forest it is striking that fruit setting on the inflorescence is very late. Many flowers, sometimes hundreds, are produced without ever setting fruit and the entire inflorescence may finally bear but very few fruits situated at the

  12. Update in women's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganschow, Pamela S; Jacobs, Elizabeth A; Mackinnon, Jennifer; Charney, Pamela

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this clinical update is to summarize articles and guidelines published in the last year with the potential to change current clinical practice as it relates to women's health. We used two independent search strategies to identify articles relevant to women's health published between March 1, 2007 and February 29, 2008. First, we reviewed the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and journal indices from the ACP Journal Club, Annals of Internal Medicine, Archives of Internal Medicine, British Medical Journal, Circulation, Diabetes, JAMA, JGIM, Journal of Women's Health, Lancet, NEJM, Obstetrics and Gynecology, and Women's Health Journal Watch. Second, we performed a MEDLINE search using the medical subject heading term "sex factors." The authors, who all have clinical and/or research experience in the area of women's health, reviewed all article titles, abstracts, and, when indicated, full publications. We excluded articles related to obstetrical aspects of women's health focusing on those relevant to general internists. We had two acceptance criteria, scientific rigor and potential to impact women's health. We also identified new and/or updated women's health guidelines released during the same time period. We identified over 250 publications with potential relevance to women's health. Forty-six articles were selected for presentation as part of the Clinical Update, and nine were selected for a more detailed discussion in this paper. Evidence-based women's health guidelines are listed in Table 1. Table 1 Important Women's Health Guidelines in 2007-2008: New or Updated Topic Issuing organization Updated recommendations and comments Mammography screening in women 40-4917 ACP Individualized risk assessment and informed decision making should be used to guide decisions about mammography screening in this age group. To aid in the risk assessment, a discussion of the risk factors, which if present in a woman in her 40s increases her risk to above that of an

  13. UPDATING UNDER RISK CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VĂDUVA CECILIA ELENA

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The foundation for future firm development is investment. Agents have a risk aversion requiring higher returns as the risks associated with the project will be greater. The investment decision determines the market firm's affirmation, increasing the market share, dominating the market. Making an investment at a certain point will determine certain cash flows throughout the life of the project, and a residual value can be obtained when it is taken out of service. The flows and payments for the investment project can be more easily tracked if we are proposing a constant update rate. We will be able to analyze, based on various factors, three techniques for determining the discount rate for investment projects: the opportunity cost, the risk-free rate, and a series of risk premiums, the weighted average cost of capital. People without financial training make value judgments for investment projects based on other market opportunities, comparing the returns that any investment offers to other pay options. An investor has a sum of money he wants to make - if he does not invest in a project, he will invest in another, that will bring him a certain amount of money, choosing the most advantageous project by comparison. All projects are characterized by identical risks, and the agents are considered indifferent to the risks. The answer given by financial theory and practice to the disadvantage of rates in the opportunity cost category is the discount rate calculated as a sum of the risk-free rate and a risk premium, defining the risk as a factor whose action may cause a possible decrease in cash of the available flows. Higher objectivity is presented by the opportunity cost update rates of update because it refers to known variables but cannot be perfectly matched to the performance of the investment process.

  14. WIMS Library updating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravnik, M.; Trkov, A.; Holubar, A.

    1992-01-01

    At the end of 1990 the WIMS Library Update Project (WLUP) has been initiated at the International Atomic Energy Agency. The project was organized as an international research project, coordinated at the J. Stefan Institute. Up to now, 22 laboratories from 19 countries joined the project. Phase 1 of the project, which included WIMS input optimization for five experimental benchmark lattices, has been completed. The work presented in this paper describes also the results of Phase 2 of the Project, in which the cross sections based on ENDF/B-IV evaluated nuclear data library have been processed. (author) [sl

  15. Fusion Energy Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitson, M.O.

    1982-01-01

    Fusion Energy Update (CFU) provides monthly abstracting and indexing coverage of current scientific and technical reports, journal articles, conference papers and proceedings, books, patents, theses, and monographs for all sources on fusion energy. All information announced in CFU, plus additional backup information, is included in the energy information data base of the Department of Energy's Technical Information Center. The subject matter covered by CFU includes plasma physics, the physics and engineering of blankets, magnet coils and fields, power supplies and circuitry, cooling systems, fuel systems, radiation hazards, power conversion systems, inertial confinement systems, and component development and testing

  16. Astrophysics Update 2

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, John W

    2006-01-01

    "Astrophysics Updates" is intended to serve the information needs of professional astronomers and postgraduate students about areas of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology that are rich and active research spheres. Observational methods and the latest results of astronomical research are presented as well as their theoretical foundations and interrelations. The contributed commissioned articles are written by leading exponents in a format that will appeal to professional astronomers and astrophysicists who are interested in topics outside their own specific areas of research. This collection of timely reviews may also attract the interest of advanced amateur astronomers seeking scientifically rigorous coverage.

  17. Context updates are hierarchical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Karl Ingason

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This squib studies the order in which elements are added to the shared context of interlocutors in a conversation. It focuses on context updates within one hierarchical structure and argues that structurally higher elements are entered into the context before lower elements, even if the structurally higher elements are pronounced after the lower elements. The crucial data are drawn from a comparison of relative clauses in two head-initial languages, English and Icelandic, and two head-final languages, Korean and Japanese. The findings have consequences for any theory of a dynamic semantics.

  18. Shipment security update - 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, John; Anne, Catherine

    2003-01-01

    At the 2002 RERTR, NAC reported on the interim measures taken by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to enhance the security afforded to shipments of spent nuclear fuel. Since that time, there have been a number of additional actions focused on shipment security including training programs sponsored by the U.S. Department of Transportation and the Electric Power Research Council, investigation by the Government Accounting Office, and individual measures taken by shippers and transportation agents. The paper will present a status update regarding this dynamic set of events and provide an objective assessment of the cost, schedule and technical implications of the changing security landscape. (author)

  19. Power conditioning using dynamic voltage restorers under different voltage sag types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Ahmed M; Abdel Aleem, Shady H E; Ibrahim, Ahmed M; Balci, Murat E; El-Zahab, Essam E A

    2016-01-01

    Voltage sags can be symmetrical or unsymmetrical depending on the causes of the sag. At the present time, one of the most common procedures for mitigating voltage sags is by the use of dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs). By definition, a DVR is a controlled voltage source inserted between the network and a sensitive load through a booster transformer injecting voltage into the network in order to correct any disturbance affecting a sensitive load voltage. In this paper, modelling of DVR for voltage correction using MatLab software is presented. The performance of the device under different voltage sag types is described, where the voltage sag types are introduced using the different types of short-circuit faults included in the environment of the MatLab/Simulink package. The robustness of the proposed device is evaluated using the common voltage sag indices, while taking into account voltage and current unbalance percentages, where maintaining the total harmonic distortion percentage of the load voltage within a specified range is desired. Finally, several simulation results are shown in order to highlight that the DVR is capable of effective correction of the voltage sag while minimizing the grid voltage unbalance and distortion, regardless of the fault type.

  20. Analyses of the impact of connections’ layout on the coil transient voltage at the Quench Protection Circuit intervention in JT-60SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maistrello, Alberto; Gaio, Elena; Novello, Luca; Matsukawa, Makoto; Yamauchi, Kunihito

    2015-01-01

    The transient overvoltages associated to the interruption of high direct currents with high current derivative, at the base of the operation of a Quench Protection System for Superconducting Coils, have been studied, with particular reference to the JT-60SA project, which adopt edge technology solutions for current interruption: a Hybrid mechanical-static Circuit Breaker as main circuit breaker in series with a PyroBreaker as backup protection. The paper reports in particular on the analyses of the intervention of the backup circuit breaker in the final circuital conditions, considering the actual power connections that will be implemented on Site. The key elements which influence the peak value of the voltage and the relation existing among the different stray impedances of the circuit are identified, thus giving general guidelines for the design of the layout of the power connections. The specific case of JT-60SA is considered, but general criteria can be derived.

  1. Source-sink estimates of genetic introgression show influence of hatchery strays on wild chum salmon populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Jasper

    Full Text Available The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta in Prince William Sound (PWS, Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Historical population structure was inferred from the analysis of DNA from fish scales, which had been archived since the late 1960's for several populations in PWS. Parallel analyses with microsatellites and a test based on Hardy-Weinberg proportions showed that about 50% of the fish-scale DNA was cross-contaminated with DNA from other fish. These samples were removed from the analysis. We used a novel application of the classical source-sink model to compare SNP allele frequencies in these archived fish-scales (1964-1982 with frequencies in contemporary samples (2008-2010 and found a temporal shift toward hatchery allele frequencies in some wild populations. Other populations showed markedly less introgression, despite moderate amounts of hatchery straying. The extent of introgression may reflect similarities in spawning time and life-history traits between hatchery and wild fish, or the degree that hybrids return to a natal spawning area. The source-sink model is a powerful means of detecting low levels of introgression over several generations.

  2. The legal status of cats in New Zealand: a perspective on the welfare of companion, stray, and feral domestic cats (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnworth, Mark J; Dye, Nicholson G; Keown, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Pinpointing and safeguarding the welfare status of domestic cats is problematic, especially in New Zealand where cats are introduced predators with significant impact on indigenous fauna. Usually the identification of welfare status depends on conservational, legal, and public attitudes that are often contrasting. Cats may rapidly transgress definitions placed on them, confounding attempts to categorize them. In 1 generation, cats can move from a human-dependent state ("stray" or "companion") to wild ("feral"). Often this categorization uses arbitrary behavioral and or situational parameters; consequent treatment and welfare protection for these cats are similarly affected. Terminology used to describe cats is not equitable across research. However, the New Zealand Animal Welfare (Companion Cats) Code of Welfare 2007 seeks to create a new definition of the terms companion, stray, and feral. It distinguishes between cats who live within and without human social constructs. This legislation mandates that cats in human environments or indirectly dependent on humans cannot be classified as feral. Such definitions may prove vital when safeguarding the welfare of free-living domestic cats and cat colonies.

  3. Model of inter-cell interference phenomenon in 10 nm magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular anisotropy array due to oscillatory stray field from neighboring cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuchida, Satoshi; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a new model of inter-cell interference phenomenon in a 10 nm magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular anisotropy (p-MTJ) array and investigated the interference effect between a program cell and unselected cells due to the oscillatory stray field from neighboring cells by Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert micromagnetic simulation. We found that interference brings about a switching delay in a program cell and excitation of magnetization precession in unselected cells even when no programing current passes through. The origin of interference is ferromagnetic resonance between neighboring cells. During the interference period, the precession frequency of the program cell is 20.8 GHz, which synchronizes with that of the theoretical precession frequency f = γH eff in unselected cells. The disturbance strength of unselected cells decreased to be inversely proportional to the cube of the distance from the program cell, which is in good agreement with the dependence of stray field on the distance from the program cell calculated by the dipole approximation method.

  4. A simple and fast physics-based analytical method to calculate therapeutic and stray doses from external beam, megavoltage x-ray therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagetic, Lydia J; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2015-06-21

    State-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment planning systems provide reliable estimates of the therapeutic radiation but are known to underestimate or neglect the stray radiation exposures. Most commonly, stray radiation exposures are reconstructed using empirical formulas or lookup tables. The purpose of this study was to develop the basic physics of a model capable of calculating the total absorbed dose both inside and outside of the therapeutic radiation beam for external beam photon therapy. The model was developed using measurements of total absorbed dose in a water-box phantom from a 6 MV medical linear accelerator to calculate dose profiles in both the in-plane and cross-plane direction for a variety of square field sizes and depths in water. The water-box phantom facilitated development of the basic physical aspects of the model. RMS discrepancies between measured and calculated total absorbed dose values in water were less than 9.3% for all fields studied. Computation times for 10 million dose points within a homogeneous phantom were approximately 4 min. These results suggest that the basic physics of the model are sufficiently simple, fast, and accurate to serve as a foundation for a variety of clinical and research applications, some of which may require that the model be extended or simplified based on the needs of the user. A potentially important advantage of a physics-based approach is that the model is more readily adaptable to a wide variety of treatment units and treatment techniques than with empirical models.

  5. High voltage load resistor array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Monty Ray [Smithfield, VA

    2005-01-18

    A high voltage resistor comprising an array of a plurality of parallel electrically connected resistor elements each containing a resistive solution, attached at each end thereof to an end plate, and about the circumference of each of the end plates, a corona reduction ring. Each of the resistor elements comprises an insulating tube having an electrode inserted into each end thereof and held in position by one or more hose clamps about the outer periphery of the insulating tube. According to a preferred embodiment, the electrode is fabricated from stainless steel and has a mushroom shape at one end, that inserted into the tube, and a flat end for engagement with the end plates that provides connection of the resistor array and with a load.

  6. Theoretical analysis of magnetic sensor output voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haishun; Dun Chaochao; Dou Linming; Yang Weiming

    2011-01-01

    The output voltage is an important parameter to determine the stress state in magnetic stress measurement, the relationship between the output voltage and the difference in the principal stresses was investigated by a comprehensive application of magnetic circuit theory, magnetization theory, stress analysis as well as the law of electromagnetic induction, and a corresponding quantitative equation was derived. It is drawn that the output voltage is proportional to the difference in the principal stresses, and related to the angle between the principal stress and the direction of the sensor. This investigation provides a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement by output voltage. - Research highlights: → A comprehensive investigation of magnetic stress signal. → Derived a quantitative equation about output voltage and the principal stresses. → The output voltage is proportional to the difference of the principal stresses. → Provide a theoretical basis for the principle stresses measurement.

  7. Voltage-Controlled Floating Resistor Using DDCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kumngern

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new simple configuration to realize the voltage-controlled floating resistor, which is suitable for integrated circuit implementation. The proposed resistor is composed of three main components: MOS transistor operating in the non-saturation region, DDCC, and MOS voltage divider. The MOS transistor operating in the non-saturation region is used to configure a floating linear resistor. The DDCC and the MOS transistor voltage divider are used for canceling the nonlinear component term of MOS transistor in the non-saturation region to obtain a linear current/voltage relationship. The DDCC is employed to provide a simple summer of the circuit. This circuit offers an ease for realizing the voltage divider circuit and the temperature effect that includes in term of threshold voltage can be compensated. The proposed configuration employs only 16 MOS transistors. The performances of the proposed circuit are simulated with PSPICE to confirm the presented theory.

  8. Spectrum analysis of a voltage source converter due to semiconductor voltage drops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Tonny Wederberg; Eltouki, Mustafa

    2017-01-01

    It is known that power electronic voltage source converters are non-ideal. This paper presents a state-of-the-art review on the effect of semiconductor voltage drop on the output voltage spectrum, using single-phase H-bridge two-level converter topology with natural sampled pulse width modulation....... The paper describes the analysis of output voltage spectrum, when the semiconductor voltage drop is added. The results of the analysis of the spectral contribution including and excluding semiconductor voltage drop reveal a good agreement between the theoretical results, simulations and laboratory...

  9. WIMS Library updating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ravnik, M; Trkov, A [Inst. Jozef Stefan, Ljubljana (Slovenia); Holubar, A [Ustav Jaderneho Vyzkumu CSKAE, Rez (Serbia and Montenegro)

    1992-07-01

    At the end of 1990 the WIMS Library Update Project (WLUP) has been initiated at the International Atomic Energy Agency. The project was organized as an international research project, coordinated at the J. Stefan Institute. Up to now, 22 laboratories from 19 countries joined the project. Phase 1 of the project, which included WIMS input optimization for five experimental benchmark lattices, has been completed. The work presented in this paper describes also the results of Phase 2 of the Project, in which the cross sections based on ENDF/B-IV evaluated nuclear data library have been processed. (author) [Slovenian] Konec 1990 se je na Mednarodni agenciji za atomsko energijo zacel projekt obnove knjiznice presekov programa WIMS (WIMS Library Updating Project, WLUP). V projektu sodeluje 22 laboratorijev iz 19 drzav, koordiniramo pa ga na Institutu Jozef Stefan. Doslej je koncana faza 1 tega projekta, ki obsega optimizacijo vhodnega modela programa WIMS za pet eksperimentalnih testnih problemov. Podani so tudi rezultati faze 2, v kateri so se procesirali preseki na osnovi ENDF/B-IV datoteke. (author)

  10. Distributed Monitoring of Voltage Collapse Sensitivity Indices

    OpenAIRE

    Simpson-Porco, John W.; Bullo, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of voltage stability margins is a promising direction for wide-area monitoring systems. Accurate monitoring architectures for long-term voltage instability are typically centralized and lack scalability, while completely decentralized approaches relying on local measurements tend towards inaccuracy. Here we present distributed linear algorithms for the online computation of voltage collapse sensitivity indices. The computations are collectively performed by processors embedded ...

  11. High voltage investigations for ITER coils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, S.; Fietz, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    The superconducting ITER magnets will be excited with high voltage during operation and fast discharge. Because the coils are complex systems the internal voltage distribution can differ to a large extent from the ideal linear voltage distribution. In case of fast excitations internal voltages between conductor and radial plate of a TF coil can be even higher than the terminal voltage of 3.5 kV to ground which appears during a fast discharge without a fault. Hence the determination of the transient voltage distribution is important for a proper insulation co-ordination and will provide a necessary basis for the verification of the individual insulation design and the choice of test voltages and waveforms. Especially the extent of internal overvoltages in case of failures, e. g. malfunction of discharge units and / or arcing is of special interest. Transient calculations for the ITER TF coil system have been performed for fast discharge and fault scenarios to define test voltages for ITER TF. The conductor and radial plate insulation of the ITER TF Model Coil were exposed at room temperature to test voltages derived from the results from these calculations. Breakdown appeared during the highest AC voltage step. A fault scenario for the TF fast discharge system is presented where one fault triggers a second fault, leading to considerable voltage stress. In addition a FEM model of Poloidal Field Coil 3 for the determination of the parameters of a detailed network model is presented in order to prepare detailed investigations of the transient voltage behaviour of the PF coils. (author)

  12. Maximum permissible voltage of YBCO coated conductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, J.; Lin, B.; Sheng, J.; Xu, J.; Jin, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Hong, Z., E-mail: zhiyong.hong@sjtu.edu.cn [Department of Electrical Engineering, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai (China); Wang, D.; Zhou, H.; Shen, X.; Shen, C. [Qingpu Power Supply Company, State Grid Shanghai Municipal Electric Power Company, Shanghai (China)

    2014-06-15

    Highlights: • We examine three kinds of tapes’ maximum permissible voltage. • We examine the relationship between quenching duration and maximum permissible voltage. • Continuous I{sub c} degradations under repetitive quenching where tapes reaching maximum permissible voltage. • The relationship between maximum permissible voltage and resistance, temperature. - Abstract: Superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) could reduce short circuit currents in electrical power system. One of the most important thing in developing SFCL is to find out the maximum permissible voltage of each limiting element. The maximum permissible voltage is defined as the maximum voltage per unit length at which the YBCO coated conductors (CC) do not suffer from critical current (I{sub c}) degradation or burnout. In this research, the time of quenching process is changed and voltage is raised until the I{sub c} degradation or burnout happens. YBCO coated conductors test in the experiment are from American superconductor (AMSC) and Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU). Along with the quenching duration increasing, the maximum permissible voltage of CC decreases. When quenching duration is 100 ms, the maximum permissible of SJTU CC, 12 mm AMSC CC and 4 mm AMSC CC are 0.72 V/cm, 0.52 V/cm and 1.2 V/cm respectively. Based on the results of samples, the whole length of CCs used in the design of a SFCL can be determined.

  13. Microprocessor-controlled, programmable ramp voltage generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hopwood, J.

    1978-11-01

    A special-purpose voltage generator has been developed for driving the quadrupole mass filter of a residual gas analyzer. The generator is microprocessor-controlled with desired ramping parameters programmed by setting front-panel digital thumb switches. The start voltage, stop voltage, and time of each excursion are selectable. A maximum of five start-stop levels may be pre-selected for each program. The ramp voltage is 0 to 10 volts with sweep times from 0.1 to 999.99 seconds

  14. Low-Voltage Switched-Capacitor Circuits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bidari, E.; Keskin, M.; Maloberti, F.

    1999-01-01

    Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications.......Switched-capacitor stages are described which can function with very low (typically 1 V) supply voltages, without using voltage boosting or switched op-amps. Simulations indicate that high performance may be achieved using these circuits in filter or data converter applications....

  15. Voltage-dependent gating in a "voltage sensor-less" ion channel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harley T Kurata

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The voltage sensitivity of voltage-gated cation channels is primarily attributed to conformational changes of a four transmembrane segment voltage-sensing domain, conserved across many levels of biological complexity. We have identified a remarkable point mutation that confers significant voltage dependence to Kir6.2, a ligand-gated channel that lacks any canonical voltage-sensing domain. Similar to voltage-dependent Kv channels, the Kir6.2[L157E] mutant exhibits time-dependent activation upon membrane depolarization, resulting in an outwardly rectifying current-voltage relationship. This voltage dependence is convergent with the intrinsic ligand-dependent gating mechanisms of Kir6.2, since increasing the membrane PIP2 content saturates Po and eliminates voltage dependence, whereas voltage activation is more dramatic when channel Po is reduced by application of ATP or poly-lysine. These experiments thus demonstrate an inherent voltage dependence of gating in a "ligand-gated" K+ channel, and thereby provide a new view of voltage-dependent gating mechanisms in ion channels. Most interestingly, the voltage- and ligand-dependent gating of Kir6.2[L157E] is highly sensitive to intracellular [K+], indicating an interaction between ion permeation and gating. While these two key features of channel function are classically dealt with separately, the results provide a framework for understanding their interaction, which is likely to be a general, if latent, feature of the superfamily of cation channels.

  16. Excitation of voltage oscillations in an induction voltage adder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichelle Bruner

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The induction voltage adder is an accelerator architecture used in recent designs of pulsed-power driven x-ray radiographic systems such as Sandia National Laboratories’ Radiographic Integrated Test Stand (RITS, the Atomic Weapons Establishment’s planned Hydrus Facility, and the Naval Research Laboratory’s Mercury. Each of these designs relies on magnetic insulation to prevent electron loss across the anode-cathode gap in the vicinity of the adder as well as in the coaxial transmission line. Particle-in-cell simulations of the RITS adder and transmission line show that, as magnetic insulation is being established during a pulse, some electron loss occurs across the gap. Sufficient delay in the cavity pulse timings provides an opportunity for high-momentum electrons to deeply penetrate the cavities of the adder cells where they can excite radio-frequency resonances. These oscillations may be amplified in subsequent gaps, resulting in oscillations in the output power. The specific modes supported by the RITS-6 accelerator and details of the mechanism by which they are excited are presented in this paper.

  17. Challenges to Grid Synchronization of Single-Phase Grid-Connected Inverters in Zero-Voltage Ride-Through Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yongheng; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2016-01-01

    With the fast development in Photovoltaic (PV) technology, the relevant grid-connection requirements/standards are continuously being updated, and more challenges have been imposed on both single-phase and three-phase grid-connected PV systems. For instance, PV systems are currently required...... to remain connected under grid voltage sags (even zero voltage condition). In this case, much attention should be paid to the grid synchronization in such a way to properly ride-through grid faults. Thus, in this paper, the most commonly-used and recently-developed Phase Locked Loop (PLL) synchronization...... methods have been evaluated for single-phase grid-connected PV systems in the case of Zero-Voltage Ride-Through (ZVRT) operation. The performances of the prior-art PLL methods in response to zero voltage faults in terms of detection precision and dynamic response are assessed in this paper. Simulation...

  18. Mapping of Residues Forming the Voltage Sensor of the Voltage-Dependent Anion-Selective Channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Lorie; Blachly-Dyson, Elizabeth; Colombini, Marco; Forte, Michael

    1993-06-01

    Voltage-gated ion-channel proteins contain "voltage-sensing" domains that drive the conformational transitions between open and closed states in response to changes in transmembrane voltage. We have used site-directed mutagenesis to identify residues affecting the voltage sensitivity of a mitochondrial channel, the voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC). Although charge changes at many sites had no effect, at other sites substitutions that increased positive charge also increased the steepness of voltage dependance and substitutions that decreased positive charge decreased voltage dependance by an appropriate amount. In contrast to the plasma membrane K^+ and Na^+ channels, these residues are distributed over large parts of the VDAC protein. These results have been used to define the conformational transitions that accompany voltage gating of an ion channel. This gating mechanism requires the movement of large portions of the VDAC protein through the membrane.

  19. Update on equine allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadok, Valerie A

    2013-12-01

    Horses develop many skin and respiratory disorders that have been attributed to allergy. These disorders include pruritic skin diseases, recurrent urticaria, allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, and reactive airway disease. Allergen-specific IgE has been detected in these horses, and allergen-specific immunotherapy is used to ameliorate clinical signs. The best understood atopic disease in horses is insect hypersensitivity, but the goal of effective treatment with allergen-specific immunotherapy remains elusive. In this review, updates in pathogenesis of allergic states and a brief mention of the new data on what is known in humans and dogs and how that relates to equine allergic disorders are discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Clinical Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geske, Jeffrey B; Ommen, Steve R; Gersh, Bernard J

    2018-05-01

    Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common heritable cardiomyopathy, manifesting as left ventricular hypertrophy in the absence of a secondary cause. The genetic underpinnings of HCM arise largely from mutations of sarcomeric proteins; however, the specific underlying mutation often remains undetermined. Patient presentation is phenotypically diverse, ranging from asymptomatic to heart failure or sudden cardiac death. Left ventricular hypertrophy and abnormal ventricular configuration result in dynamic left ventricular outflow obstruction in most patients. The goal of therapeutic interventions is largely to reduce dynamic obstruction, with treatment modalities spanning lifestyle modifications, pharmacotherapies, and septal reduction therapies. A small subset of patients with HCM will experience sudden cardiac death, and risk stratification remains a clinical challenge. This paper presents a clinical update for diagnosis, family screening, clinical imaging, risk stratification, and management of symptoms in patients with HCM. Copyright © 2018 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Y2K UPDATE

    CERN Multimedia

    Sverre JARP

    1999-01-01

    Concerning Y2K preparation, please note the following:Everybody, who has a NICE installation on his/her PC, needs to log in to NICE at least once before Xmas to get the Y2K update installed. This applies especially to dual boot systems.The test schedule on Y2Kplus.cern.ch will be prolonged. The last restart took place on 10 November and two more will take place on 24 November and 8 December, respectively. The Oracle users responsible for the maintenance of Oracle Forms applications which include PL/SQL blocks where date fields are handled with the default format are requested to contact oracle.support@cern.ch at their earliest convenience.Sverre Jarp (CERN Y2K co-ordinator, phone: 74944)

  2. Amblyopia update: new treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vagge, Aldo; Nelson, Leonard B

    2016-09-01

    This review article is an update on the current treatments for amblyopia. In particular, the authors focus on the concepts of brain plasticity and their implications for novel treatment strategies for both children and adults affected by amblyopia. A variety of strategies has been developed to treat amblyopia in children and adults. New evidence on the pathogenesis of amblyopia has been obtained both in animal models and in clinical trials. Mainly, these studies have challenged the classical concept that amblyopia becomes untreatable after the 'end' of the sensitive or critical period of visual development, because of a lack of sufficient plasticity in the adult brain. New treatments for amblyopia in children and adults are desirable and should be encouraged. However, further studies should be completed before such therapies are widely accepted into clinical practice.

  3. Memory updating and mental arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Ching eHan

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Is domain-general memory updating ability predictive of calculation skills or are such skills better predicted by the capacity for updating specifically numerical information? Here, we used multidigit mental multiplication (MMM as a measure for calculating skill as this operation requires the accurate maintenance and updating of information in addition to skills needed for arithmetic more generally. In Experiment 1, we found that only individual differences with regard to a task updating numerical information following addition (MUcalc could predict the performance of MMM, perhaps owing to common elements between the task and MMM. In Experiment 2, new updating tasks were designed to clarify this: a spatial updating task with no numbers, a numerical task with no calculation, and a word task. The results showed that both MUcalc and the spatial task were able to predict the performance of MMM but only with the more difficult problems, while other updating tasks did not predict performance. It is concluded that relevant processes involved in updating the contents of working memory support mental arithmetic in adults.

  4. Oil sands development update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    A detailed review and update of oil sands development in Alberta are provided covering every aspect of the production and economic aspects of the industry. It is pointed out that at present oil sands account for 28 per cent of Canadian crude oil production, expected to reach 50 per cent by 2005. Based on recent announcements, a total of 26 billion dollars worth of projects are in progress or planned; 20 billion dollars worth of this development is in the Athabasca area, the remainder in Cold Lake and other areas. The current update envisages up to 1,800,000 barrels per day by 2008, creating 47,000 new jobs and total government revenues through direct and indirect taxes of 118 billion dollars. Provinces other than Alberta also benefit from these development, since 60 per cent of all employment and income created by oil sands production is in other parts of Canada. Up to 60 per cent of the expansion is for goods and services and of this, 50 to 55 per cent will be purchased from Canadian sources. The remaining 40 per cent of the new investment is for engineering and construction of which 95 per cent is Canadian content. Aboriginal workforce by common consent of existing operators matches regional representation (about 13 per cent), and new developers are expected to match these standards. Planned or ongoing development in environmental protection through improved technologies and optimization, energy efficiency and improved tailings management, and active support of flexibility mechanisms such as emission credits trading, joint implementation and carbon sinks are very high on the industry's agenda. The importance of offsets are discussed extensively along with key considerations for international negotiations, as well as further research of other options such as sequestration, environmentally benign disposal of waste, and enhanced voluntary action

  5. ADAS Update and Maintainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Leela R.

    2010-01-01

    Since 2000, both the National Weather Service Melbourne (NWS MLB) and the Spaceflight Meteorology Group (SMG) have used a local data integration system (LOIS) as part of their forecast and warning operations. The original LOIS was developed by the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) in 1998 (Manobianco and Case 1998) and has undergone subsequent improvements. Each has benefited from three-dimensional (3-D) analyses that are delivered to forecasters every 15 minutes across the peninsula of Florida. The intent is to generate products that enhance short-range weather forecasts issued in support of NWS MLB and SMG operational requirements within East Central Florida. The current LDIS uses the Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (AD AS) package as its core, which integrates a wide variety of national, regional, and local observational data sets. It assimilates all available real-time data within its domain and is run at a finer spatial and temporal resolution than current national or regional-scale analysis packages. As such, it provides local forecasters with a more comprehensive understanding of evolving fine-scale weather features. Over the years, the LDIS has become problematic to maintain since it depends on AMU-developed shell scripts that were written for an earlier version of the ADAS software. The goals of this task were to update the NWS MLB/SMG LDIS with the latest version of ADAS, incorporate new sources of observational data, and upgrade and modify the AMU-developed shell scripts written to govern the system. In addition, the previously developed ADAS graphical user interface (GUI) was updated. Operationally, these upgrades will result in more accurate depictions of the current local environment to help with short-range weather forecasting applications, while also offering an improved initialization for local versions of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model used by both groups.

  6. Voltage stability in low voltage microgrids in aspects of active and reactive power demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parol Mirosław

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Low voltage microgrids are autonomous subsystems, in which generation, storage and power and electrical energy consumption appear. In the paper the main attention has been paid to the voltage stability issue in low voltage microgrid for different variants of its operation. In the introduction a notion of microgrid has been presented, and also the issue of influence of active and reactive power balance on node voltage level has been described. Then description of voltage stability issue has been presented. The conditions of voltage stability and indicators used to determine voltage stability margin in the microgrid have been described. Description of the low voltage test microgrid, as well as research methodology along with definition of considered variants of its operation have been presented further. The results of exemplary calculations carried out for the daily changes in node load of the active and reactive power, i.e. the voltage and the voltage stability margin indexes in nodes have been presented. Furthermore, the changes of voltage stability margin indexes depending on the variant of the microgrid operation have been presented. Summary and formulation of conclusions related to the issue of voltage stability in microgrids have been included at the end of the paper.

  7. Influence of current limitation on voltage stability with voltage sourced converter HVDC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeni, Lorenzo; Jóhannsson, Hjörtur; Hansen, Anca Daniela

    2013-01-01

    A first study of voltage stability with relevant amount of Voltage Sourced Converter based High Voltage Direct Current (VSC-HVDC) transmission is presented, with particular focus on the converters’ behaviour when reaching their rated current. The detrimental effect of entering the current...

  8. Voltage-Sensitive Load Controllers for Voltage Regulation and Increased Load Factor in Distribution Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip James; Garcia-Valle, Rodrigo; Østergaard, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel controller design for controlling appliances based on local measurements of voltage. The controller finds the normalized voltage deviation accounting for the sensitivity of voltage measurements to appliance state. The controller produces a signal indicating desired pow...

  9. On-site voltage measurement with capacitive sensors on high voltage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, L.; Wouters, P.A.A.F.; Heesch, van E.J.M.; Steennis, E.F.

    2011-01-01

    In Extra/High-Voltage (EHV/HV) power systems, over-voltages occur e.g. due to transients or resonances. At places where no conventional voltage measurement devices can be installed, on-site measurement of these occurrences requires preferably non intrusive sensors, which can be installed with little

  10. 76 FR 72203 - Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Reliability Workshop Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-22

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. AD12-5-000] Voltage Coordination on High Voltage Grids; Notice of Reliability Workshop Agenda As announced in the Notice of Staff..., from 9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. to explore the interaction between voltage control, reliability, and economic...

  11. Working Memory Updating Latency Reflects the Cost of Switching between Maintenance and Updating Modes of Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Yoav; Oberauer, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Updating and maintenance of information are 2 conflicting demands on working memory (WM). We examined the time required to update WM (updating latency) as a function of the sequence of updated and not-updated items within a list. Participants held a list of items in WM and updated a variable subset of them in each trial. Four experiments that vary…

  12. Modeling and Simulation of Low Voltage Arcs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghezzi, L.; Balestrero, A.

    2010-01-01

    Modeling and Simulation of Low Voltage Arcs is an attempt to improve the physical understanding, mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of the electric arcs that are found during current interruptions in low voltage circuit breakers. An empirical description is gained by refined electrical

  13. Reduced Voltage Scaling in Clock Distribution Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khader Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel circuit technique to generate a reduced voltage swing (RVS signals for active power reduction on main buses and clocks. This is achieved without performance degradation, without extra power supply requirement, and with minimum area overhead. The technique stops the discharge path on the net that is swinging low at a certain voltage value. It reduces active power on the target net by as much as 33% compared to traditional full swing signaling. The logic 0 voltage value is programmable through control bits. If desired, the reduced-swing mode can also be disabled. The approach assumes that the logic 0 voltage value is always less than the threshold voltage of the nMOS receivers, which eliminate the need of the low to high voltage translation. The reduced noise margin and the increased leakage on the receiver transistors using this approach have been addressed through the selective usage of multithreshold voltage (MTV devices and the programmability of the low voltage value.

  14. The LMF triaxial MITL voltage adder system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazarakis, M.G.; Smith, D.L.; Bennett, L.F.; Lockner, T.R.; Olson, R.E.; Poukey, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    The light-ion microfusion driver design consists of multiple accelerating modules fired in coincidence and sequentially in order to provide the desired ion energy, power pulse shape and energy deposition uniformity on an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) target. The basic energy source is a number of Marx generators which, through the appropriate pulse power conditioning, provide the necessary voltage pulse wave form to the accelerating gaps or feeds of each module. The cavity gaps are inductively isolated, and the voltage addition occurs in the center conductor of the voltage adder which is the positive electrode while the electrons of the sheath flow closer to the outer cylinder which is the magnetically insulated cathode electrode. Each module powers a separate two-stage extraction diode which provides a low divergence ion beam. In order to provide the two separate voltage pulses required by the diode, a triaxial adder system is designed for each module. The voltage addition occurs in two separate MITLs. The center hollow cylinder (anode) of the second MITL also serves as the outer cathode electrode for the extension of the first voltage adder MITL. The voltage of the second stage is about twice that of the first stage. The cavities are connected in series to form the outer cylinder of each module. The accelerating modules are positioned radially in a symmetrical way around the fusion chamber. A preliminary conceptual design of the LMF modules with emphasis on the voltage adders and extension MITLs will be presented and discussed

  15. Time isolation high-voltage impulse generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodorow, A.M.

    1975-01-01

    Lewis' high-voltage impulse generator is analyzed in greater detail, demonstrating that voltage between adjacent nodes can be equalized by proper selection of parasitic impedances. This permits improved TEM mode propagation to a matched load, with more faithful source waveform preservation

  16. High-voltage engineering and testing

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Hugh M

    2013-01-01

    This 3rd edition of High Voltage Engineering Testing describes strategic developments in the field and reflects on how they can best be managed. All the key components of high voltage and distribution systems are covered including electric power networks, UHV and HV. Distribution systems including HVDC and power electronic systems are also considered.

  17. Improving transition voltage spectroscopy of molecular junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markussen, Troels; Chen, Jingzhe; Thygesen, Kristian Sommer

    2011-01-01

    Transition voltage spectroscopy (TVS) is a promising spectroscopic tool for molecular junctions. The principles in TVS is to find the minimum on a Fowler-Nordheim plot where ln(I/V2) is plotted against 1/V and relate the voltage at the minimum Vmin to the closest molecular level. Importantly, Vmin...

  18. Reducing Ripple In A Switching Voltage Regulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulkovich, John; Rodriguez, G. Ernest

    1994-01-01

    Ripple voltage in output of switching voltage regulator reduced substantially by simple additional circuitry adding little to overall weight and size of regulator. Heretofore, additional filtering circuitry needed to obtain comparable reductions in ripple typically as large and heavy as original regulator. Current opposing ripple current injected into filter capacitor.

  19. Wide-range voltage modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, K.R.; Wilson, J.M.

    1992-06-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider's Medium Energy Booster Abort (MEBA) kicker modulator will supply a current pulse to the abort magnets which deflect the proton beam from the MEB ring into a designated beam stop. The abort kicker will be used extensively during testing of the Low Energy Booster (LEB) and the MEB rings. When the Collider is in full operation, the MEBA kicker modulator will abort the MEB beam in the event of a malfunction during the filling process. The modulator must generate a 14-μs wide pulse with a rise time of less than 1 μs, including the delay and jitter times. It must also be able to deliver a current pulse to the magnet proportional to the beam energy at any time during ramp-up of the accelerator. Tracking the beam energy, which increases from 12 GeV at injection to 200 GeV at extraction, requires the modulator to operate over a wide range of voltages (4 kV to 80 kV). A vacuum spark gap and a thyratron have been chosen for test and evaluation as candidate switches for the abort modulator. Modulator design, switching time delay, jitter and pre-fire data are presented

  20. LED Current Balance Using a Variable Voltage Regulator with Low Dropout vDS Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hung-I Hsieh

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A cost-effective light-emitting diode (LED current balance strategy using a variable voltage regulator (VVR with low dropout vDS control is proposed. This can regulate the multiple metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs of the linear current regulators (LCR, maintaining low dropout vDS on the flat vGS-characteristic curves and making all drain currents almost the same. Simple group LCRs respectively loaded with a string LED are employed to implement the theme. The voltage VVdc from a VVR is synthesized by a string LED voltage NvD, source voltage vR, and a specified low dropout vDS = VQ. The VVdc updates instantly, through the control loop of the master LCR, which means that all slave MOSFETs have almost the same biases on their flat vGS-characteristic curves. This leads to all of the string LED currents being equal to each other, producing an almost even luminance. An experimental setup with microchip control is built to verify the estimations. Experimental results show that the luminance of all of the string LEDs are almost equal to one another, with a maximum deviation below 1% during a wide dimming range, while keeping all vDS of the MOSFETs at a low dropout voltage, as expected.

  1. Practical considerations in voltage stability assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kundur, P; Gao, B [Powertech Labs. Inc., Surrey, BC (Canada)

    1994-12-31

    This paper deals with some of the most important practical issues related to voltage stability assessment of large practical systems. A brief discussion of the practical aspects of voltage stability problem and prevention of voltage instability is given first, followed by descriptions of different analytical techniques and tools for voltage stability analysis. Presentations of analytical tools is focused on the VSTAB program which incorporates the modal analysis, continuation power flow, and shortest distance to instability techniques, Finally, an example case study of a practical large system is presented. The case study illustrates how modal analysis is used to determine the most effective load shedding scheme for preventing voltage instability. (author) 15 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Voltage-assisted polymer wafer bonding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varsanik, J S; Bernstein, J J

    2012-01-01

    Polymer wafer bonding is a widely used process for fabrication of microfluidic devices. However, best practices for polymer bonds do not achieve sufficient bond strength for many applications. By applying a voltage to a polymer bond in a process called voltage-assisted bonding, bond strength is shown to improve dramatically for two polymers (Cytop™ and poly(methyl methacrylate)). Several experiments were performed to provide a starting point for further exploration of this technique. An optimal voltage range is experimentally observed with a reduction in bonding strength at higher voltages. Additionally, voltage-assisted bonding is shown to reduce void diameter due to bond defects. An electrostatic force model is proposed to explain the improved bond characteristics. This process can be used to improve bond strength for most polymers. (paper)

  3. Voltage-gated lipid ion channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blicher, Andreas; Heimburg, Thomas Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic lipid membranes can display channel-like ion conduction events even in the absence of proteins. We show here that these events are voltage-gated with a quadratic voltage dependence as expected from electrostatic theory of capacitors. To this end, we recorded channel traces and current...... histograms in patch-experiments on lipid membranes. We derived a theoretical current-voltage relationship for pores in lipid membranes that describes the experimental data very well when assuming an asymmetric membrane. We determined the equilibrium constant between closed and open state and the open...... probability as a function of voltage. The voltage-dependence of the lipid pores is found comparable to that of protein channels. Lifetime distributions of open and closed events indicate that the channel open distribution does not follow exponential statistics but rather power law behavior for long open times...

  4. Non-contact current and voltage sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpenter, Gary D; El-Essawy, Wael; Ferreira, Alexandre Peixoto; Keller, Thomas Walter; Rubio, Juan C; Schappert, Michael A

    2014-03-25

    A detachable current and voltage sensor provides an isolated and convenient device to measure current passing through a conductor such as an AC branch circuit wire, as well as providing an indication of an electrostatic potential on the wire, which can be used to indicate the phase of the voltage on the wire, and optionally a magnitude of the voltage. The device includes a housing that contains the current and voltage sensors, which may be a ferrite cylinder with a hall effect sensor disposed in a gap along the circumference to measure current, or alternative a winding provided through the cylinder along its axis and a capacitive plate or wire disposed adjacent to, or within, the ferrite cylinder to provide the indication of the voltage.

  5. Coordinated Voltage Control of Active Distribution Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a centralized coordinated voltage control method for active distribution network to solve off-limit problem of voltage after incorporation of distributed generation (DG. The proposed method consists of two parts, it coordinated primal-dual interior point method-based voltage regulation schemes of DG reactive powers and capacitors with centralized on-load tap changer (OLTC controlling method which utilizes system’s maximum and minimum voltages, to improve the qualified rate of voltage and reduce the operation numbers of OLTC. The proposed coordination has considered the cost of capacitors. The method is tested using a radial edited IEEE-33 nodes distribution network which is modelled using MATLAB.

  6. Reliability of supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage in substations extra high voltage to high voltage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Dragoslav M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Switchgear for auxiliary low voltage in substations (SS of extra high voltages (EHV to high voltage (HV - SS EHV/HV kV/kV is of special interest for the functioning of these important SS, as it provides a supply for system of protection and other vital functions of SS. The article addresses several characteristic examples involving MV lines with varying degrees of independence of their supply, and the possible application of direct transformation EHV/LV through special voltage transformers. Auxiliary sources such as inverters and diesel generators, which have limited power and expensive energy, are also used for the supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage. Corresponding reliability indices are calculated for all examples including mean expected annual engagement of diesel generators. The applicability of certain solutions of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage SS EHV/HV, taking into account their reliability, feasibility and cost-effectiveness is analyzed too. In particular, the analysis of applications of direct transformation EHV/LV for supply of switchgear for auxiliary low voltage, for both new and existing SS EHV/HV.

  7. A Performance Study on Synchronous and Asynchronous Update Rules for A Plug-In Direct Particle Swarm Repetitive Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ufnalski Bartlomiej

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two different update schemes for the recently developed plug-in direct particle swarm repetitive controller (PDPSRC are investigated and compared. The proposed approach employs the particle swarm optimizer (PSO to solve in on-line mode a dynamic optimization problem (DOP related to the control task in the constant-amplitude constant-frequency voltage-source inverter (CACF VSI with an LC output filter. The effectiveness of synchronous and asynchronous update rules, both commonly used in static optimization problems (SOPs, is assessed and compared in the case of PDPSRC. The performance of the controller, when synthesized using each of the update schemes, is studied numerically.

  8. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Singh, V P

    2010-06-01

    Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9%). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8%), Trichuris vulpis (7.9%), Spirocerca lupi (5.4%), Toxocara canis (7.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.4%) Giardia intestinalis (5.6%) and Isospora sp. (1.3%). Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7%) than those harbouring 2 (15%) or multiple (2.1%) species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7% of the samples.

  9. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9 %. The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8 %, Trichuris vulpis (7.9 %, Spirocerca lupi (5.4 %, Toxocara canis (7.9 %, Toxascaris leonina (0.4 % Giardia intestinalis (5.6 % and Isospora sp. (1.3 %. Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7 % than those harbouring 2 (15 % or multiple (2.1 % species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7 % of the samples.

  10. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. DateChange typeAffected areas April 11 Update of switch in LHC 4 LHC 4 Point April 14 Update of switch in LHC 5 LHC 5 Point April 15 Update of switches in LHC 3 and LHC 2 Points LHC 3 and LHC 2 April 22 Update of switch N4 Meyrin Ouest April 23 Update of switch  N6 Prévessin Site Ap...

  11. A Novel Index for Online Voltage Stability Assessment Based on Correlation Characteristic of Voltage Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Aghamohammadi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Voltage instability is a major threat for security of power systems. Preserving voltage security margin at a certain limit is a vital requirement for today’s power systems. Assessment of voltage security margin is a challenging task demanding sophisticated indices. In this paper, for the purpose of on line voltage security assessment a new index based on the correlation characteristic of network voltage profile is proposed. Voltage profile comprising all bus voltages contains the effect of network structure, load-generation patterns and reactive power compensation on the system behaviour and voltage security margin. Therefore, the proposed index is capable to clearly reveal the effect of system characteristics and events on the voltage security margin. The most attractive feature for this index is its fast and easy calculation from synchronously measured voltage profile without any need to system modelling and simulation and without any dependency on network size. At any instant of system operation by merely measuring network voltage profile and no further simulation calculation this index could be evaluated with respect to a specific reference profile. The results show that the behaviour of this index with respect to the change in system security is independent of the selected reference profile. The simplicity and easy calculation make this index very suitable for on line application. The proposed approach has been demonstrated on IEEE 39 bus test system with promising results showing its effectiveness and applicability.

  12. Updating optical pseudoinverse associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telfer, B; Casasent, D

    1989-07-01

    Selected algorithms for adding to and deleting from optical pseudoinverse associative memories are presented and compared. New realizations of pseudoinverse updating methods using vector inner product matrix bordering and reduced-dimensionality Karhunen-Loeve approximations (which have been used for updating optical filters) are described in the context of associative memories. Greville's theorem is reviewed and compared with the Widrow-Hoff algorithm. Kohonen's gradient projection method is expressed in a different form suitable for optical implementation. The data matrix memory is also discussed for comparison purposes. Memory size, speed and ease of updating, and key vector requirements are the comparison criteria used.

  13. Novel Voltage limiting concept for avalance breakdown protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, L.C.H.; Bezooijen, van A.; Mahmoudi, R.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Destructive over-voltage breakdown of cellular phone power transistors is prevented by using a new voltage-limiting concept. The output voltage is detected by an avalanche-based detector, and limited by decreasing the output power when needed. The voltage detector contains a low voltage bipolar NPN

  14. Ontario regulatory update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.

    1998-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of recent events which when combined add up to a gradual but unmistakable movement of the energy sector in Ontario towards a fully competitive market. Some of the events precipitating this movement towards competition include the passing of the Energy Competition Act of 1998 (Bill 35), electricity deregulation, regulatory reform of the natural gas sector, and changes to the consumer protection legislation. The role of the Ontario Energy Board was also updated to bring it in line with the demands of the competitive marketplace. Among the new roles that the Board will assume are to facilitate competition, to maintain fair and reasonable rates, and to facilitate rational expansion. Another objective is to provide opportunities for including energy efficiency in government policies. Implications of the changes in the OEB's mandate for market participants were also discussed, including (1) regulated gas sales and delivery mechanisms, (2) transactional services, (3) contract restructuring, (4) consumer protection, (5) supervision of competitive market participants, and (6) market surveillance

  15. Advanced Stirling Convertor Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, J. Gary; Carroll, Cliff; Matejczyk, Dan; Penswick, L. B.; Soendker, E.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on the 88 We Advanced Stirling Convertor (ASC) currently being developed under Phase II of a NASA NRA program for possible use in advanced high specific power radioisotope space power systems. An early developmental unit, the Frequency Test Bed (FTB) which was built and tested in Phase I demonstrated 36% efficiency. The ASC-1 currently being developed under Phase II, uses a high temperature heater head to allow for operation at 850 °C and is expected to have an efficiency approaching 40% (based on AC electrical out) at a temperature ratio of 3.1. The final lightweight ASC-2 convertor to be developed in Phase III is expected to have a mass of approximately 1 kg. The implementation of the ASC would allow for much higher specific power radioisotope power systems, requiring significantly less radioisotope fuel than current systems. The first run of the ASC-1 occurred in September 2005, and full temperature operation was achieved in early October 2005. Presented is an update on progress on the ASC program as well as the plans for future development. Also presented are efforts being performed to ensure the ASC has the required long life already demonstrated in free-piston Stirling cryocoolers.

  16. Tetraplegia Management Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridén, Jan; Gohritz, Andreas

    2015-12-01

    Tetraplegia is a profound impairment of mobility manifesting as a paralysis of all 4 extremities owing to cervical spinal cord injury. The purpose of this article is to provide an update and analyze current management, treatment options, and outcomes of surgical reconstruction of arm and hand function. Surgical restoration of elbow and wrist extension or handgrip has tremendous potential to improve autonomy, mobility, and critical abilities, for example, eating, personal care, and self-catheterization and productive work in at least 70% of tetraplegic patients. Tendon and nerve transfers, tenodeses, and joint stabilizations reliably enable improved arm and hand usability, reduce muscle imbalance and pain in spasticity, and prevent joint contractures. One-stage combined procedures have proven considerable advantages over traditional multistage approaches. Immediate activation of transferred muscles reduces the risk of adhesions, facilitates relearning, avoids adverse effects of immobilization, and enhances functional recovery. Transfer of axillary, musculocutaneous, and radial nerve fascicles from above the spinal cord injury are effective and promising options to enhance motor outcome and sensory protection, especially in groups with limited resources. Improved communication between medical disciplines, therapists, patients, and their relatives should help that more individuals can benefit from these advances and could empower many thousands tetraplegic individuals "to take life into their own hands" and live more independently. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Update in Internal Medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Jiménez, Francisco; Brito, Máximo; Aude, Y. Wady; Scheinberg, Phillip; Kaplan, Mariana; Dixon, Denise A.; Schneiderman, Neil; Trejo, Jorge F.; López-Salazar, Luis Humberto; Ramírez-Barba, Ector Jaime; Kalil, Roberto; Ortiz, Carmen; Goyos, José; Buenaño, Alvaro; Kottiech, Samer; Lamas, Gervasio A.

    2009-01-01

    More than 500,000 new medical articles are published every year and available time to keep updated is scarcer every day. Nowadays, the task of selecting useful, consistent, and relevant information for clinicians is a priority in many major medical journals. This review has the aim of gathering the results of the most important findings in clinical medicine in the last few years. It is focused on results from randomized clinical trials and well-designed observational research. Findings were included preferentially if they showed solid results, and we avoided as much as possible including only preliminary data, or results that included only non-clinical outcomes. Some of the most relevant findings reported here include the significant benefit of statins in patients with coronary artery disease even with mean cholesterol level. It also provides a substantial review of the most significant trials assessing the effectiveness of IIb/IIIa receptor blockers. In gastroenterology many advances have been made in the H. pylori eradication, and the finding that the cure of H. pylori infection may be followed by gastroesophageal reflux disease. Some new antivirals have shown encouraging results in patients with chronic hepatitis. In the infectious disease arena, the late breaking trials in anti-retroviral disease are discussed, as well as the new trends regarding antibiotic resistance. This review approaches also the role of leukotriene modifiers in the treatment of asthma and discusses the benefit of using methylprednisolone in patients with adult respiratory distress syndrome, among many other advances in internal medicine. PMID:11068074

  18. Fuel Cell/Electrochemical Cell Voltage Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasquez, Arturo

    2012-01-01

    A concept has been developed for a new fuel cell individual-cell-voltage monitor that can be directly connected to a multi-cell fuel cell stack for direct substack power provisioning. It can also provide voltage isolation for applications in high-voltage fuel cell stacks. The technology consists of basic modules, each with an 8- to 16-cell input electrical measurement connection port. For each basic module, a power input connection would be provided for direct connection to a sub-stack of fuel cells in series within the larger stack. This power connection would allow for module power to be available in the range of 9-15 volts DC. The relatively low voltage differences that the module would encounter from the input electrical measurement connection port, coupled with the fact that the module's operating power is supplied by the same substack voltage input (and so will be at similar voltage), provides for elimination of high-commonmode voltage issues within each module. Within each module, there would be options for analog-to-digital conversion and data transfer schemes. Each module would also include a data-output/communication port. Each of these ports would be required to be either non-electrical (e.g., optically isolated) or electrically isolated. This is necessary to account for the fact that the plurality of modules attached to the stack will normally be at a range of voltages approaching the full range of the fuel cell stack operating voltages. A communications/ data bus could interface with the several basic modules. Options have been identified for command inputs from the spacecraft vehicle controller, and for output-status/data feeds to the vehicle.

  19. High voltage electricity installations a planning perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Jay, Stephen Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The presence of high voltage power lines has provoked widespread concern for many years. High Voltage Electricity Installations presents an in-depth study of policy surrounding the planning of high voltage installations, discussing the manner in which they are percieved by the public, and the associated environmental issues. An analysis of these concerns, along with the geographical, environmental and political influences that shape their expression, is presented. Investigates local planning policy in an area of the energy sector that is of highly topical environmental and public concern Cover

  20. Investigation of voltage swell mitigation using STATCOM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razak, N A Abdul; Jaafar, S; Hussain, I S

    2013-01-01

    STATCOM is one of the best applications of a self commutated FACTS device to control power quality problems in the distribution system. This project proposed a STATCOM model with voltage control mechanism. DQ transformation was implemented in the controller system to achieve better estimation. Then, the model was used to investigate and analyse voltage swell problem in distribution system. The simulation results show that voltage swell could contaminate distribution network with unwanted harmonic frequencies. Negative sequence frequencies give harmful effects to the network. System connected with proposed STATCOM model illustrates that it could mitigate this problems efficiently.

  1. Analysis of NSTX TF Joint Voltage Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolley R

    2005-01-01

    This report presents findings of analyses of recorded current and voltage data associated with 72 electrical joints operating at high current and high mechanical stress. The analysis goal was to characterize the mechanical behavior of each joint and thus evaluate its mechanical supports. The joints are part of the toroidal field (TF) magnet system of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) pulsed plasma device operating at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Since there is not sufficient space near the joints for much traditional mechanical instrumentation, small voltage probes were installed on each joint and their voltage monitoring waveforms have been recorded on sampling digitizers during each NSTX ''shot''

  2. Argonne Wakefield Accelerator Update '92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosing, M.; Balka, L.; Chojnacki, E.; Gai, W.; Ho, C.; Konecny, R.; Power, J.; Schoessow, P.; Simpson, J.

    1992-01-01

    The Argonne Wakefield Accelerator (AWA) is an experiment designed to test various ideas related to wakefield technology. Construction is now underway for a 100 nC electron beam in December of 1992. This report updates this progress

  3. Internet Journal of Medical Update

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Internet Journal of Medical Update 2010 July;5(2):8-14. Internet Journal ... hospitalizations. This study of Nigerian patients with diabetes examined the adequacy of ..... Physicians need .... relationship between patient education and glycaemic ...

  4. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2010-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Featuring the fundamental framework along with the history and background of communication technologies, Communication Technology Update and Fundamentals, 12th edition helps you stay ahead of these ever-changing and emerging technologies.As always, every chapter ha

  5. New uses of sulfur - update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, K.P.

    1995-07-01

    An update to an extensive bibliography on alternate uses of sulfur was presented. Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., previously compiled a bibliography in volume 24 of this quarterly bulletin. This update provides an additional 44 new publications. The information regarding current research focusses on topics regarding the use of sulfur in oil and gas applications, mining and metallurgy, concretes and other structural materials, waste management, rubber and textile products, asphalts and other paving and highway applications.

  6. Communication technology update and fundamentals

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, August E

    2008-01-01

    New communication technologies are being introduced at an astonishing rate. Making sense of these technologies is increasingly difficult. Communication Technology Update is the single best source for the latest developments, trends, and issues in communication technology. Now in its 11th edition, Communication Technology Update has become an indispensable information resource for business, government, and academia. As always, every chapter has been completely rewritten to reflect the latest developments and market statistics, and now covers mobile computing, dig

  7. NB market update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W. K.

    2004-01-01

    The 2004 New Brunswick proclamation introduced several changes to the industry. This paper presents an update of the current New Brunswick electricity market from the perspective of the recently created New Brunswick System Operator (NBSO). A comparison was made between the modified industry and the previous industry structure. Significant changes included: corporate restructuring and market implementation; the formation of the independent system operator; and an increase in Public Utilities Board regulatory authority. The main objectives of the NBSO were reviewed, including its intention to reliably plan and operate the integrated power system as well as facilitating and operating the electricity market. Details of directors and officers were provided along with a list of legislated functions which included entering agreements with transmitters; provision and procurement of ancillary services; maintenance of integrated system; coordination of external activities; participation with standards authorities; planning and development of transmission; and the facilitation of a competitive market. An outline of the NBSO, Transco and Public Utilities Board relationships were presented. Details of the market advisory committee were outlined, with information concerning contracts, operations and services agreements. Transmission and ancillary services were also discussed, as well as issues concerning interruptible load agreements. A chart of the New Brunswick electricity market structure was presented, along with a market overview including details of capacity, ancillary services and suppliers. Market rules and amendments were presented, as well as market participation guides. Details of generation resource adequacy requirements and the imposition of penalties were outlined. Scheduling and dispatch issues were overviewed, as well as settlement processes, inputs and their sources, including settlements for variances. Future development possibilities included an expansion of

  8. Nova Scotia electricity update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandlemire, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an update of electricity issues concerning Nova Scotia such as supply, capacity, emission commitments, as well as co-generation and the Electricity Marketplace Governance Committee (EMGC). The goals of the strategy were reliability combined with competitive prices and greater environmental responsibility. The scope of these objectives included new capacity, transmission, renewables and co-generation. Other objectives included encouraging wholesale market competition; meeting reciprocity requirements; and a 50 MW renewable energy target. Recommendations of the EMGC included wholesale market competition; a broader market scope with a cost benefit analysis; Open Access Transmission Tariff (OATT); a scheduling and information system; network integration and a point to point service; and a separation of transmission and generation business units. Other recommendations included an open competitive process for new generation; a consideration of emissions and overall efficiency; a Renewable Energy Portfolio Standard (RPS) to start in 2006; the separation of RPS tags from electricity; and net metering of renewables. These recommendations were accepted in 2003, followed by the new Electricity Act in 2004, which made OATT mandatory, established RPS and opened to the wholesale market. Capacity at present was considered to be tight, with preparations for the new regulations under way. Reductions in air pollution were reported at 25 per cent, with renewable energy projects such as 2 windmills currently under way, as well as various other projects. Opportunities for provincial Atlantic cooperation were identified as being management of reserve requirements; trading of lowest cost electricity; new generation on a regional scale; stronger transmission ties; a system operator; a regional approach to RPS; regional management of air emissions; and regional opportunities for Carbon dioxide reductions. tabs., figs

  9. Design and Control of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John Godsk

    voltage until the energy storage is completely drained or the voltages have returned to normal voltage levels. The control of the HV-DVR is a combined feedforward and feedback control to have a fast response time and load independent voltages. The control is implemented in a rotating dq-reference frame...... electric consumers against voltage dips and surges in the medium and low voltage distribution grid. The thesis first gives an introduction to relevant power quality issues for a DVR and power electronic controllers for voltage dip mitigation. Thereafter the operation and the elements in a DVR are described...... of symmetrical and non-symmetrical voltage dips. In most cases the DVR is capable of restoring the load voltages within 2 ms. During the transition phases load voltage oscillations can be generated and during the return of the supply voltages short time over-voltages can be generated by the DVR. Both...

  10. Decentralized Consistent Updates in SDN

    KAUST Repository

    Nguyen, Thanh Dang

    2017-04-10

    We present ez-Segway, a decentralized mechanism to consistently and quickly update the network state while preventing forwarding anomalies (loops and blackholes) and avoiding link congestion. In our design, the centralized SDN controller only pre-computes information needed by the switches during the update execution. This information is distributed to the switches, which use partial knowledge and direct message passing to efficiently realize the update. This separation of concerns has the key benefit of improving update performance as the communication and computation bottlenecks at the controller are removed. Our evaluations via network emulations and large-scale simulations demonstrate the efficiency of ez-Segway, which compared to a centralized approach, improves network update times by up to 45% and 57% at the median and the 99th percentile, respectively. A deployment of a system prototype in a real OpenFlow switch and an implementation in P4 demonstrate the feasibility and low overhead of implementing simple network update functionality within switches.

  11. Fiber-optic voltage measuring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Miaoyuan; Nie, De-Xin; Li, Yan; Peng, Yu; Lin, Qi-Qing; Wang, Jing-Gang

    1993-09-01

    A new fibre optic voltage measuring system has been developed based on the electrooptic effect of bismuth germanium oxide (Bi4Ge3O12)crystal. It uses the LED as the light source. The light beam emitted from the light source is transmitted to the sensor through the optic fibre and the intensity of the output beam is changed by the applied voltage. This optic signal is transmitted to the PIN detector and converted to an electric signal which is processed by the electronic circuit and 8098 single chip microcomputer the output voltage signal obtained is directly proportional to the applied voltage. This paper describes the principle the configuration and the performance parameters of the system. Test results are evaluated and discussed.

  12. Constant potential high-voltage generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Resnick, T.A.; Dupuis, W.A.; Palermo, T.

    1980-01-01

    An X-ray tube voltage generator with automatic stabilization circuitry is disclosed. The generator includes a source of pulsating direct current voltage such as from a rectified 3 phase transformer. This pulsating voltage is supplied to the cathode and anode of an X-ray tube and forms an accelerating potential for electrons within that tube. The accelerating potential is stabilized with a feedback signal which is provided by a feedback network. The network includes an error signal generator which compares an instantaneous accelerating potential with a preferred reference accelerating potential and generates an error function. This error function is transmitted to a control tube grid which in turn causes the voltage difference between X-ray tube cathode and anode to stabilize and thereby reduce the error function. In this way stabilized accelerating potentials are realized and uniform X-ray energy distributions produced. (Auth.)

  13. Nested high voltage generator/particle accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adler, R.J.

    1992-01-01

    This patent describes a modular high voltage particle accelerator having an emission axis and an emission end, the accelerator. It comprises: a plurality of high voltage generators in nested adjacency to form a nested stack, each the generator comprising a cup-like housing having a base and a tubular sleeve extending from the base, a primary transformer winding encircling the nested stack; a secondary transformer winding between each adjacent pair of housings, magnetically linked to the primary transformer winding through the gaps; a power supply respective to each of the secondary windings converting alternating voltage from its respective secondary winding to d.c. voltage, the housings at the emission end forming a hollow throat for particle acceleration, a vacuum seal at the emission end of the throat which enables the throat to be evacuated; a particle source in the thrond power means to energize the primary transformer winding

  14. Low voltage arc formation in railguns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, R.S.

    1985-08-05

    A low voltage plasma arc is first established across the rails behind the projectile by switching a low voltage high current source across the rails to establish a plasma arc by vaporizing a fuse mounted on the back of the projectile, maintaining the voltage across the rails below the railgun breakdown voltage to prevent arc formation ahead of the projectile. After the plasma arc has been formed behind the projectile a discriminator switches the full energy bank across the rails to accelerate the projectile. A gas gun injector may be utilized to inject a projectile into the breech of a railgun. The invention permits the use of a gas gun or gun powder injector and an evacuated barrel without the risk of spurious arc formation in front of the projectile.

  15. Voltage, Temperature, Frequency Margin Test Report

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Denver, Troelz

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the tests is to establish the camera functionality when it is exposed to an extreme environment for prolonged periods, thus simulating the end of life performance. This environment covers temperature, input clock frequency and supply voltage variation......The purpose of the tests is to establish the camera functionality when it is exposed to an extreme environment for prolonged periods, thus simulating the end of life performance. This environment covers temperature, input clock frequency and supply voltage variation...

  16. Detecting Faults In High-Voltage Transformers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blow, Raymond K.

    1988-01-01

    Simple fixture quickly shows whether high-voltage transformer has excessive voids in dielectric materials and whether high-voltage lead wires too close to transformer case. Fixture is "go/no-go" indicator; corona appears if transformer contains such faults. Nests in wire mesh supported by cap of clear epoxy. If transformer has defects, blue glow of corona appears in mesh and is seen through cap.

  17. Ultra-low Voltage CMOS Cascode Amplifier

    OpenAIRE

    Lehmann, Torsten; Cassia, Marco

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we design a folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier in a standard CMOS process, which has a measured 69 dB DC gain, a 2 MHz bandwidth and compatible input- and output voltage levels at a 1 V power supply. This is done by a novel Current Driven Bulk (CDB) technique, which reduces the MOST threshold voltage by forcing a constant current though the transistor bulk terminal. We also look at limitations and improvements of this CDB technique.

  18. Ultra-low Voltage CMOS Cascode Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lehmann, Torsten; Cassia, Marco

    2000-01-01

    In this paper, we design a folded cascode operational transconductance amplifier in a standard CMOS process, which has a measured 69 dB DC gain, a 2 MHz bandwidth and compatible input- and output voltage levels at a 1 V power supply. This is done by a novel Current Driven Bulk (CDB) technique......, which reduces the MOST threshold voltage by forcing a constant current though the transistor bulk terminal. We also look at limitations and improvements of this CDB technique....

  19. Spatial and temporal instabilities in high voltage power devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Milady, Saeed

    2010-01-29

    Dynamic avalanche can occur during the turn-off process of high voltage bipolar devices, e.g. IGBTs and p{sup +}n{sup -}n{sup +} power diodes, that may result in spatial instabilities of the homogeneous current density distribution across the device and the formation of current filaments. Filaments may cause the destruction of the device, mainly because of the high local temperatures. The first part of this work is dedicated to the current filament behavior. The positive feedback mechanisms caused by the transient current flow through the gate capacitance of an IGBT operating under short circuit conditions may result in oscillations and temporal instabilities of the IGBT current. The oscillations may cause electromagnetic interference (EMI). Furthermore, the positive feedback mechanism may accelerate the over-heating of the device and result in a thermal run-away. This is the subject of the second part of this work. In the first part of this work using the device simulation results of power diodes the underlying physical mechanisms of the filament dynamic is investigated. Simulation results of diode structures with evenly distributed doping inhomogeneities show that, the filament motion gets smoother as the distance between the inhomogeneities decreases. Hopping to faraway inhomogeneities turns into the hopping to neighboring ones and finally a smooth motion. In homogeneous structures the slow inhibitory effect of the electron-hole plasma extraction and the fast activation, due to hole current flowing along the filament, result in a smooth filament motion. An analytical model for the filament velocity under isothermal conditions is presented that can reproduce the simulation data satisfactorily. The influence of the boundary conditions on the filament behavior is discussed. The positive beveled edge termination prohibits a long stay of the filament at the edge reducing the risk of filament pinning. Self-heating effects may turn the initially electrically triggered

  20. Modular high voltage power supply for chemical analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamps, James F [Livermore, CA; Yee, Daniel D [Dublin, CA

    2008-07-15

    A high voltage power supply for use in a system such as a microfluidics system, uses a DC-DC converter in parallel with a voltage-controlled resistor. A feedback circuit provides a control signal for the DC-DC converter and voltage-controlled resistor so as to regulate the output voltage of the high voltage power supply, as well as, to sink or source current from the high voltage supply.

  1. Wind Power Plant Voltage Stability Evaluation: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E.; Zhang, Y. C.

    2014-09-01

    Voltage stability refers to the ability of a power system to maintain steady voltages at all buses in the system after being subjected to a disturbance from a given initial operating condition. Voltage stability depends on a power system's ability to maintain and/or restore equilibrium between load demand and supply. Instability that may result occurs in the form of a progressive fall or rise of voltages of some buses. Possible outcomes of voltage instability are the loss of load in an area or tripped transmission lines and other elements by their protective systems, which may lead to cascading outages. The loss of synchronism of some generators may result from these outages or from operating conditions that violate a synchronous generator's field current limit, or in the case of variable speed wind turbine generator, the current limits of power switches. This paper investigates the impact of wind power plants on power system voltage stability by using synchrophasor measurements.

  2. Experimental validation of prototype high voltage bushing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Sejal; Tyagi, H.; Sharma, D.; Parmar, D.; M. N., Vishnudev; Joshi, K.; Patel, K.; Yadav, A.; Patel, R.; Bandyopadhyay, M.; Rotti, C.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-08-01

    Prototype High voltage bushing (PHVB) is a scaled down configuration of DNB High Voltage Bushing (HVB) of ITER. It is designed for operation at 50 kV DC to ensure operational performance and thereby confirming the design configuration of DNB HVB. Two concentric insulators viz. Ceramic and Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) rings are used as double layered vacuum boundary for 50 kV isolation between grounded and high voltage flanges. Stress shields are designed for smooth electric field distribution. During ceramic to Kovar brazing, spilling cannot be controlled which may lead to high localized electrostatic stress. To understand spilling phenomenon and precise stress calculation, quantitative analysis was performed using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) of brazed sample and similar configuration modeled while performing the Finite Element (FE) analysis. FE analysis of PHVB is performed to find out electrical stresses on different areas of PHVB and are maintained similar to DNB HV Bushing. With this configuration, the experiment is performed considering ITER like vacuum and electrical parameters. Initial HV test is performed by temporary vacuum sealing arrangements using gaskets/O-rings at both ends in order to achieve desired vacuum and keep the system maintainable. During validation test, 50 kV voltage withstand is performed for one hour. Voltage withstand test for 60 kV DC (20% higher rated voltage) have also been performed without any breakdown. Successful operation of PHVB confirms the design of DNB HV Bushing. In this paper, configuration of PHVB with experimental validation data is presented.

  3. VKCDB: Voltage-gated potassium channel database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallin Warren J

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The family of voltage-gated potassium channels comprises a functionally diverse group of membrane proteins. They help maintain and regulate the potassium ion-based component of the membrane potential and are thus central to many critical physiological processes. VKCDB (Voltage-gated potassium [K] Channel DataBase is a database of structural and functional data on these channels. It is designed as a resource for research on the molecular basis of voltage-gated potassium channel function. Description Voltage-gated potassium channel sequences were identified by using BLASTP to search GENBANK and SWISSPROT. Annotations for all voltage-gated potassium channels were selectively parsed and integrated into VKCDB. Electrophysiological and pharmacological data for the channels were collected from published journal articles. Transmembrane domain predictions by TMHMM and PHD are included for each VKCDB entry. Multiple sequence alignments of conserved domains of channels of the four Kv families and the KCNQ family are also included. Currently VKCDB contains 346 channel entries. It can be browsed and searched using a set of functionally relevant categories. Protein sequences can also be searched using a local BLAST engine. Conclusions VKCDB is a resource for comparative studies of voltage-gated potassium channels. The methods used to construct VKCDB are general; they can be used to create specialized databases for other protein families. VKCDB is accessible at http://vkcdb.biology.ualberta.ca.

  4. Beam induced rf cavity transient voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, S.L.; Wang, J.M.

    1998-10-01

    The authors calculate the transient voltage induced in a radio frequency cavity by the injection of a relativistic bunched beam into a circular accelerator. A simplified model of the beam induced voltage, using a single tone current signal, is generated and compared with the voltage induced by a more realistic model of a point-like bunched beam. The high Q limit of the bunched beam model is shown to be related simply to the simplified model. Both models are shown to induce voltages at the resonant frequency ω r of the cavity and at an integer multiple of the bunch revolution frequency (i.e. the accelerating frequency for powered cavity operation) hω ο . The presence of two nearby frequencies in the cavity leads to a modulation of the carrier wave exp(hω ο t). A special emphasis is placed in this paper on studying the modulation function. These models prove useful for computing the transient voltage induced in superconducting rf cavities, which was the motivation behind this research. The modulation of the transient cavity voltage discussed in this paper is the physical basis of the recently observed and explained new kinds of longitudinal rigid dipole mode which differs from the conventional Robinson mode

  5. Prediction of breakdown voltages in novel gases for high voltage insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koch, M.

    2015-07-01

    This thesis submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich examines the use of sulphur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and similar gases as important insulation media for high voltage equipment. Due to its superior insulation properties, SF{sub 6} is widely used in gas-insulated switchgear. However, the gas also has a very high global warming potential and the content of SF{sub 6} in the atmosphere is constantly increasing. The search for new insulation gases using classical breakdown experiments is discussed. A model for SF{sub 6} based on the stepped leader model is described. This calculates the breakdown voltages in arbitrary electrode configurations and under standard voltage waveforms. Thus, the thesis provides a method for the prediction of breakdown voltages of arbitrary field configurations under standard voltage waveforms for gases with electron-attaching properties. With this, further gases can be characterized for usage as high voltage insulation media.

  6. Prediction of breakdown voltages in novel gases for high voltage insulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis submitted to the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology ETH in Zurich examines the use of sulphur hexafluoride (SF_6) and similar gases as important insulation media for high voltage equipment. Due to its superior insulation properties, SF_6 is widely used in gas-insulated switchgear. However, the gas also has a very high global warming potential and the content of SF_6 in the atmosphere is constantly increasing. The search for new insulation gases using classical breakdown experiments is discussed. A model for SF_6 based on the stepped leader model is described. This calculates the breakdown voltages in arbitrary electrode configurations and under standard voltage waveforms. Thus, the thesis provides a method for the prediction of breakdown voltages of arbitrary field configurations under standard voltage waveforms for gases with electron-attaching properties. With this, further gases can be characterized for usage as high voltage insulation media

  7. Advanced Control of the Dynamic Voltage Restorer for Mitigating Voltage Sags in Power Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dung Vo Tien

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a vector control with two cascaded loops to improve the properties of Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR to minimize Voltage Sags on the grid. Thereby, a vector controlled structure was built on the rotating dq-coordinate system with the combination of voltage control and the current control. The proposed DVR control method is modelled using MATLAB-Simulink. It is tested using balanced/unbalanced voltage sags as well as fluctuant and distorted voltages. As a result, by using this controlling method, the dynamic characteristics of the system have been improved significantly. The system performed with higher accuracy, faster response and lower distortion in the voltage sags compensation. The paper presents real time experimental results to verify the performance of the proposed method in real environments.

  8. Multifunction Voltage-Mode Filter Using Single Voltage Differencing Differential Difference Amplifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaichana Amornchai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a voltage mode multifunction filter based on single voltage differencing differential difference amplifier (VDDDA is presented. The proposed filter with three input voltages and single output voltage is constructed with single VDDDA, two capacitors and two resistors. Its quality factor can be adjusted without affecting natural frequency. Also, the natural frequency can be electronically tuned via adjusting of bias current. The filter can offer five output responses, high-pas (HP, band-pass (BP, band-reject (BR, low-pass (LP and all-ass (AP functions in the same circuit topology. The output response can be selected by choosing the suitable input voltage without the component matching condition and the requirement of additional double gain voltage amplifier. PSpice simulation results to confirm an operation of the proposed filter correspond to the theory.

  9. Engineering of a genetically encodable fluorescent voltage sensor exploiting fast Ci-VSP voltage-sensing movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundby, Alicia; Mutoh, Hiroki; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Akemann, Walther; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2008-06-25

    Ci-VSP contains a voltage-sensing domain (VSD) homologous to that of voltage-gated potassium channels. Using charge displacement ('gating' current) measurements we show that voltage-sensing movements of this VSD can occur within 1 ms in mammalian membranes. Our analysis lead to development of a genetically encodable fluorescent protein voltage sensor (VSFP) in which the fast, voltage-dependent conformational changes of the Ci-VSP voltage sensor are transduced to similarly fast fluorescence read-outs.

  10. Voltage scheduling for low power/energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzak, Ali

    2001-07-01

    Power considerations have become an increasingly dominant factor in the design of both portable and desk-top systems. An effective way to reduce power consumption is to lower the supply voltage since voltage is quadratically related to power. This dissertation considers the problem of lowering the supply voltage at (i) the system level and at (ii) the behavioral level. At the system level, the voltage of the variable voltage processor is dynamically changed with the work load. Processors with limited sized buffers as well as those with very large buffers are considered. Given the task arrival times, deadline times, execution times, periods and switching activities, task scheduling algorithms that minimize energy or peak power are developed for the processors equipped with very large buffers. A relation between the operating voltages of the tasks for minimum energy/power is determined using the Lagrange multiplier method, and an iterative algorithm that utilizes this relation is developed. Experimental results show that the voltage assignment obtained by the proposed algorithm is very close (0.1% error) to that of the optimal energy assignment and the optimal peak power (1% error) assignment. Next, on-line and off-fine minimum energy task scheduling algorithms are developed for processors with limited sized buffers. These algorithms have polynomial time complexity and present optimal (off-line) and close-to-optimal (on-line) solutions. A procedure to calculate the minimum buffer size given information about the size of the task (maximum, minimum), execution time (best case, worst case) and deadlines is also presented. At the behavioral level, resources operating at multiple voltages are used to minimize power while maintaining the throughput. Such a scheme has the advantage of allowing modules on the critical paths to be assigned to the highest voltage levels (thus meeting the required timing constraints) while allowing modules on non-critical paths to be assigned

  11. A new algorithm for optimum voltage and reactive power control for minimizing transmission lines losses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghoudjehbaklou, H.; Danai, B.

    2001-01-01

    Reactive power dispatch for voltage profile modification has been of interest to power utilities. Usually local bus voltages can be altered by changing generator voltages, reactive shunts, ULTC transformers and SVCs. Determination of optimum values for control parameters, however, is not simple for modern power system networks. Heuristic and rather intelligent algorithms have to be sought. In this paper a new algorithm is proposed that is based on a variant of a genetic algorithm combined with simulated annealing updates. In this algorithm a fuzzy multi-objective a approach is used for the fitness function of the genetic algorithm. This fuzzy multi-objective function can efficiently modify the voltage profile in order to minimize transmission lines losses, thus reducing the operating costs. The reason for such a combination is to utilize the best characteristics of each method and overcome their deficiencies. The proposed algorithm is much faster than the classical genetic algorithm and cna be easily integrated into existing power utilities software. The proposed algorithm is tested on an actual system model of 1284 buses, 799 lines, 1175 fixed and ULTC transformers, 86 generators, 181 controllable shunts and 425 loads

  12. Calibration of Monte Carlo simulation code to low voltage electron beams through radiachromic dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiss, D.E.; Kalweit, H.W.; Kensek, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    A simple multilayer slab model of an electron beam using the ITS/TIGER code can consistently account for about 80% of the actual dose delivered by a low voltage electron beam. The difference in calculated values is principally due to the 3D hibachi structure which blocks 22% of the beam. A 3D model was constructed using the ITS/ACCEPT code to improve upon the TIGER simulations. A rectangular source description update to the code and reproduction of all key geometric elements involved, including the hibachi, accounted for 90-95% of the dose received by routine dosimetry

  13. Investigation of phase-wise voltage regulator control logics for compensating voltage deviations in an experimental low voltage network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Zecchino, Antonio; Marinelli, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the control logics of an on-load tap-changer (OLTC) transformer by means of an experimental system validation. The experimental low-voltage unbalanced system consists of a decoupled single-phase OLTC transformer, a 75-metre 16 mm2 cable, a controllable single-phase resistive...... load and an electric vehicle, which has the vehicle-to-grid function. Three control logics of the OLTC transformer are described in the study. The three control logics are classified based on their control objectives and control inputs, which include network currents and voltages, and can be measured...... either locally or remotely. To evaluate and compare the control performances of the three control logics, all the tests use the same loading profiles. The experimental results indicate that the modified line compensation control can regulate voltage in a safe band in the case of various load...

  14. Transmission of power at high voltages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, F J

    1963-01-01

    High voltage transmission is considered to be concerned with circuits and systems operating at or above 132 kV. While the general examination is concerned with ac transmission, dc systems are also included. The choice of voltage for a system will usually involve hazardous assessments of the future requirements of industry, commerce and a changing population. Experience suggests that, if the estimated economic difference between two voltages is not significant, there is good reason to choose the higher voltage, as this will make the better provision for unexpected future expansion. Two principal functions served by transmission circuits in a supply system are: (a) the transportation of energy in bulk from the generator to the reception point in the distribution system; and (b) the interconnection and integration of the generating plant and associated loads. These functions are considered and various types of system are discussed in terms of practicability, viability, quality and continuity of supply. Future developments requiring transmission voltages up to 750 kV will raise many problems which are in the main empirical. Examples are given of the type of problem envisaged and it is suggested that these can only be partially solved by theory and model operation.

  15. Induced Voltage in an Open Wire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawetz, K.; Gilbert, M.; Trupp, A.

    2017-07-01

    A puzzle arising from Faraday's law has been considered and solved concerning the question which voltage will be induced in an open wire with a time-varying homogeneous magnetic field. In contrast to closed wires where the voltage is determined by the time variance of the magnetic field and the enclosed area, in an open wire we have to integrate the electric field along the wire. It is found that the longitudinal electric field with respect to the wave vector contributes with 1/3 and the transverse field with 2/3 to the induced voltage. In order to find the electric fields the sources of the magnetic fields are necessary to know. The representation of a spatially homogeneous and time-varying magnetic field implies unavoidably a certain symmetry point or symmetry line which depend on the geometry of the source. As a consequence the induced voltage of an open wire is found to be the area covered with respect to this symmetry line or point perpendicular to the magnetic field. This in turn allows to find the symmetry points of a magnetic field source by measuring the voltage of an open wire placed with different angles in the magnetic field. We present exactly solvable models of the Maxwell equations for a symmetry point and for a symmetry line, respectively. The results are applicable to open circuit problems like corrosion and for astrophysical applications.

  16. Dispersion of breakdown voltage of liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Itaru; Noguchi, Takuya

    1978-01-01

    As for the electrical insulation characteristics of liquid helium, the discrepancy among the measured values by each person is very large even in the fundamental DC breakdown voltage in uniform electric field. The dispersion of experimental values obtained in the experiments by the same person is also large. Hereafter, the difference among the mean values obtained by each experimenter will be referred to as ''deviation of mean values'', and the dispersion of measured values around the mean value obtained by the same person as ''deviation around the man value''. The authors have mainly investigated on the latter experimentally. The cryostat was made of stainless steel, and the innermost helium chamber was of 500 mm I.D. and approximately 1200 mm deep. The high voltage electrode was of brass sphere of 25 mm diameter, and the low voltage electrode was of brass plate. The experiment was conducted for liquid helium boiling at 4.2 K and 1 atm, and the breakdown voltage and time lag were measured by applying the approximately square wave impulses of fast rise and long tail, ramp and DC voltages. The cause of the deviation of mean values may be the presence of impurity particles or the effect of electrode shape. As for the deviation around the mean value, the dispersion is large, and its standard deviation may amount to 10 to 20% of the man value. The dispersion is not due to the statistical time lag, but is due to parameters that vary with breakdown. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  17. Voltage breakdown on niobium and copper surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, G.R.; Padamsee, H.; Betzwieser, J.C.; Liu, Y.G.; Rubin, K.H.R.; Shipman, J.E.; Ying, L.T.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have shown that voltage breakdown in superconducting niobium RF cavities is in many ways similar to voltage breakdown on niobium cathodes in DC voltage gaps; most striking are the distinctive starburst patterns and craters that mark the site of voltage breakdown in both superconducting cavities and DC vacuum gaps. Therefore, we can learn much about RF breakdown from simpler, faster DC experiments. We have direct evidence, in the form of before'' and ''after'' pictures, that breakdown events caused by high surface electric fields occur with high probability at contaminant particles on surfaces. Although the pre-breakdown behavior (field emission) seems to depend mostly on the contaminant particles present and little on the substrate, the breakdown event itself is greatly affected by the substrate-niobium, heavily oxidized niobium, electropolished copper, and diamond-machined copper cathodes lead to different kinds of breakdown events. By studying DC voltage breakdown we hope to learn more details about the processes involved in the transition from field emission to catastrophic arcing and the cratering of the surface; as well as learning how to prevent breakdown, we would like to learn how to cause breakdown, which could be important when ''processing'' cavities to reduce field emission. (author)

  18. How update schemes influence crowd simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seitz, Michael J; Köster, Gerta

    2014-01-01

    Time discretization is a key modeling aspect of dynamic computer simulations. In current pedestrian motion models based on discrete events, e.g. cellular automata and the Optimal Steps Model, fixed-order sequential updates and shuffle updates are prevalent. We propose to use event-driven updates that process events in the order they occur, and thus better match natural movement. In addition, we present a parallel update with collision detection and resolution for situations where computational speed is crucial. Two simulation studies serve to demonstrate the practical impact of the choice of update scheme. Not only do density-speed relations differ, but there is a statistically significant effect on evacuation times. Fixed-order sequential and random shuffle updates with a short update period come close to event-driven updates. The parallel update scheme overestimates evacuation times. All schemes can be employed for arbitrary simulation models with discrete events, such as car traffic or animal behavior. (paper)

  19. Updated safety analysis of ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, Neill; Baker, Dennis; Ciattaglia, Sergio; Cortes, Pierre; Elbez-Uzan, Joelle; Iseli, Markus; Reyes, Susana; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Rosanvallon, Sandrine; Topilski, Leonid

    2011-01-01

    An updated version of the ITER Preliminary Safety Report has been produced and submitted to the licensing authorities. It is revised and expanded in response to requests from the authorities after their review of an earlier version in 2008, to reflect enhancements in ITER safety provisions through design changes, to incorporate new and improved safety analyses and to take into account other ITER design evolution. The updated analyses show that changes to the Tokamak cooling water system design have enhanced confinement and reduced potential radiological releases as well as removing decay heat with very high reliability. New and updated accident scenario analyses, together with fire and explosion risk analyses, have shown that design provisions are sufficient to minimize the likelihood of accidents and reduce potential consequences to a very low level. Taken together, the improvements provided a stronger demonstration of the very good safety performance of the ITER design.

  20. Updated safety analysis of ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Neill, E-mail: neill.taylor@iter.org [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Baker, Dennis; Ciattaglia, Sergio; Cortes, Pierre; Elbez-Uzan, Joelle; Iseli, Markus; Reyes, Susana; Rodriguez-Rodrigo, Lina; Rosanvallon, Sandrine; Topilski, Leonid [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, 13067 St Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2011-10-15

    An updated version of the ITER Preliminary Safety Report has been produced and submitted to the licensing authorities. It is revised and expanded in response to requests from the authorities after their review of an earlier version in 2008, to reflect enhancements in ITER safety provisions through design changes, to incorporate new and improved safety analyses and to take into account other ITER design evolution. The updated analyses show that changes to the Tokamak cooling water system design have enhanced confinement and reduced potential radiological releases as well as removing decay heat with very high reliability. New and updated accident scenario analyses, together with fire and explosion risk analyses, have shown that design provisions are sufficient to minimize the likelihood of accidents and reduce potential consequences to a very low level. Taken together, the improvements provided a stronger demonstration of the very good safety performance of the ITER design.

  1. Vivitron 1995, transient voltage simulation, high voltage insulator tests, electric field calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frick, G.; Osswald, F.; Heusch, B.

    1996-01-01

    Preliminary investigations showed clearly that, because of the discrete electrode structure of the Vivitron, important overvoltage leading to insulator damage can appear in case of a spark. The first high voltage tests showed damage connected with such events. This fact leads to a severe voltage limitation. This work describes, at first, studies made to understand the effects of transients and the associated over-voltage appearing in the Vivitron. Then we present the high voltage tests made with full size Vivitron components using the CN 6 MV machine as a pilot machine. Extensive field calculations were made. These involve simulations of static stresses and transient overvoltages, on insulating boards and electrodes. This work gave us the solutions for arrangements and modifications in the machine. After application, the Vivitron runs now without any sparks and damage at 20 MV. In the same manner, we tested column insulators of a new design and so we will find out how to get to higher voltages. Electric field calculation around the tie bars connecting the discrete electrodes together showed field enhancements when the voltages applied on the discrete electrodes are not equally distributed. This fact is one of the sources of discharges and voltage limitations. A scenario of a spark event is described and indications are given how to proceed towards higher voltages, in the 30 MV range. (orig.)

  2. Low-Voltage Consumption Coordination for Loss Minimization and Voltage Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juelsgaard, Morten; Sloth, Christoffer; Wisniewski, Rafal

    2014-01-01

    This work presents a strategy for minimizing active power losses in low-voltage grids, by coordinating the consumption of electric vehicles and power generation from solar panels. We show that minimizing losses, also reduces voltage variations, and illustrate how this may be employed for increasing...

  3. Analysis of Voltage Support by Electric Vehicles and Photovoltaic in a Real Danish Low Voltage Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knezovic, Katarina; Marinelli, Mattia; Juul Møller, René

    2014-01-01

    of incorporating electric vehicles (EVs) in a low voltage distribution network with high penetration of photovoltaic installations (PVs), and focuses on analysing potential voltage support functions from EVs and PVs. In addition, the paper evaluates the benefits that reactive power control may provide...

  4. Analysis of the accuracy of different laboratory methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites from stray and domiciled cats (Felis catus domesticus in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Ataíde Silva Lima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cats are carriers of zoonotic agents to humans, including intestinal parasites. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of different laboratory methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites. Fecal samples were processed by the Willis, Sheather, Faust and Hoffman-Janer-Pons-Lutz (HJPL methods. Accuracy analysis was performed determining the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and Kappa. A total of 149 fecal samples were collected, 65 from stray cats and 84 from domiciled cats. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray cats was 60% while in domiciled cats it was 17%. In the analysis of accuracy, the techniques that showed the greatest accuracy for Ancylostomids were Willis and Faust, for Cystoisospora spp. Sheather with Faust or HPJL, and Toxoplasma gondii/Hammondia hammondi the association between Willis and Faust. Therefore, for a reliable evaluation of the prevalence of intestinal parasites, at least two different techniques should be used in parasitological exams of feces.

  5. Light emitting diode driver with differential voltage supply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The current invention relates to a driver for driving one or a plurality of LEDs (D1, D2), comprising at least one driving unit (201, 202) adapted to be supplied with a differential voltage, between one first bias voltage (VB1) and one second bias voltage (VB2), the differential voltage being

  6. 30 CFR 75.804 - Underground high-voltage cables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution § 75.804 Underground high-voltage cables. (a) Underground high-voltage cables used in resistance... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Underground high-voltage cables. 75.804 Section...

  7. 30 CFR 75.813 - High-voltage longwalls; scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false High-voltage longwalls; scope. 75.813 Section... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Underground High-Voltage Distribution High-Voltage Longwalls § 75.813 High-voltage longwalls; scope. Sections 75.814 through 75.822 of this...

  8. Voltage Support from Electric Vehicles in Distribution Grid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaojun; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The paper evaluates the voltage support functions from electric vehicles (EVs) on a typical Danish distribution grid with high EV penetration. In addition to the popular voltage control modes, such as voltage droop charging (low voltage level leads to low charging power) and reactive power support...

  9. 47 CFR 17.54 - Rated lamp voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rated lamp voltage. 17.54 Section 17.54... voltage. To insure the necessary lumen output by obstruction lights, the rated voltage of incandescent lamps used shall correspond to be within 3 percent higher than the voltage across the lamp socket during...

  10. Determination of the cathode fall voltage in fluorescent lamps by measurement of the operating voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilscher, A.

    2002-01-01

    A new method for the determination of the cathode fall voltage of fluorescent lamps is shown. The cathode fall voltage can be determined by measurement of the lamp operating voltage at constant lamp wall temperature, constant discharge current and variation of the electrode heating current. Commercial lamps, which do not need to be specially prepared, can be used for the measurement. The results show good correlation to other measurements of the cathode fall voltage at various discharge currents by means of capacitive coupling. The measured values of the cathode fall voltage are used for determining the minimum, target and maximum setting of the sum of the squares of the pin currents of one electrode (the so-called SOS value) as a function of the discharge current in fluorescent lamp dimming. (author)

  11. A dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) with selective harmonic compensation at medium voltage level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, M.J.; Holmes, D.G.; Nielsen, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs) are now becoming more established in industry to reduce the impact of voltage sags to sensitive loads. However, DVRs spend most of their time in standby mode, since voltage sags occur very infrequently, and hence their utilization is low. In principle, it would...... be advantageous if the series-connected inverter of a DVR could also be used to compensate for any steady-state load voltage harmonics, since this would increase the power quality "value-added" benefits to the grid system. However, before this can be done, consideration must be given to the control of steady......-state power through the DVR, the increased losses, and the low modulation depths at which the scheme must operate to achieve acceptable harmonic compensation performance. This paper presents a selective harmonic feedback control strategy that can be easily added to medium-voltage DVR systems to provide...

  12. Electrocardiogram voltage discordance: Interpretation of low QRS voltage only in the precordial leads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Diana H; Verdino, Ralph J

    To define clinical correlates of low voltage isolated to precordial leads on the surface electrocardiogram (ECG). Low voltage (V) on the ECG is defined as QRS Vvoltage isolated to the precordial leads with normal limb lead voltages is unclear. Twelve-lead ECGs with QRS V>5mm in one or more limb leads and voltage was found in 256 of 150,000 ECGs (~0.2%). 50.4% of patients had discordant ECGs that correlated with classic etiologies, with a higher incidence of LV dilation in those with classic etiologies than those without. Low precordial voltage is associated with classic etiologies and LV dilation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Federal Education Update, December 2004. Commission Update 04-17.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Postsecondary Education Commission, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This update presents some of the major issues affecting education occurring at the national level. These include: Higher Education Act Extended for One Year; New Law Increases Loan Forgiveness for Teachers; Domestic Appropriations Measures Completed; Change in Federal Student Aid Rules; Bush Advisor Nominated To Be Education Secretary In Second…

  14. Voltage stability, bifurcation parameters and continuation methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarado, F L [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper considers the importance of the choice of bifurcation parameter in the determination of the voltage stability limit and the maximum power load ability of a system. When the bifurcation parameter is power demand, the two limits are equivalent. However, when other types of load models and bifurcation parameters are considered, the two concepts differ. The continuation method is considered as a method for determination of voltage stability margins. Three variants of the continuation method are described: the continuation parameter is the bifurcation parameter the continuation parameter is initially the bifurcation parameter, but is free to change, and the continuation parameter is a new `arc length` parameter. Implementations of voltage stability software using continuation methods are described. (author) 23 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Critical voltage effects in electron channeling patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrow, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Electron channeling patterns were used to study critical voltage effects in the metals molybdenum and tungsten. The purpose was to characterize both theoretically and experimentally how a critical voltage will affect the channeling pattern line shapes. The study focused on the second order critical voltage that results from the degeneracy between the Bloch wave states of the (110) and (220) reflections. Theoretical (110) series electron channeling pattern line profiles were calculated using the dynamical theory of Hirsch and Humphreys (1970). A 10 beam dynamical electron diffraction calculation was performed (using complex Fourier lattice potentials) to generate Bloch wave coefficients, excitation amplitudes, and absorption coefficients needed for determining backscattering coefficients and subsequent backscattered electron intensities. The theoretical model is applicable to electron diffraction at all energies since no high energy approximation or perturbation method was used

  16. Intermediate state trapping of a voltage sensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacroix, Jérôme J; Pless, Stephan Alexander; Maragliano, Luca

    2012-01-01

    Voltage sensor domains (VSDs) regulate ion channels and enzymes by undergoing conformational changes depending on membrane electrical signals. The molecular mechanisms underlying the VSD transitions are not fully understood. Here, we show that some mutations of I241 in the S1 segment of the Shaker...... Kv channel positively shift the voltage dependence of the VSD movement and alter the functional coupling between VSD and pore domains. Among the I241 mutants, I241W immobilized the VSD movement during activation and deactivation, approximately halfway between the resting and active states......, and drastically shifted the voltage activation of the ionic conductance. This phenotype, which is consistent with a stabilization of an intermediate VSD conformation by the I241W mutation, was diminished by the charge-conserving R2K mutation but not by the charge-neutralizing R2Q mutation. Interestingly, most...

  17. A thermoelectric voltage effect in polyethylene oxide

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, B; Kliem, H

    2003-01-01

    The conductivity of polyethylene oxide (PEO) is described with a three-dimensional hopping model considering electrostatic interactions between the ions. Ions fluctuate over energy-barriers in a multi-well potential. To decide whether positive or negative charges are responsible for this conductivity, the thermoelectric voltage is measured. The samples are embedded between two aluminium-electrodes. The oxide on the interface between the electrodes and the PEO serves as a blocking layer. The temperature of each electrode is controlled by a Peltier element. A temperature step is applied to one electrode by changing the temperature of one of the Peltier elements. Due to this temperature gradient, the mobile charges fluctuate thermally activated from the warmer side to the colder side of the sample. The direction of the measured thermoelectric voltage indicates the type of mobile charges. It is found that positive charges are mobile. Further, it is shown that the absolute value of the thermoelectric voltage depen...

  18. Microwave integrated circuit for Josephson voltage standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdeman, L. B.; Toots, J.; Chang, C. C. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A microwave integrated circuit comprised of one or more Josephson junctions and short sections of microstrip or stripline transmission line is fabricated from thin layers of superconducting metal on a dielectric substrate. The short sections of transmission are combined to form the elements of the circuit and particularly, two microwave resonators. The Josephson junctions are located between the resonators and the impedance of the Josephson junctions forms part of the circuitry that couples the two resonators. The microwave integrated circuit has an application in Josephson voltage standards. In this application, the device is asymmetrically driven at a selected frequency (approximately equal to the resonance frequency of the resonators), and a d.c. bias is applied to the junction. By observing the current voltage characteristic of the junction, a precise voltage, proportional to the frequency of the microwave drive signal, is obtained.

  19. Coplanar strips for Josephson voltage standard circuits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, M.; May, T.; Wende, G.; Fritzsch, L.; Meyer, H.-G.

    2001-01-01

    We present a microwave circuit for Josephson voltage standards. Here, the Josephson junctions are integrated in a microwave transmission line designed as coplanar strips (CPS). The new layout offers the possibility of achieving a higher scale of integration and to considerably simplify the fabrication technology. The characteristic impedance of the CPS is about 50 Ω, and this should be of interest for programmable Josephson voltage standard circuits with SNS or SINIS junctions. To demonstrate the function of the microwave circuit design, conventional 10 V Josephson voltage standard circuits with 17000 Nb/AlO x /Nb junctions were prepared and tested. Stable Shapiro steps at the 10 V level were generated. Furthermore, arrays of 1400 SINIS junctions in this microwave layout exhibited first-order Shapiro steps. Copyright 2001 American Institute of Physics

  20. Voltage control of cavity magnon polariton

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaur, S., E-mail: kaurs3@myumanitoba.ca; Rao, J. W.; Gui, Y. S.; Hu, C.-M., E-mail: hu@physics.umanitoba.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); Yao, B. M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba R3T 2N2 (Canada); National Laboratory for Infrared Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200083 (China)

    2016-07-18

    We have experimentally investigated the microwave transmission of the cavity-magnon-polariton (CMP) generated by integrating a low damping magnetic insulator onto a 2D microwave cavity. The high tunability of our planar cavity allows the cavity resonance frequency to be precisely controlled using a DC voltage. By appropriately tuning the voltage and magnetic bias, we can observe the cavity photon magnon coupling and the magnetic coupling between a magnetostatic mode and the generated CMP. The dispersion of the generated CMP was measured by either tuning the magnetic field or the applied voltage. This electrical control of CMP may open up avenues for designing advanced on-chip microwave devices that utilize light-matter interaction.

  1. Sensorless Control of IPMSM by Voltage Injection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matzen, Torben N.; Bech, Michael Møller

    2006-01-01

    In this paper a sensorless discrete current control of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchrouns Motor (IPMSM) by voltage injection is designed and tested. The whole controller is operating in the dq-frame and for this reason the rotor position is essential to know, to transform between the station......In this paper a sensorless discrete current control of an Interior Permanent Magnet Synchrouns Motor (IPMSM) by voltage injection is designed and tested. The whole controller is operating in the dq-frame and for this reason the rotor position is essential to know, to transform between...... the stationary frame and the rotor xed dq-frame. To obtain the position even at standstill a sensorless scheme using voltage injection is added to the current controller....

  2. Semisupervised Community Detection by Voltage Drops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many applications show that semisupervised community detection is one of the important topics and has attracted considerable attention in the study of complex network. In this paper, based on notion of voltage drops and discrete potential theory, a simple and fast semisupervised community detection algorithm is proposed. The label propagation through discrete potential transmission is accomplished by using voltage drops. The complexity of the proposal is OV+E for the sparse network with V vertices and E edges. The obtained voltage value of a vertex can be reflected clearly in the relationship between the vertex and community. The experimental results on four real networks and three benchmarks indicate that the proposed algorithm is effective and flexible. Furthermore, this algorithm is easily applied to graph-based machine learning methods.

  3. Voltage Unbalance Compensation with Smart Three-phase Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Douglass, Philip; Trintis, Ionut; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    unbalance originating in the power supply network. Two variants of the algorithm are tested: first, using phase-neutral voltage as input, second, using phase-phase voltage. The control algorithm is described, and evaluated in simulations and laboratory tests. Two metrics for quantifying voltage unbalance...... are evaluated: one metric based on the maximum deviation of RMS phaseneutral voltage from the average voltage and one metric based on negative sequence voltage. The tests show that controller that uses phase-neutral voltage as input can in most cases eliminate the deviations of phase voltage from the average...... is caused by asymmetrical loads. These results suggest that the optimal algorithm to reduce system unbalance depends on which system parameter is most important: phase-neutral voltage unbalance, phase-phase voltage unbalance, or current unbalance....

  4. Voltage Quench Dynamics of a Kondo System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipov, Andrey E; Dong, Qiaoyuan; Gull, Emanuel

    2016-01-22

    We examine the dynamics of a correlated quantum dot in the mixed valence regime. We perform numerically exact calculations of the current after a quantum quench from equilibrium by rapidly applying a bias voltage in a wide range of initial temperatures. The current exhibits short equilibration times and saturates upon the decrease of temperature at all times, indicating Kondo behavior both in the transient regime and in the steady state. The time-dependent current saturation temperature connects the equilibrium Kondo temperature to a substantially increased value at voltages outside of the linear response. These signatures are directly observable by experiments in the time domain.

  5. Inductive voltage compensation in superconducting magnet systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, H.T.; Goddard, J.S.; Shen, S.S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper details several techniques of inductive voltage compensation developed for quench detection in superconducting magnet systems with multiple coils and power supplies, with particular application for the Large Coil Test Facility (LCTF). Sources of noise, their magnitudes, and the sensitivity required for normal zone detection to avoid damage to the magnets are discussed. Two passive compensation schemes (second difference and central difference) are introduced and illustrated by parameters of LCTF; these take advantage of coil symmetries and other system characteristics. An active compensation scheme based on current rate input fom pickup coils and utilizing theory on ac loss voltage for calibration was tested, and the experimental setup and test results are discussed

  6. Technical feasibility study of Voltage Optimization Unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Junjie; Marinelli, Mattia; Coppo, Massimiliano

    This report provides an analysis on the benefits of a transformer with on load tap chang-ers on each phase that can be applied in the distribution system to accommodate more renewable generations such as photovoltaic power. The main purpose of this research is to verify whether power distribution...... are used as load basics for the analysis. In term of PV genera-tion profiles, a realistic PV output power is assumed. Four relevant indicies such as phase neutral voltage, netural potential voltage, unbalanced factor (VUF), and power losses are evaluated in the present study. The simulation tests include...

  7. Voltage-pulse generator for electron gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korenev, S.A.; Enchevich, I.B.; Mikhov, M.K.

    1987-01-01

    A voltage-pulse generator with combined capacitive and inductive storage devices of an electron gun is described. The current interrupter is a hydrogen thyratron (TGI1-100/8, TGI1-500/16, or TGI1-1000/25) installed in a short magnetic lens. The current interruption time of the thyratrons is 100-300 nsec. When the capacitive storage device is charged to 1 kV, a voltage pulse with an amplitude of 25 kV is obtained at the load

  8. High-voltage test and measuring techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Hauschild, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    It is the intent of this book to combine high-voltage (HV) engineering with HV testing technique and HV measuring technique. Based on long-term experience gained by the authors as lecturer and researcher as well as member in international organizations, such as IEC and CIGRE, the book will reflect the state of the art as well as the future trends in testing and diagnostics of HV equipment to ensure a reliable generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy. The book is intended not only for experts but also for students in electrical engineering and high-voltage engineering.

  9. Belief update as social choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Benthem, J.; Girard, P.; Roy, O.; Marion, M.

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic epistemic-doxastic logics describe the new knowledge or new beliefs indexBelief of agents after some informational event has happened. Technically, this requires an update rule that turns a doxastic-epistemic modelM(recording the current information state of the agents) and a dynamic ‘event

  10. Deductive Updating Is Not Bayesian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovits, Henry; Brisson, Janie; de Chantal, Pier-Luc

    2015-01-01

    One of the major debates concerning the nature of inferential reasoning is between counterexample-based theories such as mental model theory and probabilistic theories. This study looks at conclusion updating after the addition of statistical information to examine the hypothesis that deductive reasoning cannot be explained by probabilistic…

  11. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. DateChange typeAffected areas March 26Update of the voice messaging systemAll CERN sites April 4Updat...

  12. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. Date Change type Affected areas April 8 Update of switch in LHC 7 LHC 7 Point April 9 Update of...

  13. Treatability study sample exemption: update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    This document is a RCRA Information Brief intended to update the information in the 1991 Small-Scale Treatability Study Information Brief, and to address questions about the waste and treatability study sample exemptions that have arisen since References 3 and 5 were published

  14. A Mathematics Software Database Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, R. S.; Smith, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Contains an update of an earlier listing of software for mathematics instruction at the college level. Topics are: advanced mathematics, algebra, calculus, differential equations, discrete mathematics, equation solving, general mathematics, geometry, linear and matrix algebra, logic, statistics and probability, and trigonometry. (PK)

  15. Internet Journal of Medical Update

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    The two surveys on 'Gambling Addiction' published in this issue of the Internet Journal of. Medical Update recommend that there is a need to improve training of psychiatrists in India as regards identification, assessment and treatment of gambling addicts. I think the findings will inform the development and implementation of ...

  16. Evidence-based guideline update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tfelt-Hansen, Peer Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Peer Carsten Tfelt-Hansen, Glostrup, Denmark: According to the recent American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline update, a drug can be recommended as possibly effective for migraine prevention if it had demonstrated efficacy in one Class II study.(1) Eight drugs are recommended as possibly...

  17. Eczema and ceramides: an update

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersted, Jakob Mutanu; Agner, Tove

    2013-01-01

    types of treatment. We also consider the genetic influence on stratum corneum lipids. The review is an update on research indexed in PubMed following the discovery of the filaggrin mutations in atopic dermatitis in 2006, but when newer publications cannot stand alone, we include publications from before...

  18. Upgrade trigger: Biannual performance update

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, Roel; Couturier, Ben; Esen, Sevda; De Cian, Michel; De Vries, Jacco Andreas; Dziurda, Agnieszka; Fitzpatrick, Conor; Fontana, Marianna; Grillo, Lucia; Hasse, Christoph; Jones, Christopher Rob; Le Gac, Renaud; Matev, Rosen; Neufeld, Niko; Nikodem, Thomas; Polci, Francesco; Del Buono, Luigi; Quagliani, Renato; Schwemmer, Rainer; Seyfert, Paul; Stahl, Sascha; Szumlak, Tomasz; Vesterinen, Mika Anton; Wanczyk, Joanna; Williams, Mark Richard James; Yin, Hang; Zacharjasz, Emilia Anna

    2017-01-01

    This document presents the performance of the LHCb Upgrade trigger reconstruction sequence, incorporating changes to the underlying reconstruction algorithms and detector description since the Trigger and Online Upgrade TDR. An updated extrapolation is presented using the most recent example of an Event Filter Farm node.

  19. Financial Sector Assessment Update : Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2005-01-01

    A joint International Monetary Fund-World Bank team conducted an assessment update of Uganda's financial system in connection with the Financial Sector Assessment Program (FSAP) in November, 2004. The purpose of the mission was to help the Ugandan authorities identify financial system strengths and weaknesses with a view to implementing an action plan to increase the system's contribution ...

  20. AMDIS and CHART update. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, I.; Kato, T.; Igarashi, A.

    2002-10-01

    A working group for updating atomic and molecular collision data in the NIFS database AMDIS (electron scattering) and CHART (ion scattering) has been organized. This group has searched and reviewed literatures for collecting relevant atomic data with are to be included into the database. This is a summary report of the activities of this working group. (author)

  1. Control and Testing of a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) at Medium Voltage Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, John Godsk; Newman, Michael; Nielsen, Hans Ove

    2004-01-01

    power sensitive loads from voltage sags. This paper reports practical test results obtained on a medium voltage (10 kV) level using a DVR at a Distribution test facility in Kyndby, Denmark. The DVR was designed to protect a 400-kVA load from a 0.5-p.u. maximum voltage sag. The reported DVR verifies......The dynamic voltage restorer (DVR) has become popular as a cost effective solution for the protection of sensitive loads from voltage sags. Implementations of the DVR have been proposed at both a low voltage (LV) level, as well as a medium voltage (MV) level; and give an opportunity to protect high...... the use of a feed-forward and feed-back technique of the controller and it obtains both good transient and steady state responses. The effect of the DVR on the system is experimentally investigated under both faulted and non-faulted system states, for a variety of linear and non-linear loads. Variable...

  2. Exploration of genetically encoded voltage indicators based on a chimeric voltage sensing domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukiko eMishina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deciphering how the brain generates cognitive function from patterns of electrical signals is one of the ultimate challenges in neuroscience. To this end, it would be highly desirable to monitor the activities of very large numbers of neurons while an animal engages in complex behaviours. Optical imaging of electrical activity using genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs has the potential to meet this challenge. Currently prevalent GEVIs are based on the voltage-sensitive fluorescent protein (VSFP prototypical design or on the voltage dependent state transitions of microbial opsins.We recently introduced a new VSFP design in which the voltage-sensing domain (VSD is sandwiched between a FRET pair of fluorescent proteins (termed VSFP-Butterflies and also demonstrated a series of chimeric VSD in which portions of the VSD of Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensitive phosphatase (Ci-VSP are substituted by homologous portions of a voltage-gated potassium channel subunit. These chimeric VSD had faster sensing kinetics than that of the native Ci-VSD. Here, we describe a new set of VSFPs that combine chimeric VSD with the Butterfly structure. We show that these chimeric VSFP-Butterflies can report membrane voltage oscillations of up to 200 Hz in cultured cells and report sensory evoked cortical population responses in living mice. This class of GEVIs may be suitable for imaging of brain rhythms in behaving mammalians.

  3. Exploration of genetically encoded voltage indicators based on a chimeric voltage sensing domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishina, Yukiko; Mutoh, Hiroki; Song, Chenchen; Knöpfel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Deciphering how the brain generates cognitive function from patterns of electrical signals is one of the ultimate challenges in neuroscience. To this end, it would be highly desirable to monitor the activities of very large numbers of neurons while an animal engages in complex behaviors. Optical imaging of electrical activity using genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) has the potential to meet this challenge. Currently prevalent GEVIs are based on the voltage-sensitive fluorescent protein (VSFP) prototypical design or on the voltage-dependent state transitions of microbial opsins. We recently introduced a new VSFP design in which the voltage-sensing domain (VSD) is sandwiched between a fluorescence resonance energy transfer pair of fluorescent proteins (termed VSFP-Butterflies) and also demonstrated a series of chimeric VSD in which portions of the VSD of Ciona intestinalis voltage-sensitive phosphatase are substituted by homologous portions of a voltage-gated potassium channel subunit. These chimeric VSD had faster sensing kinetics than that of the native Ci-VSD. Here, we describe a new set of VSFPs that combine chimeric VSD with the Butterfly structure. We show that these chimeric VSFP-Butterflies can report membrane voltage oscillations of up to 200 Hz in cultured cells and report sensory evoked cortical population responses in living mice. This class of GEVIs may be suitable for imaging of brain rhythms in behaving mammalians.

  4. Capturing power at higher voltages from arrays of microbial fuel cells without voltage reversal

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Younggy

    2011-01-01

    Voltages produced by microbial fuel cells (MFCs) cannot be sustainably increased by linking them in series due to voltage reversal, which substantially reduces stack voltages. It was shown here that MFC voltages can be increased with continuous power production using an electronic circuit containing two sets of multiple capacitors that were alternately charged and discharged (every one second). Capacitors were charged in parallel by the MFCs, but linked in series while discharging to the circuit load (resistor). The parallel charging of the capacitors avoided voltage reversal, while discharging the capacitors in series produced up to 2.5 V with four capacitors. There were negligible energy losses in the circuit compared to 20-40% losses typically obtained with MFCs using DC-DC converters to increase voltage. Coulombic efficiencies were 67% when power was generated via four capacitors, compared to only 38% when individual MFCs were operated with a fixed resistance of 250 Ω. The maximum power produced using the capacitors was not adversely affected by variable performance of the MFCs, showing that power generation can be maintained even if individual MFCs perform differently. Longer capacitor charging and discharging cycles of up to 4 min maintained the average power but increased peak power by up to 2.6 times. These results show that capacitors can be used to easily obtain higher voltages from MFCs, allowing for more useful capture of energy from arrays of MFCs. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Mitigating voltage lead errors of an AC Josephson voltage standard by impedance matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Dongsheng; van den Brom, Helko E.; Houtzager, Ernest

    2017-09-01

    A pulse-driven AC Josephson voltage standard (ACJVS) generates calculable AC voltage signals at low temperatures, whereas measurements are performed with a device under test (DUT) at room temperature. The voltage leads cause the output voltage to show deviations that scale with the frequency squared. Error correction mechanisms investigated so far allow the ACJVS to be operational for frequencies up to 100 kHz. In this paper, calculations are presented to deal with these errors in terms of reflected waves. Impedance matching at the source side of the system, which is loaded with a high-impedance DUT, is proposed as an accurate method to mitigate these errors for frequencies up to 1 MHz. Simulations show that the influence of non-ideal component characteristics, such as the tolerance of the matching resistor, the capacitance of the load input impedance, losses in the voltage leads, non-homogeneity in the voltage leads, a non-ideal on-chip connection and inductors between the Josephson junction array and the voltage leads, can be corrected for using the proposed procedures. The results show that an expanded uncertainty of 12 parts in 106 (k  =  2) at 1 MHz and 0.5 part in 106 (k  =  2) at 100 kHz is within reach.

  6. Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Breast Cancer and Estrogen-Alone Update Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... hormone therapy does not increase the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women, according to an updated analysis ...

  7. Environmental Chemistry Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-08-01

    111 pg, leading to a body fat concentration of about 40 ppt (12). Lithium Battery AdvancesRechargeable Power SourceRecent advances in lithium ion battery technology may allow these devices to become the rechargeable power source of choice in electric cars of the future. Due to their high voltage, they can store a large amount of energy per given mass or volume of battery. In the past, however, such batteries have been somewhat impractical because they had to be hermetically sealed and required nonaqueous electrolytes due to lithium's violent reaction with water. In the newly developed battery, the electrolyte is water that already contains a high concentration of Li+ ions; elemental lithium (present as LiMn2O4 in one electrode) is unreactive in this medium unless an external connection to the other electrode is made (13). Air-Pollution Control for Power PlantsA process called SNOX, which removes both NOx and SO2 from the flue gases produced by coal-fired power plants, has been developed and demonstrated. The nitrogen oxides are first reduced to N2. The resulting gas is then heated and catalytically oxidized to sulfur trioxide, which is then hydrated to sulfuric acid. More than 90% of the NOx and SO2 were removed from the flue gases in the demonstration held at an Ohio Edison plant (14). Literature Cited Williams, D. Nature 1994, 371, 556. Emsley, J. New Scientist 1994, (Oct 1), 14. McMichael, A. J. American Journal of Epidemiology 1994, 140, 489-499. Chemical and Engineering News 1994, (Oct 10), 5. Santee, M. L. Science 1995, 267, 849-852. Chemical and Engineering News 1994, (Nov 14). Solomon, S. Journal of Geophysical Research 1994, 99, 20491-20499. Wennberg, P. O. Science 1994, 266, 398-404. Viggiano, A. A. Science 1995, 267, 82-84. Summary in Chemistry and Engineering News 1995, (Jan 9), 23. Schottler, S. P.; Eisenreich, S. J. Environmental Science and Technology 1994, 28, 2228-2232. Lang, L. Environmental Health Perspectives 1993, 101, 578-583. Chemical and

  8. Voltage control on a train system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Susanna P.; Evans, John A.

    2004-01-20

    The present invention provides methods for preventing low train voltages and managing interference, thereby improving the efficiency, reliability, and passenger comfort associated with commuter trains. An algorithm implementing neural network technology is used to predict low voltages before they occur. Once voltages are predicted, then multiple trains can be controlled to prevent low voltage events. Further, algorithms for managing inference are presented in the present invention. Different types of interference problems are addressed in the present invention such as "Interference During Acceleration", "Interference Near Station Stops", and "Interference During Delay Recovery." Managing such interference avoids unnecessary brake/acceleration cycles during acceleration, immediately before station stops, and after substantial delays. Algorithms are demonstrated to avoid oscillatory brake/acceleration cycles due to interference and to smooth the trajectories of closely following trains. This is achieved by maintaining sufficient following distances to avoid unnecessary braking/accelerating. These methods generate smooth train trajectories, making for a more comfortable ride, and improve train motor reliability by avoiding unnecessary mode-changes between propulsion and braking. These algorithms can also have a favorable impact on traction power system requirements and energy consumption.

  9. Voltage control of DC islanded microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tucci, Michele; Riverso, Stefano; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new decentralized control scheme for DC Islanded microGrids (ImGs) composed by several Distributed Generation Units (DGUs) with a general interconnection topology. Each local controller regulates to a reference value the voltage of the Point of Common Coupling (PCC...

  10. High voltage pulse generator. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G.E.

    1975-06-12

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator is described which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of the first rectifier connected between the first and second capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. The output voltage can be readily increased by adding additional charging networks. The circuit allows the peak level of the output to be easily varied over a wide range by using a variable autotransformer in the charging circuit.

  11. Dual voltage power supply with 48 volt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeschl, Joachim; Proebstle, Hartmut; Sirch, Ottmar [BMW Group, Muenchen (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    Automotive electrics/electronics have just reached a period of tremendous change. High voltage systems for Hybrid, Plug-In Hybrid or Battery Electric Vehicles with high power electric motors, high energy accumulators and electric climate compressors will be introduced in order to achieve the challenging targets for CO{sub 2} emissions and energy efficiency and to anticipate the mobility of the future. Additionally, innovations and the continuous increase of functionality for comfort, safety, driver assistance and infotainment systems require more and more electrical power of the vehicle power supply at all. On the one hand side electrified vehicles will certainly achieve a significant market share, on the other hand side they will increase the pressure to conventional vehicles with combustion engines for fuel consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. These vehicles will be enabled to keep their competitiveness by new functions and the optimization of their electric systems. A dual voltage power supply with 48 Volt and 12 Volt will be one of the key technologies to realize these requirements. The power capability of the existing 12 Volt power supply has reached its limits. Further potentials can only be admitted by the introduction of 48 Volt. For this reason the car manufacturers Audi, BMW, Daimler, Porsche and Volkswagen started very early on this item and developed a common specification of the new voltage range. Now, it is necessary to identify the probable systems at this voltage range and to start the developments. (orig.)

  12. Microparticles in high-voltage accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffith, G.L.; Eastham, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Microparticles with radii greater than 2 μm have been observed in a high voltage vacuum accelerator tube. The charge acquired by most of the particles is similar to the contact charging of a conducting sphere on a plane. (author)

  13. An Inexpensive Source of High Voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraiva, Carlos

    2012-01-01

    As a physics teacher I like recycling old apparatus and using them for demonstrations in my classes. In physics laboratories in schools, sources of high voltage include induction coils or electronic systems that can be bought from companies that sell lab equipment. But these sources can be very expensive. In this article, I will explain how you…

  14. Grid Voltage Modulated Control of Grid-Connected Voltage Source Inverters under Unbalanced Grid Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Mingshen; Gui, Yonghao; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an improved grid voltage modulated control (GVM) with power compensation is proposed for grid-connected voltage inverters when the grid voltage is unbalanced. The objective of the proposed control is to remove the power ripple and to improve current quality. Three power compensation...... objectives are selected to eliminate the negative sequence components of currents. The modified GVM method is designed to obtain two separate second-order systems for not only the fast convergence rate of the instantaneous active and reactive powers but also the robust performance. In addition, this method...

  15. Voltage harmonic elimination with RLC based interface smoothing filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandrasekaran, K; Ramachandaramurthy, V K

    2015-01-01

    A method is proposed for designing a Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) with RLC interface smoothing filter. The RLC filter connected between the IGBT based Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) is attempted to eliminate voltage harmonics in the busbar voltage and switching harmonics from VSI by producing a PWM controlled harmonic voltage. In this method, the DVR or series active filter produces PWM voltage that cancels the existing harmonic voltage due to any harmonic voltage source. The proposed method is valid for any distorted busbar voltage. The operating VSI handles no active power but only harmonic power. The DVR is able to suppress the lower order switching harmonics generated by the IGBT based VSI. Good dynamic and transient results obtained. The Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) is minimized to zero at the sensitive load end. Digital simulations are carried out using PSCAD/EMTDC to validate the performance of RLC filter. Simulated results are presented. (paper)

  16. Output voltage calculations in double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions with asymmetric voltage behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Useinov, Arthur; Mryasov, Oleg; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we study the asymmetric voltage behavior (AVB) of the tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) for single and double barrier magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) in range of a quasi-classical free electron model. Numerical calculations of the TMR

  17. Conservation voltage regulation (CVR) applied to energy savings by voltage-adjusting equipment through AMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, B.-R.; Chang, C.-A.; Huang, P.-Y.; Kuo, C.-H.; Ye, Z.-J.; Shen, B.-C.; Chen, B.-K.

    2017-11-01

    Conservation voltage reduction (CVR) includes peak demand reduction, energy conservation, carbon emission reduction, and electricity bill reduction. This paper analyzes the energy-reduction of Siwei Feeders with applying CVR, which are situated in Penghu region and equipped with smart meters. Furthermore, the applicable voltage reduction range for the feeders will be explored. This study will also investigate how the CVR effect and energy conservation are improved with the voltage control devices integrated. The results of this study can serve as a reference for the Taiwan Power Company to promote and implement voltage reduction and energy conservation techniques. This study is expected to enhance the energy-reduction performance of the Penghu Low Carbon Island Project.

  18. Evaluation of the Voltage Support Strategies for the Low Voltage Grid Connected PV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demirok, Erhan; Sera, Dezso; Teodorescu, Remus

    2010-01-01

    Admissible range of grid voltage is one of the strictest constraints for the penetration of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generators especially connection to low voltage (LV) public networks. Voltage limits are usually fulfilled either by network reinforcements or limiting of power injections from...... PVs. In order to increase PV penetration level further, new voltage support control functions for individual inverters are required. This paper investigates distributed reactive power regulation and active power curtailment strategies regarding the development of PV connection capacity by evaluation...... of reactive power efforts and requirement of minimum active power curtailment. Furthermore, a small scale experimental setup is built to reflect real grid interaction in the laboratory by achieving critical types of grid (weak and sufficiently stiff)....

  19. Modelling voltage sag mitigation using dynamic voltage restorer and analyzing power quality issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Nor Laili; Hidzir, Hizrin Dayana Mohd; Thanakodi, Suresh; Nazar, Nazatul Shiema Moh; Ibrahim, Pungut; Ali, Che Ku Muhammad Sabri Che Ku

    2018-02-01

    Power quality problem which are arise due to a fault or a pulsed load can have caused an interruption of critical load. The modern power systems are becoming more sensitive to the quality of the power supplied by the utility company. Voltage sags and swells, flicker, interruptions, harmonic distortion and other distortion to the sinusoidal waveform are the examples of the power quality problems. The most affected due to these problems is industrial customers who use a lot of sensitive equipment. There has suffered a huge loss to these problems. Resulting of broken or damage equipment if voltage sag exceeds the sensitive threshold of the equipment. Thus, device such as Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM) and Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) has been created to solve this problem among users. DVR is a custom power device that most effective and efficient. This paper intended to report the DVR operations during voltage sag compensation.

  20. High voltage capacitor design and the determination of solid dielectric voltage breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hutapea, S.

    1976-01-01

    The value of the external field intensity serves as an electrical insulating material and is a physical characteristic of the substance. Capacitor discharge in the dielectric medium are experimentally investigated. The high voltage power supply and other instrument needed are briefly discussed. Capacitors with working voltage of 30.000 volt and the plastic being used for dielectrics in the capacitors are also discussed. (author)

  1. USAR managing and updating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prah, M.; Spiler, J.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper basis and background of the FSAR (Final Safety Analysis Report) document and its conversion process to the USAR (Updated Safety Analysis Report) document are described. In addition, there are internal and external reviews as approval process presented. The following is included in our new approach to manage USAR changes: initiating the USAR change, technical reviewing, preparing a safety evaluation, KSC (Krsko Safety Committee) and KOC (Krsko Operating Committee) review, ESD Director approval, and the Regulatory Body review or approval. The intensive technological modification activities started in the year 1992 when the NEK Engineering Services Division was established. These activities are one of the most important reason for a very intensive USAR items change. The other reason for its conversation to an electronic format is a possibility for easier and faster searching, updating and changing process and introducing a new systematic USAR managing approach as mentioned above. (author)

  2. Updating radon daughter bronchial dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harley, N.H.; Cohen, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    It is of value to update radon daughter bronchial dosimetry as new information becomes available. Measurements have now been performed using hollow casts of the human bronchial tree with a larynx to determine convective or turbulent deposition in the upper airways. These measurements allow a more realistic calculation of bronchial deposition by diffusion. Particle diameters of 0.15 and 0.2 μm were used which correspond to the activity median diameters for radon daughters in both environmental and mining atmospheres. The total model incorporates Yeh/Schum bronchial morphometry, deposition of unattached and attached radon daughters, build up and decay of the daughters and mucociliary clearance. The alpha dose to target cells in the bronchial epithelium is calculated for the updated model and compared with previous calculations of bronchial dose

  3. [Preoperative fasting guidelines: an update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Muñoz, A C; Busto Aguirreurreta, N; Tomás Braulio, J

    2015-03-01

    Anesthesiology societies have issued various guidelines on preoperative fasting since 1990, not only to decrease the incidence of lung aspiration and anesthetic morbidity, but also to increase patient comfort prior to anesthesia. Some of these societies have been updating their guidelines, as such that, since 2010, we now have 2 evidence-based preoperative fasting guidelines available. In this article, an attempt is made to review these updated guidelines, as well as the current instructions for more controversial patients such as infants, the obese, and a particular type of ophthalmic surgery. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Voltage Balancing Method on Expert System for 51-Level MMC in High Voltage Direct Current Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Modular Multilevel Converters (MMC have been a spotlight for the high voltage and high power transmission systems. In the VSC-HVDC (High Voltage Direct Current based on Voltage Source Converter transmission system, the energy of DC link is stored in the distributed capacitors, and the difference of capacitors in parameters and charge rates causes capacitor voltage balance which affects the safety and stability of HVDC system. A method of MMC based on the expert system for reducing the frequency of the submodules (SMs of the IGBT switching frequency is proposed. Firstly, MMC with 51 levels for HVDC is designed. Secondly, the nearest level control (NLC for 51-level MMC is introduced. Thirdly, a modified capacitor voltage balancing method based on expert system for MMC-based HVDC transmission system is proposed. Finally, a simulation platform for 51-level Modular Multilevel Converter is constructed by using MATLAB/SIMULINK. The results indicate that the strategy proposed reduces the switching frequency on the premise of keeping submodule voltage basically identical, which greatly reduces the power losses for MMC-HVDC system.

  5. Field angle dependence of voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance under DC bias voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiota, Yoichi; Miwa, Shinji; Tamaru, Shingo; Nozaki, Takayuki; Kubota, Hitoshi; Fukushima, Akio; Suzuki, Yoshishige; Yuasa, Shinji

    2016-01-01

    We studied the rectification function of microwaves in CoFeB/MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions using voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance (FMR). Our findings reveal that the shape of the structure of the spectrum depends on the rotation angle of the external magnetic field, providing clear evidence that FMR dynamics are excited by voltage-induced magnetic anisotropy changes. Further, enhancement of the rectified voltage was demonstrated under a DC bias voltage. In our experiments, the highest microwave detection sensitivity obtained was 350 mV/mW, at an RF frequency of 1.0 GHz and field angle of θ_H=80°, ϕ_H=0°. The experimental results correlated with those obtained via simulation, and the calculated results revealed the magnetization dynamics at the resonance state. - Highlights: • Examined voltage-induced ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) under various field angles. • FMR dynamics are excited by voltage-induced magnetic anisotropy changes. • Microwave detection sensitivity depends on input RF and elevation angle. • Microwave detection sensitivity=350 mV/mW at RF=1.0 GHz, θ_H=80°, ϕ_H=0°.

  6. Improved detection of electrical activity with a voltage probe based on a voltage-sensing phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsutsui, Hidekazu; Jinno, Yuka; Tomita, Akiko; Niino, Yusuke; Yamada, Yoshiyuki; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Miyawaki, Atsushi; Okamura, Yasushi

    2013-09-15

      One of the most awaited techniques in modern physiology is the sensitive detection of spatiotemporal electrical activity in a complex network of excitable cells. The use of genetically encoded voltage probes has been expected to enable such analysis. However, in spite of recent progress, existing probes still suffer from low signal amplitude and/or kinetics too slow to detect fast electrical activity. Here, we have developed an improved voltage probe named Mermaid2, which is based on the voltage-sensor domain of the voltage-sensing phosphatase from Ciona intestinalis and Förster energy transfer between a pair of fluorescent proteins. In mammalian cells, Mermaid2 permits ratiometric readouts of fractional changes of more than 50% over a physiologically relevant voltage range with fast kinetics, and it was used to follow a train of action potentials at frequencies of up to 150 Hz. Mermaid2 was also able to detect single action potentials and subthreshold voltage responses in hippocampal neurons in vitro, in addition to cortical electrical activity evoked by sound stimuli in single trials in living mice.

  7. Update heat exchanger designing principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipets, A.U.; Yampol'skij, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    Update heat exchanger design principles are analysed. Different coolant pattern in a heat exchanger are considered. It is suggested to rationally organize flow rates irregularity in it. Applying on heat exchanger designing measures on using really existing temperature and flow rate irregularities will permit to improve heat exchanger efficiency. It is expedient in some cases to artificially produce irregularities. In this connection some heat exchanger design principles must be reviewed now

  8. Endobronchial Ultrasound (EBUS) - Update 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwiche, Kaid; Özkan, Filiz; Wolters, Celina; Eisenmann, Stephan

    2018-02-01

    Endobronchial ultrasound (EBUS) has revolutionized the diagnosis of lung cancer over the last decade. This minimally invasive diagnostic method has also become increasingly important in the case of other diseases such as sarcoidosis, thereby helping to avoid unnecessary diagnostic interventions. This review article provides an update regarding EBUS and discusses current and future developments of this method. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. A Logic of Blockchain Updates

    OpenAIRE

    Brünnler, Kai; Flumini, Dandolo; Studer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Blockchains are distributed data structures that are used to achieve consensus in systems for cryptocurrencies (like Bitcoin) or smart contracts (like Ethereum). Although blockchains gained a lot of popularity recently, there is no logic-based model for blockchains available. We introduce BCL, a dynamic logic to reason about blockchain updates, and show that BCL is sound and complete with respect to a simple blockchain model.

  10. Profile updating for information systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrantes, J.F.

    1983-02-01

    Profiles updating methods were analysed. A method suitable to the characteristics of the system used in the research (SDI/CIN/CNEN) that uses as the selection criterio the threshold and weights criterion, was determined. Relevance weighting theory was described and experiments to verify precision were carried out. The improvements obtained were good nevertheless more significant tests are required to attain more reliable results. (Author) [pt

  11. MEMS Stirling Cooler Development Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.; Wesolek, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    This presentation provides an update on the effort to build and test a prototype unit of the patented MEMS Stirling cooler concept. A micro-scale regenerator has been fabricated by Polar Thermal Technologies and is currently being integrated into a Stirling cycle simulator at Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory. A discussion of the analysis, design, assembly, and test plans for the prototype will be presented.

  12. CSTT Update: Fuel Quality Analyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosha, Eric L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lujan, Roger W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mukundan, Rangachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rockward, Tommy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Romero, Christopher J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Williams, Stefan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilson, Mahlon S. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-02-06

    These are slides from a presentation. The following topics are covered: project background (scope and approach), developing the prototype (timeline), update on intellectual property, analyzer comparisons (improving humidification, stabilizing the baseline, applying clean-up strategy, impact of ionomer content and improving clean-up), proposed operating mode, considerations for testing in real-world conditions (Gen 1 analyzer electronics development, testing partner identified, field trial planning), summary, and future work.

  13. Occupational exposure of healthcare and research staff to static magnetic stray fields from 1.5–7 Tesla MRI scanners is associated with reporting of transient symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Kristel; Christopher-de Vries, Yvette; Mason, Catherine K; de Vocht, Frank; Portengen, Lützen; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Limited data is available about incidence of acute transient symptoms associated with occupational exposure to static magnetic stray fields from MRI scanners. We aimed to assess the incidence of these symptoms among healthcare and research staff working with MRI scanners, and their association with static magnetic field exposure. Methods We performed an observational study among 361 employees of 14 clinical and research MRI facilities in The Netherlands. Each participant completed a diary during one or more work shifts inside and/or outside the MRI facility, reporting work activities and symptoms (from a list of potentially MRI-related symptoms, complemented with unrelated symptoms) experienced during a working day. We analysed 633 diaries. Exposure categories were defined by strength and type of MRI scanner, using non-MRI shifts as the reference category for statistical analysis. Non-MRI shifts originated from MRI staff who also participated on MRI days, as well as CT radiographers who never worked with MRI. Results Varying per exposure category, symptoms were reported during 16–39% of the MRI work shifts. We observed a positive association between scanner strength and reported symptoms among healthcare and research staff working with closed-bore MRI scanners of 1.5 Tesla (T) and higher (1.5 T OR=1.88; 3.0 T OR=2.14; 7.0 T OR=4.17). This finding was mainly driven by reporting of vertigo and metallic taste. Conclusions The results suggest an exposure-response association between exposure to strong static magnetic fields (and associated motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields) and reporting of transient symptoms on the same day of exposure. Trial registration number 11-032/C PMID:24714654

  14. Update of CERN exchange network

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    An update of the CERN exchange network will be done next April. Disturbances or even interruptions of telephony services may occur from 4th to 24th April during evenings from 18:30 to 00:00 but will not exceed more than 4 consecutive hours (see tentative planning below). In addition, the voice messaging system will be shut down on March, 26th April from 18:00 to 00:00. Calls supposed to be routed to the voice messaging system will not be possible during the shutdown. CERN divisions are invited to avoid any change requests (set-ups, move or removals) of telephones and fax machines from 4th to 25th April. Everything will be done to minimize potential inconveniences which may occur during this update. There will be no loss of telephone functionalities. CERN GSM portable phones won't be affected by this change. Should you need more details, please send us your questions by email to Standard.Telephone@cern.ch. Date Change type Affected areas March 26 Update of the voice messaging system All CERN sites April...

  15. Research on Topographic Map Updating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Javorović

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The investigation of interpretability of panchromatic satellite image IRS-1C integrated with multispectral Landsat TM image with the purpose of updating the topographic map sheet at the scale of 1:25 000 has been described. The geocoding of source map was based on trigonometric points of the map sheet. Satellite images were geocoded using control points selected from the map. The contents of map have been vectorized and topographic database designed. The digital image processing improved the interpretability of images. Then, the vectorization of new contents was made. The change detection of the forest and water area was defined by using unsupervised classification of spatial and spectral merged images. Verification of the results was made using corresponding aerial photographs. Although this methodology could not insure the complete updating of topographic map at the scale of 1:25 000, the database has been updated with huge amount of data. Erdas Imagine 8.3. software was used. 

  16. Updating Recursive XML Views of Relations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Byron; Cong, Gao; Fan, Wenfei

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the view update problem for XML views published from relational data. We consider XML views defined in terms of mappings directed by possibly recursive DTDs compressed into DAGs and stored in relations. We provide new techniques to efficiently support XML view updates...... specified in terms of XPath expressions with recursion and complex filters. The interaction between XPath recursion and DAG compression of XML views makes the analysis of the XML view update problem rather intriguing. Furthermore, many issues are still open even for relational view updates, and need...... to be explored. In response to these, on the XML side, we revise the notion of side effects and update semantics based on the semantics of XML views, and present effecient algorithms to translate XML updates to relational view updates. On the relational side, we propose a mild condition on SPJ views, and show...

  17. Development of Multi-Functional Voltage Restore System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Satoshi; Ueda, Yoshinobu; Koganezawa, Takehisa; Ogihara, Yoshinori; Mori, Kenjiro; Fukazu, Naoaki

    Recently, with the dawn of the electric deregulation, the installation of distributed generation with power electronics device has grown. This current causes a greater concern of power quality, primarily voltage disturbance for power companies, and their interest in power quality is peaking. Utilities are also interested in keeping their customers satisfied, as well as keeping them on-line and creating more revenue for the utility. As a countermeasure against the above surroundings, a variety type of devices based on power electronics has been developed to protect customers' load from power line voltage disturbance. One of them is the series type voltage restore. The series device is an active device, designed to provide a pure sinusoidal load voltage at all times, correcting voltage disturbance. Series type device compensates for voltage anomalies by inserting the ‘missing’ voltage onto the line through insertion transformer and inverter. This paper shows the setting guideline of target level to compensate voltage disturbance, that is, voltage dip, voltage harmonics, voltage imbalance and voltage flicker, and the design approach of the prototype of series voltage restores to accomplish the required compensation level. The prototype system gives satisfactory compensation performance through evaluation tests, which confirm the validity and effectiveness of the system.

  18. Voltage current characteristics of type III superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorofejev, G.L.; Imenitov, A.B.; Klimenko, E.Y.

    1980-01-01

    An adequate description of voltage-current characteristics is important in order to understand the nature of high critical current for the electrodynamic construction of type-III superconductors and for commercial superconductor specification. Homogeneous monofilament and multifilament Nb-Ti, Nb-Zr,Nb 3 Sn wires were investigated in different ranges of magnetic field, temperature and current. The shape of the voltage-current characteristics of multifilament wires, and the parameter's dependence on temperature and magnetic field may be explained qualitatively by the longitudinal heterogeneous nature of the filaments. A method of attaining the complete specification of the wire's electro-physical properties is proposed. It includes the traditional description of a critical surface (i.e. the surface corresponding to a certain conventional effective resistivity in T,B,J-space) and a description of any increasing parameter that depends on B and T. (author)

  19. Voltage current characteristics of type III superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorofeiev, G L; Imenitov, A B; Klimenko, E Y [Gosudarstvennyi Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoi Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Atomnoi Ehnergii

    1980-06-01

    An adequate description of voltage-current characteristics is important in order to understand the nature of high critical current for the electrodynamic construction of type-III superconductors and for commercial superconductor specification. Homogeneous monofilament and multifilament Nb-Ti, Nb-Zr,Nb/sub 3/Sn wires were investigated in different ranges of magnetic field, temperature and current. The shape of the voltage-current characteristics of multifilament wires, and the parameter's dependence on temperature and magnetic field may be explained qualitatively by the longitudinal heterogeneous nature of the filaments. A method of attaining the complete specification of the wire's electro-physical properties is proposed. It includes the traditional description of a critical surface (i.e. the surface corresponding to a certain conventional effective resistivity in T,B,J-space) and a description of any increasing parameter that depends on B and T.

  20. High-voltage nanosecond pulse shaper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapishnikov, N.K.; Muratov, V.M.; Shatanov, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    A high-voltage pulse shaper with an output of up to 250 kV, a base duration of ∼ 10 nsec, and a repetition frequency of 50 pulses/sec is described. The described high-voltage nanosecond pulse shaper is designed for one-orbit extraction of an electron beam from a betatron. A diagram of the pulse shaper, which employs a single-stage generator is shown. The shaping element is a low-inductance capacitor bank of series-parallel KVI-3 (2200 pF at 10 kV) or K15-10 (4700 pF at 31.5 kV) disk ceramic capacitors. Four capacitors are connected in parallel and up to 25 are connected in series