WorldWideScience

Sample records for stray light suppression

  1. Carbon Nanotubes on Titanium Substrates for Stray Light Suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Getty, Stephanie; Quijada, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    A method has been developed for growing carbon nanotubes on a titanium substrate, which makes the nano tubes ten times blacker than the current state-of-the-art paints in the visible to near infrared. This will allow for significant improvement of stray light performance in scientific instruments, or any other optical system. Because baffles, stops, and tubes used in scientific observations often undergo loads such as vibration, it is critical to develop this surface treatment on structural materials. This innovation optimizes the carbon nano - tube growth for titanium, which is a strong, lightweight structural material suitable for spaceflight use. The steps required to grow the nanotubes require the preparation of the surface by lapping, and the deposition of an iron catalyst over an alumina stiction layer by e-beam evaporation. In operation, the stray light controls are fabricated, and nanotubes (multi-walled 100 microns in length) are grown on the surface. They are then installed in the instruments or other optical devices.

  2. The Design, Construction and Test of stray light suppression baffles for the CHAMP satellite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, John Leif

    1997-01-01

    The Advanced Stellar Compass, to be delivered from IAU to the CHAMP project, requires some kind of stray-light suppressing shade to be mounted in front of the lens, in order to minimize the thermal impact and to maximize the performance envelope when subjected to non-stellar external light sources...

  3. Bidirectional reflectance distribution function /BRDF/ measurements of stray light suppression coatings for the Space Telescope /ST/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griner, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    The paper considers the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) of black coatings used on stray light suppression systems for the Space Telescope (ST). The ST stray light suppression requirement is to reduce earth, moon, and sun light in the focal plane to a level equivalent to one 23 Mv star per square arcsecond, an attenuation of 14 orders of magnitude. It is impractical to verify the performance of a proposed baffle system design by full scale tests because of the large size of the ST, so that a computer analysis is used to select the design. Accurate computer analysis requires a knowledge of the diffuse scatter at all angles from the surface of the coatings, for all angles of incident light. During the early phases of the ST program a BRDF scanner was built at the Marshall Space Flight Center to study the scatter from black materials; the measurement system is described and the results of measurements on samples proposed for use on the ST are presented.

  4. Stray light suppression in the Goddard IRAM 2-Millimeter Observer (GISMO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, E. H.; Benford, D. J.; Fixsen, D. J.; Moseley, S. H.; Staguhn, J. G.; Wollack, E. J.

    2012-09-01

    The Goddard-IRAM Superconducting 2 Millimeter Observer (GISMO) is an 8x16 Transition Edge Sensor (TES) array of bolometers built as a pathfinder for TES detector development efforts at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. GISMO has been used annually at the Institut de Radioastronomie Millimétrique (IRAM) 30 meter telescope since 2007 under engineering time and was opened in the spring of 2012 to the general astronomical community. The spring deployment provided an opportunity to modify elements of the room temperature optics before moving the instrument to its new permanent position in the telescope receiver cabin. This allowed for the possibility to extend the cryostat, introduce improved cold baffling and thus further optimize the stray light performance for final astronomical use of the instrument, which has been completed and validated. We will demonstrate and discuss several of the methods used to quantify and limit the influence of stray light in the GISMO camera.

  5. Stray light analysis and control

    CERN Document Server

    Fest, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Stray light is defined as unwanted light in an optical system, a familiar concept for anyone who has taken a photograph with the sun in or near their camera's field of view. This book addresses stray light terminology, radiometry, and the physics of stray light mechanisms, such as surface roughness scatter and ghost reflections. The most-efficient ways of using stray light analysis software packages are included. The book also demonstrates how the basic principles are applied in the design, fabrication, and testing phases of optical system development.

  6. Stray light reduction for Thomson scattering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Doebele, H.F.; Muraoka, K.

    1999-01-01

    In order to perform Thomson scattering in a gas discharge tube, the reduction of stray light is very important because of the very small Thomson cross-section. By introducing a sodium absorption cell as a notch filter, we can reduce the measured stray light considerably. Then we have to use a dye

  7. Influence of stray light for divertor spectroscopy in ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, Shin; Veshchev, Evgeny; Lisgo, Steve; Barnsley, Robin; Morgan, Philip; Walsh, Michael; Ogawa, Hiroaki; Sugie, Tatsuo; Itami, Kiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The influence of stray light in the divertor spectroscopy system in ITER is quantitatively investigated using a ray tracing simulation. Simulation results show that the stray light is negligible at positions in the divertor where the plasma emission is strong. However, it is also shown that the stray light can be significantly greater than the real signal if the plasma intensity is low. Deuterium and beryllium emissions are used for the assessment; for beryllium cases in particular, since the emission profile may be non-uniform in the divertor region, the influence of stray light can be non-negligible at some positions, e.g., above the divertor dome

  8. Stray light characteristics of the diffractive telescope system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dun; Wang, Lihua; Yang, Wei; Wu, Shibin; Fan, Bin; Wu, Fan

    2018-02-01

    Diffractive telescope technology is an innovation solution in construction of large light-weight space telescope. However, the nondesign orders of diffractive optical elements (DOEs) may affect the imaging performance as stray light. To study the stray light characteristics of a diffractive telescope, a prototype was developed and its stray light analysis model was established. The stray light characteristics including ghost, point source transmittance, and veiling glare index (VGI) were analyzed. During the star imaging test of the prototype, the ghost images appeared around the star image as the exposure time of the charge-coupled device improving, consistent with the simulation results. The test result of VGI was 67.11%, slightly higher than the calculated value 57.88%. The study shows that the same order diffraction of the diffractive primary lens and correcting DOE is the main factor that causes ghost images. The stray light sources outside the field of view can illuminate the image plane through nondesign orders diffraction of the primary lens and contributes to more than 90% of the stray light flux on the image plane. In summary, it is expected that these works will provide some guidance for optimizing the imaging performance of diffractive telescopes.

  9. Stray light field dependence for large astronomical space telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lightsey, Paul A.; Bowers, Charles W.

    2017-09-01

    Future large astronomical telescopes in space will have architectures that expose the optics to large angular extents of the sky. Options for reducing stray light coming from the sky range from enclosing the telescope in a tubular baffle to having an open telescope structure with a large sunshield to eliminate solar illumination. These two options are considered for an on-axis telescope design to explore stray light considerations. A tubular baffle design will limit the sky exposure to the solid angle of the cone in front of the telescope set by the aspect ratio of the baffle length to Primary Mirror (PM) diameter. Illumination from this portion of the sky will be limited to the PM and structures internal to the tubular baffle. Alternatively, an open structure design will allow a large portion of the sky to directly illuminate the PM and Secondary Mirror (SM) as well as illuminating sunshield and other structure surfaces which will reflect or scatter light onto the PM and SM. Portions of this illumination of the PM and SM will be scattered into the optical train as stray light. A Radiance Transfer Function (RTF) is calculated for the open architecture that determines the ratio of the stray light background radiance in the image contributed by a patch of sky having unit radiance. The full 4π steradian of sky is divided into a grid of patches, with the location of each patch defined in the telescope coordinate system. By rotating the celestial sky radiance maps into the telescope coordinate frame for a given pointing direction of the telescope, the RTF may be applied to the sky brightness and the results integrated to get the total stray light from the sky for that pointing direction. The RTF data generated for the open architecture may analyzed as a function of the expanding cone angle about the pointing direction. In this manner, the open architecture data may be used to directly compare to a tubular baffle design parameterized by allowed cone angle based on the

  10. Fast and accurate modeling of stray light in optical systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, Jean-Claude

    2017-11-01

    The first problem to be solved in most optical designs with respect to stray light is that of internal reflections on the several surfaces of individual lenses and mirrors, and on the detector itself. The level of stray light ratio can be considerably reduced by taking into account the stray light during the optimization to determine solutions in which the irradiance due to these ghosts is kept to the minimum possible value. Unhappily, the routines available in most optical design software's, for example CODE V, do not permit all alone to make exact quantitative calculations of the stray light due to these ghosts. Therefore, the engineer in charge of the optical design is confronted to the problem of using two different software's, one for the design and optimization, for example CODE V, one for stray light analysis, for example ASAP. This makes a complete optimization very complex . Nevertheless, using special techniques and combinations of the routines available in CODE V, it is possible to have at its disposal a software macro tool to do such an analysis quickly and accurately, including Monte-Carlo ray tracing, or taking into account diffraction effects. This analysis can be done in a few minutes, to be compared to hours with other software's.

  11. Usage of ray tracing transfer matrix to mitigate the stray light for ITER spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajita, S.; Veshchev, E.; Barnsley, R.; Walsh, M.

    2016-01-01

    Stray light formed by the reflection of photons on inner wall from a bright divertor region can be a serious issue in spectroscopic measurement systems in ITER. In this study, we propose a method to mitigate the influence of stray light using a ray tracing analysis. Usually, a ray tracing simulation requires a time consuming runs. We constructed transfer matrices based on the ray tracing simulation results and used them to demonstrate the influence of stray light. It is shown that the transfer matrix can be used to reconstruct the emission profile by considering the influence of the stray light without any additional ray tracing runs. Mitigation of the stray light in ITER divertor impurity monitor was demonstrated, and a method of prediction of the stray light level for the scrape off layer spectroscopy from divertor region was proposed. (copyright 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Identification and mitigation of stray laser light in the Thomson scattering system on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, C. M.; Borchardt, M. T.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Falkowski, A. F.; Morton, L. A.; Thomas, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) records excessive levels of stray Nd:YAG laser light. Stray light saturates the 1064 nm spectral channel in all polychromators, which prevents absolute electron density measurements via Rayleigh scattering calibration. Furthermore, stray light contaminates adjacent spectral channels for r/a ≥ 0.75, which renders the diagnostic unable to make electron temperature measurements at these radii. In situ measurements of stray light levels during a vacuum vessel vent are used to identify stray light sources and strategies for reduction of stray light levels. Numerical modeling using Zemax OpticStudio supports these measurements. The model of the vacuum vessel and diagnostic includes synthetic collection optics to enable direct comparison of measured and simulated stray light levels. Modeling produces qualitatively similar stray light distributions to MST measurements, and quantifies the mitigation effects of stray light mitigation strategies prior to implementation.

  13. Identification and mitigation of stray laser light in the Thomson scattering system on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, C. M., E-mail: cjacobson@wisc.edu; Borchardt, M. T.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Falkowski, A. F.; Morton, L. A.; Thomas, M. A. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, 1150 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) records excessive levels of stray Nd:YAG laser light. Stray light saturates the 1064 nm spectral channel in all polychromators, which prevents absolute electron density measurements via Rayleigh scattering calibration. Furthermore, stray light contaminates adjacent spectral channels for r/a ≥ 0.75, which renders the diagnostic unable to make electron temperature measurements at these radii. In situ measurements of stray light levels during a vacuum vessel vent are used to identify stray light sources and strategies for reduction of stray light levels. Numerical modeling using Zemax OpticStudio supports these measurements. The model of the vacuum vessel and diagnostic includes synthetic collection optics to enable direct comparison of measured and simulated stray light levels. Modeling produces qualitatively similar stray light distributions to MST measurements, and quantifies the mitigation effects of stray light mitigation strategies prior to implementation.

  14. ON THE INVERSION OF STOKES PROFILES WITH LOCAL STRAY-LIGHT CONTAMINATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asensio Ramos, A.; Manso Sainz, R.

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining the magnetic properties of non-resolved structures in the solar photosphere is always challenging and problems arise because the inversion is carried out through the numerical minimization of a merit function that depends on the proposed model. We investigate the reliability of inversions in which the stray-light contamination is obtained from the same observations as a local average. In this case, we show that it is fundamental to include the covariance between the observed Stokes profiles and the stray-light contamination. The ensuing modified merit function of the inversion process penalizes large stray-light contaminations simply because of the presence of positive correlations between the observables and the stray light, fundamentally produced by spatially variable systematics. We caution that if the wrong merit function is used, artificially large stray-light contaminations might be inferred. Since this effect disappears if the stray-light contamination is obtained as an average over the full field of view, we recommend taking into account stray-light contamination using a global approach.

  15. Pitfalls and artifacts in measuring absorption spectra and kinetics: the effect of stray light in the UV and red regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czapski, Gideon; Ozeri, Yair; Goldstein, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Effects of stray light on absorption spectrum and kinetics are discussed. The extent of the stray light depends on the light source, monochromator, wavelength set by the instrument and the absorption of the sample at this wavelength. Effects of the stray light on the shape of the spectrum and the extinction coefficients are shown. Methods for determining the existence and extent of stray light are suggested and are especially relevant for studies using pulse radiolysis, flash photolysis, and stopped-flow techniques. The literature examples for artifacts due to stray light are presented for kinetics and absorption spectra

  16. Comparison of stray light in spectrometer systems using a low cost monochromatic light source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorseth, Anders; Lindén, Johannes; Dam-Hansen, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    We present an experimental setup that is under development for automated stray light characterization of spectrometers. The setup uses a tuneable monochromator which enables this characterization on relatively cost low equipment. We present the measured line spread functions for two spectrometers...

  17. Effects of stray lights on Faraday rotation measurement for polarimeter-interferometer system on EAST.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Z Y; Liu, H Q; Ding, W X; Chen, J; Brower, D L; Lian, H; Wang, S X; Li, W M; Yao, Y; Zeng, L; Jie, Y X

    2018-01-01

    A double-pass radially view 11 chords polarimeter-interferometer system has been operated on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak and provides important current profile information for plasma control. Stray light originating from spurious reflections along the optical path (unwanted reflections from various optical components/mounts and transmissive optical elements such as windows, waveplates, and lens as well as the detectors) and also direct feedback from the retro-reflector used to realize the double-pass configuration can both contribute to contamination of the Faraday rotation measurement accuracy. Modulation of the Faraday rotation signal due to the interference from multiple reflections is observable when the interferometer phase (plasma density) varies with time. Direct reflection from the detector itself can be suppressed by employing an optical isolator consisting of a λ/4-waveplate and polarizer positioned in front of the mixer. A Faraday angle oscillation during the density ramping up (or down) can be reduced from 5°-10° to 1°-2° by eliminating reflections from the detector. Residual modulation arising from misalignment and stray light from other sources must be minimized to achieve accurate measurements of Faraday rotation.

  18. [Influence of different multifocal intraocular lens concepts on retinal stray light parameters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehmer, A; Rabsilber, T M; Mannsfeld, A; Sanchez, M J; Holzer, M P; Auffarth, G U

    2011-10-01

    Multifocal intraocular lenses (MIOL) are known to induce various photic phenomena depending on the optical principle. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between stray light measurements performed with the C-Quant (Oculus, Germany) and the results of a subjective patient questionnaire. In this study three different MIOLs were compared: AMO ReZoom (refractive design, n=10), AMO ZM900 (diffractive design, n=10) and Oculentis Mplus (near segment design, n=10). Cataract and refractive patients were enrolled in the study. Functional results were evaluated at least 3 months postoperatively followed by stray light measurements and a subjective questionnaire. Surgery was performed for all patients without complications. The three groups were matched for age, IOL power and corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA). Significantly different stray light (median) values log(s) were found (Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0.05): 1.12 log (refractive), 1.13 log (segment) and 1.28 log (diffractive). The subjective questionnaire did not show differences in glare perception but refractive MIOL patients noticed more halos surrounding light sources than the diffractive and segment MIOL patients. Stray light and subjective photopic phenomena do not show any basic correlation. Measurements in patients with refractive MIOLs showed less stray light than near segment or diffractive MIOLs. However, refractive MIOLs induced more halos compared to the other groups analyzed.

  19. Stray light correction on array spectroradiometers for optical radiation risk assessment in the workplace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barlier-Salsi, A

    2014-01-01

    The European directive 2006/25/EC requires the employer to assess and, if necessary, measure the levels of exposure to optical radiation in the workplace. Array spectroradiometers can measure optical radiation from various types of sources; however poor stray light rejection affects their accuracy. A stray light correction matrix, using a tunable laser, was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). As tunable lasers are very expensive, the purpose of this study was to implement this method using only nine low power lasers; other elements of the correction matrix being completed by interpolation and extrapolation. The correction efficiency was evaluated by comparing CCD spectroradiometers with and without correction and a scanning double monochromator device as reference. Similar to findings recorded by NIST, these experiments show that it is possible to reduce the spectral stray light by one or two orders of magnitude. In terms of workplace risk assessment, this spectral stray light correction method helps determine exposure levels, with an acceptable degree of uncertainty, for the majority of workplace situations. The level of uncertainty depends upon the model of spectroradiometers used; the best results are obtained with CCD detectors having an enhanced spectral sensitivity in the UV range. Thus corrected spectroradiometers require a validation against a scanning double monochromator spectroradiometer before using them for risk assessment in the workplace. (paper)

  20. Stray light correction on array spectroradiometers for optical radiation risk assessment in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlier-Salsi, A

    2014-12-01

    The European directive 2006/25/EC requires the employer to assess and, if necessary, measure the levels of exposure to optical radiation in the workplace. Array spectroradiometers can measure optical radiation from various types of sources; however poor stray light rejection affects their accuracy. A stray light correction matrix, using a tunable laser, was developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). As tunable lasers are very expensive, the purpose of this study was to implement this method using only nine low power lasers; other elements of the correction matrix being completed by interpolation and extrapolation. The correction efficiency was evaluated by comparing CCD spectroradiometers with and without correction and a scanning double monochromator device as reference. Similar to findings recorded by NIST, these experiments show that it is possible to reduce the spectral stray light by one or two orders of magnitude. In terms of workplace risk assessment, this spectral stray light correction method helps determine exposure levels, with an acceptable degree of uncertainty, for the majority of workplace situations. The level of uncertainty depends upon the model of spectroradiometers used; the best results are obtained with CCD detectors having an enhanced spectral sensitivity in the UV range. Thus corrected spectroradiometers require a validation against a scanning double monochromator spectroradiometer before using them for risk assessment in the workplace.

  1. Fast space-varying convolution using matrix source coding with applications to camera stray light reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Jianing; Bouman, Charles A; Allebach, Jan P

    2014-05-01

    Many imaging applications require the implementation of space-varying convolution for accurate restoration and reconstruction of images. Here, we use the term space-varying convolution to refer to linear operators whose impulse response has slow spatial variation. In addition, these space-varying convolution operators are often dense, so direct implementation of the convolution operator is typically computationally impractical. One such example is the problem of stray light reduction in digital cameras, which requires the implementation of a dense space-varying deconvolution operator. However, other inverse problems, such as iterative tomographic reconstruction, can also depend on the implementation of dense space-varying convolution. While space-invariant convolution can be efficiently implemented with the fast Fourier transform, this approach does not work for space-varying operators. So direct convolution is often the only option for implementing space-varying convolution. In this paper, we develop a general approach to the efficient implementation of space-varying convolution, and demonstrate its use in the application of stray light reduction. Our approach, which we call matrix source coding, is based on lossy source coding of the dense space-varying convolution matrix. Importantly, by coding the transformation matrix, we not only reduce the memory required to store it; we also dramatically reduce the computation required to implement matrix-vector products. Our algorithm is able to reduce computation by approximately factoring the dense space-varying convolution operator into a product of sparse transforms. Experimental results show that our method can dramatically reduce the computation required for stray light reduction while maintaining high accuracy.

  2. A high-power spatial filter for Thomson scattering stray light reduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, J. P.; Litzner, K. D.; Mauel, M. E.; Maurer, D. A.; Navratil, G. A.; Pedersen, T. S.

    2011-03-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic on the High Beta Tokamak-Extended Pulse (HBT-EP) is routinely used to measure electron temperature and density during plasma discharges. Avalanche photodiodes in a five-channel interference filter polychromator measure scattered light from a 6 ns, 800 mJ, 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser pulse. A low cost, high-power spatial filter was designed, tested, and added to the laser beamline in order to reduce stray laser light to levels which are acceptable for accurate Rayleigh calibration. A detailed analysis of the spatial filter design and performance is given. The spatial filter can be easily implemented in an existing Thomson scattering system without the need to disturb the vacuum chamber or significantly change the beamline. Although apertures in the spatial filter suffer substantial damage from the focused beam, with proper design they can last long enough to permit absolute calibration.

  3. Effects of different levels of intraocular stray light on kinetic perimetry findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Hirasawa

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of different levels of intraocular stray light on kinetic perimetry findings.Twenty-five eyes of 25 healthy young participants were examined by automated kinetic perimetry (Octopus 900 using Goldmann stimuli III4e, I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e. Each stimulus was presented with a velocity of 3°/s at 24 meridians with 15° intervals. Four levels of intraocular stray light were induced using non-white opacity filter (WOF filters and WOFs applied to the clear plastic eye covers of the participants. The visual acuity, pupil diameter, isopter area, and kinetic sensitivity of each meridian were analyzed for each WOF density.Visual acuity deteriorated with increasing WOF densities (p < 0.01. With a visual acuity of 0.1 LogMAR units, the isopter areas for III4e, I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e decreased by -32.7 degree2 (-0.2%, -255.7 degree2 (-2.6%, -381.2 degree2 (-6.2%, -314.8 degree2 (-12.8%, and -59.2 degree2 (-15.2%, respectively; kinetic sensitivity for those stimuli decreased by -0.1 degree (-0.1%, -0.8 degree (-1.4%, -1.6 degree (-3.7%, -2.7 degree (-9.7%, and -1.7 degree (-16.2%, respectively. The pupil diameter with each WOF density was not significantly different.Kinetic perimetry measurements with a high-intensity stimulus (i.e., III4e were unaffected by intraocular stray light. In contrast, measurements with the I4e, I3e, I2e, and I1e stimuli, especially I2e and I1e, were affected. Changes in the shape of the isopter resulting from opacity must be monitored, especially in cases of smaller and lower-intensity stimuli.

  4. An assessment of the stray light in 25 years of Dobson total ozone data at Athens, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christodoulakis, J.; Varotsos, C.; Cracknell, A. P.; Tzanis, C.; Neofytos, A.

    2015-07-01

    In this study, we investigated the susceptibility of the Dobson spectrophotometer No. 118 to stray light interference. In this regard, a series of total ozone content measurements were carried out in Athens, Greece for air-mass values (μ) extending up to μ = 5. The monochromatic-heterochromatic stray light derived by Basher's model was used in order to evaluate the specific instrumental parameters which determine if this instrument suffers from this problem or not. The results obtained indicate that the measurements made by the Dobson instrument of the Athens station for air mass values up to 2.5, underestimates the total ozone content by 3.5 DU in average, or about 1 % of the station's mean total ozone content (TOC). The comparison of the values of the same parameters measured 15 years ago with the present ones indicates the good maintenance of the Dobson spectrophotometer No. 118. This fact is of crucial importance because the variability of the daily total ozone observations collected by the Athens Dobson Station since 1989 has proved to be representative to the variability of the mean total ozone observed over the whole mid-latitude zone of the Northern Hemisphere. This stresses the point that the Athens total ozone station, being the unique Dobson station in south-eastern Europe, may be assumed as a ground truth station for the reliable conversion of the satellite radiance observations to total ozone measurements.

  5. Low-Energy Microfocus X-Ray Source for Enhanced Testing Capability in the Stray Light Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskin, Jessica; O'Dell, Stephen; Kolodziejczak, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Research toward high-resolution, soft x-ray optics (mirrors and gratings) necessary for the next generation large x-ray observatories requires x-ray testing using a low-energy x-ray source with fine angular size (energy microfocus (approximately 0.1 mm spot) x-ray source from TruFocus Corporation that mates directly to the Stray Light Facility (SLF). MSFC X-ray Astronomy team members are internationally recognized for their expertise in the development, fabrication, and testing of grazing-incidence optics for x-ray telescopes. One of the key MSFC facilities for testing novel x-ray instrumentation is the SLF. This facility is an approximately 100-m-long beam line equipped with multiple x-ray sources and detectors. This new source adds to the already robust compliment of instrumentation, allowing MSFC to support additional internal and community x-ray testing needs.

  6. Sunspot Light Walls Suppressed by Nearby Brightenings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Jun; Hou, Yijun; Li, Xiaohong [CAS Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012 (China); Erdélyi, Robertus [Solar Physics and Space Plasma Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Sheffield, Hicks Building, Hounsfield Road, Sheffield S3 7RH (United Kingdom); Yan, Limei, E-mail: shuhongyang@nao.cas.cn [Key Laboratory of Earth and Planetary Physics, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Light walls, as ensembles of oscillating bright structures rooted in sunspot light bridges, have not been well studied, although they are important for understanding sunspot properties. Using the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph and Solar Dynamics Observatory observations, here we study the evolution of two oscillating light walls each within its own active region (AR). The emission of each light wall decays greatly after the appearance of adjacent brightenings. For the first light wall, rooted within AR 12565, the average height, amplitude, and oscillation period significantly decrease from 3.5 Mm, 1.7 Mm, and 8.5 minutes to 1.6 Mm, 0.4 Mm, and 3.0 minutes, respectively. For the second light wall, rooted within AR 12597, the mean height, amplitude, and oscillation period of the light wall decrease from 2.1 Mm, 0.5 Mm, and 3.0 minutes to 1.5 Mm, 0.2 Mm, and 2.1 minutes, respectively. Particularly, a part of the second light wall even becomes invisible after the influence of a nearby brightening. These results reveal that the light walls are suppressed by nearby brightenings. Considering the complex magnetic topology in light bridges, we conjecture that the fading of light walls may be caused by a drop in the magnetic pressure, where the flux is canceled by magnetic reconnection at the site of the nearby brightening. Another hypothesis is that the wall fading is due to the suppression of driver source ( p -mode oscillation), resulting from the nearby avalanche of downward particles along reconnected brightening loops.

  7. Stray voltage mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, B.; Piercy, R.; Dick, P. [Kinetrics Inc., Toronto, ON (Canada). Transmission and Distribution Technologies

    2008-04-09

    This report discussed issues related to farm stray voltage and evaluated mitigation strategies and costs for limiting voltage to farms. A 3-phase, 3-wire system with no neutral ground was used throughout North America before the 1930s. Transformers were connected phase to phase without any electrical connection between the primary and secondary sides of the transformers. Distribution voltage levels were then increased and multi-grounded neutral wires were added. The earth now forms a parallel return path for the neutral current that allows part of the neutral current to flow continuously through the earth. The arrangement is responsible for causing stray voltage. Stray voltage causes uneven milk production, increased incidences of mastitis, and can create a reluctance to drink water amongst cows when stray voltages are present. Off-farm sources of stray voltage include phase unbalances, undersized neutral wire, and high resistance splices on the neutral wire. Mitigation strategies for reducing stray voltage include phase balancing; conversion from single to 3-phase; increasing distribution voltage levels, and changing pole configurations. 22 refs., 5 tabs., 13 figs.

  8. Dim light adaptation attenuates acute melatonin suppression in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasser, Samar A; Hanifin, John P; Rollag, Mark D; Brainard, George C

    2006-10-01

    Abstract Studies in rodents with retinal degeneration indicated that neither the rod nor the cone photoreceptors obligatorily participate in circadian responses to light, including melatonin suppression and photoperiodic response. Yet there is a residual phase-shifting response in melanopsin knockout mice, which suggests an alternate or redundant means for light input to the SCN of the hypothalamus. The findings of Aggelopoulos and Meissl suggest a complex, dynamic interrelationship between the classic visual photoreceptors and SCN cell sensitivity to light stimuli, relative to various adaptive lighting conditions. These studies raised the possibility that the phototransductive physiology of the retinohypothalamic tract in humans might be modulated by the visual rod and cone photoreceptors. The aim of the following two-part study was to test the hypothesis that dim light adaptation will dampen the subsequent suppression of melatonin by monochromatic light in healthy human subjects. Each experiment included 5 female and 3 male human subjects between the ages of 18 and 30 years, with normal color vision. Dim white light and darkness adaptation exposures occurred between midnight and 0200 h, and a full-field 460-nm light exposure subsequently occurred between 0200 and 0330-h for each adaptation condition, at 2 different intensities. Plasma samples were drawn following the 2-h adaptation, as well as after the 460-nm monochromatic light exposure, and melatonin was measured by radioimmunoassay. Comparison of melatonin suppression responses to monochromatic light in both studies revealed a loss of significant suppression after dim white light adaptation compared with dark adaptation (p light exposure, varying with the conditions of light adaptation prior to exposure.

  9. Intermittent Episodes of Bright Light Suppress Myopia in the Chicken More than Continuous Bright Light

    OpenAIRE

    Lan, Weizhong; Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. METHODS: Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8) was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux) at a 10:14 light:dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux) were super-imposed on this background as follows....

  10. A method to measure internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; Li, Zhou; He, Fengyun; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2017-03-01

    The suppression level of internal stray radiation is a key criterion for infrared imaging systems, especially for high-precision cryogenic infrared imaging systems. To achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures, a measurement method, which is based on radiometric calibration, is presented in this paper. First of all, the calibration formula is deduced considering the integration time, and the effect of ambient temperature on internal stray radiation is further analyzed in detail. Then, an approach is proposed to measure the internal stray radiation of cryogenic infrared imaging systems under various ambient temperatures. By calibrating the system under two ambient temperatures, the quantitative relation between the internal stray radiation and the ambient temperature can be acquired, and then the internal stray radiation of the cryogenic infrared imaging system under various ambient temperatures can be calculated. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. Experimental results indicate that the proposed method can be used to measure internal stray radiation with high accuracy at various ambient temperatures and integration times. The proposed method has some advantages, such as simple implementation and the capability of high-precision measurement. The measurement results can be used to guide the stray radiation suppression and to test whether the internal stray radiation suppression performance meets the requirement or not.

  11. Intermittent episodes of bright light suppress myopia in the chicken more than continuous bright light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Weizhong; Feldkaemper, Marita; Schaeffel, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8) was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux) at a 10:14 light:dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux) were super-imposed on this background as follows. Paradigm I: exposure to constant bright light for either 1 hour (n = 5), 2 hours (n = 5), 5 hours (n = 4) or 10 hours (n = 4). Paradigm II: exposure to repeated cycles of bright light with 50% duty cycle and either 60 minutes (n = 7), 30 minutes (n = 8), 15 minutes (n = 6), 7 minutes (n = 7) or 1 minute (n = 7) periods, provided for 10 hours. Refraction and axial length were measured prior to and immediately after the 5-day experiment. Relative changes were analyzed by paired t-tests, and differences among groups were tested by one-way ANOVA. Compared with the reference group, exposure to continuous bright light for 1 or 2 hours every day had no significant protective effect against deprivation myopia. Inhibition of myopia became significant after 5 hours of bright light exposure but extending the duration to 10 hours did not offer an additional benefit. In comparison, repeated cycles of 1:1 or 7:7 minutes of bright light enhanced the protective effect against myopia and could fully suppress its development. The protective effect of bright light depends on the exposure duration and, to the intermittent form, the frequency cycle. Compared to the saturation effect of continuous bright light, low frequency cycles of bright light (1:1 min) provided the strongest inhibition effect. However, our quantitative results probably might not be directly translated into humans, but rather need further amendments in clinical studies.

  12. Ultraviolet light-induced suppression of antigen presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spellman, C.W.; Tomasi, T.B.

    1983-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) light irradiation of animals results in the development of specific T suppressor cells that inhibit antitumor immune responses. It is thought that suppression may arise as a consequence of altered antigen presentation by UV-irradiated epidermal cells. This hypothesis is based on evidence demonstrating that specific lymphoid tissues from UV-irradiated hosts exhibit impaired antigen-presenting function and that animals cannot be contact sensitized when antigens are applied to a UV-irradiated skin site. Langerhans cells of the skin are likely candidates as targets of UV-induced defects in antigen presentation as they bear Fc and C3b receptors, express Ia antigens, are of bone marrow origin, and are capable of presenting antigen in vitro. We speculate on the possible clinical usefulness of UV-induced tolerance to specific antigens such as those encountered in monoclonal antibody therapy and tissue transplantation

  13. Intermittent episodes of bright light suppress myopia in the chicken more than continuous bright light.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weizhong Lan

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Bright light has been shown a powerful inhibitor of myopia development in animal models. We studied which temporal patterns of bright light are the most potent in suppressing deprivation myopia in chickens. METHODS: Eight-day-old chickens wore diffusers over one eye to induce deprivation myopia. A reference group (n = 8 was kept under office-like illuminance (500 lux at a 10:14 light:dark cycle. Episodes of bright light (15 000 lux were super-imposed on this background as follows. Paradigm I: exposure to constant bright light for either 1 hour (n = 5, 2 hours (n = 5, 5 hours (n = 4 or 10 hours (n = 4. Paradigm II: exposure to repeated cycles of bright light with 50% duty cycle and either 60 minutes (n = 7, 30 minutes (n = 8, 15 minutes (n = 6, 7 minutes (n = 7 or 1 minute (n = 7 periods, provided for 10 hours. Refraction and axial length were measured prior to and immediately after the 5-day experiment. Relative changes were analyzed by paired t-tests, and differences among groups were tested by one-way ANOVA. RESULTS: Compared with the reference group, exposure to continuous bright light for 1 or 2 hours every day had no significant protective effect against deprivation myopia. Inhibition of myopia became significant after 5 hours of bright light exposure but extending the duration to 10 hours did not offer an additional benefit. In comparison, repeated cycles of 1:1 or 7:7 minutes of bright light enhanced the protective effect against myopia and could fully suppress its development. CONCLUSIONS: The protective effect of bright light depends on the exposure duration and, to the intermittent form, the frequency cycle. Compared to the saturation effect of continuous bright light, low frequency cycles of bright light (1:1 min provided the strongest inhibition effect. However, our quantitative results probably might not be directly translated into humans, but rather need further amendments in clinical studies.

  14. Weak relationships between suppression of melatonin and suppression of sleepiness/fatigue in response to light exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruger, M; Gordijn, MCM; Beersma, DGM; De Vries, B; Daan, S

    In this paper we examine the relationship between melatonin suppression and reduction of sleepiness through light by comparing three different data sets. In total 36 subjects participated in three studies and received 4 h of bright light either from midnight till 4:00 hours (experiments A and B) or

  15. Stray radiation and the Infrared Astronomical Satellite /IRAS/ telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noll, R. J.; Harned, R.; Breault, R. P.; Malugin, R.

    1981-01-01

    Stray light control is a major consideration in the design of infrared cryogenically cooled telescopes such as the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS). The basic design of the baffle system, and the placement, shape, and coating of the secondary support struts for the telescope subsystem are described. The intent of this paper is to highlight the stray light problems encountered while designing the system, and to illustrate how computer analysis can be a useful design aid. Scattering measurements of the primary mirror, and a full system level scatter measurement are presented. Comparisons of predicted performance with the measured results are also presented.

  16. Preliminary evidence that light through the eyelids can suppress melatonin and phase shift dim light melatonin onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Rea, Mark S

    2012-05-07

    A previous study reported a method for measuring the spectral transmittance of individual human eyelids. A prototype light mask using narrow-band "green" light (λmax = 527 nm) was used to deliver light through closed eyelids in two within-subjects studies. The first study investigated whether an individual-specific light dose could suppress melatonin by 40% through the closed eyelid without disrupting sleep. The light doses were delivered at three times during the night: 1) beginning (while subjects were awake), 2) middle (during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep), and 3) end (during non-REM sleep). The second study investigated whether two individual-specific light doses expected to suppress melatonin by 30% and 60% and delivered through subjects' closed eyelids before the time of their predicted minimum core body temperature would phase delay the timing of their dim light melatonin onset (DLMO). Compared to a dark control night, light delivered through eyelids suppressed melatonin by 36% (p = 0.01) after 60-minute light exposure at the beginning, 45% (p = 0.01) at the middle, and 56% (p light levels 1 and 2, respectively. These studies demonstrate that individual-specific doses of light delivered through closed eyelids can suppress melatonin and phase shift DLMO and may be used to treat circadian sleep disorders.

  17. STRAY - An interactive program for the computation of stray radiation in infrared telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann

    1987-01-01

    The STRAY program to model the amount of stray radiation reaching the focal plane of a well-baffled telescope is described. The STRAY telescope model is addressed, including the aperture shade, barrel baffle, optics, mirror sectioning and chopping, and off-axis points in focal plane. The possible illumination paths are shown, and calculation options using STRAY are discussed. The stored data and computational aspects of STRAY are addressed. STRAY is compared to the MINI-APART model, and applications of STRAY are described.

  18. Strangeness suppression in e+e- light flavour jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ximing; Sun Xubin

    2007-01-01

    From the simple physical picture of quark combination model, the authors obtain the generate probabilities of various particles and relative ration in e + e - →q 0 (q 0 )-bar→h's process, and find that the relationship between the ration of strange hadron to unstrange hadron γ and the strangeness suppression factor λ. Our results can be used to explain particle ration enhancement observed in experiments without assumption of strangeness suppression factor enhancement. (authors)

  19. Effects of day-time exposure to different light intensities on light-induced melatonin suppression at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozaki, Tomoaki; Kubokawa, Ayaka; Taketomi, Ryunosuke; Hatae, Keisuke

    2015-07-04

    Bright nocturnal light has been known to suppress melatonin secretion. However, bright light exposure during the day-time might reduce light-induced melatonin suppression (LIMS) at night. The effective proportion of day-time light to night-time light is unclear; however, only a few studies on accurately controlling both day- and night-time conditions have been conducted. This study aims to evaluate the effect of different day-time light intensities on LIMS. Twelve male subjects between the ages of 19 and 23 years (mean ± S.D., 20.8 ± 1.1) gave informed consent to participate in this study. They were exposed to various light conditions (day-time light conditions). They were then exposed to bright light (300 lx) again between 01:00 and 02:30 (night-time light exposure). They provided saliva samples before (00:55) and after night-time light exposure (02:30). A one-tailed paired t test yielded significant decrements of melatonin concentration after night-time light exposure under day-time dim, 100- and 300-lx light conditions. No significant differences exist in melatonin concentration between pre- and post-night-time light exposure under day-time 900- and 2700-lx light conditions. Present findings suggest the amount of light exposure needed to prevent LIMS caused by ordinary nocturnal light in individuals who have a general life rhythm (sleep/wake schedule). These findings may be useful in implementing artificial light environments for humans in, for example, hospitals and underground shopping malls.

  20. Pulsing blue light through closed eyelids: effects on acute melatonin suppression and phase shifting of dim light melatonin onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiro, Mariana G; Plitnick, Barbara; Rea, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    Circadian rhythm disturbances parallel the increased prevalence of sleep disorders in older adults. Light therapies that specifically target regulation of the circadian system in principle could be used to treat sleep disorders in this population. Current recommendations for light treatment require the patients to sit in front of a bright light box for at least 1 hour daily, perhaps limiting their willingness to comply. Light applied through closed eyelids during sleep might not only be efficacious for changing circadian phase but also lead to better compliance because patients would receive light treatment while sleeping. Reported here are the results of two studies investigating the impact of a train of 480 nm (blue) light pulses presented to the retina through closed eyelids on melatonin suppression (laboratory study) and on delaying circadian phase (field study). Both studies employed a sleep mask that provided narrowband blue light pulses of 2-second duration every 30 seconds from arrays of light-emitting diodes. The results of the laboratory study demonstrated that the blue light pulses significantly suppressed melatonin by an amount similar to that previously shown in the same protocol at half the frequency (ie, one 2-second pulse every minute for 1 hour). The results of the field study demonstrated that blue light pulses given early in the sleep episode significantly delayed circadian phase in older adults; these results are the first to demonstrate the efficacy and practicality of light treatment by a sleep mask aimed at adjusting circadian phase in a home setting.

  1. Analysis of stray radiation produced by the advanced light source (1.9 GeV synchrotron radiation source) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ajemian, Robert C. [Univ. of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC (United States). Dept. of Environmental Sciences and Engineering

    1995-01-01

    The yearly environmental dose equivalent likely to result at the closest site boundary from the Advanced Light Source was determined by generating multiple linear regressions. The independent variables comprised quantified accelerator operating parameters and measurements from synchronized, in-close (outside shielding prior to significant atmospheric scattering), state-of-the-art neutron remmeters and photon G-M tubes. Neutron regression models were more successful than photon models due to lower relative background radiation and redundant detectors at the site boundary. As expected, Storage Ring Beam Fill and Beam Crashes produced radiation at a higher rate than gradual Beam Decay; however, only the latter did not include zero in its 95% confidence interval. By summing for all three accelerator operating modes, a combined yearly DE of 4.3 mRem/yr with a 90% CI of (0.04-8.63) was obtained. These results fall below the DOE reporting level of 10 mRem/yr and suggest repeating the study with improved experimental conditions.

  2. Analysis of stray radiation produced by the advanced light source (1.9 GeV synchrotron radiation source) at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajemian, R.C.

    1995-01-01

    The yearly environmental dose equivalent likely to result at the closest site boundary from the Advanced Light Source was determined by generating multiple linear regressions. The independent variables comprised quantified accelerator operating parameters and measurements from synchronized, in-close (outside shielding prior to significant atmospheric scattering), state-of-the-art neutron remmeters and photon G-M tubes. Neutron regression models were more successful than photon models due to lower relative background radiation and redundant detectors at the site boundary. As expected, Storage Ring Beam Fill and Beam Crashes produced radiation at a higher rate than gradual Beam Decay; however, only the latter did not include zero in its 95% confidence interval. By summing for all three accelerator operating modes, a combined yearly DE of 4.3 mRem/yr with a 90% CI of (0.04-8.63) was obtained. These results fall below the DOE reporting level of 10 mRem/yr and suggest repeating the study with improved experimental conditions

  3. Pulsing blue light through closed eyelids: effects on acute melatonin suppression and phase shifting of dim light melatonin onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiro MG

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Mariana G Figueiro, Barbara Plitnick, Mark S Rea Lighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USA Abstract: Circadian rhythm disturbances parallel the increased prevalence of sleep disorders in older adults. Light therapies that specifically target regulation of the circadian system in principle could be used to treat sleep disorders in this population. Current recommendations for light treatment require the patients to sit in front of a bright light box for at least 1 hour daily, perhaps limiting their willingness to comply. Light applied through closed eyelids during sleep might not only be efficacious for changing circadian phase but also lead to better compliance because patients would receive light treatment while sleeping. Reported here are the results of two studies investigating the impact of a train of 480 nm (blue light pulses presented to the retina through closed eyelids on melatonin suppression (laboratory study and on delaying circadian phase (field study. Both studies employed a sleep mask that provided narrowband blue light pulses of 2-second duration every 30 seconds from arrays of light-emitting diodes. The results of the laboratory study demonstrated that the blue light pulses significantly suppressed melatonin by an amount similar to that previously shown in the same protocol at half the frequency (ie, one 2-second pulse every minute for 1 hour. The results of the field study demonstrated that blue light pulses given early in the sleep episode significantly delayed circadian phase in older adults; these results are the first to demonstrate the efficacy and practicality of light treatment by a sleep mask aimed at adjusting circadian phase in a home setting. Keywords: circadian phase, dim light melatonin onset, light through closed eyelids, blue light, sleep

  4. Stray energy transfer during endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Edward L; Madani, Amin; Overbey, Douglas M; Kiourti, Asimina; Bojja-Venkatakrishnan, Satheesh; Mikami, Dean J; Hazey, Jeffrey W; Arcomano, Todd R; Robinson, Thomas N

    2017-10-01

    Endoscopy is the standard tool for the evaluation and treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. While the risk of complication is low, the use of energy devices can increase complications by 100-fold. The mechanism of increased injury and presence of stray energy is unknown. The purpose of the study was to determine if stray energy transfer occurs during endoscopy and if so, to define strategies to minimize the risk of energy complications. A gastroscope was introduced into the stomach of an anesthetized pig. A monopolar generator delivered energy for 5 s to a snare without contacting tissue or the endoscope itself. The endoscope tip orientation, energy device type, power level, energy mode, and generator type were varied to mimic in vivo use. The primary outcome (stray current) was quantified as the change in tissue temperature (°C) from baseline at the tissue closest to the tip of the endoscope. Data were reported as mean ± standard deviation. Using the 60 W coag mode while changing the orientation of the endoscope tip, tissue temperature increased by 12.1 ± 3.5 °C nearest the camera lens (p energy transfer (p = 0.04 and p = 0.002, respectively) as did utilizing the low-voltage cut mode (6.6 ± 0.5 °C, p energy transfer compared to a standard generator (1.5 ± 3.5 °C vs. 9.5 ± 0.8 °C, p energy is transferred within the endoscope during the activation of common energy devices. This could result in post-polypectomy syndrome, bleeding, or perforation outside of the endoscopist's view. Decreasing the power, utilizing low-voltage modes and/or an impedance-monitoring generator can decrease the risk of complication.

  5. Sensitivity of the human circadian pacemaker to nocturnal light: melatonin phase resetting and suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitzer, J. M.; Dijk, D. J.; Kronauer, R.; Brown, E.; Czeisler, C.

    2000-01-01

    Ocular exposure to early morning room light can significantly advance the timing of the human circadian pacemaker. The resetting response to such light has a non-linear relationship to illuminance. The dose-response relationship of the human circadian pacemaker to late evening light of dim to moderate intensity has not been well established. Twenty-three healthy young male and female volunteers took part in a 9 day protocol in which a single experimental light exposure6.5 h in duration was given in the early biological night. The effects of the light exposure on the endogenous circadian phase of the melatonin rhythm and the acute effects of the light exposure on plasma melatonin concentration were calculated. We demonstrate that humans are highly responsive to the phase-delaying effects of light during the early biological night and that both the phase resetting response to light and the acute suppressive effects of light on plasma melatonin follow a logistic dose-response curve, as do many circadian responses to light in mammals. Contrary to expectations, we found that half of the maximal phase-delaying response achieved in response to a single episode of evening bright light ( approximately 9000 lux (lx)) can be obtained with just over 1 % of this light (dim room light of approximately 100 lx). The same held true for the acute suppressive effects of light on plasma melatonin concentrations. This indicates that even small changes in ordinary light exposure during the late evening hours can significantly affect both plasma melatonin concentrations and the entrained phase of the human circadian pacemaker.

  6. γ-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 specifically suppresses green-light avoidance via GABAA receptors in Drosophila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiangqu; Gong, Zhefeng; Liu, Li

    2014-08-01

    Drosophila larvae innately show light avoidance behavior. Compared with robust blue-light avoidance, larvae exhibit relatively weaker green-light responses. In our previous screening for genes involved in larval light avoidance, compared with control w(1118) larvae, larvae with γ-glutamyl transpeptidase 1 (Ggt-1) knockdown or Ggt-1 mutation were found to exhibit higher percentage of green-light avoidance which was mediated by Rhodopsin6 (Rh6) photoreceptors. However, their responses to blue light did not change significantly. By adjusting the expression level of Ggt-1 in different tissues, we found that Ggt-1 in malpighian tubules was both necessary and sufficient for green-light avoidance. Our results showed that glutamate levels were lower in Ggt-1 null mutants compared with controls. Feeding Ggt-1 null mutants glutamate can normalize green-light avoidance, indicating that high glutamate concentrations suppressed larval green-light avoidance. However, rather than directly, glutamate affected green-light avoidance indirectly through GABA, the level of which was also lower in Ggt-1 mutants compared with controls. Mutants in glutamate decarboxylase 1, which encodes GABA synthase, and knockdown lines of the GABAA receptor, both exhibit elevated levels of green-light avoidance. Thus, our results elucidate the neurobiological mechanisms mediating green-light avoidance, which was inhibited in wild-type larvae. © 2014 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Evaluating potential spectral impacts of various artificial lights on melatonin suppression, photosynthesis, and star visibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Aubé

    Full Text Available Artificial light at night can be harmful to the environment, and interferes with fauna and flora, star visibility, and human health. To estimate the relative impact of a lighting device, its radiant power, angular photometry and detailed spectral power distribution have to be considered. In this paper we focus on the spectral power distribution. While specific spectral characteristics can be considered harmful during the night, they can be considered advantageous during the day. As an example, while blue-rich Metal Halide lamps can be problematic for human health, star visibility and vegetation photosynthesis during the night, they can be highly appropriate during the day for plant growth and light therapy. In this paper we propose three new indices to characterize lamp spectra. These indices have been designed to allow a quick estimation of the potential impact of a lamp spectrum on melatonin suppression, photosynthesis, and star visibility. We used these new indices to compare various lighting technologies objectively. We also considered the transformation of such indices according to the propagation of light into the atmosphere as a function of distance to the observer. Among other results, we found that low pressure sodium, phosphor-converted amber light emitting diodes (LED and LED 2700 K lamps filtered with the new Ledtech's Equilib filter showed a lower or equivalent potential impact on melatonin suppression and star visibility in comparison to high pressure sodium lamps. Low pressure sodium, LED 5000 K-filtered and LED 2700 K-filtered lamps had a lower impact on photosynthesis than did high pressure sodium lamps. Finally, we propose these indices as new standards for the lighting industry to be used in characterizing their lighting technologies. We hope that their use will favor the design of new environmentally and health-friendly lighting technologies.

  8. Chronic exposure to dim light at night suppresses immune responses in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Walton, James C; Nelson, Randy J

    2011-06-23

    Species have been adapted to specific niches optimizing survival and reproduction; however, urbanization by humans has dramatically altered natural habitats. Artificial light at night (LAN), termed 'light pollution', is an often overlooked, yet increasing disruptor of habitats, which perturbs physiological processes that rely on precise light information. For example, LAN alters the timing of reproduction and activity in some species, which decreases the odds of successful breeding and increases the threat of predation for these individuals, leading to reduced fitness. LAN also suppresses immune function, an important proxy for survival. To investigate the impact of LAN in a species naive to light pollution in its native habitat, immune function was examined in Siberian hamsters derived from wild-caught stock. After four weeks exposure to dim LAN, immune responses to three different challenges were assessed: (i) delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH), (ii) lipopolysaccharide-induced fever, and (iii) bactericide activity of blood. LAN suppressed DTH response and reduced bactericide activity of blood after lipopolysaccharide treatment, in addition to altering daily patterns of locomotor activity, suggesting that human encroachment on habitats via night-time lighting may inadvertently compromise immune function and ultimately fitness.

  9. The effects of spectral tuning of evening ambient light on melatonin suppression, alertness and sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Shadab A; St Hilaire, Melissa A; Lockley, Steven W

    2017-08-01

    We compared the effects of bedroom-intensity light from a standard fluorescent and a blue- (i.e., short-wavelength) depleted LED source on melatonin suppression, alertness, and sleep. Sixteen healthy participants (8 females) completed a 4-day inpatient study. Participants were exposed to blue-depleted circadian-sensitive (C-LED) light and a standard fluorescent light (FL, 4100K) of equal illuminance (50lx) for 8h prior to a fixed bedtime on two separate days in a within-subject, randomized, cross-over design. Each light exposure day was preceded by a dim light (LED conditions compared to FL 30min prior to bedtime. EEG-based correlates of alertness corroborated the reduced alertness under C-LED conditions as shown by significantly increased EEG spectral power in the delta-theta (0.5-8.0Hz) bands under C-LED as compared to FL exposure. There was no significant difference in total sleep time (TST), sleep efficiency (SE%), and slow-wave activity (SWA) between the two conditions. Unlike melatonin suppression and alertness, a significant order effect was observed on all three sleep variables, however. Individuals who received C-LED first and then FL had increased TST, SE% and SWA averaged across both nights compared to individuals who received FL first and then C-LED. These data show that the spectral characteristics of light can be fine-tuned to attenuate non-visual responses to light in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Enhancing or suppressing the spin Hall effect of light in layered nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Hailu; Ling Xiaohui; Zhou Xinxing; Shu Weixing; Wen Shuangchun; Fan Dianyuan [Key Laboratory for Micro/Nano Opto-Electronic Devices of Ministry of Education, College of Information Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2011-09-15

    The spin Hall effect (SHE) of light in layered nanostructures is investigated theoretically in this paper. A general propagation model describing the spin-dependent transverse splitting of wave packets in the SHE of light is established from the viewpoint of classical electrodynamics. We show that the transverse displacement of the wave-packet centroid can be tuned to either a negative or a positive value, or even zero, by just adjusting the structure parameters, suggesting that the SHE of light in layered nanostructures can be enhanced or suppressed in a desired way. The inherent physics behind this interesting phenomenon is attributed to the optical Fabry-Perot resonance. We believe that these findings will open the possibility for developing new nanophotonic devices.

  11. White light coronagraph in OSO-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koomen, M.J.; Detwiler, C.R.; Brueckner, G.E.; Cooper, H.W.; Tousey, R.

    1975-01-01

    A small, externally occulted Lyot-type coronagraph, designated for use in the seventh unmanned Orbiting Solar Observatory (OSO-7), is described. Optical configuration, suppression of stray light, SEC vidicon detector, and data system are discussed, as well as integration of the instrument into the spacecraft and operation in orbit. Orbital operation produced daily images of the white light corona, from 2.8 to 10 solar radii, at least once per day for 2 3/4 yr. The first records of white light coronal transient events were obtained, and the corona was shown to be constantly changing

  12. Internal stray radiation measurement for cryogenic infrared imaging systems using a spherical mirror.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Qijie; Chang, Songtao; He, Fengyun; Li, Zhou; Qiao, Yanfeng

    2017-06-10

    Internal stray radiation is a key factor that influences infrared imaging systems, and its suppression level is an important criterion to evaluate system performance, especially for cryogenic infrared imaging systems, which are highly sensitive to thermal sources. In order to achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation, an approach is proposed, which is based on radiometric calibration using a spherical mirror. First of all, the theory of spherical mirror design is introduced. Then, the calibration formula considering the integration time is presented. Following this, the details regarding the measurement method are presented. By placing a spherical mirror in front of the infrared detector, the influence of internal factors of the detector on system output can be obtained. According to the calibration results of the infrared imaging system, the output caused by internal stray radiation can be acquired. Finally, several experiments are performed in a chamber with controllable inside temperatures to validate the theory proposed in this paper. Experimental results show that the measurement results are in good accordance with the theoretical analysis, and demonstrate that the proposed theories are valid and can be employed in practical applications. The proposed method can achieve accurate measurement for internal stray radiation at arbitrary integration time and ambient temperatures. The measurement result can be used to evaluate whether the suppression level meets the system requirement.

  13. Background suppression in TeO2 bolometers with Neganov-Luke amplified cryogenic light detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willers, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cryogenic detectors based on non-scintillating TeO 2 crystals are used in the search for the neutrinoless double beta decay, presently one of the most important fields of research in neutrino and astroparticle physics. Within this work, the application of Neganov-Luke amplified cryogenic light detectors for the background suppression in TeO 2 crystals is investigated. Alpha-induced background events can be discriminated from signal-like electron/gamma events via the detection of Cherenkov radiation produced by highly energetic electrons within the TeO 2 crystal. Using Neganov-Luke light detectors, it could be shown for the first time that a highly efficient event-by-event discrimination between alpha and electron/gamma-induced events can be achieved.

  14. STRAY DOG DETECTION IN WIRED CAMERA NETWORK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Prashanth

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Existing surveillance systems impose high level of security on humans but lacks attention on animals. Stray dogs could be used as an alternative to humans to carry explosive material. It is therefore imperative to ensure the detection of stray dogs for necessary corrective action. In this paper, a novel composite approach to detect the presence of stray dogs is proposed. The captured frame from the surveillance camera is initially pre-processed using Gaussian filter to remove noise. The foreground object of interest is extracted utilizing ViBe algorithm. Histogram of Oriented Gradients (HOG algorithm is used as the shape descriptor which derives the shape and size information of the extracted foreground object. Finally, stray dogs are classified from humans using a polynomial Support Vector Machine (SVM of order 3. The proposed composite approach is simulated in MATLAB and OpenCV. Further it is validated with real time video feeds taken from an existing surveillance system. From the results obtained, it is found that a classification accuracy of about 96% is achieved. This encourages the utilization of the proposed composite algorithm in real time surveillance systems.

  15. Physical model of lean suppression pressure oscillation phenomena: steam condensation in the light water reactor pressure suppression system (PSS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCauley, E.W.; Holman, G.S.; Aust, E.; Schwan, H.; Vollbrandt, J.

    1980-01-01

    Using the results of large scale multivent tests conducted by GKSS, a physical model of chugging is developed. The unique combination of accurate digital data and cinematic data has provided the derivation of a detailed, quantified correlation between the dynamic physical variables and the associated two-phase thermo-hydraulic phenomena occurring during lean suppression (chugging) phases of the loss-of-coolant accident in a boiling water reactor pressure suppression system

  16. Effects of exposure to intermittent versus continuous red light on human circadian rhythms, melatonin suppression, and pupillary constriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho Mien, Ivan; Chua, Eric Chern-Pin; Lau, Pauline; Tan, Luuan-Chin; Lee, Ivan Tian-Guang; Yeo, Sing-Chen; Tan, Sara Shuhui; Gooley, Joshua J

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to light is a major determinant of sleep timing and hormonal rhythms. The role of retinal cones in regulating circadian physiology remains unclear, however, as most studies have used light exposures that also activate the photopigment melanopsin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to alternating red light and darkness can enhance circadian resetting responses in humans by repeatedly activating cone photoreceptors. In a between-subjects study, healthy volunteers (n = 24, 21-28 yr) lived individually in a laboratory for 6 consecutive days. Circadian rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, body temperature, and heart rate were assessed before and after exposure to 6 h of continuous red light (631 nm, 13 log photons cm(-2) s(-1)), intermittent red light (1 min on/off), or bright white light (2,500 lux) near the onset of nocturnal melatonin secretion (n = 8 in each group). Melatonin suppression and pupillary constriction were also assessed during light exposure. We found that circadian resetting responses were similar for exposure to continuous versus intermittent red light (P = 0.69), with an average phase delay shift of almost an hour. Surprisingly, 2 subjects who were exposed to red light exhibited circadian responses similar in magnitude to those who were exposed to bright white light. Red light also elicited prolonged pupillary constriction, but did not suppress melatonin levels. These findings suggest that, for red light stimuli outside the range of sensitivity for melanopsin, cone photoreceptors can mediate circadian phase resetting of physiologic rhythms in some individuals. Our results also show that sensitivity thresholds differ across non-visual light responses, suggesting that cones may contribute differentially to circadian resetting, melatonin suppression, and the pupillary light reflex during exposure to continuous light.

  17. Effects of exposure to intermittent versus continuous red light on human circadian rhythms, melatonin suppression, and pupillary constriction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ho Mien

    Full Text Available Exposure to light is a major determinant of sleep timing and hormonal rhythms. The role of retinal cones in regulating circadian physiology remains unclear, however, as most studies have used light exposures that also activate the photopigment melanopsin. Here, we tested the hypothesis that exposure to alternating red light and darkness can enhance circadian resetting responses in humans by repeatedly activating cone photoreceptors. In a between-subjects study, healthy volunteers (n = 24, 21-28 yr lived individually in a laboratory for 6 consecutive days. Circadian rhythms of melatonin, cortisol, body temperature, and heart rate were assessed before and after exposure to 6 h of continuous red light (631 nm, 13 log photons cm(-2 s(-1, intermittent red light (1 min on/off, or bright white light (2,500 lux near the onset of nocturnal melatonin secretion (n = 8 in each group. Melatonin suppression and pupillary constriction were also assessed during light exposure. We found that circadian resetting responses were similar for exposure to continuous versus intermittent red light (P = 0.69, with an average phase delay shift of almost an hour. Surprisingly, 2 subjects who were exposed to red light exhibited circadian responses similar in magnitude to those who were exposed to bright white light. Red light also elicited prolonged pupillary constriction, but did not suppress melatonin levels. These findings suggest that, for red light stimuli outside the range of sensitivity for melanopsin, cone photoreceptors can mediate circadian phase resetting of physiologic rhythms in some individuals. Our results also show that sensitivity thresholds differ across non-visual light responses, suggesting that cones may contribute differentially to circadian resetting, melatonin suppression, and the pupillary light reflex during exposure to continuous light.

  18. Suppression of Hydrogen Emission in an X-class White-light Solar Flare

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Procházka, Ondrej; Milligan, Ryan O.; Mathioudakis, Mihalis [Astrophysics Research Centre, Queen’s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Allred, Joel C. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kowalski, Adam F. [Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado Boulder, 2000 Colorado Avenue, Boulder, CO 80305 (United States); Kotrč, Pavel, E-mail: oprochazka01@qub.ac.uk [Astronomical Institute, The Czech Academy of Sciences, 25165 Ondřejov (Czech Republic)

    2017-03-01

    We present unique NUV observations of a well-observed X-class flare from NOAA 12087 obtained at the Ondřejov Observatory. The flare shows a strong white-light continuum but no detectable emission in the higher Balmer and Lyman lines. Reuven Ramaty High-Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager and Fermi observations indicate an extremely hard X-ray spectrum and γ -ray emission. We use the RADYN radiative hydrodynamic code to perform two types of simulations: one where an energy of 3 × 10{sup 11} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} is deposited by an electron beam with a spectral index of ≈3, and a second where the same energy is applied directly to the photosphere. The combination of observations and simulations allows us to conclude that the white-light emission and the suppression or complete lack of hydrogen emission lines is best explained by a model where the dominant energy deposition layer is located in the lower layers of the solar atmosphere, rather than the chromosphere.

  19. Suppression of Melatonin Secretion in Totally Visually Blind People by Ocular Exposure to White Light: Clinical Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Joseph T; Czeisler, Charles A; Lockley, Steven W

    2018-04-03

    Although most totally visually blind individuals exhibit nonentrained circadian rhythms due to an inability of light to entrain the circadian pacemaker, a small proportion retain photic circadian entrainment, melatonin suppression, and other nonimage-forming responses to light. It is thought that these responses to light persist because of the survival of melanospin-containing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs), which project primarily to the circadian pacemaker and are functionally distinct from the rod and cone photoreceptors that mediate vision. We aimed to assess the integrity of nonimage-forming photoreception in totally visually blind patients with a range of ocular disorders. Within-subject, dark-controlled design. A total of 18 totally visually blind individuals (7 females; mean age ± standard deviation = 49.8±11.0 years) with various causes of blindness, including 3 bilaterally enucleated controls. Melatonin concentrations were compared during exposure to a 6.5-hour bright white light (∼7000 lux) with melatonin concentrations measured 24 hours earlier at the corresponding clock times under dim-light (4 lux) conditions. Area under the curve (AUC) for melatonin concentration. Melatonin concentrations were significantly suppressed (defined as ≥33% suppression) during the bright-light condition compared with the dim-light condition in 5 of 15 participants with eyes (retinitis pigmentosa, n = 2; retinopathy of prematurity [ROP], n = 2; bilateral retinal detachments, n = 1). Melatonin concentrations remained unchanged in response to light in the remaining 10 participants with eyes (ROP, n = 3; optic neuritis/neuropathy, n = 2; retinopathy unknown, n = 2; congenital glaucoma, n = 1; congenital rubella syndrome, n = 1; measles retinopathy, n = 1) and in all 3 bilaterally enucleated participants. These data confirm that light-induced suppression of melatonin remains functionally intact in a minority of totally visually

  20. Technical update on pressure suppression type containments in use in U.S. light water reactor nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    In 1972, Dr. S. H. Hanauer (Technical Advisor to the NRC's Executive Director for Operations) wrote a memorandum that raised several questions on the viability of pressure suppression containment concepts. The concerns raised by Dr. Hanauer have recently become the subject of considerable discussion by several members of the U.S. Congress and public. The report provides a response to these expressed concerns and a status summary for various technical matters that relate to the safety of pressure suppression type containments for light water cooled reactor plants

  1. Monitoring dc stray current corrosion at sheet pile structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2012-01-01

    Steel is discarded by railway owners as a material for underground structures near railway lines, due to uncertainty over increased corrosion by DC stray currents stemming from the traction power system. This paper presents a large scale field test in which stray currents interference of a sheet

  2. Solar glint suppression in compact planetary ultraviolet spectrographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Michael W.; Cook, Jason C.; Grava, Cesare; Greathouse, Thomas K.; Gladstone, G. Randall; Retherford, Kurt D.

    2015-08-01

    Solar glint suppression is an important consideration in the design of compact photon-counting ultraviolet spectrographs. Southwest Research Institute developed the Lyman Alpha Mapping Project for the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (launch in 2009), and the Ultraviolet Spectrograph on Juno (Juno-UVS, launch in 2011). Both of these compact spectrographs revealed minor solar glints in flight that did not appear in pre-launch analyses. These glints only appeared when their respective spacecraft were operating outside primary science mission parameters. Post-facto scattered light analysis verifies the geometries at which these glints occurred and why they were not caught during ground testing or nominal mission operations. The limitations of standard baffle design at near-grazing angles are discussed, as well as the importance of including surface scatter properties in standard stray light analyses when determining solar keep-out efficiency. In particular, the scattered light analysis of these two instruments shows that standard "one bounce" assumptions in baffle design are not always enough to prevent scattered sunlight from reaching the instrument focal plane. Future builds, such as JUICE-UVS, will implement improved scattered and stray light modeling early in the design phase to enhance capabilities in extended mission science phases, as well as optimize solar keep out volume.

  3. White Light Demonstration of One Hundred Parts per Billion Irradiance Suppression in Air by New Starshade Occulters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinton, Douglas B.; Cash, Webster C.; Gleason, Brian; Kaiser, Michael J.; Levine, Sara A.; Lo, Amy S.; Schindhelm, Eric; Shipley, Ann F.

    2007-01-01

    A new mission concept for the direct imaging of exo-solar planets called the New Worlds Observer (NWO) has been proposed. The concept involves flying a meter-class space telescope in formation with a newly-conceived, specially-shaped, deployable star-occulting shade several meters across at a separation of some tens of thousands of kilometers. The telescope would make its observations from behind the starshade in a volume of high suppression of incident irradiance from the star around which planets orbit. The required level of irradiance suppression created by the starshade for an efficacious mission is of order 0.1 to 10 parts per billion in broadband light. This paper discusses the experimental setup developed to accurately measure the suppression ratio of irradiance produced at the null position behind candidate starshade forms to these levels. It also presents results of broadband measurements which demonstrated suppression levels of just under 100 parts per billion in air using the Sun as a light source. Analytical modeling of spatial irradiance distributions surrounding the null are presented and compared with photographs of irradiance captured in situ behind candidate starshades.

  4. Suppression of the collapse of two-dimensional light beams in one-dimensional refractive-index gratings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleshkevich, Viktor A; Gorin, S V; Zhukarev, A S; Kartashov, Yaroslav V

    2005-01-01

    The propagation of light beams in a nonlinear cubic medium with the refractive index periodically modulated along one transverse coordinate is considered. The profiles of soliton beams are found and their stability is studied. It is shown that the refractive-index modulation causes the collapse suppression and soliton stabilisation almost within the entire region of their existence. (papers devoted to the 250th anniversary of the moscow state university)

  5. High-efficiency pyrene-based blue light emitting diodes: Aggregation suppression using a calixarene 3D-scaffold

    KAUST Repository

    Chan, Khaileok

    2012-01-01

    An efficient blue light emitting diode based on solution processable pyrene-1,3-alt-calix[4]arene is demonstrated, providing a record current efficiency of 10.5 cd A -1 in a simple non-doped OLED configuration. Complete suppression of pyrene aggregation in the solid state is achieved by controlling chromophore dispersion using the 1,3-alt-calix[4]arene scaffold. © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. An ancestral haplotype of the human PERIOD2 gene associates with reduced sensitivity to light-induced melatonin suppression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokiho Akiyama

    Full Text Available Humans show various responses to the environmental stimulus in individual levels as "physiological variations." However, it has been unclear if these are caused by genetic variations. In this study, we examined the association between the physiological variation of response to light-stimulus and genetic polymorphisms. We collected physiological data from 43 subjects, including light-induced melatonin suppression, and performed haplotype analyses on the clock genes, PER2 and PER3, exhibiting geographical differentiation of allele frequencies. Among the haplotypes of PER3, no significant difference in light sensitivity was found. However, three common haplotypes of PER2 accounted for more than 96% of the chromosomes in subjects, and 1 of those 3 had a significantly low-sensitive response to light-stimulus (P < 0.05. The homozygote of the low-sensitive PER2 haplotype showed significantly lower percentages of melatonin suppression (P < 0.05, and the heterozygotes of the haplotypes varied their ratios, indicating that the physiological variation for light-sensitivity is evidently related to the PER2 polymorphism. Compared with global haplotype frequencies, the haplotype with a low-sensitive response was more frequent in Africans than in non-Africans, and came to the root in the phylogenetic tree, suggesting that the low light-sensitive haplotype is the ancestral type, whereas the other haplotypes with high sensitivity to light are the derived types. Hence, we speculate that the high light-sensitive haplotypes have spread throughout the world after the Out-of-Africa migration of modern humans.

  7. A train of blue light pulses delivered through closed eyelids suppresses melatonin and phase shifts the human circadian system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiro MG

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mariana G Figueiro, Andrew Bierman, Mark S ReaLighting Research Center, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY, USAAbstract: A model of circadian phototransduction was published in 2005 to predict the spectral sensitivity of the human circadian system to narrow-band and polychromatic light sources by combining responses to light from the spectral-opponent “blue” versus “yellow” cone bipolar pathway with direct responses to light by the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells. In the model, depolarizing “blue” responses, but not hyperpolarizing “yellow” responses, from the “blue” versus “yellow” pathway are combined with the intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell responses. Intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cell neurons are known to be much slower to respond to light than the cone pathway, so an implication of the model is that periodic flashes of “blue” light, but not “yellow” light, would be effective for stimulating the circadian system. A within-subjects study was designed to test the implications of the model regarding retinal exposures to brief flashes of light. The study was also aimed at broadening the foundation for clinical treatment of circadian sleep disorders by delivering flashing light through closed eyelids while people were asleep. In addition to a dark control night, the eyelids of 16 subjects were exposed to three light-stimulus conditions in the phase delay portion of the phase response curve while they were asleep: (1 2-second flashes of 111 W/m2 of blue (λmax ≈ 480 nm light once every minute for 1 hour, (2 131 W/m2 of green (λmax ≈ 527 nm light, continuously on for 1 hour, and (3 2-second flashes of the same green light once every minute for 1 hour. Inferential statistics showed that the blue flash light-stimulus condition significantly delayed circadian phase and significantly suppressed nocturnal melatonin. The results of this study further our

  8. Discussion of dosimetric dependencies of experimental light-induced melatonin suppression studies; Diskussion dosimetrischer Aspekte bei experimentellen Studien zur lichtinduzierten Melatoninreduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, M.; Schulmeister, K. [ARC Seibersdorf Research (Austria). Akkreditierte Pruefstelle fuer Laser und Optische Strahlung

    2004-07-01

    Based on a literature review, dosimetric dependencies of light-induced melatonin suppression are discussed. The quantity of light used to suppress melatonin in study trials is often given in terms of illuminance at the cornea, as this is easy to measure. The use of the term illuminance for such studies is critically discussed. A more appropriate measure would be effective irradiance. In our work we present a simplified model to estimate the photobiological effective irradiance and the spot size of the retinal image. Important issues which should ideally be considered in melatonin suppression study trials are pointed out. Another aim of this work is to derive from the literature data, up to what time frame the dosedependent relationship between time and melatonin suppression is valid. An evaluation is made of the situation on the workplace with regard to light-induced melatonin suppression. (orig.)

  9. Light manipulation of mosquito behaviour: acute and sustained photic suppression of biting activity in the Anopheles gambiae malaria mosquito.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, Aaron D; Rund, Samuel S C; George, Gary F; Clark, Erin; Acri, Dominic J; Duffield, Giles E

    2017-06-16

    Host-seeking behaviours in anopheline mosquitoes are time-of-day specific, with a greater propensity for nocturnal biting. We investigated how a short exposure to light presented during the night or late day can inhibit biting activity and modulate flight activity behaviour. Anopheles gambiae (s.s.), maintained on a 12:12 LD cycle, were exposed transiently to white light for 10-min at the onset of night and the proportion taking a blood meal in a human biting assay was recorded every 2 h over an 8-h duration. The pulse significantly reduced biting propensity in mosquitoes 2 h following administration, in some trials for 4 h, and with no differences detected after 6 h. Conversely, biting levels were significantly elevated when mosquitoes were exposed to a dark treatment during the late day, suggesting that light suppresses biting behaviour even during the late daytime. These data reveal a potent effect of a discrete light pulse on biting behaviour that is both immediate and sustained. We expanded this approach to develop a method to reduce biting propensity throughout the night by exposing mosquitoes to a series of 6- or 10-min pulses presented every 2 h. We reveal both an immediate suppressive effect of light during the exposure period and 2 h after the pulse. This response was found to be effective during most times of the night: however, differential responses that were time-of-day specific suggest an underlying circadian property of the mosquito physiology that results in an altered treatment efficacy. Finally, we examined the immediate and sustained effects of light on mosquito flight activity behaviour following exposure to a 30-min pulse, and observed activity suppression during early night, and elevated activity during the late night. As mosquitoes and malaria parasites are becoming increasingly resistant to insecticide and drug treatment respectively, there is a necessity for the development of innovative control strategies beyond insecticide

  10. Nanostructure Secondary-Mirror Apodizing Mask for Transmitter Signal Suppression in a Duplex Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagopian, John; Livas, Jeffrey; Shiri, Shahram; Getty, Stephanie; Tveekrem, June; Butler, James

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses a nanostructure apodizing mask, made of multi-walled carbon nanotubes, that is applied to the centers (or in and around the holes) of the secondary mirrors of telescopes that are used to interferometrically measure the strain of space-time in response to gravitational waves. The shape of this ultra-black mask can be adjusted to provide a smooth transition to the clear aperture of the secondary mirror to minimize diffracted light. Carbon nanotubes grown on silicon are a viable telescope mirror substrate, and can absorb significantly more light than other black treatments. The hemispherical reflectance of multi-walled carbon nanotubes grown at GSFC is approximately 3 to 10 times better than a standard aerospace paint used for stray light control. At the LISA (Laser Interferometer Space Antenna) wavelength of 1 micron, the advantage over paint is a factor of 10. Primarily, in the center of the secondary mirror (in the region of central obscuration, where no received light is lost) a black mask is applied to absorb transmitted light that could be reflected back into the receiver. In the LISA telescope, this is in the center couple of millimeters. The shape of this absorber is critical to suppress diffraction at the edge. By using the correct shape, the stray light can be reduced by approximately 10 to the 9 orders of magnitude versus no center mask. The effect of the nanotubes has been simulated in a stray-light model. The effect of the apodizing mask has been simulated in a near-field diffraction model. Specifications are geometry-dependent, but the baseline design for the LISA telescope has been modeled as well. The coatings are somewhat fragile, but work is continuing to enhance adhesion.

  11. Detection of Hepatozoon canis in stray dogs and cats in Bangkok, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Rungphisutthipongse, Opart; Maruyama, Soichi; Schaefer, John J; Stich, Roger W

    2006-10-01

    A rapidly increasing stray animal population in Bangkok has caused concern regarding transmission of vector-borne and zoonotic diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine if stray animals in Bangkok are a potential reservoir of Hepatozoon, a genus of tick-borne parasites that has received little attention in Thailand. Blood samples were collected from stray companion animals near monasteries in 42 Bangkok metropolitan districts. Both dogs and cats were sampled from 26 districts, dogs alone from 4 districts and cats alone from 12 districts. Samples were collected from a total of 308 dogs and 300 cats. Light microscopy and an 18 S rRNA gene-based PCR assay were used to test these samples for evidence of Hepatozoon infection. Gamonts were observed in blood smears for 2.6% of dogs and 0.7% of cats by microscopy. The PCR assay detected Hepatozoon in buffy coats from 11.4% of dogs and 32.3% of cats tested. The prevalence of infection was the same between male and female dogs or cats, and PCR-positive dogs and cats were found in 36.6% and 36.8% of the districts surveyed, respectively. There was an association between the percentages of PCR-positive dogs and cats in districts where both host species were sampled. Sequences of representative amplicons were closest to those reported for H. canis. These results represent the first molecular confirmation that H. canis is indigenous to Thailand. The unexpectedly high prevalence of Hepatozoon among stray cats indicates that their role in the epizootiology of hepatozoonosis should be investigated.

  12. Simultaneously Enhancing Light Emission and Suppressing Efficiency Droop in GaN Microwire-Based Ultraviolet Light-Emitting Diode by the Piezo-Phototronic Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingfu; Peng, Wenbo; Yu, Ruomeng; Zou, Haiyang; Dai, Yejing; Zi, Yunlong; Wu, Changsheng; Li, Shuti; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-06-14

    Achievement of p-n homojuncted GaN enables the birth of III-nitride light emitters. Owing to the wurtzite-structure of GaN, piezoelectric polarization charges present at the interface can effectively control/tune the optoelectric behaviors of local charge-carriers (i.e., the piezo-phototronic effect). Here, we demonstrate the significantly enhanced light-output efficiency and suppressed efficiency droop in GaN microwire (MW)-based p-n junction ultraviolet light-emitting diode (UV LED) by the piezo-phototronic effect. By applying a -0.12% static compressive strain perpendicular to the p-n junction interface, the relative external quantum efficiency of the LED is enhanced by over 600%. Furthermore, efficiency droop is markedly reduced from 46.6% to 7.5% and corresponding droop onset current density shifts from 10 to 26.7 A cm -2 . Enhanced electrons confinement and improved holes injection efficiency by the piezo-phototronic effect are revealed and theoretically confirmed as the physical mechanisms. This study offers an unconventional path to develop high efficiency, strong brightness and high power III-nitride light sources.

  13. Treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid, prevents ultraviolet light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress in mouse skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katiyar, Santosh K

    2002-12-01

    It is well documented that ultraviolet (UV) light-induced immune suppression and oxidative stress play an important role in the induction of skin cancers. Earlier, we have shown that topical treatment of silymarin, a plant flavonoid from milk thistle (Silybum marianum L. Gaertn.), to mouse skin prevents photocarcinogenesis, but the preventive mechanism of photocarcinogenesis in vivo animal system by silymarin is not well defined and understood. To define the mechanism of prevention, we employed immunostaining, analytical assays and ELISA which revealed that topical treatment of silymarin (1 mg/cm2 skin area) to C3H/HeN mice inhibits UVB (90 mJ/cm2)-induced suppression of contact hypersensitivity (CHS) response to contact sensitizer dinitrofluorobenzene. Prevention of UVB-induced suppression of CHS by silymarin was found to be associated with the inhibition of infiltrating leukocytes, particularly CD11b+ cell type, and myeloperoxidase activity (50-71%). Silymarin treatment also resulted in significant reduction of UVB-induced immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin-10 producing cells and its production (58-72%, pskin cancer risk human population and ii) development of sunscreen containing silymarin as an antioxidant (chemopreventive agent) or silymarin can be supplemented in skin care products.

  14. Prevalence of external ear disorders in Belgian stray cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollez, Anouck; de Rooster, Hilde; Furcas, Alessandra; Vandenabeele, Sophie

    2018-02-01

    Objectives Feline otitis externa is a multifactorial dermatological disorder about which very little is known. The objective of this study was to map the prevalence of external ear canal disorders and the pathogens causing otitis externa in stray cats roaming around the region of Ghent, Belgium. Methods One hundred and thirty stray cats were randomly selected during a local trap-neuter-return programme. All cats were European Shorthairs. This study included clinical, otoscopic and cytological evaluation of both external ears of each cat. Prospective data used as parameters in this study included the sex, age and body condition score of each cat, as well as the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge, and the results of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) and feline leukaemia virus (FeLV) Snap tests. Results Remarkably, very few (sub)clinical problems of the external ear canal were found in the stray cat population. Malassezia species was by far the most common organism found in the external ear canals of the 130 stray cats. A total of 96/130 (74%) cats were found to have Malassezia species organisms present in one or both ears based on the cytological examination. No correlation was found between the parameters of sex, age, body condition score, the presence of nasal and/or ocular discharge and FIV and FeLV status, and the presence of parasites, bacteria or yeasts. Conclusions and relevance This study provides more information about the normal state of the external ear canal of stray cats. The ears of most stray cats are relatively healthy. The presence of Malassezia species organisms in the external ear canal is not rare among stray cats.

  15. Heat suppression of the fiber coating on a cladding light stripper in high-power fiber laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming-Jian; Wang, Zheng; Meng, Ling-Qiang; Yin, Lu; Han, Zhi-Gang; Shen, Hua; Wang, Hai-Lin; Zhu, Ri-Hong

    2018-01-20

    We present a theoretical model for the thermal effect of the fiber coating on a high-power cladding light stripper, which is fabricated by chemical etching. For the input and output of the fiber coating, a novel segmented corrosion method and increasing attenuation method are proposed for heat suppression, respectively. The relationship between the attenuation and temperature rise of the fiber coating at the output is experimentally demonstrated. The temperature distribution of the fiber coating at the input as well as the return light power caused by scattering are measured for the etched fiber with different surface roughness values. The results suggest that the rise in temperature is primarily caused by the scattering light propagating into the coating. Finally, an attenuation of 27 dB is achieved. At a room temperature of 23°C and input pump power of 438 W, the highest temperature of the input fiber coating decreases from 39.5°C to 27.9°C by segmented corrosion, and the temperature rise of the output fiber coating is close to 0.

  16. [Suppression of visceral pain by action of the low intensity polarized light on acupuncture antinociceptive points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lymans'kyĭ, Iu P; Tamarova, Z A; Huliar, S O

    2003-01-01

    In experiments on mice, statistically authentic weakening of visceral pain has been shown after an action of low intensity polarized light from a device Bioptron on antinociceptive acupuncture points (AP). Pain was caused by an intraperitoneal injection of 2% acetic acid (0.1 ml/10 g). The intensity of pain was judged on duration and frequency of painful behavioral reactions (writhing, licking of abdomen), as well as on duration of sleep, eating and motor activity. In animals which immediately after injections of acetic acid were exposed to polarized light of low intensity for 10 min, applied on any of antinociceptive APs (E-36, E-43, VC-8, RP-6), the duration of painful behavioral reaction was determined to be reduced, while that of non-painful one increased. The comparison of the total duration of the writhing at control and experimental mice showed that an activation of AP E-43 induced the greatest analgesic effect (76.5%), from AP VC-8 it was 76.3%, from RP-6--46.8%, and from E-36--41.4%. We have concluded that the effect of polarized light of low intensity on APs was a convenient non-pharmacological method of treating visceral pain.

  17. Stray capacitances in the watt balance operation: electrostatic forces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quagliotti, Danilo; Mana, G.

    2014-01-01

    In a watt balance, stray capacitances exist between the coil and the magnet. Since the electric current flowing in the coil creates a difference in electric potentials between the coil and magnet, their electrostatic interactions must be taken into account. This paper reports the results of a fin......In a watt balance, stray capacitances exist between the coil and the magnet. Since the electric current flowing in the coil creates a difference in electric potentials between the coil and magnet, their electrostatic interactions must be taken into account. This paper reports the results...

  18. Aerial firing and stray bullet injuries: a rising tide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Syed Asad; Tahir, Syed Mohammad; Makhdoom, Asadullah; Shaikh, Abdul Razaque; Siddique, Akmal Jamal

    2015-04-01

    Aerial firing is shooting, using fire arm, into the air usually during a celebration. This observational study aimed to quantify magnitude and impact of stray bullet injuries by aerial firing at surgical emergencies of the Liaquat University Hospital (a university hospital), Hyderabad, Sindh, Pakistan from January 2009 to December 2010 (2 years). During the study period, 144 firearm injuries due to stray bullet reported to the A and E departments of the university hospital. All patients referred to surgical unit providing emergency cover on that day irrespective of the severity of the injury for medico-legal reasons. For this study, the cases were divided into those having trivial injury and do not require any active surgical intervention and those having serious injury mandating surgical intervention. One hundred and two cases of stray bullet injury sustained trivial injury and followed as outpatients after an overnight period of indoor hospitalization; however, 42 patients with stray bullet injuries requiring surgical intervention were hospitalized. The most common events leading to aerial firing and stray bullet injuries were marriage ceremonies, followed by a political rallies and New Year celebrations. Stray bullet injury also reported after aerial firing on cricket/hockey team victories, Pakistan Independence Day (14th August), cultural day in Sindh and Basant (Kite) festival in Punjab. The most frequent sites with serious stray bullet injury were chest (15), head and neck (10), abdomen (9) and limbs (8), respectively. Surgical interventions performed included chest intubation, exploration of wound tract to retrieve bullet if lodged superficially and was palpable, laparotomy to managed intra-abdominal injury, reduction of fracture site followed by reconstruction, flap reconstruction and graft for nonhealing wound. The mean duration of hospital stay was 19 days. No mortality was observed in this series of patients. We conclude that the prevalence of aerial

  19. Controlling trapping potentials and stray electric fields in a microfabricated ion trap through design and compensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charles Doret, S; Amini, Jason M; Wright, Kenneth; Volin, Curtis; Killian, Tyler; Ozakin, Arkadas; Denison, Douglas; Hayden, Harley; Pai, C-S; Slusher, Richart E; Harter, Alexa W

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in quantum information processing with trapped ions have demonstrated the need for new ion trap architectures capable of holding and manipulating chains of many (>10) ions. Here we present the design and detailed characterization of a new linear trap, microfabricated with scalable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) techniques, that is well-suited to this challenge. Forty-four individually controlled dc electrodes provide the many degrees of freedom required to construct anharmonic potential wells, shuttle ions, merge and split ion chains, precisely tune secular mode frequencies, and adjust the orientation of trap axes. Microfabricated capacitors on dc electrodes suppress radio-frequency pickup and excess micromotion, while a top-level ground layer simplifies modeling of electric fields and protects trap structures underneath. A localized aperture in the substrate provides access to the trapping region from an oven below, permitting deterministic loading of particular isotopic/elemental sequences via species-selective photoionization. The shapes of the aperture and radio-frequency electrodes are optimized to minimize perturbation of the trapping pseudopotential. Laboratory experiments verify simulated potentials and characterize trapping lifetimes, stray electric fields, and ion heating rates, while measurement and cancellation of spatially-varying stray electric fields permits the formation of nearly-equally spaced ion chains. (paper)

  20. The quality of stray radiation in the ovarian region in diagnostic X-ray examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ewen, K.; Fiebach, B.J.O.; Fischer, P.G.; Loehr, E.

    1976-01-01

    Dose measurements (LiF-TLD) and recordings of stray radiation spectra (Ge(Li)-Detectors) in a phantom show that shielding of the ovaries against stray radiation is advisable even though the effectivity of this measure decreases at higher tube voltages. The exposure of the ovaries to stray radiation increases with increasing tube voltage; the radiation quality of the stray radiation is, for the most part, independent of the filter value. (orig./AK) [de

  1. Prevalence of intestinal helminth parasites in stray dogs in urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A total of 246 faecal samples were collected between October 2015 to February 2016, 154 from stray dogs in Harare and 92 from rural dogs in Arcturas, Goromonzi and Christon Bank. The samples were examined by flotation and sedimentation methods and helminth eggs identified and EPG counted. Of the 246 samples, ...

  2. Stray dog meat consumption and rabies | Wiwanitkit | African Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stray dog meat consumption and rabies. V Wiwanitkit. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v14i3.41 · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  3. Suppression of external quantum efficiency roll-off of nanopatterned organic-light emitting diodes at high current densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuwae, Hiroyuki; Kasahara, Takashi [Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Nitta, Atsushi; Yoshida, Kou; Inoue, Munetomo [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Matsushima, Toshinori; Adachi, Chihaya, E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Shoji, Shuichi [Nano-Science and Nano-Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1 Okubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555 (Japan); Mizuno, Jun [JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Research Organization for Nano and Life Innovation, Waseda University, 513 Waseda Tsurumaki-cho, Shinjuku, Tokyo 162-0041 (Japan)

    2015-10-21

    We developed organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with nanopatterned current flow regions using electron-beam lithography with the aim of suppressing singlet–polaron annihilation (SPA). Nanopatterns composed of lines and circles were used in the current flow regions of nano-line and nano-dot OLEDs, respectively. Excitons partially escape from the current flow regions where SPA takes place. As such, current densities where external quantum efficiencies were half of their initial values (J{sub 0}) increased as line width and circle diameter were decreased to close to the exciton diffusion length. Circles were more efficient at enhancing exciton escape and increasing J{sub 0} than lines. The J{sub 0} increase in the nano-dot OLEDs containing nanopatterned circles with a diameter of 50 nm was approximately 41-fold that of a conventional OLED with a current flow region of 4 mm{sup 2}. The dependence of J{sub 0} on the size and shape of the nanopatterns was well explained by an SPA model that considered exciton diffusion. Nanopatterning of OLEDs is a feasible method of obtaining large J{sub 0}.

  4. Bartonella and Toxoplasma Infections in Stray Cats from Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Alexandra D.; McMillan-Cole, Audrey C.; Kasten, Rickie W.; Stuckey, Matthew J.; Kass, Philip H.; Chomel, Bruno B.

    2013-01-01

    Because of overpopulation, stray/feral cats were captured on military bases in Iraq as part of the US Army Zoonotic Disease Surveillance Program. Blood samples were collected from 207 cats, mainly in Baghdad but also in North and West Iraq, to determine the prevalence of Bartonella and Toxoplasma infections. Nine (4.3%) cats, all from Baghdad, were bacteremic with B. henselae type I. Seroprevalence was 30.4% for T. gondii, 15% for B. henselae, and 12.6% for B. clarridgeiae. Differences in Bartonella prevalence by location were statistically significant, because most of the seropositive cats were from Baghdad. There was no association between T. gondii seropositivity and either of the two Bartonella species surveyed. This report is the first report on the prevalence of Bartonella and T. gondii among stray cats in Iraq, which allows for better evaluation of the zoonotic risk potential to the Iraqi people and deployed military personnel by feral cat colonies. PMID:24062480

  5. Stray-electron accumulation and effects in HIF accelerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, R.H.; Friedman, A.; Furman, M.A.; Lund, S.M.; Molvik, A.W.; Stoltz, P.; Vay, J.-L.

    2003-01-01

    Stray electrons can be introduced in positive-charge accelerators for heavy ion fusion (or other applications) as a result of ionization of ambient gas or gas released from walls due to halo-ion impact, or as a result of secondary-electron emission. Electron accumulation is impacted by the ion beam potential, accelerating fields, multipole magnetic fields used for beam focus, and the pulse duration. We highlight the distinguishing features of heavy-ion accelerators as they relate to stray-electron issues, and present first results from a sequence of simulations to characterize the electron cloud that follows from realistic ion distributions. Also, we present ion simulations with prescribed random electron distributions, undertaken to begin to quantify the effects of electrons on ion beam quality

  6. Individual monitoring in high-energy stray radiation fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoefert, M.; Stevenson, G.R.

    1995-01-01

    Due to the lack of passive or active devices that could be considered as personal dosemeters in high-energy stray fields one can at present only perform individual monitoring around high energy accelerators. Of all detectors currently available it is shown that the NTA film is the most suitable method for individually monitoring the neutron exposure of more than 3000 persons regularly, reliably, and cost effectively like at CERN. (author)

  7. Seroprevalence of Ehrlichia canis infection in stray dogs from Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Bogićević

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Canine Monocytic Ehrlichiosis is a zoonotic bacterial disease with worldwide distribution. With regards to the population of stray dogs, the disease is facilitated due to their lifestyle and the lack of anti-parasitic protection. The aim of this study was to provide serological data on the presence of a specific Ehrlichia canis IgG antibodies in stray dogs, originating from 7 municipalities in Serbia. During the period from April 2013 to June 2014, 217 canine sera were submitted to the laboratory of the Department of Infectious Diseases of Animals and Bees, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine in Belgrade. An immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT was performed to detect antibodies to Ehrlichia canis (cut off, 1:50. Seropositive dogs were found in 5 out of 7 counties with a seroprevalence varying from 3.57% to 20% and an overall seroprevalence of 11.06% (24/217. There was no statistically significant difference between the prevalence of infection and the host age or gender. Results showed that stray dogs contribute to maintaining and spreading of Ehrlichia canis in Serbia. Due to the close relationship between people and dogs, it is of great importance to constantly monitor and improve prevention of this disease.

  8. WIDESPREAD OF STRAY DOGS: METHODS FOR SOLVING THE PROBLEM IN CERTAIN REGIONS OF BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA

    OpenAIRE

    Muhamed Katica; Nedzad Gradascevic; Nejra Hadzimusic; Zarema Obradovic; Ramo Mujkanovic; Esad Mestric; Senad Coloman; Muhamed Dupovac

    2017-01-01

    Stray dogs are the ones not microchipped, which live across the streets and other public surfaces unattended, and so represent a serious public-health problem. Lack of human support for the stray dogs causes a range of problems - from territorial status to ensuring food. Such conditions force them to activate a self-preservation mechanism and return to natural behavioral patterns. Regarding the fact that several thousands of stray dogs were recorded in observed regions of Bosnia and Herze...

  9. Lighting.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  10. Short-wavelength attenuated polychromatic white light during work at night : Limited melatonin suppression without substantial decline of alertness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Werken, Maan; Giménez, Marina C; de Vries, Bonnie; Beersma, Domien G M; Gordijn, Marijke C M

    Exposure to light at night increases alertness, but light at night (especially short-wavelength light) also disrupts nocturnal physiology. Such disruption is thought to underlie medical problems for which shiftworkers have increased risk. In 33 male subjects we investigated whether short-wavelength

  11. Suppressing effect of antimutagenic flavorings on chromosome aberrations induced by UV-light or X-rays in cultured Chinese hamster cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Yu.F.; Imanishi, Hisako; Watanabe, Mie; Ohta, Toshihiro; Shirasu

    1990-01-01

    Chromosome aberrations induces by UV-light or X-rays were suppressed by the post-treatment with antimutagenic flavorings, such as anisaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, coumarin, and vanillin. UV- or X-ray-irradiated surviving cells increased in the presence of each flavouring. X-ray-induced breakage-type and exchange-type chromosome aberrations were suppressed by the vanillin treatment in the G 1 phase of the cell cycle and a greater decrease in the number of X-ray-induced chromosome aberrations during G 1 holding was observed in the presence of vanillin. Furthermore, a greater decrease in the number of X-ray-induced DNA single-strand breaks was observed in the presence of vanillin. Treatment with vanillin in the G 2 phase suppressed UV-and X-ray-induced breakage-type but not exchange-type chromosome aberrations. The suppression of breakage-type aberrations was assumed to be due to a modification of the capability of the post-replicational repair of DNA double-strand breaks. (author). 28 refs.; 5 figs.; 6 tabs

  12. Measurement of stray EC radiation on W7-AS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandini, F.; Hirsch, M.; Cirant, S.; Erckmann, V.; Granucci, G.; Kasparek, W.; Laqua, H. P.; Muzzini, V.; Nowak, S.; Radau, S.

    2001-10-01

    In the framework of a collaboration between IFP-CNR Milano, IPP Garching/Greifswald and IPF Stuttgart, a set of four millimeterwave probes has been installed in W7-AS stellarator at selected positions of the inner vessel wall. Their purpose is to observe RF stray radiation during operation in presence of strong level of Electron Cyclotron (EC) waves, used for plasma start-up, heating and current drive. The aim of these measurements is to benchmark two complementary theoretical models for the distribution of the stray radiation in the vessel. From these codes, quantitative predictions are expected for the spatial distribution of the RF wall load and the RF-impact on in-vessel components in large future devices such as W7-X and, possibly, ITER. This input is important to optimize the wall armour and select rf-compatible in-vessel materials. We present first measurements from different heating and startup scenarios, with up to 800 kW of injected power at 140 GHz and different launching geometries. An analysis of measurements performed on FTU using a previous version of sniffer probe is also presented.

  13. Evaluation of stray radiofrequency radiation emitted by electrosurgical devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Marco, M; Maggi, S

    2006-01-01

    Electrosurgery refers to the passage of a high-frequency, high-voltage electrical current through the body to achieve the desired surgical effects. At the same time, these procedures are accompanied by a general increase of the electromagnetic field in an operating room that may expose both patients and personnel to relatively high levels of radiofrequency radiation. In the first part of this study, we have taken into account the radiation emitted by different monopolar electrosurgical devices, evaluating the electromagnetic field strength delivered by an electrosurgical handle and straying from units and other electrosurgical accessories. As a summary, in the worst case a surgeon's hands are exposed to a continuous and pulsed RF wave whose magnetic field strength is 0.75 A m -1 (E-field 400 V m -1 ). Occasionally stray radiation may exceed ICNIRP's occupational exposure guidelines, especially close to the patient return plate. In the second part of this paper, we have analysed areas of particular concern to prevent electromagnetic interference with some life-support devices (ventilators and electrocardiographic devices), which have failed to operate correctly. Most clinically relevant interference occurred when an electrosurgery device was used within 0.3 m of medical equipment. In the appendix, we suggest some practical recommendations intended to minimize the potential for electromagnetic hazards due to therapeutic application of RF energy

  14. Measurement of stray EC radiation on W7-AS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandini, F.; Cirant, S.; Granucci, G.; Muzzini, V.; Nowak, S.; Hirsch, M.; Erckmann, V.; Laqua, H.P.; Radau, S.; Kasparek, W.

    2001-01-01

    In the framework of a collaboration between IFP-CNR Milano, IPP Garching/Greifswald and IPF Stuttgart, a set of four millimeterwave probes has been installed in W7-AS stellarator at selected positions of the inner vessel wall. Their purpose is to observe RF stray radiation during operation in presence of strong level of Electron Cyclotron (EC) waves, used for plasma start-up, heating and current drive. The aim of these measurements is to benchmark two complementary theoretical models for the distribution of the stray radiation in the vessel. From these codes, quantitative predictions are expected for the spatial distribution of the RF wall load and the RF-impact on in-vessel components in large future devices such as W7-X and, possibly, ITER. This input is important to optimize the wall armour and select rf-compatible in-vessel materials. We present first measurements from different heating and startup scenarios, with up to 800 kW of injected power at 140 GHz and different launching geometries. An analysis of measurements performed on FTU using a previous version of sniffer probe is also presented

  15. Skew harmonics suppression in electromagnets with application to the Advanced Light Source (ALS) storage ring corrector magnet design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlueter, R.; Halbach, K.

    1993-09-01

    An analytical expression for prediction of skew harmonics in an iron core combined function regular/skew dipole magnet due to arbitrarily positioned electromagnet coils is developed. A structured approach is presented for the suppression of an arbitrary number of harmonic components to arbitrarily low values. Application of the analytical harmonic strength calculations coupled to the structured harmonic suppression approach is presented in the context of the design of the ALS storage ring corrector magnets, where quadrupole, sextupole, and octupole skew harmonics were reduced to less than 1.0% of the skew dipole at the beam aperture radius r = 3.0 cm

  16. A degradation model for stray current induced corrosion in underground reinforced concrete structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the effects of stray currents on durability and reinforcement corrosion of underground concrete structures. Cathodic protection of underground pipelines are stationary sources of stray current interference with concrete, and rail traction systems are non-stationary sources. The

  17. Lighting

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Lighting Systems Test Facilities aid research that improves the energy efficiency of lighting systems. • Gonio-Photometer: Measures illuminance from each portion of...

  18. Suppressed speckle contrast of blue light emission out of white lamp with phosphors excited by blue laser diodes for high-brightness lighting applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinoshita, Junichi; Ikeda, Yoshihisa; Takeda, Yuji; Ueno, Misaki; Kawasaki, Yoji; Matsuba, Yoshiaki; Heike, Atsushi

    2012-11-01

    The speckle contrast of blue light emission out of high-brightness white lamps using phosphors excited by InGaN/GaN blue laser diodes is evaluated as a measure of coherence. As a result, speckle contrast of as low as 1.7%, the same level as a blue light emitting diode, is obtained. This implies that the original blue laser light can be converted into incoherent light through lamp structures without any dynamic mechanisms. This unique speckle-free performance is considered to be realized by multiple scattering inside the lamp structure, the multi-longitudinal mode operation of the blue laser diodes, and the use of multiple laser diodes. Such almost-incoherent white lamps can be applied for general lighting without any nuisance of speckle noise and should be categorized as lamps rather than lasers in terms of laser safety regulation.

  19. Stray current vs anodic polarization in reinforced mortar: a comparative study on steel corrosion behaviour in both regimes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhipei; Koleva, D.A.; van Breugel, K.

    2015-01-01

    Stray current arising from direct current electrified traction systems and then circulat-ing in reinforced concrete structures may initiate corrosion or even accelerate existing corrosion processes on embedded reinforcement. Therefore, stray-current induced corrosion of nearby reinforced concrete

  20. Electrolytic corrosion of water pipeline system in the remote distance from stray currents—Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Zakowski​

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Case study of corrosion failure of urban water supply system caused by the harmful effects of stray currents was presented. The failure occurred at a site distant from the sources of these currents namely the tramway and railway traction systems. Diagnosis revealed the stray currents flow to pipeline over a remote distance of 800/1000 m from the point of failure. At the point of failure stray currents flowed from the pipeline to the ground through external insulation defects, causing the process of electrolytic corrosion of the metal. Long distance between the affected section of the pipeline and the sources of stray currents excludes the typical protection against stray currents in the form of electrical polarized drainage. Corrosion protection at this point can be achieved by using the earthing electrodes made of magnesium, which will also provide cathodic current protection as galvanic anode.

  1. Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prescott, N.B.; Kristensen, Helle Halkjær; Wathes, C.M.

    2004-01-01

    This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality......This chapter presents the effect of artificial light environments (light levels, colour, photoperiod and flicker) on the welfare of broilers in terms of vision, behaviour, lameness and mortality...

  2. Suppression of roll-off characteristics of organic light-emitting diodes by narrowing current injection/transport area to 50 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Kyohei, E-mail: k-hayashi@bioorg.rcast.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Inoue, Munetomo; Yoshida, Kou [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Nakanotani, Hajime [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, c/o OPERA, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Innovative Organic Device Laboratory, Institute of Systems, Information Technologies and Nanotechnologies (ISIT), 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Mikhnenko, Oleksandr; Nguyen, Thuc-Quyen, E-mail: quyen@chem.ucsb.edu, E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center for Polymers and Organic Solids, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106-9510 (United States); Adachi, Chihaya, E-mail: quyen@chem.ucsb.edu, E-mail: adachi@cstf.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Center for Organic Photonics and Electronics Research (OPERA), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); JST, ERATO, Adachi Molecular Exciton Engineering Project, c/o OPERA, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Innovative Organic Device Laboratory, Institute of Systems, Information Technologies and Nanotechnologies (ISIT), 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); International Institute for Carbon Neutral Energy Research (WPI-I2CNER), Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2015-03-02

    Using e-beam nanolithography, the current injection/transport area in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) was confined into a narrow linear structure with a minimum width of 50 nm. This caused suppression of Joule heating and partial separation of polarons and excitons, so the charge density where the electroluminescent efficiency decays to the half of the initial value (J{sub 0}) was significantly improved. A device with a narrow current injection width of 50 nm exhibited a J{sub 0} that was almost two orders of magnitude higher compared with that of the unpatterned OLED.

  3. Some aspects of stray losses in large power transformers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valkovic, Zvonimir

    2002-01-01

    The paper presents some results of the investigation of stray losses in power transformers that are caused by high-current loops. The investigation was focused on: a) additional losses in tank cover around high-current bushings and the way of their reduction, b) extra leakage flux and additional losses due to high current delta-connections. The insertion of nonmagnetic gaps between the phase bushings reduces the extra cover losses more than three times. A nonmagnetic plate around the high-current bushings reduces these extra losses practically to zero. The extra losses due to the high-current delta-connections could be significant for the transformer loss level. These extra losses could be controlled (reduced) by the design layout of the delta-connections. (Author)

  4. Efficiency roll-off suppression in organic light-emitting diodes using size-tunable bimetallic bowtie nanoantennas at high current densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yukun; Yun, Feng; Li, Yufeng; Feng, Lungang; Ding, Wen; Huang, Yi; Wu, Zhaoxin; Jiao, Bo; Li, Sanfeng; Zhang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Size-tunable bimetallic bowtie nanoantennas have been utilized to suppress the efficiency roll-off characteristics in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using both the numerical and experimental approaches. The resonant range can be widened by the strong dual-atomic couplings in bimetallic bowtie nanoantennas. Compared with the green OLED with conventional bowtie nanoantennas at a high current density of 800 mA/cm"2, the measured efficiency roll-off ratio of the OLED with size-modulated bowtie nanoantennas is decreased from 53.2% to 41.8%, and the measured current efficiency is enhanced by 29.9%. When the size-modulated bowtie nanoantennas are utilized in blue phosphorescent OLEDs, the experimental roll-off ratio is suppressed from 43.6% to 25.9% at 250 mA/cm"2, and the measured current efficiency is also enhanced significantly. It is proposed that the efficiency roll-off suppression is mainly related to the enhanced localized surface plasmon effect, which leads to a shorter radiative lifetime.

  5. Efficiency roll-off suppression in organic light-emitting diodes using size-tunable bimetallic bowtie nanoantennas at high current densities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yukun [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonics & Information Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Solid-State Lighting Engineering Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Yun, Feng, E-mail: fyun2010@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Li, Yufeng; Feng, Lungang; Ding, Wen [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonics & Information Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Solid-State Lighting Engineering Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Huang, Yi [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); Wu, Zhaoxin; Jiao, Bo; Li, Sanfeng [Key Laboratory of Physical Electronics and Devices of Ministry of Education and Shaanxi Provincial Key Laboratory of Photonics & Information Technology, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China); Zhang, Ye [Solid-State Lighting Engineering Research Center, Xi' an Jiaotong University, Xi' an, Shaanxi 710049 (China)

    2016-07-04

    Size-tunable bimetallic bowtie nanoantennas have been utilized to suppress the efficiency roll-off characteristics in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) using both the numerical and experimental approaches. The resonant range can be widened by the strong dual-atomic couplings in bimetallic bowtie nanoantennas. Compared with the green OLED with conventional bowtie nanoantennas at a high current density of 800 mA/cm{sup 2}, the measured efficiency roll-off ratio of the OLED with size-modulated bowtie nanoantennas is decreased from 53.2% to 41.8%, and the measured current efficiency is enhanced by 29.9%. When the size-modulated bowtie nanoantennas are utilized in blue phosphorescent OLEDs, the experimental roll-off ratio is suppressed from 43.6% to 25.9% at 250 mA/cm{sup 2}, and the measured current efficiency is also enhanced significantly. It is proposed that the efficiency roll-off suppression is mainly related to the enhanced localized surface plasmon effect, which leads to a shorter radiative lifetime.

  6. Stray current monitoring at Nuremberg subway; Streustromueberwachung bei der U-Bahn Nuernberg

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altmann, M.; Halfmann, U.; Schneider, E. [Siemens AG, Erlangen (Germany). TS EL EN 2; Roesch, N. [VAG Verkehrs-AG Nuernberg, FA/SA - Starkstromanlagen, Nuernberg (Germany)

    2004-05-01

    Operating DC traction systems requires protective measures against the effects of stray currents. Damage by corrosion could occur both at railway and third party installations. The continuous effectiveness of protective measures needs to be monitored and recorded during revenue operation, and shall be capable to be demonstrated to supervising authorities. Measuring the rail-to-earth potential within the traction network under operational conditions, combined with centralized analysis, visualization, signaling and archiving is a straightforward and efficient method of stray current monitoring. For more than one year, the stray current monitoring system SITRAS SMS {sup registered} has been undergoing successful field application at the Nuremberg Subway. (orig.)

  7. Convergence of highly parallel stray field calculation using the fast multipole method on irregular meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmesi, P.; Abert, C.; Bruckner, F.; Suess, D.

    2018-05-01

    Fast stray field calculation is commonly considered of great importance for micromagnetic simulations, since it is the most time consuming part of the simulation. The Fast Multipole Method (FMM) has displayed linear O(N) parallelization behavior on many cores. This article investigates the error of a recent FMM approach approximating sources using linear—instead of constant—finite elements in the singular integral for calculating the stray field and the corresponding potential. After measuring performance in an earlier manuscript, this manuscript investigates the convergence of the relative L2 error for several FMM simulation parameters. Various scenarios either calculating the stray field directly or via potential are discussed.

  8. Simplified magnetic circuit for the calculation of the stray magnetic flux through the shell gaps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collarin, P.; Piovan, R. [Associazioni EURATOM-ENEA-CNR-Univ. di Padova (Italy). Gruppo di Padova per Ricerche sulla Fusione

    1995-12-31

    Significant toroidal magnetic field perturbations, stray flux at the shell gaps and current mismatching in the coils of the toroidal field winding are measured during the start-up and the flat-top phases of RFX. These phenomena are consistent with large and wall locked MHD modes: at first some m = 1 modes evolve separately one after the other, afterwards they concur to a wide and localized plasma perturbation that persists during the flat-top. These perturbations are heavily influenced by the stray magnetic flux through the shell gaps. Hence a magnetic circuit that mainly considers the magnetic reluctance of the conducting shell gaps has been developed in order to estimate this stray flux and, therefore, to evaluate the stabilizing capability of the shell. The observation of the MHD modes, the description of the equivalent magnetic network, the estimation of the stray flux and the comparison with the experimental measurements are reported in the paper.

  9. Simplified magnetic circuit for the calculation of the stray magnetic flux through the shell gaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collarin, P.; Piovan, R.

    1995-01-01

    Significant toroidal magnetic field perturbations, stray flux at the shell gaps and current mismatching in the coils of the toroidal field winding are measured during the start-up and the flat-top phases of RFX. These phenomena are consistent with large and wall locked MHD modes: at first some m = 1 modes evolve separately one after the other, afterwards they concur to a wide and localized plasma perturbation that persists during the flat-top. These perturbations are heavily influenced by the stray magnetic flux through the shell gaps. Hence a magnetic circuit that mainly considers the magnetic reluctance of the conducting shell gaps has been developed in order to estimate this stray flux and, therefore, to evaluate the stabilizing capability of the shell. The observation of the MHD modes, the description of the equivalent magnetic network, the estimation of the stray flux and the comparison with the experimental measurements are reported in the paper

  10. Stray dogs and cats as potential sources of soil contamination with zoonotic parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Szwabe

    2017-03-01

    Cat faeces represent a more important potential source of environmental contamination with zoonotic parasites than dog faeces. Among the detected parasites of stray dogs and cats, Toxocara present an important zoonotic risk for the local human population, especially children.

  11. Symptoms and Cognitive Effects of Exposure to Magnetic Stray Fields of MRI Scanners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vocht, Frank Gérard de

    2006-01-01

    People working routinely with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems report a number of symptoms related to their presence in the inhomogeneous static magnetic fields (the stray field) surrounding these scanners. Experienced symptoms and neurobehavioral performance among engineers manufacturing

  12. Counteracting Animal Homelessness and Providing Care for Stray Animals as a Task of a Commune

    OpenAIRE

    Szalewska, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of Polish binding law acts allows one to assume that, on normative level, the obligation of public administration to provide care for stray animals is deeply embedded. Both the Animal Protection Act, as well as the Act on Maintaining Cleanliness, indicate the tasks of a commune in the scope of providing care for stray animals, catching homeless animals and counteracting their homelessness. Simultaneously, the analysis of jurisdiction, and inquiries as well as considerations emerg...

  13. Enhanced life time and suppressed efficiency roll-off in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes with multiple quantum well structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ja-Ryong Koo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs with multiple quantum well structures which confine triplet exciton inside an emitting layer (EML region. Five types of OLEDs, from a single to five quantum wells, are fabricated with charge control layers to produce high efficiencies, and the performance of the devices is investigated. The improved quantum efficiency and lifetime of the OLED with four quantum wells, and its suppressed quantum efficiency roll-off of 17.6%, can be described by the increased electron–hole charge balance owing to the bipolar property as well as the efficient triplet exciton confinement within each EML, and by prevention of serious triplet–triplet and/or triplet–polaron annihilation as well as the Förster self-quenching due to charge control layers.

  14. The Disturbing Effect of the Stray Magnetic Fields on Magnetoimpedance Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The disturbing effect of the stray magnetic fields of Fe-based amorphous ribbons on the giant magnetoimpedance (GMI sensor has been investigated systematically in this paper. Two simple methods were used for examining the disturbing effect of the stray magnetic fields of ribbons on the GMI sensor. In order to study the influence of the stray magnetic fields on the GMI effect, the square-shaped amorphous ribbons were tested in front, at the back, on the left and on the top of a meander-line GMI sensor made up of soft ferromagnetic films, respectively. Experimental results show that the presence of ribbons in front or at the back of GMI sensor shifts the GMI curve to a lower external magnetic field. On the contrary, the presence of ribbons on the left or on the top of the GMI sensor shifts the GMI curve to a higher external magnetic field, which is related to the coupling effect of the external magnetic field and the stray magnetic fields. The influence of the area and angle of ribbons on GMI was also studied in this work. The GMI sensor exhibits high linearity for detection of the stray magnetic fields, which has made it feasible to construct a sensitive magnetometer for detecting the typical stray magnetic fields of general soft ferromagnetic materials.

  15. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2003-01-01

    Why is left right and right left in the mirror? Baffled by the basics of reflection and refraction? Wondering just how the eye works? If you have trouble teaching concepts about light that you don t fully grasp yourself, get help from a book that s both scientifically accurate and entertaining with Light. By combining clear explanations, clever drawings, and activities that use easy-to-find materials, this book covers what science teachers and parents need to know to teach about light with confidence. It uses ray, wave, and particle models of light to explain the basics of reflection and refraction, optical instruments, polarization of light, and interference and diffraction. There s also an entire chapter on how the eye works. Each chapter ends with a Summary and Applications section that reinforces concepts with everyday examples. Whether you need a deeper understanding of how light bends or a good explanation of why the sky is blue, you ll find Light more illuminating and accessible than a college textbook...

  16. Model-independent description and Large Hadron Collider implications of suppressed two-photon decay of a light Higgs boson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phalen, Daniel J.; Thomas, Brooks; Wells, James D.

    2007-01-01

    For a standard model Higgs boson with mass between 115 GeV and 150 GeV, the two-photon decay mode is important for discovery at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). We describe the interactions of a light Higgs boson in a more model-independent fashion and consider the parameter space where there is no two-photon decay mode. We argue from generalities that analysis of the tth discovery mode outside its normal thought of range of applicability is especially needed under these circumstances. We demonstrate the general conclusion with a specific example of parameters of a type I two-Higgs doublet theory, motivated by ideas in strongly coupled model building. We then specify a complete set of branching fractions and discuss the implications for the LHC

  17. Treatment of platelets with riboflavin and ultraviolet light mediates complement activation and suppresses monocyte interleukin-12 production in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Y S; Dean, M M; Johnson, L; Marks, D C

    2015-11-01

    Pathogen inactivation (PI) and storage may alter the immunomodulatory capacity of platelets (PLTs). The aim of this study was to examine the effect of PI (Riboflavin and ultraviolet light treatment) and storage on the capacity of PLTs to induce cytokine responses in recipient inflammatory cells. A pool and split design was used to prepare untreated and PI-treated buffy coat-derived platelet concentrates (PCs). Samples were taken on days 2 and 7 postcollection and incubated with ABO/RhD-matched fresh whole blood for 6 h with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The intracellular production of IP-10, MCP-1, MIP-1α, IL-8, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, TNF-α and MIP-1β in monocytes and neutrophils was assessed using flow cytometry. Complement proteins in PLT supernatants were measured using a cytometric bead array. PLTs and PLT supernatant (both untreated and PI-treated) resulted in modulation of intracellular MIP-1β and IL-12 production in monocytes. Compared to untreated PLTs, PI-treated PLTs resulted in significantly lower LPS-induced monocyte IL-12 production (day 7). The concentration of C3a and C5a (and their desArg forms) was significantly increased in PLT supernatants following PI. PI results in decreased LPS-induced monocyte IL-12 production and increased complement activation. The association between platelet-induced complement activation and IL-12 production warrants further investigation. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  18. Light

    CERN Document Server

    Ditchburn, R W

    1963-01-01

    This classic study, available for the first time in paperback, clearly demonstrates how quantum theory is a natural development of wave theory, and how these two theories, once thought to be irreconcilable, together comprise a single valid theory of light. Aimed at students with an intermediate-level knowledge of physics, the book first offers a historical introduction to the subject, then covers topics such as wave theory, interference, diffraction, Huygens' Principle, Fermat's Principle, and the accuracy of optical measurements. Additional topics include the velocity of light, relativistic o

  19. PCR-Based Molecular Characterization of Toxocara spp. Using Feces of Stray Cats: A Study from Southwest Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Rahim, Fakher; Tavalla, Mahdi; Abdizadeh, Rahman; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Feces of stray cat are potential sources of gastrointestinal parasites and play a crucial role in spreading and transmitting parasite eggs, larvae, and oocysts through contamination of soil, food, or water. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection in stray cats in Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. Eggs of Toxocara spp. in feces of stray cats were detected by the sucrose flotation method, and identification was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequ...

  20. A study on protozoan infections (Giardia, Entamoeba, Isoapora and Cryptosporidium in stray dogs in Ilam province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Kakekhani

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Giardia, Entamoeba, Isospora and Cryptosporidium are important protozoan parastites that caused diarrhea in human and animals. In the present study, fecal samples were collected fresh, directly from the rectum of 112 stray dogs in Ilam province. Giardia and Entamoeba were concentrated by using the formalin ether sedimentation method followed by the trichrome and iodine staining technique andCryptosporidium  oocysts  were  concentrated  by  using  the  formalin  ether  sedimentation  method  followed by the modified Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique. Of 112 stray dogs, protozoan infections were detected from feces of 46 dogs (41.07% that Giardia infection was detected from feces of 21 dogs (18.75%, Isospora 17 (15.17%, Cryptosporidium 8 (7.14% and synchronization infection to 2 protozoan in 9 dogs (8.03% and to 3 protozoan in 3 (2.67%. In the present study not observed to Entamoeba. No statistically significant differences in prevalence of protozoan parasites occurred between female (34.21 % and male (55.5 % stray dogs (p>0/05. But statistically significant differences in prevalence occurred between 1≥0 and 0 ≥1 stray dogs (p>0/05. So that stray dogs of Ilam province can cause infection of human water and food sources.

  1. A survey of gastrointestinal helminth of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeastern of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraili, A.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Canids are reservoir for some zoonoses helminthic disease. They are one of main public health problem. The aim of this study was to ascertain frequency of gastrointestinal helminthic infection of stray dogs in Zabol city, southeaster of Iran. In this descriptive study, 30 stray dogs were euthanized, intestine was removed by necropsy. Then, the intestines was opened by scalpel and their contents passed through mesh sieve. The helminth were collected. The nematodes were preserved in 70% ethanol with 5% glycerin and cestodes were preserved in 70% ethanol. The cestodes were stained by acetocarmine. The nematodes were cleared by lactophenol. The genus and species of helminth were identified by identification keys. Twenty two (73.3% of stray dogs had at least one intestinal helminthic infection. Recovered helminth from stray dogs include: Taenia hydatigena (53.3%, Taenia ovis (20%, Taenia multiceps (6.6%, Mesocestoides spp (10%, Toxocara canis (23.3%, Toxocara cati (3.3%. Data showed that the stray dogs in Zabol city harbor some important zoonoses helminth parasite like Toxocara.

  2. Seroepidemiological survey of helminthic parasites of stray dogs in Sari City, northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami, Ishirzad; Daryani, Ahmad; Sharif, Mehdi; Amouei, Afsaneh; Mobedi, Iraj

    2011-01-15

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence rate of helminthic parasites in stray dogs' population especially zoonotic infections and to identify potential risk factors in the different areas of Sari city in Caspian area, north of Iran. During the period from April to September 2007, 50 stray dogs were collected from urban areas of Sari city. Recovered parasites were fixed in alcohol and stained by carmine then observed by microscope. The taxonomic study was carried out by measuring different parts of the body of helminthes and statistical tests were performed using the Chi-square test. A total of 27 adult and 23 juvenile stray dogs were collected and the overall prevalence rate of infection was 90%. The three most common helminthes were Toxocara canis (60%), Ancylostoma caninum (46%) and Dipylidium caninum (36%). Other parasites were Uncinaria stenocephala (12%), Taenia hydatigena (6%), Spirocerca lupi (6%), Dirofilaria immitis (6%), Toxascaris leonina (2%), Rictularia sp. (2%), Taenia ovis (2%) and Taenia taeniformis (2%). Five species of zoonotic helminthes recovered were T. canis, A. caninum, U. stenocephala, D. caninum and D. immitis. Hookworm infections (58%) were more common significantly in the young stray dogs (p caninum, T. canis and U. stenocephala, there was significant difference between juvenile and adult dogs (p < 0.05). The results highlight the potential role of stray dogs for transmission of helminthic parasites particularly zoonotic parasites that are a significant risk to human health.

  3. Experimental observations of stray current effects on steel fibres embedded in mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solgaard, A.O.S.; Carsana, M.; Geiker, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    It is known that stray direct current can cause corrosive damage over time to bar reinforced concrete, but knowledge on the consequences to steel fibre reinforced concrete is limited. This paper presents analyses and corresponding results from an experimental program (parametric study) investigat......It is known that stray direct current can cause corrosive damage over time to bar reinforced concrete, but knowledge on the consequences to steel fibre reinforced concrete is limited. This paper presents analyses and corresponding results from an experimental program (parametric study......) investigating the conditions required for current to be picked up by embedded steel fibres or reinforcement (rebars). The experiments showed that there is a clear ‘length effect’ related to the susceptibility of stray current being picked up by embedded steel (fibres or rebars): the shorter the reinforcement...

  4. The impact of microwave stray radiation to in-vessel diagnostic components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, M.; Laqua, H. P.; Hathiramani, D.; Baldzuhn, J.; Biedermann, C.; Cardella, A.; Erckmann, V.; König, R.; Köppen, M.; Zhang, D. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, Teilinstitut Greifswald, EURATOM Association, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Oosterbeek, J.; Brand, H. von der; Parquay, S. [Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, department Technische Natuurkunde, working group for Plasma Physics and Radiation Technology, Den Doelch 2, 5612 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Jimenez, R. [Centro de Investigationes Energeticas, Medioambientales y Technológicas, Association EURATOM/CIEMAT, Avenida Complutense 22, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Collaboration: W7-X Teasm

    2014-08-21

    Microwave stray radiation resulting from unabsorbed multiple reflected ECRH / ECCD beams may cause severe heating of microwave absorbing in-vessel components such as gaskets, bellows, windows, ceramics and cable insulations. In view of long-pulse operation of WENDELSTEIN-7X the MIcrowave STray RAdiation Launch facility, MISTRAL, allows to test in-vessel components in the environment of isotropic 140 GHz microwave radiation at power load of up to 50 kW/m{sup 2} over 30 min. The results show that both, sufficient microwave shielding measures and cooling of all components are mandatory. If shielding/cooling measures of in-vessel diagnostic components are not efficient enough, the level of stray radiation may be (locally) reduced by dedicated absorbing ceramic coatings on cooled structures.

  5. Effective suppression of efficiency droop in GaN-based light-emitting diodes: role of significant reduction of carrier density and built-in field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Yang-Seok; Na, Jong-Ho; Son, Sung Jin; Cho, Yong-Hoon

    2016-10-01

    A critical issue in GaN-based high power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is how to suppress the efficiency droop problem occurred at high current injection while improving overall quantum efficiency, especially in conventional c-plane InGaN/GaN quantum well (QW), without using complicated bandgap engineering or unconventional materials and structures. Although increasing thickness of each QW may decrease carrier density in QWs, formation of additional strain and defects as well as increased built-in field effect due to enlarged QW thickness are unavoidable. Here, we propose a facile and effective method for not only reducing efficiency droop but also improving quantum efficiency by utilizing c-plane InGaN/GaN QWs having thinner barriers and increased QW number while keeping the same single well thickness and total active layer thickness. As the barrier thickness decreases and the QW number increases, both internal electric field and carrier density within QWs are simultaneously reduced without degradation of material quality. Furthermore, we found overall improved efficiency and reduced efficiency droop, which was attributed to the decrease of the built-in field and to less influence by non-radiative recombination processes at high carrier density. This simple and effective approach can be extended further for high power ultraviolet, green, and red LEDs.

  6. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lancaster, Emily; Rand, Jacquie; Collecott, Sheila; Paterson, Mandy

    2015-01-01

    Simple Summary Microchip identification has become an important tool to reunite stray dogs and cats with their owners, and is now compulsory in most states of Australia. Improvement of the microchipping system in Australia is limited by a lack of published Australian data documenting the problems experienced by shelter staff when using microchip data to contact the owner of a stray animal. In this study we determine the character and frequency of inaccurate microchip data to identify weaknesses in the current microchipping system. This information could be used to develop strategies that increase the accuracy of microchip data that will increase the reclaiming of stray animals. Abstract A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258) and cats (n = 6950) entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37%) had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%), all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%), and the microchip not registered (14%). A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%). The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals—87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of

  7. Controlling stray electric fields on an atom chip for experiments on Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davtyan, D.; Machluf, S.; Soudijn, M. L.; Naber, J. B.; van Druten, N. J.; van Linden van den Heuvell, H. B.; Spreeuw, R. J. C.

    2018-02-01

    Experiments handling Rydberg atoms near surfaces must necessarily deal with the high sensitivity of Rydberg atoms to (stray) electric fields that typically emanate from adsorbates on the surface. We demonstrate a method to modify and reduce the stray electric field by changing the adsorbate distribution. We use one of the Rydberg excitation lasers to locally affect the adsorbed dipole distribution. By adjusting the averaged exposure time we change the strength (with the minimal value less than 0.2 V /cm at 78 μ m from the chip) and even the sign of the perpendicular field component. This technique is a useful tool for experiments handling Rydberg atoms near surfaces, including atom chips.

  8. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Susan E.

    2005-01-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected ...

  9. Effect of stray current on corrosion behavior of reinforcing steel: importance of cell geometry and orientation with respect to the electrical field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhipei; Koleva, D.A.

    2016-01-01

    Stray current circulating in reinforced concrete structures may initiate corrosion or accelerate existing corrosion processes on embedded reinforcement. In some cases, the range of dangerous or unwanted interactions of stray currents under favorable conditions (environment), is much broader than is

  10. Rf Discharge Impedance Measurements Using a New Method to Determine the Stray Impedances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, L.P.; Kroesen, G.M.W.; Hoog, de F.J.

    1999-01-01

    The impedance of a capacitively coupled radio frequency discharge in a tubular fluorescent lamp filled with neon and mercury is measured. The stray impedances in the electrical network are determined using a new method that requires no extra instruments. The reflection of power is used to determine

  11. Gastrointestinal Helminths and Ectoparasites in the Stray Cats (Felidae: Felis catus) of Ahar Municipality, Northwestern Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    YAKHCHALI, Mohammad; HAJIPOUR, Nasser; MALEKZADEH-VIAYEH, Reza; ESMAEILNEJAD, Bijan; NEMATI-HARAVANI, Taher; FATHOLLAHZADEH, Mohammad; JAFARI, Rasool

    2017-01-01

    Background: The stray cats are considered as the sources of emerging humans and domestic livestock pathogens and the zoonoses of public health importance. The present study was aimed to elucidate intestinal helminth infections and infestation with ectoparasites of the stray cats of Ahar City, northwestern Iran. Methods: Totally, 51 stray cats were randomly trapped from different parts of the city between Mar and Nov 2013. The cats were assessed for ectoparasites by hair brushing, skin scraping, acetate tape preparation and othic swabs. They were euthanized and inspected for helminths infection. Results: Overall prevalence of helminths and flea were 44/51 (86.3%) and 31/51 (60.78%), respectively. The infection rates were significantly different among different age groups (PDipylidium caninum (29.41%), T. hydatigena (19.6%)) were identified. The predominant infectious helminths in all the infected cats were T. cati (86.3% with egg per gram of feces 27.75±9). Of the 270 collected fleas, two species of Ctenocephalides felis (80%) and C. canis (20%) were notably frequent in the cats aged 2-3-year-old. The average number of fleas per each infected cat was recorded as 5.29, with no incidence of cross-infection. Conclusion: The results indicated the high rate of helminths infections and flea infestation in the urban stray cats of which Toxocara cati and Ctenocephalides felis may play important roles as zoonotic agents in the region. PMID:28761492

  12. Measurement of stray neutron doses inside the treatment room from a proton pencil beam scanning system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mojzeszek, N.; Farah, J.; Klodowska, M.; Ploc, Ondřej; Stolarczyk, L.; Waligorski, M. P. R.; Olko, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2017), s. 80-84 ISSN 1120-1797 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : secondary neutrons * proton therapy * pencil beam scanning systtems * out-of-field doses * stray neutron doses * TEPC Subject RIV: FP - Other Medical Disciplines OBOR OECD: Radiology, nuclear medicine and medical imaging Impact factor: 1.990, year: 2016

  13. Experimental Study on the Influence of AC Stray Current on the Cathodic Protection of Buried Pipe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingmiao Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The size of the damaged area of the coating and its position on the pipeline impacted the cathodic protection potential, and there was a damaged area of the greatest impact value. When damaged area was 300 mm2, the IR drop was the largest, and this situation could easily lead to inadequate protection; when the parallel spacing between pipeline and interference source was unchanged, the measured value curves of cathodic protection potential presented “U” shaped trend with the increasing stray current interference intensity. Under certain parallel spacing between pipeline and interference source, high alternating stray current intensity would cause serious negative offsets, so that the overprotection of the pipeline occurred, and make the coating crack; there was a parallel threshold length. When less than the threshold, the pipe-ground potential increases rapidly with the parallel length increasing. In order to judge whether a pipeline was interference by AC stray current and the risk of stray current corrosion, we should make a comprehensive analysis of the cathodic protection energizing potential, the switch-off potential, AC pipe-soil potential, IR drops, and so on.

  14. Monitoring DC stray current interference of steel sheet pile structures in railway environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peelen, W.H.A.; Neeft, E.A.C.; Leegwater, G.; Kanten-Roos, W. van; Courage, W.M.G.

    2011-01-01

    Steel structures near DC powered railways are expected to be affected by stray current interference. This causes accelerated corrosion rates. Therefore steel is often not used as a building material in these cases, although certain advantages over the alternative material concrete exist. These

  15. Gastrointestinal parasites in stray and shelter cats in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pâmela Figueiredo Pereira

    Full Text Available Abstract The increasingly urban nature of the population has led many people to choose independent pets, such as cats. This situation has also made it possible for these animals to be abandoned, thus increasing the numbers of cats on the streets and in shelters. These animals can act as a source of infection for other hosts. Between 2014 and 2015, the frequency of gastrointestinal parasites in captive and stray cats in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro was analyzed. Ninety-one fecal samples were collected from captive cats and 172 from stray cats. Centrifugal sedimentation and flotation techniques were used. The frequency of parasites among the stray cats was 77.3%, and this was significantly higher than the frequency observed in captive cats (49.5%. Helminths were detected more frequently, and hookworms were the parasites most detected. Toxocara cati, Cystoisospora sp. and Dipylidium caninum were also detected. No statistical difference in the frequency of parasites was observed between the sexes among the captive cats. However, among the stray cats, males (85.5% presented higher positivity than females (71.8%. The high frequency of hookworms, which are the agent for “cutaneous larva migrans” in humans, shows the need to control parasitic infections among the cats studied.

  16. Stray dog and cat laws and enforcement in Czech Republic and in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Voslářvá

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The growing numbers of stray dogs and cats have posed serious public-health, socioeconomic, political and animal-welfare problems in many EU countries. Stray animal population control is a complex issue and there are no easy solutions. Recognising the importance of the issue the European Commission has, since 2007, actively contributed to the elaboration of the first global welfare standards for the control of dog populations in the framework of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE. Problem-solving approaches vary in different countries as there is no common European Community legislation dealing with stray animal control. In this paper the authors describe the characteristics of the stray dog and cat problem in general and focus on existing European legislation. A comparative overview of policies and measures in place in the Czech Republic and in Italy is made to observe the differences between the two countries and understand the different needs in each, considering their historical and social differences (i.e. a post-communist eastern country vs a western country and founder member of what is now the European Union.

  17. A review on stray current-induced steel corrosion in infrastructure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Zhipei; Koleva, D.A.; van Breugel, K.

    2017-01-01

    Metallic corrosion can cause substantial damage at various levels and in almost all types of infrastructure. For metallic corrosion to occur, a certain external environment and the presence of corrodents are the prerequisites. Stray current-induced corrosion, however, is a rather underestimated

  18. Comment on "Density functional theory is straying from the path toward the exact functional"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kepp, Kasper Planeta

    2017-01-01

    Medvedev et al (Reports, 6 January 2017, p. 49) argue that recent density functionals stray from the path toward exactness. This conclusion rests on very compact 1s2 and 1s22s2 systems favored by the Hartree-Fock picture. Comparison to actual energies for the same systems indicates that the "stra...

  19. Study of Intestinal Helminthes of Stray Dogs and Thir Public Heath Importance in Hamadan City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kh. Rahmati

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intestinal helminthesof dogs are a serious threat to human health and may cause dangerous diseases such as: hydatidosis and visceral larva migrans, that which cause severe complications in human. Th aim of this study was to determine the prevalenceof intestinal helminthes of stray dogs in Hamadan city, Iran.. Methods: A total of 103 stray dogswere shot in the inner and around of the city in year 2015. Following necropsy, the intestines' contents of dogs were examined for helminthes macroscopically. Thn, the collected worms, aftr washing with saline,were counted and identifid according to being Nematode, Cestodeor Acantcephala. Thn, collected Nematodes were put in glass containers containing 70% ethanol-glycerine and Cestodes aftr processing on slides were put in the 10% formalin. To identify the species of helminthes, the Cestodes were stained using carmine acid and Nematodes were cleared in lacto-phenol. Results: Result indicated that, 74(71.8%stray dogs were infected at least by one species of intestinal helminthes. Th species of parasites were as follows: Echinococcus granulosus 37.9%, Dipylidium caninum 51.5%, Toxocara canis 19.4%, Taenia hydatigena 24.3%, T. multiceps 2.9%, T. ovis 1.9%, Mesocest oideslineatus 4.9%, and Acantho cephala 5.8%. Thre was no association between insex, season and region with prevalence of intestinal helminthes (P 0.05 between the prevalence of intestinal helminthes and dogs' age. Conclusions: Ths study indicatesd that,infection rate of helminthes in stray dogs is washigh in Hamadan city. Thse parasites are important in terms of human health and economic aspects. Threfore, it is more essential that public health authoritiesto develop control strategies for stray dogs population.

  20. A triple spectrograph system for low stray light Thomson scattering measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sande, van de M.J.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Thomson scattering is scattering of photons by the electrons in a plasma. From the scattering spectrum, the electron temperature and density (Te, ne) of the plasma can be deduced. In the past decade, the development of high power lasers and sensitive detection devices has made Thomson scattering a

  1. Observational artifacts of Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array: Ghost rays and stray light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Kristin K.; Christensen, Finn Erland; Craig, William W.

    2017-01-01

    photons that do not undergo the focused double reflections in the optics, and we term these ghost rays. We present detailed analysis and characterization of these two components and discuss how they impact observations. Finally, we discuss how they could have been prevented and should be in future...

  2. Loads due to stray microwave radiation in ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oosterbeek, Johan W. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Udintsev, Victor S.; Gandini, Franco [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France); Hirsch, Matthias; Laqua, Heinrich P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Teilinstitut Greifswald, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Maassen, Nick [Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600 AZ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Ma, Yunxing; Polevoi, Alexei; Sirinelli, Antoine; Vayakis, George; Walsh, Mike J. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon-sur-Verdon, CS 90 046, 13067 St. Paul Lez Durance Cedex (France)

    2015-10-15

    High-power microwaves generated by gyrotrons will be extensively used in ITER for a variety of purposes such as assisting plasma breakdown, plasma heating, current drive, tearing mode suppression and as a probing beam for the Collective Thomson Scattering diagnostic. In a number of these schemes absorption of the microwaves by the plasma will not be full and in some cases there could be no absorption at all. This may result in a directed beam with a high microwave power flux or – depending on location and plasma conditions – an approximately isotropic microwave power field. The contribution of electron cyclotron emission to these power densities is briefly discussed. Exposure to in-vessel components leads to absorption by metals and ceramics. In this paper microwave power densities are estimated and, following a brief review of absorption, thermal loads on in-vessel components are assessed. The paper is concluded by a discussion of the current approach to control such loads.

  3. Barged/In-river steelhead migrant data - Evaluation of methods to reduce straying rates of barged juvenile steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of this study are to develop methods to reduce wandering and straying of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that are collected and barged from the Snake River...

  4. Laboratory data on Snake River steelhead - Evaluation of methods to reduce straying rates of barged juvenile steelhead

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goals of this study are to develop methods to reduce wandering and straying of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that are collected and barged from the Snake River...

  5. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stegemann, Robert, E-mail: Robert.Stegemann@bam.de [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko [HZB Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin, Hahn-Meitner-Platz 1, 14109 Berlin (Germany); Kreutzbruck, Marc [Bundesanstalt für Materialforschung und -prüfung (BAM), Unter den Eichen 87, 12200 Berlin (Germany); IKT, University of Stuttgart, Pfaffenwaldring 32, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth. - Highlights: • Comparison of magnetic microstructure with neutron diffraction stress analysis. • High spatial resolution magnetic stray field images of hypereutectoid TIG welds. • Spatial variations of the stray fields are below the magnetic field of the earth. • GMR spin valve gradiometer arrays adapted for the evaluation of magnetic microstructures. • Magnetic stray fields are closely linked to microstructure of the material.

  6. Searching for O-X-B mode-conversion window with monitoring of stray microwave radiation in LHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igami, H.; Kubo, S.; Laqua, H. P.; Nagasaki, K.; Inagaki, S.; Notake, T.; Shimozuma, T.; Yoshimura, Y.; Mutoh, T.; LHD Experimental Group

    2006-01-01

    In the Large Helical Device, the stray microwave radiation is monitored by using so-called sniffer probes during electron cyclotron heating. In monitoring the stray radiation, we changed the microwave beam injection angle and search the O-X-B mode-conversion window to excite electron Bernstein waves (EBWs). When the microwave beam is injected toward the vicinity of the predicted O-X-B mode-conversion window, the electron temperature rises in the central part of overdense plasmas. In that case, the stray radiation level near the injection antenna becomes low. These results indicate that monitoring the stray radiation near the injection antenna is helpful in confirming the effectiveness of excitation of EBWs simply without precise analysis

  7. A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites of stray cats in northern region of Nile delta, Egypt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda E Khalafalla

    Full Text Available A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%, Toxascaris leonina (5%, Dipylidium caninum (5%, Capillaria spp. (3%, Taenia taeniformis (22% and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%, four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%, Sarcocyst spp. (1%, Isospora spp. (2% and Giardia spp. (2% and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2% and mites eggs (13%. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region.

  8. Feline immunodeficiency virus testing in stray, feral, and client-owned cats of Ottawa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Susan E

    2005-10-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) seroprevalence is evaluated in 3 groups of cats. Seventy-four unowned urban strays were tested, as well as 20 cats from a small feral cat colony, and 152 client-owned cats. Of the 246 cats tested, 161 (65%) were male and 85 (35%) were female. Seroprevalence for FIV was 23% in the urban strays, 5% in the feral cat colony, and 5.9% in the client-owned cats. Ten cats (4%) were also positive for Feline leukemia virus (FeLV) antigen, including 2 cats coinfected with FeLV and FIV. Seroprevalence for FIV in cats from Ottawa is similar to that found in other nonrandom studies of cats in North America.

  9. A Survey Study on Gastrointestinal Parasites of Stray Cats in Northern Region of Nile Delta, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalafalla, Reda E.

    2011-01-01

    A survey study on gastrointestinal parasites in 113 faecal samples from stray cats collected randomly from Kafrelsheikh province, northern region of Nile delta of Egypt; was conducted in the period between January and May 2010. The overall prevalence was 91%. The results of this study reported seven helminth species: Toxocara cati (9%), Ancylostoma tubaeforme (4%), Toxascaris leonina (5%), Dipylidium caninum (5%), Capillaria spp. (3%), Taenia taeniformis (22%) and Heterophyes heterophyes (3%), four protozoal species: Toxoplasma gondii (9%), Sarcocyst spp. (1%), Isospora spp. (2%) and Giardia spp. (2%) and two arthropod species; Linguatula serrata (2%) and mites eggs (13%). The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites may continue to rise due to lack of functional veterinary clinics for cat care in Egypt. Therefore, there is a need to plan adequate control programs to diagnose, treat and control gastrointestinal parasites of companion as well as stray cats in the region. PMID:21760884

  10. Stray cats are more frequently infected with zoonotic protists than pet cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvac, Martin; Hofmannova, Lada; Ortega, Ynes; Holubova, Nikola; Horcickova, Michaela; Kicia, Marta; Hlaskova, Lenka; Kvetonova, Dana; Sak, Bohumil; McEvoy, John

    2017-12-06

    Faecal samples were collected from cats kept as pets (n = 120) and stray cats (n = 135) in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia) and screened for the presence of Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia intestinalis (Kunstler, 1882), Encephalitozoon spp. and Enterocytozoon bieneusi Desportes, Le Charpentier, Galian, Bernard, Cochand-Priollet, Lavergne, Ravisse et Modigliani, 1985 by PCR analysis of the small-subunit of rRNA (Cryptosporidium spp. and G. intestinalis) and ITS (microsporidia) genes. Sequence analysis of targeted genes revealed the presence of C. felis Iseki, 1979, G. intestinalis assemblage F, E. cuniculi Levaditi, Nicolau et Schoen, 1923 genotype II, and E. bieneusi genotype D. There was no correlation between the occurrence of detected parasites and sex, presence of diarrhoea or drug treatment (drug containing pyrantel and praziquantel). Compared to pet cats (7%), stray cats (30%) were statistically more frequently infected with protist parasites and overall may present a greater risk to human health.

  11. Investigations of prevalence of antibodies to B.canis in stray dogs in territory of Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radojičić Sonja

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers investigations of stray dogs in the territory of the city of Belgrade. A total of 184 blood serum samples were examined for the presence of antibodies specific to Brucella canis. The method of slow agglutination in a test tube with 2- mercaptoethanol was used in the diagnostic procedure. Of the 184 examined serums, 49 (26.63% had a titer of 1/50, 25 serums had a titer of 1/100 (13.58%, while 20 serums had a titer equal to or bigger than 1/200 (10.87%. Furthermore, 15 samples of full blood from serologiclly negative animals were also presented for isolation. The bacteriological finding for these samples was negative. The obtained results indicate that the number of seropositive stray dogs in the territory of Belgrade is extremely high and that 10.87% of the testes animals are definitely infected with Brucella canis.

  12. Gastrointestinal and ectoparasites from urban stray dogs in Fortaleza (Brazil): high infection risk for humans?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimpel, Sven; Heukelbach, Jörg; Pothmann, David; Rückert, Sonja

    2010-08-01

    Dogs are important definite or reservoir hosts for zoonotic parasites. However, only few studies on the prevalence of intestinal parasites in urban areas in Brazil are available. We performed a comprehensive study on parasites of stray dogs in a Brazilian metropolitan area. We included 46 stray dogs caught in the urban areas of Fortaleza (northeast Brazil). After euthanization, dogs were autopsied. Ectoparasites were collected, and the intestinal content of dogs were examined for the presence of parasites. Faecal samples were collected and analysed using merthiolate iodine formaldehyde concentration method. A total of nine different parasite species were found, including five endoparasite (one protozoan, one cestode and three nematode species) and four ectoparasite species (two flea, one louse and one tick species). In the intestinal content, 3,162 specimens of four helminth species were found: Ancylostoma caninum (prevalence, 95.7%), Dipylidium caninum (45.7%), Toxocara canis (8.7%) and Trichuris vulpis (4.3%). A total of 394 ectoparasite specimens were identified, including Rhipicephalus sanguineus (prevalence, 100.0%), Heterodoxus spiniger (67.4%), Ctenocephalides canis (39.1%) and Ctenocephalides felis (17.4%). In the faeces, intestinal parasites were detected in 38 stray dogs (82.6%), including oocysts of Giardia sp. (2.2%) and eggs of the nematode A. caninum (82.6%). Neither eggs nor larval stages of D. caninum, T. canis or T. vulpis were detected in dog faeces. Sensitivity of faecal examination for A. caninum was 86.4% (95% confidence interval, 72.0-94.3) but zero percentage for the other intestinal helminth species. Our data show that stray dogs in northeast Brazil carry a multitude of zoonotic ecto- and endoparasites, posing a considerable risk for humans. With the exception of A. caninum, sensitivity of faecal examination was negligible.

  13. Gastrointestinal Helminths and Ectoparasites in the Stray Cats (Felidae: Felis catus of Ahar Municipality, Northwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad YAKHCHALI

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The stray cats are considered as the sources of emerging humans and domestic livestock pathogens and the zoonoses of public health importance. The present study was aimed to elucidate intestinal helminth infections and infestation with ectoparasites of the stray cats of Ahar City, northwestern Iran.Methods: Totally, 51 stray cats were randomly trapped from different parts of the city between Mar and Nov 2013. The cats were assessed for ectoparasites by hair brushing, skin scraping, acetate tape preparation and othic swabs. They were euthanized and inspected for helminths infection.Results: Overall prevalence of helminths and flea were 44/51 (86.3% and 31/51 (60.78%, respectively. The infection rates were significantly different among different age groups (P<0.05. Of the 282 isolated helminths, three species of nematodes (Toxocara cati (86.3%, T. leonina (11.77%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme (5.9% and four species of cestodes (Taenia taeniaeformis (64.7%, Mesocestoides lineatus (49.02%, Dipylidium caninum (29.41%, T. hydatigena (19.6% were identified. The predominant infectious helminths in all the infected cats were T. cati (86.3% with egg per gram of feces 27.75±9. Of the 270 collected fleas, two species of Ctenocephalides felis (80% and C. canis (20% were notably frequent in the cats aged 2-3-year-old. The average number of fleas per each infected cat was recorded as 5.29, with no incidence of cross-infection.Conclusion: The results indicated the high rate of helminths infections and flea infestation in the urban stray cats of which Toxocara cati and Ctenocephalides felis may play important roles as zoonotic agents in the region.

  14. Monitoring millimeter wave stray radiation during ECRH operation at ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, M.; Honecker, F.; Monaco, F.; Schmid-Lorch, D.; Schütz, H.; Stober, J.; Wagner, D.

    2012-09-01

    Due to imperfection of the single path absorption, ECRH at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) is always accompanied by stray radiation in the vacuum vessel. New ECRH scenarios with O2 and X3 heating schemes extend the operational space, but they have also the potential to increase the level of stray radiation. There are hazards for invessel components. Damage on electric cables has already been encountered. It is therefore necessary to monitor and control the ECRH with respect to the stray radiation level. At AUG a system of Sniffer antennas equipped with microwave detection diodes is installed. The system is part of the ECRH interlock circuit. We notice, however, that during plasma operation the variations of the Sniffer antenna signal are very large. In laboratory measurements we see variations of up to 20 dB in the directional sensitivity and we conclude that an interference pattern is formed inside the copper sphere of the antenna. When ECRH is in plasma operation at AUG, the plasma is acting as a phase and mode mixer for the millimeter waves and thus the interference pattern inside the sphere changes with the characteristic time of the plasma dynamics. In order to overcome the difficulty of a calibrated measurement of the average stray radiation level, we installed bolometer and pyroelectric detectors, which intrinsically average over interference structures due to their large active area. The bolometer provides a robust calibration but with moderate temporal resolution. The pyroelectric detector provides high sensitivity and a good temporal resolution, but it raises issues of possible signal drifts in long pulses.

  15. Monitoring millimeter wave stray radiation during ECRH operation at ASDEX Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner D.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to imperfection of the single path absorption, ECRH at ASDEX Upgrade (AUG is always accompanied by stray radiation in the vacuum vessel. New ECRH scenarios with O2 and X3 heating schemes extend the operational space, but they have also the potential to increase the level of stray radiation. There are hazards for invessel components. Damage on electric cables has already been encountered. It is therefore necessary to monitor and control the ECRH with respect to the stray radiation level. At AUG a system of Sniffer antennas equipped with microwave detection diodes is installed. The system is part of the ECRH interlock circuit. We notice, however, that during plasma operation the variations of the Sniffer antenna signal are very large. In laboratory measurements we see variations of up to 20 dB in the directional sensitivity and we conclude that an interference pattern is formed inside the copper sphere of the antenna. When ECRH is in plasma operation at AUG, the plasma is acting as a phase and mode mixer for the millimeter waves and thus the interference pattern inside the sphere changes with the characteristic time of the plasma dynamics. In order to overcome the difficulty of a calibrated measurement of the average stray radiation level, we installed bolometer and pyroelectric detectors, which intrinsically average over interference structures due to their large active area. The bolometer provides a robust calibration but with moderate temporal resolution. The pyroelectric detector provides high sensitivity and a good temporal resolution, but it raises issues of possible signal drifts in long pulses.

  16. Generation of strong inhomogeneous stray fields by high-anisotropy permanent magnets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samofalov, V.N. [National Technical University Kharkov Polytechnical Institute, 21 Frunze St., 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine)]. E-mail: samofalov@kpi.kharkov.ua; Ravlik, A.G. [National Technical University Kharkov Polytechnical Institute, 21 Frunze St., 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine); Belozorov, D.P. [National Scientific Center Kharkov Institute of Physics and Techonology, NAS of Ukraine, 1 Akademicheskaja St., 61108 Kharkov (Ukraine); Avramenko, B.A. [National Technical University Kharkov Polytechnical Institute, 21 Frunze St., 61002 Kharkov (Ukraine)

    2004-10-01

    Magnetic stray fields for systems of permanent magnets with high magnetic anisotropy are calculated and measured. It is shown that intensity of these fields exceeds value of an induction of a material of magnets in some time. Besides, these fields are characterized by high gradients, and size H-bar H can reach values up to10{sup 10}-10{sup 11}Oe{sup 2}/cm. Estimations of extremely achievable fields and their gradients are made.

  17. Decoding of digital magnetic recording with longitudinal magnetization of a tape from a magneto-optical image of stray fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisovskii, F. V.; Mansvetova, E. G.

    2017-05-01

    For digital magnetic recording of encoded information with longitudinal magnetization of the tape, the connection between the domain structure of a storage medium and magneto-optical image of its stray fields obtained using a magnetic film with a perpendicular anisotropy and a large Faraday rotation has been studied. For two-frequency binary code without returning to zero, an algorithm is developed, that allows uniquely decoding of the information recorded on the tape based on analysis of an image of stray fields.

  18. A PARASITOLOGIC AND MOLECULAR SURVEY OF HEPATOZOON CANIS INFECTION IN STRAY DOGS IN NORTHEAST OF IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barati, Ali; Razmi, Gholamreza

    2018-05-15

    Canine hepatozoonosis, caused by H. canis, is a tick-borne disease in domestic and wild dogs that is transmitted by ingestion of Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. The aim of the study was to detect H. canis in stray dogs in Iran using blood smear examination and molecular techniques. From October 2014 to September 2015, 150 EDTA blood samples were collected from stray dogs in the northeast region of Iran. Blood smears were microscopically examined for the presence of Hepatozoon gamonts; whole blood was evaluated by PCR, with subsequent sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. Hepatozoon spp. Gamonts were observed in the neutrophils of 5/150 (3.3%) blood smears, whereas Hepatozoon spp. 18S rDNA was detected in 12/150 (8.0%) blood samples from stray dogs. There was a good agreement between microscopy and PCR methods. (Kappa= 0.756). The highest rate of infection was seasonally detected in the summer (pHepatozoon spp infection was not significant by gender and age factors (p>0.05). The alignment analysis of the sequenced samples showed ≥99% similarity with other nucleotide sequences of Hepatozoon spp. in GenBank. The phylogenetic tree also revealed that the nucleotide sequences in this study were clustered in the H. canis clade and different from the H. felis and H. americanum clades. According to the results, it is concluded that H. canis infection is present among dogs in northeastern region of Iran.

  19. An epidemiological survey on intestinal helminths of stray dogs in Mashhad, North-east of Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamapour, Seyed Rasoul; Borji, Hassan; Nagibi, Abolghasem

    2015-06-01

    This research was conducted to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths in stray dogs in the northeast of Iran, with special attention to those parasites that can be transmitted to human. In this experiment, a total of 72 adult and 18 juvenile stray dogs were collected and necropsied for the presence of helminth parasites from October 2011 to August 2012. The overall prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths was 86 % (95 % CI: 79.2-92.8 %). The observed helminths of the gastrointestinal tract were listed as follows: Toxocara canis (29 %), Toxascaris leonina (7 %), Ancylostoma caninum (2 %), Taenia hydatigena (43 %), Dipylidium caninum (39 %), Echinococcus granulosus (38 %), Mesocestoides lineatus (16 %), Taenia multiceps (11 %), Taenia ovis (3 %). There were no significant differences for the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths between female (83.6 %) and male (89.7 %) and between young (89 %) and adult (72.2 %) animals. However, the prevalence of E. granulosus, T. hydatigena and D. caninum showed an increasing trend with increasing host age, significantly. Based on our data, it is important to point out the presence of zoonotic agents, namely E. granulosus and T. canis in stray dogs in the investigated area. Due to its impact on public health, appropriate control measures should be taken and it is recommended to determine the most appropriate preventive methods.

  20. THE SOCIETY’S PERCEPTION OF THE LIFE QUALITY AND POPULATION CONTROL OF STRAY DOGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Fernando Batista Moutinho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In most Brazilian municipalities there is an overpopulation of stray dogs, which causes problems to the urban order, the environment and the public health, in addition to mistreatment to these dogs. In such context we foresee the need of developing actions targeting the population control of these animals. This essay aims at knowing the perception of social actors, such as managers of entities responsible for control actions, managers of NGOs working with animal protection and population in general with respect to the life quality and population control of stray dogs. Questionnaires were used on samples of individuals of these three groups and the data thereof were analyzed with descriptive statistics techniques and frequency comparison. The results allowed us to conclude that the society’s perception of population control and life quality of these animals bear important differences under the viewpoint of the three evaluated groups; however, they also bear significant similarities, especially with respect to the perception of the responsibility for the development of population control actions, the acceptance of using public funds intended to public health in control actions, the classification of such population density as large and the poor life quality of these animals. population control, social perception, stray dog.,

  1. Stray animal populations and public health in the South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristarhos Seimenis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Uncontrolled urban growth in South Mediterranean and the Middle East regions involves city dwellers and stray animals (mainly dogs and cats creating a dense and downgraded environment, in which irregular street garbage collection disposes sufficient food for survival and proliferation of stray animals. Under such conditions serious public health hazards are expected due to the increase of animal bites, the multiplication of insects and rodents vectors of different viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic agents to which humans are exposed. Traditional national stray animal eradication programs and occasional small animals' humane elimination campaigns are insufficient to avert human and veterinary health risks when not coupled with modern technologies. In such environments, multiple foci of emerging and re‑emerging zoonoses easily spread, i.e. rabies, hydatidosis, leishmaniasis and toxoplasmosis. Upgrading urban and peri-urban situations requires integrated/coordinated management programmes, in which public and animal health services as well as municipalities have a crucial role. Control and upgrading programmes should be flexible and able to adapt to the specific conditions of the given country/region. In this context, intersectoral/interprofessional collaborations and community participation are crucial for any national and regional development strategies. In this respect, a global approach considering both public health and socio-economic problems shows to be extremely adequate and effective.

  2. Problems Associated with the Microchip Data of Stray Dogs and Cats Entering RSPCA Queensland Shelters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Lancaster

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A lack of published information documenting problems with the microchip data for the reclaiming of stray animals entering Australian shelters limits improvement of the current microchipping system. A retrospective study analysing admission data for stray, adult dogs (n = 7258 and cats (n = 6950 entering the Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA Queensland between January 2012 and December 2013 was undertaken to determine the character and frequency of microchip data problems and their impact on outcome for the animal. Only 28% of dogs and 9% of cats were microchipped, and a substantial proportion (37% had problems with their data, including being registered to a previous owner or organisation (47%, all phone numbers incorrect/disconnected (29%, and the microchip not registered (14%. A higher proportion of owners could be contacted when the microchip had no problems, compared to those with problems (dogs, 93% vs. 70%; cats, 75% vs. 41%. The proportion of animals reclaimed declined significantly between microchipped animals with no data problems, microchipped animals with data problems and non-microchipped animals—87%, 69%, and 37%, respectively, for dogs and 61%, 33%, and 5%, respectively, for cats. Strategies are needed to increase the accuracy of microchip data to facilitate the reclaiming of stray dogs and cats.

  3. IMPLEMENTASI MODEL PEMBELAJARAN TWO STAY TWO STRAY DALAM PEMBELAJARAN BERBASIS KEMAMPUAN BERPIKIR KRITIS KELAS V SD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yusuf Setia Wardana

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Benefits of mathematics are to equip students with the ability to think logically, analytical, systematically, critically, and creatively, as well as the ability to cooperate. Based on observations in elementary school, there are 40% of students have not reached KKM and students have lack of critical abilities to understand math problems, and they have low activity of the study. One of models that can be applied is Two Stay Two Stray. The study used True Experimental Design with Posttest-Only Control Design. The population in this study was all fifth grade students of SD Negeri Semarang Rejosari 03. Data of critical thinking skills of the students in average on test of critical thinking skills mastery was 3.31 ≥ 2.67, it can be said to have a complete description. The conclusion is a model of Two Stay Two Stray being effective for critical thinking skills and mathematics learning outcomes of fifth grade students in SD Negeri Rejosari 03 Semarang. Keywords: two stay two stray model, critical thinking ability.

  4. Suppressed Belief

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarine Romdenh-Romluc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Moran’s revised conception of conscious belief requires us to reconceptualise suppressed belief. The work of Merleau-Ponty offers a way to do this. His account of motor-skills allows us to understand suppressed beliefs as pre-reflective ways of dealing with the world.

  5. Out of the Lab and into the Bathroom: Evening Short-Term Exposure to Conventional Light Suppresses Melatonin and Increases Alertness Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Schoepp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Life in 24-h society relies on the use of artificial light at night that might disrupt synchronization of the endogenous circadian timing system to the solar day. This could have a negative impact on sleep–wake patterns and psychiatric symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of evening light emitted by domestic and work place lamps in a naturalistic setting on melatonin levels and alertness in humans. Healthy subjects (6 male, 3 female, 22–33 years were exposed to constant dim light (<10 lx for six evenings from 7:00 p.m. to midnight. On evenings 2 through 6, 1 h before habitual bedtime, they were also exposed to light emitted by 5 different conventional lamps for 30 min. Exposure to yellow light did not alter the increase of melatonin in saliva compared to dim light baseline during (38 ± 27 pg/mL vs. 39 ± 23 pg/mL and after light exposure (39 ± 22 pg/mL vs. 44 ± 26 pg/mL. In contrast, lighting conditions including blue components reduced melatonin increase significantly both during (office daylight white: 25 ± 16 pg/mL, bathroom daylight white: 24 ± 10 pg/mL, Planon warm white: 26 ± 14 pg/mL, hall daylight white: 22 ± 14 pg/mL and after light exposure (office daylight white: 25 ± 15 pg/mL, bathroom daylight white: 23 ± 9 pg/mL, Planon warm white: 24 ± 13 pg/mL, hall daylight white: 22 ± 26 pg/mL. Subjective alertness was significantly increased after exposure to three of the lighting conditions which included blue spectral components in their spectra. Evening exposure to conventional lamps in an everyday setting influences melatonin excretion and alertness perception within 30 min.

  6. Light induces translocation of NF-κB p65 to the mitochondria and suppresses expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III) in the rat retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomita, Hiroshi, E-mail: htomita@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Soft-Path Engineering Research Center (SPERC), Faculty of Science and Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan); Clinical Research, Innovation and Education Center, Tohoku University Hospital, 1-1 Seiryo, Aoba, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8574 (Japan); Tabata, Kitako, E-mail: ktabata@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Takahashi, Maki, E-mail: mqdelta@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Nishiyama, Fumiaki, E-mail: t2114018@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Sugano, Eriko, E-mail: sseriko@iwate-u.ac.jp [Laboratory of Visual Neuroscience, Graduate Course in Biological Sciences, Iwate University Division of Science and Engineering, 4-3-5 Ueda, Morioka, Iwate 020-8551 (Japan); Soft-Path Engineering Research Center (SPERC), Faculty of Science and Engineering, Iwate University, Morioka 020-8551 (Japan)

    2016-05-13

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) plays various roles in cell survival, apoptosis, and inflammation. In the rat retina, NF-κB activity increases after exposure to damaging light, resulting in degeneration of photoreceptors. Here, we report that in dark-adapted rats exposed for 6 h to bright white light, the p65 subunit of retinal NF-κB translocates to the mitochondria, an event associated with a decrease in expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III). However, sustained exposure for 12 h depleted p65 from the mitochondria, and enhanced COX III expression. Treatment with the protective antioxidant PBN prior to light exposure prevents p65 depletion in the mitochondria and COX III upregulation during prolonged exposure, and apoptosis in photoreceptor cells. These results indicate that COX III expression is sensitive to the abundance of NF-κB p65 in the mitochondria, which, in turn, is affected by exposure to damaging light. - Highlights: • Damaging light exposure of the retina induces NF-κB p65 mitochondrial translocation. • NF-κB p65 mitochondrial translocation is associated with the decrease of COX III expression. • Prolonged light exposure depletes mitochondrial p65 resulting in the increase in COX III expression. • NF-κB p65 and COX III expression play an important role in the light-induced photoreceptor degeneration.

  7. Light induces translocation of NF-κB p65 to the mitochondria and suppresses expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III) in the rat retina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Hiroshi; Tabata, Kitako; Takahashi, Maki; Nishiyama, Fumiaki; Sugano, Eriko

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor nuclear factor kappaB (NF-κB) plays various roles in cell survival, apoptosis, and inflammation. In the rat retina, NF-κB activity increases after exposure to damaging light, resulting in degeneration of photoreceptors. Here, we report that in dark-adapted rats exposed for 6 h to bright white light, the p65 subunit of retinal NF-κB translocates to the mitochondria, an event associated with a decrease in expression of cytochrome c oxidase subunit III (COX III). However, sustained exposure for 12 h depleted p65 from the mitochondria, and enhanced COX III expression. Treatment with the protective antioxidant PBN prior to light exposure prevents p65 depletion in the mitochondria and COX III upregulation during prolonged exposure, and apoptosis in photoreceptor cells. These results indicate that COX III expression is sensitive to the abundance of NF-κB p65 in the mitochondria, which, in turn, is affected by exposure to damaging light. - Highlights: • Damaging light exposure of the retina induces NF-κB p65 mitochondrial translocation. • NF-κB p65 mitochondrial translocation is associated with the decrease of COX III expression. • Prolonged light exposure depletes mitochondrial p65 resulting in the increase in COX III expression. • NF-κB p65 and COX III expression play an important role in the light-induced photoreceptor degeneration.

  8. Shielding of the NBI boxes against W7-X magnetic stray fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kick, Manfred [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)], E-mail: Kick@arcor.de; Sielanko, Juliusz [Maria Curie Sklodowska University, Pl. M. C. Sklodowskie 1, 20-031 Lublin (Poland); Heinemann, Bernd; Riedl, Rudolf; Speth, Eckehart; Staebler, Albrecht [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Boltzmannstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2009-06-15

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), besides ECRH, is foreseen as one of the main heating devices at the W7-X stellarator currently under construction at IPP Greifswald, Germany. In a final stage 20 MW of NBI heating power will be installed generated by two NBI boxes of the ASDEX Upgrade (AUG) type. Since magnetic fields generally affect the trajectories of charged particles, essentially all the NBI boxes - including ion sources, acceleration sections, neutralisers and deflection magnets - must be shielded against the stray fields of W7-X. In the magnetic stray fields of W7-X there exist significant radial and toroidal components whereas at tokamaks the vertical components are dominant. The power loads on the ion dump and the protecting structures of the deflecting magnets and the beam lines caused by residual beam ions, therefore, will be strongly different. Thus the shielding concept of AUG cannot simply be taken over, but must be carefully redesigned in order to remain below the critical power limits. New modelling calculations of the magnetic shielding, the ion trajectories and the resulting power loads have been carried out for the 'high iota' and 'low shear' experimental scenarios of W7-X. The fields taken for these calculations are modelled by averaging the calculated W7-X stray fields on the one hand, and by fields generated by two-hypothetical-planar coils perpendicular to the x-y plane, on the other hand. The shielding concept for W7-X mainly consist of iron plates in the outer side regions of the boxes and as little magnetic material as possible inside the boxes.

  9. It’s a Dog’s Life: International Tourists’ Perceptions of the Stray Dog Population of Bhutan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul C Strickland

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the international tourists’ perception of the stray dog population of Bhutan as little or no mention of the increasing stray dog population and their impact on tourism has been documented. After personally visiting the Kingdom on many occasions, it is evident that the stray dog population is increasing in dog numbers in major cities. The problems arising are negative comments by tourists relating to the stray dog population that are starting to appear in social media that may impact the visitor experience and the perception of Bhutan’s tourism industry. Veterinary science is aware of both increasing dog populations and the control of diseases such as Rabies however the author can find no evidence regarding challenges for the tourism industry. The problem is aided by no local veterinary clinics, no laws regarding dog governance, little funding for sterilization programs and being predominately a Buddhist country that cannot ‘cull’ animals. Using qualitative analysis from international tourist focus groups who were visiting Bhutan, this study highlights the perceptions of tourists regarding the stray dog population and how it may impact on visitor expectations. The paper suggests options that local government, Bhutanese nationals and visitors can do to assist the issue based on visitor feedback. Future research may include comparisons with other cities or countries to examine if it is a global issue or unique to Bhutan.

  10. Identification of Zoonotic Parasites isolated from Stray Dogs in Bojnurd County Located in North-East of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourosh Arzamani

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Dog can represent as an important source of zoonotic disease and important health problem for human. They can carry dangerous parasitic diseases such as hydatidosis, toxocariasis and Coenurus cerebralis to humans and animals. This study was performed in order to determine the prevalence and intensity of zoonotic parasites among stray dogs from Bojnurd, the capital city of North Khorasan province in North West of Iran. During a program performing by Bojnurd municipal on the slow killing of stray dogs, 32 dogs from Jun 2013 till March 2015 were selected. At necropsy their alimentary canals were removed and to identify the species of helminthes, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid. Intestinal protozoan parasites were detected with parasitological methods. 28 (87.5% of 32 stray dogs infected at least with one helminth. Seven species of cestodes were isolated from examined dogs and three species of nematode were detected. Giardia sp. and Cryptosporidium sp. detected from fecal samples. This is the first study of the prevalence of intestinal zoonotic parasites in dogs in this area. It seems control of bearing stray dogs can help human health and reduction economic losses caused by stray dog’s zoonotic parasites.

  11. PCR-based molecular characterization of Toxocara spp. using feces of stray cats: a study from Southwest Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Rahim, Fakher; Tavalla, Mahdi; Abdizadeh, Rahman; Hashemitabar, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Feces of stray cat are potential sources of gastrointestinal parasites and play a crucial role in spreading and transmitting parasite eggs, larvae, and oocysts through contamination of soil, food, or water. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection in stray cats in Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. Eggs of Toxocara spp. in feces of stray cats were detected by the sucrose flotation method, and identification was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and DNA sequencing. Of the 140 fecal samples that were randomly collected from public environments during the months of January to May 2012, 45% were found to harbour Toxocara spp. eggs. The highest prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs was found in the central area of Ahvaz city (28.6%). T. canis eggs were found in 4 (6.34%) of the 63 positive samples. Stray cats are found in parks, playgrounds, and other public places and may be a potential contamination risk. Identification of Toxocara spp. using molecular methods is sufficiently sensitive to detect low levels of parasites and identify the different Toxocara spp. in feces. The relatively high prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection may continue to increase due to lack of effective environmental hygiene control in Iran. Consequently, there is a need to plan adequate programs to detect, identify, and control this infection as well as stray cats in the region.

  12. PCR-based molecular characterization of Toxocara spp. using feces of stray cats: a study from Southwest Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahram Khademvatan

    Full Text Available Feces of stray cat are potential sources of gastrointestinal parasites and play a crucial role in spreading and transmitting parasite eggs, larvae, and oocysts through contamination of soil, food, or water. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection in stray cats in Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. Eggs of Toxocara spp. in feces of stray cats were detected by the sucrose flotation method, and identification was conducted by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and DNA sequencing. Of the 140 fecal samples that were randomly collected from public environments during the months of January to May 2012, 45% were found to harbour Toxocara spp. eggs. The highest prevalence of Toxocara spp. eggs was found in the central area of Ahvaz city (28.6%. T. canis eggs were found in 4 (6.34% of the 63 positive samples. Stray cats are found in parks, playgrounds, and other public places and may be a potential contamination risk. Identification of Toxocara spp. using molecular methods is sufficiently sensitive to detect low levels of parasites and identify the different Toxocara spp. in feces. The relatively high prevalence of Toxocara spp. infection may continue to increase due to lack of effective environmental hygiene control in Iran. Consequently, there is a need to plan adequate programs to detect, identify, and control this infection as well as stray cats in the region.

  13. Induced radioactivity of materials by stray radiation fields at an electron accelerator

    CERN Document Server

    Rokni, S H; Gwise, T; Liu, J C; Roesler, S

    2002-01-01

    Samples of soil, water, aluminum, copper and iron were irradiated in the stray radiation field generated by the interaction of a 28.5 GeV electron beam in a copper-dump in the Beam Dump East facility at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. The specific activity induced in the samples was measured by gamma spectroscopy and other techniques. In addition, the isotope production in the samples was calculated with detailed Monte Carlo simulations using the FLUKA code. The calculated activities are compared to the experimental values and differences are discussed.

  14. Some observations on stray magnetic fields and power outputs from short-wave diathermy equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, R.W.M.; Dunscombe, P.B.

    1984-04-01

    Recent years have seen increasing interest in the possible hazards arising from the use of nonionizing electromagnetic radiation. Relatively large and potentially hazardous fields are to be found in the vicinity of short-wave and microwave equipment used in physiotherapy departments to produce therapeutic temperature rises. This note reports the results of measurements of the stray magnetic field and power output of a conventional short-wave diathermy unit when applied to tissue-equivalent phantoms. The dependence of these quantities on the variables, i.e. power setting of the unit, capacitor plate size, phantom size and phantom-capacitor plate separation, are discussed.

  15. A report on the alimentary canal helminthic infestation of stray and pet dogs in Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y Gharedaghi

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available From September to December 2007, fecal specimens of 100 stray and pet dogs in Tabriz were examined by saturated salt flotation and Telmann sedimentation methods to determine the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminth infestation. Helminth infestation was encountered in 31 (31% of the fecal samples examined. The eggs of two different cestodes and three different nematodes were identified in the contaminated fecal samples. The helminth eggs found were identified as Taenia hydatigena (4%, Dipylidium caninum (6%, Toxocara canis (10%, Ancylostoma caninum (6% and Trichuris vulpis (5%. No trematoda eggs and nematode larvae were found in this study.

  16. Humoral immune response to Dipylidium caninum infection of stray dogs in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J W; Liao, W T

    2002-04-02

    Two kinds of homogeneous proglottid, mature and gravid, of Dipylidium caninum were used as the antigens for immunodiagnosis of canine dipylidiosis in stray dogs in Tainan, Taiwan. The ELISA was performed on 30 serum samples; 24 from dipylidiosis, four from ancylostomosis and two from toxocariosis. The ELISA have specificity and sensitive of 100 and 50% for mature proglottid extract, and 75 and 100%, respectively, for gravid proglottid extract. EITB technique showed two major peptide bands of 94.8 and 97.9kDa were recognized in the sera pool of infected dogs.

  17. A Choice Experiment Analysis of the Management of the Stray Dog Population in the UK.

    OpenAIRE

    Siettou, Christina; Fraser, Iain; Fraser, Rob

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the results of a pilot study investigating the public’s view on the pet overpopulation problem. The Choice Experiment aims to understand the UK public’s awareness of the issue, its views and its willingness to participate and pay for a reduction in the rate of animals being “put to sleep”. Our preliminary results indicate that the public are willing to pay to keep healthy stray dogs alive for longer in Local Authority kennels beyond the current seven day statutory per...

  18. Pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Beijing strain infection in a stray dog : clinical communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.D.C. Parsons

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in dogs is rarely reported and has not previously been documented in South Africa. A case of a stray Maltese crossbreed dog with extensive multifocal pulmonary tuberculosis due to M. tuberculosis is described. Pulmonary granulomas in this case were poorly encapsulated and contained large numbers of acid-fast bacteria, highlighting the potential for infected companion animals to excrete the pathogen. Treatment of canine tuberculosis is generally not advised, and for this reason, euthanasia of diseased animals must be advocated in most instances. Physicians and veterinarians must be aware that companion animals with active disease caused by M. tuberculosis could act as a potential source of infection.

  19. Interocular suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Ana Rita; Almeida Neves Carrega, Filipa; Nunes, Amélia Fernandes

    2017-08-01

    The objective of this work is to quantify the suppressive imbalance, based on the manipulation of ocular luminance, between a group of subjects with normal binocular vision and a group of subjects with amblyopia. The result reveals that there are statistically significant differences in interocular dominance between two groups, evidencing a greater suppressive imbalance in amblyopic subjects. The technique used, proved to be a simple, easy to apply and economic method, for quantified ocular dominance. It is presented as a technique with the potential to accompany subjects with a marked dominance in one of the eyes that makes fusion difficult.

  20. Molecular detection of blood pathogens and their impacts on levels of packed cell volume in stray dogs from Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawadee Piratae

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the prevalence of blood parasite infection in stray dogs by PCR technique and the association between levels of packed cell volume (PCV and blood parasitic infection in stray dogs. Methods: A total of 65 blood samples were collected from stray dogs in animal quarantine station from Mahasarakham, Thailand to evaluate the levels of PCV before molecular screening for tick-borne pathogens infection. Results: Stray dogs were positive with one or more pathogens in 44 (67.69% out of 65 blood samples. Ehrlichia canis [43.1%, 95% confidence interval (CI: 38.1–48.1] was the most common blood pathogen found infecting in stray dogs in Mahasarakham Province, followed by Anaplasma platys (29.2%, 95% CI: 24.2–34.2, Hepatozoon canis (12.3%, 95% CI: 7.3–17.3 and Babesia canis vogeli (6.2%, 95% CI: 1.2–11.2, respectively. Moreover, co-infections with two pathogens were identified in 11 (16.9% of dogs examined and two (2.9% dogs were coinfections with three pathogens. Statistically significant relationship between the PCV levels and Ehrlichia canis infection was found (P < 0.05. Conclusions: This study indicated that blood pathogens are spreading in stray dogs and they are potentially high risk of agent transmission to human via exposure with tick vectors. It was also the first report of Anaplasma platys infection in dogs in north-eastern part of Thailand.

  1. Detection of Helminth Eggs and Identification of Hookworm Species in Stray Cats, Dogs and Soil from Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandee Tun

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin-ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%-79.9%, in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%, Toxocara (11.1%, Trichuris (8.4%, Spirometra (7.4% and Ascaris (2.4%. The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p < 0.001. Only three genera of helminths were detected in soil samples with the prevalence of 23% (95% CI = 15.1%-31%, consisting of hookworms (16.6%, Ascaris (4% and Toxocara (2.4%. The molecular identification of hookworm species revealed that Ancylostoma ceylanicum was dominant in both faecal and soil samples. The dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections.

  2. Detection of Helminth Eggs and Identification of Hookworm Species in Stray Cats, Dogs and Soil from Klang Valley, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tun, Sandee; Ithoi, Init; Mahmud, Rohela; Samsudin, Nur Izyan; Kek Heng, Chua; Ling, Lau Yee

    2015-01-01

    The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of helminth eggs excreted in the faeces of stray cats, dogs and in soil samples. A total of 505 fresh samples of faeces (from 227 dogs and 152 cats) and soil were collected. The egg stage was detected via microscopy after the application of formalin-ether concentration technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from the samples containing hookworm eggs and used for further identification to the species level using real-time polymerase chain reaction coupled with high resolution melting analysis. Microscopic observation showed that the overall prevalence of helminth eggs among stray cats and dogs was 75.7% (95% CI = 71.2%-79.9%), in which 87.7% of dogs and 57.9% of cats were infected with at least one parasite genus. Five genera of heliminth eggs were detected in the faecal samples, including hookworms (46.4%), Toxocara (11.1%), Trichuris (8.4%), Spirometra (7.4%) and Ascaris (2.4%). The prevalence of helminth infections among stray dogs was significantly higher than that among stray cats (p dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum, was also detected among cats, which is the first such occurrence reported in Malaysia till date. This finding indicated that there was a cross-infection of A. caninum between stray cats and dogs because of their coexistent within human communities. Taken together, these data suggest the potential role of stray cats and dogs as being the main sources of environmental contamination as well as for human infections.

  3. Antibody Detection to Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV in stray cats in Ahvaz, southwestern Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosallanejad, B.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was performed to determine the prevalence of FIV in stray cat's population of Ahvaz different area. Serum samples were collected from 90 cats from 2005 to 2007. The studied cats were divided into two age groups (3 years and based on clinical signs (such as lymphadenopathy, periodontal diseases, gingivitis, abscess and cashecsi into two groups also. The results were analyzed using Fischer's exact test and Chi-square analysis. Prevalence to FIV antibodies in these cats was 15.55% (14 of 90 by means of ELISA Test Kit, indicating that this virus is present in the ecosystem. The infection had more prevalence in cats above 3 years (78.6%; 11 of 14 compared with cats less than 3 years (21.4%; 3 of 14. Statistical analysis showed significant difference between different age groups (P0.05. Three out of 12 cases (25% which had clinical signs and 11 out of 78 cases (14.1% which hadn’t clinical signs were seropositive. There was no significant difference between the two groups also (P>0.05. This study showed that FIV exist among cat's population of Ahvaz area and separation of companion and stray cats is very important for prevention of disease transmission to companion cats.

  4. A survey of ectoparasite infestations in stray dogs of Gwang-ju City, Republic of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Jeong Hyun; Kwon, Jung Kee; Cho, Ho Seong; Cho, Kyoung Oh; Lee, Yu Jin; Abd El-Aty, A M; Abdel-Aty, A M; Shin, Sung Shik

    2008-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the incidence of ectoparasite infestation among stray dogs in Gwang-ju City, Republic of Korea. A total of 103 stray dogs collected in the Animal Shelter of Gwang-ju City from November 2003 to August 2005 were investigated in this study. Ectoparasites of one or more genera were detected in 45.6% (47 / 103) of the dogs examined for dermatologic lesions and/or skin scrapings (from 3-5 affected areas). Otodectes cynotis was found to be the most frequent parasite (22.3%, 23 / 103), followed by Sarcoptes scabiei var canis (19.4%, 20 / 103), Ctenocephalides canis (6.8%, 7 / 103), Demodex canis (4.9%, 5 / 103), and Trichodectes canis (1.0%, 1 / 103). Monospecific infestation was found in 83.0% (39 / 47) of the affected dogs, whereas concurrent infestations with 2 or more ectoparasites per animal were found in 17.0% (8 / 47) of the affected dogs. Trichodectes canis is reported for the first time in the Republic of Korea. Dogs less than 1 yr old were more heavily infected than other age groups (66.7%), and small-sized dogs of less than 3 kg body weight were more heavily infected than larger dogs (41.7%).

  5. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

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    A Eslami

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Sem­nan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production.Methods: During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid.Results: Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80% harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80% followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%, Toxocara canis (22%, Mesocestoides lineatus (12%, Taenia multiceps (10% and Dipylidium caninum (4%. The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1-3 ex­cept for that of E. granulosus (645. No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001 as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001.Conclusion: Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths re­ported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes.

  6. Helminth Infections of Stray Dogs from Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, A; Ranjbar-Bahadori, Sh; Meshgi, B; Dehghan, M; Bokaie, S

    2010-01-01

    Background The aim was to study the gastro-intestinal helminths of stray dogs of Garmsar, Semnan Province, Central Iran, and its impacts on human health and animal production. Methods During 2006, the alimentary tracts of 50 stray dogs at necropsy, selected from villages around Garmsar, were removed, and examined for helminth infections. Subsequently helminths were collected from the contents of each part and scraped sample of small intestines of washed materials in a 100-mesh sieve. To identify the species of helminths, the nematodes were cleared in lactophenol and cestodes were stained using carmine acid. Results Mixed infection was the rule and 40 dogs (80%) harbored more than one species of helminth. Taenia hydatigena was the most prevalent species (80%) followed by Echinococcus granulosus (64%), Toxocara canis (22%), Mesocestoides lineatus (12%), Taenia multiceps (10%) and Dipylidium caninum (4%). The mean intensity of worm infection was low (1–3) except for that of E. granulosus (645). No significant difference was noticed between sex, age and most helminth infections except for that of sex and T. hydatigena (P=0.001) as well as age and T. canis (P=0.001). Conclusion Although human infection with T. hydatigena is unlikely, but other helminths reported in this study are of zoonotic importance, and may pose a threat to community health, and reduce the productions of ruminants harboring taeniid metacestodes. PMID:22347264

  7. Community perception regarding rabies prevention and stray dog control in urban slums in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Mrudu; Riyaz Basha, S; Thangaraj, Selvi

    2012-12-01

    The lack of community awareness about rabies control is a major issue that thwarts efforts to prevent human deaths caused by rabies. The objectives of this study were (1) to assess community knowledge and attitudes about rabies, rabies prevention and stray dog control in an urban slum community and (2) to determine the factors that influence rabies awareness in urban slums. Using a systematic random sampling strategy, 185 participants were selected from 8 urban slums. The data were collected by direct interview using a pre-tested, structured questionnaire. In the study population, 74.1% of the participants had heard about rabies, and 54.1% knew that rabies is a fatal disease. Only 33.5% of the interviewees felt that people in the community had a role to play in controlling the stray dog population. Gender, age and educational status were significantly associated with rabies awareness. Our study indicates that there are gaps in the knowledge and attitudes of individuals living in urban slums regarding rabies prevention and control. Efforts to promote awareness should be targeted at men, older people and uneducated individuals. Copyright © 2012 King Saud Bin Abdulaziz University for Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gastrointestinal Helminthic Parasites in Stray Cats (Felis catus from North of Iran

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    A Rezaei-Doust

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of gastrointestinal helminthic parasites and also play a major role in transmitting of these parasites through faecal contamination of soil, food or water. The aim of this study was to determine the species of gastrointestinal helminthes parasites in stray cats from a rural area of Bandar-e-Anzali, Iran.Method: Gastrointestinal helminthes were collected from 50 necropsied stray cats (Felis catus after capturing them by trapping from different regions of the city and humanely euthanatized in Bandar-e-Anzali, a port in the Caspian Sea in northern Iran, from March to November 2003. Results: The prevalence of infection was 90%, with those of individual parasites being Diplopylidium nolleri 54%, Phy­saloptera praeputialis 32%, Ancylostoma tubaeforme 20%, Joyeuxiella pasqualei 10%, Toxocara cati 8%, Pterygoderma­tites affinis 6%, Ancylostoma caninum 4%, and Taenia taeniaeformis 2%. Concurrent infections with two or more parasites were recorded in 34% of the individuals. In relation to the sex, the differences were not significant. Conclusion: P. praeputialis, T. cati, D. nolleri and sometime J. pasqualei are the commonest Helminthes in cats. This is the first reported isolation of P. affinis and A. caninum infections from cats in Iran.

  9. Stray-field-induced Faraday contributions in wide-field Kerr microscopy and -magnetometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markó, D.; Soldatov, I.; Tekielak, M.; Schäfer, R.

    2015-01-01

    The magnetic domain contrast in wide-field Kerr microscopy on bulk specimens can be substantially distorted by non-linear, field-dependent Faraday rotations in the objective lens that are caused by stray-field components emerging from the specimen. These Faraday contributions, which were detected by Kerr-magnetometry on grain-oriented iron–silicon steel samples, are thoroughly elaborated and characterized. They express themselves as a field-dependent gray-scale offset to the domain contrast and in highly distorted surface magnetization curves if optically measured in a wide field Kerr microscope. An experimental method to avoid such distortions is suggested. In the course of these studies, a low-permeability part in the surface magnetization loop of slightly misoriented (110)-surfaces in iron–silicon sheets was discovered that is attributed to demagnetization effects in direction perpendicular to the sheet surface. - Highlights: • Magnetizing a finite sample in a Kerr microscope leads to sample-generated stray-fields. • They cause non-linear, field- and position-dependent Faraday rotations in the objective. • This leads to a modulation of the Kerr contrast and to distorted MOKE loops. • A method to compensate these Faraday rotations is presented

  10. FACT light collection - solid light concentrators in Cherenkov Astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braun, Isabel [ETH Zurich, Institute for Particle Physics, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Collaboration: FACT-Collaboration

    2011-07-01

    Pixelized cameras of Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes use hollow light guides with reflective surfaces based on the Winston cone design. These cones minimize insensitive spaces between the photo sensors and shield the camera from stray background light by limiting the angular acceptance to the primary reflector area. FACT (First G-APD Cherenkov Telescope) will be the first IACT with Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes as light sensors. Solid light concentrators complementing these sensors will be used instead of hollow Winston cones. We will present simulations and measurements of our light collector design, which was optimized for the requirements of the FACT telescope and detector, and discuss the specific differences to more traditional solutions.

  11. MRI-related static magnetic stray fields and postural body sway: a double-blind randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Nierop, Lotte E; Slottje, Pauline; Kingma, Herman; Kromhout, Hans

    2013-07-01

    We assessed postural body sway performance after exposure to movement induced time-varying magnetic fields in the static magnetic stray field in front of a 7 Tesla (T) magnetic resonance imaging scanner. Using a double blind randomized crossover design, 30 healthy volunteers performed two balance tasks (i.e., standing with eyes closed and feet in parallel and then in tandem position) after standardized head movements in a sham, low exposure (on average 0.24 T static magnetic stray field and 0.49 T·s(-1) time-varying magnetic field) and high exposure condition (0.37 T and 0.70 T·s(-1)). Personal exposure to static magnetic stray fields and time-varying magnetic fields was measured with a personal dosimeter. Postural body sway was expressed in sway path, area, and velocity. Mixed-effects model regression analysis showed that postural body sway in the parallel task was negatively affected (P < 0.05) by exposure on all three measures. The tandem task revealed the same trend, but did not reach statistical significance. Further studies are needed to investigate the possibility of independent or synergetic effects of static magnetic stray field and time-varying magnetic field exposure. In addition, practical safety implications of these findings, e.g., for surgeons and others working near magnetic resonance imaging scanners need to be investigated. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Measurement of stray radiation within a scanning proton therapy facility: EURADOS WG9 intercomparison exercise of active dosimetry systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Farah, J.; Mares, V.; Romero-Exposito, M.; Trinkl, S.; Domingo, C.; Dufek, V.; Klodowska, M.; Kubančák, Ján; Knezevic, Z.; Ploc, Ondřej

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 42, č. 5 (2015), s. 2572-2584 ISSN 0094-2405 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : scanning proton therapy * measurement of stray neutrons * spectrometry * ambient dose eyuivalent * intercomparison Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.496, year: 2015

  13. Molecular detection of Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham province, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piratae, Supawadee; Pimpjong, Kiattisak; Vaisusuk, Kotchaphon; Chatan, Wasupon

    2015-01-01

    Canine tick borne diseases showing distribution worldwide have caused morbidity and mortality in dogs. This study observed the mainly tick borne pathogens described for dogs in Thailand, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon canis and Babesia canis vogeli. From May to July 2014, blood samples were collected from 79 stray dogs from 7 districts of Mahasarakham province to molecular surveyed for 16s rRNA gene of E. canis and 18s rRNA gene of H. canis and B. canis vogeli. Twenty eight (35.44%) of stray dogs showed the infection with tick borne pathogens. The prevalence of E. canis infection was the highest with 21.5% (17/79). DNA of H. canis and B. canis vogeli were detected at the prevalence of 10.1% (8/79) and 6.3% (5/79), respectively. Co-infection between E. canis and B. canis vogeli were identified in 2 (2.5%) dogs. The results indicated that a wide range of tick borne pathogens are circulation in the canine population in Mahasarakham province. This study is the first report on prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli in stray dogs in Mahasarakham, a province in northern part of Thailand. This data providing is important to understand the prevalence of E. canis, H. canis and B. canis vogeli infection in stray dogs in this region, which will assist in the management of these blood parasite.

  14. PENGARUH PEMBELAJARAN KOOPERATIF TWO STAY TWO STRAY BERPENDEKAT AN SETS TERHADAP HASIL BELAJAR KIMIA SISWA SMA NEGERI 1 COMAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Setiawan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pembelajaran kooperatif two stay two stray berpendekatan SETS terhadap hasil belajar siswa. Desain eksperimen yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah quasi experimental design. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran kooperatif two stay two stray berpendekatan SETS berpengaruh signitikan terhadap hasil belajar pada materi pokok teori asam basa dengan kontribusi koefisien determinasi sebesar 25%. Selain itu, pembelajaran juga mencapai ketuntasan belajar klasikal sebesar 37 dari 43 siswa, sehingga pembelajaran tersebut termasuk efektif.This study aimed to determine the effect of two stay two stray cooperative learning with SETS approach on student learning outcomes. Experimental design used in this study is a quasi experimental design. The results showed that two stay two stray cooperative learning with SETS approach have a significant effect on learning outcomes in acid-base theory of the subject matter with the contribution of the determination coefficient of 25%. In addition, the study also achieved mastery learning classical by 37 of the 43 students, so that it includes effective learning.

  15. What's in a name? Perceptions of stray and feral cat welfare and control in Aotearoa, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnworth, Mark J; Campbell, Joanna; Adams, Nigel J

    2011-01-01

    New Zealanders (n = 354) rated the acceptability of lethal and nonlethal cat control methods and the importance of conservation and welfare. Lethal control was more acceptable for feral cats than strays; for nonlethal control, the inverse was true. More than concern for the welfare of cats subjected to control, perceived conservation benefits, risk of disease transfer, and companion cat welfare dictated the acceptability of control measures. Similarly, the welfare consideration for groups of cats differed, transitioning from companion (highest) to feral (lowest). Differences in attitudes toward acceptability of control methods were evident. In particular, nonhuman animal professionals ranked lethal control as more acceptable than did nonanimal professionals. Cat caregivers (owners) considered both conservation and welfare issues of greater importance than did nonowners. Owners ranked the acceptability of nonlethal control methods higher for stray cats, but not feral, than did nonowners. This research indicates that the use of the terms stray and feral may have significant impact on cats in New Zealand. There is also a greater consideration of conservation values than of welfare in stray and feral cat control.

  16. Radiation protection measurements with the variance-covariance method in the stray radiation fields from photon and proton therapy facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lillhök, J.; Persson, L.; Andersen, Claus E.

    2017-01-01

    , the dose-average lineal energy, the dose-average quality factor and the dose equivalent. The neutron component measured by the detectors at the proton beam was studied through Monte Carlo simulations using the code MCNP6. In the photon beam the stray absorbed dose ranged between 0.3 and 2.4 μGy per monitor...

  17. Possibility of reducing stray losses and parasitic torques in two-phase emergency feeding of induction motors

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schreier, Luděk; Bendl, Jiří; Chomát, Miroslav; Klíma, J.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2006), s. 109-131 ISSN 0001-7043 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA102/04/0215 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20570509 Keywords : induction motor * emergency operation of electrical drives * stray losses Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  18. An estimate of the radiation-induced cancer risk from the whole-body stray radiation exposure in neutron radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    1980 BEIR III risk factors have been used to estimate the secondary cancer risks from the whole-body stray radiation exposures occurring in neutron radiotherapy. Risks were calculated using linear, linear-quadratic and quadratic dose-response models for the gamma component of the stray radiation. The linear dose-response model was used to calculate risk for the neutron component of the stray radiation. These estimates take into consideration for the first time the age and sex distribution of patients undergoing neutron therapy. Changes in risk as a function of the RBE (10-100) assigned to the stray neutron radiation component have also been assessed. Excess risks in neutron-treated patients have been compared with excess risks for photon-treated patients and with the expected incidence of cancer in a normal population having the same age and sex distribution. Results indicate that it will be necessary to tolerate a higher incidence of secondary cancers in patients undergoing fast neutron therapy than is the case with conventional photon therapy. For neutron RBEs of less than 50 the increased risk is only a fraction of the normal expected incidence of cancer in this population. Comparison of the radiation-induced risk with reported normal tissue complication rates in the treatment volume indicates that the excess cancer risk is substantially lower than the risk from other late normal tissue effects. (author)

  19. Reduction of ballistic spin scattering in a spin-FET using stray electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nemnes, G A; Manolescu, A; Gudmundsson, V

    2012-01-01

    The quasi-bound states which appear as a consequence of the Rashba spin-orbit (SO) coupling, introduce a strongly irregular behavior of the spin-FET conductance at large Rashba parameter. Moreover, the presence of the bulk inversion asymmetry, i.e. the Dresselhaus SO coupling, may compromise the spin-valve effect even at small values of the Rashba parameter. However, by introducing stray electric fields in addition to the SO couplings, we show that the effect of the SO induced quasi-bound states can be tuned. The oscillations of the spin-resolved conductance become smoother and the control of the spin-FET characteristics becomes possible. For the calculations we employ a multi-channel scattering formalism, based on the R-matrix method extended to spin transport, in the presence of Rashba and Dresselhaus SO couplings.

  20. Specific feature of magnetooptical images of stray fields of magnets of various geometrical shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, V. E.; Koveshnikov, A. V.; Andreev, S. V.

    2017-08-01

    Specific features of magnetooptical images (MOIs) of stray fields near the faces of prismatic hard magnetic elements have been studied. Attention has primarily been focused on MOIs of fields near faces oriented perpendicular to the magnetic moment of hard magnetic elements. With regard to the polar sensitivity, MOIs have practically uniform brightness and geometrically they coincide with the figures of the bases of the elements. With regard to longitudinal sensitivity, MOIs consist of several sectors, the number of which is determined by the number of angles of the image. Each angle is divided by the bisectrix into two sectors of different brightnesses; therefore, the MOI of a triangular magnet consists of three sectors. A rectangle consists of four sectors separated by the bisectrices of the interior angles. In all types of figures, these lines converge at the center of the figure and form a singular point of the source or sink type.

  1. Prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii antibodies and intestinal parasites in stray cats from Nigde, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bengi Dündar

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of antibodies to Toxoplasma gondii was investigated by the Sabin-Feldman Dye test (SFDT in 72 stray cats from Nigde, Turkey. A total of 55 (76.4% of the analysed sera had antibodies to T. gondii. The seropositivity of T. gondii was 77.1% in male and 75.7% in female cats (P>0.05. Faeces of these cats were also examined by zinc sulphate flotation method for the presence of parasite oocysts and eggs of other parasites. Two protozoan parasites were identified as Isospora spp. (12.5% and Eimeria spp. (4.1% in cats. Toxoplasma gondii oocysts were not found in any faecal samples analysed. Two parasitic helminth species were observed: Toxocara cati (15.2% and Toxascaris leonina (20.8%. These common ascarids were recorded for the first time in cats from Nigde.

  2. Countering the stray magnetic field of the CUSP trap by using additional coils

    CERN Document Server

    Thole, Jelle

    2016-01-01

    The ASACUSA experiment at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) at CERN tries to measure the Hyperfine Structure (HFS) of Antihydrogen (H ̄) using a Rabi spectroscopy set-up. In measuring this HFS it will yield a very precise test of CPT-symmetry. For this set-up to work a homogeneous magnetic field is needed in the cavity where the Hyperfine transition of H ̄ occurs. Due to the stray fields from the CUSP trap, where H ̄ is produced, additional coils are needed to counter these fields. It is found, using COMSOL simulations, that two coils are suitable for this. Leading to a relative standard deviation of the magnetic field of σB/B = 1.06%.

  3. Neutron measurements in the stray field produced by 158 GeV/c lead ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agosteo, S.; Birattari, C.; Foglio Para, A.; Nava, E.; Silari, M.; Ulrici, L.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses measurements carried out at CERN in the stray radiation field produced by 158 GeV/c 208 Pb 82+ ions. The purpose was to test and intercompare the response of several detectors, mainly neutron measuring devices, and to determine the neutron spectral fluence as well as the microdosimetric (absorbed dose and dose equivalent) distributions in different locations around the shielding. Both active instruments and passive dosimeters were employed, including different types of Andersson-Braun rem counters, a tissue equivalent proportional counter, a set of superheated drop detectors, a Bonner sphere system and different types of ion chambers. Activation measurements with 12 C plastic scintillators and with 32 S pellets were also performed to assess the neutron yield of high energy lead ions interacting with a thin gold target. The results are compared with previous measurements and with measurements made during proton runs. (author)

  4. Stray dogs and cats as potential sources of soil contamination with zoonotic parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szwabe, Katarzyna; Blaszkowska, Joanna

    2017-03-22

    The main source of many zoonoses is soil contaminated with feline and canine faeces. Thus, the aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray dogs and cats adopted in Lodz shelter (Poland). In total, 163 faecal samples were collected from 95 dogs and 68 cats from 2011 to 2012. The samples were processed by sedimentation techniques using Mini Parasep®SF. Six parasite genera belonging to protozoa, cestoda, and nematoda, were found in dogs, while eight were found in cats. Out of the 163 fecal samples, 37.4% were positive for the presence at least one species of intestinal parasites. The majority of positive dog samples contained eggs from Toxocara and Trichuris genera, and the family Ancylostomatidae, while Toxocara and Taenia eggs, as well as Cystoisospora oocysts, predominated in cat faeces. A significantly higher prevalence of parasites was noted in cats (48.5%) than in dogs (29.5%) (χ2=6.15, P=0.013). The Toxocara genus was the most prevalent parasite in both populations; eggs were found in 27.9% and 16.8% of cats and dogs, respectively. Animals younger than 12 months of age showed higher infection rates with Toxocara, but differences were not statistically significant. The average numbers of Toxocara eggs/gram of faeces in positive puppy and kitten samples were over 5 and 7 times higher than in older dogs and cats, respectively. Mixed infection were found in dogs (5.3%) and cats (8.8%). Cat faeces represent a more important potential source of environmental contamination with zoonotic parasites than dog faeces. Among the detected parasites of stray dogs and cats, Toxocara present an important zoonotic risk for the local human population, especially children.

  5. Prevalence and Potential Risk Factors for Bartonella Infection in Tunisian Stray Dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkhiria, Jaber; Chomel, Bruno B; Ben Hamida, Taoufik; Kasten, Rickie W; Stuckey, Matthew J; Fleischman, Drew A; Christopher, Mary M; Boulouis, Henri-Jean; Farver, Thomas B

    2017-06-01

    Bartonellae are blood-borne and vector-transmitted pathogens, some are zoonotic, which have been reported in several Mediterranean countries. Transmission from dogs to humans is suspected, but has not been clearly demonstrated. Our objectives were to determine the seroprevalence of Bartonella henselae, Bartonella vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella bovis (as a proxy for Candidatus Bartonella merieuxii) in stray dogs from Tunisia, identify the Bartonella species infecting the dogs and evaluate potential risk factors for canine infection. Blood samples were collected between January and November 2013 from 149 dogs in 10 Tunisian governorates covering several climatic zones. Dog-specific and geographic variables were analyzed as potential risk factors for Bartonella spp. seropositivity and PCR-positivity. DNA was extracted from the blood of all dogs and tested by PCR for Bartonella, targeting the ftsZ and rpoB genes. Partial sequencing was performed on PCR-positive dogs. Twenty-nine dogs (19.5%, 95% confidence interval: 14-27.4) were seropositive for one or more Bartonella species, including 17 (11.4%) for B. vinsonii subsp. berkhoffii, 14 (9.4%) for B. henselae, 13 (8.4%) for B. clarridgeiae, and 7 (4.7%) for B. bovis. Statistical analysis revealed a few potential risk factors, mainly dog's age and breed, latitude and average winter temperature. Twenty-two (14.8%) dogs, including 8 of the 29 seropositive dogs, were PCR-positive for Bartonella based on the ftsZ gene, with 18 (81.8%) of these 22 dogs also positive for the rpoB gene. Partial sequencing showed that all PCR-positive dogs were infected with Candidatus B. merieuxii. Dogs from arid regions and regions with cold average winter temperatures were less likely to be PCR-positive than dogs from other climatic zones. The widespread presence of Bartonella spp. infection in Tunisian dogs suggests a role for stray dogs as potential reservoirs of Bartonella species in Tunisia.

  6. Planck-suppressed operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; McAllister, Liam

    2014-01-01

    We show that the recent Planck limits on primordial non-Gaussianity impose strong constraints on light hidden sector fields coupled to the inflaton via operators suppressed by a high mass scale Λ. We study a simple effective field theory in which a hidden sector field is coupled to a shift-symmetric inflaton via arbitrary operators up to dimension five. Self-interactions in the hidden sector lead to non-Gaussianity in the curvature perturbations. To be consistent with the Planck limit on local non-Gaussianity, the coupling to any hidden sector with light fields and natural cubic couplings must be suppressed by a very high scale Λ > 10 5 H. Even if the hidden sector has Gaussian correlations, nonlinearities in the mixing with the inflaton still lead to non-Gaussian curvature perturbations. In this case, the non-Gaussianity is of the equilateral or orthogonal type, and the Planck data requires Λ > 10 2 H

  7. Circadian light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bierman Andrew

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present paper reflects a work in progress toward a definition of circadian light, one that should be informed by the thoughtful, century-old evolution of our present definition of light as a stimulus for the human visual system. This work in progress is based upon the functional relationship between optical radiation and its effects on nocturnal melatonin suppression, in large part because the basic data are available in the literature. Discussed here are the fundamental differences between responses by the visual and circadian systems to optical radiation. Brief reviews of photometry, colorimetry, and brightness perception are presented as a foundation for the discussion of circadian light. Finally, circadian light (CLA and circadian stimulus (CS calculation procedures based on a published mathematical model of human circadian phototransduction are presented with an example.

  8. UV Blocking Glass: Low Cost Filters for Visible Light Photocatalytic Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Dunnill, Charles W.

    2014-01-01

    A number of commercially available art protection products have been compared and assessed for their suitability as UV blocking filters in the application of “visible light” photocatalytic research. Many groups claiming visible light photocatalytic success employ filters to block out stray UV radiation in order to justify that their photocatalysts are indeed visible light photocatalysts and not UV light photocatalysts. These filters come in varying degrees of ability and price and many author...

  9. Experimental investigation of the ECRH stray radiation during the start-up phase in Wendelstein 7-X

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseev, Dmitry; Laqua, Heinrich; Marsen, Stefan; Stange, Torsten; Braune, Harald; Erckmann, Volker; Gellert, Florian; Oosterbeek, Johann Wilhelm; Wenzel, Uwe

    2017-07-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) is the main heating mechanism in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator (W7-X). W7-X is equipped with five absolutely calibrated sniffer probes that are installed in each of the five modules of the device. The sniffer probes monitor energy flux of unabsorbed ECRH radiation in the device and interlocks are fed with the sniffer probe signals. The stray radiation level in the device changes significantly during the start-up phase: plasma is a strong microwave absorber and during its formation the stray radiation level in sniffer probes reduces by more than 95%. In this paper, we discuss the influence of neutral gas pressure and gyrotron power on plasma breakdown processes.

  10. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors Associated with Seropositivity to Toxoplasma gondii among Stray and Domestic Cats (Felis silvestris catus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christel Bohn T. Garcia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis. It is widespread in the environment and infects a variety of warm-blooded animals, causing miscarriages and birth problems. Previous studies in the Philippines have determined the seropositivity of T. gondii in humans. However, the seroprevalence of the parasite among household pets, par ticularly its feline def initive host, remains insufficient . This study aimed to: (1 determine the seroprevalence of T. gondii antibodies among domestic and stray cats in the Philippines; and, (2 to analyze the risk factors associated with seropositivity. Blood samples from 59 domestic and stray cats were collected and tested for T. gondii seropositivity using a commercially available indirect ELISA kit, while pet owners and handlers were given questionnaires about their cats. Thirteen or 22.03% of the cats were seropositive to T. gondii, and risk factor analysis revealed a significant difference between domestic and stray cats with regard to diet (p = 0.026, OR = 8.333, c = 0.299 and domestication (p = 0.039, OR = 5.000, c = 0.276. Cats fed with table food tested 31.43% seropositive compared to the 4.35% of those fed with cat food, whereas 33.33% of the stray cats were seropositive compared to 7.69% for domestic cats. Odds ratio test showed that the risk factors studied were associated with higher likelihood of T. gondii seropositivity. These results implicate diet and environment in the transmission dynamics of T. gondii among cats.

  11. Stray Cats Gastrointestinal Parasites and its Association With Public Health in Ahvaz City, South Western of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khademvatan, Shahram; Abdizadeh, Rahman; Rahim, Fakher; Hashemitabar, Mahamoud; Ghasemi, Mohammad; Tavalla, Mahdi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cats are the hosts for some zoonotic parasites such as Toxoplasma gondii and Toxocara spp. which are important in medicine and veterinary. Studies on the prevalence of intestinal parasites of cats have received little attention in south west of Iran. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the prevalence of parasites in stray cats in Ahvaz. Materials and Methods: Random sampling was carried out from January to May 2012. One hundred and forty fecal samples from stray cats were examined using sucrose flotation method. Results: Gastrointestinal parasites were found in 121 of the 140 (86.4%) examined samples. The parasites detected in stray cats were Toxocara spp. (45%, 63/140), Isospora spp. (21.4%, 30/140), nematode larvae (21.4%, 30/140), Taenia spp. (18.6%, 26/140), Sarcocystis spp. (17.1%, 24/140), Eimeria spp. (15%, 21/140), Blastocystis spp. (14.3%, 20/140), Giardia spp, (10.7%, 15/140), Physaloptera spp. (7.1%, 10/140), and amoeba cyst (5.7%, 8/140) respectively. The prevalence of infection by Joyexiella spp. and hook worms (4.3%, 6/140), for example, Dipylidium caninum (2.9%, 4/140) was similar; and the prevalence of infection by T. gondii and Dicrocoelium dendriticum was similar (1.4%, 2/140). Conclusions: Since the prevalence of zoonotic gastrointestinal parasites such as Toxocara spp. in stray cats is high, there is a need to plan adequate programs to control these zoonotic parasites. PMID:25485047

  12. Stray current induced corrosion in lightning rod cables of 525 kV power lines towers: a case study

    OpenAIRE

    Wojcicki, F. R.; Negrisoli, M. E. M.; Franco, C. V.

    2003-01-01

    With the growth of several areas in modem society, the necessity to generate and carry electrical energy to big cities has greatly increased. Cables supported by power towers with galvanized steel foundation usually carry energy. As the foundations are underground they may cause high rates of corrosion. These are usually detected by a conventional potential measurement using a Cu/CuSO4 reference electrode. It is believed that corrosion results from stray currents that f...

  13. Prevalence of Protozoa and Gastrointestinal Helminthes in Stray Cats in Zanjan Province, North-West of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Altome

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cats and other felines act as definitive hosts for many intestinal parasites, some of which are responsible for several zoonotic diseases.  The aim of this study was to determine the type and prevalence of protozoa and gastrointestinal helminthes among stray cats. Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted. Digestive tracts of 100 stray cats in Zanjan Province, north-west of Iran were autopsied in order to recognize gastrointestinal helminthes and intestinal protozoan parasites. These cats were collected by baited cage trapped from October 2007 to September 2008. Gender and species of helminthes and protozoa were rec­ognized using authentic diagnostic criteria. Statistical evaluation was performed by SPSS version 14. Results: Forty-two percent of cats were infected with intestinal protozoan parasites, 33% were infected with cestodes and 39% infected with gastrointestinal nematodes. Four species protozoan parasites and eight gastrointestinal helminthes were recovered from the animals, including Taenia taeniaeformis, Dipylidium spp., Joyeuxiella pasqaulei, Toxocara cati, Phy­saloptera praeputialis, Rectalaria spp., Onicolla, Cystoisospora spp., Toxoplasma gondii, and Sarcocystis spp . Conclusions: The high infection rate of Toxoplasma and some gastrointestinal helminthes in stray cats is considered to be critical from the viewpoint of public health importance.

  14. Toxocara nematodes in stray cats from shiraz, southern iran: intensity of infection and molecular identification of the isolates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fattaneh Mikaeili

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxocara is a common nematode of cats in different parts of Iran. Despite the close association of cats with human, no attempt has been done so far for molecular identification of this nematode in the country. Therefore, current study was performed on identification of some isolates of Toxocara from stray cats in Shiraz, Fars Province, Southern Iran, based on morphological and molecular approaches, and also determination of intensity of infection.This cross-sectional study was carried out on 30 stray cats trapped from different geographical areas of Shiraz in 2011. Adult male and female worms were recovered from digestive tract after dissection of cats. Morphological features using existing keys and PCR-sequencing of ITS-rDNA region and pcox1 mitochondrial l gene were applied for the delineating the species of the parasites.Eight out of 30 cats (26.7% were found infected with Toxocara nematodes. All the isolates were confirmed as Toxocara cati based on morphological features and the sequence of ribosomal and mitochondrial targets. Intensity of infection ranged from one to a maximum of 39 worms per cat, with a mean of 10.25±12.36, and higher abundance of female nematodes.The most prevalent ascaridoid nematode of stray cats in the study area was T. cati and female nematodes were more abundant than that of males. This issue has important role in spreading of eggs in the environment and impact on human toxocariasis.

  15. A Preliminary Study on the Helminth Fauna in Necropsied Stray Cats (Felis catus in Beni-Suef, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Mohamed El-Dakhly

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Stray cats play a crucial role in the epidemiology of endoparasites, particularly helminths, due to predating a wide range of both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, often of veterinary and zoonotic importance. Therefore, a total of 62 stray cats were necropsied in Beni-Suef province, Egypt and examined for helminth parasites. The overall prevalence of infection was 87.0%. The recovered helminths consisted of 10 species of trematodes (Heterophyes heterophyes, Pygidiopsis summa, H. nocens, Echinochasmus liliputanus, Alaria sp., Procerovum varium, Ascocotyle sp., Haplorchis sp., Prohemistomum vivax, Euparadistomum herpestesi, five cestodes (Dipylidium caninum, Diplopylidium acanthoterta, D. nolleri, Joyeuxiella sp. and Taenia taeniaeformis, and two nematodes (Toxascaris leonina and larvae of Anisakis simplex. The most prevalent helminths were Dipylidium caninum (62.9%, Toxascaris leonina (33.8%, Diplopylidium nolleri (22.5% and Echinochasmus liliputanus (6.45%. Thirty (48.39% cats were co-infected by one species, 22 (35.48% by two and three (4.84% by more than two species. It has been found that cats aged more than 3 years were the most infected. Both male and female cats were parasitized. The infection was the most prevalent in both summer and autumn. In conclusion, veterinarians must highlight more attention towards both stray and domestic cats, as they are considered reservoir hosts for a wide host range of parasites, particularly helminths, and the zoonotic importance of such parasites should be taken on consideration.

  16. Prevalence of zoonotic intestinal parasites in household and stray dogs in rural areas of Hamadan, Western Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sardarian, K; Maghsood, A H; Ghiasian, S A; Zahirnia, A H

    2015-06-01

    Zoonotic parasitic infections are a major global public and veterinary health problem and widespread among dogs. The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray and household dogs in the rural areas of Hamadan district. During 2012, 1,500 fresh fecal samples from 243 household and 1,257 stray dogs were examined by using direct wet mount, simple zinc sulfate flotation, and Lugol's solution staining. Of 1,500 dogs, 20.4% were positive for intestinal parasites. Helminthes eggs were more frequently found in fecal samples than protozoan cysts or trophozoites (15.9% vs. 4.5%, respectively). Toxocara canis was the most frequently detected parasite, with a prevalence of 6.3%, followed by Taenia/Echinococcus spp. (2.9%), Isospora spp. (2.7%), and Toxascaris leonina (2.6%). Helminthes and protozoa were significantly more prevalent in household dogs than in stray dogs (Pparasites indicated that people residing in this area are at risk of exposure to these potentially hazardous zoonotic pathogens. Mass education of the general population is highly recommended to increase awareness of the potential for horizontal transmission of these parasitic infections from dogs to humans.

  17. Increased stray gas abundance in a subset of drinking water wells near Marcellus shale gas extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Robert B; Vengosh, Avner; Darrah, Thomas H; Warner, Nathaniel R; Down, Adrian; Poreda, Robert J; Osborn, Stephen G; Zhao, Kaiguang; Karr, Jonathan D

    2013-07-09

    Horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing are transforming energy production, but their potential environmental effects remain controversial. We analyzed 141 drinking water wells across the Appalachian Plateaus physiographic province of northeastern Pennsylvania, examining natural gas concentrations and isotopic signatures with proximity to shale gas wells. Methane was detected in 82% of drinking water samples, with average concentrations six times higher for homes gas wells (P = 0.0006). Ethane was 23 times higher in homes gas wells (P = 0.0013); propane was detected in 10 water wells, all within approximately 1 km distance (P = 0.01). Of three factors previously proposed to influence gas concentrations in shallow groundwater (distances to gas wells, valley bottoms, and the Appalachian Structural Front, a proxy for tectonic deformation), distance to gas wells was highly significant for methane concentrations (P = 0.007; multiple regression), whereas distances to valley bottoms and the Appalachian Structural Front were not significant (P = 0.27 and P = 0.11, respectively). Distance to gas wells was also the most significant factor for Pearson and Spearman correlation analyses (P gas wells was the only statistically significant factor (P gas (4)He to CH4 in groundwater were characteristic of a thermally postmature Marcellus-like source in some cases. Overall, our data suggest that some homeowners living gas wells have drinking water contaminated with stray gases.

  18. Fauna of Zoontic Parasites of Stray Dogs in Yasouj Suburbs in 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Moshfe

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Dogs are among the closest animals to human residents and can by useful for human. A few of zoontic diseases are prevalent in Iran. Dogs are the reservoirs of many of these zoonosis and a major role in transmission of infection. The aim of this study was to determine the zoonotic parasitic fauna of stray dogs in Yasuj Materials & Methods: In this descriptive study which was conducted at Yasuj suburbs in 2008, 25 dogs’ corpses were necropsied and their tissues were studied for parasitic infections. Collected parasites were placed in special containers and stained for genus and species diagnosis based on their morphological features. The collected data were analyzed with the SPSS software, using descriptive analysis. Results: Of the 25 studied corpses, 23 dogs were infected with at least one parasite. Helminthic infections of dogs were consisted of: Taenia hydatigena, Mesocestoides sp., Echinococcus granulosus, Dipylidium caninum, Macracanthorhynchus hirudinaceus and Spirocerca lupi. Conclusion: Four of six detected helminthes in in dogs in this study are zoonotic parasites which are important in human diseases. Among them larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus which causes hydatid cyst disease in human is very important. Control programs should be implemented in this region to prevent these zoonotic diseases.

  19. Detecting stray microwaves and nonequilibrium quasiparticles in thin films by single-electron tunneling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saira, Olli-Pentti; Maisi, Ville; Kemppinen, Antti; Möttönen, Mikko; Pekola, Jukka

    2013-03-01

    Superconducting thin films and tunnel junctions are the building blocks of many state-of-the-art technologies related to quantum information processing, microwave detection, and electronic amplification. These devices operate at millikelvin temperatures, and - in a naive picture - their fidelity metrics are expected to improve as the temperature is lowered. However, very often one finds in the experiment that the device performance levels off around 100-150 mK. In my presentation, I will address three common physical mechanisms that can cause such saturation: stray microwaves, nonequilibrium quasiparticles, and sub-gap quasiparticle states. The new experimental data I will present is based on a series of studies on quasiparticle transport in Coulomb-blockaded normal-insulator-superconductor tunnel junction devices. We have used a capacitively coupled SET electrometer to detect individual quasiparticle tunneling events in real time. We demonstrate the following record-low values for thin film aluminum: quasiparticle density nqp < 0 . 033 / μm3 , normalized density of sub-gap quasiparticle states (Dynes parameter) γ < 1 . 6 ×10-7 . I will also discuss some sample stage and chip designs that improve microwave shielding.

  20. Prevalence of selected infectious disease agents in stray cats in Catalonia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Ravicini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The objective of the current study was to investigate the prevalence rates of the following infectious agents in 116 stray cats in the Barcelona area of Spain: Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, Borrelia burgdorferi, Chlamydia felis, Dirofilaria immitis, Ehrlichia species, feline calicivirus (FCV, feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1, feline leukaemia virus (FeLV, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species. Methods Serum antibodies were used to estimate the prevalence of exposure to A phagocytophilum, Bartonella species, B burgdorferi, Ehrlichia species and FIV; serum antigens were used to assess for infection by D immitis and FeLV; and molecular assays were used to amplify nucleic acids of Anaplasma species, Bartonella species, C felis, D immitis, Ehrlichia species, FCV, FHV-1, haemoplasmas, Mycoplasma species and Rickettsia species from blood and nasal or oral swabs. Results Of the 116 cats, 63 (54.3% had evidence of infection by Bartonella species, FeLV, FIV or a haemoplasma. Anaplasma species, Ehrlichia species or Rickettsia species DNA was not amplified from these cats. A total of 18/116 cats (15.5% were positive for FCV RNA (six cats, Mycoplasma species DNA (six cats, FHV-1 DNA (three cats or C felis DNA (three cats. Conclusions and relevance This study documents that shelter cats in Catalonia are exposed to many infectious agents with clinical and zoonotic significance, and that flea control is indicated for cats in the region.

  1. Energy Harvesting from the Stray Electromagnetic Field around the Electrical Power Cable for Smart Grid Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Farid Ullah

    For wireless sensor node (WSN) applications, this paper presents the harvesting of energy from the stray electromagnetic field around an electrical power line. Inductive and capacitive types of electrodynamic energy harvesters are developed and reported. For the produced energy harvesters, solid core and split-core designs are adopted. The inductive energy harvester comprises a copper wound coil which is produced on a mild steel core. However, the capacitive prototypes comprise parallel, annular discs separated by Teflon spacers. Moreover, for the inductive energy harvesters' wound coil and core, the parametric analysis is also performed. A Teflon housing is incorporated to protect the energy harvester prototypes from the harsh environmental conditions. Among the inductive energy harvesters, prototype-5 has performed better than the other harvesters and produces a maximum rms voltage of 908 mV at the current level of 155 A in the power line. However, at the same current flow, the capacitive energy harvesters produce a maximum rms voltage of 180 mV. The alternating output of the prototype-5 is rectified, and a super capacitor (1 F, 5.5 V) and rechargeable battery (Nickel-Cadmium, 3.8 V) are charged with it. Moreover, with the utilization of a prototype-5, a self-powered wireless temperature sensing and monitoring system for an electrical transformer is also developed and successfully implemented.

  2. 17β-Estradiol up-regulates Nrf2 via PI3K/AKT and estrogen receptor signaling pathways to suppress light-induced degeneration in rat retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, C; Wang, S; Wang, B; Du, F; Hu, C; Li, H; Feng, Y; Zhu, R; Mo, M; Cao, Y; Li, A; Yu, X

    2015-09-24

    Human age-related retinal diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), are intimately associated with decreased tissue oxygenation and hypoxia. Different antioxidants have been investigated to reverse AMD. In the present study, we describe the antioxidant 17β-estradiol (βE2) and investigate its protective effects on retinal neurons. Fourteen days after ovariectomy, adult Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 8000-lux light for 12h to induce retinal degeneration. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were assessed by confocal fluorescence microscopy using 2,7-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and antioxidant enzyme mRNA expression were detected by real-time PCR. Western blotting was used to evaluate NRF2 activation. NRF2 translocation was determined by immunohistochemistry, with morphological changes monitored by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Following light exposure, βE2 significantly reduced ROS production. βE2 also up-regulated NRF2 mRNA and protein levels, with maximal expression at 4 and 12h post-exposure, respectively. Interestingly, following βE2 administration, NRF2 was translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, primarily in the outer nuclear layer. βE2 also up-regulated NRF2, which triggered phase-2 antioxidant enzyme expression (superoxide dismutases 1 and 2, catalase, glutaredoxins 1 and 2, and thioredoxins 1 and 2), reduced ROS production, and ameliorated retinal damage. However, the beneficial effects of βE2 were markedly suppressed by pretreatment with LY294002 or ICI182780, specific inhibitors of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K/AKT), and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling pathways, respectively. Taken together, these observations suggest that βE2 exerts antioxidative effects following light-induced retinal degeneration potentially via NRF2 activation. This protective mechanism may depend on two pathways: a rapid, non-genomic-type PI3K/AKT response, and a genomic-type ER

  3. Laser frequency stabilization and stray light issues for LISA and other future multi-spacecraft missions Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — "The Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) is a joint NASA/ESA project which will use laser interferometry between drag-free proof masses to measure...

  4. SIMBIOS Normalized Water-Leaving Radiance Calibration and Validation: Sensor Response, Atmospheric Corrections, Stray Light and Sun Glint. Chapter 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, James L.

    2001-01-01

    This Sensor Intercomparison and Merger for Biological and Interdisciplinary Oceanic Studies (SIMBIOS) contract supports acquisition of match up radiometric and bio-optical data for validation of Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and other ocean color satellites, and evaluation of uncertainty budgets and protocols for in situ measurements of normalized water leaving radiances.

  5. Detection of small number of Giardia in biological materials prepared from stray dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmailikia, Leila; Ebrahimzade, Elahe; Shayan, Parviz; Amininia, Narges

    2017-12-20

    Giardia lamblia is an intestinal protozoa with intermittent and low shedding especially in dogs, and the detection of Giardia is accompanied with problems such as sampling and diagnostic method. The objective of this study was to detection of Giardia in biological materials with low number of parasite using parasitological and molecular methods, and also to determine whether the examined stray dogs harbor known zoonotic genotype of Giardia. For this aim 85 fecal and duodenal samples were studied from which 1 was positive by Trichrome staining of stool, 4 were positive by staining of duodenal samples. The nested PCR analysis with primers derived from 18 SrRNA showed that the specific PCR product could be amplified in 4 stool and 4 duodenal samples. All positive samples in staining analysis were also positive in nested PCR. No amplification could be observed by nested PCR with primers derived from β giardin gene due to the single copy of gene. Interestingly, the extracted DNA from old fixed stained Giardia positive smears could be also amplified with primers derived from 18SrRNA gene. The sequence analysis of nested PCR products showed that they belong to the genotype D. In conclusion, it is to denote that the Trichrome or Giemsa methods were not suitable for the detection of small number of this parasite in stool and the nested PCR with primers derived from 18S rRNA gene can replace the traditional methods successfully. For detection of Giardia in stool, primers derived from β giardin will not be recommended.

  6. Geographic distribution of canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis infection in stray dogs of eastern Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavinia Ciucă

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey was conducted in the eastern part of Romania to assess the prevalence and geographical distribution of Dirofilaria immitis in dogs. Plasma samples were collected from 458 stray dogs hosted in shelters in 8 counties and tested serologically for the presence of heartworm. In addition, 45 blood samples from dogs of a shelter in Galati city were examined by the modified Knott and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. The immmunological assay showed a heartworm infection prevalence of 8.9% in the dogs. Optical density results for positive samples ranged between 0.217 and 2.683. Geographical information systems (GIS were used to produce overlays of distribution maps of D. immitis prevalence and predictive maps based on temperature suitability. High prevalence of D. immitis was found in the central East up to the northern border of the country, i.e. Galati county (60%, followed by the counties of Vaslui (12.0% and Iasi (7.7%. Out of 45 samples examined using the Knott test, 23 were positive for circulating microfilariae (51.1%, while 19 dogs were positive for D. immitis and 4 for both D. immitis and D. repens with the multiplex PCR test. The high prevalence for D. immitis shown in dogs in the Southeast (Galati, 42.2% also by multiplex PCR gave strong support to the results achieved by the serological tests. The present study confirms the ability of GIS to predict the distribution and epidemiology of dirofilariosis in different geographical territories as has been already demonstrated by the empirical epidemiological data obtained at the continental, national and intraregional levels.

  7. Leakage Current Suppression with A Novel Six-Switch Photovoltaic Grid-Connected Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Baoze; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    In order to solve the problem of the leakage current in non-isolated photovoltaic (PV) systems, a novel six-switch topology and control strategy are proposed in this paper. The inductor-bypass strategy solves the common-mode voltage limitation of the conventional six-switch topology in case...... of unmatched inductances. And the stray capacitor voltage of the non-isolated photovoltaic system is free of high frequency ripples. Theoretical analysis and simulation are carried out to verify the proposed topology and its control strategy. Results indicate that the leakage current suppression can...

  8. Gastrointestinal helminth parasites of pet and stray dogs as a potential risk for human health in Bahir Dar town, north-western Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadiwos Abere

    Full Text Available Aim: A cross-sectional study was carried out from November 2011 to April 2012 to determine the prevalence and species of gastrointestinal (GI helminth parasites in pet and stray dogs as a potential risk for human health in Bahir Dar town, northwestern Ethiopia. Materials and Methods: A total of 384 and 46 faecal samples were collected from pet and stray dogs, respectively and xamined by using standard coprologic techniques. Results: The overall prevalence of GI helminth infection in pet and stray dogs was 75.26 and 84.78%, respectively. The detected parasites with their frequencies in pet dogs were Ancylostoma caninum (78.89%, Toxocara canis (39.79%, Dipylidium caninum (29.75%, Strongyloides stercoralis (29.06%, Taeniidae (23.87% and Trichuris vulpis (7.95%. Stray dogs were found more likely to be polyparasitized and presented higher prevalence of A. caninum, T. canis, S. stercoralis, Trichuris vulpis and Taeniidae (P < 0.05 than domiciled ones. Diphyllobothrium latum was detected only in 10.25% of stray dogs. Toxocara canis and A. caninum (P < 0.05 were detected more frequently in dogs with less than 6 months of age (P <0.05 than old age dogs. The sex or breed groups didn't significantly affect the prevalence of parasites. A significant variation was recorded (P < 0.05 between different feeding systems where higher prevalence was observed in uncontrolled feeding group (82.18% compared to controlled feeding (32.08%. Conclusion: Different gastrointestinal parasites in pet and stray dogs were identified in the study area that can potentially infect humans and cause serious public-health problems. Thus, concerted efforts should therefore be made to educate dog owners to embrace modern dog disease control programs and measures have to be taken on stray dogs. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 388-392

  9. An evaluation of safety guidelines to restrict exposure to stray radiofrequency radiation from short-wave diathermy units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shields, Nora [School of Physiotherapy, La Trobe University, Victoria 3086 (Australia); O' Hare, Neil [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, St James' s Hospital, Dublin 8 (Ireland); Gormley, John [School of Physiotherapy, Trinity College Dublin, Trinity Centre for Health Sciences, St James' s Hospital, Dublin 8 (Ireland)

    2004-07-07

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD), a form of radiofrequency radiation used therapeutically by physiotherapists, may be applied in continuous (CSWD) or pulsed (PSWD) mode using either capacitive or inductive methods. Stray radiation emitted by these units may exceed exposure guidelines close to the equipment. Discrepant guidelines exist on a safe distance from an operating unit for operators and other personnel. Stray electric (E-field) and magnetic (H-field) field strengths from 10 SWD units in six departments were examined using a PMM 8053 meter and two isotropic probes (EP-330, HP-032). A 5 l saline phantom completed the patient circuit. Measurements were recorded in eight directions between 0.5 m and 2 m at hip and eye levels while the units operated at maximum output and data compared to current guidelines. Results found stray fields from capacitive CSWD fell below operator limits at 2 m (E-field 4.8-39.8 V/m; H-field 0.015-0.072 A/m) and at 1 m for inductive CSWD (E-field 0-36 V/m; H-field 0.01-0.065 A/m). Capacitive PSWD fields fell below the limits at 1.5 m (E-field 1.2-19.9 V/m; H-field 0.002-0.045 A/m) and at 1m for inductive PSWD (E-field 0.7-4.0 V/m; H-field 0.009-0.03 A/m). An extra 0.5 m was required before fields fell below the guidelines for other personnel. These results demonstrate, under a worst case scenario, emissions from SWD exceed the guidelines for operators at distances currently recommended as safe. Future guidelines should include recommendations for personnel other than physiotherapists.

  10. An evaluation of safety guidelines to restrict exposure to stray radiofrequency radiation from short-wave diathermy units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shields, Nora; O'Hare, Neil; Gormley, John

    2004-01-01

    Short-wave diathermy (SWD), a form of radiofrequency radiation used therapeutically by physiotherapists, may be applied in continuous (CSWD) or pulsed (PSWD) mode using either capacitive or inductive methods. Stray radiation emitted by these units may exceed exposure guidelines close to the equipment. Discrepant guidelines exist on a safe distance from an operating unit for operators and other personnel. Stray electric (E-field) and magnetic (H-field) field strengths from 10 SWD units in six departments were examined using a PMM 8053 meter and two isotropic probes (EP-330, HP-032). A 5 l saline phantom completed the patient circuit. Measurements were recorded in eight directions between 0.5 m and 2 m at hip and eye levels while the units operated at maximum output and data compared to current guidelines. Results found stray fields from capacitive CSWD fell below operator limits at 2 m (E-field 4.8-39.8 V/m; H-field 0.015-0.072 A/m) and at 1 m for inductive CSWD (E-field 0-36 V/m; H-field 0.01-0.065 A/m). Capacitive PSWD fields fell below the limits at 1.5 m (E-field 1.2-19.9 V/m; H-field 0.002-0.045 A/m) and at 1m for inductive PSWD (E-field 0.7-4.0 V/m; H-field 0.009-0.03 A/m). An extra 0.5 m was required before fields fell below the guidelines for other personnel. These results demonstrate, under a worst case scenario, emissions from SWD exceed the guidelines for operators at distances currently recommended as safe. Future guidelines should include recommendations for personnel other than physiotherapists

  11. Residual stress characterization of steel TIG welds by neutron diffraction and by residual magnetic stray field mappings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegemann, Robert; Cabeza, Sandra; Lyamkin, Viktor; Bruno, Giovanni; Pittner, Andreas; Wimpory, Robert; Boin, Mirko; Kreutzbruck, Marc

    2017-03-01

    The residual stress distribution of tungsten inert gas welded S235JRC+C plates was determined by means of neutron diffraction (ND). Large longitudinal residual stresses with maxima around 600 MPa were found. With these results as reference, the evaluation of residual stress with high spatial resolution GMR (giant magneto resistance) sensors was discussed. The experiments performed indicate a correlation between changes in residual stresses (ND) and the normal component of local residual magnetic stray fields (GMR). Spatial variations in the magnetic field strength perpendicular to the welds are in the order of the magnetic field of the earth.

  12. Stray field signatures of Néel textured skyrmions in Ir/Fe/Co/Pt multilayer films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagil, A.; Almoalem, A.; Soumyanarayanan, Anjan; Tan, Anthony K. C.; Raju, M.; Panagopoulos, C.; Auslaender, O. M.

    2018-05-01

    Skyrmions are nanoscale spin configurations with topological properties that hold great promise for spintronic devices. Here, we establish their Néel texture, helicity, and size in Ir/Fe/Co/Pt multilayer films by constructing a multipole expansion to model their stray field signatures and applying it to magnetic force microscopy images. Furthermore, the demonstrated sensitivity to inhomogeneity in skyrmion properties, coupled with a unique capability to estimate the pinning force governing dynamics, portend broad applicability in the burgeoning field of topological spin textures.

  13. Molecular detection of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon sp. in domestic and stray cats from Madrid, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Regañón, David; Villaescusa, Alejandra; Ayllón, Tania; Rodríguez-Franco, Fernando; Baneth, Gad; Calleja-Bueno, Lydia; García-Sancho, Mercedes; Agulla, Beatriz; Sainz, Ángel

    2017-03-13

    Different species of apicomplexan protozoans of the genera Hepatozoon and Cytauxzoon can infect domestic cats, but their epidemiology and clinical relevance are not fully understood. The aim of this study was to assess the molecular prevalence of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. and to identify associated risk factors and clinical and laboratory abnormalities in a population of cats from Madrid, Spain. Six hundred and forty-four client-owned and stray cats from Madrid, Spain, were included in this study. DNA samples were analyzed by two polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests to detect a partial sequence of the 18S rRNA gene of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon spp. In order to evaluate possible associations between infection by these protozoans and epidemiological or clinical parameters, data were collected related to: the season of sample collection, age, gender, spayed/neutered status, breed, living area, lifestyle, outdoor access, contact with other animals, prey on wild animals, history of tick or flea infestation, travel history, ectoparasiticide treatment, previous blood transfusion, previous tetracycline administration in the last 60 days, Feline Leukemia virus (FeLV) and Feline Immunodeficiency virus (FIV) status, positivity to other vector-borne diseases, the presence or absence of clinical signs and hematological or biochemical alterations. DNA of Hepatozoon spp. and Cytauxzoon sp. was amplified from the blood of 10 (1.6%) and 8 (1.2%) cats, respectively. Previous treatment with tetracyclines in the last 60 days, previous administration of blood transfusion, a decrease in haematocrit and an increase in creatinine were associated with Hepatozoon spp. infection. Cytauxzoon sp. infection was more frequent in samples collected during the winter months and in cats living in rural areas. This infection was associated with a FIV-positive status. Some of the cats that were positive for Hepatozoon spp. or Cytauxzoon sp. had been exposed to other vector

  14. [Scattered light and glare sensitivity after wavefront-guided photorefractive keratectomy (WFG-PRK) and laser in situ keratomileusis (WFG-LASIK)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignal, R; Tanzer, D; Brunstetter, T; Schallhorn, S

    2008-05-01

    To compare glare sensitivity measured by the intraocular scattered light between WFG-PRK and WFG-LASIK at 12 months follow-up and to assess its correlation to patients' complaints. Prospective and randomized study on 13 patients treated with WFG-LASIK, 13 patients with WFG-PRK and a control group of 35 patients. The intraocular stray light was measured by the Oculus C-Quant 12 months after surgery and before surgery for the control group. Photopic and mesopic contrast acuity and glare symptoms were reported pre- and postoperatively. Stray light values were normal in 79% of patients after WFG-LASIK and PRK and 86% in the control group, with mean values of 1.05 log, 1.03 log, and 0.99 log, respectively (p>0.05). All the patients with significant glare complaints had impaired stray light values versus 31.5% in the no-complaint group. Photopic and mesopic contrast acuity and glare symptoms were improved 1 year after surgery compared to preoperatively (no significant difference between groups). WFG-LASIK and PRK are safe and equivalent procedures regarding quality of vision. The measurement of stray light can be a discriminative test to assessing patients' glare complaints.

  15. Factors affecting the prevalence of mange-mite infestations in stray dogs of Yucatán, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Vivas, R I; Ortega-Pacheco, A; Rosado-Aguilar, J A; Bolio, G M E

    2003-07-10

    The aim of the present study was to determine the factors affecting the prevalence of mange-mite infestations in stray dogs of Yucatán, Mexico. The study was carried out in 200 stray dogs of Mérida capital city of Yucatán, Mexico. Four samples (head, thoracic-abdominal area, extremities and ear) were taken from each animal by skin scraping and examined microscopically in 10% KOH solution to detect the presence of mites. Mites were also collected from the external ear canal of dogs using cotton-tipped swabs. The prevalence of different mite species was calculated. A primary screening was performed using 2xK contingency tables of exposure variables. All variables with PDemodex canis (23.0%) was the most frequent mite, followed by Sarcoptes scabei var. canis (7.0%) and Otodectes cynotis (3.5%). The following factors were found: body condition (bad, OR: 5.35, CI 95%: 1.66-17.3; regular, OR: 3.72, CI 95%: 1.39-9.99) and the presence of macroscopic lesions of dermatosis (OR: 42.80, CI 95%: 13.65-134.24).

  16. Prevalence of Echinococcus granulosus taeniasis in stray dogs in the region of Constantine (North-East Algeria).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohil, K; Benchikh El Fegoun, M C; Gharbi, M

    2017-10-01

    In North Africa, the domestic dog is regarded as the main reservoir for infection by Echinococcus granulosus of domestic livestock and man. In Algeria, there is very little data on the rate of infestation of dogs, while the prevalence of E. granulosus in the definitive host is a very reliable marker of the potential risk of transmission of cystic tapeworm to humans and livestock. To find out this information, a survey was conducted to assess the prevalence of infection with E. granulosus in stray dogs in the region of Constantine (North-East Algeria). We autopsied and examined 120 stray dogs, 22 (18.3%) of which were infected with E. granulosus, with an average intensity of infestation of 249 worms. The prevalence in the area of survey was evaluated: 15.5% (14/90) and 26.6% (8/30) dogs were parasitized by E. granulosus in urban and rural areas respectively. The influence of age on the rate of infection was very marked. In addition, the appreciation of the prevalence of parasitism by cestodes as a whole showed that 56 (46.6%) animals out of 120 were infected. Facing such a situation of endemic tapeworm parasitism, with a potential risk of transmission to humans, there is an urgent need to take measures to control and break the epidemiological cycles of the parasite.

  17. Stray current induced corrosion in lightning rod cables of 525 kV power lines towers: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojcicki, F. R.; Negrisoli, M. E. M.; Franco, C. V.

    2003-01-01

    With the growth of several areas in modern society, the necessity to generate and carry electrical energy to big cities has greatly increased. Cables supported by power towers with galvanized steel foundation usually carry energy. As the foundations are underground they may cause high rates of corrosion. These are usually detected by a conventional potential measurement using a Cu/CuSO 4 reference electrode. It is believed that corrosion results from stray currents that flow through the ground to close the loop between neighboring towers. Stray currents originate in the lightning rod cables of the power line towers, induced by the strong electromagnetic and electric fields of the energized power lines. The intensity and direction of those currents were measured, indicating substantial values of both their AC and DC components. The potential of the tower ground system, measured in the perpendicular direction of the main axis of the power line, was plotted as a function of the distance to the tower base. The results clearly indicated the tendency to corrosive attack in the anodic towers as reflected by the slope of the plot, whereas no signs of corrosion could be found in the reverse slope, confirming the visual inspection of the foundation. The profile of the potential plots could be changed providing the electric insulation of the lightning rod cable. (Author) 8 refs

  18. Message Collision Avoidance Protocols for Detecting Stray Nodes in a Scuba Diving Group Using Ultrasonic Multi-Hop Message Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Kaido

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have seen a growing interest in underwater communication and some progress has been made in this area. However, underwater communication is still immature compared with terrestrial communication. A prime reason for this is that the underwater environment is intrinsically not suitable for propagation of electric waves. Instead, ultrasonic waves are mainly used for underwater communication. Since ultrasonic waves cannot provide sufficient communication speed or capacity, they cannot use existing network technologies, which assume use of radio waves. In particular, communication in shallow water is still an uncharted territory. Few communication technologies are employed in environments where people enjoy scuba diving. This paper addresses problems faced by recreational scuba divers. It proposes constructing an ad hoc mesh-shaped network between divers within a group and use ultrasonic waves as transmission media in order to enable the detection of a stray diver. It also proposes a communication protocol in which messages are relayed in multiple hops, and a message collision avoidance method, which is intended to reduce the rate of packet loss caused by message propagation delay. We have implemented the proposed methods in a network simulator, and compared them with an existing communication method that has no message collision avoidance function, in terms of the packet loss rate, the stray driver detection rate, and the rate of the ability to communicate in multiple hops.

  19. Dexamethasone suppression test

    Science.gov (United States)

    DST; ACTH suppression test; Cortisol suppression test ... During this test, you will receive dexamethasone. This is a strong man-made (synthetic) glucocorticoid medicine. Afterward, your blood is drawn ...

  20. Matrix light and pixel light: optical system architecture and requirements to the light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinger, Benno; Timinger, Andreas L.

    2015-09-01

    Modern Automotive headlamps enable improved functionality for more driving comfort and safety. Matrix or Pixel light headlamps are not restricted to either pure low beam functionality or pure high beam. Light in direction of oncoming traffic is selectively switched of, potential hazard can be marked via an isolated beam and the illumination on the road can even follow a bend. The optical architectures that enable these advanced functionalities are diverse. Electromechanical shutters and lens units moved by electric motors were the first ways to realize these systems. Switching multiple LED light sources is a more elegant and mechanically robust solution. While many basic functionalities can already be realized with a limited number of LEDs, an increasing number of pixels will lead to more driving comfort and better visibility. The required optical system needs not only to generate a desired beam distribution with a high angular dynamic, but also needs to guarantee minimal stray light and cross talk between the different pixels. The direct projection of the LED array via a lens is a simple but not very efficient optical system. We discuss different optical elements for pre-collimating the light with minimal cross talk and improved contrast between neighboring pixels. Depending on the selected optical system, we derive the basic light source requirements: luminance, surface area, contrast, flux and color homogeneity.

  1. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in co...

  2. Molecular and serological surveillance of canine enteric viruses in stray dogs from Vila do Maio, Cape Verde.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castanheira, Pedro; Duarte, Ana; Gil, Solange; Cartaxeiro, Clara; Malta, Manuel; Vieira, Sara; Tavares, Luis

    2014-04-23

    Infections caused by canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in dogs worldwide. Prior to this study, no information was available concerning the incidence and prevalence of these viruses in Cape Verde archipelago. To provide information regarding the health status of the canine population in Vila do Maio, Maio Island, Cape Verde, 53 rectal swabs were collected from 53 stray dogs during 2010 and 93 rectal swabs and 88 blood samples were collected from 125 stray dogs in 2011. All rectal swabs (2010 n = 53; 2011 n = 93) were analysed for the presence of canine parvovirus, canine distemper virus and canine coronavirus nucleic acids by quantitative PCR methods. Specific antibodies against canine distemper virus and canine parvovirus were also assessed (2011 n = 88).From the 2010 sampling, 43.3% (23/53) were positive for canine parvovirus DNA, 11.3% (6/53) for canine distemper virus RNA and 1.9% (1/53) for canine coronavirus RNA. In 2011, the prevalence values for canine parvovirus and canine coronavirus were quite similar to those from the previous year, respectively 44.1% (41/93), and 1.1% (1/93), but canine distemper virus was not detected in any of the samples analysed (0%, 0/93). Antibodies against canine parvovirus were detected in 71.6% (63/88) blood samples and the seroprevalence found for canine distemper virus was 51.1% (45/88). This study discloses the data obtained in a molecular and serological epidemiological surveillance carried out in urban populations of stray and domestic animals. Virus transmission and spreading occurs easily in large dog populations leading to high mortality rates particularly in unvaccinated susceptible animals. In addition, these animals can act as disease reservoirs for wild animal populations by occasional contact. Identification of susceptible wildlife of Maio Island is of upmost importance to evaluate the risk of pathogen spill over from

  3. What Do They Have That We Don't Have? Local Libraries and Distance Students: Why Do Students Stray and Can We Get Them Back?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behr, Michele; LaDell-Thomas, Julie

    2014-01-01

    A significant number of distance students report they "stray" from their home universities by using local libraries, despite the fact that distance education librarians work hard to provide customized resources and services tailored to their programs and needs. Are public libraries and special libraries able to meet the research needs of…

  4. Design and testing of a magnetic shield for the Thomson scattering photomultiplier tubes in the stray fields of the ERASMUS tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desoppere, E.; Van Oost, G.

    1983-01-01

    A multiple coaxial shield system has been designed for the photomultiplier tubes of the ERASMUS tokamak Thomson scattering diagnostic. A stray field of 75 x 10 -4 T was reduced to 0.01 x 10 -4 T for a field parallel to the tube axis, and to 0.03 x 10 -4 T for a perpendicular field

  5. Enabling Junction Temperature Estimation via Collector-Side Thermo-Sensitive Electrical Parameters through Emitter Stray Inductance in High-Power IGBT Modules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Haoze; Li, Wuhua; Iannuzzo, Francesco

    2018-01-01

    This paper proposes the adoption of the inherent emitter stray inductance LeE in high-power insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) modules as a new dynamic thermo-sensitive electrical parameter (d-TSEP). Furthermore, a family of 14 derived dynamic TSEP candidates has been extracted and classified...

  6. Anti-glare LED lamps with adjustable illumination light field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yung-Sheng; Lin, Chung-Yi; Yeh, Chun-Ming; Kuo, Chie-Tong; Hsu, Chih-Wei; Wang, Hsiang-Chen

    2014-03-10

    We introduce a type of LED light-gauge steel frame lamp with an adjustable illumination light field that does not require a diffusion plate. Base on the Monte Carlo ray tracing method, this lamp has a good glare rating (GR) of 17.5 at 3050 lm. Compared with the traditional LED light-gauge steel frame lamp (without diffusion plate), the new type has low GR. The adjustability of the illumination light field could improve the zebra effect caused by the inadequate illumination light field of the lamp. Meanwhile, we adopt the retinal image analysis to discuss the influence of GR on vision. High GR could reflect stray light on the retinal image, which will reduce vision clarity and hasten the feeling of eye fatigue.

  7. Visualization of gas dissolution following upward gas migration in porous media: Technique and implications for stray gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van De Ven, C. J. C.; Mumford, Kevin G.

    2018-05-01

    The study of gas-water mass transfer in porous media is important in many applications, including unconventional resource extraction, carbon storage, deep geological waste storage, and remediation of contaminated groundwater, all of which rely on an understanding of the fate and transport of free and dissolved gas. The novel visual technique developed in this study provided both quantitative and qualitative observations of gas-water mass transfer. Findings included interaction between free gas architecture and dissolved plume migration, plume geometry and longevity. The technique was applied to the injection of CO2 in source patterns expected for stray gas originating from oil and gas operations to measure dissolved phase concentrations of CO2 at high spatial and temporal resolutions. The data set is the first of its kind to provide high resolution quantification of gas-water dissolution, and will facilitate an improved understanding of the fundamental processes of gas movement and fate in these complex systems.

  8. Sensitivity Analysis and Stray Capacitance of Helical Flux Compression Generator with Multi Layer Filamentary Conductor in Rectangular Cross-Section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Mosleh

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an approach to calculate the equivalent stray capacitance (SC of n-turn of the helical flux compression generator (HFCG coil with multi layer conductor wire filaments (MLCWF in the form of rectangular cross-section. This approach is based on vespiary regular hexagonal (VRH model. In this method, wire filaments of the generator coil are separated into many very small similar elementary cells. By the expanded explosion in the liner and move explosion to the end of the liner, the coil turns number will be reduced. So, the equivalent SC of the HFCG will increase. The results show that by progress of explosion and decrease of the turns’ number in the generator coil total capacitance of the generator increases until the explosion reaches to the second turn. When only one turn remains in the circuit, a decrease occurs in the total capacitance of the generator.

  9. Intercomparison of radiation protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part III: Instrument response

    CERN Document Server

    Silari, M; Beck, P; Bedogni, R; Cale, E; Caresana, M; Domingo, C; Donadille, L; Dubourg, N; Esposito, A; Fehrenbacher, G; Fernández, F; Ferrarini, M; Fiechtner, A; Fuchs, A; García, M J; Golnik, N; Gutermuth, F; Khurana, S; Klages, Th; Latocha, M; Mares, V; Mayer, S; Radon, T; Reithmeier, H; Rollet, S; Roos, H; Rühm, W; Sandri, S; Schardt, D; Simmer, G; Spurný, F; Trompier, F; Villa-Grasa, C; Weitzenegger, E; Wiegel, B; Wielunski, M; Wissmann, F; Zechner, A; Zielczyński, M

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has funded within its 6th Framework Programme a three-year project (2005–2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organizational framework for this project was provided by the European radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. Work Package 6 of CONRAD dealt with “complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces” and in this context it organised a benchmark exercise, which included both measurements and calculations, in a stray radiation field at a high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany. The aim was to intercompare the response of several types of active detectors and passive dosemeters in a well-characterised workplace field. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers are discussed in Rollet et al. (2008) and in Wiegel et al. (2008). This paper focuses on the intercomparison of the response of the dosemeters in terms of ambient dose equivalent. Th...

  10. Endoparasites of Stray Dogs in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, Northeast Iran with Special Reference to Zoonotic Parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Adinezadeh

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To find out different species of helminthes and blood/tissue proto­zoan parasites of stray dogs and their potential role for transmission of zoonotic species to human in Mashhad, Khorasan Razavi Province, northeast Iran, during 2008-2009.Methods: Totally, 100 stray dogs were selected among Mashhad municipal collection from different sites of the city. Internal organs were examined for any parasites. Helminthes were identified based on morphological characteristics. Smears prepared from peripheral blood as well as liver, spleen and any skin lesion were stained by Giemsa and examined microscopically. Samples obtained from spleen were aseptically cultured in three culture media including NNN, Schneider’s Drosophila (HIMEDIA and RPMI1640 (GIBCO for isolation of Leishmania spp. The titer of anti-Leishmania and anti-Toxoplasma antibodies were measured by direct agglutination test (DAT and indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT, respectively.Results: 84% of dogs were infected at least with one species of intestinal helminthes. The species of parasites and rate of infection were as follows: Taenia hydatigena (61%, Dipylidium caninum (46%, Mesocestoides lineatus (19%, Echinococcus granulosus (10%, Toxascaris leonina (53% and Toxocara canis (7%. Anti-Leishmania antibodies were detected by DAT in 8 dogs (8% at 1:320 titers and higher. Forty seven dogs (47% showed anti-Toxoplasma titer at 1:10 and 17 (17% showed titer of ≥1:100. No blood parasites were found in prepared blood smears.Conclusion: The high rate of parasitic infection and presence of zoonotic species

  11. Deconstructing continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Eunice; Blake, Randolph

    2012-03-08

    In this paper, we asked to what extent the depth of interocular suppression engendered by continuous flash suppression (CFS) varies depending on spatiotemporal properties of the suppressed stimulus and CFS suppressor. An answer to this question could have implications for interpreting the results in which CFS influences the processing of different categories of stimuli to different extents. In a series of experiments, we measured the selectivity and depth of suppression (i.e., elevation in contrast detection thresholds) as a function of the visual features of the stimulus being suppressed and the stimulus evoking suppression, namely, the popular "Mondrian" CFS stimulus (N. Tsuchiya & C. Koch, 2005). First, we found that CFS differentially suppresses the spatial components of the suppressed stimulus: Observers' sensitivity for stimuli of relatively low spatial frequency or cardinally oriented features was more strongly impaired in comparison to high spatial frequency or obliquely oriented stimuli. Second, we discovered that this feature-selective bias primarily arises from the spatiotemporal structure of the CFS stimulus, particularly within information residing in the low spatial frequency range and within the smooth rather than abrupt luminance changes over time. These results imply that this CFS stimulus operates by selectively attenuating certain classes of low-level signals while leaving others to be potentially encoded during suppression. These findings underscore the importance of considering the contribution of low-level features in stimulus-driven effects that are reported under CFS.

  12. A Method for Suppressing Superconductivity of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suppula, Tarmo; Pekola, Jukka; Kauppinen, Juha

    2003-03-01

    We have developed a method for suppressing superconductivity of thin films. Thin stripes of cobalt grown by e-gun evaporation and patterned by e-beam lithography were placed in the vicinity of aluminium thin film structures. The cobalt stripes were magnetized at 4.2 K with a superconducting coil and the remanence suppressed superconductivity of the Al stripe at temperatures down to 50 mK at least. The magnetization remained in thermal cycling and in a longer storage at room temperature. Motivation for this work is the Coulomb Blockade Thermometer(CBT)^1 which has to be in a normal state to operate. The CBT sensor contains aluminium which is superconducting at temperatures below 1.4 K. An external magnetic field is not always available or acceptable in cryostats. A small grain of permanent magnet mounted to the sensor is another solution, but suspicious if the sensor is put in strong magnetic fields or if "zero field" environment is required. We have shown that suitably patterned and magnetized Co stripes in the vicinity of tunnel junctions of the CBT can solve this problem. The amount of magnetic material in the sensor, as well as the stray field, is very small. This technique may be useful in other low temperature thin film devices also. 1) Product of Nanoway Ltd.

  13. The ctenidium of the giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, expresses an ammonium transporter 1 that displays light-suppressed gene and protein expression and may be involved in ammonia excretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boo, Mel V; Hiong, Kum C; Goh, Enan J K; Choo, Celine Y L; Wong, Wai P; Chew, Shit F; Ip, Yuen K

    2018-04-24

    Ammonium transporters (AMTs) can participate in ammonia uptake or excretion across the plasma membrane of prokaryotic, plant and invertebrate cells. The giant clam, Tridacna squamosa, harbors nitrogen-deficient symbiotic zooxanthellae, and normally conducts light-enhanced ammonia absorption to benefit the symbionts. Nonetheless, it can excrete ammonia when there is a supply of exogenous nitrogen or exposed to continuous darkness. This study aimed to elucidate the role of AMT1 in the ctenidium of T. squamosa by cloning and characterizing the AMT1/AMT1, determining its subcellular localization, and examining changes in its transcript and protein expression levels in response to light exposure. The cDNA coding sequence of AMT1 from T. squamosa consisted of 1527 bp and encoded 508 amino acids of 54.6 kDa. AMT1-immunofluorescence was detected mainly at the apical epithelium of ctenidial filaments, and it decreased significantly after 12 h of exposure to light. By contrast, the epithelial cells surrounding the tertiary water channels in the ctentidium, which are known to exhibit light-enhanced glutamine synthetase expression and take part in the assimilation of exogenous ammonia in light, did not display any AMT1-immunolabelling. Furthermore, the transcript level and protein abundance of ctenidial AMT1/AMT1 decreased significantly at the 6th and 12th h of light exposure. Taken together, these results indicate that AMT1 might participate in ammonia excretion instead of ammonia absorption and assimilation in T. squamosa. It is probable that the expression levels of AMT1/AMT1 need to be down-regulated during light exposure to achieve light-enhanced ammonia uptake.

  14. White Light Generation in Human Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santhosh, C.; Dharmadhikari, A. K.; Dharmadhikari, J. A.; Alti, K.; Mathur, D.

    2011-07-01

    Interaction of intense, femto-second pulses of infrared light (800 nm) with water generates white light supercontinuum due to nonlinear optical effects. This supercontinuum was found to be suppressed by the addition of alpha amylase, a major protein in the human saliva. We have studied the suppression of supper continuum by human saliva, collected from healthy subjects with and without smoking habits. Suppression of the blue-sided components was observed significantly in non-smokers saliva than chain smokers.

  15. Water relations, gas exchange and growth of dominant and suppressed shoots of Arbutus unedo L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, C; Terradas, J

    1995-06-01

    Basal shoots produced by Arbutus unedo L. after cutting at ground level vary in size and growth rate, and are classified accordingly as dominant or suppressed. The suppressed shoots eventually cease growth and die. In this study, we investigated the role of light and water in the competition among shoots of A. unedo. Dominant and suppressed shoots of A. unedo showed similar leaf water potentials and tissue water relations over the year, suggesting that water status is not responsible for the lack of flushing in suppressed shoots. Although suppressed shoots did not flush under low light, they showed many characteristics of shade-tolerant plants. Leaves of suppressed shoots had lower leaf conductance and light-saturated photosynthetic rate, and higher specific leaf area than leaves of dominant shoots. We conclude that light was the main resource determining competition among shoots and the death of suppressed shoots.

  16. Measurement of stray radiation within a scanning proton therapy facility: EURADOS WG9 intercomparison exercise of active dosimetry systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farah, J., E-mail: jad.farah@irsn.fr; Trompier, F. [Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), Pôle Radioprotection de l’Homme, BP17, Fontenay-aux-Roses 92260 (France); Mares, V.; Schinner, K.; Wielunski, M. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg 85764 (Germany); Romero-Expósito, M.; Domingo, C. [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellaterra E-08193 (Spain); Trinkl, S. [Helmholtz Zentrum München, Institute of Radiation Protection, Ingolstädter Landstraße 1, Neuherberg 85764, Germany and Physik-Department, Technische Universität München, Garching 85748 (Germany); Dufek, V. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Břehová 7, Prague 115 19, Czech Republic and National Radiation Protection Institute, Bartoškova 28, Prague 140 00 (Czech Republic); Klodowska, M.; Liszka, M.; Stolarczyk, L.; Olko, P. [Institute of Nuclear Physics PAN, Radzikowskiego 152, Krakow 31-342 (Poland); Kubancak, J. [Czech Technical University in Prague, FNSPE, Břehová 7, Prague 115 19, Czech Republic and Department of Radiation Dosimetry, Nuclear Physics Institute, Řež CZ-250 68 (Czech Republic); and others

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: To characterize stray radiation around the target volume in scanning proton therapy and study the performance of active neutron monitors. Methods: Working Group 9 of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS WG9—Radiation protection in medicine) carried out a large measurement campaign at the Trento Centro di Protonterapia (Trento, Italy) in order to determine the neutron spectra near the patient using two extended-range Bonner sphere spectrometry (BSS) systems. In addition, the work focused on acknowledging the performance of different commercial active dosimetry systems when measuring neutron ambient dose equivalents, H{sup ∗}(10), at several positions inside (8 positions) and outside (3 positions) the treatment room. Detectors included three TEPCs—tissue equivalent proportional counters (Hawk type from Far West Technology, Inc.) and six rem-counters (WENDI-II, LB 6411, RadEye™ NL, a regular and an extended-range NM2B). Meanwhile, the photon component of stray radiation was deduced from the low-lineal energy transfer part of TEPC spectra or measured using a Thermo Scientific™ FH-40G survey meter. Experiments involved a water tank phantom (60 × 30 × 30 cm{sup 3}) representing the patient that was uniformly irradiated using a 3 mm spot diameter proton pencil beam with 10 cm modulation width, 19.95 cm distal beam range, and 10 × 10 cm{sup 2} field size. Results: Neutron spectrometry around the target volume showed two main components at the thermal and fast energy ranges. The study also revealed the large dependence of the energy distribution of neutrons, and consequently of out-of-field doses, on the primary beam direction (directional emission of intranuclear cascade neutrons) and energy (spectral composition of secondary neutrons). In addition, neutron mapping within the facility was conducted and showed the highest H{sup ∗}(10) value of ∼51 μSv Gy{sup −1}; this was measured at 1.15 m along the beam axis. H{sup ∗}(10) values

  17. Magnetic charge distribution and stray field landscape of asymmetric néel walls in a magnetically patterned exchange bias layer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingsem, Norbert; Ahrend, Florian; Vock, Silvia; Gottlob, Daniel; Krug, Ingo; Doganay, Hatice; Holzinger, Dennis; Neu, Volker; Ehresmann, Arno

    2017-12-01

    The 3D stray field landscape above an exchange bias layer system with engineered domain walls has been fully characterized by quantitative magnetic force microscopy (qMFM) measurements. This method is based on a complete quantification of the MFM tip’s imaging properties and the subtraction of its contribution from the measured MFM data by deconvolution in Fourier space. The magnetically patterned Ir17Mn83/Co70Fe30-exchange-bias-multilayers have been designed to contain asymmetric head-to-head (hh)/tail-to-tail (tt) Néel walls between domains of different magnetic anisotropies for potential use in guided particle transport. In the current application, qMFM reveals the effective magnetic charge profile on the surface of the sample—with high spatial resolution and in an absolute quantitative manner. These data enable to calculate the magnetostatic potential and the full stray field landscape above the sample surface. It has been successfully tested against: (i) micromagnetic simulations of the magnetization structure of a comparable exchange-bias layer system, (ii) measurements of the magnetization profile across the domain boundary with x-ray photoemission electron microscopy, and (iii) direct stray field measurements obtained by scanning Hall probe microscopy at elevated scan heights. This approach results in a quantitative determination of the stray field landscape at close distances to the sample surface, which will be of importance for remote magnetic particle transport applications in lab-on-a-chip devices. Furthermore, the highly resolving and quantitative MFM approach reveals details of the domain transition across the artificially structured phase boundary, which have to be attributed to a continuous change in the materials parameters across this boundary, rather than an abrupt one.

  18. Source-Sink Estimates of Genetic Introgression Show Influence of Hatchery Strays on Wild Chum Salmon Populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Jasper, James R.; Habicht, Christopher; Moffitt, Steve; Brenner, Rich; Marsh, Jennifer; Lewis, Bert; Creelman Fox, Elisabeth; Grauvogel, Zac; Rogers Olive, Serena D.; Grant, W. Stewart

    2013-01-01

    The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) in Prince William Sound (PWS), Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers. H...

  19. SU-E-T-598: Parametric Equation for Quick and Reliable Estimate of Stray Neutron Doses in Proton Therapy and Application for Intracranial Tumor Treatments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonfrate, A; Farah, J; Sayah, R; Clairand, I [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-roses (France); De Marzi, L; Delacroix, S [Institut Curie Centre de Protontherapie d Orsay (CPO), Orsay (France); Herault, J [Centre Antoine Lacassagne (CAL) Cyclotron biomedical, Nice (France); Lee, C [National Cancer Institute, Rockville, MD (United States); Bolch, W [Univ Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Development of a parametric equation suitable for a daily use in routine clinic to provide estimates of stray neutron doses in proton therapy. Methods: Monte Carlo (MC) calculations using the UF-NCI 1-year-old phantom were exercised to determine the variation of stray neutron doses as a function of irradiation parameters while performing intracranial treatments. This was done by individually changing the proton beam energy, modulation width, collimator aperture and thickness, compensator thickness and the air gap size while their impact on neutron doses were put into a single equation. The variation of neutron doses with distance from the target volume was also included in it. Then, a first step consisted in establishing the fitting coefficients by using 221 learning data which were neutron absorbed doses obtained with MC simulations while a second step consisted in validating the final equation. Results: The variation of stray neutron doses with irradiation parameters were fitted with linear, polynomial, etc. model while a power-law model was used to fit the variation of stray neutron doses with the distance from the target volume. The parametric equation fitted well MC simulations while establishing fitting coefficients as the discrepancies on the estimate of neutron absorbed doses were within 10%. The discrepancy can reach ∼25% for the bladder, the farthest organ from the target volume. Finally, the validation showed results in compliance with MC calculations since the discrepancies were also within 10% for head-and-neck and thoracic organs while they can reach ∼25%, again for pelvic organs. Conclusion: The parametric equation presents promising results and will be validated for other target sites as well as other facilities to go towards a universal method.

  20. Sodium fire suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malet, J C [DSN/SESTR, Centre de Cadarache, Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    1979-03-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  1. Sodium fire suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    Ignition and combustion studies have provided valuable data and guidelines for sodium fire suppression research. The primary necessity is to isolate the oxidant from the fuel, rather than to attempt to cool the sodium below its ignition temperature. Work along these lines has led to the development of smothering tank systems and a dry extinguishing powder. Based on the results obtained, the implementation of these techniques is discussed with regard to sodium fire suppression in the Super-Phenix reactor. (author)

  2. Stray dogs as indicators of Toxoplasma gondii distributed in the environment: the first report across an urban-rural gradient in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Chao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Toxoplasmosis is an important parasitic zoonosis caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii that is distributed world-wide and infects a variety of hosts. However, the prevalence of T. gondii in the environment (such as soil, water and food is largely unknown. Due to the technical difficulty in oocyst counting directly, an alternative assay using the serologic status of T. gondii in free-living animals, such as stray or free-living dogs, as an indicator, can be used to evaluate environmental contamination indirectly, as they are exposed to the same risk of infection as humans and other animals. Results In the present study, 231 stray or free-living dogs across an urban-rural gradient were examined to assess the frequency of T. gondii in the environment. Specific antibodies to T. gondii were found in 93 dogs (40.3% by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, and no statistically significant differences were observed in seroprevalences of T. gondii between urban dogs (38.7% and rural dogs (41% (p > 0.05. Conclusions A high seroprevalence of T. gondii in stray or free-living dogs in the present study indicates that there would be a wide distribution and a constant infection pressure of T. gondii across an urban-rural gradient, and the oocysts of T. gondii in the environment would be an important source of infection for humans and other animals both in urban and rural areas in China.

  3. 3D Printing of Polymer-Bonded Rare-Earth Magnets With a Variable Magnetic Compound Fraction for a Predefined Stray Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Christian; Abert, Claas; Bruckner, Florian; Groenefeld, Martin; Schuschnigg, Stephan; Teliban, Iulian; Vogler, Christoph; Wautischer, Gregor; Windl, Roman; Suess, Dieter

    2017-08-25

    Additive manufacturing of polymer-bonded magnets is a recently developed technique, for single-unit production, and for structures that have been impossible to manufacture previously. Also, new possibilities to create a specific stray field around the magnet are triggered. The current work presents a method to 3D print polymer-bonded magnets with a variable magnetic compound fraction distribution. This means the saturation magnetization can be adjusted during the printing process to obtain a required external field of the manufactured magnets. A low-cost, end-user 3D printer with a mixing extruder is used to mix permanent magnetic filaments with pure polyamide (PA12) filaments. The magnetic filaments are compounded, extruded, and characterized for the printing process. To deduce the quality of the manufactured magnets with a variable magnetic compound fraction, an inverse stray field framework is developed. The effectiveness of the printing process and the simulation method is shown. It can also be used to manufacture magnets that produce a predefined stray field in a given region. This opens new possibilities for magnetic sensor applications. This setup and simulation framework allows the design and manufacturing of polymer-bonded permanent magnets, which are impossible to create with conventional methods.

  4. Comparison of the performance of different instruments in the stray neutron field around the CERN Proton Synchrotron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aza, Eleni; Caresana, Marco; Cassell, Christopher; Colombo, Valeria; Damjanovic, Sanja; Gilardoni, Simone; Manessi, Giacomo Paolo; Pangallo, Michel; Perrin, Daniel; Silari, Marco

    2014-10-01

    This paper discusses an intercomparison campaign carried out in several locations around the CERN Proton Synchrotron. The locations were selected in order to perform the measurements in different stray field conditions. Various neutron detectors were employed: ionisation chambers, conventional and extended range rem counters, both commercial and prototype ones, including a novel instrument called LUPIN, specifically conceived to work in pulsed fields. The attention was focused on the potential differences in the instrument readings due to dead-time losses that are expected to affect most commercial units. The results show that the ionisation chambers and LUPIN agree well with the expected H*(10) values, as derived from FLUKA simulations, showing no relevant underestimations even in strongly pulsed fields. On the contrary, the dead-time losses of the other rem counters induced an underestimation in pulsed fields that was more important for instruments characterised by a higher dead time. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Non-Destructive Monitoring of Charge-Discharge Cycles on Lithium Ion Batteries using 7Li Stray-Field Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Joel A.; Dugar, Sneha; Zhong, Guiming; Dalal, Naresh S.; Zheng, Jim P.; Yang, Yong; Fu, Riqiang

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging provides a noninvasive method for in situ monitoring of electrochemical processes involved in charge/discharge cycling of batteries. Determining how the electrochemical processes become irreversible, ultimately resulting in degraded battery performance, will aid in developing new battery materials and designing better batteries. Here we introduce the use of an alternative in situ diagnostic tool to monitor the electrochemical processes. Utilizing a very large field-gradient in the fringe field of a magnet, stray-field-imaging (STRAFI) technique significantly improves the image resolution. These STRAFI images enable the real time monitoring of the electrodes at a micron level. It is demonstrated by two prototype half-cells, graphite∥Li and LiFePO4∥Li, that the high-resolution 7Li STRAFI profiles allow one to visualize in situ Li-ions transfer between the electrodes during charge/discharge cyclings as well as the formation and changes of irreversible microstructures of the Li components, and particularly reveal a non-uniform Li-ion distribution in the graphite. PMID:24005580

  6. Diagnosis of canine echinococcosis: comparison of coproantigen detection with necropsy in stray dogs and red foxes from northern Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shehabi F.S.

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA was used as a diagnostic test for Echinococcus granulosus infection by detecting coproantigens in 94 stray dogs Canis familiaris and eight red foxes (Vulpes vulpes from northern Jordan. The results were analyzed in relation to actual helminth infection as revealed by necropsy. The infection rate of dogs with E. granulosus was 13.8 % with a worm load ranging between 3 - > 10,000 per infected dog. In contrast, eight of 13 E. granulosus infected dogs were coproantigen positive (overall sensitivity 61.5 %. The sensitivity increased to 87.5 % and 100 % in dogs harboring > 20 and > 100 worms/dog, respectively. The specificity of coproantigen-ELISA was 91 %. The greatest cross-reactivity was found in dogs infected with Dipylidium caninum. The positive and negative predictive values for the coproantigen-ELISA test were 50 % and 94.2 %, respectively. Thus, a coproantigen negative dog is most probably truly negative for E. granulosus. In contrast, a coproantigen positive dog may not be truly positive for E. granulosus, except if it has a high worm burden of > 100 worms/animal.

  7. Ectoparasites in urban stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel: differences in infestation patterns of fleas, ticks and permanent ectoparasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salant, H; Mumcuoglu, K Y; Baneth, G

    2014-09-01

    In a period cross-sectional study performed to examine ectoparasites on 340 stray cats in Jerusalem, Israel, 186 (54.7%) were infested with the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae), 49 (14.4%) with the cat louse, Felicola subrostratus (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae), 41 (12.0%) with the ear mite, Otodectes cynotis (Astigmata: Psoroptidae), three (0.9%) with the fur mite, Cheyletiella blakei (Trobidiformes: Cheyletidae), two (0.6%) with the itch mite Notoedres cati (Astigmata: Sarcoptidae), and 25 (7.3%) with ticks of the species Rhipicephalus sanguineus sensu lato (Ixodida: Ixodidae), Rhipicephalus turanicus or Haemaphysalis adleri (Ixodida: Ixodidae). A higher number of flea infestations was observed in apparently sick cats (P < 0.05) and in cats aged < 6 months (P < 0.05). The proportion of flea-infested cats (P < 0.01), as well as the number of fleas per infested cat (P < 0.01), was higher in autumn than in other seasons. By contrast with findings in cats with flea infestations, rates of infestation with ticks were higher amongst cats with clinical signs (P < 0.01) and cats aged ≥ 6 months (P < 0.05). The high rates of ectoparasite infestation in the cats studied constitute a risk for the spread of vector-borne infections of zoonotic and veterinary importance. © 2013 The Royal Entomological Society.

  8. Intercomparison of radiation protection devices in a high-energy stray neutron field. Part III: Instrument response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silari, M.; Agosteo, S.; Beck, P.; Bedogni, R.; Cale, E.; Caresana, M.; Domingo, C.; Donadille, L.; Dubourg, N.; Esposito, A.; Fehrenbacher, G.; Fernandez, F.; Ferrarini, M.; Fiechtner, A.; Fuchs, A.; Garcia, M.J.; Golnik, N.; Gutermuth, F.; Khurana, S.; Klages, Th.

    2009-01-01

    The European Commission has funded within its 6th Framework Programme a three-year project (2005-2007) called CONRAD, COordinated Network for RAdiation Dosimetry. The organizational framework for this project was provided by the European radiation Dosimetry Group EURADOS. Work Package 6 of CONRAD dealt with 'complex mixed radiation fields at workplaces' and in this context it organised a benchmark exercise, which included both measurements and calculations, in a stray radiation field at a high-energy particle accelerator at GSI, Germany. The aim was to intercompare the response of several types of active detectors and passive dosemeters in a well-characterised workplace field. The Monte Carlo simulations of the radiation field and the experimental determination of the neutron spectra with various Bonner Sphere Spectrometers are discussed in Rollet et al. (2008) and in Wiegel et al. (2008). This paper focuses on the intercomparison of the response of the dosemeters in terms of ambient dose equivalent. The paper describes in detail the detectors employed in the experiment, followed by a discussion of the results. A comparison is also made with the H*(10) values predicted by the Monte Carlo simulations and those measured by the BSS systems.

  9. Suppression of superconductivity in Nb by IrMn in IrMn/Nb bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, B. L.

    2013-10-10

    Effect of antiferromagnet on superconductivity has been investigated in IrMn/Nb bilayers. Significant suppression of both transition temperature (Tc) and lower critical field (Hc1) of Nb is found in IrMn/Nb bilayers as compared to a single layer Nb of same thickness; the suppression effect is even stronger than that of a ferromagnet in NiFe/Nb bilayers. The addition of an insulating MgO layer at the IrMn-Nb interface nearly restores Tc to that of the single layer Nb, but Hc1 still remains suppressed. These results suggest that, in addition to proximity effect and magnetic impurity scattering, magnetostatic interaction also plays a role in suppressing superconductivity of Nb in IrMn/Nb bilayers. In addition to reduced Tc and Hc1, the IrMn layer also induces broadening in the transition temperature of Nb, which can be accounted for by a finite distribution of stray field from IrMn.

  10. CONDITIONS FOR CSR MICROBUNCHING GAIN SUPPRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Cheng Ying [Virginia Polytechnic Inst. and State Univ. (Virginia Tech), Blacksburg, VA (United States); Douglas, David R. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Li, Rui [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Tennant, Christopher D. [Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); di Mitri, Simone [Elettra–Sincrotrone Trieste, 34149 Basovizza, Trieste, Italy

    2016-05-01

    The coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR) of a high brightness electron beam traversing a series of dipoles, such as transport arcs, may result in phase space degradation. On one hand, the CSR can perturb electron transverse motion in dispersive regions along the beamline, causing emittance growth. On the other hand, the CSR effect on the longitudinal beam dynamics could result in microbunching gain enhancement. For transport arcs, several schemes have been proposed* to suppress the CSR-induced emittance growth. Similarly, several scenarios have been introduced** to suppress CSR-induced microbunching gain, which however mostly aim for linac-based machines. In this paper we try to provide sufficient conditions for suppression of CSR-induced microbunching gain along a transport arc, analogous to*. Several example lattices are presented, with the relevant microbunching analyses carried out by our semi-analytical Vlasov solver***. The simulation results show that lattices satisfying the proposed conditions indeed have microbunching gain suppressed. We expect this analysis can shed light on lattice design approach that could suppress the CSR-induced microbunching gain.

  11. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizumachi, Wataru; Fukuda, Akira; Kitaguchi, Hidemi; Shimizu, Toshiaki.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To relieve and absorb impact wave vibrations caused by steam and non-condensed gases releasing into the pressure suppression chamber at the time of an accident. Structure: The reactor container is filled with inert gases. A safety valve attached main steam pipe is provided to permit the excessive steam to escape, the valve being communicated with the pressure suppression chamber through an exhaust pipe. In the pressure suppression chamber, a doughnut-like cylindrical outer wall is filled at its bottom with pool water to condense the high temperature vapor released through the exhaust pipe. A head portion of a vent tube which leads the exhaust pipe is positioned at the top, and a down comer and an exhaust vent tube are locked by means of steady rests. At the bottom is mounted a pressure adsorber device which adsorbs a pressure from the pool water. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Thyroxin hormone suppression treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    One of the important modalities of treatment of thyroid cancer (TC) after surgery is the administration of thyroxin as an adjuvant treatment. The analysis supports the theory that thyroid suppression plays an important role in patient management. 300 μg of thyroxin, as this is an adequate dose for suppression is given. Ideally the dose should be tailored by testing s-TSH levels. However, since a large number of the patients come from out station cities and villages this is impractical. We therefore depend on clinical criteria of hyperthyroid symptoms and adjust the dose. Very few patients need such adjustment

  13. Stray current induced corrosion in lightning rod cables of 525 kV power lines towers: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojcicki, F. R.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of several areas in modem society, the necessity to generate and carry electrical energy to big cities has greatly increased. Cables supported by power towers with galvanized steel foundation usually carry energy. As the foundations are underground they may cause high rates of corrosion. These are usually detected by a conventional potential measurement using a Cu/CuSO4 reference electrode. It is believed that corrosion results from stray currents that flow through the ground to close the loop between neighboring towers. Stray currents originate in the lightning rod cables of the power line towers, induced by the strong electromagnetic and electric fields of the energized power lines. The intensity and direction of those currents were measured, indicating substantial values of both their AC and DC components. The potential of the tower ground system, measured in the perpendicular direction of the main axis of the power line, was plotted as a function of the distance to the tower base. The results clearly indicated the tendency to corrosive attack in the anodic towers as reflected by the slope of the plot, whereas no signs of corrosion could be found in the reverse slope, confirming the visual inspection of the foundation. The profile of the potential plots could be changed providing the electric insulation of the lightning rod cable.

    Con el crecimiento de varias áreas en la sociedad moderna, la necesidad de generar y conducir la energía eléctrica a las grandes ciudades ha aumentado enormemente. La energía, normalmente, se transporta por cables sostenidos por torres de energía con base de acero galvanizado. Cuando las bases son subterráneas, pueden ocasionar altas tasas de corrosión. Estas, normalmente, se detectan por la medida convencional del potencial empleando un electrodo de referencia de Cu/CuSO4. Se cree que la corrosión es el resultado de corrientes perdidas que fluyen a través de la

  14. Bacterial and protozoal agents of feline vector-borne diseases in domestic and stray cats from southern Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Feline vector-borne diseases (FVBD) have emerged in recent years, showing a wider geographic distribution and increased global prevalence. In addition to their veterinary importance, domestic cats play a central role in the transmission cycles of some FVBD agents by acting as reservoirs and sentinels, a circumstance that requires a One Health approach. The aim of the present work was to molecularly detect feline vector-borne bacteria and protozoa with veterinary and zoonotic importance, and to assess associated risk factors in cats from southern Portugal. Methods Six hundred and forty-nine cats (320 domestic and 329 stray), from veterinary medical centres and animal shelters in southern Portugal, were studied. Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., Babesia spp., Bartonella spp., Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, Hepatozoon spp. and Leishmania spp. infections were evaluated by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in blood samples. Results One hundred and ninety-four (29.9%) cats were PCR-positive to at least one of the tested genera or complex of FVBD agents. Sixty-four (9.9%) cats were positive to Leishmania spp., 56 (8.6%) to Hepatozoon spp., 43 (6.6%) to Babesia spp., 35 (5.4%) to Anaplasma spp./Ehrlichia spp., 19 (2.9%) to Bartonella spp. and 14 (2.2%) to B. burgdorferi s.l. Thirty-three (5.1%) cats were positive to two (n = 29) or three (n = 4) genera/complex. Babesia vogeli, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Bartonella henselae, Ehrlichia canis, Hepatozoon felis and Leishmania infantum were identified by DNA sequencing. Conclusions The occurrence of FVBD agents in southern Portugal, some of them with zoonotic character, emphasizes the need to alert the veterinary community, owners and public health authorities for the risk of infection. Control measures should be implemented to prevent the infection of cats, other vertebrate hosts and people. PMID:24655431

  15. Cognitive effects of head-movements in stray fields generated by a 7 Tesla whole-body MRI magnet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vocht, F; Stevens, T; Glover, P; Sunderland, A; Gowland, P; Kromhout, H

    2007-05-01

    The study investigates the impact of exposure to the stray magnetic field of a whole-body 7 T MRI scanner on neurobehavioral performance and cognition. Twenty seven volunteers completed four sessions, which exposed them to approximately 1600 mT (twice), 800 mT and negligible static field exposure. The order of exposure was assigned at random and was masked by placing volunteers in a tent to hide their position relative to the magnet bore. Volunteers completed a test battery assessing auditory working memory, eye-hand co-ordination, and visual perception. During three sessions the volunteers were instructed to complete a series of standardized head movements to generate additional time-varying fields ( approximately 300 and approximately 150 mT.s(-1) r.m.s.). In one session, volunteers were instructed to keep their heads as stable as possible. Performance on a visual tracking task was negatively influenced (P<.01) by 1.3% per 100 mT exposure. Furthermore, there was a trend for performance on two cognitive-motor tests to be decreased (P<.10). No effects were observed on working memory. Taken together with results of earlier studies, these results suggest that there are effects on visual perception and hand-eye co-ordination, but these are weak and variable between studies. The magnitude of these effects may depend on the magnitude of time-varying fields and not so much on the static field. While this study did not include exposure above 1.6 T, it suggests that use of strong magnetic fields is not a significant confounder in fMRI studies of cognitive function. Future work should further assess whether ultra-high field may impair performance of employees working in the vicinity of these magnets. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people. PMID:28141857

  17. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Diakou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90% was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3% cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7% for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53 multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24% and Dipylidium caninum (2%, while a high number of examined animals (58.8% had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2% and Leishmania infantum (6.1%. DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people.

  18. Intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in continental and insular Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diakou, Anastasia; Di Cesare, Angela; Accettura, Paolo Matteo; Barros, Luciano; Iorio, Raffaella; Paoletti, Barbara; Frangipane di Regalbono, Antonio; Halos, Lénaïg; Beugnet, Frederic; Traversa, Donato

    2017-01-01

    This survey investigated the distribution of various intestinal parasites and vector-borne pathogens in stray and free-roaming cats living in four regions of Greece. A total number of one hundred and fifty cats living in three Islands (Crete, Mykonos and Skopelos) and in Athens municipality was established as a realistic aim to be accomplished in the study areas. All cats were examined with different microscopic, serological and molecular assays aiming at evaluating the occurrence of intestinal parasites, and exposure to or presence of vector-borne infections. A total of 135 cats (90%) was positive for one or more parasites and/or pathogens transmitted by ectoparasites. Forty-four (29.3%) cats were positive for one single infection, while 91 (60.7%) for more than one pathogen. A high number of (n. 53) multiple infections caused by feline intestinal and vector-borne agents including at least one zoonotic pathogen was detected. Among them, the most frequently recorded helminths were roundworms (Toxocara cati, 24%) and Dipylidium caninum (2%), while a high number of examined animals (58.8%) had seroreaction for Bartonella spp., followed by Rickettsia spp. (43.2%) and Leishmania infantum (6.1%). DNA-based assays revealed the zoonotic arthropod-borne organisms Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, Rickettsia spp., and L. infantum. These results show that free-ranging cats living in areas of Greece under examination may be exposed to a plethora of internal parasites and vector-borne pathogens, some of them potentially able to infect humans. Therefore, epidemiological vigilance and appropriate control measures are crucial for the prevention and control of these infections and to minimize the risk of infection for people.

  19. Pressure suppressing device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naito, Makoto.

    1980-01-01

    Purpose: To prevent the pressure in the reactor container from excessively increasing even when vapor leaks from the dry well to a space of the suppression chamber, without passing though the suppression pool at the time of loss of coolant accident. Constitution: When vapor of a high temperature and a high pressure at the time of loss of coolant accident flows from the dry well to the suppression chamber without passing through suppression pool water, vapor dose not condense with pool water, and therefore the pressure within the chamber abnormally increases. For this reason, this abnormal pressure is detected by a pressure detector thereby to start the operations of a blower and a pump. By starting the blower, the pressure in the dry well becomes lower than the pressure in the chamber, and vapor entirely passes through the pool water and entirely condenses with the pool water. By starting the pump, the pool water is sprayed over the space of the chamber, and vapor in the space is condensed. (Yoshino, Y.)

  20. Analysis of stray grain formation in single crystal CMSX-4 superalloy; Analyse der Bildung von Fehlkoernern in einer einkristallinen CMSX-4-Superlegierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chmiela, Bartosz; Sozanska, Maria; Cwajna, Jan [Silesian Univ. of Technology, Katowice (Poland). Dept. of Materials Science; Szeliga, Dariusz [Rzeszow Univ. of Technology (Poland). Dept. of Materials Science; Jarczyk, Jerzy [ALD Vacuum Technologies, Hanau (Germany)

    2013-08-01

    Modern single crystal (SX) turbine blades are fabricated by directional solidification using a grain selector. The grain selection process was investigated by numerical simulation and verified by the experiment. A coupled ProCAST and cellular automaton finite element (CAFE) model was used in this study. According to the latest literature data, we designed the grain selector. Simulation confirmed an optimal grain selection efficiency of the applied selector geometry. The obtained experimental results reveal the possibility of stray grain formation in SX castings with a designed selector, in contrast to the simulation results. (orig.)

  1. J/Ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giubellino, P.; Abreu, M.C.; Alessandro, B.; Alexa, C.; Arnaldi, R.; Astruc, J.; Atayan, M.; Baglin, C.; Baldit, A.; Bedjidian, M.; Bellaiche, F.; Beole, S.; Boldea, V.; Bordalo, P.; Bussiere, A.; Capony, V.; Casagrande, L.; Castor, J.; Chambon, T.; Chaurand, B.; Chevrot, I.; Cheynis, B.; Chiavassa, E.; Cicalo, C.; Comets, M.P.; Constantinescu, S.; Cruz, J.; De Falco, A.; De Marco, N.; Dellacasa, G.; Devaux, A.; Dita, S.; Drapier, O.; Espagnon, B.; Fargeix, J.; Filippov, S.N.; Fleuret, F.; Force, P.; Gallio, M.; Gavrilov, Y.K.; Gerschel, C.; Giubellino, P.; Golubeva, M.B.; Gonin, M.; Grigorian, A.A.; Grossiord, J.Y.; Guber, F.F.; Guichard, A.; Gulkaninan, H.; Hakobyan, R.; Haroutunian, R.; Idzik, M.; Jouan, D.; Karavitcheva, T.L.; Kluberg, L.; Kurepin, A.B.; Le Bornec, Y.; Lourenco, C.; Mac Cormick, M.; Macciotta, P.; Marzari-Chiesa, A.; Masera, M.; Masoni, A.; Mehrabyan, S.; Mourgues, S.; Musso, A.; Ohlsson-Malek, F.; Petiau, P.; Piccotti, A.; Pizzi, J.R.; Prado da Silva, W.L.; Puddu, G.; Quintans, C.; Racca, C.; Ramello, L.; Ramos, S.; Rato-Mendes, P.; Riccati, L.; Romana, A.; Sartori, S.; Saturnini, P.; Scomparin, E.; Serci, S.; Shahoyan, R.; Silva, S.; Soave, C.; Sonderegger, P.; Tarrago, X.; Temnikov, P.; Topilskaya, N.S.; Usai, G.; Vale, C.; Vercellin, E.; Willis, N.

    1999-01-01

    The cross section for J/Ψ production in Pb-Pb interactions at 158 GeV per nucleon is measured at the CERN SPS by the NA50 experiment. The final results from the 1995 run are presented here together with preliminary ones from the high-statistics 1996 run. An anomalous J/Ψ suppression is observed in Pb-Pb collisions as compared to extrapolations of the previous results obtained by the NA38 experiment with proton and lighter ion beams. The results of the two runs are in good agreement. The results from the 1996 run allow the study of the onset of the anomalous suppression within the same set of data, showing evidence of a sharp change of behaviour around a value of neutral transverse energy, as measured by our electromagnetic calorimeter, of about 50 GeV

  2. Prevalence of haemoparasites in pet, working and stray dogs of Assam and North-East India: A hospital based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Bhattacharjee

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim:This research work is aimed to find out the prevalence of haemoparasitic infections in different categories of dogs.Materials and Methods: Out of 2104 dogs registered in the Teaching Veterinary Clinical Complex of the College ofVeterinary Science, Khanapara, Guwahati during January 2009 to December 2010, blood of 424 cases suspected forhaemoparasites on the basis of clinical history were microscopically examined in wet blood film and giemsa stained bloodsmears.Results: The prevalence was 57.31% in the hospital population comprising pet (58.03% and working (54.54% dogs and63.64% in stray dog population. A total of 7 species viz. Babesia gibsoni (47.16%, Ehrlichia (Anaplasma platys (8.49%,Dirofilaria immitis (2.83%, Ehrlichia canis (2.12%, Babesia canis (1.41%, Hepatozoon canis (1.41% and Ehrlichiaewingii (0.47% in single or mixed infections were recorded. B. gibsoni was found to be most predominant haemoprotozoanspecies. However, B. canis, the large form of Babesia was detected in very few dogs. Similarly, inclusion of E. platys insideblood platelets, although rare in occurrence, was more easily detectable than that of E. canis inside the monocytes andlymphocytes. Infection with D. immitis in pet dogs (2.38% was comparatively lower than in working dogs (4.54% and foundin single and mixed infections with B. gibsoni, B. canis and E. platys. Hepatozoon canis was recorded in 6 hospital dogs eitherin single or mixed infection with B. gibsoni and E. platys. Six species of haemoparasites namely B. gibsoni (47.72%, D.immitis (27.27%, E. platys (4.54%, E. canis (2.27%, E. ewingii (2.27% and H. canis (2.27% were detected in blood ofstray dogs. Trypanosoma evansi as recorded in dogs from other parts of the country was not detected in this study.Conclusion: Present findings led to a significant conclusion that Assam and adjoining states of North East region of India arehighly enzootic for the vector borne haemoparasites of dog.

  3. Protective immune response of oral rabies vaccine in stray dogs, corsacs and steppe wolves after a single immunization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhugunissov, K; Bulatov, Ye; Taranov, D; Yershebulov, Z; Koshemetov, Zh; Abduraimov, Ye; Kondibayeva, Zh; Samoltyrova, A; Amanova, Zh; Khairullin, B; Sansyzbay, A

    2017-11-01

    In this study the safety and protective immunity of an oral rabies vaccine, based on the live, modified rabies virus strain VRC-RZ2, was examined in stray dogs (Canis Sp.), corsacs (Vulpes corsac) and steppe wolves (Canis lupus campestris). In the safety group (dogs, n=6; corsacs, n=3; wolves, n=3) which was vaccinated with a 10-times field dose/animal, no animals showed any signs of disease or changes in behavior or appetite during the period of clinical observation, similar to the animals in the negative control group. Saliva samples taken from animals prior and post (5 th and 10 th days) vaccination failed to demonstrate rabies virus antigen. Observations of immunogenicity in vaccinated carnivores (dogs, corsacs and wolves) during a 180 day period showed the titers of virus neutralizing antibodies (VNA) in the blood sera of vaccinated dogs to be within 0.59-1.37 IU/mL. On 14 days post vaccination (dpv), all the wild carnivores had detectable levels of neutralizing antibodies, with mean titers ranging from 0.50 ± 0.07 IU/mL (for wolves) to 0.59 ± 0.10 IU/mL (for corsacs). Weeks after vaccination, all the vaccinated wolves and corsacs had higher levels of neutralizing antibodies: 0.70 ± 0.10 - 0.71 ± 0.08 IU/mL at 30 dpv, 1.06 ± 0.08 - 1.28 ± 0.21 IU/mL at 60 dpv and 0.41 ± 0.09 - 047 ± 0.06 at 180 dpv. The highest level of VNA (˃1.0 IU/ml) was detected at 60 dpv, in all vaccinated animals. After challenge all vaccinated dogs remained healthy for 180 days. Control animals (unvaccinated dogs) developed symptoms of rabies on day 6 post administration of a virulent virus and died of rabies on days 11-13. Of note, the VNA titers in all the wild carnivores (corsacs and wolves) immunized with VRC-RZ2 were higher than 0.5 IU/ml (0.59 ± 0.11 IU/ml), even as early as 14 days post vaccination. These, presumably protective, titers of antibodies to rabies virus were present in the dogs and wild carnivores examined in this study for at

  4. Stray Ecological Notes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenis, van C.G.G.J.

    1964-01-01

    1. Scarcity of fruit setting. In some Malesian plants from the rain-forest it is striking that fruit setting on the inflorescence is very late. Many flowers, sometimes hundreds, are produced without ever setting fruit and the entire inflorescence may finally bear but very few fruits situated at the

  5. Public lighting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The function of public lighting and the relationship between public lighting and accidents are considered briefly as aspects of effective countermeasures. Research needs and recent developments in installation and operational described. Public lighting is an efficient accident countermeasure, but

  6. Light Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  7. Source-sink estimates of genetic introgression show influence of hatchery strays on wild chum salmon populations in Prince William Sound, Alaska.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James R Jasper

    Full Text Available The extent to which stray, hatchery-reared salmon affect wild populations is much debated. Although experiments show that artificial breeding and culture influence the genetics of hatchery salmon, little is known about the interaction between hatchery and wild salmon in a natural setting. Here, we estimated historical and contemporary genetic population structures of chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta in Prince William Sound (PWS, Alaska, with 135 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers. Historical population structure was inferred from the analysis of DNA from fish scales, which had been archived since the late 1960's for several populations in PWS. Parallel analyses with microsatellites and a test based on Hardy-Weinberg proportions showed that about 50% of the fish-scale DNA was cross-contaminated with DNA from other fish. These samples were removed from the analysis. We used a novel application of the classical source-sink model to compare SNP allele frequencies in these archived fish-scales (1964-1982 with frequencies in contemporary samples (2008-2010 and found a temporal shift toward hatchery allele frequencies in some wild populations. Other populations showed markedly less introgression, despite moderate amounts of hatchery straying. The extent of introgression may reflect similarities in spawning time and life-history traits between hatchery and wild fish, or the degree that hybrids return to a natal spawning area. The source-sink model is a powerful means of detecting low levels of introgression over several generations.

  8. The legal status of cats in New Zealand: a perspective on the welfare of companion, stray, and feral domestic cats (Felis catus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnworth, Mark J; Dye, Nicholson G; Keown, Natasha

    2010-01-01

    Pinpointing and safeguarding the welfare status of domestic cats is problematic, especially in New Zealand where cats are introduced predators with significant impact on indigenous fauna. Usually the identification of welfare status depends on conservational, legal, and public attitudes that are often contrasting. Cats may rapidly transgress definitions placed on them, confounding attempts to categorize them. In 1 generation, cats can move from a human-dependent state ("stray" or "companion") to wild ("feral"). Often this categorization uses arbitrary behavioral and or situational parameters; consequent treatment and welfare protection for these cats are similarly affected. Terminology used to describe cats is not equitable across research. However, the New Zealand Animal Welfare (Companion Cats) Code of Welfare 2007 seeks to create a new definition of the terms companion, stray, and feral. It distinguishes between cats who live within and without human social constructs. This legislation mandates that cats in human environments or indirectly dependent on humans cannot be classified as feral. Such definitions may prove vital when safeguarding the welfare of free-living domestic cats and cat colonies.

  9. Model of inter-cell interference phenomenon in 10 nm magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular anisotropy array due to oscillatory stray field from neighboring cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohuchida, Satoshi; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, we propose a new model of inter-cell interference phenomenon in a 10 nm magnetic tunnel junction with perpendicular anisotropy (p-MTJ) array and investigated the interference effect between a program cell and unselected cells due to the oscillatory stray field from neighboring cells by Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert micromagnetic simulation. We found that interference brings about a switching delay in a program cell and excitation of magnetization precession in unselected cells even when no programing current passes through. The origin of interference is ferromagnetic resonance between neighboring cells. During the interference period, the precession frequency of the program cell is 20.8 GHz, which synchronizes with that of the theoretical precession frequency f = γH eff in unselected cells. The disturbance strength of unselected cells decreased to be inversely proportional to the cube of the distance from the program cell, which is in good agreement with the dependence of stray field on the distance from the program cell calculated by the dipole approximation method.

  10. A simple and fast physics-based analytical method to calculate therapeutic and stray doses from external beam, megavoltage x-ray therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagetic, Lydia J; Newhauser, Wayne D

    2015-06-21

    State-of-the-art radiotherapy treatment planning systems provide reliable estimates of the therapeutic radiation but are known to underestimate or neglect the stray radiation exposures. Most commonly, stray radiation exposures are reconstructed using empirical formulas or lookup tables. The purpose of this study was to develop the basic physics of a model capable of calculating the total absorbed dose both inside and outside of the therapeutic radiation beam for external beam photon therapy. The model was developed using measurements of total absorbed dose in a water-box phantom from a 6 MV medical linear accelerator to calculate dose profiles in both the in-plane and cross-plane direction for a variety of square field sizes and depths in water. The water-box phantom facilitated development of the basic physical aspects of the model. RMS discrepancies between measured and calculated total absorbed dose values in water were less than 9.3% for all fields studied. Computation times for 10 million dose points within a homogeneous phantom were approximately 4 min. These results suggest that the basic physics of the model are sufficiently simple, fast, and accurate to serve as a foundation for a variety of clinical and research applications, some of which may require that the model be extended or simplified based on the needs of the user. A potentially important advantage of a physics-based approach is that the model is more readily adaptable to a wide variety of treatment units and treatment techniques than with empirical models.

  11. A pilot study examining density of suppression measurement in strabismus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piano, Marianne; Newsham, David

    2015-01-01

    Establish whether the Sbisa bar, Bagolini filter (BF) bar, and neutral density filter (NDF) bar, used to measure density of suppression, are equivalent and possess test-retest reliability. Determine whether density of suppression is altered when measurement equipment/testing conditions are changed. Our pilot study had 10 subjects aged ≥18 years with childhood-onset strabismus, no ocular pathologies, and no binocular vision when manifest. Density of suppression upon repeated testing, with clinic lights on/off, and using a full/reduced intensity light source, was investigated. Results were analysed for test-retest reliability, equivalence, and changes with alteration of testing conditions. Test-retest reliability issues were present for the BF bar (median 6 filter change from first to final test, p = 0.021) and NDF bar (median 5 filter change from first to final test, p = 0.002). Density of suppression was unaffected by environmental illumination or fixation light intensity variations. Density of suppression measurements were higher when measured with the NDF bar (e.g. NDF bar = 1.5, medium suppression, vs BF bar = 6.5, light suppression). Test-retest reliability issues may be present for the two filter bars currently still under manufacture. Changes in testing conditions do not significantly affect test results, provided the same filter bar is used consistently for testing. Further studies in children with strabismus having active amblyopia treatment would be of benefit. Despite extensive use of these tests in the UK, this is to our knowledge the first study evaluating filter bar equivalence/reliability.

  12. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Aabo, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light...... propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation...

  13. The pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aust, E.

    1985-01-01

    Nuclear plants with boiling water reactors have a safety containment with a pressure suppression system (PSS). Proceeding on significant self-developments, today the three PSS-lines of General Electric Co. (GE), Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) and ASEA-ATOM are predominant, which are currently represented by the MARK III type, the KWU type 72 and the BWR 75 containment. In addition, there are special developments for the nuclear ship propulsion and for the pressurized water reactors in the Soviet Union. Key design values of the PSS allow a first valuation of its loads during a hypothetical loss-of-coolant accident. (orig.) [de

  14. Theoretical status of J/ψ suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavin, S.

    1993-03-01

    High energy heavy ion collisions are expected to produce hadron densities far beyond the density in nuclei, ρ 0 = 0.16 fm -3 . Remarkably, no single measurement from the AGS and SPS light ion programs with projectiles A ≤ 32 stands out as unambiguous evidence of these extreme densities. To separate the high density signals from the background effects that result, e.g. from scattering with primary nucleons, careful systematic studies of hadron-nucleus, hA, and nucleus-nucleus, AB, data are needed. In this talk the author surveys the ongoing systematic study of the most notorious case in point -- J/ψ suppression. In principle, measurements of J/ψ suppression provide a probe of the densities obtained in AB collisions that is also sensitive to quark gluon plasma production. The latest results from SPS experiment NA38 reported by A. Romana in these proceedings show that the ratio of cross sections in the dimuon channel B μμ σ ψ /σ cont is reduced by a factor 0.50 ± 0.05 in central S+U compared to minimum bias pU collisions at 200 AGeV. This is precisely the sort of suppression that one expects if high densities are obtained. On the other hand, a target-mass dependence suggestive of this suppression is found in hA collisions where high densities are not expected. At 200 GeV, NA38 finds that B μμ σ ψ /σ cont falls to 0.84 ± 0.08 in pU compared to pCu. The hA suppression in this kinematic regime is likely due to a combination of nuclear effects: nucleon absorption and shadowing

  15. Light contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cepeda Pena, William Enrique

    1998-01-01

    The article tries on the wrong use of the artificial light, of the main problems of the light contamination, dispersion of the light, noxious effects of the light contamination, ecological effects, effects on the man's biological rhythm, economic effects and effects about the civic and vial security, among other topics

  16. Radiation effluent suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Atsushi.

    1992-01-01

    In a radiation release suppression system upon accident, an electromotive valve, a pneumatic operation valve or a manual operation valve is disposed to gas ventilation pipelines which are extended from both of a dry well and a wet well of a reactor container to a stuck. In addition, a combination filter of a metal fiber filter made of stainless steel etc. and an activated carbon fiber filter is disposed in the midway of pipelines in a reactor building. With such a constitution, the inside of the container can be depressurized (prevention of ruptures) and the amount of radioactive substances released to circumstances is remarkably suppressed by the effect of radioactive substance capturing effect of the metal fiber filter made of stainless steel etc. disposed in the vent pipe in the container and a radioactive substance capturing effect by the combination filter of the metal fiber filter made of stainless steel, etc. and the activated carbon fiber filter disposed in the gas ventilation pipelines even upon occurrence of an accident exceeding design basis. Systems can be simplified and minimized, and cost down can also be attained. (N.H.)

  17. Formation and suppression of acoustic memories during human sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrillon, Thomas; Pressnitzer, Daniel; Léger, Damien; Kouider, Sid

    2017-08-08

    Sleep and memory are deeply related, but the nature of the neuroplastic processes induced by sleep remains unclear. Here, we report that memory traces can be both formed or suppressed during sleep, depending on sleep phase. We played samples of acoustic noise to sleeping human listeners. Repeated exposure to a novel noise during Rapid Eye Movements (REM) or light non-REM (NREM) sleep leads to improvements in behavioral performance upon awakening. Strikingly, the same exposure during deep NREM sleep leads to impaired performance upon awakening. Electroencephalographic markers of learning extracted during sleep confirm a dissociation between sleep facilitating memory formation (light NREM and REM sleep) and sleep suppressing learning (deep NREM sleep). We can trace these neural changes back to transient sleep events, such as spindles for memory facilitation and slow waves for suppression. Thus, highly selective memory processes are active during human sleep, with intertwined episodes of facilitative and suppressive plasticity.Though memory and sleep are related, it is still unclear whether new memories can be formed during sleep. Here, authors show that people could learn new sounds during REM or light non-REM sleep, but that learning was suppressed when sounds were played during deep NREM sleep.

  18. Optimization method of star tracker orientation for sun-synchronous orbit based on space light distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Geng; Xing, Fei; Wei, Minsong; Sun, Ting; You, Zheng

    2017-05-20

    Star trackers, optical attitude sensors with high precision, are susceptible to space light from the Sun and the Earth albedo. Until now, research in this field has lacked systematic analysis. In this paper, we propose an installation orientation method for a star tracker onboard sun-synchronous-orbit spacecraft and analyze the space light distribution by transforming the complicated relative motion among the Sun, Earth, and the satellite to the body coordinate system of the satellite. Meanwhile, the boundary-curve equations of the areas exposed to the stray light from the Sun and the Earth albedo were calculated by the coordinate-transformation matrix under different maneuver attitudes, and the installation orientation of the star tracker was optimized based on the boundary equations instead of the traditional iterative simulation method. The simulation and verification experiment indicate that this installation orientation method is effective and precise and can provide a reference for the installation of sun-synchronous orbit star trackers free from the stray light.

  19. "Tangible Lights"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tor; Merritt, Timothy; Andersen, Oskar

    2015-01-01

    While there has been much focus on tangible lighting interfaces embedded in physical objects and smartphones as remote control, there has not been sufficient attention on how the expressivity of bodily movement can be used when designing interactions with light. Therefore, we investigate...... interaction with lighting technology beyond the smartphone and physical controllers. We examine the usefulness of the in-air gestural interaction style for lighting control. We bring forward "Tangible Lights", which serves as a novel interface for in-air interaction with lighting, drawing on existing...

  20. Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, Yasuhisa, E-mail: inada.yasuhisa@jp.panasonic.com; Nishiwaki, Seiji; Hirasawa, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Hashiya, Akira; Wakabayashi, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Masa-aki [R and D Division, Panasonic Corporation, 1006 Kadoma, Kadoma City, Osaka 571-8501 (Japan); Matsuzaki, Jumpei [Device Development Center, Eco Solutions Company, Panasonic Corporation, 1048 Kadoma, Osaka 571-8686 Japan (Japan)

    2014-02-10

    We have developed a binary random phase array (BRPA) to improve the light extraction performance of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs). We demonstrated that the scattering of incoming light can be controlled by employing diffraction optics to modify the structural parameters of the BRPA. Applying a BRPA to the substrate of the WOLED leads to enhanced extraction efficiency and suppression of angle-dependent color changes. Our systematic study clarifies the effect of scattering on the light extraction of WOLEDs.

  1. Improved light extraction from white organic light-emitting devices using a binary random phase array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, Yasuhisa; Nishiwaki, Seiji; Hirasawa, Taku; Nakamura, Yoshitaka; Hashiya, Akira; Wakabayashi, Shin-ichi; Suzuki, Masa-aki; Matsuzaki, Jumpei

    2014-01-01

    We have developed a binary random phase array (BRPA) to improve the light extraction performance of white organic light-emitting devices (WOLEDs). We demonstrated that the scattering of incoming light can be controlled by employing diffraction optics to modify the structural parameters of the BRPA. Applying a BRPA to the substrate of the WOLED leads to enhanced extraction efficiency and suppression of angle-dependent color changes. Our systematic study clarifies the effect of scattering on the light extraction of WOLEDs

  2. Screening for suppression in young children: the Polaroid Suppression test

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pott, J.W.R.; Oosterveen, DK; Van Hof-van Duin, J

    1998-01-01

    Background: Assessment of monocular visual impairment during screening of young children is often hampered by lack of cooperation. Because strabismus, amblyopia, or anisometropia may lead to monocular suppression during binocular viewing conditions, a test was developed to screen far suppression in

  3. Modification of light sources for appropriate biological action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozakov, R; Schoepp, H; Franke, St [Leibniz Institute of Plasma Science and Technology, Felix-Hausdorff-Str. 2, D-17489 Greifswald (Germany); Stoll, C; Kunz, D, E-mail: kozakov@inp-greifswald.d [Charite-Universitymedicine Berlin, Sleep Research and Clinical Chronobiology, Gr. Hamburger Str. 5-11, D-10115 Berlin (Germany)

    2010-06-16

    The impact of the non-visual action of light on the design of novel light sources is discussed. Therefore possible modifications of lamps dealing with spectral tailoring and their action on melatonin suppression in usual life situations are investigated. The results of melatonin suppression by plasma lamps are presented. It is shown that even short-time exposure to usual light levels in working areas has an influence on the melatonin onset.

  4. Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Palima, Darwin

    Light Robotics - Structure-Mediated Nanobiophotonics covers the latest means of sculpting of both light and matter for achieving bioprobing and manipulation at the smallest scales. The synergy between photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology spans the rapidly growing field of nanobiophotonics...

  5. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukaratirwa, S; Singh, V P

    2010-06-01

    Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA), Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9%). The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8%), Trichuris vulpis (7.9%), Spirocerca lupi (5.4%), Toxocara canis (7.9%), Toxascaris leonina (0.4%) Giardia intestinalis (5.6%) and Isospora sp. (1.3%). Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7%) than those harbouring 2 (15%) or multiple (2.1%) species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7% of the samples.

  6. Prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa : short communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mukaratirwa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Coprological examination was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of gastrointestinal parasites of stray dogs impounded by the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA, Durban and Coast, South Africa. Helminth and protozoan parasites were found in faeces of 240 dogs with an overall prevalence of 82.5% (helminth parasites 93.1% and protozoan parasites 6.9 %. The following parasites and their prevalences were detected; Ancylostoma sp. (53.8 %, Trichuris vulpis (7.9 %, Spirocerca lupi (5.4 %, Toxocara canis (7.9 %, Toxascaris leonina (0.4 % Giardia intestinalis (5.6 % and Isospora sp. (1.3 %. Dogs harbouring a single parasite species were more common (41.7 % than those harbouring 2 (15 % or multiple (2.1 % species. Ancylostoma sp., Toxocara canis and Giardia intestinalis have zoonotic potential and were detected in 66.7 % of the samples.

  7. Robust sensor for turbidity measurement from light scattering and absorbing liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontturi, Ville; Turunen, Petri; Uozumi, Jun; Peiponen, Kai-Erik

    2009-12-01

    Internationally standardized turbidity measurements for probing solid particles in liquid are problematic in the case of simultaneous light scattering and absorption. A method and a sensor to determine the turbidity in the presence of light absorption are presented. The developed sensor makes use of the total internal reflection of a laser beam at the liquid-prism interface, and the turbidity is assessed using the concept of laser speckle pattern. Using average filtering in speckle data analyzing the observed dynamic speckle pattern, which is due to light scattering from particles and the static speckle due to stray light of the sensor, can be separated from each other. Good correlation between the standard deviation of dynamic speckle and turbidity value for nonabsorbing and for absorbing liquids was observed. The sensor is suggested, for instance, for the measurement of ill-behaved as well as small-volume turbid liquids in both medicine and process industry.

  8. Surgical lighting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knulst, A.J.

    2017-01-01

    The surgical light is an important tool for surgeons to create and maintain good visibility on the surgical task. Chapter 1 gives background to the field of (surgical) lighting and related terminology. Although the surgical light has been developed strongly since its introduction a long time ago,

  9. Twisted light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Research at the Mathematical Optics Group uses "twisted" light to study new quatum-based information security systems. In order to understand the structure of "twisted" light, it is useful to start with an ordinary light beam with zero twist, namely...

  10. Pressure suppression device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Toyokazu.

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a pressure suppression device for a gas cooled reactor wherein the coolant is discharged in a reactor building by a loss-of-coolant accident or the like, the increase in the pressure and temperature is controlled and thermal energy of the discharged coolant of high temperature and high pressure can be absorbed. Constitution: A low heat source unit is provided at the upper part in an inner space of a reactor building provided around the reactor, and at the upper part of the low heat source unit a stirring fan for mixing gas within the building, and a low heat source circulating the low heat source through a pipe is connected to the low heat source unit. The low heat source unit is provided with the pipe arranged in a spiral shape at the upper part of the space of the unit, and a large number of fins are provided at the outer surface of the pipe for increasing the transmission area and improve the heat exchange. When the coolant of high temperature and high pressure has been lost in the building, the thermal energy of the coolant is absorbed by the low heat source unit. (Aizawa, K.)

  11. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    the investigations of lighting scenarios carried out in two test installations: White Cube and White Box. The test installations are discussed as large-scale experiential instruments. In these test installations we examine what could potentially occur when light using LED technology is integrated and distributed......Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  12. Lighting. Eclairage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-01-01

    Increasing energy costs have led to a review of the high costs of lighting. The use of new energy-efficient lighting equipment, coupled with the use of the proper quantity and quality of lighting only where it is needed, creates a potential for cost reduction. A manual is provided to aid the process of adapting Canadian industrial, commercial, and institutional enterprises to these higher costs. An introductory review of lighting fundamentals is presented, providing a basic understanding of concepts such as illumination, light output measurements, power requirements, lighting quality, and energy audit methods. The currently available lighting equipment used to achieve cost savings is then reviewed, including energy saving lamps and ballasts, controls, and automatic energy control systems. A number of energy management opportunities are identified, such as modification of lighting usage patterns, calculation of the optimum number of lighting fixtures, replacement of existing lamps, and the application of task lighting. Examples are included to show the cost savings possible when applying some of the techniques suggested. 27 figs., 11 tabs.

  13. Nordic Lighting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2018-01-01

    The Danish designer Poul Henningsen wrote very elaborated theories of interior lighting from the mid-1920s on. He fought against the cold and reduced light quality of electric bulbs and tried to tame and cultivate this technology by design. He wanted a more rich light for domestic purpose...... worthwhile discussing than other design categories to interpret, whether experience of nature and climatic conditions play a role in Scandinavian Design, as repeatedly stated. This discussion contributes both to understanding of interior lighting and the historiographical critique of Scandinavian Design...... and shaped it through lamp design, colour reflections and differentiated use of several lamps in the room to make a more dim lighting, but with greater variation and softer contrasts. It was a ‘culture’ of lighting, he promoted, but he didn’t saw it as linked to the Nordic countries. His sensibility...

  14. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin; Kongshaug, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive Lighting Adaptive lighting is based on a partial automation of the possibilities to adjust the colour tone and brightness levels of light in order to adapt to people’s needs and desires. IT support is key to the technical developments that afford adaptive control systems. The possibilities...... offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... differently into an architectural body. We also examine what might occur when light is dynamic and able to change colour, intensity and direction, and when it is adaptive and can be brought into interaction with its surroundings. In short, what happens to an architectural space when artificial lighting ceases...

  15. WOW: light print, light propel, light point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glückstad, Jesper; Bañas, Andrew; Aabo, Thomas; Palima, Darwin

    2012-10-01

    We are presenting so-called Wave-guided Optical Waveguides (WOWs) fabricated by two-photon polymerization and capable of being optically manipulated into any arbitrary orientation. By integrating optical waveguides into the structures we have created freestanding waveguides which can be positioned anywhere in a sample at any orientation using real-time 3D optical micromanipulation with six degrees of freedom. One of the key aspects of our demonstrated WOWs is the change in direction of in-coupled light and the marked increase in numerical aperture of the out-coupled light. Hence, each light propelled WOW can tap from a relatively broad incident beam and generate a much more tightly confined light at its tip. The presentation contains both numerical simulations related to the propagation of light through a WOW and preliminary experimental demonstrations on our BioPhotonics Workstation. In a broader context, this research shows that optically trapped micro-fabricated structures can potentially help bridge the diffraction barrier. This structure-mediated paradigm may be carried forward to open new possibilities for exploiting beams from far-field optics down to the sub-wavelength domain.

  16. Adaptive Lighting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Kongshaug, Jesper; Søndergaard, Karin

    2015-01-01

    offered by adaptive lighting control are created by the ways that the system components, the network and data flow can be coordinated through software so that the dynamic variations are controlled in ways that meaningfully adapt according to people’s situations and design intentions. This book discusses...... to be static, and no longer acts as a kind of spatial constancy maintaining stability and order? Moreover, what new potentials open in lighting design? This book is one of four books that is published in connection with the research project entitled LED Lighting; Interdisciplinary LED Lighting Research...

  17. Compton suppression gamma ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsberger, S.; Iskander, F.Y.; Niset, M.; Heydorn, K.

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade there have been many studies to use Compton suppression methods in routine neutron activation analysis as well as in the traditional role of low level gamma ray counting of environmental samples. On a separate path there have been many new PC based software packages that have been developed to enhance photopeak fitting. Although the newer PC based algorithms have had significant improvements, they still suffer from being effectively used in weak gamma ray lines in natural samples or in neutron activated samples that have very high Compton backgrounds. We have completed a series of experiments to show the usefulness of Compton suppression. As well we have shown the pitfalls when using Compton suppression methods for high counting deadtimes as in the case of neutron activated samples. We have also investigated if counting statistics are the same both suppressed and normal modes. Results are presented in four separate experiments. (author)

  18. Thyroid suppression test with dextrothyroxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenthal, D.; Fridman, J.; Ribeiro, H.B.

    1978-01-01

    The classic thyroid suppression test with triiodothyronine (l-T 3 ) has been shown to be efficient as an auxiliary method in the diagnosis of thyroid diseases, but should not be performed on elderly patients or on those with heart disease or a tendency to tachycardia. Since these subjects seem able to support a short period of dextro-thyronine (d-T 4 ) feeding, we compared the effect of d-T 4 and l-T 3 on the 24 hours thyroid uptake in euthyroid and hyperthyroid subjects. After basal radio-iodine uptake determination, 99 patients without hyperthyroidism and 27 with Graves' disease were randomly divided in 2 groups; one received 100μg of l-T 3 per day and the other 4 mg of d-T 4 per day, both groups being treated for a period of 10 days. At the end of this suppression period the 24 hours radio-iodine uptake was measured again and the percentual suppression index (S.I.) calculated. Since the comparison of the two groups showed no difference between the suppressive effect of l-T 3 and d-T 4 in euthyroid subjects, while dextro-thyronine, as levo-triiodothyronine, did not suppress the 24 hours uptake of hyperthyroid patients, l-T 3 or d-T 4 can be used interchangeably to test thyroid suppressibility. In the euthyroid subjects the normal range for the post-suppression uptake was 0-17.1% and for the suppression index 54,7.100% [pt

  19. Heavy-to-light correlators beyond the light cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucha, W.; Melikhov, D. I.; Simula, S.

    2008-01-01

    We present the first systematic analysis of the off-light-cone effects in correlators relevant for the extraction of the heavy-to-light form factors within the method of light-cone sum rules. In a model with scalar constituents, the correlator is calculated in two different ways: (i) by performing the expansion of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude of the light meson near the light cone x 2 = 0 and (ii) by adopting the known solution for the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude which allows one to calculate the correlator without invoking any expansion. We demonstrate that the contributions to the correlator from the off-light-cone terms x 2 ≠ 0 are not suppressed by any large parameter compared to the contribution of the light-cone term x 2 0. For decays of heavy particles of mass in the range 1.5-5 GeV, the light-cone correlator is shown to systematically overestimate the full correlator, numerically the difference being 10-20%

  20. Heavy-to-light correlators beyond the light cone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucha, W.; Melikhov, D. I.; Simula, S.

    2008-01-01

    We present the first systematic analysis of the off-light-cone effects in correlators relevant for the extraction of the heavy-to-light form factors within the method of light-cone sum rules. In a model with scalar constituents, the correlator is calculated in two different ways: (i) by performing the expansion of the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude of the light meson near the light cone x 2 = 0 and (ii) by adopting the known solution for the Bethe-Salpeter amplitude which allows one to calculate the correlator without invoking any expansion. We demonstrate that the contributions to the correlator from the off-light-cone terms x 2 ≠ 0 are not suppressed by any large parameter compared to the contribution of the light-cone term x 2 = 0. For decays of heavy particles of mass in the range 1.5–5 GeV, the light-cone correlator is shown to systematically overestimate the full correlator, numerically the difference being 10–20%.

  1. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snoek, Hella Leonie [Vrije Univ., Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  2. Lightness functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campi, Stefano; Gardner, Richard; Gronchi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Variants of the brightness function of a convex body K in n-dimensional Euclidean are investigated. The Lambertian lightness function L(K; v , w ) gives the total reflected light resulting from illumination by a light source at infinity in the direction w that is visible when looking...... in the direction v . The partial brightness function R( K ; v , w ) gives the area of the projection orthogonal to v of the portion of the surface of K that is both illuminated by a light source from the direction w and visible when looking in the direction v . A class of functions called lightness functions...... is introduced that includes L(K;.) and R(K;.) as special cases. Much of the theory of the brightness function like uniqueness, stability, and the existence and properties of convex bodies of maximal and minimal volume with finitely many function values equal to those of a given convex body, is extended...

  3. Quests for justice and mechanisms of suppression in Flint, Michigan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rutt, Rebecca Leigh; Bluwstein, Jevgeniy

    2017-01-01

    There is widespread acknowledgment of the crisis nature and injustices around water quality and access in Flint since mid-2014. This crisis led to different forms of grassroots activism demanding political accountability, transparency, and redress. However, residents' experiences and their needs...... and demands in response to the crisis have been largely ignored. This article explores the mechanisms of suppression at work in obscuring these needs and demands. Specifically, it sheds light on the role of the public sector, the media, and the academic institutions in reproducing these mechanisms...... of suppression. The article situates the struggles over political accountability within the neoliberalization of public administration and government through emergency management. Capital accumulation can continue and intensifies, whereas emergency management further contributes to suppressing public dissent...

  4. Light sources and light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichler, G.

    2005-01-01

    From the dawn of mankind fire and light sources in general played an essential role in everyday life and protection over night. The development of new light sources went through many stages and is now an immense technological achievement, but also a threat for the wildlife at night, mainly because of the so-called light pollution. This paper discusses several very successful light sources connected with low pressure mercury and sodium vapour electric discharges. The luminous efficacy, colour rendering index and other lighting features cannot be always satisfactory, but at least some of the features can be much better than those met by the standard tungsten filament bulbs. High-pressure metal-vapour discharge lamps definitely have a good colour rendering index and a relatively high luminosity. Different light sources with burners at high pressure are discussed, paying special attention to their spectrum. The paper investigates new trends in development through a number of examples with non-toxic elements and pulsed electric discharge, which may be good news in terms of clean environment and energy savings. Light emitting diodes have recently appeared as worthy competitors to conventional light sources. White LEDs have approached 100 lumen/Watt efficacy in laboratories. This suggests that in some not very distant future they could completely replace high-pressure lamps, at least in indoor lighting. The article speculates on new developments which combine trends in nano technology and material science. The paper concludes with light pollution in view of several recent observations of plant and animal life at night in the vicinity of strong light sources. Photo-induced changes at the cell level may completely alter the normal life of plants and animals.(author)

  5. Active vibration suppression of helicopter horizontal stabilizers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cinquemani, Simone; Cazzulani, Gabriele; Resta, Ferruccio

    2017-04-01

    Helicopters are among the most complex machines ever made. While ensuring high performance from the aeronautical point of view, they are not very comfortable due to vibration mainly created by the main rotor and by the interaction with the surrounding air. One of the most solicited structural elements of the vehicle are the horizontal stabilizers. These elements are particularly stressed because of their composite structure which, while guaranteeing lightness and strength, is characterized by a low damping. This work makes a preliminary analysis on the dynamics of the structure and proposes different solutions to actively suppress vibrations. Among them, the best in terms of the relationship between performance and weight / complexity of the system is that based on inertial actuators mounted on the inside of the horizontal stabilizers. The work addresses the issue of the design of the device and its use in the stabilizer from both the numerical and the experimental points of view.

  6. Analysis of the accuracy of different laboratory methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites from stray and domiciled cats (Felis catus domesticus in Goiânia, Goiás, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Ataíde Silva Lima

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cats are carriers of zoonotic agents to humans, including intestinal parasites. The purpose of this study was to analyze the accuracy of different laboratory methods for the diagnosis of intestinal parasites. Fecal samples were processed by the Willis, Sheather, Faust and Hoffman-Janer-Pons-Lutz (HJPL methods. Accuracy analysis was performed determining the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value and Kappa. A total of 149 fecal samples were collected, 65 from stray cats and 84 from domiciled cats. The prevalence of intestinal parasites in stray cats was 60% while in domiciled cats it was 17%. In the analysis of accuracy, the techniques that showed the greatest accuracy for Ancylostomids were Willis and Faust, for Cystoisospora spp. Sheather with Faust or HPJL, and Toxoplasma gondii/Hammondia hammondi the association between Willis and Faust. Therefore, for a reliable evaluation of the prevalence of intestinal parasites, at least two different techniques should be used in parasitological exams of feces.

  7. Alberi Validates New Theory, Sheds Light on Semiconductors | News | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    (cadmium telluride), and GaN (gallium nitride), which are used for cell phones, solar panels, and LED suppressing defects with light, which may allow higher efficiencies in solar panels, greater lifespan for LED

  8. Bili lights

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 3 things: Gestational age Bilirubin level in the blood Newborn's age (in hours) In severe cases of increased bilirubin, an exchange transfusion may be done instead. Alternative Names Phototherapy for jaundice; Bilirubin - bili lights; Neonatal ...

  9. Beyond viral suppression of HIV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazarus, Jeffrey V.; Safreed-Harmon, Kelly; Barton, Simon E

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) adopted a new Global Health Sector Strategy on HIV for 2016-2021. It establishes 15 ambitious targets, including the '90-90-90' target calling on health systems to reduce under-diagnosis of HIV, treat a greater number of those diagnosed......, and ensure that those being treated achieve viral suppression. DISCUSSION: The WHO strategy calls for person-centered chronic care for people living with HIV (PLHIV), implicitly acknowledging that viral suppression is not the ultimate goal of treatment. However, it stops short of providing an explicit target...... for health-related quality of life. It thus fails to take into account the needs of PLHIV who have achieved viral suppression but still must contend with other intense challenges such as serious non-communicable diseases, depression, anxiety, financial stress, and experiences of or apprehension about HIV...

  10. Aging and repeated thought suppression success.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann E Lambert

    Full Text Available Intrusive thoughts and attempts to suppress them are common, but while suppression may be effective in the short-term, it can increase thought recurrence in the long-term. Because intentional suppression involves controlled processing, and many aspects of controlled processing decline with age, age differences in thought suppression outcomes may emerge, especially over repeated thought suppression attempts as cognitive resources are expended. Using multilevel modeling, we examined age differences in reactions to thought suppression attempts across four thought suppression sequences in 40 older and 42 younger adults. As expected, age differences were more prevalent during suppression than during free monitoring periods, with younger adults indicating longer, more frequent thought recurrences and greater suppression difficulty. Further, younger adults' thought suppression outcomes changed over time, while trajectories for older adults' were relatively stable. Results are discussed in terms of older adults' reduced thought recurrence, which was potentially afforded by age-related changes in reactive control and distractibility.

  11. Accentuation-suppression and scaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Thomas Alrik; Bundesen, Claus

    2012-01-01

    The limitations of the visual short-term memory (VSTM) system have become an increasingly popular field of study. One line of inquiry has focused on the way attention selects objects for encoding into VSTM. Using the framework of the Theory of Visual Attention (TVA; Bundesen, 1990 Psychological...... a scaling mechanism modulating the decision bias of the observer and also through an accentuation-suppression mechanism that modulates the degree of subjective relevance of objects, contracting attention around fewer, highly relevant objects while suppressing less relevant objects. These mechanisms may...

  12. Controlling Light Harvesting with Light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gwizdala, M.S.; Berera, R.; Kirilovsky, D.; van Grondelle, R.; Kruger, T.P.J.

    2016-01-01

    When exposed to intense sunlight, all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis implement various photoprotective strategies to prevent potentially lethal photodamage. The rapidly responding photoprotective mechanisms, occurring in the light-harvesting pigment-protein antennae, take effect within

  13. Synchrotron light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    'Synchrotron Light' is an interactive and detailed introduction to the physics and technology of the generation of coherent radiation from accelerators as well as to its widespread high-tech applications in science, medicine and engineering. The topics covered are the interaction of light and matter, the technology of synchrotron light sources, spectroscopy, imaging, scattering and diffraction of X-rays, and applications to materials science, biology, biochemistry, medicine, chemistry, food and pharmaceutical technology. All synchrotron light facilities are introduced with their home-page addresses. 'Synchrotron Light' provides an instructive and comprehensive multimedia learning tool for students, experienced practitioners and novices wishing to apply synchrotron radiation in their future work. Its multiple-entry points permit an easy exploration of the CD-Rom according to the users knowledge and interest. 2-D and 3-D animations and virtual reconstruction with computer-generated images guide visitors into the scientific and technical world of a synchrotron and into the applications of synchrotron radiation. This bilingual (English and French) CD-Rom can be used for self-teaching and in courses at various levels in physics, chemistry, engineering, and biology. (author)

  14. Discriminated conditioned suppression in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Thais Arantes; Huziwara, Edson Massayuki; Montagnoli, Tathianna Amorim Souza; Souza, Deisy das Graças de

    2012-01-01

    This experiment evaluated the effects of superimposing the Estes-Skinner Conditioned Emotional Response (CER) procedure on one of two components of a multiple schedule. The question was whether CER conditioning occurred under contextual control. The procedure had four experimental phases: (1) baseline of operant responding under a two-component multiple schedule (mult VI 30 VI 30), one component correlated with the house light on and the other correlated with the house light off (light/dark c...

  15. Lighting and public health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ierland, J. van & Schreuder, D.A.

    1969-01-01

    The following topics; are discussed with respect to public health: - the effect of visible and ultraviolet radiation upon man. - vision with respect to lighting. interior lighting. - artificial lighting of work environments. - day light and windows. - recommendations for lighting. public lighting. -

  16. Calculus light

    CERN Document Server

    Friedman, Menahem

    2011-01-01

    Another Calculus book? As long as students find calculus scary, the failure rate in mathematics is higher than in all other subjects, and as long as most people mistakenly believe that only geniuses can learn and understand mathematics, there will always be room for a new book of Calculus. We call it Calculus Light. This book is designed for a one semester course in ""light"" calculus -- mostly single variable, meant to be used by undergraduate students without a wide mathematical background and who do not major in mathematics but study subjects such as engineering, biology or management infor

  17. Lighting Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ellen Kathrine; Mullins, Michael

    2014-01-01

    of design developed from three experiments show how distinct qualitative and quantitative criteria in different disciplinary traditions can be integrated successfully, despite disparate technical/scientific, social scientific and art/humanities backgrounds. The model is applied to a pedagogical curriculum......Light as a multi-dimensional design element has fundamental importance for a sustainable environment. The paper discusses the need for an integration of scientific, technical and creative approaches to light and presents theory, methods and applications toward fulfilling this need. A theory...

  18. Distinguishing among potential mechanisms of singleton suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaspelin, Nicholas; Luck, Steven J

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has revealed that people can suppress salient stimuli that might otherwise capture visual attention. The present study tests between 3 possible mechanisms of visual suppression. According to first-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of simple feature values. According to second-order feature suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of local discontinuities within a given feature dimension. According to global-salience suppression models , items are suppressed on the basis of their dimension-independent salience levels. The current study distinguished among these models by varying the predictability of the singleton color value. If items are suppressed by virtue of salience alone, then it should not matter whether the singleton color is predictable. However, evidence from probe processing and eye movements indicated that suppression is possible only when the color values are predictable. Moreover, the ability to suppress salient items developed gradually as participants gained experience with the feature that defined the salient distractor. These results are consistent with first-order feature suppression models, and are inconsistent with the other models of suppression. In other words, people primarily suppress salient distractors on the basis of their simple features and not on the basis of salience per se. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Consequences of stereotype suppression and internal suppression motivation : A self-regulation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gordijn, Ernestine H; Hindriks, Inge; Koomen, W; Dijksterhuis, Ap; van Knipppenberg, A.

    The present research studied the effects of suppression of stereotypes on subsequent stereotyping. Moreover, the moderating influence of motivation to suppress stereotypes was examined. The first three experiments showed that suppression of stereotypes leads to the experience of engaging in

  20. LIGHT TITRATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, John; Baas-Becking, Lourens G. M.

    1926-01-01

    1. The usefulness of the radiomicrometer in titration work has been pointed out. The authors suggest that light titration may also be used where a reaction mixture changes its absorption in the (near) infra-red. 2. The applicability of this method to the starch-iodine reaction has been demonstrated. PMID:19872266

  1. Effects of light on brain and behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brainard, G.C. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    It is obvious that light entering the eye permits the sensory capacity of vision. The human species is highly dependent on visual perception of the environment and consequently, the scientific study of vision and visual mechanisms is a centuries old endeavor. Relatively new discoveries are now leading to an expanded understanding of the role of light entering the eye - in addition to supporting vision, light has various nonvisual biological effects. Over the past thirty years, animal studies have shown that environmental light is the primary stimulus for regulating circadian rhythms, seasonal cycles, and neuroendocrine responses. As with all photobiological phenomena, the wavelength, intensity, timing and duration of a light stimulus is important in determining its regulatory influence on the circadian and neuroendocrine systems. Initially, the effects of light on rhythms and hormones were observed only in sub-human species. Research over the past decade, however, has confirmed that light entering the eyes of humans is a potent stimulus for controlling physiological rhythms. The aim of this paper is to examine three specific nonvisual responses in humans which are mediated by light entering the eye: light-induced melatonin suppression, light therapy for winter depression, and enhancement of nighttime performance. This will serve as a brief introduction to the growing database which demonstrates how light stimuli can influence physiology, mood and behavior in humans. Such information greatly expands our understanding of the human eye and will ultimately change our use of light in the human environment.

  2. Effects of light on brain and behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brainard, George C.

    1994-01-01

    It is obvious that light entering the eye permits the sensory capacity of vision. The human species is highly dependent on visual perception of the environment and consequently, the scientific study of vision and visual mechanisms is a centuries old endeavor. Relatively new discoveries are now leading to an expanded understanding of the role of light entering the eye in addition to supporting vision, light has various nonvisual biological effects. Over the past thirty years, animal studies have shown that environmental light is the primary stimulus for regulating circadian rhythms, seasonal cycles, and neuroendocrine responses. As with all photobiological phenomena, the wavelength, intensity, timing and duration of a light stimulus is important in determining its regulatory influence on the circadian and neuroendocrine systems. Initially, the effects of light on rhythms and hormones were observed only in sub-human species. Research over the past decade, however, has confirmed that light entering the eyes of humans is a potent stimulus for controlling physiological rhythms. The aim of this paper is to examine three specific nonvisual responses in humans which are mediated by light entering the eye: light-induced melatonin suppression, light therapy for winter depression, and enhancement of nighttime performance. This will serve as a brief introduction to the growing database which demonstrates how light stimuli can influence physiology, mood and behavior in humans. Such information greatly expands our understanding of the human eye and will ultimately change our use of light in the human environment.

  3. Occupational exposure of healthcare and research staff to static magnetic stray fields from 1.5–7 Tesla MRI scanners is associated with reporting of transient symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Kristel; Christopher-de Vries, Yvette; Mason, Catherine K; de Vocht, Frank; Portengen, Lützen; Kromhout, Hans

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Limited data is available about incidence of acute transient symptoms associated with occupational exposure to static magnetic stray fields from MRI scanners. We aimed to assess the incidence of these symptoms among healthcare and research staff working with MRI scanners, and their association with static magnetic field exposure. Methods We performed an observational study among 361 employees of 14 clinical and research MRI facilities in The Netherlands. Each participant completed a diary during one or more work shifts inside and/or outside the MRI facility, reporting work activities and symptoms (from a list of potentially MRI-related symptoms, complemented with unrelated symptoms) experienced during a working day. We analysed 633 diaries. Exposure categories were defined by strength and type of MRI scanner, using non-MRI shifts as the reference category for statistical analysis. Non-MRI shifts originated from MRI staff who also participated on MRI days, as well as CT radiographers who never worked with MRI. Results Varying per exposure category, symptoms were reported during 16–39% of the MRI work shifts. We observed a positive association between scanner strength and reported symptoms among healthcare and research staff working with closed-bore MRI scanners of 1.5 Tesla (T) and higher (1.5 T OR=1.88; 3.0 T OR=2.14; 7.0 T OR=4.17). This finding was mainly driven by reporting of vertigo and metallic taste. Conclusions The results suggest an exposure-response association between exposure to strong static magnetic fields (and associated motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields) and reporting of transient symptoms on the same day of exposure. Trial registration number 11-032/C PMID:24714654

  4. Analysis of Tospovirus NSs Proteins in Suppression of Systemic Silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedil, Marcio; Sterken, Mark G; de Ronde, Dryas; Lohuis, Dick; Kormelink, Richard

    2015-01-01

    RNA silencing is a sequence-specific gene regulation mechanism that in plants also acts antiviral. In order to counteract antiviral RNA silencing, viruses have evolved RNA silencing suppressors (RSS). In the case of tospoviruses, the non-structural NSs protein has been identified as the RSS. Although the tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) tospovirus NSs protein has been shown to exhibit affinity to long and small dsRNA molecules, its ability to suppress the non-cell autonomous part of RNA silencing has only been studied to a limited extent. Here, the NSs proteins of TSWV, groundnut ringspot virus (GRSV) and tomato yellow ring virus (TYRV), representatives for three distinct tospovirus species, have been studied on their ability and strength to suppress local and systemic silencing. A system has been developed to quantify suppression of GFP silencing in Nicotiana benthamiana 16C lines, to allow a comparison of relative RNA silencing suppressor strength. It is shown that NSs of all three tospoviruses are suppressors of local and systemic silencing. Unexpectedly, suppression of systemic RNA silencing by NSsTYRV was just as strong as those by NSsTSWV and NSsGRSV, even though NSsTYRV was expressed in lower amounts. Using the system established, a set of selected NSsTSWV gene constructs mutated in predicted RNA binding domains, as well as NSs from TSWV isolates 160 and 171 (resistance breakers of the Tsw resistance gene), were analyzed for their ability to suppress systemic GFP silencing. The results indicate another mode of RNA silencing suppression by NSs that acts further downstream the biogenesis of siRNAs and their sequestration. The findings are discussed in light of the affinity of NSs for small and long dsRNA, and recent mutant screen of NSsTSWV to map domains required for RSS activity and triggering of Tsw-governed resistance.

  5. Suppression of stratified explosive interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, M.K.; Shamoun, B.I.; Bonazza, R.; Corradini, M.L. [Wisconsin Univ., Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering and Engineering Physics

    1998-01-01

    Stratified Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) experiments with Refrigerant-134a and water were performed in a large-scale system. Air was uniformly injected into the coolant pool to establish a pre-existing void which could suppress the explosion. Two competing effects due to the variation of the air flow rate seem to influence the intensity of the explosion in this geometrical configuration. At low flow rates, although the injected air increases the void fraction, the concurrent agitation and mixing increases the intensity of the interaction. At higher flow rates, the increase in void fraction tends to attenuate the propagated pressure wave generated by the explosion. Experimental results show a complete suppression of the vapor explosion at high rates of air injection, corresponding to an average void fraction of larger than 30%. (author)

  6. Strangeness Suppression and Color Deconfinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satz, Helmut

    2018-02-01

    The relative multiplicities for hadron production in different high energy collisions are in general well described by an ideal gas of all hadronic resonances, except that under certain conditions, strange particle rates are systematically reduced. We show that the suppression factor γs, accounting for reduced strange particle rates in pp, pA and AA collisions at different collision energies, becomes a universal function when expressed in terms of the initial entropy density s0 or the initial temperature T of the produced thermal medium. It is found that γs increases from about 0.5 to 1.0 in a narrow temperature range around the quark-hadron transition temperature Tc ≃ 160 MeV. Strangeness suppression thus disappears with the onset of color deconfinement; subsequently, full equilibrium resonance gas behavior is attained.

  7. Chk1 suppressed cell death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meuth Mark

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The role of Chk1 in the cellular response to DNA replication stress is well established. However recent work indicates a novel role for Chk1 in the suppression of apoptosis following the disruption of DNA replication or DNA damage. This review will consider these findings in the context of known pathways of Chk1 signalling and potential applications of therapies that target Chk1.

  8. Light Sources and Lighting Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hisashi; Suwa, Takumi; Yasuda, Takeo; Ohtani, Yoshihiko; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Komatsu, Naoki; Mannami, Tomoaki

    According to the Machinery Statistics of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the production of incandescent lamps in Japan in 2007 was 990 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total), in which the production of incandescent lamps for general lighting was 110 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total) and of tungsten-halogen lamps was 44 million units (96.6% of the previous year's total). The production of fluorescent lamps was 927 million units (93.9% of the previous year's total), in which general fluorescent lamps, excluding those for LCD back lighting, was 320 million units (87.2% of the previous year's total). Also, the production of HID lamps was 10 million units (101.5% of the previous year's total). On the other hand, when the numbers of sales are compared with the sales of the previous year, incandescent lamps for general use was 99.8%, tungsten-halogen lamps was 96.9%, fluorescent lamps was 95.9%, and HID lamps was 98.9%. Self-ballasted fluorescent lamps alone showed an increase in sales as strong as 29 million units, or 121.7% of the previous year's sales. It is considered that the switchover of incandescent lamps to HID lamps was promoted for energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction with the problem of global warming in the background. In regard to exhibitions, Lighting Fair 2007 was held in Tokyo in March, and LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 2007 was held in New York in May. Regarding academic conferences, LS:11 (the 11th International Symposium on the Science & Technology of Light Sources) was held in Shanghai in May, and the First International Conference on White LEDs and Solid State Lighting was held in Tokyo in November. Both conferences suggested that there are strong needs and concerns now about energy conservation, saving natural resources, and restrictions of hazardous materials. In regard to incandescent lamps, the development of products aiming at higher efficacy, electric power savings, and longer life was advanced by

  9. Green lights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Peter Kielberg

    This study investigates the effect of drought on economic activity globally using remote sensing data. In particular, predicted variation in greenness is correlated with changes in the density of artificial light observed at night on a grid of 0.25 degree latitude-longitude pixels. I define drought...... as greenness estimated by lagged variation in monthly rainfall and temperature. This definition of drought performs well in identifying self-reported drought events since 2000 compared with measures of drought that do not take greenness into account, and the subsequent analysis indicates that predicted...... variation in greenness is positively associated with year-on-year changes in luminosity: If a unit of observation experiences a predicted variation in greenness that lies 1 standard deviation below the global mean, on average 1.5 - 2.5 light pixels out of 900 are extinguished that year. Finally, an attempt...

  10. In-Flight Suppressant Deployment Temperatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bein, Donald

    2006-01-01

    .... An assessment is made of the model output versus some aircraft measurement data, fire suppressant boiling point criterion, as well as the history of altitude/temperature at which fire suppressants have been deployed...

  11. Disruption of Circadian Rhythms by Light During Day and Night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiro, Mariana G

    2017-06-01

    This study aims to discuss possible reasons why research to date has not forged direct links between light at night, acute melatonin suppression or circadian disruption, and risks for disease. Data suggest that irregular light-dark patterns or light exposures at the wrong circadian time can lead to circadian disruption and disease risks. However, there remains an urgent need to: (1) specify light stimulus in terms of circadian rather than visual response; (2) when translating research from animals to humans, consider species-specific spectral and absolute sensitivities to light; (3) relate the characteristics of photometric measurement of light at night to the operational characteristics of the circadian system; and (4) examine how humans may be experiencing too little daytime light, not just too much light at night. To understand the health effects of light-induced circadian disruption, we need to measure and control light stimulus during the day and at night.

  12. Light-sensitive brain pathways and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daneault, V; Dumont, M; Massé, É; Vandewalle, G; Carrier, J

    2016-03-15

    Notwithstanding its effects on the classical visual system allowing image formation, light acts upon several non-image-forming (NIF) functions including body temperature, hormonal secretions, sleep-wake cycle, alertness, and cognitive performance. Studies have shown that NIF functions are maximally sensitive to blue wavelengths (460-480 nm), in comparison to longer light wavelengths. Higher blue light sensitivity has been reported for melatonin suppression, pupillary constriction, vigilance, and performance improvement but also for modulation of cognitive brain functions. Studies investigating acute stimulating effects of light on brain activity during the execution of cognitive tasks have suggested that brain activations progress from subcortical regions involved in alertness, such as the thalamus, the hypothalamus, and the brainstem, before reaching cortical regions associated with the ongoing task. In the course of aging, lower blue light sensitivity of some NIF functions has been reported. Here, we first describe neural pathways underlying effects of light on NIF functions and we discuss eye and cerebral mechanisms associated with aging which may affect NIF light sensitivity. Thereafter, we report results of investigations on pupillary constriction and cognitive brain sensitivity to light in the course of aging. Whereas the impact of light on cognitive brain responses appears to decrease substantially, pupillary constriction seems to remain more intact over the lifespan. Altogether, these results demonstrate that aging research should take into account the diversity of the pathways underlying the effects of light on specific NIF functions which may explain their differences in light sensitivity.

  13. In the suppression of regge cut contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chia, S.P.

    1975-07-01

    It is shown that contributions of reggeon-pomeron cuts are suppressed in amplitudes with opposite natural to the reggeon. This suppression grows logarithmically with energy. The suppression in the πP cut is, however, found to be weak. Consequence on conspiracy is discussed

  14. Dynamic lighting for well-being in work places: Addressing the visual, emotional and biological aspects of lighting design.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, M.

    2006-01-01

    Light can be used to increase alertness, evoke relaxation and suppress sleepiness. Therefore, it can be deployed to support the well-being and performance of people in working places. These socalled ‘non-visual’ or ‘biological’ effects have become an increasingly important topic in lighting design

  15. Dynamic lighting for well-being in work places: Addressing the visual, emotional and biological aspects of lighting design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knoop, M.

    2006-01-01

    Light can be used to increase alertness, evoke relaxation and suppress sleepiness. Therefore, it can be deployed to support the well-being and performance of people in working places. These socalled ‘non-visual’ or ‘biological’ effects have become an increasingly important topic in lighting design

  16. Prevalence and characterization of Escherichia coli and Salmonella strains isolated from stray dog and coyote feces in a major leafy greens production region at the United States-Mexico border.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele T Jay-Russell

    Full Text Available In 2010, Romaine lettuce grown in southern Arizona was implicated in a multi-state outbreak of Escherichia coli O145:H28 infections. This was the first known Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC outbreak traced to the southwest desert leafy green vegetable production region along the United States-Mexico border. Limited information exists on sources of STEC and other enteric zoonotic pathogens in domestic and wild animals in this region. According to local vegetable growers, unleashed or stray domestic dogs and free-roaming coyotes are a significant problem due to intrusions into their crop fields. During the 2010-2011 leafy greens growing season, we conducted a prevalence survey of STEC and Salmonella presence in stray dog and coyote feces. Fresh fecal samples from impounded dogs and coyotes from lands near produce fields were collected and cultured using extended enrichment and serogroup-specific immunomagnetic separation (IMS followed by serotyping, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing. A total of 461 fecal samples were analyzed including 358 domestic dog and 103 coyote fecals. STEC was not detected, but atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC strains comprising 14 different serotypes were isolated from 13 (3.6% dog and 5 (4.9% coyote samples. Salmonella was cultured from 33 (9.2% dog and 33 (32% coyote samples comprising 29 serovars with 58% from dogs belonging to Senftenberg or Typhimurium. PFGE analysis revealed 17 aEPEC and 27 Salmonella distinct pulsotypes. Four (22.2% of 18 aEPEC and 4 (6.1% of 66 Salmonella isolates were resistant to two or more antibiotic classes. Our findings suggest that stray dogs and coyotes in the desert southwest may not be significant sources of STEC, but are potential reservoirs of other pathogenic E. coli and Salmonella. These results underscore the importance of good agriculture practices relating to mitigation of microbial risks from animal fecal deposits in the

  17. Handbook of industrial lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, Stanley L

    2013-01-01

    Handbook of Industrial Lighting is a practical guide on the specification, design, installation, operation, and maintenance of lighting in industrial premises. Coverage of the book includes the importance of good localized lighting; the different lighting schemes; lighting for difficult visual tasks; lighting in consideration to safety; and emergency lighting. The book also includes the practical, thermal, ventilation, and energy considerations; lighting in different environments; maintenance of lighting installations; and the cost benefits of efficient lighting. Appendices include useful info

  18. Suitable level of suppression in Pinus sylvestris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagner, Mats

    1999-10-01

    It is `well known` among Swedish foresters that pine trees need light and cannot grow suppressed. It is also `well known` that old trees that have grown slowly are unable to react with good growth. However, these facts can be questioned in the light of new research as it has been found that thinning reaction is not correlated with age. It is also well known that the commercial value of a pine is closely related to the growth at young age. If the first 20 annual rings close to pith are wide (>3 mm) the log cannot be accepted as first class. This is related to number and size of branches on the young tree and to the features of the juvenile wood. This is to say that a pine must not grow fast when it is small and if this has happened it cannot be cured by artificial debranching or by growing the tree slowly at higher age. Accordingly, young pines should be grown under bigger trees that in their young age were grown under big trees, and so on. Today, when clear cutting is the dominating forest management system, the only way to obtain high quality pine trees is to start the rotation age with stands of very high density. This is of course a very expensive way as dense planting, followed by intensive thinning requires a lot of input. However, if pine is a pioneer species and cannot be grown in multistoried stands, then the economic solution is not present. This was the reason why the annual increment of three pines was measured. They were selected because their different growth pattern showed that old `well known facts` should be revised Working papers 139. 3 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  19. Shaping light

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Forbes, A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser, a high- power laser to shoot down missiles, fills an entire Boeing 747! By customising the laser resonator it is possible to design light to order. Laser technology has been around for 50 years, yet new research and ideas are ensuring... that it will remain an active area of investigation for years to come. ? Professor Andrew Forbes is Chief Researcher and Research Group Leader at the CSIR National Laser Centre, and holds honorary positions in the Schools of Physics at both the University...

  20. Polypyrrole Actuators for Tremor Suppression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skaarup, Steen; Mogensen, Naja; Bay, Lasse

    2003-01-01

    Neurological tremor affecting limbs can be divided into at least 6 different types with frequencies ranging from 2 to about 20 Hz. In order to alleviate the symptoms by suppressing the tremor, sensing and actuation systems able to perform at these frequencies are needed. Electroactive polymers...... exemplify 'soft actuator' technology that may be especially suitable for use in conjunction with human limbs. The electrochemical and mechanical properties of polypyrrole dodecyl benzene sulphonate actuator films have been studied with this application in mind. The results show that the time constants...

  1. Suppression effects on musical and verbal memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schendel, Zachary A; Palmer, Caroline

    2007-06-01

    Three experiments contrasted the effects of articulatory suppression on recognition memory for musical and verbal sequences. In Experiment 1, a standard/comparison task was employed, with digit or note sequences presented visually or auditorily while participants remained silent or produced intermittent verbal suppression (saying "the") or musical suppression (singing "la"). Both suppression types decreased performance by equivalent amounts, as compared with no suppression. Recognition accuracy was lower during suppression for visually presented digits than during that for auditorily presented digits (consistent with phonological loop predictions), whereas accuracy was equivalent for visually presented notes and auditory tones. When visual interference filled the retention interval in Experiment 2, performance with visually presented notes but not digits was impaired. Experiment 3 forced participants to translate visually presented music sequences by presenting comparison sequences auditorily. Suppression effects for visually presented music resembled those for digits only when the recognition task required sensory translation of cues.

  2. UV Blocking Glass: Low Cost Filters for Visible Light Photocatalytic Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W. Dunnill

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A number of commercially available art protection products have been compared and assessed for their suitability as UV blocking filters in the application of “visible light” photocatalytic research. Many groups claiming visible light photocatalytic success employ filters to block out stray UV radiation in order to justify that their photocatalysts are indeed visible light photocatalysts and not UV light photocatalysts. These filters come in varying degrees of ability and price and many authors fail to correctly characterise their filters in individual papers. The use of effective filters to prevent both false positive and false negative results is important to maintain scientific rigor and create accurate understanding of the subject. The optimum UV filter would have the highest UV blocking properties (<390 nm and simultaneously the highest visible light transmission (390–750 nm. Single and double layers of each of the glass products were assessed as well as laminate products. The conclusions show an inexpensive and highly effective setup for the conduction of visible light photochemistry that should be incorporated as a standard part in any researcher’s work where the claim of visible light activity is made.

  3. Pressure suppression pool thermal mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    A model is developed and verified to describe the thermal mixing that occurs in the pressure suppression pool (PSP) of a commercial BWR. The model is designed specifically for a Mark-I containment and is intended for use in severe accident sequence analyses. The model produces space and time dependent temperature results throughout the PSP and is useful for evaluating the bulk PSP thermal mixing, the condensation effectiveness of the PSP, and the long-term containment integrity. The model is designed to accommodate single or multiple discharging T-quenchers, a PSP circumferential circulation induced by the residual heat removal system discharge, and the thermal stratification of the pool that occurs immediately after the relief valves close. The PSP thermal mixing model is verified by comparing the model predicted temperatures to experimental temperatures that were measured in an operating BWR suppression pool. The model is then used to investigate several PSP thermal mixing problems that include the time to saturate at full relief valve flow, the temperature response to a typical stuck open relief valve scenario, and the effect of operator rotation of the relief valve discharge point

  4. Large-area OLED lightings and their applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J W; Shin, D C; Park, S H

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we review the key issues related to the fabrication of large-area organic light-emitting devices (OLEDs) for lighting applications. We discuss the origin of a short-circuit problem, luminance non-uniformity, hot spot, efficiency reduction (power loss), and heat generation and present the way of suppressing them. We also introduce three different application areas of large-area OLED lighting panels. They can be integrated with a solar cell for power recycling or inorganic LEDs for emotional lightings. The feasibility of using OLEDs for the application of visible-light communications is also reviewed

  5. Suppression of soft nuclear bremsstrahlung in proton-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethem, M.J. van; Bacelar, J.C.S.; Hoefman, M.; Huisman, H.; Kalantar-Nayestanaki, N.; Loehner, H.; Messchendorp, J.G.; Ostendorf, R.W.; Schadmand, S.; Siemssen, R.H.; Turrisi, R.; Volkerts, M.; Wilschut, H.W.; Aphecetche, L.; Delagrange, H.; D'Enterria, D.; Martinez, G.; Schutz, Y.; Diaz, J.; Holzmann, R.

    2002-01-01

    Photon energy spectra up to the kinematic limit have been measured in 190 MeV proton reactions with light and heavy nuclei to investigate the influence of the multiple-scattering process on the photon production. Relative to the predictions of models based on a quasifree production mechanism, a strong suppression of bremsstrahlung is observed in the low-energy region of the photon spectrum. We attribute this effect to the interference of photon amplitudes due to multiple scattering of nucleons in the nuclear medium

  6. The role of suppression in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingrong; Thompson, Benjamin; Lam, Carly S Y; Deng, Daming; Chan, Lily Y L; Maehara, Goro; Woo, George C; Yu, Minbin; Hess, Robert F

    2011-06-13

    This study had three main goals: to assess the degree of suppression in patients with strabismic, anisometropic, and mixed amblyopia; to establish the relationship between suppression and the degree of amblyopia; and to compare the degree of suppression across the clinical subgroups within the sample. Using both standard measures of suppression (Bagolini lenses and neutral density [ND] filters, Worth 4-Dot test) and a new approach involving the measurement of dichoptic motion thresholds under conditions of variable interocular contrast, the degree of suppression in 43 amblyopic patients with strabismus, anisometropia, or a combination of both was quantified. There was good agreement between the quantitative measures of suppression made with the new dichoptic motion threshold technique and measurements made with standard clinical techniques (Bagolini lenses and ND filters, Worth 4-Dot test). The degree of suppression was found to correlate directly with the degree of amblyopia within our clinical sample, whereby stronger suppression was associated with a greater difference in interocular acuity and poorer stereoacuity. Suppression was not related to the type or angle of strabismus when this was present or the previous treatment history. These results suggest that suppression may have a primary role in the amblyopia syndrome and therefore have implications for the treatment of amblyopia.

  7. Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections in stray and pet cats (Felis catus) in northwest China: co-infections and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Wei; Meng, Qing-Feng; Blaga, Radu; Villena, Isabelle; Zhu, Xing-Quan; Qian, Ai-Dong

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to estimate the prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii, Dirofilaria immitis, feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), and feline leukemia virus (FeLV) infections among stray and pet cats in Lanzhou, northwest China, and to identify the influence of age, gender, and regions on seropositivity. T. gondii antibodies were examined in cat sera by the modified agglutination test (MAT). The circulating antigens of D. immitis and FeLV and specific antibodies to FIV were examined using kits commercially available. The overall prevalence of T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis was 19.34, 9.12, 11.33, and 3.04 %, respectively. For the genetic characterization of T. gondii genotypes in cats, genomic DNA was extracted from the seropositive cats and the T. gondii B1 gene was amplified using a semi-nested PCR. DNA samples giving positive B1 amplification were then genotyped using multilocus PCR-RFLP. Two T. gondii genotypes (ToxoDB#9 and ToxoDB#1) were identified. Results of the multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that older cats are more likely to be seropositive than juveniles for T. gondii, FIV, FeLV, and D. immitis. This is the first report of T. gondii genotypes in cats in northwest China. Moreover, the present study is the first study of retrovirus and D. immitis seroprevalence in cats in China. The results revealed that T. gondii, FIV, and FeLV infections are common in stray and pet cats in northwest China.

  8. Synthesis of (Ga 1–x Zn x )(N 1–x O x ) with Enhanced Visible-Light Absorption and Reduced Defects by Suppressing Zn Volatilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Dennis P.; Skrabalak, Sara E.

    2016-04-18

    (Ga1–x)(N1–x O x) (GZNO) particles with enhanced optical absorption were synthesized by topotactic transformation of Zn2+/Ga3+ layered double hydroxides. This outcome was achieved by suppressing Zn volatilization during nitridation by maintaining a low partial pressure of O2 (pO2). Zn-rich (x > 1/3) variants of GZNO were achieved and compared to those prepared by conventional ammonoylsis conditions. The optical absorption and structural properties of these samples were compared to those prepared in the absence of O2 by diffuse-reflectance spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction methods. Notably, suppression of Zn volatilization leads to smaller-band-gap materials (2.30 eV for x = 0.42 versus 2.71 eV for x = 0.21) and reduced structural defects. This synthetic route and set of characterizations provide useful structure–property studies of GZNO and potentially other oxynitrides of interest as photocatalysts.

  9. Security-enhanced chaos communication with time-delay signature suppression and phase encryption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chenpeng; Jiang, Ning; Lv, Yunxin; Wang, Chao; Li, Guilan; Lin, Shuqing; Qiu, Kun

    2016-08-15

    A security-enhanced chaos communication scheme with time delay signature (TDS) suppression and phase-encrypted feedback light is proposed, in virtue of dual-loop feedback with independent high-speed phase modulation. We numerically investigate the property of TDS suppression in the intensity and phase space and quantitatively discuss security of the proposed system by calculating the bit error rate of eavesdroppers who try to crack the system by directly filtering the detected signal or by using a similar semiconductor laser to synchronize the link signal and extract the data. The results show that TDS embedded in the chaotic carrier can be well suppressed by properly setting the modulation frequency, which can keep the time delay a secret from the eavesdropper. Moreover, because the feedback light is encrypted, without the accurate time delay and key, the eavesdropper cannot reconstruct the symmetric operation conditions and decode the correct data.

  10. Suppression of expression of muscle-associated proteins by PPARα in brown adipose tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tong, Yuhong; Hara, Atsushi; Komatsu, Makiko; Tanaka, Naoki; Kamijo, Yuji; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2005-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) belongs to the steroid/nuclear receptor superfamily. Two-dimensional (2D) SDS-PAGE analysis of brown adipose tissue (BAT) unexpectedly revealed six spots that were present only in PPARα-null mice. Proteomic analysis indicated that these proteins were tropomyosin-1 α chain, tropomyosin β chain, myosin regulatory light chain 2, myosin light chain 3, and parvalbumin α. Analyses of mRNA have revealed that PPARα suppressed the genes encoding these proteins in a synchronous manner in adult wild-type mice. Histological and physiological analyses of BAT showed in adult wild-type mice, a marked suppression of BAT growth concurrent with a prominent decrease in lipolytic and thermogenesis activities. These results suggest that in adult mice, PPARα functions to suppress the expression of the proteins that may be involved in the architecture of BAT, and thus may function in keeping BAT in a quiescent state

  11. Safety system for pressure suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, L.E.; Ludwig, G.J.; Tulsa, O.

    1975-01-01

    The rupture disk with rated breaking points is constrained by two supporting elements and has a convex-concave shape. For pressure suppression, it is reversable inversely to its bulging. Its surface has notches which are the rated breaking points and respond to higher pressures. The centre of the rupture disk contains an area of relatively smaller thickness that will burst at lower pressure and thus makes it applicable for lower pressures. For the response of the rupture disk centre, a thrust ring with a central opening may also be used. Its edge is formed into a convex-concave section supported on the edge of the rupture disk on the exit side. The free centre of the rupture disk is then the area of relative weakness. (RW/AK) [de

  12. MEK5 suppresses osteoblastic differentiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaneshiro, Shoichi [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Japan Community Health Care Organization Osaka Hospital, 4-2-78 Fukushima, Fukushima Ward, Osaka City, Osaka 553-0003 (Japan); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Otsuki, Dai; Yoshida, Kiyoshi; Yoshikawa, Hideki [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Higuchi, Chikahisa, E-mail: c-higuchi@umin.ac.jp [Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medicine, Osaka University, 2-2 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan)

    2015-07-31

    Extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) is a member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family and is activated by its upstream kinase, MAPK kinase 5 (MEK5), which is a member of the MEK family. Although the role of MEK5 has been investigated in several fields, little is known about its role in osteoblastic differentiation. In this study, we have demonstrated the role of MEK5 in osteoblastic differentiation in mouse preosteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells and bone marrow stromal ST2 cells. We found that treatment with BIX02189, an inhibitor of MEK5, increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and the gene expression of ALP, osteocalcin (OCN) and osterix, as well as it enhanced the calcification of the extracellular matrix. Moreover, osteoblastic cell proliferation decreased at a concentration of greater than 0.5 μM. In addition, knockdown of MEK5 using siRNA induced an increase in ALP activity and in the gene expression of ALP, OCN, and osterix. In contrast, overexpression of wild-type MEK5 decreased ALP activity and attenuated osteoblastic differentiation markers including ALP, OCN and osterix, but promoted cell proliferation. In summary, our results indicated that MEK5 suppressed the osteoblastic differentiation, but promoted osteoblastic cell proliferation. These results implied that MEK5 may play a pivotal role in cell signaling to modulate the differentiation and proliferation of osteoblasts. Thus, inhibition of MEK5 signaling in osteoblasts may be of potential use in the treatment of osteoporosis. - Highlights: • MEK5 inhibitor BIX02189 suppresses proliferation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 knockdown and MEK5 inhibitor promote differentiation of osteoblasts. • MEK5 overexpression inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts.

  13. Indwelling Stent Embedded with Light-Emitting Diodes for Photodynamic Therapy of Malignant Biliary Obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baran, Timothy M., E-mail: timothy.baran@rochester.edu [University of Rochester Medical Center, Department of Imaging Sciences (United States); Mironov, Oleg, E-mail: oleg.mironov@uhn.ca [University Health Network, The Joint Department of Medical Imaging (Canada); Sharma, Ashwani K., E-mail: Ashwani-Sharma@URMC.Rochester.edu; Foster, Thomas H., E-mail: thomas.foster@rochester.edu [University of Rochester Medical Center, Department of Imaging Sciences (United States)

    2016-06-15

    PurposeWe describe the design and preliminary characterization of a stent incorporating light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant biliary obstruction.MethodsA prototype was constructed with red (640 nm) LEDs embedded in a 14.5 French polyurethane tube. The device was evaluated for optical power and subjected to physical and electrical tests. PDT-induced reactive oxygen species were imaged in a gel phantom.ResultsThe stent functioned at a 2.5-cm bend radius and illuminated for 6 months in saline. No stray currents were detected, and it was cool after 30 minutes of operation. Optical power of 5–15 mW is applicable to PDT. Imaging of a reactive oxygen indicator showed LED-stent activation of photosensitizer.ConclusionsThe results motivate biological testing and design optimization.

  14. Indwelling Stent Embedded with Light-Emitting Diodes for Photodynamic Therapy of Malignant Biliary Obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baran, Timothy M.; Mironov, Oleg; Sharma, Ashwani K.; Foster, Thomas H.

    2016-01-01

    PurposeWe describe the design and preliminary characterization of a stent incorporating light-emitting diodes (LEDs) for photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant biliary obstruction.MethodsA prototype was constructed with red (640 nm) LEDs embedded in a 14.5 French polyurethane tube. The device was evaluated for optical power and subjected to physical and electrical tests. PDT-induced reactive oxygen species were imaged in a gel phantom.ResultsThe stent functioned at a 2.5-cm bend radius and illuminated for 6 months in saline. No stray currents were detected, and it was cool after 30 minutes of operation. Optical power of 5–15 mW is applicable to PDT. Imaging of a reactive oxygen indicator showed LED-stent activation of photosensitizer.ConclusionsThe results motivate biological testing and design optimization.

  15. A model-based framework to evaluate alternative wildfire suppression strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karin L. Riley; Matthew P. Thompson; Joe H. Scott; Julie W. Gilbertson-Day

    2018-01-01

    The complexity and demands of wildland firefighting in the western U.S. have increased over recent decades due to factors including the expansion of the wildland-urban interface, lengthening fire seasons associated with climate change, and changes in vegetation due to past fire suppression and timber harvest. In light of these changes, the use of more wildland fire on...

  16. A comprehensive siRNA screen for kinases that suppress macroautophagy in optimal growth conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szyniarowski, Piotr; Corcelle-Termeau, Elisabeth; Farkas, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    , whereas CSNK1A1, BUB1, PKLR and NEK4 suppressed autophagosome formation downstream or independent of mTORC1. Importantly, all identified kinases except for BUB1 regulated macroautophagy also in immortalized MCF-10A breast epithelial cells. The kinases identified here shed light to the complex regulation...

  17. Charmonium formation and suppression in nuclear matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jiajun; Wang Jia; Zhuang Chao; Zhuang Pengfei

    2005-01-01

    The coupling Schroedinger equations describing the evolution of cc-bar states in nuclear matter are analytically and systematically solved via perturbation method, and the correlation between charmonium formation and nuclear absorption is investigated. After calculating J/Ψ and Ψ' suppression in nucleon-nucleus collisions and comparing with experiment data, it is found that the formation time effect plays an important rule in charmonium suppression, especially in Ψ' suppression. (authors)

  18. Poppers: more evidence of suppressed immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1999-08-20

    Evidence from studies in mice shows that exposure to isobutyl nitrite suppresses the immune system. This immune suppression allows for bacterial growth in the lungs and livers of infected mice and can inhibit the ability of mediastinal lymph nodes to respond to antigen-specific stimulation. The mechanism for immune suppression may be a reduction in CD4+ and CD8+ T cell populations in the mediastinal lymph nodes following pulmonary infection with Listeria monocytogenes.

  19. Perceived emotion suppression and culture: Effects on psychological well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Heewon; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2018-04-03

    Whether the negative effects of emotion suppression on psychological well-being are applicable cross-culturally is a long-debated topic. The present study attempted to shed light on this debate, focusing on the effects of perceived emotion suppression and examining the psychological processes leading from perceived emotion suppression to lower psychological well-being. We used a scale manipulation to lead 196 American and 213 Chinese participants to perceive themselves as having suppressed their emotions to a greater or lesser extent and then measured their life satisfaction. As expected, both the American and Chinese participants reported lower life satisfaction in the high-suppression condition than in the low-suppression condition; this negative effect was mediated by positive affect and moderated by self-esteem. Specifically, perceived high emotion suppression decreased positive affect, which in turn led to lower well-being. This effect was observed only for those with low self-esteem, but the patterns and mechanisms were consistent cross-culturally. © 2018 International Union of Psychological Science.

  20. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Hung Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression, the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  1. Deconstructing Interocular Suppression: Attention and Divisive Normalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hsin-Hung; Carrasco, Marisa; Heeger, David J

    2015-10-01

    In interocular suppression, a suprathreshold monocular target can be rendered invisible by a salient competitor stimulus presented in the other eye. Despite decades of research on interocular suppression and related phenomena (e.g., binocular rivalry, flash suppression, continuous flash suppression), the neural processing underlying interocular suppression is still unknown. We developed and tested a computational model of interocular suppression. The model included two processes that contributed to the strength of interocular suppression: divisive normalization and attentional modulation. According to the model, the salient competitor induced a stimulus-driven attentional modulation selective for the location and orientation of the competitor, thereby increasing the gain of neural responses to the competitor and reducing the gain of neural responses to the target. Additional suppression was induced by divisive normalization in the model, similar to other forms of visual masking. To test the model, we conducted psychophysics experiments in which both the size and the eye-of-origin of the competitor were manipulated. For small and medium competitors, behavioral performance was consonant with a change in the response gain of neurons that responded to the target. But large competitors induced a contrast-gain change, even when the competitor was split between the two eyes. The model correctly predicted these results and outperformed an alternative model in which the attentional modulation was eye specific. We conclude that both stimulus-driven attention (selective for location and feature) and divisive normalization contribute to interocular suppression.

  2. Reproducibility of suppression of Pythium wilt of cucumber by compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauritz Vilhelm Vestberg

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing global interest in using compost to suppress soil-borne fungal and bacterial diseases and nematodes. We studied the reproducibility of compost suppressive capacity (SC against Pythium wilt of cucumber using nine composts produced by the same composting plant in 2008 and 2009. A bioassay was set up in a greenhouse using cucumber inoculated with two strains of Pythium. The composts were used as 20% mixtures (v:v of a basic steam-sterilized light Sphagnum peat and sand (3:1, v:v. Shoot height was measured weekly during the 5-week experiment. At harvest, the SC was calculated as the % difference in shoot dry weight (DW between non-inoculated and inoculated cucumbers. The SC was not affected by year of production (2008 or 2009, indicating reproducibility of SC when the raw materials and the composting method are not changed. Differences in shoot height were not as pronounced as those for shoot DW. The results were encouraging, but further studies are still needed for producing compost with guaranteed suppressiveness properties.

  3. Investigation of structure in the modular light pipe component for LED automotive lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsi-Chao; Zhou, Yang; Huang, Chien-Sheng; Jhong, Wan-Ling; Cheng, Bo-Wei; Jhang, Jhe-Ming

    2014-09-01

    Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) have the advantages of small length, long lifetime, fast response time (μs), low voltage, good mechanical properties and environmental protection. Furthermore, LEDs could replace the halogen lamps to avoid the mercury pollution and economize the use of energy. Therefore, the LEDs could instead of the traditional lamp in the future and became an important light source. The proposal of this study was to investigate the effects of the structure and length of the reflector component for a LED automotive lamp. The novel LED automotive lamp was assembled by several different modularization columnar. The optimized design of the different structure and the length to the reflector was simulated by software TracePro. The design result must met the vehicle regulation of United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) such as ECE-R19 etc. The structure of the light pipe could be designed by two steps structure. Then constitute the proper structure and choose different power LED to meet the luminous intensity of the vehicle regulation. The simulation result shows the proper structure and length has the best total luminous flux and a high luminous efficiency for the system. Also, the stray light could meet the vehicle regulation of ECE R19. Finally, the experimental result of the selected structure and length of the light pipe could match the simulation result above 80%.

  4. Scintillation light detectors with Neganov Luke amplification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaila, C.; Boslau, O.; Coppi, C.; Feilitzsch, F. v.; Goldstraß, P.; Jagemann, T.; Jochum, J.; Kemmer, J.; Lachenmaier, T.; Lanfranchi, J.-C.; Pahlke, A.; Potzel, W.; Rau, W.; Stark, M.; Wernicke, D.; Westphal, W.

    2006-04-01

    For an active suppression of the gamma and electron background in the Cryogenic Rare Event Search with Superconducting Thermometers (CRESST) dark matter experiment both phonons and scintillation light generated in a CaWO 4 crystal are detected simultaneously. The phonon signal is read out by a transition edge sensor (TES) on the CaWO 4 crystal. For light detection a silicon absorber equipped with a TES is employed. An efficient background discrimination requires very sensitive light detectors. The threshold can be improved by applying an electric field to the silicon crystal leading to an amplification of the thermal signal due to the Neganov-Luke effect. Measurements showing the improved sensitivity of the light detectors as well as future steps for reducing the observed extra noise will be presented.

  5. Boiling Suppression in Convective Flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aounallah, Y.

    2004-01-01

    The development of convective boiling heat transfer correlations and analytical models has almost exclusively been based on measurements of the total heat flux, and therefore on the overall two-phase heat transfer coefficient, when the well-known heat transfer correlations have often assumed additive mechanisms, one for each mode of heat transfer, convection and boiling. While the global performance of such correlations can readily be assessed, the predictive capability of the individual components of the correlation has usually remained elusive. This becomes important when, for example, developing mechanistic models for subcooled void formation based on the partitioning of the wall heat flux into a boiling and a convective component, or when extending a correlation beyond its original range of applications where the preponderance of the heat transfer mechanisms involved can be significantly different. A new examination of existing experimental heat transfer data obtained under fixed hydrodynamic conditions, whereby the local flow conditions are decoupled from the local heat flux, has allowed the unequivocal isolation of the boiling contribution over a broad range of thermodynamic qualities (0 to 0.8) for water at 7 MPa. Boiling suppression, as the quality increases, has consequently been quantified, thus providing valuable new insights on the functionality and contribution of boiling in convective flows. (author)

  6. Suppressed Demand and the Carbon Markets: Does development have to become dirty before it qualifies to become clean?

    OpenAIRE

    Gavaldão, Marina; Battye, William; Grapeloup, Mathieu; François, Yann

    2012-01-01

    Suppressed Demand refers to a situation where Minimum Services Levels (MSL) necessary for human development are unavailable to people or only available to an inadequate level. Numerous barriers, such as low income levels or lack of infrastructure and skills prevent access to MSLs, such as potable water, cooking energy, lighting and electrification. We investigate the concept of suppressed demand as it applies to Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and market based incentives for GHG emission re...

  7. Heavy flavor puzzle at LHC: a serendipitous interplay of jet suppression and fragmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djordjevic, Magdalena

    2014-01-31

    Both charged hadrons and D mesons are considered to be excellent probes of QCD matter created in ultrarelativistic heavy ion collisions. Surprisingly, recent experimental observations at LHC show the same jet suppression for these two probes, which--contrary to pQCD expectations--may suggest similar energy losses for light quarks and gluons in the QCD medium. We here use our recently developed energy loss formalism in a finite-size dynamical QCD medium to analyze this phenomenon that we denote as the "heavy flavor puzzle at LHC." We show that this puzzle is a consequence of an unusual combination of the suppression and fragmentation patterns and, in fact, does not require invoking the same energy loss for light partons. Furthermore, we show that this combination leads to a simple relationship between the suppressions of charged hadrons and D mesons and the corresponding bare quark suppressions. Consequently, a coincidental matching of jet suppression and fragmentation allows considerably simplifying the interpretation of the corresponding experimental data.

  8. Lighting Options for Homes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, W.S.

    1991-04-01

    This report covers many aspects of various lighting options for homes. Types of light sources described include natural light, artificial light, incandescent lamps, fluorescent lamps, and high intensity discharge lamps. A light source selection guide gives the physical characteristics of these, design considerations, and common applications. Color, strategies for efficient lighting, and types of lighting are discussed. There is one section giving tips for various situations in specific rooms. Rooms and types of fixtures are shown on a matrix with watts saved by using the recommended type lighting for that room and room location. A major emphasis of this report is saving energy by utilizing the most suitable, recommended lighting option. (BN)

  9. Urban lighting, light pollution and society

    CERN Document Server

    Meier, Josiane; Krause, Katharina; Pottharst, Merle

    2014-01-01

    After decades "in the shadows", urban lighting is re-emerging as a matter of public debate. Long-standing truths are increasingly questioned as a confluence of developments affects lighting itself and the way it is viewed. Light has become an integral element of place-making and energy-saving initiatives alike. Rapidly evolving lighting technologies are opening up new possibilities, but also posing new challenges to planners, and awareness is growing that artificial illumination is not purely benign but can actually constitute a form of pollution. As a result, public policy frameworks, incentives and initiatives are undergoing a phase of innovation and change that will affect how cities are lit for years to come. The first comprehensive compilation of current scientific discussions on urban lighting and light pollution from a social science and humanities perspective, Urban Lighting, Light Pollution and Society contributes to an evolving international debate on an increasingly controversial topic. The contrib...

  10. Probing Light Stops with Stoponium

    CERN Document Server

    Batell, Brian

    2015-01-01

    We derive new limits on light stops from diboson resonance searches in the $\\gamma\\gamma$, $Z \\gamma$, $ZZ$, $WW$ and $hh$ channels from the first run of the LHC. If the two-body decays of the light stop are mildly suppressed or kinematically forbidden, stoponium bound states will form in $pp$ collisions and subsequently decay via the pair annihilation of the constituent stops to diboson final states, yielding striking resonance signatures. Remarkably, we find that stoponium searches are highly complementary to direct collider searches and indirect probes of light stops such as Higgs coupling measurements. Using an empirical quarkonia potential model and including the first two $S$-wave stoponium states, we find that in the decoupling limit $m_{\\widetilde t_1} \\lesssim 130$ GeV is excluded for any value of the stop mixing angle and heavy stop mass by the combination of the latest resonance searches and the indirect constraints. The $\\gamma \\gamma$ searches are the most complementary to the indirect constraint...

  11. Light up My Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellett, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Simply stated, light is nature's way of transferring energy through space. Discussions of light usually refer to visible light, which is perceived by the human eye and is responsible for the sense of sight. We see however, only a small part of the light spectrum. Light connects us as we sit and tell yarns around camp fires. Yet, one in every four…

  12. Mobile lighting apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, George Michael; Klebanoff, Leonard Elliott; Rea, Gerald W; Drake, Robert A; Johnson, Terry A; Wingert, Steven John; Damberger, Thomas A; Skradski, Thomas J; Radley, Christopher James; Oros, James M; Schuttinger, Paul G; Grupp, David J; Prey, Stephen Carl

    2013-05-14

    A mobile lighting apparatus includes a portable frame such as a moveable trailer or skid having a light tower thereon. The light tower is moveable from a stowed position to a deployed position. A hydrogen-powered fuel cell is located on the portable frame to provide electrical power to an array of the energy efficient lights located on the light tower.

  13. Photosynthesis-related infrared light transmission changes in spinach leaf segments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akimoto, T.

    1985-01-01

    The time courses of infrared light transmission changes and fluorescence induced by light in spinach leaf segments were measured. The illumination by red light exhibited a complex wave pattern. The transmission approached the baseline after repeating decreases and increases. Illumination by far-red light decreased the transmission. One of the differences between the two responses was the difference between the two amplitudes of the first increasing component. The component in the red light response was larger than the component in the far-red light response. The transmission decrease by far-red light is supposed to correspond to ''red drop.'' The transmission decrease by far-red light was suppressed by red light. This is due to an activation of a transmission-increasing component. This probably corresponds to ''enhancement.'' A proportional correlation existed between the intensity of far-red light and the minimum intensity of red light that suppressed the transmission decrease induced by far-red light. The component which made Peak D in the time course of fluorescence yield and the first increasing component in the transmission changes were suppressed by intense light

  14. Burst suppression probability algorithms: state-space methods for tracking EEG burst suppression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemali, Jessica; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L.; Solt, Ken; Brown, Emery N.

    2013-10-01

    Objective. Burst suppression is an electroencephalogram pattern in which bursts of electrical activity alternate with an isoelectric state. This pattern is commonly seen in states of severely reduced brain activity such as profound general anesthesia, anoxic brain injuries, hypothermia and certain developmental disorders. Devising accurate, reliable ways to quantify burst suppression is an important clinical and research problem. Although thresholding and segmentation algorithms readily identify burst suppression periods, analysis algorithms require long intervals of data to characterize burst suppression at a given time and provide no framework for statistical inference. Approach. We introduce the concept of the burst suppression probability (BSP) to define the brain's instantaneous propensity of being in the suppressed state. To conduct dynamic analyses of burst suppression we propose a state-space model in which the observation process is a binomial model and the state equation is a Gaussian random walk. We estimate the model using an approximate expectation maximization algorithm and illustrate its application in the analysis of rodent burst suppression recordings under general anesthesia and a patient during induction of controlled hypothermia. Main result. The BSP algorithms track burst suppression on a second-to-second time scale, and make possible formal statistical comparisons of burst suppression at different times. Significance. The state-space approach suggests a principled and informative way to analyze burst suppression that can be used to monitor, and eventually to control, the brain states of patients in the operating room and in the intensive care unit.

  15. Psychopathology and Thought Suppression: A Quantitative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Joshua C.; Harden, K. Paige; Teachman, Bethany A.

    2012-01-01

    Recent theories of psychopathology have suggested that thought suppression intensifies the persistence of intrusive thoughts, and proposed that difficulty with thought suppression may differ between groups with and without psychopathology. The current meta-analytic review evaluates empirical evidence for difficulty with thought suppression as a function of the presence and specific type of psychopathology. Based on theoretical proposals from the psychopathology literature, diagnosed and analogue samples were expected to show greater recurrence of intrusive thoughts during thought suppression attempts than non-clinical samples. However, results showed no overall differences in the recurrence of thoughts due to thought suppression between groups with and without psychopathology. There was, nevertheless, variation in the recurrence of thoughts across different forms of psychopathology, including relatively less recurrence during thought suppression for samples with symptoms of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder, compared to non-clinical samples. However, these differences were typically small and provided only mixed support for existing theories. Implications for cognitive theories of intrusive thoughts are discussed, including proposed mechanisms underlying thought suppression. PMID:22388007

  16. Volatile suppressing method for radioactive iodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohara, Atsushi; Haruguchi, Keiko.

    1997-01-01

    In the present invention, a metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of a suppression chamber disposed to a reactor container in order to reduce evaporation of radioactive iodine released from a suppression pool. A metal plate is disposed above the pool water surface of the suppression chamber disposed to the reactor container. In addition, a metal plate is disposed around the space connecting a bent tube extending from a dry well to underwater of suppression pool water and a gas bent tube extending from the suppression chamber to an emergency gas processing system. Spray water is supplied for cooling the suppression chamber d as a means for cooling the metal plate. Then, among iodine released to the suppression chamber, elemental iodine liberated from the pool water is deposited on the surface of the metal plate, and the amount of iodine to be flown into and processed by an emergency gas processing system or a filter bent system can be reduced. (T.M.)

  17. Regional Extent of Peripheral Suppression in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Raiju J; Clavagnier, Simon; Bobier, William R; Thompson, Benjamin; Hess, Robert F

    2017-04-01

    Previously, we have mapped amblyopic eye suppression within the central 20° of the visual field and observed a gradient of suppression that is strongest in central vision and weakens with increasing eccentricity. In this study, using a large dichoptic display, we extend our novel suppression mapping approach further into the periphery (from 20°-60°) to assess whether suppression continues to decline with eccentricity or plateaus. Sixteen participants with amblyopia (10 with strabismus, 6 with anisometropia without strabismus; mean age: 37.9 ± 11 years) and six normal observers (mean age: 28.3 ± 5 years) took part. The visual stimulus (60° diameter), viewed from 57 cm, was composed of four concentric annuli (5° radius) with alternate contrast polarities starting from an eccentricity of 10°. Each annulus was divided into eight sectors subtending 45° of visual angle. Participants adjusted the contrast of a single sector presented to the fellow eye to match the perceived contrast of the remaining stimulus elements that were presented to the amblyopic eye. A matching contrast that was lower in the fellow eye than the amblyopic eye indicated suppression. Patients with strabismus exhibited significantly stronger interocular suppression than controls across all eccentricities (P = 0.01). Patients with anisometropia did not differ from controls (P = 0.58). Suppression varied significantly with eccentricity (P = 0.005) but this effect did not differ between patient groups (P = 0.217). In amblyopia, suppression is present beyond the central 10° in patients with strabismus. Suppression becomes weaker at greater eccentricities and this may enable peripheral fusion that could be used by binocular treatment methods.

  18. Energy Efficient Task Light

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Logadottir, Asta; Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnsen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of this work is to develop a task light for office lighting that fulfils the minimum requirements of the European standard EN12464 - 1 : Light and lightingLighting of work places, Part 1: Indoor workplaces and the Danish standard DS 700 : Lys og belysning I arbejdsrum , or more...... specifically the requirements that apply to the work area and the immediate surrounding area. By providing a task light that fulfils the requirements for task lighting and the immediate surrounding area, the general lighting only needs to provide the illuminance levels required for background lighting...... and thereby a reduction in installed power for general lighting of about 40 % compared to the way illuminance levels are designed in an office environment in Denmark today. This lighting strategy is useful when the placement of the task area is not defined in the space before the lighting is design ed...

  19. Using Correlated Photons to Suppress Background Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Deborah; Hockney, George; Dowling, Jonathan

    2003-01-01

    A proposed method of suppressing the effect of background noise in an optical communication system would exploit the transmission and reception of correlated photons at the receiver. The method would not afford any advantage in a system in which performance is limited by shot noise. However, if the performance of the system is limited by background noise (e.g., sunlight in the case of a free-space optical communication system or incoherently scattered in-band photons in the case of a fiber-optic communication system), then the proposed method could offer an advantage: the proposed method would make it possible to achieve a signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) significantly greater than that of an otherwise equivalent background- noise-limited optical communication system based on the classical transmission and reception of uncorrelated photons. The figure schematically depicts a classical optical-communication system and a system according to the proposed method. In the classical system, a modulated laser beam is transmitted along an optical path to a receiver, the optics of which include a narrow-band-pass filter that suppresses some of the background noise. A photodetector in the receiver detects the laser-beam and background photons, most or all of which are uncorrelated. In the proposed system, correlated photons would be generated at the transmitter by making a modulated laser beam pass through a nonlinear parametric down-conversion crystal. The sum of frequencies of the correlated photons in each pair would equal the frequency of the incident photon from which they were generated. As in the classical system, the correlated photons would travel along an optical path to a receiver, where they would be band-pass filtered and detected. Unlike in the classical system, the photodetector in the receiver in this system would be one that intrinsically favors the detection of pairs of correlated photons over the detection of uncorrelated photons. Even though there would be no

  20. Alleviation of response suppression to conditioned aversive stimuli by lesions of the dorsal noradrenergic bundle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsaltas, E; Gray, J A; Fillenz, M

    1984-08-01

    Rats with neurotoxic lesions of the dorsal ascending noradrenergic bundle (DB) were compared with sham-operated (SH) controls on the acquisition, steady state and extinction of response suppression maintained by a classical (conditioned suppression) or an instrumental (discriminated punishment) contingency. DB lesions interfered neither with the acquisition of the reference response of sucrose-rewarded barpressing nor with unconditioned responding to the overhead flashing light subsequently used as a signal of shock. The acquisition of discriminated response suppression was also unaffected by the lesion under both types of contingency. However, once discriminated suppression had stabilized, both the conditioned and the discriminative stimulus used were significantly less effective in maintaining suppression in DB animals than in SH controls provided that low intensity footshock (0.2 mA) was used as the unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Upon increase of UCS intensity (to 0.5 mA) normal suppression was observed in the DB group under both contingencies. Extinction of the classical contingency reinstated the difference between DB and SH performance: DB lesion resulted in significantly faster extinction of fear. In contrast, extinction of the discriminated punishment contingency was unaffected by the lesion, although generalized response suppression dissipated faster in the DB than in the SH animals trained under this condition. Our results offer no support for the reinforcement hypothesis of DB function (normal acquisition of barpressing and of discriminated suppression of barpressing); mixed support (greater initial generalization of suppression in DB animals) and contradiction (more rapid extinction of conditioned suppression in DB animals) for the attentional hypothesis; and weak support (reduced suppression and more rapid extinction of suppression in DB animals, but only within limited experimental parameters) for the anxiety hypothesis of DB function. Hence none of

  1. Light pollution: the possible consequences of excessive illumination on retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contín, M A; Benedetto, M M; Quinteros-Quintana, M L; Guido, M E

    2016-02-01

    Light is the visible part of the electromagnetic radiation within a range of 380-780 nm; (400-700 on primates retina). In vertebrates, the retina is adapted to capturing light photons and transmitting this information to other structures in the central nervous system. In mammals, light acts directly on the retina to fulfill two important roles: (1) the visual function through rod and cone photoreceptor cells and (2) non-image forming tasks, such as the synchronization of circadian rhythms to a 24 h solar cycle, pineal melatonin suppression and pupil light reflexes. However, the excess of illumination may cause retinal degeneration or accelerate genetic retinal diseases. In the last century human society has increased its exposure to artificial illumination, producing changes in the Light/Dark cycle, as well as in light wavelengths and intensities. Although, the consequences of unnatural illumination or light pollution have been underestimated by modern society in its way of life, light pollution may have a strong impact on people's health. The effects of artificial light sources could have direct consequences on retinal health. Constant exposure to different wavelengths and intensities of light promoted by light pollution may produce retinal degeneration as a consequence of photoreceptor or retinal pigment epithelium cells death. In this review we summarize the different mechanisms of retinal damage related to the light exposure, which generates light pollution.

  2. Chondromalacia patellae: fat-suppressed MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, P M; Demlow, T A; Szumowski, J; Quinn, S F

    1994-11-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of fat-suppressed magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in diagnosing chondromalacia patellae. Seventy-one patients underwent fat-suppressed MR imaging and arthroscopy of the patellofemoral compartment. Findings were classified as early or advanced chondromalacia or as normal and were correlated with arthroscopic findings. Early and advanced stages of chondromalacia patellae were reliably detected, with positive predictive values of 85% and 92%, respectively. Specificity in early stages was 94% and in late stages was 98%. However, the overall accuracies did not differ substantially from those reported in studies that did not use fat-suppressed imaging. Axial, fat-suppressed MR imaging accurately depicts changes caused by chondromalacia patellae. Early stages can be seen as intrasubstance changes of increased signal intensity. Results of this study suggest a high degree of specificity in excluding both early and advanced changes.

  3. METHOD OF SUPPRESSING GASTROINTESTINAL UREASE ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visek, W.J.

    1963-04-23

    This patent shows a method of increasing the growth rate of chicks. Certain diacyl substituted ureas such as alloxan, murexide, and barbituric acid are added to their feed, thereby suppressing gastrointestinal urease activity and thus promoting growth. (AEC)

  4. Suppression factors in diffractive photoproduction of dijets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klasen, Michael; Kramer, Gustav

    2010-06-01

    After new publications of H1 data for the diffractive photoproduction of dijets, which overlap with the earlier published H1 data and the recently published data of the ZEUS collaboration, have appeared, we have recalculated the cross sections for this process in next-to-leading order (NLO) of perturbative QCD to see whether they can be interpreted consistently. The results of these calculations are compared to the data of both collaborations. We find that the NLO cross sections disagree with the data, showing that factorization breaking occurs at that order. If direct and resolved contributions are both suppressed by the same amount, the global suppression factor depends on the transverse-energy cut. However, by suppressing only the resolved contribution, also reasonably good agreement with all the data is found with a suppression factor independent of the transverse-energy cut. (orig.)

  5. Attention modulates sensory suppression during back movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulle, Lore; Juravle, Georgiana; Spence, Charles; Crombez, Geert; Van Damme, Stefaan

    2013-06-01

    Tactile perception is often impaired during movement. The present study investigated whether such sensory suppression also occurs during back movements, and whether this would be modulated by attention. In two tactile detection experiments, participants simultaneously engaged in a movement task, in which they executed a back-bending movement, and a perceptual task, consisting of the detection of subtle tactile stimuli administered to their upper or lower back. The focus of participants' attention was manipulated by raising the probability that one of the back locations would be stimulated. The results revealed that tactile detection was suppressed during the execution of the back movements. Furthermore, the results of Experiment 2 revealed that when the stimulus was always presented to the attended location, tactile suppression was substantially reduced, suggesting that sensory suppression can be modulated by top-down attentional processes. The potential of this paradigm for studying tactile information processing in clinical populations is discussed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Suppression of instability in rotatory hydromagnetic convection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    first time by Lord Rayleigh [9] for the idealized case of two free boundaries. Rayleigh's theory shows that the gravity-dominated thermal instability in liquid layer ... suppressed for oscillatory perturbations by the simultaneous application of a ...

  7. Combustion suppressing device for leaked sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooto, Akihiro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To suppress the atmospheric temperature to secure the building safety and shorten the recovery time after the leakage in a chamber for containing sodium leaked from coolant circuit equipments or pipeways of LMFBR type rector by suppressing the combustion of sodium contained in the chamber. Constitution: To the inner wall of a chamber for containing sodium handling equipments, are vertically disposed a panel having a coolant supply port at the upper portion and a coolant discharge port at the lower portion thereof and defined with a coolant flowing channel and a panel for sucking the coolant discharged from the abovementioned panel and exhausting the same externally. Further, a corrugated combustion suppressing plate having apertures for draining the condensated leaked sodium is disposed near the sodium handling equipments. If ruptures are resulted to the sodium handling equipments or pipeway, leaked sodium is passed through the drain apertures in the suppressing plate and stored at the bottom of the containing chamber. (Horiuchi, T.)

  8. Street light detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    Disclosed is a method, a vehicle and a system for measuring light from one or more outdoor lamps on a road, the system comprising a number of light sensors configured to be arranged in a fixed position relative to a vehicle, where at least a first part of the light sensors is configured...... for measuring light from the one or more outdoor lamps, wherein at least a second part of the light sensors comprises at least two light sensors configured for detecting the angle which the light from the one or more outdoor lamps arrives at in the second part of the light sensors; a processing unit configured...... for calculating the position relative to the vehicle of the one or more outdoor lamps based on the detected angle which the light arrives in, and wherein the processing unit is configured for calculating the light on the road based on the light measured in the fixed position relative to the vehicle and based...

  9. Suppressing Tsetse Flies to Improve Lives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Potterton, Louise; Pavlicek, Petr; Parker, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    In 2009, the government-run Southern Tsetse Eradication Project (STEP) in Ethiopia, with the support of the IAEA, started to carry out intensive activities to suppress the fly population using insecticides. The fly population is now down by 90%. The benefits of tsetse suppression can be seen all over the region. Diary produce is now widely available at markets and healthy animals can be seen everywhere in farming and transport

  10. Gamma camera scatter suppression unit WAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishi, Haruo; Shibahara, Noriyuki; Hirose, Yoshiharu; Shimonishi, Yoshihiro; Oumura, Masahiro; Ikeda, Hozumi; Hamada, Kunio; Ochi, Hironobu; Itagane, Hiroshi.

    1990-01-01

    In gamma camera imaging, scattered radiation is one of big factors to decrease image contrast. Simply, scatter suppression makes signal to noise ratio larger, but it makes statistics error because of radionuclide injection limit to the human body. EWA is a new method that suppresses scattered radiation and improves image contrast. In this article, WAM which is commercialized EWA method by Siemens Gammasonics Inc. is presented. (author)

  11. Thomson scattering measurements on an atmospheric Ar dc discharge lamp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhu, Xiao-Yan; Redwitz, M.; Kieft, E.R.; Sande, van de M.J.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2004-01-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) experiments have been performed in the region near the electrodes of a dc powered model lamp filled with 1-2 bar argon gas. In order to suppress the false stray light and Rayleigh scattered photons, a triple grating spectrograph was used. In this way the electron density and

  12. Proton radiation effects on the optical properties of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhnhenn, J.; Khavrus, V.; Leonhardt, A.; Eversheim, D.; Noll, C.; Hinderlich, S.; Dahl, A.

    2017-11-01

    This paper discusses proton-induced radiation effects in vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VA-CNT). VACNTs exhibit extremely low optical reflectivity which makes them interesting candidates for use in spacecraft stray light suppression. Investigating their behavior in space environment is a precondition for the implementation on a satellite.

  13. Highly efficient blazed grating with multilayer coating for tender X-ray energies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Senf, F.; Bijkerk, Frederik; Eggenstein, F.; Gwalt, G.; Huang, Qiushi; van de Kruijs, Robbert Wilhelmus Elisabeth; Kutz, O.; Lemke, S.; Louis, Eric; Mertin, M.; Packe, I.; Rudolph, I.; Schafers, F.; Siewert, F.; Sokolov, A.; Sturm, Jacobus Marinus; Waberski, C.; Wang, Z.; Wolf, J.; Zeschke, T.; Erko, A.

    2016-01-01

    For photon energies of 1 – 5 keV, blazed gratings with multilayer coating are ideally suited for the suppression of stray and higher orders light in grating monochromators. We developed and characterized a blazed 2000 lines/mm grating coated with a 20 period Cr/C- multilayer. The multilayer

  14. Leading Particle Production in Light Flavour Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G; Åkesson, P F; Alexander, Gideon; Allison, J; Anderson, K J; Arcelli, S; Asai, S; Ashby, S F; Axen, D A; Azuelos, Georges; Bailey, I; Ball, A H; Barberio, E; Barlow, R J; Batley, J Richard; Baumann, S; Behnke, T; Bell, K W; Bella, G; Bellerive, A; Bentvelsen, Stanislaus Cornelius Maria; Bethke, Siegfried; Betts, S; Biebel, O; Biguzzi, A; Bloodworth, Ian J; Bock, P; Böhme, J; Boeriu, O; Bonacorsi, D; Boutemeur, M; Braibant, S; Bright-Thomas, P G; Brigliadori, L; Brown, R M; Burckhart, Helfried J; Capiluppi, P; Carnegie, R K; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Chang, C Y; Charlton, D G; Chrisman, D; Ciocca, C; Clarke, P E L; Clay, E; Cohen, I; Conboy, J E; Cooke, O C; Couchman, J; Couyoumtzelis, C; Coxe, R L; Cuffiani, M; Dado, S; Dallavalle, G M; Dallison, S; Davis, R; de Roeck, A; Dervan, P J; Desch, Klaus; Dienes, B; Dixit, M S; Donkers, M; Dubbert, J; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Duerdoth, I P; Estabrooks, P G; Etzion, E; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Fanfani, A; Fanti, M; Faust, A A; Feld, L; Ferrari, P; Fiedler, F; Fierro, M; Fleck, I; Frey, A; Fürtjes, A; Futyan, D I; Gagnon, P; Gary, J W; Gaycken, G; Geich-Gimbel, C; Giacomelli, G; Giacomelli, P; Gingrich, D M; Glenzinski, D A; Goldberg, J; Gorn, W; Grandi, C; Graham, K; Gross, E; Grunhaus, Jacob; Gruwé, M; Hajdu, C; Hanson, G G; Hansroul, M; Hapke, M; Harder, K; Harel, A; Hargrove, C K; Harin-Dirac, M; Hauschild, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R; Hemingway, Richard J; Herten, G; Heuer, R D; Hildreth, M D; Hill, J C; Hobson, P R; Höcker, Andreas; Hoffman, K; Homer, R James; Honma, A K; Horváth, D; Hossain, K R; Howard, R; Hüntemeyer, P; Igo-Kemenes, P; Imrie, D C; Ishii, K; Jacob, F R; Jawahery, A; Jeremie, H; Jimack, Martin Paul; Jones, C R; Jovanovic, P; Junk, T R; Kanaya, N; Kanzaki, J I; Karapetian, G V; Karlen, D A; Kartvelishvili, V G; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kayal, P I; Keeler, Richard K; Kellogg, R G; Kennedy, B W; Kim, D H; Klier, A; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Kokott, T P; Kolrep, M; Komamiya, S; Kowalewski, R V; Kress, T; Krieger, P; Von Krogh, J; Kühl, T; Kupper, M; Kyberd, P; Lafferty, G D; Landsman, Hagar Yaël; Lanske, D; Lauber, J; Lawson, I; Layter, J G; Lellouch, Daniel; Letts, J; Levinson, L; Liebisch, R; Lillich, J; List, B; Littlewood, C; Lloyd, A W; Lloyd, S L; Loebinger, F K; Long, G D; Losty, Michael J; Lü, J; Ludwig, J; Macchiolo, A; MacPherson, A L; Mader, W F; Mannelli, M; Marcellini, S; Marchant, T E; Martin, A J; Martin, J P; Martínez, G; Mashimo, T; Mättig, P; McDonald, W J; McKenna, J A; McKigney, E A; McMahon, T J; McPherson, R A; Meijers, F; Méndez-Lorenzo, P; Merritt, F S; Mes, H; Meyer, I; Michelini, Aldo; Mihara, S; Mikenberg, G; Miller, D J; Mohr, W; Montanari, A; Mori, T; Nagai, K; Nakamura, I; Neal, H A; Nisius, R; O'Neale, S W; Oakham, F G; Odorici, F; Ögren, H O; Okpara, A N; Oreglia, M J; Orito, S; Pásztor, G; Pater, J R; Patrick, G N; Patt, J; Pérez-Ochoa, R; Petzold, S; Pfeifenschneider, P; Pilcher, J E; Pinfold, James L; Plane, D E; Poli, B; Polok, J; Przybycien, M B; Quadt, A; Rembser, C; Rick, Hartmut; Robins, S A; Rodning, N L; Roney, J M; Rosati, S; Roscoe, K; Rossi, A M; Rozen, Y; Runge, K; Runólfsson, O; Rust, D R; Sachs, K; Saeki, T; Sahr, O; Sang, W M; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sbarra, C; Schaile, A D; Schaile, O; Scharff-Hansen, P; Schieck, J; Schmitt, S; Schöning, A; Schröder, M; Schumacher, M; Schwick, C; Scott, W G; Seuster, R; Shears, T G; Shen, B C; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Sherwood, P; Siroli, G P; Skuja, A; Smith, A M; Snow, G A; Sobie, Randall J; Söldner-Rembold, S; Spagnolo, S; Sproston, M; Stahl, A; Stephens, K; Stoll, K; Strom, D; Ströhmer, R; Surrow, B; Talbot, S D; Taras, P; Tarem, S; Teuscher, R; Thiergen, M; Thomas, J; Thomson, M A; Torrence, E; Towers, S; Trefzger, T M; Trigger, I; Trócsányi, Z L; Tsur, E; Turner-Watson, M F; Ueda, I; Van Kooten, R; Vannerem, P; Verzocchi, M; Voss, H; Wäckerle, F; Waller, D; Ward, C P; Ward, D R; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Wells, P S; Wengler, T; Wermes, N; Wetterling, D; White, J S; Wilson, G W; Wilson, J A; Wyatt, T R; Yamashita, S; Zacek, V; Zer-Zion, D

    2000-01-01

    The energy distribution and type of the particle with the highest momentum in quark jets are determined for each of the five quark flavours making only minimal model assumptions. The analysis is based on a large statistics sample of hadronic Z0 decays collected with the OPAL detector at the LEP e+e- collider. These results provide a basis for future studies of light flavour production at other centre-of-mass energies. We use our results to study the hadronisation mechanism in light flavour jets and compare the data to the QCD models JETSET and HERWIG. Within the JETSET model we also directly determine the suppression of strange quarks to be gamma_s=0.422+-0.049 (stat.)+-0.059 (syst.) by comparing the production of charged and neutral kaons in strange and non-strange light quark events. Finally we study the features of baryon production.

  15. PFP Emergency Lighting Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BUSCH, M.S.

    2000-01-01

    NFPA 101, section 5-9 mandates that, where required by building classification, all designated emergency egress routes be provided with adequate emergency lighting in the event of a normal lighting outage. Emergency lighting is to be arranged so that egress routes are illuminated to an average of 1.0 footcandle with a minimum at any point of 0.1 footcandle, as measured at floor level. These levels are permitted to drop to 60% of their original value over the required 90 minute emergency lighting duration after a power outage. The Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP) has two designations for battery powered egress lights ''Emergency Lights'' are those battery powered lights required by NFPA 101 to provide lighting along officially designated egress routes in those buildings meeting the correct occupancy requirements. Emergency Lights are maintained on a monthly basis by procedure ZSR-12N-001. ''Backup Lights'' are battery powered lights not required by NFPA, but installed in areas where additional light may be needed. The Backup Light locations were identified by PFP Safety and Engineering based on several factors. (1) General occupancy and type of work in the area. Areas occupied briefly during a shiftly surveillance do not require backup lighting while a room occupied fairly frequently or for significant lengths of time will need one or two Backup lights to provide general illumination of the egress points. (2) Complexity of the egress routes. Office spaces with a standard hallway/room configuration will not require Backup Lights while a large room with several subdivisions or irregularly placed rooms, doors, and equipment will require Backup Lights to make egress safer. (3) Reasonable balance between the safety benefits of additional lighting and the man-hours/exposure required for periodic light maintenance. In some plant areas such as building 236-Z, the additional maintenance time and risk of contamination do not warrant having Backup Lights installed in all rooms

  16. Suppression sours sacrifice: emotional and relational costs of suppressing emotions in romantic relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Impett, Emily A; Kogan, Aleksandr; English, Tammy; John, Oliver; Oveis, Christopher; Gordon, Amie M; Keltner, Dacher

    2012-06-01

    What happens when people suppress their emotions when they sacrifice for a romantic partner? This multimethod study investigates how suppressing emotions during sacrifice shapes affective and relationship outcomes. In Part 1, dating couples came into the laboratory to discuss important romantic relationship sacrifices. Suppressing emotions was associated with emotional costs for the partner discussing his or her sacrifice. In Part 2, couples participated in a 14-day daily experience study. Within-person increases in emotional suppression during daily sacrifice were associated with decreases in emotional well-being and relationship quality as reported by both members of romantic dyads. In Part 3, suppression predicted decreases in relationship satisfaction and increases in thoughts about breaking up with a romantic partner 3 months later. In the first two parts of the study, authenticity mediated the costly effects of suppression. Implications for research on close relationships and emotion regulation are discussed.

  17. Light Trapping with Silicon Light Funnel Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Prajapati

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Silicon light funnels are three-dimensional subwavelength structures in the shape of inverted cones with respect to the incoming illumination. Light funnel (LF arrays can serve as efficient absorbing layers on account of their light trapping capabilities, which are associated with the presence of high-density complex Mie modes. Specifically, light funnel arrays exhibit broadband absorption enhancement of the solar spectrum. In the current study, we numerically explore the optical coupling between surface light funnel arrays and the underlying substrates. We show that the absorption in the LF array-substrate complex is higher than the absorption in LF arrays of the same height (~10% increase. This, we suggest, implies that a LF array serves as an efficient surface element that imparts additional momentum components to the impinging illumination, and hence optically excites the substrate by near-field light concentration, excitation of traveling guided modes in the substrate, and mode hybridization.

  18. Light as experiential material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kjell Yngve; Søndergaard, Karin

    2013-01-01

    'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which the experience and design of architectural lighting can be approached in research and education......'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which the experience and design of architectural lighting can be approached in research and education...

  19. Light as experiential material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Karin; Petersen, Kjell Yngve

    2013-01-01

    'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which we can approach the experience and design of architectural lighting in research and education.......'Light as experiential material' is concerned with the development of a psychophysical method of investigation, by which we can approach the experience and design of architectural lighting in research and education....

  20. Pedestrian Friendly Outdoor Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, N. J. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Koltai, R. N. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); McGowan, T. K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The GATEWAY program followed two pedestrian-scale lighting projects that required multiple mockups – one at Stanford University in California and the other at Chautauqua Institution in upstate New York. The report provides insight into pedestrian lighting criteria, how they differ from street and area lighting criteria, and how solid-state lighting can be better applied in pedestrian applications.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamic implosion symmetry and suppression of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in an octahedrally symmetric field

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.; Pullin, D. I.; Wheatley, V.; Samtaney, Ravi

    2017-01-01

    We present numerical simulations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics showing suppression of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in spherical implosions in the presence of an octahedrally symmetric magnetic field. This field configuration is of interest owing to its high degree of spherical symmetry in comparison with previously considered dihedrally symmetric fields. The simulations indicate that the octahedral field suppresses the instability comparably to the other previously considered candidate fields for light-heavy interface accelerations while retaining a highly symmetric underlying flow even at high field strengths. With this field, there is a reduction in the root-mean-square perturbation amplitude of up to approximately 50% at representative time under the strongest field tested while maintaining a homogeneous suppression pattern compared to the other candidate fields.

  2. Magnetohydrodynamic implosion symmetry and suppression of Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in an octahedrally symmetric field

    KAUST Repository

    Mostert, W.

    2017-01-27

    We present numerical simulations of ideal magnetohydrodynamics showing suppression of the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability in spherical implosions in the presence of an octahedrally symmetric magnetic field. This field configuration is of interest owing to its high degree of spherical symmetry in comparison with previously considered dihedrally symmetric fields. The simulations indicate that the octahedral field suppresses the instability comparably to the other previously considered candidate fields for light-heavy interface accelerations while retaining a highly symmetric underlying flow even at high field strengths. With this field, there is a reduction in the root-mean-square perturbation amplitude of up to approximately 50% at representative time under the strongest field tested while maintaining a homogeneous suppression pattern compared to the other candidate fields.

  3. Light Rhythms in Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja

    2013-01-01

    On one hand, urban lighting expresses itself in a complex visual environment made by the interplay by between many separate lighting schemes, as street lighting, shop lighting, luminous commercials etc. On the other, a noticeable order of patterns occurs, when lighting is observed as luminous...... formation and rhythm. When integrated into an architectural concept, electrical lighting non-intended for poetic composition has the ability to contribute to place, time, and function-telling aspects of places in urban contexts. Urban environments are information wise challenging to pre-historic human...... instincts, but they can be met by careful selection and adjustment of existing light situations....

  4. Next Generation Light Robotics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glückstad, Jesper

    Light Robotics is a new field of research where ingredients from photonics, nanotechnology and biotechnology are put together in new ways to realize light-driven robotics at the smallest scales to solve major challenges primarily within the nanobio-domain but not limited hereto. Exploring the full...... potential of this new ‘drone-like’ light-printed, light-driven, light-actuated micro- and nano-robotics in challenging geometries requires a versatile and real-time reconfigurable light addressing that can dynamically track a plurality of tiny tools in 3D to ensure real-time continuous light...

  5. Concept of white light in stage lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Mauricio R.

    2002-06-01

    In perceiving objects, generally we see them in a white light situation. But, actually, there is not an absolute white, in such a manner that the different light sources have a determined kind of white, what it is known as color temperature. Even the white light may be of different kinds (different color temperature), the individual mind tends to perceive it as the same kind of white, that is to say, there is in our mind a psychological function by which we operate an integration in the perception in order to do the object perceptually invariable. On the other hand, it is a common practice in stage lighting to use color light sources. It is a well known phenomenon that a color of light produces a change in the object color perception. However, when we go to theater, we see the objects as having their real color, even if the lighting is not white. In this paper the concept of white light in stage lighting is presented, showing its possibilities of aesthetical expression.

  6. Light and colours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volf, Carlo

    2011-01-01

    Often a dichotomy between daylight and artificial light is observed, often artificial lighting replaces daylight. In Denmark daylight is characterized partly by being "borrowed" half of the year, partly by having long transitions periods between the light and the dark (nautical and civil twilight......). For these reasons artificial lighting does not complement daylight but provides, coupled with the daylight, the total lighting in the indoor environment. Electric lighting is therefore ‐ in a complex interaction with the daylight ‐ of great importance for both our lighting and our wellbeing. Studying artificial...... lighting without studying daylight seem to be a common procedure of the practice of today in Denmark and other parts of the industrialized world. As a consequence of this artificial lighting suffers from a quantifying tyranny, a tyranny where the quality of light is measured in quantities. This procedure...

  7. Suppression of Spiral Wave in Modified Orengonator Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Jun; Wang Chunni; Jin Wuyin; Yi Ming

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a spatial perturbation scheme is proposed to suppress the spiral wave in the modified Orengonator model, which is used to describe the chemical reaction in the light-sensitive media. The controllable external illumination Φ is perturbed with a spatial linear function. In our numerical simulation, the scheme is investigated by imposing the external controllable illumination on the space continuously and/or intermittently. The numerical simulation results confirm that the stable rotating spiral wave still can be removed with the scheme proposed in this paper even if the controllable Φ changed vs. time and space synchronously. Then the scheme is also used to control the spiral wave and turbulence in the modified Fitzhugh-Nagumo model. It is found that the scheme is effective to remove the sable rotating and meandering spiral wave but it costs long transient period and intensity of the gradient parameter to eliminate the spiral turbulence

  8. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nause, Ariel; Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham

    2014-01-01

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect

  9. Short wavelength limits of current shot noise suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nause, Ariel, E-mail: arielnau@post.tau.ac.il [Faculty of Exact Sciences, Department of Physics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Dyunin, Egor; Gover, Avraham [Faculty of Engineering, Department of Physical Electronics, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel)

    2014-08-15

    Shot noise in electron beam was assumed to be one of the features beyond control of accelerator physics. Current results attained in experiments at Accelerator Test Facility in Brookhaven and Linac Coherent Light Source in Stanford suggest that the control of the shot noise in electron beam (and therefore of spontaneous radiation and Self Amplified Spontaneous Emission of Free Electron Lasers) is feasible at least in the visible range of the spectrum. Here, we present a general linear formulation for collective micro-dynamics of e-beam noise and its control. Specifically, we compare two schemes for current noise suppression: a quarter plasma wavelength drift section and a combined drift/dispersive (transverse magnetic field) section. We examine and compare their limits of applicability at short wavelengths via considerations of electron phase-spread and the related Landau damping effect.

  10. Suppression of E. multilocularis hydatid cysts after ionizing radiation exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Zhou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Heavy-ion therapy has an advantage over conventional radiotherapy due to its superb biological effectiveness and dose conformity in cancer therapy. It could be a potential alternate approach for hydatid cyst treatment. However, there is no information currently available on the cellular and molecular basis for heavy-ion irradiation induced cell death in cystic echinococcosis. METHODODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: LD50 was scored by protoscolex death. Cellular and ultrastructural changes within the parasite were studied by light and electron microscopy, mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA damage and copy number were measured by QPCR, and apoptosis was determined by caspase 3 expression and caspase 3 activity. Ionizing radiation induced sparse cytoplasm, disorganized and clumped organelles, large vacuoles and devoid of villi. The initial mtDNA damage caused by ionizing radiation increased in a dose-dependent manner. The kinetic of DNA repair was slower after carbon-ion radiation than that after X-rays radiation. High dose carbon-ion radiation caused irreversible mtDNA degradation. Cysts apoptosis was pronounced after radiation. Carbon-ion radiation was more effective to suppress hydatid cysts than X-rays. CONCLUSIONS: These studies provide a framework to the evaluation of attenuation effect of heavy-ion radiation on cystic echinococcosis in vitro. Carbon-ion radiation is more effective to suppress E. multilocularis than X-rays.

  11. Radiatively-suppressed spherical accretion under relativistic radiative transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukue, Jun

    2018-03-01

    We numerically examine radiatively-suppressed relativistic spherical accretion flows on to a central object with mass M under Newtonian gravity and special relativity. We simultaneously solve both the relativistic radiative transfer equation and the relativistic hydrodynamical equations for spherically symmetric flows under the double iteration process in the case of the intermediate optical depth. We find that the accretion flow is suppressed, compared with the freefall case in the nonrelativistic regime. For example, in the case of accretion on to a luminous core with accretion luminosity L*, the freefall velocity v normalized by the speed of light c under the radiative force in the nonrelativistic regime is β (\\hat{r}) = v/c = -√{(1-Γ _*)/(\\hat{r}+1-Γ _*)}, where Γ* (≡ L*/LE, LE being the Eddington luminosity) is the Eddington parameter and \\hat{r} (= r/rS, rS being the Schwarzschild radius) the normalized radius, whereas the infall speed at the central core is ˜0.7β(1), irrespective of the mass-accretion rate. This is due to the relativistic effect; the comoving flux is enhanced by the advective flux. We briefly examine and discuss an isothermal case, where the emission takes place in the entire space.

  12. Does architectural lighting contribute to breast cancer?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueiro Mariana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives There is a growing interest in the role that light plays on nocturnal melatonin production and, perhaps thereby, the incidence of breast cancer in modern societies. The direct causal relationships in this logical chain have not, however, been fully established and the weakest link is an inability to quantitatively specify architectural lighting as a stimulus for the circadian system. The purpose of the present paper is to draw attention to this weakness. Data Sources and Extraction We reviewed the literature on the relationship between melatonin, light at night, and cancer risk in humans and tumor growth in animals. More specifically, we focused on the impact of light on nocturnal melatonin suppression in humans and on the applicability of these data to women in real-life situations. Photometric measurement data from the lighted environment of women at work and at home is also reported. Data Synthesis The literature review and measurement data demonstrate that more quantitative knowledge is needed about circadian light exposures actually experienced by women and girls in modern societies. Conclusion Without such quantitative knowledge, limited insights can be gained about the causal relationship between melatonin and the etiology of breast cancer from epidemiological studies and from parametric studies using animal models.

  13. A compact clinical instrument for quantifying suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Joanne M; Thompson, Benjamin; Maehara, Goro; Hess, Robert F

    2011-02-01

    We describe a compact and convenient clinical apparatus for the measurement of suppression based on a previously reported laboratory-based approach. In addition, we report and validate a novel, rapid psychophysical method for measuring suppression using this apparatus, which makes the technique more applicable to clinical practice. By using a Z800 dual pro head-mounted display driven by a MAC laptop, we provide dichoptic stimulation. Global motion stimuli composed of arrays of moving dots are presented to each eye. One set of dots move in a coherent direction (termed signal) whereas another set of dots move in a random direction (termed noise). To quantify performance, we measure the signal/noise ratio corresponding to a direction-discrimination threshold. Suppression is quantified by assessing the extent to which it matters which eye sees the signal and which eye sees the noise. A space-saving, head-mounted display using current video technology offers an ideal solution for clinical practice. In addition, our optimized psychophysical method provided results that were in agreement with those produced using the original technique. We made measures of suppression on a group of nine adult amblyopic participants using this apparatus with both the original and new psychophysical paradigms. All participants had measurable suppression ranging from mild to severe. The two different psychophysical methods gave a strong correlation for the strength of suppression (rho = -0.83, p = 0.006). Combining the new apparatus and new psychophysical method creates a convenient and rapid technique for parametric measurement of interocular suppression. In addition, this apparatus constitutes the ideal platform for suppressors to combine information between their eyes in a similar way to binocularly normal people. This provides a convenient way for clinicians to implement the newly proposed binocular treatment of amblyopia that is based on antisuppression training.

  14. System and method that suppresses intensity fluctuations for free space high-speed optical communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Gennady P [Los Alamos, NM; Bishop, Alan R [Los Alamos, NM; Nguyen, Dinh C [Los Alamos, NM; Chernobrod, Boris M [Santa Fe, NM; Gorshkov, Vacheslav N [Kiev, UA

    2009-10-13

    A high-speed (Gbps), free space optical communication system is based on spectral encoding of radiation from a wide band light source, such as a laser. By using partially coherent laser beams in combination with a relatively slow photosensor, scintillations can be suppressed by orders of magnitude for distances of more than 10 km. To suppress the intensity fluctuations due to atmospheric turbulence, a source with partial transverse coherence in combination with slow response time photodetector is used. Information is encoded in the spectral domain of a wideband optical source by modulation of spectral amplitudes. A non-coherent light source with wide spectrum (an LED, for example) may be used for high-speed communication over short (less than about a mile) distances.

  15. Masking responses to light in period mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Julie S; Yamazaki, Shin

    2011-10-01

    Masking is an acute effect of an external signal on an overt rhythm and is distinct from the process of entrainment. In the current study, we investigated the phase dependence and molecular mechanisms regulating masking effects of light pulses on spontaneous locomotor activity in mice. The circadian genes, Period1 (Per1) and Per2, are necessary components of the timekeeping machinery and entrainment by light appears to involve the induction of the expression of Per1 and Per2 mRNAs in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN). We assessed the roles of the Per genes in regulating masking by assessing the effects of light pulses on nocturnal locomotor activity in C57BL/6J Per mutant mice. We found that Per1(-/-) and Per2(-/-) mice had robust negative masking responses to light. In addition, the locomotor activity of Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice appeared to be rhythmic in the light-dark (LD) cycle, and the phase of activity onset was advanced (but varied among individual mice) relative to lights off. This rhythm persisted for 1 to 2 days in constant darkness in some Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice. Furthermore, Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) mice exhibited robust negative masking responses to light. Negative masking was phase dependent in wild-type mice such that maximal suppression was induced by light pulses at zeitgeber time 14 (ZT14) and gradually weaker suppression occurred during light pulses at ZT16 and ZT18. By measuring the phase shifts induced by the masking protocol (light pulses were administered to mice maintained in the LD cycle), we found that the phase responsiveness of Per mutant mice was altered compared to wild-types. Together, our data suggest that negative masking responses to light are robust in Per mutant mice and that the Per1(-/-)/Per2(-/-) SCN may be a light-driven, weak/damping oscillator.

  16. LightSavers : accelerating advanced outdoor lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purcell, B.; Pickering, M.

    2010-01-15

    This paper provided an update to the Toronto Atmospheric Fund (TAF) LightSavers program. The program was designed to accelerate market transformation for light emitting diode (LED) and advanced lighting management systems in outdoor lighting applications. It is expected that the program will result in significant electricity savings and emissions reductions within the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and other Ontario municipalities. The first phase of the program established advanced outdoor lighting pilot programs in parking lots, garages, and pathway lighting applications that were guided by a common monitoring protocol to ensure useful and reliable assessment of the pilot programs. The TAF has since developed a strategy to strengthen public understanding and support for the use of advanced lighting, and continues to address policy issues that may impact the future of LED lighting programs. The TAF has also activated an electronic newsletter, delivered public workshops, and has been represented at several conferences. A working partnership has been established with Toronto Hydro Energy Services. Five pilot sites have been installed and have begun to provide monitoring data. Details of the pilot programs were provided. 16 figs.

  17. Interocular suppression in children with deprivation amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Lisa; Chen, Zidong; Li, Jinrong; Black, Joanna; Dai, Shuan; Yuan, Junpeng; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2017-04-01

    In patients with anisometropic or strabismic amblyopia, interocular suppression can be minimized by presenting high contrast stimulus elements to the amblyopic eye and lower contrast elements to the fellow eye. This suggests a structurally intact binocular visual system that is functionally suppressed. We investigated whether suppression can also be overcome by contrast balancing in children with deprivation amblyopia due to childhood cataracts. To quantify interocular contrast balance, contrast interference thresholds were measured using an established dichoptic global motion technique for 21 children with deprivation amblyopia, 14 with anisometropic or mixed strabismic/anisometropic amblyopia and 10 visually normal children (mean age mean=9.9years, range 5-16years). We found that interocular suppression could be overcome by contrast balancing in most children with deprivation amblyopia, at least intermittently, and all children with anisometropic or mixed anisometropic/strabismic amblyopia. However, children with deprivation amblyopia due to early unilateral or bilateral cataracts could tolerate only very low contrast levels to the stronger eye indicating strong suppression. Our results suggest that treatment options reliant on contrast balanced dichoptic presentation could be attempted in a subset of children with deprivation amblyopia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantifying light pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cinzano, P.; Falchi, F.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution, defined as the alteration of the natural quantity of light in the night environment due to introduction of manmade light. With the introduction of recent radiative transfer methods for the computation of light pollution propagation, several new indicators become available. These indicators represent a primary step in light pollution quantification, beyond the bare evaluation of the night sky brightness, which is an observational effect integrated along the line of sight and thus lacking the three-dimensional information. - Highlights: • We review new available indicators useful to quantify and monitor light pollution. • These indicators are a primary step in light pollution quantification. • These indicators allow to improve light pollution mapping from a 2D to a 3D grid. • These indicators allow carrying out a tomography of light pollution. • We show an application of this technique to an Italian region

  19. Generalized approach to modifying optical vortices with suppressed sidelobes using Bessel-like functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Yuan, X-C; Zhao, X; Fang, Z L; Zhu, S W

    2009-11-01

    We propose a generalized approach to producing optical vortices with suppressed sidelobes using a variable Bessel-like function added to the conventional spiral phase plate. Experimental verifications are implemented by a phase-only spatial light modulator. It is demonstrated that the method is valid for optical vortex beams with arbitrary topological charges and without changing the primary ring size as a unique property among the existing techniques.

  20. Active background suppression with the liquid argon scintillation veto of GERDA Phase II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agostini, M.; Allardt, M.; Bakalyarov, A. M.; Balata, M.; Barabanov, I.; Baudis, L.; Bauer, C.; Bellotti, E.; Belogurov, S.; Belyaev, S. T.; Benato, G.; Bettini, A.; Bezrukov, L.; Bode, T.; Borowicz, D.; Brudanin, V.; Brugnera, R.; Caldwell, A.; Cattadori, C.; Chernogorov, A.; D'Andrea, V.; Demidova, E. V.; Di Marco, N.; Domula, A.; Doroshkevich, E.; Egorov, V.; Falkenstein, R.; Frodyma, N.; Gangapshev, A.; Garfagnini, A.; Gooch, C.; Grabmayr, P.; Gurentsov, V.; Gusev, K.; Hakenmüller, J.; Hegai, A.; Heisel, M.; Hemmer, S.; Hofmann, W.; Hult, M.; Inzhechik, L. V.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Jochum, J.; Junker, M.; Kazalov, V.; Kihm, T.; Kirpichnikov, I. V.; Kirsch, A.; Kish, A.; Klimenko, A.; Kneißl, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Kochetov, O.; Kornoukhov, V. N.; Kuzminov, V. V.; Laubenstein, M.; Lazzaro, A.; Lebedev, V. I.; Lehnert, B.; Liao, H. Y.; Lindner, M.; Lippi, I.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Lubsandorzhiev, B.; Lutter, G.; Macolino, C.; Majorovits, B.; Maneschg, W.; Medinaceli, E.; Miloradovic, M.; Mingazheva, R.; Misiaszek, M.; Moseev, P.; Nemchenok, I.; Palioselitis, D.; Panas, K.; Pandola, L.; Pelczar, K.; Pullia, A.; Riboldi, S.; Rumyantseva, N.; Sada, C.; Salamida, F.; Salathe, M.; Schmitt, C.; Schneider, B.; Schönert, S.; Schreiner, J.; Schulz, O.; Schütz, A.-K.; Schwingenheuer, B.; Selivanenko, O.; Shevzik, E.; Shirchenko, M.; Simgen, H.; Smolnikov, A.; Stanco, L.; Vanhoefer, L.; Vasenko, A. A.; Veresnikova, A.; von Sturm, K.; Wagner, V.; Wegmann, A.; Wester, T.; Wiesinger, C.; Wojcik, M.; Yanovich, E.; Zhitnikov, I.; Zhukov, S. V.; Zinatulina, D.; Zuber, K.; Zuzel, G.

    2017-09-01

    The observation of neutrinoless double beta decay would allow to shed light onto the particle nature of neutrinos. Gerda is aiming to perform a background-free search for this process using high purity germanium detectors enriched in 76Ge operated in liquid argon. This goal relies on the application of active background suppression techniques. A low background light instrumentation has been installed for Phase II to detect events with coincident energy deposition in the nearby liquid argon. The intended background index of ˜10-3 cts/(keV·ky·yr) has been confirmed.

  1. The design of lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Tregenza, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This fully updated edition of the successful book The Design of Lighting, provides the lighting knowledge needed by the architect in practice, the interior designer and students of both disciplines. The new edition offers a clear structure, carefully selected material and linking of lighting with other subjects, in order to provide the reader with a comprehensive and specifically architectural approach to lighting. Features of this new edition include:technical knowledge of lighting in the context of architectural design;an emphasis on imagination in architectural light and presentation of the

  2. Lamps and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Cayless, MA; Marsden, A M

    2012-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive guide to the theory and practice of lighting. Covering the physics of light production, light sources, circuits and a wide variety of lighting applications, it is both suitable as a detailed textbook and as thoroughly practical guide for practising lighting engineers. This fourth edition of Lamps and Lighting has been completely updated with new chapters on the latest lamp technology and applications. The editors ahve called upon a wide range of expertise and as a result many sections have been broadened to include both European and US practice.The book begins with

  3. Effects of thought suppression on episodic memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassin, E; Merckelbach, H; Muris, P

    1997-11-01

    Subjects were shown a short film fragment. Following this, one group of subjects (n = 26) was instructed to suppress their thoughts about the film, while the other group (n = 24) received no instructions. After 5 hrs subjects returned to the laboratory and completed a questionnaire testing their memory about the film. Results showed that suppression subjects reported a higher frequency of thoughts about the film than control subjects. No evidence was obtained for Wegner, Quillian, and Houston's (1996; Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71, 680-691) claim that suppression has an undermining effect on memory for chronology. Possible causes for the differences between the results as obtained by Wegner et al., and those found in the present study are discussed. These causes may pertain to the experimental design, but also to differences in emotional impact of the stimulus material that was used in both studies.

  4. Wing rock suppression using forebody vortex control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, T. T.; Ong, L. Y.; Suarez, C. J.; Malcolm, G. N.

    1991-01-01

    Static and free-to-roll tests were conducted in a water tunnel with a configuration that consisted of a highly-slender forebody and 78-deg sweep delta wings. Flow visualization was performed and the roll angle histories were obtained. The fluid mechanisms governing the wing rock of this configuration were identified. Different means of suppressing wing rock by controlling the forebody vortices using small blowing jets were also explored. Steady blowing was found to be capable of suppressing wing rock, but significant vortex asymmetries had to be induced at the same time. On the other hand, alternating pulsed blowing on the left and right sides of the forebody was demonstrated to be potentially an effective means of suppressing wing rock and eliminating large asymmetric moments at high angles of attack.

  5. Quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker-Szendy, R.; Keller, L.; Niemi, G.; Perl, M.; Rochester, L. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States); Anthony, P. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Bosted, P. [American Univ., Washington, DC (United States); Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Kelley, L.; Klein, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States)] [and others

    1994-12-01

    The authors have studied quantum-mechanical suppression of bremsstrahlung of low-energy 1-500 MeV photons from high-energy 25 GeV electrons. They have measured the LPM effect, where multiple scattering of the radiating electron destroys coherence required for the emission of low-energy photons, and the dielectric effect, where the emitted photon traveling in the radiator medium interferes with itself. For the experiment, the collaboration developed a novel method of extracting a parasitic low-intensity high-energy electron beam into the fixed target area during normal SLC operation of the accelerator. The results agree quantitatively with Migdal`s calculation of the LPM effect. Surface effects, for which there is no satisfactory theoretical prediction, are visible at low photon energies. For very thin targets, the suppression disappears, as expected. Preliminary results on dielectric suppression of bremsstrahlung are in qualitative agreement with the expectation.

  6. Shielding design of ITER pressure suppression system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamauchi, Michinori; Sato, Satoshi; Nishitani, Takeo; Kawasaki, Hiromitsu

    2006-01-01

    The duct shield from streaming D-T neutrons has been designed for the ITER pressure suppression system. Streaming calculations are performed with the DUCT-III code for the region from the inlet of the pressure relief line to the rupture disk. Next, the neutron permeation through the shield is studied by Monte Carlo calculations with the MCNP code. It is found that 0.15 m thick iron shield is enough to suppress the permeating component from the outside. In addition, it is suggested that the volume of the shield can be reduced by about 30% if the optimized iron shield structure having localized thickness across intense permeation paths is employed to shield the pressure suppression line. (T.I.)

  7. Suppression of charmonium production in hadron gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faustov, R.N.; Vasilevskaya, I.G.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of J/ψ charmonium production suppression under heavy ion collisions is investigated. The processes of charmonium disintegration in hadron gas are considered: π+J/ψ → π+c+c-bar and ρ+J/ψ → D+D. Based on the results obtained one can assume that charmonium disintegration contribution to J/ψ production suppression under collisions with gas hadrons and the contribution conditioned by the production of quark-gluon plasma, appear to be the effects of similar order of magnitude

  8. Jet suppression measurement with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00443411; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    A hot medium with a high density of unscreened color charges is produced in relativistic heavy ion collisions. Jets are produced at the early stages of this collision and are known to become attenuated as they propagate through the hot matter. One manifestation of this energy loss is a lower yield of jets emerging from the medium than expected in the absence of medium effects. Another manifestation of the energy loss is the modification of the dijet balance and the modification of fragmentation functions. In these proceedings, the latest ATLAS results on single jet suppression, dijet suppression, and modification of the jet internal structure in \\PbPb~collisions are presented.

  9. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.

    2015-01-01

    , bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression...... color space. This supports the idea that at least some galaxies in HCGs are transitioning objects, where a disruption of the existing molecular gas in the system suppresses SF by inhibiting the molecular gas from collapsing and forming stars efficiently. These observations, combined with recent work...

  10. Advanced Light Source (ALS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Advanced Light Source (ALS), a world leader in soft x-ray science, generates light in the wavelengths needed for examining the atomic and electronic structure of...

  11. Lighting detectives forum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, Katja; Skindbjerg Kristensen, Lisbeth

    2003-01-01

    Belysning for boligområder var emnet for lighting detectives forum, der blev afholdt i Stockholm i august 2003.......Belysning for boligområder var emnet for lighting detectives forum, der blev afholdt i Stockholm i august 2003....

  12. GPC Light Shaper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bañas, Andrew Rafael; Raaby, Peter; Glückstad, Jesper

    Generalized Phase Contrast is a disruptive light sculpting technology for studying brain functionalities via light-activated neuron control. GPC dynamically reshapes conventional or multiwavelength lasers for precise and efficient neuron targeting. GPC also makes existing laser systems much more...

  13. Spectrally tunable lighting facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Solid-state lighting (SSL) is increasingly being introduced into the market and it is expected that many of the light sources currently used for general illumination...

  14. Light Imaging Section

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Light Imaging Section is to give NIAMS scientists access to state-of-the-art light imaging equipment and to offer training and assistance at all...

  15. Suppression of COTR in electron beam imaging diagnosis at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, Minjie

    2012-05-15

    The Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) demands electron beams with high peak current to generate high-brilliant, coherent X-ray pulses. Magnetic chicanes are used for longitudinal compression of the electron bunches to achieve the required high peak current. During bunch compression process, microstructures with a modulation length comparable to the visible light can be induced inside the bunch. This leads to coherent emission of optical transition radiation (OTR), which may impede the widely used beam diagnostic based on OTR imaging. In this thesis, two methods of using incoherent scintillation light are proposed to circumvent the problem of coherence effects in beam imaging diagnostics. The method of temporal separation has been proved experimentally to have successfully suppressed coherence effects. The longitudinal beam profiles measured using this method are in good agreement with reference measurements, verifying further the reliability of the method. The method of spatial separation has been investigated in preparation studies, from which an improved experimental setup has been designed.

  16. Suppression of COTR in electron beam imaging diagnosis at FLASH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Minjie

    2011-12-01

    The Free-Electron Laser in Hamburg (FLASH) demands electron beams with high peak current to generate high-brilliant, coherent X-ray pulses. Magnetic chicanes are used for longitudinal compression of the electron bunches to achieve the required high peak current. During bunch compression process, microstructures with a modulation length comparable to the visible light can be induced inside the bunch. This leads to coherent emission of optical transition radiation (OTR), which may impede the widely used beam diagnostic based on OTR imaging. In this thesis, two methods of using incoherent scintillation light are proposed to circumvent the problem of coherence effects in beam imaging diagnostics. The method of temporal separation has been proved experimentally to have successfully suppressed coherence effects. The longitudinal beam profiles measured using this method are in good agreement with reference measurements, verifying further the reliability of the method. The method of spatial separation has been investigated in preparation studies, from which an improved experimental setup has been designed.

  17. Light Pollution | CTIO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preserving the Dark Skies La Oficina de Protección de la Calidad del Cielo del Norte de Chile - OPCC Light ‹› You are here CTIO Home » Outreach » NOAO-S EPO Programs » Dark Sky Education » Light Pollution Light Pollution Preserving Dark Skies: Efforts to measure light pollution and work with the local

  18. OLED displays and lighting

    CERN Document Server

    Koden, Mitsuhiro

    2017-01-01

    Organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) have emerged as the leading technology for the new display and lighting market. OLEDs are solid-state devices composed of thin films of organic molecules that create light with the application of electricity. OLEDs can provide brighter, crisper displays on electronic devices and use less power than conventional light-emitting diodes (LEDs) or liquid crystal displays (LCDs) used today. This book covers both the fundamentals and practical applications of flat and flexible OLEDs.

  19. The landscape lighting book

    CERN Document Server

    Moyer, Janet Lennox

    2013-01-01

    This richly illustrated, up-to-date guide offers practical coverage of all aspects of lighting design. Written by an award-winning, internationally known lighting designer, it covers lighting practices, materials, and their design applications and offers guidelines for preparing lighting drawings, control and transfer charts, symbol lists, and other technical specifications. This edition provides a new focus on the use of LEDs, as well as new and expanded coverage of renderings, Mesopic Vision, and the latest controls approaches and systems.

  20. Rare meson decays into very light neutralinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dreiner, H.K.; Grab, S. [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics und Physikalisches Inst.; Koschade, D. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; London Univ. (United Kingdom). Centre for Reserach in String Theory; Kraemer, M.; O' Leary, B. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Langenfeld, U. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Zeuthen (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    We investigate the bounds on the mass of the lightest neutralino from rare meson decays within the MSSM with and without minimal flavor violation. We present explicit formulae for the two-body decays of mesons into light neutralinos and perform the first complete calculation of the loop-induced decays of kaons to pions and light neutralinos and B mesons to kaons and light neutralinos. We find that the supersymmetric branching ratios are strongly suppressed within the MSSM with minimal flavor violation, and that no bounds on the neutralino mass can be inferred from experimental data, i.e. a massless neutralino is allowed. The branching ratios for kaon and B meson decays into light neutralinos may, however, be enhanced when one allows for non-minimal flavor violation. We find new constraints on the MSSM parameter space for such scenarios and discuss prospects for future kaon and B meson experiments. Finally, we comment on the search for light neutralinos in monojet signatures at the Tevatron and at the LHC. (orig.)

  1. Ultraviolet light imaging technology and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoi, Takane; Suzuki, Kenji; Oba, Koichiro

    1991-06-01

    Demands on the high-quality imaging in ultraviolet (UV) light region have been increasing recently, especially in fields such as forensic investigations, laser experiments, spent fuel identification, and so on. Important requirements on the UV imaging devices in such applications are high sensitivity, excellent solar blindness, and small image distortion, since the imaging of very weak UV images are usually carried out under natural sunlight or room illuminations and the image data have to be processed to produce useful two-dimensional quantitative data. A new photocathode has been developed to meet these requirements. It is specially made of RbTe on a sapphire window and its quantum efficiency is as high as 20% with the solar blindness of 10,000. The tube is specially designed to meet UV light optics and to minimize image distortion. It has an invertor type image intensifier tube structure and intensifies the incident UV light up to approximately 10,000 times. The distortion of the output image is suppressed less than 1.8%, because of a specially designed electron optic lens system. The device has shown excellent results in the observation of such objects as fingerprints and footprints in forensic investigations, the Cherenkov light produced by the spent fuels stored in a cooling water pool in the nuclear power station, and UV laser beam path in excimer laser experiments. Furthermore, many other applications of the UV light imaging will be expected in various fields such as semiconductors, cosmetics, and electrical power.

  2. WRITING LIGHT VERSE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ARMOUR, RICHARD

    VARIOUS ASPECTS OF WRITING LIGHT VERSE, EITHER FOR FUN OR FOR PUBLICATION, ARE DISCUSSED IN THIS BOOK--(1) THE NATURE AND APPEAL OF LIGHT VERSE AND ITS MANY VARIETIES, (2) SUBJECTS WHICH LEND THEMSELVES BEST TO THE LIGHT-VERSE TREATMENT, (3) THE APPLICATION OF WHAT ONE HAS LEARNED FROM READING, THINKING, AND CLOSELY OBSERVING HUMAN FOIBLES, (4)…

  3. Light pollution : working paper

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lechner, Stefan; Arns, Marieke

    2013-01-01

    Light pollution is one of the fastest growing and most pervasive of environmental pollution (Chepesiuk, 2009). In the last couple of years, a lot of research has been done about the effects of light pollution. The interest in light pollution has been growing in many fields of science, extending from

  4. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even, Wesley Paul; Dolence, Joshua C.

    2016-01-01

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth's atmosphere.

  5. Simulating Supernova Light Curves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Even, Wesley Paul [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Dolence, Joshua C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-05

    This report discusses supernova light simulations. A brief review of supernovae, basics of supernova light curves, simulation tools used at LANL, and supernova results are included. Further, it happens that many of the same methods used to generate simulated supernova light curves can also be used to model the emission from fireballs generated by explosions in the earth’s atmosphere.

  6. Plants under continuous light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velez Ramirez, A.I.; Ieperen, van W.; Vreugdenhill, D.; Millenaar, F.F.

    2011-01-01

    Continuous light is an essential tool for understanding the plant circadian clock. Additionally, continuous light might increase greenhouse food production. However, using continuous light in research and practice has its challenges. For instance, most of the circadian clock-oriented experiments

  7. Intelligent street lighting clustering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, R.; Jovanovic, N.; Lukkien, J.J.

    2014-01-01

    The advances in dynamic street lighting introduce new functionality for control and maintenance of the street lighting infrastructure. Vital elements in this infrastructure are the powerful controlling devices that control separate groups of light poles and collect information from the system. For

  8. Light-Driven Alignment

    CERN Document Server

    Antonyuk, Boris P

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with influencing the properties of solids by light-driven electron transport. The theoretical basis of these effects, light-driven ordering and self-organisation, as well as optical motors are presented. With light as a tool, new ways to produce materials are opened.

  9. Architectural Physics: Lighting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkinson, R. G.

    The author coordinates the many diverse branches of knowledge which have dealt with the field of lighting--physiology, psychology, engineering, physics, and architectural design. Part I, "The Elements of Architectural Physics", discusses the physiological aspects of lighting, visual performance, lighting design, calculations and measurements of…

  10. Impact of different colours of artificial light at night on melatonin rhythm and gene expression of gonadotropins in European perch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brüning, Anika; Hölker, Franz; Franke, Steffen; Kleiner, Wibke; Kloas, Werner

    2016-02-01

    The distribution and intensity of artificial light at night, commonly referred to as light pollution, is consequently rising and progressively also ecological implications come to light. Low intensity light is known to suppress nocturnal melatonin production in several fish species. This study aims to examine the least suppressive light colour for melatonin excreted into the holding water and the influence of different light qualities and quantities in the night on gene expression of gonadotropins in fish. European perch (Perca fluviatilis) were exposed to light of different wavelengths during the night (blue, green, and red). Melatonin concentrations were measured from water samples every 3h during a 24h period. Gene expression of gonadotropins was measured in perch exposed to different light colours and was additionally examined for perch subjected to different intensities of white light (0 lx, 1 lx, 10 lx, 100 lx) during the night. All different light colours caused a significant drop of melatonin concentration; however, blue light was least suppressive. Gene expression of gonadotropins was not influenced by nocturnal light of different light colours, but in female perch gonadotropin expression was significantly reduced by white light already at the lowest level (1 lx). We conclude that artificial light with shorter wavelengths at night is less effective in disturbing biological rhythms of perch than longer wavelengths, coinciding with the light situation in freshwater habitats inhabited by perch. Different light colours in the night showed no significant effect on gonadotropin expression, but white light in the night can disturb reproductive traits already at very low light intensities. These findings indicate that light pollution has not only the potential to disturb the melatonin cycle but also the reproductive rhythm and may therefore have implications on whole species communities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Estructura comunitaria de helmintos de perros vagabundos de San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima, Perú Community structure of helminths in stray dogs from San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima, Peru

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José O. Iannacone

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty stray dogs Canis familiaris Linnaeus, 1758 were collected in San Juan de Lurigancho, Lima, Peru, between January and March 1997 and necropsied for helminths. Three species were collected: the cestodes Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus, 1758 Railliet, 1892 and Taenia pisiformis (Bloch, 1780 and the nematode Toxocara canis (Werner, 1782 Stiles, 1905. Fifty per cent of the examined dogs showed one or two parasites. A total of 303 (0-116 helminths were recovered and the intensity of infection was 30,3. The Simpson index (C for all parasite species was 0,414, indicating a dominance by one species in the parasite community. The mean diversity in the infracommunities of C. familiaris was H' = 0,038 and uniformity index of Pielou J = 0,207. Dipylidium caninum, T. pisiformis, and T. canis presented a prevalence of infection of 33,30%, 10% and 16,6% respectively. Dipylidium caninum presented the highest frequency and mean intensity of infection. Dipylidium caninum was the helminth with the highest dominance (94% whereas the lowest was due to T. pisiformis (4% and T. canis (2%. Helminths were not related to the age of the hosts, prevalence and mean intensity of infection. Out of the 10 equally divided segments of the intestinal gut, D. caninum was found from the 6th to the 9th segment. T canis preferred almost exclusively the 1st segment while T. pisiformis was randomly distributed.

  12. Light Sources and Ballast Circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yorifuji, Takashi; Sakai, Makoto; Yasuda, Takeo; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Gouriki, Takeshi; Mannami, Tomoaki

    According to the machinery statistics by Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry (METI), the total of domestic light bulb production in 2006 was 1,101 million (88.5% year-on-year). Production for general purpose illumination light bulbs and halogen light bulbs accounted for 122 million (99.2% y/y) and 45 million (96.3% y/y), respectively. The total of fluorescent lamp production was 988 million (114.9%) and the production of general purpose fluorescent lamps excluding backlights accounted for 367 million (101.7% y/y). Further, HID lamp production was 10 million (106.3% y/y). What is noteworthy regarding such lamp production is that, similar to the previous year, the sales volume (amount) of lamps for general illumination exceeded 100% against the previous year, indicating a steady shift to high value added products. Major lighting exhibitions in 2006 included the Light + Building Trade Fair held in Frankfurt in April and the Light Fair International 2006 held in Las Vegas, U.S.A. in May, both of which demonstrated signs of acceleration toward energy saving, high efficiency and resource saving. As for incandescent lamps, products filled with larger atomic weight gases aiming at higher efficiency/longer life are becoming the mainstream. As for new technologies, it was experimentally demonstrated that infrared radiation can be suppressed by processing micro cavities to metal plates made of tungsten, tantalum, etc. For fluorescent lamps, straight and circular fluorescent lamps achieving a longer life/higher luminous flux maintenance factor continued to be widely developed/launched again this year. For compact fluorescent lamps, energy saving/high efficiency products, multifunctional type products combined with LED and new shaped products were launched. As to HID lamps, ceramic metal halide lamps with high efficiency, improved color rendering, longer life and higher luminous flux maintenance factor were commercialized one after another. Numerous studies and analyses, on

  13. Suppression Situations in Multiple Linear Regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shieh, Gwowen

    2006-01-01

    This article proposes alternative expressions for the two most prevailing definitions of suppression without resorting to the standardized regression modeling. The formulation provides a simple basis for the examination of their relationship. For the two-predictor regression, the author demonstrates that the previous results in the literature are…

  14. Cortisol suppresses radiation transformation in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kennedy, A.R.

    1985-01-01

    It is reported that 10 -7 M cortisol has a significant suppressive effect on radiation-induced transformation in vitro in C3H10T 1/2 cells. Previously reported data showed a significant enhancing effect for similar experiments performed with cortisone. Thus, these two structurally similar glucocorticoid hormones have opposite effects on transformation induced by ionizing radiation. (author)

  15. Cooling device for reactor suppression pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togasaki, Susumu; Kato, Kiyoshi.

    1994-01-01

    In a cooling device of a reactor suppression pool, when a temperature of pool water is abnormally increased and a heat absorbing portion is heated by, for example, occurrence of an accident, coolants are sent to the outside of the reactor container to actuates a thermally operating portion by the heat energy of coolants and drive heat exchanging fluids of a secondary cooling system. If the heat exchanging fluids are sent to a cooling portion, the coolants are cooled and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. If the heat absorbing portion is heat pipes, the coolants are evaporated by heat absorbed from the suppression pool water, steams are sent to the thermally operating portion, then coolants are liquefied and caused to return to the heat absorbing portion. If the thermal operation portion is a gas turbine, the gas turbine is operated by the coolants, and it is converted to a rotational force to drive heat exchanging fluids by pumps. By constituting the cooling portion with a condensator, the coolants are condensed and liquefied and returned to the heat absorbing portion of the suppression pool water. (N.H.)

  16. Efflux inhibitor suppresses Streptococcus mutans virulence properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Huihui; Liu, Jia; Ling, Junqi

    2017-04-01

    It is well established that efflux pumps play important roles in bacterial pathogenicity and efflux inhibitors (EIs) have been proved to be effective in suppressing bacterial virulence properties. However, little is known regarding the EI of Streptococcus mutans, a well-known caries-inducing bacterium. In this study, we identified the EI of S. mutans through ethidium bromide efflux assay and investigated how EI affected S. mutans virulence regarding the cariogenicity and stress response. Results indicated that reserpine, the identified EI, suppressed acid tolerance, mutacin production and transformation efficiency of S. mutans, and modified biofilm architecture and extracellular polysaccharide distribution. Suppressed glycosyltransferase activity was also noted after reserpine exposure. The data from quantitative real-time-PCR demonstrated that reserpine significantly altered the expression profile of quorum-sensing and virulence-associated genes. These findings suggest that reserpine represents a promising adjunct anticariogenic agent in that it suppresses virulence properties of S. mutans. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Suppressive competition: how sounds may cheat sight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayser, Christoph; Remedios, Ryan

    2012-02-23

    In this issue of Neuron, Iurilli et al. (2012) demonstrate that auditory cortex activation directly engages local GABAergic circuits in V1 to induce sound-driven hyperpolarizations in layer 2/3 and layer 6 pyramidal neurons. Thereby, sounds can directly suppress V1 activity and visual driven behavior. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Measuring colour rivalry suppression in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofeldt, T S; Hofeldt, A J

    1999-11-01

    To determine if the colour rivalry suppression is an index of the visual impairment in amblyopia and if the stereopsis and fusion evaluator (SAFE) instrument is a reliable indicator of the difference in visual input from the two eyes. To test the accuracy of the SAFE instrument for measuring the visual input from the two eyes, colour rivalry suppression was measured in six normal subjects. A test neutral density filter (NDF) was placed before one eye to induce a temporary relative afferent defect and the subject selected the NDF before the fellow eye to neutralise the test NDF. In a non-paediatric private practice, 24 consecutive patients diagnosed with unilateral amblyopia were tested with the SAFE. Of the 24 amblyopes, 14 qualified for the study because they were able to fuse images and had no comorbid disease. The relation between depth of colour rivalry suppression, stereoacuity, and interocular difference in logMAR acuity was analysed. In normal subjects, the SAFE instrument reversed temporary defects of 0.3 to 1. 8 log units to within 0.6 log units. In amblyopes, the NDF to reverse colour rivalry suppression was positively related to interocular difference in logMAR acuity (beta=1.21, psuppression as measured with the SAFE was found to agree closely with the degree of visual acuity impairment in non-paediatric patients with amblyopia.

  19. Pressure suppression facility for reactor container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujii, Tadashi; Fukui, Toru; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Tominaga, Kenji.

    1993-01-01

    In a nuclear reactor comprising heat transfer surfaces from a pressure suppression pool at the inside to the outer circumferential pool at the outside, a means for supplying water from a water supply source at the outside of the container to the pools is disposed. Then, a heat transfer means is disposed between the pressure suppression chamber and the water cooling pool. The water supply means comprises a pressurization means for applying pressure to water of the water supply source and a water supply channel. Water is supplied into the pressure suppression pool and the outer circumferential pool to elevate the water level and extend the region of heat contact with the water cooling heat transfer means. In addition, since dynamic pressure is applied to the feedwater, for example, by pressurizing the water surface of the water supply source, water can be supplied without using dynamic equipments such as pumps. Then, since water-cooling heat transfer surface can be extended after occurrence of accident, enlargement of a reactor container and worsening of earthquake proofness can be avoided as much as possible, to improve function for suppressing the pressure in the container. Further, since water-cooling heat transfer region can be extended, the arrangement of the water source and the place to which water is supplied is made optional without considering the relative height therebetween, to improve earthquake proofness. (N.H.)

  20. Quarkonium suppression: Gluonic dissociation vs. colour screening

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mechanism comes into play for the initial conditions taken from the self screened parton cascade model in these studies. Keywords. Quark gluon plasma; J ψ; suppression; dissociation; colour screening. PACS No. 12.38.M. 1. Introduction. The last two decades have seen hectic activity towards identifying unique signatures ...

  1. Aralia elata (Miquel) Seemann Suppresses Inflammatory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN: 1596-5996 (print); 1596-9827 (electronic) ... The LPS-induced increase in the production of nitric oxide was concentration- dependently suppressed ... Aralia elata ethanol extract (AEE) exhibits protective ... temperature for 72 h and filtered. The filtered .... scavenging activity in a dose-dependent manner showing a ...

  2. Anderson localization of light near boundaries of disordered photonic lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovic, Dragana M.; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Denz, Cornelia; Belic, Milivoj R.

    2011-01-01

    We study numerically the effect of boundaries on Anderson localization of light in truncated two-dimensional photonic lattices in a nonlinear medium. We demonstrate suppression of Anderson localization at the edges and corners, so that stronger disorder is needed near the boundaries to obtain the same localization as in the bulk. We find that the level of suppression depends on the location in the lattice (edge vs corner), as well as on the strength of disorder. We also discuss the effect of nonlinearity on various regimes of Anderson localization.

  3. Motion compensation for structured light sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Debjani; Mertz, Christoph

    2015-05-01

    In order for structured light methods to work outside, the strong background from the sun needs to be suppressed. This can be done with bandpass filters, fast shutters, and background subtraction. In general this last method necessitates the sensor system to be stationary during data taking. The contribution of this paper is a method to compensate for the motion if the system is moving. The key idea is to use video stabilization techniques that work even if the illuminator is switched on and off from one frame to another. We used OpenCV functions and modules to implement a robust and efficient method. We evaluated it under various conditions and tested it on a moving robot outdoors. We will demonstrate that one can not only do 3D reconstruction under strong ambient light, but that it is also possible to observe optical properties of the objects in the environment.

  4. Photonic crystal light source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleming, James G [Albuquerque, NM; Lin, Shawn-Yu [Albuquerque, NM; Bur, James A [Corrales, NM

    2004-07-27

    A light source is provided by a photonic crystal having an enhanced photonic density-of-states over a band of frequencies and wherein at least one of the dielectric materials of the photonic crystal has a complex dielectric constant, thereby producing enhanced light emission at the band of frequencies when the photonic crystal is heated. The dielectric material can be a metal, such as tungsten. The spectral properties of the light source can be easily tuned by modification of the photonic crystal structure and materials. The photonic crystal light source can be heated electrically or other heating means. The light source can further include additional photonic crystals that exhibit enhanced light emission at a different band of frequencies to provide for color mixing. The photonic crystal light source may have applications in optical telecommunications, information displays, energy conversion, sensors, and other optical applications.

  5. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  6. Traffic Light Options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Peter Løchte

    2007-01-01

    This paper introduces, prices, and analyzes traffic light options. The traffic light option is an innovative structured OTC derivative developed independently by several London-based investment banks to suit the needs of Danish life and pension (L&P) companies, which must comply with the traffic...... 2006, and supervisory authorities in many other European countries have implemented similar regulation. Traffic light options are therefore likely to attract the attention of a wider audience of pension fund managers in the future. Focusing on the valuation of the traffic light option we set up a Black...... light scenarios. These stress scenarios entail drops in interest rates as well as in stock prices, and traffic light options are thus designed to pay off and preserve sufficient capital when interest rates and stock prices fall simultaneously. Sweden's FSA implemented a traffic light system in January...

  7. Impact of maternal melatonin suppression on forced swim and tail suspension behavioral despair tests in adult offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voiculescu, S E; Rosca, A E; Zeca, V; Zagrean, L; Zagrean, A M

    2015-01-01

    Melatonin is an essential hormone, which regulates circadian rhythms and has antioxidative and anticarcinogenic effects. As melatonin secretion is suppressed by light, this effect was examined on the offspring of the Wistar rat females exposed to continuous light (500 lux) during the second half of the pregnancy (day 12 to 21). Control rats were kept under a 12:12 light-dark cycle. The resulted male offspring have been behaviorally assessed for depression after postnatal day 60 by using Forced Swim Test (FST) and Tail Suspension Test (TST). Animals resulted from the melatonin deprived pregnancies have developed an abnormal response in the TST, but a normal FST behavior. Also, TST active movement was different in the melatonin suppression group compared to the control group. These findings suggest that intrauterine melatonin deprivation might be linked to the depressive like behavior in adult male offspring.

  8. Suppressed visual looming stimuli are not integrated with auditory looming signals: Evidence from continuous flash suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moors, Pieter; Huygelier, Hanne; Wagemans, Johan; de-Wit, Lee; van Ee, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies using binocular rivalry have shown that signals in a modality other than the visual can bias dominance durations depending on their congruency with the rivaling stimuli. More recently, studies using continuous flash suppression (CFS) have reported that multisensory integration influences how long visual stimuli remain suppressed. In this study, using CFS, we examined whether the contrast thresholds for detecting visual looming stimuli are influenced by a congruent auditory stimulus. In Experiment 1, we show that a looming visual stimulus can result in lower detection thresholds compared to a static concentric grating, but that auditory tone pips congruent with the looming stimulus did not lower suppression thresholds any further. In Experiments 2, 3, and 4, we again observed no advantage for congruent multisensory stimuli. These results add to our understanding of the conditions under which multisensory integration is possible, and suggest that certain forms of multisensory integration are not evident when the visual stimulus is suppressed from awareness using CFS.

  9. GNOSIS: THE FIRST INSTRUMENT TO USE FIBER BRAGG GRATINGS FOR OH SUPPRESSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trinh, Christopher Q.; Ellis, Simon C.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bryant, Julia; O' Byrne, John [Sydney Institute for Astronomy, School of Physics, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Lawrence, Jon S.; Horton, Anthony J.; Shortridge, Keith; Case, Scott; Colless, Matthew; Gers, Luke; Lee, Steve; Miziarski, Stan [Australian Astronomical Observatory, 105 Delhi Road, North Ryde, P.O. Box 915, NSW 1670 (Australia); Leon-Saval, Sergio G. [Institute of Photonics and Optical Science, School of Physics, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Couch, Warrick; Glazebrook, Karl [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, P.O. Box 218, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Freeman, Kenneth [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Loehmannsroeben, Hans-Gerd [innoFSPEC-Institut fuer Chemie/Physikalische Chemie, Universitaet Potsdam, Karl-Liebknecht-Strasse 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam-Golm (Germany); Haynes, Roger; Roth, Martin M., E-mail: c.trinh@physics.usyd.edu.au [innoFSPEC-Leibniz-Institut fuer Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); and others

    2013-02-01

    The near-infrared is an important part of the spectrum in astronomy, especially in cosmology because the light from objects in the early universe is redshifted to these wavelengths. However, deep near-infrared observations are extremely difficult to make from ground-based telescopes due to the bright background from the atmosphere. Nearly all of this background comes from the bright and narrow emission lines of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) molecules. The atmospheric background cannot be easily removed from data because the brightness fluctuates unpredictably on short timescales. The sensitivity of ground-based optical astronomy far exceeds that of near-infrared astronomy because of this long-standing problem. GNOSIS is a prototype astrophotonic instrument that utilizes 'OH suppression fibers' consisting of fiber Bragg gratings and photonic lanterns to suppress the 103 brightest atmospheric emission doublets between 1.47 and 1.7 {mu}m. GNOSIS was commissioned at the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope with the IRIS2 spectrograph to demonstrate the potential of OH suppression fibers, but may be potentially used with any telescope and spectrograph combination. Unlike previous atmospheric suppression techniques GNOSIS suppresses the lines before dispersion and in a manner that depends purely on wavelength. We present the instrument design and report the results of laboratory and on-sky tests from commissioning. While these tests demonstrated high throughput ( Almost-Equal-To 60%) and excellent suppression of the skylines by the OH suppression fibers, surprisingly GNOSIS produced no significant reduction in the interline background and the sensitivity of GNOSIS+IRIS2 is about the same as IRIS2. It is unclear whether the lack of reduction in the interline background is due to physical sources or systematic errors as the observations are detector noise dominated. OH suppression fibers could potentially impact ground-based astronomy at the level of adaptive optics or

  10. GNOSIS: THE FIRST INSTRUMENT TO USE FIBER BRAGG GRATINGS FOR OH SUPPRESSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trinh, Christopher Q.; Ellis, Simon C.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Bryant, Julia; O'Byrne, John; Lawrence, Jon S.; Horton, Anthony J.; Shortridge, Keith; Case, Scott; Colless, Matthew; Gers, Luke; Lee, Steve; Miziarski, Stan; Leon-Saval, Sergio G.; Couch, Warrick; Glazebrook, Karl; Freeman, Kenneth; Löhmannsröben, Hans-Gerd; Haynes, Roger; Roth, Martin M.

    2013-01-01

    The near-infrared is an important part of the spectrum in astronomy, especially in cosmology because the light from objects in the early universe is redshifted to these wavelengths. However, deep near-infrared observations are extremely difficult to make from ground-based telescopes due to the bright background from the atmosphere. Nearly all of this background comes from the bright and narrow emission lines of atmospheric hydroxyl (OH) molecules. The atmospheric background cannot be easily removed from data because the brightness fluctuates unpredictably on short timescales. The sensitivity of ground-based optical astronomy far exceeds that of near-infrared astronomy because of this long-standing problem. GNOSIS is a prototype astrophotonic instrument that utilizes 'OH suppression fibers' consisting of fiber Bragg gratings and photonic lanterns to suppress the 103 brightest atmospheric emission doublets between 1.47 and 1.7 μm. GNOSIS was commissioned at the 3.9 m Anglo-Australian Telescope with the IRIS2 spectrograph to demonstrate the potential of OH suppression fibers, but may be potentially used with any telescope and spectrograph combination. Unlike previous atmospheric suppression techniques GNOSIS suppresses the lines before dispersion and in a manner that depends purely on wavelength. We present the instrument design and report the results of laboratory and on-sky tests from commissioning. While these tests demonstrated high throughput (≈60%) and excellent suppression of the skylines by the OH suppression fibers, surprisingly GNOSIS produced no significant reduction in the interline background and the sensitivity of GNOSIS+IRIS2 is about the same as IRIS2. It is unclear whether the lack of reduction in the interline background is due to physical sources or systematic errors as the observations are detector noise dominated. OH suppression fibers could potentially impact ground-based astronomy at the level of adaptive optics or greater. However, until a

  11. Benchmark enclosure fire suppression experiments - phase 1 test report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, Victor G.; Nichols, Robert Thomas; Blanchat, Thomas K.

    2007-06-01

    A series of fire benchmark water suppression tests were performed that may provide guidance for dispersal systems for the protection of high value assets. The test results provide boundary and temporal data necessary for water spray suppression model development and validation. A review of fire suppression in presented for both gaseous suppression and water mist fire suppression. The experimental setup and procedure for gathering water suppression performance data are shown. Characteristics of the nozzles used in the testing are presented. Results of the experiments are discussed.

  12. [The advances of suppression in research of amblyopia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, S; Liu, H

    2016-04-11

    Suppression that is the result of interocular competition is an important machanism of amblyopia. The imbalance of suppression may lead the consequence to amblyopia. In the early study, researchers had raised the theory of II. Quadratic Summation which had revealed the relationship of interocular interaction and suppression. In some basic researches, other studies had showed the most possible anatomic location of suppression. Recently, researchers found a new method to quantify the interocular suppression named the noise model. Further studies found a novel disinhibition therapy to treat amblyopia. We summarized the research advances in suppression and disinhibition treatment in amblyopia. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 305-308).

  13. Studying Light Color using White LED Lighting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagishi, Misako; Yamaba, Kazuo; Nagata, Manori; Kubo, Chiho; Nokura, Kunihiro

    Recently, white Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) are receiving attention worldwide as new lighting devices. This study examined effects of a lighting application on performance using white LEDs. The light color—the correlated color temperature (CCT) —was assessed. It affected to psychological states and physiological conditions. Three CCT conditions were respectively set for the experiment: 2500 K, 5000 K, and 8200 K. In all, 20 younger subjects (20-30 years old), 15 middle-aged to elderly subjects (45-60 years old) and 12 elderly subjects (over 65 years-old) participated. They were presented a Numerical Verification (NV) task for performance measurement. The psychological states on performance were evaluated using the lighting assessment questionnaire. The physiological conditions were recorded using an electrocardiograph. Results show that the effects of CCT differ among age groups. Especially, the performance of younger subjects might differ from CCT conditions; elderly subjects are affected by CCT condition because of their visual acuity or response to contrast of objects.

  14. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki; Jee, Won-Hee; Kim, Jung-Man

    2011-01-01

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using κ coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with (κ = 0.87) or without (κ = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  15. Proton density-weighted MR imaging of the knee: fat suppression versus without fat suppression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, So-Yeon; Kim, Sun Ki [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jee, Won-Hee [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Catholic University of Korea, Diagnostic Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jung-Man [Catholic University of Korea, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    To prospectively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression for detecting meniscal tears. The study involved 48 patients who underwent arthroscopy less than 3 months after proton density-weighted imaging with and without fat suppression. Sagittal images were independently reviewed by two radiologists for the presence of meniscal tears. Medial and lateral menisci were separately analyzed in terms of anterior horn, body, and posterior horn. Interobserver agreement was assessed using {kappa} coefficients. The McNemar test was used to determine any differences between the two methods in terms of sensitivity and specificity. Arthroscopy findings were used as the diagnostic reference standard. Arthroscopy revealed 71 tears involving 85 meniscal segments: 34 medial meniscal segments and 51 lateral meniscal segments. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of each radiologist were 95% (81/85), 92% (186/203), and 93% (267/288), and 93% (79/85), 93% (189/203), and 93% (268/288) when using fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging, and 91% (77/85), 93% (189/203), and 92% (266/288), and 91% (77/85), 93% (188/203), and 92% (265/288) when using proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression, respectively. Interobserver agreement for meniscal tears was very high with proton-weighted imaging with ({kappa} = 0.87) or without ({kappa} = 0.86) fat suppression. There were no significant differences for detection of medial meniscal tears when using proton density-weighted imaging with or without fat suppression for both readers (p > 0.05). Fat-suppressed proton density-weighted imaging can replace proton density-weighted imaging without fat suppression for the detection of meniscal tears. (orig.)

  16. Suppression of T cell-induced osteoclast formation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karieb, Sahar; Fox, Simon W., E-mail: Simon.fox@plymouth.ac.uk

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Genistein and coumestrol prevent activated T cell induced osteoclast formation. •Anti-TNF neutralising antibodies prevent the pro-osteoclastic effect of activated T cells. •Phytoestrogens inhibit T cell derived TNF alpha and inflammatory cytokine production. •Phytoestrogens have a broader range of anti-osteoclastic actions than other anti-resorptives. -- Abstract: Inhibition of T cell derived cytokine production could help suppress osteoclast differentiation in inflammatory skeletal disorders. Bisphosphonates are typically prescribed to prevent inflammatory bone loss but are not tolerated by all patients and are associated with an increased risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw. In light of this other anti-resorptives such as phytoestrogens are being considered. However the effect of phytoestrogens on T cell-induced osteoclast formation is unclear. The effect of genistein and coumestrol on activated T cell-induced osteoclastogenesis and cytokine production was therefore examined. Concentrations of genistein and coumestrol (10{sup −7} M) previously shown to directly inhibit osteoclast formation also suppressed the formation of TRAP positive osteoclast induced by con A activated T cells, which was dependent on inhibition of T cell derived TNF-α. While both reduced osteoclast formation their mechanism of action differed. The anti-osteoclastic effect of coumestrol was associated with a dual effect on con A induced T cell proliferation and activation; 10{sup −7} M coumestrol significantly reducing T cell number (0.36) and TNF-α (0.47), IL-1β (0.23) and IL-6 (0.35) expression, whereas genistein (10{sup −7} M) had no effect on T cell number but a more pronounced effect on T cell differentiation reducing expression of TNF-α (0.49), IL-1β (0.52), IL-6 (0.71) and RANKL (0.71). Phytoestrogens therefore prevent the pro-osteoclastic action of T cells suggesting they may have a role in the control of inflammatory bone loss.

  17. Jasmonate inhibits COP1 activity to suppress hypocotyl elongation and promote cotyledon opening in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yuyu; Cui, Xuefei; Su, Liang; Fang, Shuang; Chu, Jinfang; Gong, Qingqiu; Yang, Jianping; Zhu, Ziqiang

    2017-06-01

    A germinating seedling undergoes skotomorphogenesis to emerge from the soil and reach for light. During this phase, the cotyledons are closed, and the hypocotyl elongates. Upon exposure to light, the seedling rapidly switches to photomorphogenesis by opening its cotyledons and suppressing hypocotyl elongation. The E3 ubiquitin ligase CONSTITUTIVE PHOTOMORPHOGENIC 1 (COP1) is critical for maintaining skotomorphogenesis. Here, we report that jasmonate (JA) suppresses hypocotyl elongation and stimulates cotyledon opening in etiolated seedlings, partially phenocopying cop1 mutants in the dark. We also find that JA stabilizes several COP1-targeted transcription factors in a COP1-dependent manner. RNA-seq analysis further defines a JA-light co-modulated and cop1-dependent transcriptome, which is enriched for auxin-responsive genes and genes participating in cell wall modification. JA suppresses COP1 activity through at least two distinct mechanisms: decreasing COP1 protein accumulation in the nucleus; and reducing the physical interaction between COP1 and its activator, SUPPRESSOR OF PHYTOCHROME A-105 1 (SPA1). Our work reveals that JA suppresses COP1 activity to stabilize COP1 targets, thereby inhibiting hypocotyl elongation and stimulating cotyledon unfolding in etiolated Arabidopsis seedlings. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Optical bistability controlling light with light

    CERN Document Server

    Gibbs, Hyatt

    1985-01-01

    Optical Bistability: Controlling Light with Light focuses on optical bistability in nonlinear optical systems. Emphasis is on passive (non-laser) systems that exhibit reversible bistability with input intensity as the hysteresis variable, along with the physics and the potential applications of such systems for nonlinear optical signal processing. This book consists of seven chapters and begins with a historical overview of optical bistability in lasers and passive systems. The next chapter describes steady-state theories of optical bistability, including the Bonifacio-Lugiato model, as we

  19. Overcoming fixation with repeated memory suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angello, Genna; Storm, Benjamin C; Smith, Steven M

    2015-01-01

    Fixation (blocks to memories or ideas) can be alleviated not only by encouraging productive work towards a solution, but, as the present experiments show, by reducing counterproductive work. Two experiments examined relief from fixation in a word-fragment completion task. Blockers, orthographically similar negative primes (e.g., ANALOGY), blocked solutions to word fragments (e.g., A_L_ _GY) in both experiments. After priming, but before the fragment completion test, participants repeatedly suppressed half of the blockers using the Think/No-Think paradigm, which results in memory inhibition. Inhibiting blockers did not alleviate fixation in Experiment 1 when conscious recollection of negative primes was not encouraged on the fragment completion test. In Experiment 2, however, when participants were encouraged to remember negative primes at fragment completion, relief from fixation was observed. Repeated suppression may nullify fixation effects, and promote creative thinking, particularly when fixation is caused by conscious recollection of counterproductive information.

  20. Magnetic fusion development for global warming suppression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiangang; Zhang Jie; Duan Xuru

    2010-01-01

    Energy shortage and environmental pollution are two critical issues for human beings in the 21st century. There is an urgent need for new sustainable energy to meet the fast growing demand for clean energy. Fusion is one of the few options which may be able to satisfy the requirement for large scale sustainable energy generation and global warming suppression and therefore must be developed as quickly as possible. Fusion research has been carried out for the past 50 years. It is too long to wait for another 50 years to generate electricity by fusion. A much more aggressive approach should be taken with international collaboration towards the early use of fusion energy to meet the urgent needs for energy and global warming suppression.