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Sample records for strawberry ester biosynthesis

  1. Neutral Lipid Biosynthesis in Engineered Escherichia coli: Jojoba Oil-Like Wax Esters and Fatty Acid Butyl Esters

    OpenAIRE

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant E...

  2. Neutral lipid biosynthesis in engineered Escherichia coli: jojoba oil-like wax esters and fatty acid butyl esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalscheuer, Rainer; Stöveken, Tim; Luftmann, Heinrich; Malkus, Ursula; Reichelt, Rudolf; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Wax esters are esters of long-chain fatty acids and long-chain fatty alcohols which are of considerable commercial importance and are produced on a scale of 3 million tons per year. The oil from the jojoba plant (Simmondsia chinensis) is the main biological source of wax esters. Although it has a multitude of potential applications, the use of jojoba oil is restricted, due to its high price. In this study, we describe the establishment of heterologous wax ester biosynthesis in a recombinant Escherichia coli strain by coexpression of a fatty alcohol-producing bifunctional acyl-coenzyme A reductase from the jojoba plant and a bacterial wax ester synthase from Acinetobacter baylyi strain ADP1, catalyzing the esterification of fatty alcohols and coenzyme A thioesters of fatty acids. In the presence of oleate, jojoba oil-like wax esters such as palmityl oleate, palmityl palmitoleate, and oleyl oleate were produced, amounting to up to ca. 1% of the cellular dry weight. In addition to wax esters, fatty acid butyl esters were unexpectedly observed in the presence of oleate. The latter could be attributed to solvent residues of 1-butanol present in the medium component, Bacto tryptone. Neutral lipids produced in recombinant E. coli were accumulated as intracytoplasmic inclusions, demonstrating that the formation and structural integrity of bacterial lipid bodies do not require specific structural proteins. This is the first report on substantial biosynthesis and accumulation of neutral lipids in E. coli, which might open new perspectives for the biotechnological production of cheap jojoba oil equivalents from inexpensive resources employing recombinant microorganisms.

  3. Brain modulation of Dufour's gland ester biosynthesis in vitro in the honeybee ( Apis mellifera)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katzav-Gozansky, Tamar; Hefetz, Abraham; Soroker, Victoria

    2007-05-01

    Caste-specific pheromone biosynthesis is a prerequisite for reproductive skew in the honeybee. Nonetheless, this process is not hardwired but plastic, in that egg-laying workers produce a queen-like pheromone. Studies with Dufour’s gland pheromone revealed that, in vivo, workers’ gland biosynthesis matches the social status of the worker, i.e., sterile workers showed a worker-like pattern whereas fertile workers showed a queen-like pattern (production of the queen-specific esters). However, when incubated in vitro, the gland spontaneously exhibits the queen-like pattern, irrespective of its original worker type, prompting the notion that ester production in workers is under inhibitory control that is queen-dependent. We tested this hypothesis by exposing queen or worker Dufour’s glands in vitro to brain extracts of queens, queenright (sterile) workers and males. Unexpectedly, worker brain extracts activated the queen-like esters biosynthesis in workers’ Dufour’s gland. This stimulation was gender-specific; queen or worker brains demonstrated a stimulatory activity, but male brains did not. Queen gland could not be further stimulated. Bioassays with heated and filtered extracts indicate that the stimulatory brain factor is below 3,000 Da. We suggest that pheromone production in Dufour’s gland is under dual, negative positive control. Under queenright conditions, the inhibitor is released and blocks ester biosynthesis, whereas under queenless conditions, the activator is released, activating ester biosynthesis in the gland. This is consistent with the hypothesis that queenright workers are unequivocally recognized as non-fertile, whereas queenless workers try to become “false queens” as part of the reproductive competition.

  4. Biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone and derivatives in in vitro grown strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, A G; Olías, R; Olías, J M; Sanz, C

    1999-02-01

    The biosynthesis of 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol) and its methyl ether and glucoside derivatives has been studied in strawberries. An in vitro system was used for growing this fruit, showing that the presence in the incubation medium of sucrose or hydroxyquinoline hemisulfate has no effect on the bioformation of these compounds. Strawberries in vitro grown showed an increase in furanone content with time, especially between the second and fourth days, to the same extent as field-grown fruits but at a higher rate. Among the precursors added to the incubation medium, D-fructose gave rise to an increase in furaneol and its glucoside derivative of 42. 6% and 26.3%, respectively. D-fructose 6-phosphate seems to be the precursor of furaneol in strawberries since, when present in the incubation medium, it produced an average increase of 125% in all furanones contents with respect to control fruits.

  5. Biosynthesis and composition of sterols and sterol esters in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis (L.) (gastropoda, pulmonata, stylommatophora)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horst, D.J. van der; Voogt, P.A.

    1972-01-01

    1. 1. The biosynthesis and composition of sterols and sterol esters were studied in the land snail Cepaea nemoralis after injection of Na-1-14C-acetate. 2. 2. Free and esterified sterols appeared to be synthesized by the animals, whilst the specific radioactivity of the sterols from the esters

  6. Down-regulation of the strawberry Bet v 1-homologous allergen in concert with the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in colorless strawberry mutant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjernø, Karin; Alm, Rikard; Canbäck, Björn

    2006-01-01

    Proteomic screening of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) yielded a 58% success rate in protein identification in spite of the fact that no genomic sequence is available for this species. This was achieved by a combination of MALDI-MS/MS de novo sequencing of double-derivatized peptides and indel......-tolerant searching against local protein databases built on both EST and full-length nucleotide sequences. The amino acid sequence of a strawberry allergen, homologous to the well-known major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1, was partially determined. This strawberry allergen, named Fra a 1 according...... to the nomenclature for allergen proteins, showed sequence identity of 54 and 77%, respectively, with corresponding allergens from birch and apple. Differential expression, as evaluated by 2-D DIGE, occurred in 10% of protein spots when red strawberries were compared to a colorless (white) strawberry mutant. White...

  7. Engineering low phorbol ester Jatropha curcas seed by intercepting casbene biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chunhong; Ng, Ailing; Xie, Lifen; Mao, Huizhu; Qiu, Chengxiang; Srinivasan, Ramachandran; Yin, Zhongchao; Hong, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Casbene is a precursor to phorbol esters and down-regulating casbene synthase effectively reduces phorbol ester biosynthesis. Seed-specific reduction of phorbol ester (PE) helps develop Jatropha seed cake for animal nutrition. Phorbol esters (PEs) are diterpenoids present in some Euphorbiaceae family members like Jatropha curcas L. (Jatropha), a tropical shrub yielding high-quality oil suitable as feedstock for biodiesel and bio jet fuel. Jatropha seed contains up to 40 % of oil and can produce oil together with cake containing high-quality proteins. However, skin-irritating and cancer-promoting PEs make Jatropha cake meal unsuitable for animal nutrition and also raise some safety and environmental concerns on its planting and processing. Two casbene synthase gene (JcCASA163 and JcCASD168) homologues were cloned from Jatropha genome and both genes were highly expressed during seed development. In vitro functional analysis proved casbene synthase activity of JcCASA163 in converting geranylgeranyl diphosphate into casbene which has been speculated to be the precursor to PEs. A seed-specific promoter driving inverted repeats for RNAi interference targeting at either JcCASA163 or both genes could effectively down-regulate casbene synthase gene expression with concurrent marked reduction of PE level (by as much as 85 %) in seeds with no pleiotropic effects observed. Such engineered low PE in seed was heritable and co-segregated with the transgene. Our work implicated casbene synthase in Jatropha PE biosynthesis and provided evidence for casbene being the precursor for PEs. The success in reducing seed PE content through down-regulation of casbene synthase demonstrates the feasibility of intercepting PE biosynthesis in Jatropha seed to help address safety concerns on Jatropha plantation and seed processing and facilitate use of its seed protein for animal nutrition.

  8. Identification of basic/helix-loop-helix transcription factors reveals candidate genes involved in anthocyanin biosynthesis from the strawberry white-flesh mutant

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Fengli; Li, Gang; Hu, Panpan; Zhao, Xia; Li, Liangjie; Wei, Wei; Feng, Jiayue; Zhou, Houcheng

    2018-01-01

    As the second largest transcription factor family in plant, the basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor family, characterized by the conserved bHLH domain, plays a central regulatory role in many biological process. However, the bHLH transcription factor family of strawberry has not been systematically identified, especially for the anthocyanin biosynthesis. Here, we identified a total of 113 bHLH transcription factors and described their chromosomal distribution and bioinformatics...

  9. Aroma biosynthesis in strawberry: s-adenosylmethionine:furaneol o-methyltransferase activity in ripening fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavid, Noa; Schwab, Wilfried; Kafkas, Ebru; Koch-Dean, Margery; Bar, Einat; Larkov, Olga; Ravid, Uzi; Lewinsohn, Efraim

    2002-07-03

    Among the most important volatile compounds in the aroma of strawberries are 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (Furaneol) and its methoxy derivative (methoxyfuraneol, mesifuran). Three strawberry varieties, Malach, Tamar, and Yael, were assessed for total volatiles, Furaneol, and methoxyfuraneol. The content of these compounds sharply increased during fruit ripening, with maximum values at the ripe stage. An enzymatic activity that transfers a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) to Furaneol sharply increases during ripening of strawberry fruits. The in vitro generated methoxyfuraneol was identified by radio-TLC and GC-MS. The partially purified enzyme had a native molecular mass of approximately 80 kDa, with optimum activity at pH 8.5 and 37 degrees C. A high apparent K(m) of 5 mM was calculated for Furaneol, whereas this enzyme preparation apparently accepted as substrates other o-dihydroxyphenol derivatives (such as catechol, caffeic acid, and protocatechuic aldehyde) with much higher affinities (K(m) approximately 105, 130, and 20 microM, respectively). A K(m) for SAM was found to be approximately 5 microM, regardless of the acceptor used. Substrates that contained a phenolic group with only one OH group, such as p-coumaric and trans-ferulic acid, as well as trans-anol and coniferyl alcohol, were apparently not accepted by this activity. It is suggested that Furaneol methylation is mediated by an O-methyltransferase activity and that this activity increases during fruit ripening.

  10. Quantitative changes in proteins responsible for flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit at different ripening stages: A targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing multiple reaction monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jun; Du, Lina; Li, Li; Kalt, Wilhelmina; Palmer, Leslie Campbell; Fillmore, Sherry; Zhang, Ying; Zhang, ZhaoQi; Li, XiHong

    2015-06-03

    To better understand the regulation of flavonoid and anthocyanin biosynthesis, a targeted quantitative proteomic investigation employing LC-MS with multiple reaction monitoring was conducted on two strawberry cultivars at three ripening stages. This quantitative proteomic workflow was improved through an OFFGEL electrophoresis to fractionate peptides from total protein digests. A total of 154 peptide transitions from 47 peptides covering 21 proteins and isoforms related to anthocyanin biosynthesis were investigated. The normalized protein abundance, which was measured using isotopically-labeled standards, was significantly changed concurrently with increased anthocyanin content and advanced fruit maturity. The protein abundance of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase; anthocyanidin synthase, chalcone isomerase; flavanone 3-hydroxylase; dihydroflavonol 4-reductase, UDP-glucose:flavonoid-3-O-glucosyltransferase, cytochrome c and cytochrome C oxidase subunit 2, was all significantly increased in fruit of more advanced ripeness. An interaction between cultivar and maturity was also shown with respect to chalcone isomerase. The good correlation between protein abundance and anthocyanin content suggested that a metabolic control point may exist for anthocyanin biosynthesis. This research provides insights into the process of anthocyanin formation in strawberry fruit at the level of protein concentration and reveals possible candidates in the regulation of anthocyanin formation during fruit ripening. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms contributing to flavonoids and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation of strawberry fruit during ripening is challenging due to limited molecular biology tools and established hypothesis. Our targeted proteomic approach employing LC-MS/MS analysis and MRM technique to quantify proteins in relation to flavonoids and anthocyanin biosynthesis and regulation in strawberry fruit during fruit ripening is novel. The identification of peptides

  11. FaQR, required for the biosynthesis of the strawberry flavor compound 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, encodes an enone oxidoreductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raab, Thomas; López-Ráez, Juan Antonio; Klein, Dorothée; Caballero, Jose Luis; Moyano, Enriqueta; Schwab, Wilfried; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan

    2006-04-01

    The flavor of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit is dominated by an uncommon group of aroma compounds with a 2,5-dimethyl-3(H)-furanone structure. We report the characterization of an enzyme involved in the biosynthesis of 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (HDMF; Furaneol), the key flavor compound in strawberries. Protein extracts were partially purified, and the observed distribution of enzymatic activity correlated with the presence of a single polypeptide of approximately 37 kD. Sequence analysis of two peptide fragments showed total identity with the protein sequence of a strongly ripening-induced, auxin-dependent putative quinone oxidoreductase, Fragaria x ananassa quinone oxidoreductase (FaQR). The open reading frame of the FaQR cDNA consists of 969 bp encoding a 322-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular mass of 34.3 kD. Laser capture microdissection followed by RNA extraction and amplification demonstrated the presence of FaQR mRNA in parenchyma tissue of the strawberry fruit. The FaQR protein was functionally expressed in Escherichia coli, and the monomer catalyzed the formation of HDMF. After chemical synthesis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, 4-hydroxy-5-methyl-2-methylene-3(2H)-furanone was confirmed as a substrate of FaQR and the natural precursor of HDMF. This study demonstrates the function of the FaQR enzyme in the biosynthesis of HDMF as enone oxidoreductase and provides a foundation for the improvement of strawberry flavor and the biotechnological production of HDMF.

  12. Residual effects of low oxygen storage of mature green fruit on ripening processes and ester biosynthesis during ripening in bananas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mature green banana (Musa sapientum L. cv. Cavendish) fruit were stored in 0.5%, 2 %, or 21% O2 for 7 days at 20 °C before ripening was initiated by ethylene. Residual effects of low O2 storage in mature green fruit on ripening and ester biosynthesis in fruit were investigated during ripening period...

  13. Optimisation of flavour ester biosynthesis in an aqueous system of coconut cream and fusel oil catalysed by lipase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingcan; Yu, Bin; Curran, Philip; Liu, Shao-Quan

    2012-12-15

    Coconut cream and fusel oil, two low-cost natural substances, were used as starting materials for the biosynthesis of flavour-active octanoic acid esters (ethyl-, butyl-, isobutyl- and (iso)amyl octanoate) using lipase Palatase as the biocatalyst. The Taguchi design method was used for the first time to optimize the biosynthesis of esters by a lipase in an aqueous system of coconut cream and fusel oil. Temperature, time and enzyme amount were found to be statistically significant factors and the optimal conditions were determined to be as follows: temperature 30°C, fusel oil concentration 9% (v/w), reaction time 24h, pH 6.2 and enzyme amount 0.26 g. Under the optimised conditions, a yield of 14.25mg/g (based on cream weight) and signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 23.07 dB were obtained. The results indicate that the Taguchi design method was an efficient and systematic approach to the optimisation of lipase-catalysed biological processes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification and biosynthesis of novel male specific esters in the wings of the tropical butterfly, Bicyclus martius sanaos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Brattström, Oskar; Brakefield, Paul M; Francke, Wittko; Löfstedt, Christer

    2014-06-01

    Representatives of the highly speciose tropical butterfly genus Bicyclus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) are characterized by morphological differences in the male androconia, a set of scales and hair pencils located on the surface of the wings. These androconia are assumed to be associated with the release of courtship pheromones. In the present study, we report the identification and biosynthetic pathways of several novel esters from the wings of male B. martius sanaos. We found that the volatile compounds in this male butterfly were similar to female-produced moth sex pheromones. Components associated with the male wing androconial areas were identified as ethyl, isobutyl and 2-phenylethyl hexadecanoates and (11Z)-11-hexadecenoates, among which the latter are novel natural products. By topical application of deuterium-labelled fatty acid and amino acid precursors, we found these pheromone candidates to be produced in patches located on the forewings of the males. Deuterium labels from hexadecanoic acid were incorporated into (11Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid, providing experimental evidence of a Δ11-desaturase being active in butterflies. This unusual desaturase was found previously to be involved in the biosynthesis of female-produced sex pheromones of moths. In the male butterflies, both hexadecanoic acid and (11Z)-11-hexadecenoic acid were then enzymatically esterified to form the ethyl, isobutyl and 2-phenylethyl esters, incorporating ethanol, isobutanol, and 2-phenylethanol, derived from the corresponding amino acids L-alanine, L-valine, and L-phenylalanine.

  15. Phenylpropenes: Occurrence, Distribution, and Biosynthesis in Fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Ross G

    2018-03-14

    Phenylpropenes such as eugenol, chavicol, estragole, and anethole contribute to the flavor and aroma of a number of important herbs and spices. They have been shown to function as floral attractants for pollinators and to have antifungal and antimicrobial activities. Phenylpropenes are also detected as free volatiles and sequestered glycosides in a range of economically important fresh fruit species including apple, strawberry, tomato, and grape. Although they contribute a relatively small percentage of total volatiles compared with esters, aldehydes, and alcohols, phenylpropenes have been shown to contribute spicy anise- and clove-like notes to fruit. Phenylpropenes are typically found in fruit throughout development and to reach maximum concentrations in ripe fruit. Genes involved in the biosynthesis of phenylpropenes have been characterized and manipulated in strawberry and apple, which has validated the importance of these compounds to fruit aroma and may help elucidate other functions for phenylpropenes in fruit.

  16. Establishing very long-chain fatty alcohol and wax ester biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenning, Leonie; Yu, Tao; David, Florian; Nielsen, Jens; Siewers, Verena

    2017-05-01

    Wax esters (WEs) are neutral lipids and can be used for a broad range of commercial applications, including personal care products, lubricants, or coatings. They are synthesized by enzymatic reactions catalyzed by a fatty acyl reductase (FAR) and a wax ester synthase (WS). At present, commercially used WEs are mainly isolated from Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), but the high extraction costs and limited harvest areas constrain their use. The use of FARs in combination with different WSs to achieve a synthesis of jojoba-like WEs in bacteria and yeast has been reported previously, but the products were restricted to C28-C36 WEs. These rather short WEs make up only a very small percentage of the total WEs in natural jojoba oil. The synthesis of longer chain WEs (up to C44) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has so far only been achieved after substrate feeding. Here we identified new routes for producing very long-chain fatty alcohols (VLCFOHs) up to a chain length of C22 by heterologous expression of a FAR derived from Apis mellifera (AmFAR1) or Marinobacter aquaeolei VT8 (Maqu_2220) in S. cerevisiae and achieved maximum yields of 3.22 ± 0.36 mg/g cell dry weight (CDW) and 7.84 ± 3.09 mg/g CDW, respectively, after 48 h. Moreover, we enabled the synthesis of jojoba-like WEs up to a chain length of C42, catalyzed by a combination of Maqu_2220 together with the WS from S. chinensis (SciWS) and the S. cerevisiae elongase Elo2p, with a maximum yield of 12.24 ± 3.35 mg/g CDW after 48 h. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2017;114: 1025-1035. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Identification and Characterization of Sterol Acyltransferases Responsible for Steryl Ester Biosynthesis in Tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Lara

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Steryl esters (SEs serve as a storage pool of sterols that helps to maintain proper levels of free sterols (FSs in cell membranes throughout plant growth and development, and participates in the recycling of FSs and fatty acids released from cell membranes in aging tissues. SEs are synthesized by sterol acyltransferases, a family of enzymes that catalyze the transfer of fatty acil groups to the hydroxyl group at C-3 position of the sterol backbone. Sterol acyltransferases are categorized into acyl-CoA:sterol acyltransferases (ASAT and phospholipid:sterol acyltransferases (PSAT depending on whether the fatty acyl donor substrate is a long-chain acyl-CoA or a phospolipid. Until now, only Arabidopsis ASAT and PSAT enzymes (AtASAT1 and AtPSAT1 have been cloned and characterized in plants. Here we report the identification, cloning, and functional characterization of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum cv. Micro-Tom orthologs. SlPSAT1 and SlASAT1 were able to restore SE to wild type levels in the Arabidopsis psat1-2 and asat1-1 knock-out mutants, respectively. Expression of SlPSAT1 in the psat1-2 background also prevented the toxicity caused by an external supply of mevalonate and the early senescence phenotype observed in detached leaves of this mutant, whereas expression of SlASAT1 in the asat1-1 mutant revealed a clear substrate preference of the tomato enzyme for the sterol precursors cycloartenol and 24-methylene cycloartanol. Subcellular localization studies using fluorescently tagged SlPSAT1 and SlASAT1 proteins revealed that SlPSAT1 localize in cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs while, in contrast to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER localization of AtASAT1, SlASAT1 resides in the plasma membrane (PM. The possibility that PM-localized SlASAT1 may act catalytically in trans on their sterol substrates, which are presumably embedded in the ER membrane, is discussed. The widespread expression of SlPSAT1 and SlASAT1 genes in different tomato organs together

  18. Linkage mapping in the oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. reveals a locus controlling the biosynthesis of phorbol esters which cause seed toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Andrew J; Montes, Luis R; Clarke, Jasper G; Affleck, Julie; Li, Yi; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van der Vossen, Edwin; van der Linde, Piet; Tripathi, Yogendra; Tavares, Evanilda; Shukla, Parul; Rajasekaran, Thirunavukkarasu; van Loo, Eibertus N; Graham, Ian A

    2013-10-01

    Current efforts to grow the tropical oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. economically are hampered by the lack of cultivars and the presence of toxic phorbol esters (PE) within the seeds of most provenances. These PE restrict the conversion of seed cake into animal feed, although naturally occurring 'nontoxic' provenances exist which produce seed lacking PE. As an important step towards the development of genetically improved varieties of J. curcas, we constructed a linkage map from four F₂ mapping populations. The consensus linkage map contains 502 codominant markers, distributed over 11 linkage groups, with a mean marker density of 1.8 cM per unique locus. Analysis of the inheritance of PE biosynthesis indicated that this is a maternally controlled dominant monogenic trait. This maternal control is due to biosynthesis of the PE occurring only within maternal tissues. The trait segregated 3 : 1 within seeds collected from F₂ plants, and QTL analysis revealed that a locus on linkage group 8 was responsible for phorbol ester biosynthesis. By taking advantage of the draft genome assemblies of J. curcas and Ricinus communis (castor), a comparative mapping approach was used to develop additional markers to fine map this mutation within 2.3 cM. The linkage map provides a framework for the dissection of agronomic traits in J. curcas, and the development of improved varieties by marker-assisted breeding. The identification of the locus responsible for PE biosynthesis means that it is now possible to rapidly breed new nontoxic varieties. © 2013 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Effect of high-oxygen and high-carbon-dioxide atmospheres on strawberry flavor and other quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, A G; Sanz, C

    2001-05-01

    The effect of high-oxygen atmospheres on strawberry flavor was studied. Strawberry fruits (Fragariax ananassa Duch. cv. Camarosa) were stored at 8 degrees C in four different atmospheres: air, 5% O(2)/20% CO(2), 80% O(2)/20% CO(2), and 90% O(2)/10% CO(2). Changes in several quality parameters were evaluated. Atmospheres combining high O(2) and high CO(2) were the most effective in preventing fungal growth and enhancing strawberry firmness. Other quality parameters such as color, titrable acidity, sugars and organic acids distribution, off-flavor development, and aroma were only mildly affected by superatmospheric O(2) levels. After one week of storage, unexpected high contents of off-flavor related compounds were found in the 80% O(2)/20% CO(2) and 90% O(2)/10% CO(2) atmospheres. Evidence of an altered ester biosynthesis was also found in fruits stored under these high-O(2) atmospheres. Data obtained suggest that stress induced by high CO(2) and stress induced by high O(2) have an additive effect on strawberry flavor alteration.

  20. Comparative Transcriptomics Reveals Differential Gene Expression Related to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Resistance in the Octoploid Strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is an important fruit worldwide; however, the development of the strawberry industry is limited by fungal disease. Anthracnose is caused by the pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and leads to large-scale losses in strawberry quality and production. However, the transcriptional response of strawberry to infection with C. gloeosporioides is poorly understood. In the present study, the strawberry leaf transcriptome of the ‘Yanli’ and ‘Benihoppe’ cultivars were deep sequenced via an RNA-seq analysis to study C. gloeosporioides resistance in strawberry. Among the sequences, differentially expressed genes were annotated with Gene Ontology terms and subjected to pathway enrichment analysis. Significant categories included defense, plant–pathogen interactions and flavonoid biosynthesis were identified. The comprehensive transcriptome data set provides molecular insight into C. gloeosporioides resistance genes in resistant and susceptible strawberry cultivars. Our findings can enhance breeding efforts in strawberry.

  1. Biosynthesis of D-alanyl-lipoteichoic acid by Lactobacillus casei: interchain transacylation of D-alanyl ester residues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Childs, W.C. III; Taron, D.J.; Neuhaus, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) from Lactobacillus casei contains poly(glycerophosphate) substituted with D-alanyl ester residues. The distribution of these residues in the in vitro-synthesized polymer is uniform. Esterification of LTA with D-alanine may occur in one of two modes: (i) addition at random or (ii) addition at a defined locus in the poly(glycerophosphate) chain followed by redistribution of the ester residues. A time-dependent transacylation of these residues from D-[ 14 C]alanyl-lipophilic LTA to hydrophilic acceptor was observed. The hydrophilic acceptor was characterized as D-alanyl-hydrophilic LTA. This transacylation requires neither ATP nor the D-alanine incorporation system, i.e., the D-alanine activating enzyme and D-alanine:membrane acceptor ligase. No evidence for an enzyme-catalyzed transacylation reaction was observed. The authors propose that this process of transacylation may be responsible for the redistribution of D-alanyl residues after esterification to the poly(glycerophosphate). As a result, it is difficult to distinguish between these proposed modes of addition

  2. Bioinformatic Analysis of Strawberry GSTF12 Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiran; Jiang, Leiyu; Tang, Haoru

    2018-01-01

    GSTF12 has always been known as a key factor of proanthocyanins accumulate in plant testa. Through bioinformatics analysis of the nucleotide and encoded protein sequence of GSTF12, it is more advantageous to the study of genes related to anthocyanin biosynthesis accumulation pathway. Therefore, we chosen GSTF12 gene of 11 kinds species, downloaded their nucleotide and protein sequence from NCBI as the research object, found strawberry GSTF12 gene via bioinformation analyse, constructed phylogenetic tree. At the same time, we analysed the strawberry GSTF12 gene of physical and chemical properties and its protein structure and so on. The phylogenetic tree showed that Strawberry and petunia were closest relative. By the protein prediction, we found that the protein owed one proper signal peptide without obvious transmembrane regions.

  3. Storage of strawberry pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafet Aslantaş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine storage ability of strawberry pollen at different temperatures for three different strawberry cultivars 'Aliso', 'Brio', and 'Cruz'. Strawberry pollen was stored at room temperature (22 ±2°C, +4°C, -4°C and -18°C in stabile humidity conditions. Strawberry poIlen was germinated using the hanging drop method in a 20% sucrose solution. Pollen germination rate increased because of low temperature storage. Pollen stored at room temperature and +4°C, -4°C, and -18°C was kept for 8 months, about one year, and 20 months, respectively. Pollen germination rates decreased as the length of storage period increased. The reaction of all cultivars tested on the duration and temperature of storage was similar.

  4. Linkage mapping in the oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. reveals a locus controlling the biosynthesis of phorbol esters which cause seed toxicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    King, A.J.; Montes, L.R.; Clarke, J.G.; Affleck, J.; Li, Y.; Witsenboer, H.; Vossen, van der E.; Linde, van der P.; Tripathi, Y.; Tavares, E.; Shukla, P.; Rajasekaran, T.; Loo, van E.N.; Graham, I.A.

    2013-01-01

    Current efforts to grow the tropical oilseed crop Jatropha curcas L. economically are hampered by the lack of cultivars and the presence of toxic phorbol esters (PE) within the seeds of most provenances. These PE restrict the conversion of seed cake into animal feed, although naturally occurring

  5. Effect of trehalose addition on volatiles responsible for strawberry aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopjar, Mirela; Hribar, Janez; Simcic, Marjan; Zlatić, Emil; Pozrl, Tomaz; Pilizota, Vlasta

    2013-12-01

    Aroma is one of the most important quality properties of food products and has a great influence on quality and acceptability of foods. Since it is very difficult to control, in this study the effect of addition of trehalose (3, 5 and 10%) to freeze-dried strawberry cream fillings was investigated as a possible means for retention of some of the aroma compounds responsible for the strawberry aroma. In samples with added trehalose, higher amounts of fruity esters were determined. Increase of trehalose content did not cause a proportional increase in the amount of fruity esters. However, results of our research showed that trehalose addition did not have the same effect on both gamma-decalactone and furaneol.

  6. Quality development of Danish strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Peder; Stacey, Julia

    1999-01-01

    The quality of fruit and berries has often been the topic of debate and Danish strawberries have been both praised and criticized. Therefore the Danish Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Danish Fruit Growers' Association, the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration and MAPP have joined together...... in a project about quality assurance of strawberries. One purpose of the project has been to provide systematic knowledge about Danish consumers' attitudes towards strawberries, knowledge, buying behaviour and consumption of strawberries. Another purpose has been to take an active part in the development...... of new strawberry varieties and growing methods and also to support better distribution and sale of strawberries. During 1999, focus group interviews and a representative study with 1174 householdswere carried out. In-home tests of existing and new varieties of strawberries will be carried out during...

  7. Strawberries without struggle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crake, T.

    1980-01-01

    Advice on diseases and their control to make cultivation more profitable and the strawberries more appealing to consumers is given. Control over both leak disease and post-harvest anthracnose have been achieved with a combination of heat treatment and irradiation

  8. 'Florida Beauty' strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Florida Beauty’ strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) originated from a 2012 cross made by the Queensland breeding program between Queensland Australia selection 2010-119 (female parent) and ‘Florida Radiance’ (male parent). Selection 2010-119 was chosen as a parent for its excellent fruit shape and fl...

  9. Strawberry flavor: diverse chemical compositions, a seasonal influence, and effects on sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwieterman, Michael L; Colquhoun, Thomas A; Jaworski, Elizabeth A; Bartoshuk, Linda M; Gilbert, Jessica L; Tieman, Denise M; Odabasi, Asli Z; Moskowitz, Howard R; Folta, Kevin M; Klee, Harry J; Sims, Charles A; Whitaker, Vance M; Clark, David G

    2014-01-01

    Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

  10. Strawberry flavor: diverse chemical compositions, a seasonal influence, and effects on sensory perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L Schwieterman

    Full Text Available Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.

  11. Control of postharvest Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry by volatile organic compounds of Candida intermedia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, R; Li, G Q; Zhang, J; Yang, L; Che, H J; Jiang, D H; Huang, H C

    2011-07-01

    A study was conducted to identify volatile organic compounds or volatiles produced by Candida intermedia strain C410 using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and to determine efficacy of the volatiles of C. intermedia in suppression of conidial germination and mycelial growth of Botrytis cinerea and control of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry. Results showed that, among 49 volatiles (esters, alcohols, alkenes, alkanes, alkynes, organic acids, ketones, and aldehydes) identified from C. intermedia cultures on yeast extract peptone dextrose agar, two compounds, 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene and 3-methyl-1-butanol, were the most abundant. Synthetic chemicals of 1,3,5,7-cyclooctatetraene; 3-methyl-1-butanol; 2-nonanone; pentanoic acid, 4-methyl-, ethyl ester; 3-methyl-1-butanol, acetate; acetic acid, pentyl ester; and hexanoic acid, ethyl ester were highly inhibitory to conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea. Inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth of B. cinerea by volatiles of C. intermedia was also observed. Meanwhile, results showed that incidence and severity of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry was significantly (P intermedia cultures or C. intermedia-infested strawberry fruit. These results suggest that the volatiles of C. intermedia C410 are promising biofumigants for control of Botrytis fruit rot of strawberry.

  12. Comparative study of aromatic compounds in fruit wines from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry in central Shaanxi area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiming Feng

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although grape wines have firmly dominated the production and consumption markets of fruit wines, raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry have been utilized to make wines because of their joyful aroma and high contents of polyphenolic phytochemicals and essential fatty acids. However, little is known about aromatic compounds of the wines produced from these three fruits. Methods: The aromatic composition of fruit wines produced from raspberry, strawberry, mulberry, and red grape was analyzed by GC-MS. Odor activity values (OAVs and relative odor contributions (ROCs were used to estimate the sensory contribution of the aromatic compounds to the overall flavor of the wines. Results: In strawberry, raspberry, and mulberry wines, 27, 30, and 31 odorants were detected, respectively. Alcohols formed the most abundant group, followed by esters and acids. The grape wine contained a wider variety (16 types of alcohols, and 4-methyl-2-pentanol and 2,3-butanediol were not present in the three fruit wines. The quantity of esters in raspberry (1.54% and mulberry wines (2.08% were higher than those of strawberry wine (0.78%, and mulberry wine contained more types of esters. There were no significant differences of acids between the three fruit wines and the control wine. In addition, 2-heptanone, 2-octanone, 2-nonanone, and 2-undecanone were unique to raspberry wine, and nonanal was present only in mulberry wine. The indistinguishable aroma of the three fruit wines was attributed to the dominance of fruity and floral odor components derived from ethyl esters of fatty acids and their contributions to the global aroma of the three fruit wines. Conclusion: The present study demonstrated that there were significant differences in the volatile components of fruit wines made from raspberry, strawberry, and mulberry. The aroma compounds were more abundant in the raspberry and mulberry wines than in the strawberry wine, but the quality of strawberry wine was

  13. Strawberry radurisation on a commercial scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du Venhage, C.A.

    1985-01-01

    An international breakthrough was made at Pelindaba in 1981 when laboratory experiments were adjusted to accomodate commercial quantities of strawberries. Theory and practise of the radurisation of strawberries become compatible and led to the successful marketing of 1,6 million punnets of radurised strawberries during the period 1981 to 1984. Several benefits are derived from this technology, making the marketing and distribution of radurised strawberries an accepted and on-going process

  14. Effect of xanthan gum on the release of strawberry flavor in formulated soy beverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jiao; He, Zhiyong; Zeng, Maomao; Li, Bingbing; Qin, Fang; Wang, Linxiang; Wu, Shengfang; Chen, Jie

    2017-08-01

    The effects of xanthan gum on the release of strawberry flavor compounds in formulated soy protein isolate (SPI) beverage were investigated by headspace gas chromatography (GC). Seven strawberry flavor compounds (limonene, ethyl hexanoate, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, ethyl 2-methylbutanoate, ethyl butanoate, (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and diacetyl) could be detected by GC and hence analyzed the gas-matrix partition coefficients (K). The release of flavor compounds was restrained in SPI and/or xanthan gum solution. The retention of (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol, limonene and diacetyl significantly changed (pfuraneol) accelerated the release of ester compounds to some extent in different matrices. The above results demonstrated that presence of SPI and xanthan gum could bring about an imbalance in the strawberry flavor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of Trehalose Addition on Aroma Retention in Dehydrated Strawberry Puree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Draženka Komes

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the quality of dehydrated fruit products, the influence of the addition of two sugars (sucrose and trehalose on the retention of aroma components during dehydration of strawberry puree was investigated. Manual headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME, containing polydimethylsiloxane coated fibre (100 μm coupled with gas chromatography (GC-FID and GC-MS was used for the analysis of the aroma of strawberry puree dehydrated by using freeze drying and foam-mat drying. The analytes identified included esters, carbonyl compounds, terpenoids, several alcohols and acids. The results obtained in this study give further insight into the mechanisms concerning the application of trehalose as flavouring additive, due to its ability to retain and preserve the fruit volatiles responsible for the characteristic flavour of fresh fruits during dehydration processes. The best retention of aroma components in dehydrated strawberry puree was obtained by trehalose addition when combined with freeze drying.

  16. FaPOD27 functions in the metabolism of polyphenols in strawberry fruit (Fragaria sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Ying eYeh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa is one of the most preferred fresh fruit worldwide, accumulates numerous flavonoids but has limited shelf life due to excessive tissue softening caused by cell wall degradation. Since lignin is one of the polymers that strengthen plant cell walls and might contribute to some extent to fruit firmness monolignol biosynthesis was studied in strawberry fruit. Cinnamoyl-CoA reductase (CCR, cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, and a peroxidase (POD27 gene were strongly expressed in red, ripe fruit whereas a second POD gene was primarily expressed in green, immature fruit. Moreover, FaPOD27 transcripts were strongly and constitutively induced in fruits exposed to Agrobacterium infection. Gene expression levels and enzymatic activities of FaCCR and FaCAD were efficiently suppressed through RNAi in FaCCR- and FaCAD-silenced strawberries. Besides, significantly elevated FaPOD transcript levels were detected after agroinfiltration of pBI-FaPOD constructs in fruits. At the same time, levels of G-monomers were considerably reduced in FaCCR-silenced fruits whereas the proportion of both G- and S-monomers decisively decreased in FaCAD-silenced and pBI-FaPOD fruits. Development, firmness, and lignin level of the treated fruits were similar to pBI-intron control fruits, presumably attributed to increased expression levels of FaPOD27 upon agroinfiltration. Additionally, enhanced firmness, accompanied with elevated lignin levels, was revealed in chalcone synthase-deficient fruits (CHS-, independent of down- or up-regulation of individual and combined FaCCR, FaCAD, and FaPOD genes by agroinfiltration, when compared to CHS-/pBI-intron control fruits. These approaches provide further insight into the genetic control of flavonoid and lignin synthesis in strawberries. The results suggest that FaPOD27 is a key gene for lignin biosynthesis in strawberry fruit and thus to improving the firmness of strawberries.

  17. Quantitative Analysis of Fragrance and Odorants Released from Fresh and Decaying Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Parker

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The classes and concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOC released from fresh and decaying strawberries were investigated and compared. In this study, a total of 147 strawberry volatiles were quantified before and after nine days of storage to explore differences in the aroma profile between fresh strawberries (storage days (SRD of 0, 1, and 3 and those that had started to decay (SRD = 6 and 9. In terms of concentration, seven compounds dominated the aroma profile of fresh strawberries (relative composition (RC up to 97.4% by mass, sum concentration: (1 ethyl acetate = 518 mg∙m−3, (2 methyl acetate = 239 mg∙m−3, (3 ethyl butyrate = 13.5 mg∙m−3, (4 methyl butyrate = 11.1 mg∙m−3, (5 acetaldehyde = 24.9 mg∙m−3, (6 acetic acid = 15.2 mg∙m−3, and (7 acetone = 13.9 mg∙m−3. In contrast, two alcohols dominated the aroma profile of decayed samples (RC up to 98.6%: (1 ethyl alcohol = 94.2 mg∙m−3 and (2 isobutyl alcohol = 289 mg∙m−3. Alternatively; if the aroma profiles are re-evaluated by summing odor activity values (ΣOAV; four ester compounds ((1 ethyl butyrate (6,160; (2 ethyl hexanoate (3,608; (3 ethyl isovalerate (1,592; and (4 ethyl 2-methylbutyrate (942 were identified as the key constituents of fresh strawberry aroma (SRD-0. As the strawberries began to decay; isobutyl alcohol recorded the maximum OAV of 114 (relative proportion (RP (SRD = 6 = 58.3%. However, as the decay process continued, the total OAV dropped further by 3 to 4 orders of magnitude—decreasing to 196 on SRD = 6 to 7.37 on SRD = 9. The overall results of this study confirm dramatic changes in the aroma profile of strawberries over time, especially with the onset of decay.

  18. Biological control of tortricids and aphids in strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Enkegaard, Annie; Eilenberg, Jørgen

    Cropping practice and biological control can contribute to reduced pesticide use in strawberries. Organic strawberries are less attacked by strawberry tortricid and buckwheat flower strips can augment its natural enemies. Against shallot aphid the two-spot ladybird is promising....

  19. Storage of irradiated strawberry fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popova, L.

    1977-01-01

    Pocahontas strawberries both of green house and field production have been stored at 3 deg C for 10 and 12 days, respectively, after treatment with 100000, 200000 and 300000 Roe in comparison with unirradiated fruits. No explicit correlation was observed regarding the keeping qualities of fruits, their chemical composition (dry matter, sugars, acids and vitamin C) when stored after a different gamma-ray irradiation. (S.P.)

  20. Effect of different planting time on different varieties of strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Yue; Luo, Ya; Ge, Cong; Mo, Qin; Lin, Yajie; Luo, Shu; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    The experiment chose two strawberry varieties which planted in two periods of September 10 and September 20, in order to identify the optimum planting time of strawberries by exploring the effects of different planting time on strawberry quality and flowering initially. The results showed that different planting time will affect the growth and quality of strawberry, and the quality of September 10 planting strawberries is better than September 20 planting strawberries while there do exist some differences between strawberry varieties. In summary, the preliminary determination is that in Hanyuan area, the Hong Yan and Zhang Ji's optimum planting time is 10 September.

  1. The strawberry FaMYB1 transcription factor suppresses anthocyanin and flavonol accumulation in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aharoni, A; De Vos, C H; Wein, M; Sun, Z; Greco, R; Kroon, A; Mol, J N; O'Connell, A P

    2001-11-01

    Fruit ripening is characterized by dramatic changes in gene expression, enzymatic activities and metabolism. Although the process of ripening has been studied extensively, we still lack valuable information on how the numerous metabolic pathways are regulated and co-ordinated. In this paper we describe the characterization of FaMYB1, a ripening regulated strawberry gene member of the MYB family of transcription factors. Flowers of transgenic tobacco lines overexpressing FaMYB1 showed a severe reduction in pigmentation. A reduction in the level of cyanidin 3-rutinoside (an anthocyanin) and of quercetin-glycosides (flavonols) was observed. Expression of late flavonoid biosynthesis genes and their enzyme activities were adversely affected by FaMYB1 overexpression. Two-hybrid assays in yeast showed that FaMYB1 could interact with other known anthocyanin regulators, but it does not act as a transcriptional activator. Interestingly, the C-terminus of FaMYB1 contains the motif pdLNL(D)/(E)Lxi(G)/S. This motif is contained in a region recently proposed to be involved in the repression of transcription by AtMYB4, an Arabidopsis MYB protein. Our results suggest that FaMYB1 may play a key role in regulating the biosynthesis of anthocyanins and flavonols in strawberry. It may act to repress transcription in order to balance the levels of anthocyanin pigments produced at the latter stages of strawberry fruit maturation, and/or to regulate metabolite levels in various branches of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway.

  2. Overexpression of the Anthocyanidin Synthase Gene in Strawberry Enhances Antioxidant Capacity and Cytotoxic Effects on Human Hepatic Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Mazzoni, Luca; Capocasa, Franco; Sabbadini, Silvia; Alvarez-Suarez, Josè M; Afrin, Sadia; Rosati, Carlo; Pandolfini, Tiziana; Molesini, Barbara; Sánchez-Sevilla, José F; Amaya, Iraida; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2018-01-24

    Food fortification through the increase and/or modulation of bioactive compounds has become a major goal for preventing several diseases, including cancer. Here, strawberry lines of cv. Calypso transformed with a construct containing an anthocyanidin synthase (ANS) gene were produced to study the effects on anthocyanin biosynthesis, metabolism, and transcriptome. Three strawberry ANS transgenic lines (ANS L5, ANS L15, and ANS L18) were analyzed for phytochemical composition and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and their fruit extracts were assessed for cytotoxic effects on hepatocellular carcinoma. ANS L18 fruits had the highest levels of total phenolics and flavonoids, while those of ANS L15 had the highest anthocyanin concentration; TAC positively correlated with total polyphenol content. Fruit transcriptome was also specifically affected in the polyphenol biosynthesis and in other related metabolic pathways. Fruit extracts of all lines exerted cytotoxic effects in a dose/time-dependent manner, increasing cellular apoptosis and free radical levels and impairing mitochondrial functionality.

  3. Conservation by irradiation of the cooled strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaabi, Olfa

    2004-01-01

    During this work, the microbiological, physicochemical and organoleptic effects of the irradiation were studied throughout the strawberries conservation at 4 0 C in camarosa variety. Thus, the optimal dose was measured. The experimental results showed that the ionizing treatment causes a notable reduction of the microbial flora (total yeasts and moulds, psychrotrophes germs) of the strawberry. This reduction can exceed the 90% of the total flora in the strawberries treated with 2.5 and 3 KGy. The microbial load remained no significant for the strawberries treated with 2, 2.5 and 3 KGy until the 21 2nd day of the conservation. On the organoleptic level, the gustatory quality of the strawberries irradiated by 2 and 2.5 KGy is acceptable, whereas the control strawberries exposed at 3 KGy are acceptable. Moreover, the effect of the irradiation on the physico-chemical parameters is significant only in the case of the ascorbic acid which notes a considerable reduction in the vitamin during the first days of conservation, but which will be moderated after 8 2nd days of the storage cutters irradiated. This degradation remained more accelerated in the case of control strawberries. Lastly, we can affirm that the irradiation increases the shelf life without making modifications sensitive to the original characteristics of the cutter, which constitutes a reliable process and inexpensive in energy. (author). 13 refs

  4. Effect of ultraviolet-C light on postharvest decay of strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nigro, F.; Ippolito, A.; Salerno, M.; Lattanzio, V.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of ultraviolet-C light (u.v.-C) at low doses on postharvest decay of strawberries caused by Botrytis cinerea and other pathogens was investigated. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity and ethylene production, as influenced by ultraviolet-C irradiation, were also determined. Strawberries (cv. ‘Pajaro’) from plants that had been treated with chemicals against grey mould were irradiated with u.v.-C doses ranging from 0.25 to 4.00 kJ m-2 and inoculated with B. cinerea at different times (0, 12, 24 and 48 hours) after irradiation. To assess the effect of u.v.-C light on the naturally occurring postharvest decay, organically grown strawberries were also used. After treatment the strawberries were stored at 20±1°C or at 3°C. u.v.-C doses at 0.50 and 1.00 kJ m-2 significantly reduced botrytis storage rot arising from both artificial inoculations and natural infections in comparison with the unirradiated control. The doses shown to reduce botrytis rot produced an increase in PAL activity 12 h after irradiation; this result indicates the activation of metabolic a pathway related to the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, which are usually characterized by antifungal activity. In addition, u.v.-C irradiation caused an increase in ethylene production proportional to the doses applied, reaching the highest value 6 h after treatment. The overall results from these investigations indicate that treatment with low u.v.-C doses produces a reduction in postharvest decay of strawberries related to induced resistance mechanisms. Moreover, a germicidal effect of reducing external contaminating pathogens cannot be excluded

  5. Radiation induced chemical changes of phenolic compounds in strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitfellner, F.; Solar, S.; Sontag, G.

    2002-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The investigations were directed to the determination of the effect of γ-irradiation on various phenolic compounds in strawberries in dependence of dose. A significant decrease of these compounds during irradiation could reduce their beneficial effect on health, which are based on their antioxidative and anticarcinogenic properties. On the other hand hydroxilation of phenolic acids has been proposed as a promising method to distinguish between irradiated and not irradiated fruits and vegetables. Irradiated and not irradiated strawberry samples were homogenized, centrifuged and chromatographically purified from matrix components on polyamide columns. For determination of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acids, which are present as esters or as glycosides, the samples had to be acid/base hydrolized prior to purification. The individual compounds were separated by reversed phase chromatography and detected by means of a diode-array-detector. Peak identification was based on both UV-Vis-spectra and retention times compared with those of standards. In hydrolized samples four phenolic acids [gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid] were identified. Only 4-hydroxybenzoic acid was affected by irradiation (build up with dose). Five flavonoids were detected in non hydrolized samples [(+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, kaempferol-3-glucoside, quercetin-3-glucoside and, in trace quantities, quercetin-3-galactoside], the concentration of the catechines and of kaempferol-3-glucoside decreased as irradiation dose increased, whereas those of quercetin-3-glucoside remained unchanged. In addition two as yet unclassified compounds showed a significant change of concentration upon irradiation. One of them (m/e = 450) is decreasing, one (m/e = 318) is increasing to the fivefold at a dose of 6 kGy

  6. Influence of processing on the volatile profile of strawberry spreads made with isomaltulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, I; Rosa, E; Heredia, A; Escriche, I; Andrés, A

    2013-05-01

    A new strawberry spread formulated with fructose and isomaltulose (replacing sucrose partially or totally) and a high percentage of fruit was developed in line with the new trend of healthier products. This work studies the influence of some process variables (percentage of sugar, pectin and citric acid, and time of thermal treatment) on the volatile profile of these spreads with different formulations. The ripeness of the raw strawberries influences the concentrations of some of the compounds in the spreads, such as isobutyl acetate, butyl butyrate, 3-hexen-1-yl acetate or propan-2-ol. The process conditions have an important effect on the volatile profiles. Most of the esters and alcohols decreased whereas 13 new compounds appear, mostly furans (furfural, 2-acetylfurane, 5-methyl furfural, mesifurane) and aldehydes (octanal, nonanal, decanal and benzaldeyhde). In general, the spreads formulated with sucrose-isomaltulose that contained higher levels of pectin and citric acid gave better results in the preservation of the original aromatic compounds in raw strawberries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Expression Profiling of Strawberry Allergen Fra a during Fruit Ripening Controlled by Exogenous Auxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishibashi, Misaki; Yoshikawa, Hiroki; Uno, Yuichi

    2017-06-02

    Strawberry fruit contain the allergenic Fra a proteins, members of the pathogenesis-related 10 protein family that causes oral allergic syndrome symptoms. Fra a proteins are involved in the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway, which might be important for color development in fruits. Auxin is an important plant hormone in strawberry fruit that controls fruit fleshiness and ripening. In this study, we treated strawberry fruits with exogenous auxin or auxin inhibitors at pre- and post-harvest stages, and analyzed Fra a transcriptional and translational expression levels during fruit development by real-time PCR and immunoblotting. Pre-harvest treatment with 1-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) alone did not affect Fra a expression, but applied in conjunction with achene removal NAA promoted fruit pigmentation and Fra a protein accumulation. The response was developmental stage-specific: Fra a 1 was highly expressed in immature fruit, whereas Fra a 2 was expressed in young to ripe fruit. In post-harvest treatments, auxin did not contribute to Fra a induction. Auxin inhibitors delayed fruit ripening; as a result, they seemed to influence Fra a 1 expression. Thus, Fra a expression was not directly regulated by auxin, but might be associated with the ripening process and/or external factors in a paralog-specific manner.

  8. The complete genome sequence of a new polerovirus in strawberry plants from eastern Canada showing strawberry decline symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Yu; Bernardy, Mike; Bhagwat, Basdeo; Wiersma, Paul A; DeYoung, Robyn; Bouthillier, Michel

    2015-02-01

    Strawberry decline disease, probably caused by synergistic reactions of mixed virus infections, threatens the North American strawberry industry. Deep sequencing of strawberry plant samples from eastern Canada resulted in the identification of a new virus genome resembling poleroviruses in sequence and genome structure. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that it is a new member of the genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. The virus is tentatively named "strawberry polerovirus 1" (SPV1).

  9. Radiation induced chemical changes in foodstuffs model reaction systems and strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitfellner, F.

    1999-10-01

    In the first part of this work 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HBA) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester (4-HBAEE) were investigated in order to elucidate the reaction mechanisms leading to final products after reaction with OH-radicals (N 2 O-saturated and aerated aqueous solutions) at various pH. Irradiation of 5*10 -4 mol l -1 solutions of 4-HBA at pH 6.0 leads to formation of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid and hydroquinone. In case of the ester neither hydroxylation nor decarboxylation products are observable. By means of pulse radiolysis it could be shown that water splitting from the ester OH-adducts is 17 times faster than from that of the acid. Therefore the main transients are phenoxyl radicals in case of the ester. At pH 10, where base catalyzed water elimination takes place, no hydroxylation products are observable either. In aerated solutions dihydroxy-compounds are formed with both substrates. In the case of 4-HBA 68 % of the OH-radicals result in 3,4-dihydroxyderivate, for 4-HBAEE these are only 25 %. Comparison of the initial degradation yields demonstrates 4-HBAEE to be 1.6-times more stable towards radiation. The second part of this work deals with radiation induced chemical changes in strawberries. Dose/concentration relationships could be obtained for 7 components, i.e. gallic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, cinnamic acid, 4-hydroxycinnamic acid, 3,4-dihydroxy-cinnamic acid, (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin. Linear dose relationships have been found for 4-HBA (formation) and (+)-catechin (degradation). In addition a specific radiolytically formed compound which can be used as marker for irradiation treatment of strawberries could be detected. There are strong indications that it is a radiolytic product of kaempferol, however, it could not yet be identified exactly. (author)

  10. Shallot aphids, Myzus ascalonicus, in strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enkegaard, Annie; Sigsgaard, Lene; Kristensen, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    The parasitization capacity of 3 parasitoids and the predation capacity of 3 predators towards the shallot aphid, Myzus ascalonicus Doncaster (Homoptera: Aphididae), on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae) cv. Honeoye, were examined in laboratory experiments. In Petri dish...... other parasitoid-induced causes. However, the host feeding rate was reduced to only 1.2 ± 0.8%, and no significant parasitization mortality was observed on strawberry plants, suggesting that host plants interfered with A. abdominalis activity. This parasitoid does not, therefore, seem to be suited...... to either inoculative or inundative biocontrol of shallot aphids in strawberry. The three predators studied were the green lacewing, Chrysoperla carnea Steph. (Neuroptera: Chrysopi-dae), the two-spotted lady beetle, Adalia bipunctata L. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), and the gall midge Aphidoletes aphidimyza...

  11. Sweet, red and Danish: New strawberry varieties on their way

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stacey, Julia; Fjord, Thomas Ahle

    2000-01-01

    A strawberry isn't just a strawberry. Some are sweeter than others, more fragrant and juicier. It is therefore a difficult task to develop a strawberry that tastes like in childhood memories of endless sunny days, and which also is suitablefor the distribution system of today. But new varieties...... are on their way. And this time consumers have participated in the development process. The new strawberry varieties are the result of extensive product development in the research project 'Better Danish strawberries' in which the Danish Institute of Agricultural Science, Danish Fruit Growers' Association......, the Danish Veterinary and Food Administration and MAPP participated. Danish strawberry growers initiated the project and the purpose is to assure the quality of strawberries and to improve the distribution and sale. In order to get consumers to evaluate both new and existing varieties the MAPP Centre carried...

  12. Quality of fresh-cut strawberry

    OpenAIRE

    Costa,Franciscleudo B; Duarte,Priscila S; Puschmann,Rolf; Finger,Fernando L

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work was to study the physical, chemical, physiological and microbiological changes during the flow chart of fresh-cut strawberry. Strawberry cvs. Camarosa, Dover and Tudla, derived from experimental area of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa, were selected by color (red ¾) and absence of wound. Afterwards, the minimal processing was evaluated, as follows: fast cooling, water and ice, removal of the calyx followed by conservation at 5±0.5°C and 90-95% RH for 13 days, sanitatio...

  13. Radiation preservation of strawberry fruit: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quaranta, H.O.; Piccini, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    This paper reviews the up-to-date literature on strawberry fruit preservation by irradiation, including microbiological and nutritional aspects, as well as chemical alterations in its components through analysis of vitamin content, carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids present, estimation of content of volatiles, and influence of irradiation on shelf-life and appearance. (author)

  14. Sensation™ ‘Florida 127’ Strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘Florida127’ strawberry originated from a 2009 cross between Winterstar™ ‘FL 05-107’ (female parent) and unreleased selection FL 02-58 (male parent). It is a short-day genotype adapted to an annual plasticulture growing system. The plant is upright with open architecture, allowing air movement and e...

  15. Role of Brassinosteroid on Qualitative Characteristics Improvement of Strawberry Fruit cv. Paros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soheila mohammadrezakhani

    2017-02-01

    steroids, which have been recognized as a class of plant hormones. These were first explored when Mitchell et al. (1970 reported that cell division and elongation were promoted by the treatment of organic extracts of rape (Brassica napus L. pollen. Brassinolide (BL was the first isolated brassinosteroid when Michael et al. (1979 isolated the biologically active molecule. Researches showed that brassinosteroids are essential for many physiological functions in plants, however little is known concerning where and when they are synthesized. In young tomato seedlings BR synthesis activity was observed mainly in apical and root tissues undergoing expansion. In flowers, synthesis activity was observed in the pedicel joints and ovaries, whereas in the fruits it was strongest during early seed development and was associated with the locular jelly and seeds. Quantitative measurements of endogenous BR indicated intense biosynthesis in developing tomato fruits, which were also found to contain high amounts of brassinolide. Moreover, brassinosteroids stimulate cell elongation and cell division, and BR has a specific effect of differentiation. Underling physiological pathways include modification of cell wall properties, effects on carbohydrate assimilation, allocation, and control of aquaporin activities. Brassinosteroids apparently coordinates and integrates diverse processes required for growth, partly via interactions with phytohormones setting the frame for BR responses. The aim of present study was investigation of the role of brassinosteroid on qualitative characteristics improvement of strawberry fruit. Materials and Methods: In this research the effect of different concentrations (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1 mgl-1 of brassinosteroid sprayat different stages of strawberry growth (30 days after planting, first blooming, green fruit, and pink fruit on some qualitative characteristics of the strawberry Paros cultivar was considered. This experiment was conducted asfactorial on a

  16. A Biotin Biosynthesis Gene Restricted to Helicobacter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Hongkai; Zhu, Lei; Jia, Jia; Cronan, John E.

    2016-01-01

    In most bacteria the last step in synthesis of the pimelate moiety of biotin is cleavage of the ester bond of pimeloyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) methyl ester. The paradigm cleavage enzyme is Escherichia coli BioH which together with the BioC methyltransferase allows synthesis of the pimelate moiety by a modified fatty acid biosynthetic pathway. Analyses of the extant bacterial genomes showed that bioH is absent from many bioC-containing bacteria and is replaced by other genes. Helicobacter pylori lacks a gene encoding a homologue of the known pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester cleavage enzymes suggesting that it encodes a novel enzyme that cleaves this intermediate. We isolated the H. pylori gene encoding this enzyme, bioV, by complementation of an E. coli bioH deletion strain. Purified BioV cleaved the physiological substrate, pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester to pimeloyl-ACP by use of a catalytic triad, each member of which was essential for activity. The role of BioV in biotin biosynthesis was demonstrated using a reconstituted in vitro desthiobiotin synthesis system. BioV homologues seem the sole pimeloyl-ACP methyl ester esterase present in the Helicobacter species and their occurrence only in H. pylori and close relatives provide a target for development of drugs to specifically treat Helicobacter infections. PMID:26868423

  17. Management of Soilborne Diseases in Strawberry Using Vegetable Rotations

    OpenAIRE

    Subbarao, Krishna V

    2007-01-01

    The influence of crop rotation on soilborne diseases and yield of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) was determined at a site infested with Verticillium dahliae microsclerotia and at another with no known history of V. dahliae infestation during 1997 to 2000. The rotations studied at the V. dahliae-infested site were (i) broccoli-broccoli-strawberry, (ii) Brussels sproutsstrawberry, and (iii) lettuce-lettuce-strawberry; the treatments at the site with no history of V. dahliae were (i) broccoli-...

  18. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Influence of Abscisic Acid on the Metabolism of Pigments, Ascorbic Acid and Folic Acid during Strawberry Fruit Ripening.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Li

    Full Text Available A comprehensive investigation of abscisic acid (ABA biosynthesis and its influence on other important phytochemicals is critical for understanding the versatile roles that ABA plays during strawberry fruit ripening. Using RNA-seq technology, we sampled strawberry fruit in response to ABA or nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA; an ABA biosynthesis blocker treatment during ripening and assessed the expression changes of genes involved in the metabolism of pigments, ascorbic acid (AsA and folic acid in the receptacles. The transcriptome analysis identified a lot of genes differentially expressed in response to ABA or NDGA treatment. In particular, genes in the anthocyanin biosynthesis pathway were actively regulated by ABA, with the exception of the gene encoding cinnamate 4-hydroxylase. Chlorophyll degradation was accelerated by ABA mainly owing to the higher expression of gene encoding pheide a oxygenase. The decrease of β-carotene content was accelerated by ABA treatment and delayed by NDGA. A high negative correlation rate was found between ABA and β-carotene content, indicating the importance of the requirement for ABA synthesis during fruit ripening. In addition, evaluation on the folate biosynthetic pathway indicate that ABA might have minor function in this nutrient's biosynthesis process, however, it might be involved in its homeostasis. Surprisingly, though AsA content accumulated during fruit ripening, expressions of genes involved in its biosynthesis in the receptacles were significantly lower in ABA-treated fruits. This transcriptome analysis expands our understanding of ABA's role in phytochemical metabolism during strawberry fruit ripening and the regulatory mechanisms of ABA on these pathways were discussed. Our study provides a wealth of genetic information in the metabolism pathways and may be helpful for molecular manipulation in the future.

  19. Quality consumption of strawberries (Fragaria ananassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Carballo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumers increasingly require a food product that preserves their nutritional value; retain fresh colour, flavour and texture.Appearance, texture and flavour are attributes identified as to be key to acceptability of fruit and also for consumers in making purchase of fresh produce.The objective of this work was to investigate the consumer's preference of sensory quality and the commercial aspects of fresh strawberries, harvested in spring time from the south of our country, Uruguay- South America.In this study, seven different strawberries varieties (INIA-Arazá, INIA- Ivapitá, Ventana, Seascape, Camarosa, INIA- Ivahé, Aromas were sensory and physicochemical evaluated.The results obtained showed a high correlation between total soluble solids and sensory attributes (colour, texture, and flavour.Camarosa and Ivahé varieties were prefered for the external and internal aspects of the fruit.Future work should investigate other producer areas of the country and other harvesting time.

  20. Effects of Insecticides on Strawberry Aphid Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell on Resistant and Susceptible Strawberry Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodan Milenković

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell, is the most important vector ofstrawberry virus. Breeding of genotypes resistant to this pest is an important preventivecontrol measure, which can be compatible with rational insecticide application. The aimof the paper was to determine effects of dimethoate and deltamethrin on C. fragaefoliipopulations reared on two strawberry genotypes different in susceptibility: susceptiblestrawberry cultivar Čačanska rana and medium resistant hybrid, zf/1/94/96 (Senga Fructarinax Del Norte. Lower toxicity of deltamethrin was observed (laboratory assay as well aslower biological efficacy of dimethoate at lower concentrations (field trial for specimensfrom C. fragaefolii population reared on susceptible strawberry cultivar Čačanska rana.

  1. Ester Tuiksoo / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Piret Tali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Juhan Partsi valitsuse (05.04.2004-13.04.2005) ja Andrus Ansipi valitsuse (13.04.2005-) põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo oma lapsepõlvest ja elukutsevalikust, poliitilise karjääri algusest ja erakonna valikust, ministritöö kogemustest, naistest poliitikas

  2. Gibberellin mediates daylength-controlled differentiation of vegetative meristems in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moritz Thomas

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Differentiation of long and short shoots is an important developmental trait in several species of the Rosaceae family. However, the physiological mechanisms controlling this differentiation are largely unknown. We have studied the role of gibberellin (GA in regulation of shoot differentiation in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch. cv. Korona. In strawberry, differentiation of axillary buds to runners (long shoot or to crown branches (short shoot is promoted by long-day and short-day conditions, respectively. Formation of crown branches is a prerequisite for satisfactory flowering because inflorescences are formed from the apical meristems of the crown. Results We found that both prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod inhibited runner initiation and consequently led to induction of crown branching. In both cases, this correlated with a similar decline in GA1 level. Exogenous GA3 completely reversed the effect of prohexadione-calcium in a long photoperiod, but was only marginally effective in short-day grown plants. However, transfer of GA3-treated plants from short days to long days restored the normal runner formation. This did not occur in plants that were not treated with GA3. We also studied GA signalling homeostasis and found that the expression levels of several GA biosynthetic, signalling and target genes were similarly affected by prohexadione-calcium and short photoperiod in runner tips and axillary buds, respectively. Conclusion GA is needed for runner initiation in strawberry, and the inhibition of GA biosynthesis leads to the formation of crown branches. Our findings of similar changes in GA levels and in GA signalling homeostasis after prohexadione-calcium and short-day treatments, and photoperiod-dependent responsiveness of the axillary buds to GA indicate that GA plays a role also in the photoperiod-regulated differentiation of axillary buds. We propose that tightly regulated GA activity may control

  3. Differential protein accumulations in isolates of the strawberry wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae differing in virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiangling; Barbetti, Martin J

    2014-08-28

    This study was conducted to define differences in Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae (Fof) isolates with different virulence efficiency to strawberry at the proteome level, in combination with their differences in mycelial growth, conidial production and germination. Comparative proteome analyses revealed substantial differences in mycelial proteomes between Fof isolates, where the 54 differentially accumulated protein spots were consistently over-accumulated or exclusively in the highly virulent isolate. These protein spots were identified through MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry analyses, and the identified proteins were mainly related to primary and protein metabolism, antioxidation, electron transport, cell cycle and transcription based on their putative functions. Proteins of great potential as Fof virulence factors were those involved in ubiquitin/proteasome-mediated protein degradation and reactive oxygen species detoxification; the hydrolysis-related protein haloacid dehalogenase superfamily hydrolase; 3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase associated with riboflavin biosynthesis; and those exclusive to the highly virulent isolate. In addition, post-translational modifications may also make an important contribution to Fof virulence. F. oxysporum f. sp. fragariae (Fof), the causal agent of Fusarium wilt in strawberry, is a serious threat to commercial strawberry production worldwide. However, factors and mechanisms contributing to Fof virulence remained unknown. This study provides knowledge of the molecular basis for the differential expression of virulence in Fof, allowing new possibilities towards developing alternative and more effective strategies to manage Fusarium wilt. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of irradiation on fresh-keeping of strawberry stored at room temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Yongfu; Xie Zongchuan; Lu Zhaoxin

    1999-01-01

    The fresh keeping period of strawberry irradiated with 4.0 kGy dose and stored at room temperature was prolonged to 6 days. Further experiment showed that the irradiation treatment decreased the number of mold in strawberry by two orders of magnitude, inhibited the strawberry fruit respiration and water loss, therefore, improved the effect of strawberry fresh-keeping

  5. Strawberry Production in Soilless Substrate Troughs – Plant Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soilless substrates made of peat moss, coconut coir, perlite, rockwool or bark are pathogen free and they have been used in strawberry production in Europe in troughs or containers. Open field strawberry production in soilless substrate is new to California growers. The objective of this study was t...

  6. LED Light to improve Strawberry Flavour, Quality and Production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanenberg, M.A.A.; Janse, J.; Verkerke, W.

    2016-01-01

    A current demonstration in the greenhouses of Wageningen UR in Bleiswijk (the Netherlands) shows positive results of LED light on the quality and production of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa). In this demonstration two strawberry cultivars, Elsanta and Sonata, are exposed to three different light

  7. Evaluation of quality parameters of strawberry fruits in modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of the present study is to evaluate the effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) during storage on some quality parameters of strawberries. Strawberries (cv. Camarosa) were harvested when mature, forced air cooled and divided into two groups as fruits in MAP and control. After packaging, fruits were ...

  8. Evaluation of quality parameters of strawberry fruits in modified ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... postharvest physiology of strawberry. In: Luby JJ, Dale A (Eds.), The. Strawberry into the 21th Century. Timber Press, Portland, OR, pp. 145-152. Kovach J, Petzoldt R, Harman GE (2000). Use honey bees and bumble bees to disseminate Trichoderma harzianum 1295-22 to straw- berries for botrytis control.

  9. Fruit Detachment and Classification Method for Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit detachment and on-line classification is important for the development of harvesting robot. With the specific requriements of robot used for harvesting strawberries growing on the ground, a fruit detachment and classification method is introduced in this paper. OHTA color spaces based image segmentation algorithm is utilized to extract strawberry from background; Principal inertia axis of binary strawberry blob is calculated to give the pose information of fruit. Strawberry is picked selectively according to its ripeness and classified according to its shape feature. Histogram matching based method for fruit shape judgment is introduced firstly. Experiment results show that this method can achieve 93% accuracy of strawberry's stem detection, 90% above accuracy of ripeness and shape quality judgment on black and white background. With the improvement of harvesting mechanism design, this method has application potential in the field operation.

  10. Strawberry cultivation in Brazil | Cultivo de morangos no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Machado

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is cultivated in different regions of the world. Their cultivation have shown demand larger family hand labor and highly profitable.  The strawberry is a very old fruit. Wild species existed for more 50 million years, but the specie was tamed around the XIV century A.C.  There are various types of cultivation, among them stand out traditional cultivation and organic cultivation. The more important factors affecting the strawberries are climate, pests and diseases. Know the types of cultivation and strawberry it is important for decision making in the future, such as use of lichens in cultivation. The aim of this work is to explain about conventional and organic agriculture with emphasis in lichens on strawberry crop to support scientific research in more depth character.> S

  11. Fruit Detachment and Classification Method for Strawberry Harvesting Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Feng

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fruit detachment and on-line classification is important for the development of harvesting robot. With the specific requriements of robot used for harvesting strawberries growing on the ground, a fruit detachment and classification method is introduced in this paper. OHTA color spaces based image segmentation algorithm is utilized to extract strawberry from background; Principal inertia axis of binary strawberry blob is calculated to give the pose information of fruit. Strawberry is picked selectively according to its ripeness and classified according to its shape feature. Histogram matching based method for fruit shape judgment is introduced firstly. Experiment results show that this method can achieve 93% accuracy of strawberry's stem detection, 90% above accuracy of ripeness and shape quality judgment on black and white background. With the improvement of harvesting mechanism design, this method has application potential in the field operation.

  12. Biosynthesis of hydroxycinnamoyl esters and amides in legume species

    Science.gov (United States)

    In forage crops, protein that is degraded following harvest is poorly utilized by ruminant animals, resulting in both economic and environmental consequences. In red clover, secondary reactions of quinones resulting from polyphenol oxidase (PPO)-mediated oxidation of the caffeic acid derivatives pha...

  13. Pre-harvest UV-C irradiation triggers VOCs accumulation with alteration of antioxidant enzymes and phytohormones in strawberry leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yanqun; Luo, Zisheng; Charles, Marie Thérèse; Rolland, Daniel; Roussel, Dominique

    2017-11-01

    Recent studies have highlighted the biological and physiological effects of pre-harvest ultraviolet (UV)-C treatment on growing plants. However, little is known about the involvement of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and their response to this treatment. In this study, strawberry plants were exposed to three different doses of UV-C radiation for seven weeks (a low dose: 9.6kJm -2 ; a medium dose: 15kJm -2 ; and a high-dose: 29.4kJm -2 ). Changes in VOC profiles were investigated and an attempt was made to identify factors that may be involved in the regulation of these alterations. Principle compounds analysis revealed that VOC profiles of UV-C treated samples were significantly altered with 26 VOCs being the major contributors to segregation. Among them, 18 fatty acid-derived VOCs accumulated in plants that received high and medium dose of UV-C treatments with higher lipoxygenase and alcohol dehydrogenase activities. In treated samples, the activity of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and peroxidase was inhibited, resulting in a reduced antioxidant capacity and higher lipid peroxidation. Simultaneously, jasmonic acid level was 74% higher in the high-dose group while abscisic acid content was more than 12% lower in both the medium and high-dose UV-C treated samples. These results indicated that pre-harvest UV-C treatment stimulated the biosynthesis of fatty acid-derived VOCs in strawberry leaf tissue by upregulating the activity of enzymes of the LOX biosynthetic pathway and downregulating antioxidant enzyme activities. It is further suggested that the mechanisms underlying fatty acid-derived VOCs biosynthesis in UV-C treated strawberry leaves are associated with UV-C-induced changes in phytohormone profiles. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  14. Irradiation preservation processing study of strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shihong; Zhu Zhaodi

    1992-01-01

    Radiation preservation processing of strawberry was studied. The results show that single seal processing or combining with irradiation processing under given doses is of no practical value, but only combining with chill processing can promote lengthening period of fresh keeping. Single irradiation processing under given doses provides not only good initial state, but also the beginning of bad development at top speed on microorganism. The composite processing of irradiation, chill and seal can supply extended shelf lifetime with optimum value of dual synergetic effect

  15. Dipping Strawberry Plants in Fungicides before Planting to Control Anthracnose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Hyeon Nam

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anthracnose crown rot (ACR, caused by Colletotrichum fructicola, is a serious disease of strawberry in Korea. The primary inoculums of ACR were symptomless strawberry plants, plant debris, and other host plants. To effectively control anthracnose in symptomless transplanted strawberries, it is necessary to use diseasefree plants, detect the disease early, and apply a fungicide. Therefore, in 2010 and 2011, we evaluated the efficacy of pre-plant fungicide dips by using strawberry transplants infected by C. fructicola for the control of anthracnose. Dipping plants in prochloraz-Mn for 10 min before planting was most effective for controlling anthracnose in symptomless strawberry plants and resulted in more than 76% control efficacy. Azoxystrobin showed a control efficacy of over 40%, but plants treated with pyraclostrobin, mancozeb and iminoctadine tris showed high disease severity. The control efficacy of the dip treatment with prochloraz-Mn did not differ with temperature and time. Treatment with prochloraz-Mn for more than an hour caused growth suppression in strawberry plants. Therefore, the development of anthracnose can be effectively reduced by dipping strawberry plants for 10 min in prochloraz-Mn before planting.

  16. Sinapate esters provide greater UV-B attenuation than flavonoids in Arabidopsis thaliana (Brassicaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheahan, J.J.

    1996-01-01

    Mutants affected in flavonoid (tt4) or sinapate ester (fah1) biosynthesis were used to assess the relative importance of these phenolic UV photoprotectants in Arabidopsis. Flavonoid and sinapate ester absorption was more specific for UV-B than major nonphenolic chromophores in crude extracts. A new method of evaluating phenolic UV-B attenuation was developed using fluorescence analysis. When excited by UV-B, sinapate ester containing leaves and cotyledons had enhanced sinapate ester fluorescence and reduced chlorophyll fluorescence relative to those without sinapate esters. Although fluorescence analysis gave no evidence of UV-B attenuation by flavonoids, enhanced chlorophyll and protein loss were observed upon UV-B exposure in flavonoid-deficient leaves, suggesting they have another mechanism of UV-B protection. The hydroxycinnamates have been largely ignored as UV-B attenuating pigments. and the results indicate that greater attention should be paid to their role in attenuating UV-B

  17. Strawberry Anthracnose Ripe Fruit Rot and Management Recommendations

    OpenAIRE

    Louws, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Briefly describes anthracnose symptoms on ripe strawberry fruit, then recommends ways to manage for the anthracnose, including removal and burying or burning infected and nearby plants, avoiding overhead irrigation, and picking fruits from the infected areas last.

  18. Financial results achieved in short-day strawberry production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galić Dragan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In South-western Ontario's continental climate (short days, hot summers and very cold winters the matted-row system was the dominant production system to grow short-day strawberries. Varieties-staggered production (planting a combination of early, mid and late-season varieties provides strawberry harvest from five to seven weeks. Short-day strawberries are vegetative grown in the first year, and harvested for two consecutive years. The total cost of short-day strawberry production was 54,370 $CAD/ha. The production and harvest costs in the first and second years were 20,812 $CAD/ha and 16,930 $CAD/ ha, respectively, and accounted for 69.42% of the total. Pre-plans operations were the least expensive procedures costing 8.13%, while planting and care of young plants made up 22.45% of the total costs. The total income of growing short-day strawberries under a matted-row system was 76,671 $CAD/ha (the first and second production years 41,330 $CAD/ha and 35,341 $CAD/ha, respectively. The short-day strawberries in matted-row system, with average yield of 15,722 kg/ha, generated a net revenue of 22,300 $CAD/ha.

  19. Wax ester profiling of seed oil by nano-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Wax esters are highly hydrophobic neutral lipids that are major constituents of the cutin and suberin layer. Moreover they have favorable properties as a commodity for industrial applications. Through transgenic expression of wax ester biosynthetic genes in oilseed crops, it is possible to achieve high level accumulation of defined wax ester compositions within the seed oil to provide a sustainable source for such high value lipids. The fatty alcohol moiety of the wax esters is formed from plant-endogenous acyl-CoAs by the action of fatty acyl reductases (FAR). In a second step the fatty alcohol is condensed with acyl-CoA by a wax synthase (WS) to form a wax ester. In order to evaluate the specificity of wax ester biosynthesis, analytical methods are needed that provide detailed wax ester profiles from complex lipid extracts. Results We present a direct infusion ESI-tandem MS method that allows the semi-quantitative determination of wax ester compositions from complex lipid mixtures covering 784 even chain molecular species. The definition of calibration prototype groups that combine wax esters according to their fragmentation behavior enables fast quantitative analysis by applying multiple reaction monitoring. This provides a tool to analyze wax layer composition or determine whether seeds accumulate a desired wax ester profile. Besides the profiling method, we provide general information on wax ester analysis by the systematic definition of wax ester prototypes according to their collision-induced dissociation spectra. We applied the developed method for wax ester profiling of the well characterized jojoba seed oil and compared the profile with wax ester-accumulating Arabidopsis thaliana expressing the wax ester biosynthetic genes MaFAR and ScWS. Conclusions We developed a fast profiling method for wax ester analysis on the molecular species level. This method is suitable to screen large numbers of transgenic plants as well as other wax ester samples

  20. Microbial synthesis of a branched-chain ester platform from organic waste carboxylates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donovan S. Layton

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Processing of lignocellulosic biomass or organic wastes produces a plethora of chemicals such as short, linear carboxylic acids, known as carboxylates, derived from anaerobic digestion. While these carboxylates have low values and are inhibitory to microbes during fermentation, they can be biologically upgraded to high-value products. In this study, we expanded our general framework for biological upgrading of carboxylates to branched-chain esters by using three highly active alcohol acyltransferases (AATs for alcohol and acyl CoA condensation and modulating the alcohol moiety from ethanol to isobutanol in the modular chassis cell. With this framework, we demonstrated the production of an ester library comprised of 16 out of all 18 potential esters, including acetate, propionate, butanoate, pentanoate, and hexanoate esters, from the 5 linear, saturated C2-C6 carboxylic acids. Among these esters, 5 new branched-chain esters, including isobutyl acetate, isobutyl propionate, isobutyl butyrate, isobutyl pentanoate, and isobutyl hexanoate were synthesized in vivo. During 24 h in situ fermentation and extraction, one of the engineered strains, EcDL208 harnessing the SAAT of Fragaria ananassa produced ~63 mg/L of a mixture of butyl and isobutyl butyrates from glucose and butyrate co-fermentation and ~127 mg/L of a mixture of isobutyl and pentyl pentanoates from glucose and pentanoate co-fermentation, with high specificity. These butyrate and pentanoate esters are potential drop-in liquid fuels. This study provides better understanding of functional roles of AATs for microbial biosynthesis of branched-chain esters and expands the potential use of these esters as drop-in biofuels beyond their conventional flavor, fragrance, and solvent applications. Keywords: Carboxylate platform, Ester platform, Branched-chain ester, Modular cell, Biological upgrading, Organic waste, Lignocellulosic biomass, Isobutyl esters

  1. Coating effect of chitosan irradiation on performance of strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatot Trimulyadi Rekso; Adjat Sudradjat

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry is a horticultural product which has high economic value, however, strawberries are easily damaged. Therefore, required proper post harvest handling for keep up the appearances of strawberries, one of them is the edible coating technique using chitosan. The purpose of this research was to maintaining the appearance of strawberry. Chitosan is irradiated at a dose of 0 kGy, 5 kGy, and 10 kGy, and then characterized. Observations were carried on for five days at room temperature including: the testing of the performance of the fruit that was observed visually and analysis of fruit weight loss. The results showed that the performance of strawberries is coating with irradiated chitosan of 10 kGy is still good. The percentage of weight loss strawberries coated with irradiated chitosan smaller than the strawberries without coating with chitosan (control). Strawberries coated with irradiated chitosan has a shelf life and weight loss better than control. (author)

  2. The flavor and nutritional characteristic of four strawberry varieties cultured in soilless system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Ji, Mei-Ling; Chen, Min; Sun, Ming-Yue; Fu, Xi-Ling; Li, Ling; Gao, Dong-Sheng; Zhu, Cui-Ying

    2016-11-01

    Strawberry fruits (cv. Benihoppe, Tochiotome, Sachinoka, and Guimeiren) were harvested and evaluated the flavor and nutritional parameters. By principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis, differences were observed based on the volatile compounds composition, sugar and acid concentration, sweetness, and total soluble sugars/total organic acids of the four varieties. A total of 37, 48, 65, and 74 volatile compounds were identified and determined in cv. Benihoppe, Tochiotome, Sachinoka, and Guimeiren strawberry fruits extracted by head-space solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), respectively. Esters significantly dominated the chemical composition of the four varieties. Furaneol was detected in cultivars of Sachinoka and Guimeiren, but mesifuran was only found in cv. Tochiotome. Tochiotome and Sachinoka showed higher content of linalool and (E)-nerolidol. Sachinoka showed the highest content of total sugars and total acids. Guimeiren showed higher sweetness index than the other three cultivars. Firmness of Tochiotome was highest among all the varieties. The highest total soluble solids TSS value was found in cv. Sachinoka, followed by the Guimeiren and Tochiotome varieties. Sachinoka had the highest titratable acidity TA value. The content of ascorbic acid (AsA) of cv. Tochiotome was higher than the others, but there was no significant difference in cultivars of Benihoppe, Tochiotome, and Sachinoka. Fructose and glucose were the major sugars in all cultivars. Citric acid was the major organic acid in cv. Tochiotome, cv. Sachinoka, and cv. Guimeiren. Tochiotome had higher ratios of TSS/TA and total sugars/total organic acids than others, arising from its lower acid content. The order of the comprehensive evaluation score was Sachinoka>Guimeiren>Tochiotome>Benihoppe.

  3. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  4. The role of profilin and lipid transfer protein in strawberry allergy in the Mediterranean area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidmeer, L.; Salentijn, E.; Rivas, M. F.; Mancebo, E. G.; Asero, R.; Matos, C. I.; Pelgrom, K. T. B.; Gilissen, L. J. W. J.; van Ree, R.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In contrast to other Rosaceae fruit, only few cases of patients with adverse reactions to strawberry are listed in literature. OBJECTIVE To identify allergenic proteins in strawberry and to express and characterize recombinant strawberry lipid transfer protein (LTP; rFra a 3). METHODS:

  5. Potential Grape-Derived Contributions to Volatile Ester Concentrations in Wine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul K. Boss

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L−1 β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L−1 β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L−1 required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study.

  6. Potential grape-derived contributions to volatile ester concentrations in wine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boss, Paul K; Pearce, Anthony D; Zhao, Yanjia; Nicholson, Emily L; Dennis, Eric G; Jeffery, David W

    2015-04-29

    Grape composition affects wine flavour and aroma not only through varietal compounds, but also by influencing the production of volatile compounds by yeast. C9 and C12 compounds that potentially influence ethyl ester synthesis during fermentation were studied using a model grape juice medium. It was shown that the addition of free fatty acids, their methyl esters or acyl-carnitine and acyl-amino acid conjugates can increase ethyl ester production in fermentations. The stimulation of ethyl ester production above that of the control was apparent when lower concentrations of the C9 compounds were added to the model musts compared to the C12 compounds. Four amino acids, which are involved in CoA biosynthesis, were also added to model grape juice medium in the absence of pantothenate to test their ability to influence ethyl and acetate ester production. β-Alanine was the only one shown to increase the production of ethyl esters, free fatty acids and acetate esters. The addition of 1 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine was enough to stimulate production of these compounds and addition of up to 100 mg∙L(-1) β-alanine had no greater effect. The endogenous concentrations of β-alanine in fifty Cabernet Sauvignon grape samples exceeded the 1 mg∙L(-1) required for the stimulatory effect on ethyl and acetate ester production observed in this study.

  7. An oxidoreductase from ‘Alphonso’ mango catalyzing biosynthesis of furaneol and reduction of reactive carbonyls

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, R.; Chidley, H.; Deshpande, A.; Schmidt, A.; Pujari, K.; Giri, A.; Gershenzon, J.; Gupta, V.

    2013-01-01

    Two furanones, furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) and mesifuran (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone), are important constituents of flavor of the Alphonso cultivar of mango (Mangifera indica). To get insights into the biosynthesis of these furanones, we isolated an enone oxidoreductase gene from the Alphonso mango. It has high sequence similarity to an alkenal/one oxidoreductase from cucumber (79% identity) and enone oxidoreductases from tomato (73% identity) and strawberry (...

  8. Technological process for production of persimmon and strawberry vinegars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Hidalgo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Claudio Hidalgo1, Estibaliz Mateo1, Ana Belen Cerezo2, Maria-Jesús Torija1, Albert Mas11Biotecnologia Enològica, Departament de Bioquimica i Biotecnologia, Facultat d’Enologia, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Marcel-li Domingo, Tarragona; 2Área de Nutrición y Bromatología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Sevilla, Sevilla, SpainAbstract: Fruit surplus is common in intensive agriculture in many countries. This ecologic and economic problem requires alternative uses to be found for fruit. The aim of this study was to use surplus fruit to produce vinegar by traditional methods (alcoholic fermentation and acetification from persimmon and strawberry. The process was performed with naturally occurring microorganisms and compared with inoculated commercial wine yeast for alcoholic fermentation. Alcoholic fermentation proceeded faster when inoculated due to the length of the lag phases observed in spontaneous fermentations. The alcoholic fermentations of strawberry mash were faster than those of persimmon mash. In contrast, acetifications were much faster in persimmon (30 days than in strawberry (70 days, in the latter some acetifications were not finished. From the technologic point of view, to produce persimmon and strawberry wine and vinegar, it is better to avoid fruit pressing and perform the process with fruit mash. Inoculation is recommended for persimmon and is necessary for strawberry.Keywords: wine, vinegar, fruit seasonings, acetic acid bacteria

  9. Nutrient composition of strawberry genotypes cultivated in a horticulture farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Ashrafi; Begum, Parveen; Salma Zannat, M; Hafizur Rahman, Md; Ahsan, Monira; Islam, Sheikh Nazrul

    2016-05-15

    This article decribes the nutrient composition of four strawberry genotypes cultivated at the Sher-e-Bangla Agriculture University horticulture farm in Dhaka (Bangladesh). AOAC and standard validated methods were employed to analyse the nutrient composition. Protein, fat and ash contents were found to be vary significantly (LSD<0.05), while the variation in moisture (LSD<1.33), dietary fibre (LSD<0.15) and total sugar (LSD<0.09) were found to be insignificant among the genotypes. Vitamin C content ranged from 26.46 mg to 37.77 mg per 100g edible strawberries (LSD<0.060). Amount of carotenoids were found to be very low being in a range of 0.99-3.30 μg per 100g edible fruit. Analysis of mineral revealed that strawberry genotypes contained a wide array of minerals including Ca, Mg, Na, K, P, Mn, Zn, Cu and Fe; most of which varied significantly (LSD<0.05) among the genotypes. Strawberries could be a potential dietary supplement for vitamin C along with minerals, particularly for the children who do not like local fruits, but love to eat the colourful strawberries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Presence of the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, on strawberry in Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cédola, Claudia; Grecob, Nancy

    2010-01-01

    Seasonal abundance of the strawberry aphid complex under different agronomic practices in the outskirts of La Plata, Argentina was studied on strawberry, Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne (Rosales: Rosaceae). Aphid densities were low in strawberry fields in which insecticides and fungicides were used. In addition to Aphis gossypii, Aphis fabae, Mysus persicae and Macrosiphum euphorbiae, the aphid, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Cockerell) (Homoptera: Aphididae), was recorded for the first time in this horticultural area. Life history and some demographic parameters were calculated for C. fragaefolii. The mean duration of nymphal stages was 10.44 days, the oviposition period was 11.8 days, and the mean number of nymph/female/day was 2.4 +/- 0.3. Demographic parameters analyzed included the net reproductive rate R(o) = 14.55 +/- 0.096 nymph/female, generation time T=16.91 +/- 0.035 days, and the intrinsic rate of increase r(m) = 0.158 +/- (0.004). No parasites were found associated with C. fragaefolli. The pathogenic fungus, Entomophthora planchoniana Cornu (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) was the main mortality factor. Although aphids are not the main pests in strawberry fields, C. fragaefolii can be a serious problem because it can transmit several virus diseases of strawberry. Greater knowledge of life history traits and mortality factors of this species is needed in order to design appropriate control strategies.

  11. Colored plastic mulch microclimates affect strawberry fruit yield and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiukhy, Saeid; Raeini-Sarjaz, Mahmoud; Chalavi, Vida

    2015-08-01

    Significant reduction of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa, Duch.) fruit yield and quality, as a consequence of conventional cultivation method, is common in the Caspian Sea region, Iran. Recently, growers started using plastic mulches to overcome these shortcomings. Plastic mulches have different thermal and radiation properties and could affect strawberry fruit yield and quality. In the present study, the effect of different colored plastic mulches (black, red, and white) along with conventional practice was tested on yield and quality of strawberry Camarosa cultivar, in a completely randomized block design. Colored plastic mulches had highly significant effect on fruit weight, size, and phytochemical contents. In the most harvest times, mean fruit weight was significantly higher in red plastic relative to white and control treatments. Total fruit weight of plastic mulches was not significantly different, while all were statistically higher than that of control. Fruit size significantly increased over red plastic mulch. Total fruit numbers over plastic mulches were significantly higher than that of control treatment. The content of phenolic compounds was similar between treatments, while anthocyanin content, IC(50) value, and flavonoid content significantly were affected by colored plastics. In conclusion, colored plastic mulches could affect strawberry fruit weight and quality through altering strawberry thermal and radiation environment.

  12. Relationship between production, nematodes and "redness" in strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Nogueira Curi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: In recent years "redness" has increasingly appeared in strawberry plants with leaves taking on a reddish color. No causal agent has been associated with plants. Since strawberries presented problems due to the incidence of nematodes, the purpose of this study was to look at the relationship between production, resistance to the Meloidogyne hapla nematode and the "redness" symptom in strawberry cultivars. Two experiments were performed, both with the 'Camino Real', 'Festival', 'Oso Grande', 'Albion' and 'Camarosa' cultivars. The first experiment was performed in the field, where the following were evaluated: strawberry production, fruit quality, macro and micronutrient contents in fruit and leaves, percentage of plant survival, incidence of nematodes, quantity of eggs in the roots and juveniles in the soil, and the incidence of Botrytis cinerea . In the second experiment, the strawberries were transplanted into pots and filled with pinus bark-based commercial substrate. Half the pots were inocculated with Meloidogyne hapla . Cultivars presented differences in fruit production and also in the incidence of "redness". Lowest performance in production was related to the high incidence of the nematode Meloidogyne hapla. 'Oso Grande' and 'Albion' presented nematode-resistant behavior. It was possible find a relationship between the incidence of the Meloidogyne hapla nematode, and the incidence of "redness" only 'Camino Real' cultivar.

  13. Effect of fungicides on epiphytic yeasts associated with strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debode, Jane; Van Hemelrijck, Wendy; Creemers, Piet; Maes, Martine

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effect of two commonly used fungicides on the epiphytic yeast community of strawberry. Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted applying Switch (cyprodinil plus fludioxonil) or Signum (boscalid plus pyraclostrobin) to strawberry plants. Yeasts on leaves and fruits were assessed on treated and untreated plants at several time points via plating and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The yeast counts on plates of the treated plants were similar to the control plants. Unripe fruits had 10 times larger yeast concentrations than ripe fruits or leaves. Some dominant yeast types were isolated and in vitro tests showed that they were at least 10 times less sensitive to Switch and Signum as compared with two important fungal strawberry pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Colletotrichum acutatum, which are the targets for the fungicide control. DGGE analysis showed that the applied fungicides had no effect on the composition of the yeast communities, while the growing system, strawberry tissue, and sampling time did affect the yeast communities. The yeast species most commonly identified were Cryptococcus, Rhodotorula, and Sporobolomyces. These results point toward the potential applicability of natural occurring yeast antagonists into an integrated disease control strategy for strawberry diseases.

  14. Detection of intestinal parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Morais da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the presence of pathogenic human parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil. Methods A total of 48 samples of strawberries and 48 soil samples from 16 properties were analyzed. Results Contaminated strawberries were detected in 56% of the properties. Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides or Ascaris suum, Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, and Entamoeba spp. were detected. Soil was contaminated with Entamoeba spp., Entamoeba coli, Strongyloides spp., Ancylostomatidae, and Hymenolepis nana. Conclusions Producers should be instructed on the safe handling of strawberries in order to reduce the incidence of strawberries that are contaminated with enteroparasites.

  15. The Fra Allergens and their Role in the Control of Flavonoid Biosynthesis in Strawberry Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Casañal Seoane, Ana

    2014-01-01

    La fresa (Fragaria xananassa) es un fruto altamente consumido y apreciado por su delicado sabor, aroma y valor nutritivo (Tulipani et al., 2008; Giampieri et al., 2012). El cultivo de fresa se ha extendido por todo el mundo ocupando en la actualidad una superficie de 254.000 hectáreas y una producción aproximada de 4 millones de toneladas con una distribución global del 42.8%, 29.2%, 18.4%, 8.8% and 0.8% en América, Europa, Asia, África y Oceanía, respectivamente (FAOSTAT, 2012; http://faosta...

  16. Inspection of fecal contamination on strawberries using fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Yung-Kun; Yang, Chun-Chieh; Kim, Moon S.; Delwiche, Stephen R.; Lo, Y. Martin; Chen, Suming; Chan, Diane E.

    2013-05-01

    Fecal contamination of produce is a food safety issue associated with pathogens such as Escherichia coli that can easily pollute agricultural products via animal and human fecal matters. Outbreaks of foodborne illnesses associated with consuming raw fruits and vegetables have occurred more frequently in recent years in the United States. Among fruits, strawberry is one high-potential vector of fecal contamination and foodborne illnesses since the fruit is often consumed raw and with minimal processing. In the present study, line-scan LED-induced fluorescence imaging techniques were applied for inspection of fecal material on strawberries, and the spectral characteristics and specific wavebands of strawberries were determined by detection algorithms. The results would improve the safety and quality of produce consumed by the public.

  17. Apomorphine and its esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borkar, Nrupa; Chen, Zhizhong; Saaby, Lasse

    2016-01-01

    Oral delivery of apomorphine via prodrug principle may be a potential treatment for Parkinson's disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate the transport and stability of apomorphine and its esters across Caco-2 cell monolayer and their affinity towards chylomicrons. Apomorphine......, monolauroyl apomorphine (MLA) and dilauroyl apomorphine (DLA) were subjected to apical to basolateral (A-B) and basolateral to apical (B-A) transport across Caco-2 cell monolayer. The stability of these compounds was also assessed by incubation at intestinal pH and physiological pH with and without Caco-2...

  18. Nontargeted metabolite profiles and sensory properties of strawberry cultivars grown both organically and conventionally.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kårlund, Anna; Hanhineva, Kati; Lehtonen, Marko; Karjalainen, Reijo O; Sandell, Mari

    2015-01-28

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) contains many secondary metabolites potentially beneficial for human health, and several of these compounds contribute to strawberry sensory properties, as well. In this study, three strawberry cultivars grown both conventionally and organically were subjected to nontargeted metabolite profiling analysis with LC-qTOF-ESI-MS and to descriptive sensory evaluation by a trained panel. Combined metabolome and sensory data (PLS model) revealed that 79% variation in the metabolome explained 88% variation in the sensory profiles. Flavonoids and condensed and hydrolyzable tannins determined the orosensory properties, and fatty acids contributed to the odor attributes of strawberry. Overall, the results indicated that the chemical composition and sensory quality of strawberries grown in different cultivation systems vary mostly according to cultivar. Organic farming practices may enhance the accumulation of some plant metabolites in specific strawberry genotypes. Careful cultivar selection is a key factor for the improvement of nutritional quality and marketing value of organic strawberries.

  19. Esters with water esters 2-c to 6-c

    CERN Document Server

    Getzen, F W; Hefter, G T; Maczynski, Andrzej

    1992-01-01

    This volume is the first of two devoted to esters and water. It includes solubility data for binary systems containing an ester and water up to the end of 1988. The critical evaluations were all prepared by one author and an introductory section has been included to elaborate the philosophy and methodology followed in the evaluations.

  20. Biosynthesis of tylophora alkaloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulchandani, N.B.; Iyer, S.S.; Badheka, L.P.

    1974-01-01

    Using labelled precursors, biosynthesis of the tylophora alkaloids, tylophorine, tylophorinidine and tylophorinide has been investigated in Tylophora asthmatica plants. The radioactive precursors, phenylalanine-2- 14 C, benzoic acid-1- 14 C, benzoic acid-ring 14 C, acetate-2- 14 C, ornithine-5- 14 C, acetate-2- 14 C, ornithine-5- 14 C and cinnamic acid-2- 14 C were administered to the plants individually by wick technique. Tylophorine was isolated in each case and assayed for its radioactivity to find out the incorporation of the label into it. The results indicate that: (1) phenylalanine via cinnamic acid is an important precursor in the biosynthesis of tylophorine (2) orinithine participates in tylophorine biosynthesis via pyrroline and (3) tylophorinidine may be a direct precursor of tylophorine. (M.G.B.)

  1. Combining 1,4-dimethoxybenzene, the major flower volatile of wild strawberry Fragaria vesca, with the aggregation pheromone of the strawberry blossom weevil Anthonomus rubi improves attraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wibe, Atle; Borg-Karlson, Anna Karin; Cross, Jerry

    2014-01-01

    The aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil [Anthonomus rubi Herbst (Col.: Curculionidae)], a 1:4:1 blend of Grandlure I, II and racemic lavadulol, has been available for pest monitoring for several years but shows low attractancy. Attempts to control A.rubi using the pheromone alone...... were also unsuccessful. This paper reports the finding that addition of the major flower volatile from wild strawberry flowers [Fragaria vesca L. (Rosaceae)], 1,4-dimethoxybenzene (comprising 98% of the volatiles emitted from wild strawberry flowers), to the aggregation pheromone increased trap catches...... pest of strawberry....

  2. A novel 3D imaging system for strawberry phenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joe Q. He

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate and quantitative phenotypic data in plant breeding programmes is vital in breeding to assess the performance of genotypes and to make selections. Traditional strawberry phenotyping relies on the human eye to assess most external fruit quality attributes, which is time-consuming and subjective. 3D imaging is a promising high-throughput technique that allows multiple external fruit quality attributes to be measured simultaneously. Results A low cost multi-view stereo (MVS imaging system was developed, which captured data from 360° around a target strawberry fruit. A 3D point cloud of the sample was derived and analysed with custom-developed software to estimate berry height, length, width, volume, calyx size, colour and achene number. Analysis of these traits in 100 fruits showed good concordance with manual assessment methods. Conclusion This study demonstrates the feasibility of an MVS based 3D imaging system for the rapid and quantitative phenotyping of seven agronomically important external strawberry traits. With further improvement, this method could be applied in strawberry breeding programmes as a cost effective phenotyping technique.

  3. A novel 3D imaging system for strawberry phenotyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Joe Q; Harrison, Richard J; Li, Bo

    2017-01-01

    Accurate and quantitative phenotypic data in plant breeding programmes is vital in breeding to assess the performance of genotypes and to make selections. Traditional strawberry phenotyping relies on the human eye to assess most external fruit quality attributes, which is time-consuming and subjective. 3D imaging is a promising high-throughput technique that allows multiple external fruit quality attributes to be measured simultaneously. A low cost multi-view stereo (MVS) imaging system was developed, which captured data from 360° around a target strawberry fruit. A 3D point cloud of the sample was derived and analysed with custom-developed software to estimate berry height, length, width, volume, calyx size, colour and achene number. Analysis of these traits in 100 fruits showed good concordance with manual assessment methods. This study demonstrates the feasibility of an MVS based 3D imaging system for the rapid and quantitative phenotyping of seven agronomically important external strawberry traits. With further improvement, this method could be applied in strawberry breeding programmes as a cost effective phenotyping technique.

  4. Refining ASD for disease management in strawberry and apple production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD) has been studied as an industry level option for replacing soil fumigants to manage soil-borne diseases in both annual and perennial crop production systems. Although ASD has proven effective for the suppression of certain soil-borne pathogens in both strawberry ...

  5. Developing a strawberry yogurt fortified with marine fish oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortified dairy products appeal to a wide variety of consumers and have the potential to increase sales in the yogurt industry and contribute to boost the intake of omega-3 fatty acids. The objectives of this study were to develop a strawberry yogurt containing microencapsulated salmon oil (2% w/v) ...

  6. Application of thermoluminescence measurements to detect irradiated strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heide, L.; Guggenberger, R.; Bogl, K.W.

    1990-01-01

    The thermoluminescence intensity of unirradiated and irradiated strawberries was studied with regard to dose response, storage time, and different varieties. An identification method could finally be developed. Further investigations were carried out to determine the origin of the thermoluminescence effect, which was found to be attributable to mineral grains adhering to the sample surface

  7. Microbiological possibilities to demonstrate that strawberries have been irradiated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamminga, S.K.; Beumer, R.R.; Kampelmacher, E.H.

    1975-01-01

    Samples of greenhouse and outdoor-grown strawberries were divided into two portions, they were wrapped and one portion was irradiated at 200 krad. The composition of the microflora before and after irradiation was investigated. The flora of the non-irradiated samples was composed mainly of gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria belonging, with only a few exceptions, either to the Enterobacteriaceae-family or to the genus Pseudomonas. Also, moulds and yeasts were frequently encountered in varying quantities. Moulds and yeasts did not appear to make good indicator organisms. Gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria were always found to be absent after irradiation when solid media were used, even when starting from samples with numbers in the order of magnitude 10 5 -10 6 /gm. When outdoor-grown strawberries were used, this always led to a clear difference from the cooresponding untreated samples. Greenhouse strawberries, however, sometimes contain, even if they have not been treated, only a very small number of micro-organisms. Consequently, if gram-negative rod-shaped bacteria are present on strawberries they most probably have not been irradiated. Of course, this does not apply if post-contamination has been possible. If there is no growth of the above mentioned bacteria on any of te media used, considerable possibility exists that irradiation has taken place. (orig./MG) [de

  8. PHYSICOCHEMICAL QUALITY OF SELECTED STRAWBERRY JAMS WITH FRUCTOSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weronika Prochwicz Zagórska

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Four different commercially available strawberry jams with fructose were characterized in relation to acidity and reducing sugar, ash, micro- and macroelement contents. The results showed that the jams differed in active and total acidity, ash, as well as reducing sugar content. Differences between the jams were more pronounced for microelements than for macroelements. doi:10.5219/46  

  9. Real - time NASBA detection of strawberry vein banding virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hanzlíková-Vašková, Dana; Špak, Josef; Klerks, M. M.; Schoen, C. D.; Thompson, J. R.; Jelkmann, W.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 110, - (2004), s. 213-221 ISSN 0929-1873 Grant - others:EU(XE) QLRT-PL99-1553 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5051902 Keywords : strawberry virus * detection Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 1.384, year: 2004

  10. Seasonal alteration of sugar metabolism in strawberry ( Fragaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plants of strawberry cvs Aromas and Diamante were removed from the field in cold acclimated (CA, January) and non-acclimated (NA, July) stages. Crown parts of the plant were used for analysis. Apoplastic total soluble sugar (TSS), reducing sugars and sucrose contents did not change in both cultivars in both sampling ...

  11. Increased production of wax esters in transgenic tobacco plants by expression of a fatty acid reductase:wax synthase gene fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aslan, Selcuk; Hofvander, Per; Dutta, Paresh; Sun, Chuanxin; Sitbon, Folke

    2015-12-01

    Wax esters are hydrophobic lipids consisting of a fatty acid moiety linked to a fatty alcohol with an ester bond. Plant-derived wax esters are today of particular concern for their potential as cost-effective and sustainable sources of lubricants. However, this aspect is hampered by the fact that the level of wax esters in plants generally is too low to allow commercial exploitation. To investigate whether wax ester biosynthesis can be increased in plants using transgenic approaches, we have here exploited a fusion between two bacterial genes together encoding a single wax ester-forming enzyme, and targeted the resulting protein to chloroplasts in stably transformed tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana) plants. Compared to wild-type controls, transgenic plants showed both in leaves and stems a significant increase in the total level of wax esters, being eight-fold at the whole plant level. The profiles of fatty acid methyl ester and fatty alcohol in wax esters were related, and C16 and C18 molecules constituted predominant forms. Strong transformants displayed certain developmental aberrations, such as stunted growth and chlorotic leaves and stems. These negative effects were associated with an accumulation of fatty alcohols, suggesting that an adequate balance between formation and esterification of fatty alcohols is crucial for a high wax ester production. The results show that wax ester engineering in transgenic plants is feasible, and suggest that higher yields may become achieved in the near future.

  12. Studies on preparation of mixed toffee from guava and strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, U D; Pawar, U B; Pawar, G H

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation was carried out to develop a technology for preparation of mixed toffee from guava and strawberry pulp and to study the changes in chemical composition and sensory properties of toffee during storage at ambient temperature as well as refrigerated condition. Preliminary experiments were conducted to find out optimum levels of guava and strawberry pulp. The toffees prepared were wrapped in metallic coated polythene wrapper, packed in 200 gauge polythene bags and stored at ambient (27 ± 2 oC) as well as refrigerated (5 ± 2 oC) condition for 90 days. The stored samples were drawn periodically at 30 days interval for organoleptic and chemical analysis. Preliminary studies were carried out to standardize the optimum levels of guava and strawberry pulp. Among various combinations of guava and strawberry pulp, 70 : 30 w/w (guava : strawberry) ratios toffee was found better than other combinations in respect to organoleptic properties and nutritional quality. The yield of fresh toffee was higher (868 g/kg of pulp) in toffee prepared from 100 % guava (control). The chemical composition indicated that the fresh toffees contained on an average moisture 8.73 %, TSS 83.21 oBrix, titrable acidity 0.3 %, total sugars 73.1 % and ascorbic acid 64.1 mg/100 g. The mean score of fresh toffees for colour and appearance was 8.29, texture 8.02, flavour 8.22, taste 8.32 and overall acceptability 8.16 on 9 point Hedonic scale. The cost of fresh toffee was Rs. 282/kg which was prepared from 70 : 30 guava and strawberry pulp level. The storage studies indicated that the TSS and total sugars increased with the advancement of storage period, while moisture content, ascorbic acid and acidity decreased. The rates of increase or decrease were relatively higher at ambient temperature than refrigerated temperature. The sensory quality of toffees also decreased at faster rate during 90 days storage period at ambient condition than the refrigerated

  13. The effect of dietary factors on strawberry anthocyanins oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Di; Sandhu, Amandeep; Huang, Yancui; Park, Eunyoung; Edirisinghe, Indika; Burton-Freeman, Britt M

    2017-11-15

    Strawberries are a dietary source of anthocyanins, particularly pelargonidin glycosides. Dietary anthocyanins have received increasing attention among researchers and consumers due to their health benefits. The oral bioavailability of anthocyanins is reported to be low and various dietary factors may influence their oral bioavailability further. Milk is suggested to reduce (poly)phenols' oral bioavailability. However, the effect of milk on anthocyanin oral bioavailability remains uncertain. Likewise, mixed nutrient meals may influence the oral bioavailability of anthocyanins. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to assess the effect of milk on the oral bioavailability and other pharmacokinetic (PK) variables of strawberry anthocyanins consumed with and without a meal. Nine healthy participants consumed a strawberry beverage prepared in milk or water with a standard meal on two occasions. On two additional occasions, the beverages were given to a subset (n = 4) of participants to determine the impact of the meal on anthocyanin PK variables, including oral bioavailability. Independent of the meal, beverages prepared in milk significantly reduced the peak plasma concentrations (C max ) of pelargonidin-3-O-glucoside (P-3-G), pelargonidin-glucuronide (PG) and pelargonidin-3-O-rutinoside (P-3-R), as well as the PG and P-3-R area under the curve (AUC) (p bioavailability of pelargonidin anthocyanins under meal conditions; however, the oral relative bioavailability of pelargonidin anthocyanins was reduced by ∼50% by milk under without meal conditions (p < 0.05). Consuming strawberry beverages made with milk and consuming those made with water with and without a meal influenced different aspects of strawberry anthocyanin PKs. The significance of this effect on clinical efficacy requires additional research.

  14. Role of ethylene and related gene expression in the interaction between strawberry plants and the plant growth-promoting bacterium Azospirillum brasilense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elías, J M; Guerrero-Molina, M F; Martínez-Zamora, M G; Díaz-Ricci, J C; Pedraza, R O

    2018-05-01

    Induced systemic resistance (ISR) is one of the indirect mechanisms of growth promotion exerted by plant growth-promoting bacteria, and can be mediated by ethylene (ET). We assessed ET production and the expression of related genes in the Azospirillum-strawberry plant interaction. Ethylene production was evaluated by gas chromatography in plants inoculated or not with A. brasilense REC3. Also, plants were treated with AgNO 3 , an inhibitor of ET biosynthesis; with 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), a precursor of ET biosynthesis; and with indole acetic acid (IAA). Plant dry biomass and the growth index were determined to assess the growth-promoting effect of A. brasilense REC3 in strawberry plants. Quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed to analyse relative expression of the genes Faetr1, Faers1 and Faein4, which encode ET receptors; Factr1 and Faein2, involved in the ET signalling pathway; Faacs1 encoding ACC synthase; Faaco1 encoding ACC oxidase; and Faaux1 and Faami1 for IAA synthesis enzymes. Results showed that ET acts as a rapid and transient signal in the first 12 h post-treatment. A. brasilense REC3-inoculated plants had a significantly higher growth index compared to control plants. Modulation of the genes Faetr1, Faers1, Faein4, Factr1, Faein2 and Faaco1 indicated activation of ET synthesis and signalling pathways. The up-regulation of Faaux1 and Faami1 involved in IAA synthesis suggested that inoculation with A. brasilense REC3 induces production of this auxin, modulating ET signalling. Ethylene production and up-regulation of genes associated with ET signalling in strawberry plants inoculated with A. brasilense REC3 support the priming activation characteristic of ISR. This type of resistance and the activation of systemic acquired resistance previously observed in this interaction indicate that both are present in strawberry plants, could act synergistically and increase protection against pathogens. © 2018 German Society

  15. Glycopeptide antibiotic biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Grace; Thaker, Maulik N; Koteva, Kalinka; Wright, Gerard

    2014-01-01

    Glycopeptides such as vancomycin, teicoplanin and telavancin are essential for treating infections caused by Gram-positive bacteria. Unfortunately, the dwindled pipeline of new antibiotics into the market and the emergence of glycopeptide-resistant enterococci and other resistant bacteria are increasingly making effective antibiotic treatment difficult. We have now learned a great deal about how bacteria produce antibiotics. This information can be exploited to develop the next generation of antimicrobials. The biosynthesis of glycopeptides via nonribosomal peptide assembly and unusual amino acid synthesis, crosslinking and tailoring enzymes gives rise to intricate chemical structures that target the bacterial cell wall. This review seeks to describe recent advances in our understanding of both biosynthesis and resistance of these important antibiotics.

  16. The Effect of Freezing and Hydrocolloids on the Physical Parameters of Strawberry Mass-Based Desserts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boča Sigita

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of freezing, thickening and storage on the physical properties of the strawberry desserts made with addition of various hydrocolloids. The strawberry cultivars ‘Polka’, ‘Honeoye’, and ‘Senga Sengana’ harvested in Latvia were used in the study. The strawberries were processed in a blender for obtaining a homogenous mass. The strawberry mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at -18 °C. Both fresh and frozen strawberry mass samples with added gelatine, xanthan gum, and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose were whisked until obtaining dessert. For determination of the optimum hydrocolloid amount, sensory evaluation was done using a five-point hedonic scale. Moisture, soluble solids content, density, and pH of the product were determined. Apparent viscosity was measured using a rotational viscometer DV–III Ultra. Consistency of the dessert during its storage was evaluated using a texture analyser TA.XT.plus. The results of sensory evaluation allow concluding that in order to provide the most acceptable consistency, colour, and taste of strawberry dessert, the optimum quantity of carboxymethyl cellulose and xanthan gum to be added is 0.6% and that of gelatine is 6%. During freezing, the soluble solids content and pH level decreased in the strawberry mass, whereas the addition of hydrocolloids increased these values. The moisture content in strawberry puree, in its turn, as a result of freezing increased under the influence of syneresis, but added hydrocolloids, on the contrary, decreased this influence. Also the viscosity and consistency of the strawberry puree prepared from the researched cultivars decreased under the influence of freezing, whereas the addition of hydrocolloids increased both the values, making the strawberry dessert firmer. The research suggests that strawberry dessert with gelatine had the most pronounced changes during storage, but strawberry dessert with added xanthan

  17. Detection and isolation of nepoviruses on strawberry in the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honetslegrová, J; Spak, J

    1995-06-01

    Arabis mosaic, strawberry latent ringspot, tomato black ring and raspberry ringspot nepoviruses were monitored using double sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) in 18 cultivars of strawberry Fragaria x ananassa Duch. in the Czech Republic. Arabis mosaic and strawberry latent ringspot viruses were detected, isolated and characterized on differential host plants and by electron microscopy. Both viruses were purified and antisera to them were prepared.

  18. Characterization of microbial communities and fungal metabolites on field grown strawberries from organic and conventional production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgit; Knudsen, Inge-Marie Birkedal; Andersen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The background levels of culturable indigenous microbial communities (microbiotas) on strawberries were examined in a field survey with four conventional and four organic growers with different production practise and geographic distribution. The microbiota on apparently healthy strawberries...... produced cyclopenol, cyclopenin, and viridicatin on the artificially infected berries, while Altemaria arborescens produced tenuazonic acid, Alternaria tenuissima produced altertoxin land altenuene, and Trichoderma spp. produced several peptaibols. In conclusion, native strawberry microbiotas are highly...

  19. Phthalate esters in marine algae

    OpenAIRE

    Gezgin, Tuncay; Güven, Kasim Cemal; Akçin, Göksel

    2001-01-01

    Abstract o-Phthalate esters as diethyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, di-isobutyl phthalate and diethylhexyl phthalate were identified at surface and inner part of algae collected in the Bosphorus, as Ulva lactuca, Enteromorpha linza, Cystoseria barbata, Pterocladia capillaceaeand Ceramium rubrum. The same esters were also detected in seawater samples taken from the same area. Thus parallelism in pollution was noted between the algae and the surrounding seawater,

  20. The role of FaBG3 in fruit ripening and B. cinerea fungal infection of strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Ji, Kai; Sun, Yufei; Luo, Hao; Wang, Hongqing; Leng, Ping

    2013-10-01

    In plants, β-glucosidases (BG) have been implicated in developmental and pathogen defense, and are thought to take part in abscisic acid (ABA) synthesis via hydrolysis of ABA glucose ester to release active ABA; however, there is no genetic evidence for the role of BG genes in ripening and biotic/abiotic stress in fruits. To clarify the role of BG genes in fruit, eight Fa/FvBG genes encoding β-glucosidase were isolated using information from the GenBank strawberry nucleotide database. Of the Fa/FvBG genes examined, expression of FaBG3 was the highest, showing peaks at the mature stage, coincident with the changes observed in ABA content. To verify the role of this gene, we suppressed the expression of FaBG3 via inoculation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tobacco rattle virus carrying a FaBG3 fragment (RNAi). The expression of FaBG3 in FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit was markedly reduced, and the ABA content was lower than that of the control. FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit did not exhibit full ripening, and were firmer, had lower sugar content, and were pale compared with the control due to down-regulation of ripening-related genes. FaBG3-RNAi-treated fruit with reduced ABA levels were much more resistant to Botrytis cinerea fungus but were more sensitive to dehydration stress than control fruit. These results indicate that FaBG3 may play key roles in fruit ripening, dehydration stress and B. cinerea fungal infection in strawberries via modulation of ABA homeostasis and transcriptional regulation of ripening-related genes. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Biological control of Mycosphaerella fragariae in strawberry culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anderson Luis Heling

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mycosphaerella spot is one of the main foliar diseases of strawberry, degrating great leaf regions and reducing the photosynthetic area. Its control is mainly by the use of chemical fungicides, but, due the increasing demand for food free of pesticide, alternative control methods have been researched, such as biological control. This work aimed to evaluate the effect on strawberry plants, treated with the biological control agents Bacillus cereus, Saccharomyces boulardii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in the severity of Mycosphaerella fragariae, productivity and in the activity of β-1.3 glucanases, peroxidases and chitinases enzymes. It was verified that S. cerevisiae and B. cereus treatments were similar to fungicide for disease control. However, even reducing the severity of the disease, there was no increase in productivity, and the different control agents do not cause changes in the evaluated defense mechanisms.

  2. Controlled atmosphere storage of wild strawberry fruit (Fragaria vesca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar, Eva; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar; Lagarón, José M; Catalá, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

    2006-01-11

    Controlled atmosphere storage technology to extend the shelf life of "Reina de los Valles" wild strawberry fruit (Fragaria vesca L.) was studied. Fruits were stored at 3 degrees C for three weeks in different atmosphere compositions: 0.05% CO2/21% O2 (air), 3% CO2/18% O2, 6% CO2/15% O2, 10% CO2/11% O2, and 15% CO2/6% O2. The effect of gas composition on soluble solids content, titrable acidity, pH, off-flavor, aroma volatiles, and consumer preference was monitored. The result showed that the 10% CO2/11% O2 combination can efficiently prolong the shelf life of wild strawberries by maintaining the quality parameters within acceptable values, through inhibiting the development of Botrytis cinerea, without significantly modifying consumer acceptance.

  3. Enantioselective behaviour of tetraconazole during strawberry wine-making process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Na; Pan, Xinglu; Zhang, Shuang; Ji, Mingshan; Zhang, Zhihong

    2018-05-01

    The fate of tetraconazole enantiomers in strawberries during wine-making process was studied. The residues were determined by ultra-performance convergence chromatography tandem triple quadrupole mass spectrometry after each process steps. Results indicated that there was significant enantioselective dissipation of tetraconazole enantiomers during the fermentation process. And (-)-tetraconazole degraded faster than (+)-tetraconazole. The half-lives of (-)-tetraconazole and (+)-tetraconazole were 3.12, 3.76 days with washing procedure and 3.18, 4.05 days without washing procedure. The processing factors of strawberry wine samples after each step were generally less than 1. In particular, the processing factors of the fermentation process were the lowest. The results could help facilitate more accurate risk assessments of tetraconazole during wine-making process. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Enhancement of glycerol production by zygosaccharomyces ruxii using strawberry wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meleigy, S.A; Taha, S.M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Glycerol is important industrial product that can be produced using osmophilic yeasts. In this study a local isolate of osmophilic yeast, zygosaccharomyces ruxii, was used for glycerol production from strawberry waste. The effects of some important parameters including glucose and urea concentrations, incubation temperature, initial ph and gamma irradiation were investigated. The optimum conditions for maximum glycerol production (126.8 g/l)by z. ruxii were occurred at 31 degree C and initial ph 5 in the presence of 250 g/l glucose and 3 g/l urea in the production medium . Under these optimizing fermentation parameters, enhancement of glycerol production (130 g/l) were recorded when the inoculum of z. ruxii was exposed to 0.25 kGy. also, the present results showed reduction in BOD 5 levels of fermented strawberry waste.

  5. Radiation induced chemical changes of phenolic compounds in strawberries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breitfellner, F.; Solar, S. E-mail: sonja.solar@univie.ac.at; Sontag, G

    2003-06-01

    In unirradiated strawberries four phenolic acids (gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid), the flavonoids (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and glycosides from kaempferol and quercetin were determined by reversed phase chromatography with diode array detection. Characteristic linear dose/concentration relationships were found for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and two unidentified compounds. One of them may be usable as marker to prove an irradiation treatment.

  6. Radiation induced chemical changes of phenolic compounds in strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitfellner, F.; Solar, S.; Sontag, G.

    2003-01-01

    In unirradiated strawberries four phenolic acids (gallic acid, p-coumaric acid, caffeic acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid), the flavonoids (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin and glycosides from kaempferol and quercetin were determined by reversed phase chromatography with diode array detection. Characteristic linear dose/concentration relationships were found for 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and two unidentified compounds. One of them may be usable as marker to prove an irradiation treatment

  7. Triterpene biosynthesis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimmappa, Ramesha; Geisler, Katrin; Louveau, Thomas; O'Maille, Paul; Osbourn, Anne

    2014-01-01

    The triterpenes are one of the most numerous and diverse groups of plant natural products. They are complex molecules that are, for the most part, beyond the reach of chemical synthesis. Simple triterpenes are components of surface waxes and specialized membranes and may potentially act as signaling molecules, whereas complex glycosylated triterpenes (saponins) provide protection against pathogens and pests. Simple and conjugated triterpenes have a wide range of applications in the food, health, and industrial biotechnology sectors. Here, we review recent developments in the field of triterpene biosynthesis, give an overview of the genes and enzymes that have been identified to date, and discuss strategies for discovering new triterpene biosynthetic pathways.

  8. Strawberry Extract’s Effects on Enterococcus faecalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis Biofilms in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelia Sari Widyarman

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis and Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis are oral bacteria related to root canal infection and periodontal disease pathogenesis. Strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa fruit are rich in vitamins and minerals, have antibacterial and antioxidant effects. Objective: This study investigated the inhibition effect of strawberry extract on monospecies and multispecies E. faecalis and P. gingivalis bacteria grown as biofilms in vitro. Methods: This study used E. faecalis ATCC 29212 and P. gingivalis ATCC 33277. It analyzed the effect of strawberry extract on bacteria biofilm formation using a biofilm assay on microplate wells. Five concentrations of strawberry extracts were used (100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and 6.25%, and the inhibition effect was observed after a 1h, 3h, 6h, and 24h incubation period. Biofilms without the strawberry extract were used as the negative controls, and crystal violet and safranin (0.5%w/v were used to count the biofilm mass. The biofilms grown on microplates were counted using an ELISA reader at 450 nm after 200 mL of 90% ethanol was added to attract the absorbed stain. The strawberry extract inhibition effectiveness on the biofilm formation of each bacterium tested was analyzed using one-way Anova, where p<0.05 was defined as a significant difference. Result: The strawberry extract inhibited the tested monospecies and multispecies bacteria biofilm formation. The optimal strawberry extract concentration for the inhibition of either monospecies biofilms was 100%. However, the optimal incubation time for the strawberry extract to inhibit the multispecies biofilm formation was 24h, which was the study’s biofilm maturity phase. Conclusions: The 100% strawberry extract concentration inhibited the formation of both the monospecies and multispecies E. faecalis and P. gingivalis biofilms. Future studies are needed to evaluate the potential of strawberry extract as an alternative dental

  9. Influence of silicon on production and fruit quality of strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ligia Souza Silva

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, the culture of strawberries is an important activity for small and medium farmers. Among the important factors for culture is fertilization, which can interfere in production and fruit quality. Silicon (Si is one of the little studied in fertilization, which demonstrated some beneficial to several different cultures. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of Si on production and concentration of anthocyanin and titratable acid in the fruit and reading SPAD (chlorophyll in the leaves of the strawberry. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using pots containing 14.5 kg of limed soil, fertilized and three plants (cultivar Milsei Tudla were transplanted to pots. Treatments consisted of application of Si at 0, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg kg-1 rates, via soil or foliar. During this experiment the reading of SPAD (chlorophyll and the end of the experiment, the shoots was collected, dried, weighed, ground and analyzed by content and accumulation Si. The fruits were weighed and analyzed the concentration of anthocyanin, titratable acidity and Si concentration. The fertilization with Si, via soil or foliar applied, contributed to the increase in fruit production, especially with the application via soil. Applying foliar or soil promoted an increase in the values of titratable acidity and anthocyanins. Rates of Si via soil or foliar applied influenced the reading SPAD (chlorophyll, in the leaves. The Si independent of the form of application promoted improvements in strawberry crop.

  10. Active package for wild strawberry fruit (Fragaria vesca L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almenar, Eva; Del Valle, Valeria; Catala, Ramón; Gavara, Rafael

    2007-03-21

    An antimicrobial active package has been developed to improve the safety and quality of wild strawberries, as well as extending their shelf life. The fruits were packed in equilibrium-modified atmosphere packaging (EMAP), and the effect on Botrytis cinerea growth and on the quality parameters of the fruit by the addition of different amounts of 2-nonanone, an antifungal volatile compound naturally present in strawberries, was investigated during storage at 10 and 22 degrees C. The temperature of 10 degrees C was chosen as the temperature used at points of sale, and 22 degrees C was chosen as the control temperature. Fungal growth was inhibited in all cases, possibly due to the synergistic effect of high CO2 partial pressures and the presence of the antifungal compound. Weight, soluble solids, titrable acidity, and anthocyanin losses were retarded by the presence of 2-nonanone. This effect was more pronounced as the 2-nonanone concentration was increased at both temperatures. Therefore, an active package that releases 2-nonanone inhibits fungal decay and delays the senescence of highly perishable wild strawberry fruit.

  11. Transient transformation meets gene function discovery: the strawberry fruit case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela eGuidarelli

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Beside the well known nutritional and health benefits, strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa crop draws increasing attention as plant model system for the Rosaceae family, due to the short generation time, the rapid in vitro regeneration, and to the availability of the genome sequence of F. X ananassa and of the closely related F. vesca species. In the last years, the use of high-throughput sequence technologies provided large amounts of molecular information on the genes possibly related to several biological processes of this crop. Nevertheless, the function of most genes or gene products is still poorly understood and needs investigation. Transient transformation technology provides a powerful tool to study gene function in vivo, avoiding difficult drawbacks that typically affect the stable transformation protocols, such as transformation efficiency, transformants selection and regeneration. In this review we provide an overview of the use of transient expression in the investigation of the function of genes important for strawberry fruit development, defence and nutritional properties. The technical aspects related to an efficient use of this technique are described, and the possible impact and application in strawberry crop improvement are discussed.

  12. Evaluation and public acceptance of irradiated strawberries and citrus fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Del Mastro, Nelida L.; Kikuchi, Olivia K.; Villavicencio, Anna L.C.H.; Sabato, Susy F.; Rela, Paulo R.; Taipina, Magda S.; Mattiolo-Marchse, Sandra R.

    1999-01-01

    Irradiation is a physical process that can be applied to food in order to eliminate microorganisms, insects and other plagues as well as delay ripening or spoilage, thus lengthening its shelf life. In Brazil, the technique is only starting to be applied and is restricted to a few tons of dry or dehydrated food ingredients per year. Strawberry (Fragaria sp.) and citrus are usually attacked by various plagues. Both strawberry and citrus are included in the Brazilian legislation for irradiated foods. This work describes the first sensory trials of 2 varieties of strawberries and 3 varieties of citrus irradiated at IPEN. Irradiation was performed in a panoramic Co-60 source with doses ranging between 1.7 and 4 kGy. Untrained groups of panelists judged the quality of irradiated and non-irradiated control fruits. From the analysis of the results, it was concluded that there no significant differences in the characteristical properties of the fruits when they were irradiated with the doses recommended by the legislation. (author)

  13. Bradysia sp. em morangueiro Bradysia sp. in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadete Radin

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available No trabalho, relatam-se os primeiros registros de Bradysia sp. (Insecta: Diptera: Sciaridae em morangueiro (Fragaria x ananassa Duch., cultivado no Município de Eldorado do Sul, RS. O cultivo foi realizado em sacolas com três metros de comprimento, preenchidas com substrato composto de casca de arroz e turfa, dispostas horizontalmente sobre bancadas de madeira, em ambiente protegido. A presença de Bradysia sp. foi observada na segunda quinzena de agosto de 2005. Neste trabalho, estão descritos os sintomas apresentados no morangueiro pela praga, prováveis conseqüências sobre o aparecimento de doenças e uma breve descrição morfológica da Bradysia sp., adulto e fase larval.This paper describes the first record of Bradysia sp. (Insecta; Diptera; Sciaridae in strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa, cultivated in the city of Eldorado do Sul, RS, Brazil. Strawberry was planted in plastic bags filled with a mixture of burnt rice hulls and peat and cultivated in a greenhouse. The presence of Bradysia sp was noticed in the second fortnight of August, 2005. The symptoms in strawberry and the probable consequences in terms of disease arising were described in the present study, as well as the morphological characterization of Bradysia sp. and its illustrations.

  14. Breeding new improved clones for strawberry production in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gonçalves Galvão

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Breeding different strawberry genotypes and plant selection in Brazil could result in new cultivars with better environmental adaptations. The aim was to develop and select new F1 strawberry plants with higher potential yields. Twelve hybrid populations were obtained from breeding the cultivars Aromas, Camarosa, Dover, Festival, Oso Grande, Sweet Charlie and Tudla, and 42 F1 hybrids were obtained from each population. An augmented randomized block design was used. Productive traits were measured and heterosis was calculated for all traits. The breedings Dover x Aromas and Camarosa x Aromas both showed 28.6% of their hybrids with a total fruit mass that was higher than that of cv. Aromas, and 9.5 and 14.3% were higher than that of cv. Camarosa, respectively. The breeding of Camarosa x Aromas produced hybrids with high potential yields and a large average fruit mass that reached the commercial standard. Hybrids MCA12-93, MFA12-443 and MCA12-89 showed high potential yields and can be used as parents in strawberry breeding programs.

  15. Influences of the GAMMA radiation on useful life of strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonilla B, Ligia M.; Sepulveda P, Claudia M.

    1993-01-01

    The present investigation was carried out with the purpose of prolonging the useful life of strawberry (bird variety) by means of gamma radiation, eliminating the causing microorganisms of the deterioration of the fruit partially: aerobic mesophyll, psicrotrophos, molds and yeasts, effect that was controlled by means of the recount of the same ones. In the same way, it was carried out a quantitative analysis of some parameters such organolitics as flavor, color and hardness, to observe the behavior of the strawberry with the different applied treatments. The irradiation process was made with a source of Co-60, provided by the INEA with an activity of 82 kilo curios. The used radiation doses were 0, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 kGy, which were quantified by means of chemical dosimeter : Sulfate cupric ferrous-sulfate. Strawberries were storage under refrigeration with controlled conditions of temperature between 1 and 2 C and relative humidity of 85-90, and periodically, samples were removed for different analyses

  16. Classification of Strawberry Fruit Shape by Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, T.; Hayashi, A.; Nagamatsu, S.; Kyutoku, Y.; Dan, I.; Wada, T.; Oku, K.; Saeki, Y.; Uto, T.; Tanabata, T.; Isobe, S.; Kochi, N.

    2018-05-01

    Shape is one of the most important traits of agricultural products due to its relationships with the quality, quantity, and value of the products. For strawberries, the nine types of fruit shape were defined and classified by humans based on the sampler patterns of the nine types. In this study, we tested the classification of strawberry shapes by machine learning in order to increase the accuracy of the classification, and we introduce the concept of computerization into this field. Four types of descriptors were extracted from the digital images of strawberries: (1) the Measured Values (MVs) including the length of the contour line, the area, the fruit length and width, and the fruit width/length ratio; (2) the Ellipse Similarity Index (ESI); (3) Elliptic Fourier Descriptors (EFDs), and (4) Chain Code Subtraction (CCS). We used these descriptors for the classification test along with the random forest approach, and eight of the nine shape types were classified with combinations of MVs + CCS + EFDs. CCS is a descriptor that adds human knowledge to the chain codes, and it showed higher robustness in classification than the other descriptors. Our results suggest machine learning's high ability to classify fruit shapes accurately. We will attempt to increase the classification accuracy and apply the machine learning methods to other plant species.

  17. Engineering the anthocyanin regulatory complex of strawberry (Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kui eLin-Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The woodland strawberry, Fragaria vesca is a model fruit for a number of rosaceous crops. We have engineered altered concentrations of anthocyanin in F. vesca, to determine the impact on plant growth and fruit quality. Anthocyanin concentrations were significantly increased by over-expression or decreased by knock-down of the R2R3 MYB activator, MYB10. In contrast, a potential bHLH partner for MYB10 (bHLH33 did not affect the anthocyanin pathway when knocked down using RNAi constructs. Metabolic analysis of fruits revealed that, of all the polyphenolics surveyed, only cyanidin and pelargonidin glucoside, and coumaryl hexose were significantly affected by over-expression and knock down of MYB10. Using the F. vesca genome sequence, members of the MYB, bHLH and WD40 families were examined. Global analysis of gene expression and targeted qPCR analysis of biosynthetic genes and regulators confirmed the effects of altering MYB10 expression, as well as the knock-down of bHLH33. Other members of the MYB transcription factor family were affected by the transgenes. Transient expression of strawberry genes in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed that MYB10 can auto-regulate itself, and potential repressors of MYB10. In tobacco, MYB10’s activation of biosynthetic steps is inhibited by the strawberry repressor MYB1.

  18. Induced Mutation in Strawberry by Using Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phadvibulya, Valailak; Puripanyavanich, Vichai; Pipattanawongse, Narongchai; Yeesawasdi, Voravit; Teja, Waich

    2003-12-01

    The culture of strawberry plants variety Tio ga were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100,120 and 140 Gy. They were transferred to the MS medium supplemented with BA 0.1 mg/l. It was found that radiation dose which caused 50% lethality (LD 50 ) was 80 Gy. The survival plants were transferred to rooting medium (MS medium) and then transplanted to field for stolon production and yield investigation. Two lines with good fruit quality were obtained after selection till M 1 V 5 . They were planted for further testing. In experiment II, The culture of strawberry plants varieties Royal 20, Royal 70, SM and Dover were irradiated with gamma rays at doses of 0, 40 and 60 Gy. They were transplanted to field for stolon and yield production. Three lines from Royal 70 were obtained after selection till M 1 V 4 . In experiment III, the culture of strawberry plants varieties Royal 20, Royal 50, Royal 70, Nyoho and Selva were irradiated with gamma rays at the same doses as experiment II. Nine lines from Royal 70 and four lines from Nyoho with good characters were selected for further testing

  19. 76 FR 8997 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan Into...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...] Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan Into the... continental United States of fresh strawberries from Jordan. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis... strawberries from Jordan. DATES: Effective Date: February 16, 2011. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Donna...

  20. 75 FR 62500 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-12

    ...] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Strawberries From Jordan... importation into the continental United States of fresh strawberries from Jordan. Based on this analysis, we... importation of fresh strawberries from Jordan. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public...

  1. Biosynthesis of archaeal membrane ether lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samta eJain

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A vital function of the cell membrane in all living organism is to maintain the membrane permeability barrier and fluidity. The composition of the phospholipid bilayer is distinct in archaea when compared to bacteria and eukarya. In archaea, isoprenoid hydrocarbon side chains are linked via an ether bond to the sn-glycerol-1-phosphate backbone. In bacteria and eukarya on the other hand, fatty acid side chains are linked via an ester bond to the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate backbone. The polar head groups are globally shared in the three domains of life. The unique membrane lipids of archaea have been implicated not only in the survival and adaptation of the organisms to extreme environments but also to form the basis of the membrane composition of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA. In nature, a diverse range of archaeal lipids is found, the most common are the diether (or archaeol and the tetraether (or caldarchaeol lipids that form a monolayer. Variations in chain length, cyclization and other modifications lead to diversification of these lipids. The biosynthesis of these lipids is not yet well understood however progress in the last decade has led to a comprehensive understanding of the biosynthesis of archaeol. This review describes the current knowledge of the biosynthetic pathway of archaeal ether lipids; insights on the stability and robustness of archaeal lipid membranes; and evolutionary aspects of the lipid divide and the last universal common ancestor LUCA. It examines recent advances made in the field of pathway reconstruction in bacteria.

  2. Strawberry: Fast and accurate genome-guided transcript reconstruction and quantification from RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruolin; Dickerson, Julie

    2017-11-01

    We propose a novel method and software tool, Strawberry, for transcript reconstruction and quantification from RNA-Seq data under the guidance of genome alignment and independent of gene annotation. Strawberry consists of two modules: assembly and quantification. The novelty of Strawberry is that the two modules use different optimization frameworks but utilize the same data graph structure, which allows a highly efficient, expandable and accurate algorithm for dealing large data. The assembly module parses aligned reads into splicing graphs, and uses network flow algorithms to select the most likely transcripts. The quantification module uses a latent class model to assign read counts from the nodes of splicing graphs to transcripts. Strawberry simultaneously estimates the transcript abundances and corrects for sequencing bias through an EM algorithm. Based on simulations, Strawberry outperforms Cufflinks and StringTie in terms of both assembly and quantification accuracies. Under the evaluation of a real data set, the estimated transcript expression by Strawberry has the highest correlation with Nanostring probe counts, an independent experiment measure for transcript expression. Strawberry is written in C++14, and is available as open source software at https://github.com/ruolin/strawberry under the MIT license.

  3. Manipulating transplant morphology to advance post-transplant growth and yield in strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reekie, J.Y.

    2005-01-01

    Two methods were developed to enhance transplant success and minimize water use of strawberry transplants harvested in Canadian nurseries for use in the annual strawberry production system in the Southern United States: mechanical leaf removal by mowing, and chemical control of growth and

  4. Towards consumer-friendly cisgenic strawberries which are less susceptible to Botrytis cinerea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaart, J.G.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis describes the development of genetically modified (GM) strawberries which are less susceptible to fruit rot caused by the fungus Botrytis cinerea. To achieve Botrytis resistance, a polygalacuronase inhibiting protein (PGIP) gene has been isolation from strawberry and was characterised.

  5. A study of the synergetic effect of strawberry γ-ray radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Shihong; Zhu Zhaodi

    1990-01-01

    The change of commerical strawberry quality during storage period was studied. The shelf lifetimes of irradiated strawberries by the single radiation means using 1 kGy, 2 kGy or 3 kGy doses are not longer than that of the storage in icebox. However, the study indicated taht the synergetic effect could be produced by combine radiation means with icebox

  6. Identification of food preserved by ionizing radiation; Preliminary tests in strawberries using thermoluminescent (TL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, T.; Sillano, O.; Espinoza, J.; Roman, A.; Deza, A.

    1992-01-01

    TL measurements, of irradiated and unirradiated strawberries were carried out, using peel, seeds (achenes), leaves and sediment. The four types of samples presented a different thermoluminescence response. The best results were obtained with sediment removed from the soil of the fruit surface. It is concluded that TL is a promising technique for detecting irradiated strawberries using sediment samples. (author)

  7. Processing factors and variability of pyrimethanil, fenhexamid and tolylfluanid in strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Granby, Kit; Rabølle, M.

    2003-01-01

    An HPLC-MS/MS method for the analysis of three pesticides in strawberries was developed and validated. Recoveries were measured at three spiking levels and ranged from 85 to 99% (mean recoveries). The effects of processing of strawberries ranging from rinsing to jam production were investigated...

  8. Genes for and molecular markers linked with resistance to Phytophthora fragariae in strawberry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weg, van de W.E.; Henken, B.; Haymes, K.M.; Nijs, den A.P.M.

    1998-01-01

    A gene-for-gene model is presented which explains interactions between cultivars of strawberry and races of Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae, the causal agent of red core (red stele) root rot. The model allows the constitution of a universal differential set of strawberry genotypes and the

  9. CATT as a non-chemical pest and nematode control method in strawberry mohter planting stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruistum, van G.; Hoek, J.; Verschoor, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Until 2008 methyl bromide (MeBr) was used in The Netherlands for fumigation of strawberry runners, intended as mother planting stock, to make them free of contamination by strawberry tarsonemid mites (Phytonemus pallidus). As an alternative of MeBr fumigation a 48 h CATT method was developed and

  10. Characteristics of growing media mixes and application for open-field production of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathogen-free growing media are widely used for strawberry production in protected structures in Europe but not common in the United States. There is a need to investigate the feasibility of producing strawberry fruits in open fields with the pathogen-free media in the U.S. The objective of the stud...

  11. Pasteurization of strawberry puree using a pilot plant pulsed electric fields (PEF) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The processing of strawberry puree by pulsed electric fields (PEF) in a pilot plant system has never been evaluated. In addition, a method does not exist to validate the exact number and shape of the pulses applied during PEF processing. Both buffered peptone water (BPW) and fresh strawberry puree (...

  12. Environmental effect of rapeseed oil ethyl ester

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makareviciene, V.; Janulis, P.

    2003-01-01

    Exhaust emission tests were conducted on rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME), rapeseed oil ethyl ester (REE) and fossil diesel fuel as well as on their mixtures. Results showed that when considering emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke density, rapeseed oil ethyl ester had less negative effect on the environment in comparison with that of rapeseed oil methyl ester. When fuelled with rapeseed oil ethyl ester, the emissions of NO x showed an increase of 8.3% over those of fossil diesel fuel. When operated on 25-50% bio-ester mixed with fossil diesel fuel, NO x emissions marginally decreased. When fuelled with pure rapeseed oil ethyl ester, HC emissions decreased by 53%, CO emissions by 7.2% and smoke density 72.6% when compared with emissions when fossil diesel fuel was used. Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions, which cause greenhouse effect, decreased by 782.87 g/kWh when rapeseed oil ethyl ester was used and by 782.26 g/kWh when rapeseed oil methyl ester was used instead of fossil diesel fuel. Rapeseed oil ethyl ester was more rapidly biodegradable in aqua environment when compared with rapeseed oil methyl ester and especially with fossil diesel fuel. During a standard 21 day period, 97.7% of rapeseed oil methyl ester, 98% of rapeseed oil ethyl ester and only 61.3% of fossil diesel fuel were biologically decomposed. (author)

  13. Avocado and olive oil methyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knothe, Gerhard

    2013-01-01

    Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, including commodity oils, however, the methyl esters of avocado and olive oil would likely be suitable as biodiesel fuel. In order to expand the database and comprehensive evaluation of the properties of vegetable oil esters, in this work the fuel-related properties of avocado and olive oil methyl esters, which exhibit similar fatty acid profiles including high oleic acid content, are determined. The cetane numbers of avocado oil methyl esters and olive oil methyl esters are relatively high, determined as 59.2 and 62.5, respectively, due to their elevated content of methyl oleate. Other properties are well within the ranges specified in biodiesel standards. The cloud points of both esters are slightly above 0 °C due to their content of saturated esters, especially methyl palmitate. Overall, avocado and olive oil yield methyl esters with fuel properties comparable to methyl esters from other commodity vegetable oils. The 1 H and 13 C NMR spectra of avocado and olive oil methyl esters are reported. -- Highlights: • Methyl esters of avocado and olive oil meet biodiesel fuel standards. • Provides comparison for methyl esters of other vegetable oils with high oleic content. • Discusses and compares present results with prior literature

  14. Effect of ion beam irradiation of fresh-keeping of strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lei Qing; Huang Min; Wu Ling; Mo Yan; Du Xiaoying; Xie Yan; Wang Yan; Gao Peng; Kang Ju

    2011-01-01

    Effects of ion beam irradiation on strawberry quality were studied, in this study and microbial biomass, decay index, weight loss and biological index were detected. Irradiation dosage were 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 kGy. The results showed that the irradiation decreased the number of microorganism in the strawberry and delayed the rotten speed. The soluble solide, Vc and total acid content of irradiated strawberry reduced slower than that of control. It indicated that the irradiation dosage did not affect the quality of strawberry in this study . Therefore, 2.0 ∼ 3.0 kGy of ion beam irradiation were an excellent irradiation dosage for strawberry preservation. (authors)

  15. Characterization of microbial communities and fungal metabolites on field grown strawberries from organic and conventional production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgit; Knudsen, Inge M. B.; Andersen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    The background levels of culturable indigenous microbial communities (microbiotas) on strawberries were examined in a field survey with four conventional and four organic growers with different production practise and geographic distribution. The microbiota on apparently healthy strawberries...... was complex including potential plant pathogens, opportunistic human pathogens, plant disease biocontrol agents and mycotoxin producers. The latter group was dominated by Penicillium spp. and Aspergillus niger was also isolated. As expected, bacteria were the most abundant and diverse group of the strawberry...... microbiota followed by yeasts and filamentous fungi. No obvious correlation between grower practice and the strawberry microbiota was observed. Differences between microbiotas on strawberries from conventional systems with up to 10 fungicide spray treatments and organic production systems were insignificant...

  16. Data on body weight and liver functionality in aged rats fed an enriched strawberry diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Here, we present new original data on the effects of strawberry consumption on body weight and liver status of aged rats. Wistar rats aged 19–21 months were fed a strawberry enriched diet prepared by substituting 15% of the total calories with freeze-dried strawberry powder for two months. Body weight, plasma biomarkers of liver injury (alanine transferase, aspartate aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase and liver histological analysis were assessed. These data indicate that strawberry supplementation did not interfere with normal animal maintenance and with liver structure and functionality. For further details and experimental findings please refer to the article “Strawberry consumption improves aging-associated impairments, mitochondrial biogenesis and functionality through the AMP-Activated Protein Kinase signaling cascade” in FOOD CHEMISTRY (Giampieri et al., 2017 [1].

  17. Liquid Crystalline Thermosets from Ester, Ester-imide, and Ester-amide Oligomers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dingemans, Theodorus J. (Inventor); Weiser, Erik S. (Inventor); St. Clair, Terry L. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Main chain thermotropic liquid crystal esters, ester-imides, and ester-amides were prepared from AA, BB, and AB type monomeric materials and end-capped with phenylacetylene, phenylmaleimide, or nadimide reactive end-groups. The end-capped liquid crystal oligomers are thermotropic and have, preferably, molecular weights in the range of approximately 1000-15,000 grams per mole. The end-capped liquid crystaloligomers have broad liquid crystalline melting ranges and exhibit high melt stability and very low melt viscosities at accessible temperatures. The end-capped liquid crystal oli-gomers are stable forup to an hour in the melt phase. They are highly processable by a variety of melt process shape forming and blending techniques. Once processed and shaped, the end-capped liquid crystal oigomers were heated to further polymerize and form liquid crystalline thermosets (LCT). The fully cured products are rubbers above their glass transition temperatures.

  18. Identifying Key Flavors in Strawberries Driving Liking via Internal and External Preference Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Penelope; Cicerale, Sara; Pang, Edwin; Keast, Russell

    2018-04-01

    Australian consumers desire the development of a more flavorsome Australian strawberry cultivar. To aid in the development of well-liked strawberries, the attributes driving liking need to be identified. The objective of this research is to apply Preference Mapping (PM) techniques to the descriptive profile of commercial and newly bred strawberry cultivars, together with consumer preference data to determine the flavors contributing to liking. A trained sensory panel (n = 12) used Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA®) methodology to evaluate two appearance, seven aroma, five texture, 10 flavor and 10 aftertaste attributes of three commercial strawberry cultivars and six elite breeding lines grown in Victoria, Australia. Strawberry consumers (n = 150) assessed their liking of the same strawberry cultivars. QDA® significantly discriminated strawberries on 28 of the 34 sensory attributes. There were significant differences in hedonic ratings of strawberries (F(8,714) = 11.5, P = 0.0001), with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA) identifying three consumer clusters each displaying differing patterns of preference. Internal and external PM techniques were applied to the data to identify the attributes driving consumer acceptability. Sweet, berry, caramel, fruity and floral attributes were identified as most contributing to liking. Sour, citrus, green, astringent, firm and gritty attributes were conversely associated with a reduction in consumer liking. Elite Lines 2 and 6 have been identified as having the broadest appeal, satisfying between 60% and 70% of consumers in the population assessed, thus the introduction of these cultivars should satisfy the largest group of consumers in the Australian market. The results of this research could be applied to breeding programs, to ensure newly bred cultivars express characteristics that were identified as well-liked amongst consumers. In addition, this research provides evidence for marketing strawberries by

  19. Mechanical properties and chemical stability of pivalolactone-based poly(ether ester)s

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijsma, E.J.; Tijsma, E.J.; van der Does, L.; Bantjes, A.; Bantjes, A.; Vulic, I.

    1994-01-01

    The processing, mechanical and chemical properties of poly(ether ester)s, prepared from pivalolactone (PVL), 1,4-butanediol (4G) and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), were studied. The poly(ether ester)s could easily be processed by injection moulding, owing to their favourable rheological and thermal

  20. REPRODUCTIVE TOXICITY OF PHTHALATE ESTERS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phthalate esters display several modes of toxicity in mammalian species. In the rat, in utero exposure at relatively low dosage levels disrupts development of the reproductive system of the male rat by altering fetal testis hormone production. This presentation is a review of t...

  1. Regioselective Synthesis of Cellulose Ester Homopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daiqiang Xu; Kristen Voiges; Thomas Elder; Petra Mischnick; Kevin J. Edgar

    2012-01-01

    Regioselective synthesis of cellulose esters is extremely difficult due to the small reactivity differences between cellulose hydroxyl groups, small differences in steric demand between acyl moieties of interest, and the difficulty of attaching and detaching many protecting groups in the presence of cellulose ester moieties without removing the ester groups. Yet the...

  2. Catalytic Ester to Stannane Functional Group Interconversion via Decarbonylative Cross-Coupling of Methyl Esters

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huifeng

    2018-01-03

    An unprecedented conversion of methyl esters to stannanes was realized, providing access to a series of arylstannanes via nickel catalysis. Various common esters including ethyl, cyclohexyl, benzyl, and phenyl esters can undergo the newly developed decarbonylative stannylation reaction. The reaction shows broad substrate scope, can differentiate between different types of esters, and if applied in consecutive fashion, allows the transformation of methyl esters into aryl fluorides or biaryls via fluororination or arylation.

  3. Catalytic Ester to Stannane Functional Group Interconversion via Decarbonylative Cross-Coupling of Methyl Esters

    KAUST Repository

    Yue, Huifeng; Zhu, Chen; Rueping, Magnus

    2018-01-01

    An unprecedented conversion of methyl esters to stannanes was realized, providing access to a series of arylstannanes via nickel catalysis. Various common esters including ethyl, cyclohexyl, benzyl, and phenyl esters can undergo the newly developed decarbonylative stannylation reaction. The reaction shows broad substrate scope, can differentiate between different types of esters, and if applied in consecutive fashion, allows the transformation of methyl esters into aryl fluorides or biaryls via fluororination or arylation.

  4. Floral markers of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuberoso, Carlo I G; Bifulco, Ersilia; Caboni, Pierluigi; Cottiglia, Filippo; Cabras, Paolo; Floris, Ignazio

    2010-01-13

    Strawberry tree honey, due to its characteristic bitter taste, is one of the most typical Mediterranean honeys, with Sardinia being one of the largest producers. According to specific chemical studies, homogentisic acid was identified as a possible marker of this honey. This work, based on HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) honeys, previously selected by sensory evaluation and melissopalynological analysis, showed that, in addition to the above-mentioned acid, there were other high levels of substances useful for the botanical classification of this unifloral honey. Two of these compounds were isolated and identified as (+/-)-2-cis,4-trans-abscisic acid (c,t-ABA) and (+/-)-2-trans,4-trans-abscisic acid (t,t-ABA). A third compound, a new natural product named unedone, was characterized as an epoxidic derivative of the above-mentioned acids. Structures of c,t-ABA, t,t-ABA, and unedone were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments, as well as HPLC-MS/MS and Q-TOF analysis. In selected honeys the average amounts of c,t-ABA, t,t-ABA, and unedone were 176.2+/-25.4, 162.3+/-21.1, and 32.9+/-7.1 mg/kg, respectively. Analysis of the A. unedo nectar confirmed the floral origin of these compounds found in the honey. Abscisic acids were found in other unifloral honeys but not in such high amount and with a constant ratio of about 1:1. For this reason, besides homogentisic acid, these compounds could be used as complementary markers of strawberry tree honey.

  5. Irradiation of strawberries and tomatoes - chemical changes, marker compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breitfellner, F.; Schindler, M.; Solar, S.; Sontag, G.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was directed to the detection of radiation induced chemical changes in strawberries and tomatoes. The investigations were focused on polyphenols (phenolic acids and flavonoids). These compounds, which are present in minor amounts [low ppm-range (mg/kg)], are part of the bioactive substances and have anticancerogenic, antimicrobial and antioxidative properties. Determination of polyphenols occurred by HPLC with diode array and/or coulometric electrode array detection. In strawberries 15 phenolic compounds could be detected. Upon irradiation (1-6 kGy) five were decreasing and one was increasing with dose, nine remained unaffected /1, 2/. In tomatoes five phenolic components could be identified, three of them decreased markedly with irradiation. In unirradiated samples of both foods the content of phenolic derivatives varied significantly, depending on variety, origin and degree of ripeness. Since these differences were in the same range as the radiation induced chemical changes, it could be concluded that irradiation does not reduce food quality based on the phenolic components. In strawberries a substance was detected which may be used as marker to prove an irradiation treatment. Its zero dose level is insignificant yet its concentration showed a linear increase with dose, it trebled at 3 kGy and quintupled at 6 kGy. Due to its presence in very low concentration (<1ppm) the chemical structure could not yet been determined. MS/MS analysis proved a molecular weight of m/z 318 as well as characteristic fragments of m/z 197, 165, 137, 93. On the basis of the UV-VIS spectrum (absorption maximum 265 nm) it can not be attributed to flavonoids, ellagic acids or cinnamic acid derivatives

  6. Wild Bee Community Composition and Foraging Behaviour in Commercial Strawberries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Erica Juel

    possibly due to the low biodiversity offered by many commercially driven, single species, Danish forests. At field scale (I) bee species richness was higher in field margins compared to field centres but there was no difference between centre and margin in body-size or activity-density. Sampling time had...... an effect on wild bee community composition with higher activity-density and species richness in late May and late June than in early and mid-June (II). Results thus indicate that functional diversity of visiting wild bee assemblages in strawberry differs depending on the spatial and time scale...

  7. Improved regeneration and transformation protocols for three strawberry cultivars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Hossam; Hussein, Gihan M; Abdel-Hadi, Abdel-Hadi A; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2014-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) is an economically important soft fruit crop with polyploid genome which makes the breeding of new cultivars difficult. Simple and efficient method for transformation and regeneration is required for cultivars improvement in strawberry. In the present study, adventitious shoot regeneration has been investigated in three cultivated strawberry plants, i.e., Festival, Sweet Charly and Florida via direct organogenesis using the in vitro juvenile leaves as explants. Explants were collected after sub-culturing on a propagation medium composed of MS supplemented with 0.5 mg/l BA; 0.1 mg/l GA3 and 0.1 mg/l IBA. To select the suitable organogenesis, the explants of the three cultivars were cultured on MS medium supplemented with different concentrations of TDZ (1, 2, 3, and 4 mg/l), then incubated at a temperature of 22 °C ± 2. Medium containing 2 mg/l TDZ revealed the best regeneration efficiency with the three cultivars (72% for Festival, and 73% for Sweet Charly and Florida). After 4 weeks, the produced shoots were cultured on MS medium with different concentrations of BA and Kin to enhance shoot elongation. Results showed that the medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.5 mg/l Kin revealed highest elongation efficiency (88% and 94%) for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. On the other hand, medium containing 1.5 mg/l BA and 0.1 mg/l Kin showed highest elongation efficiency (90%) in Florida. Elongated shoots were successfully rooted on MS medium containing 1.5 mg/l NAA. Furthermore, transformation of the two cultivars, Festival and Sweet Charly, has been established via Agrobacterium strain LBA44404 containing the plasmid pISV2678 with gus-intron and bar genes. Three days post co-cultivation, GUS activity was screening using the histochemical assay. The results showed 16% and 18% of the tested plant materials has changed into blue color for Festival and Sweet Charly, respectively. Out of 120 explants only 13 shoots were developed on

  8. Detecting irradiation of strawberries by means of thermoluminescence measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heide, L.; Guggenberger, R.; Boegl, K.W.

    1989-01-01

    Investigations into the origin of the thermoluminescence (TL) have shown that this effect is due to trace amounts of mineral particulates adhering to the irradiated material. This result and own experience have led to the development of the TL-based method for post-factum detection of an irradiation of strawberries. In addition to the analysis of whole fruits, a method has been tested that proceeds via separation of adhering matter to separate TL analysis of the particulates. The results obtained so far show no difference or improvement as compared to whole-fruit TL analysis. (orig./MG) [de

  9. 46_ _267 - 278__Aminu- Biosynthesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ISSN 2006 – 6996. BIOSYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL STUDY OF .... the excitation of surface Plasmon vibration with. AgNPs. ... Thin films of the sample were prepared on a carbon ... The resulting film on the SEM.

  10. Over-expression of Gene FaASR Promotes Strawberry Fruit Coloring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Zhongjie

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Fruit development and ripening is a complicate process. Although much progress has been made on the ripenig process, the molecular mechamism of fruit development is not yet clear. In this study, we used ‘Sweet Charlie’ strawberry as test materials, based on cloning the strawberries ASR homologous gene, we carried out the bioinformatics and temporal expression analysis of FaASR, by manipulating ASR gene expression level in strawberry fruit, we tested the changes of physiological indicators, including sugar, ABA, pigments content, and fruit firmness, as well as phenotypic changes. In addition, we measured the expression changes of some anthocyanin-related gene, such as CHS and UFGT, by which we revealed the regulation mechanisms of ASR gene over strawberry fruit ripening. Strawberry ASR contained a typical domain of ABA/WDS that was related to fruit ripening and stress-resistance, and ASR gene over-expression could promote strawberry fruit coloring, endogenous ABA and sucrose accumulation, fruit softening, and induced the transcription levels of anthocyanin-related genes CHS and UFGT. The present study will further reveal the molecular mechanisms of information transmission in fruit development, and will also play an important foundation for future molecular improvement of strawberries breeding.

  11. Influence of Fermentation Process on the Anthocyanin Composition of Wine and Vinegar Elaborated from Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornedo-Ortega, Ruth; Álvarez-Fernández, M Antonia; Cerezo, Ana B; Garcia-Garcia, Isidoro; Troncoso, Ana M; Garcia-Parrilla, M Carmen

    2017-02-01

    Anthocyanins are the major polyphenolic compounds in strawberry fruit responsible for its color. Due to their sensitivity, they are affected by food processing techniques such as fermentation that alters both their chemical composition and organoleptic properties. This work aims to evaluate the impact of different fermentation processes on individual anthocyanins compounds in strawberry wine and vinegar by UHPLC-MS/MS Q Exactive analysis. Nineteen, 18, and 14 anthocyanin compounds were identified in the strawberry initial substrate, strawberry wine, and strawberry vinegar, respectively. Four and 8 anthocyanin compounds were tentatively identified with high accuracy for the 1st time to be present in the beverages obtained by alcoholic fermentation and acetic fermentation of strawberry, respectively. Both, the total and the individual anthocyanin concentrations were decreased by both fermentation processes, affecting the alcoholic fermentation to a lesser extent (19%) than the acetic fermentation (91%). Indeed, several changes in color parameters have been assessed. The color of the wine and the vinegar made from strawberry changed during the fermentation process, varying from red to orange color, this fact is directly correlated with the decrease of anthocyanins compounds. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. Effects of Dietary Strawberry Supplementation on Antioxidant Biomarkers in Obese Adults with Above Optimal Serum Lipids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Basu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Berries have shown several cardiovascular health benefits and have been associated with antioxidant functions in experimental models. Clinical studies are limited. We examined the antioxidant effects of freeze-dried strawberries (FDS in adults [n=60; age: 49±10 years; BMI: 36±5 kg/m2 (mean ± SD] with abdominal adiposity and elevated serum lipids. Participants were randomized to one of the following arms: low dose strawberry (25 g/day FDS, low dose control beverage (LD-C, high dose strawberry (50 g/d FDS, and high dose control beverage (HD-C for 12 weeks. Control beverages were matched for calories and total fiber. Plasma antioxidant capacity, trace elements (copper, iron, selenium, and zinc, whole blood glutathione (GSH, and enzyme activity (catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase were examined at screening (0 week and after 12 weeks’ intervention. At 12 weeks, plasma antioxidant capacity and glutathione levels were higher in the strawberry versus control groups (low and high dose FDS: 45% and 42% for plasma antioxidant capacity and 28% and 36% for glutathione, resp.; glutathione was higher in the high versus low dose strawberry group (all p<0.05. Serum catalase activity was higher in the low dose strawberry (43% versus control group (p<0.01. No differences were noted in plasma trace elements and glutathione enzyme activity. Dietary strawberries may selectively increase plasma antioxidant biomarkers in obese adults with elevated lipids.

  13. Pathogenic and Nonpathogenic Lifestyles in Colletotrichum acutatum from Strawberry and Other Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S; Horowitz, S; Sharon, A

    2001-10-01

    ABSTRACT Anthracnose is one of the major fungal diseases of strawberry occurring worldwide. In Israel, the disease is caused primarily by the species Colletotrichum acutatum. The pathogen causes black spot on fruit, root necrosis, and crown rot resulting in mortality of transplants in the field. The host range and specificity of C. acutatum from strawberry was examined on pepper, eggplant, tomato, bean, and strawberry under greenhouse conditions. The fungus was recovered from all plant species over a 3-month period but caused disease symptoms only on strawberry. Epiphytic and endophytic (colonization) fungal growth in the different plant species was confirmed by reisolation from leaf tissues and by polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-specific primer amplification. C. acutatum was also isolated from healthy looking, asymptomatic plants of the weed genera Vicia and Conyza. Isolates that were recovered from the weeds caused disease symptoms on strawberry and were positively identified as C. acutatum by PCR. The habitation of a large number of plant species, including weeds, by C. acutatum suggests that, although it causes disease only on strawberry and anemone in Israel, this fungus can persist on many other plant species. Therefore, plants that are not considered hosts of C. acutatum may serve as a potential inoculum source for strawberry infection and permit survival of the pathogen between seasons.

  14. Direct and Pollinator-Mediated Effects of Herbivory on Strawberry and the Potential for Improved Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Muola

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The global decline in pollinators has partly been blamed on pesticides, leading some to propose pesticide-free farming as an option to improve pollination. However, herbivores are likely to be more prevalent in pesticide-free environments, requiring knowledge of their effects on pollinators, and alternative crop protection strategies to mitigate any potential pollination reduction. Strawberry leaf beetles (SLB Galerucella spp. are important strawberry pests in Northern Europe and Russia. Given that SLB attack both leaf and flower tissue, we hypothesized pollinators would discriminate against SLB-damaged strawberry plants (Fragaria vesca, cultivar ‘Rügen’, leading to lower pollination success and yield. In addition we screened the most common commercial cultivar ‘Rügen’ and wild Swedish F. vesca genotypes for SLB resistance to assess the potential for inverse breeding to restore high SLB resistance in cultivated strawberry. Behavioral observations in a controlled experiment revealed that the local pollinator fauna avoided strawberry flowers with SLB-damaged petals. Low pollination, in turn, resulted in smaller more deformed fruits. Furthermore, SLB-damaged flowers produced smaller fruits even when they were hand pollinated, showing herbivore damage also had direct effects on yield, independent of indirect effects on pollination. We found variable resistance in wild woodland strawberry to SLB and more resistant plant genotypes than the cultivar ‘Rügen’ were identified. Efficient integrated pest management strategies should be employed to mitigate both direct and indirect effects of herbivory for cultivated strawberry, including high intrinsic plant resistance.

  15. Serine biosynthesis and transport defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hattab, Ayman W

    2016-07-01

    l-serine is a non-essential amino acid that is biosynthesized via the enzymes phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PGDH), phosphoserine aminotransferase (PSAT), and phosphoserine phosphatase (PSP). Besides its role in protein synthesis, l-serine is a potent neurotrophic factor and a precursor of a number of essential compounds including phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, glycine, and d-serine. Serine biosynthesis defects result from impairments of PGDH, PSAT, or PSP leading to systemic serine deficiency. Serine biosynthesis defects present in a broad phenotypic spectrum that includes, at the severe end, Neu-Laxova syndrome, a lethal multiple congenital anomaly disease, intermediately, infantile serine biosynthesis defects with severe neurological manifestations and growth deficiency, and at the mild end, the childhood disease with intellectual disability. A serine transport defect resulting from deficiency of the ASCT1, the main transporter for serine in the central nervous system, has been recently described in children with neurological manifestations that overlap with those observed in serine biosynthesis defects. l-serine therapy may be beneficial in preventing or ameliorating symptoms in serine biosynthesis and transport defects, if started before neurological damage occurs. Herein, we review serine metabolism and transport, the clinical, biochemical, and molecular aspects of serine biosynthesis and transport defects, the mechanisms of these diseases, and the potential role of serine therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Chitosan Coating Treatments and Calcium Dips on Quality and Shelf-life of Strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swailam, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    Strawberries are a highly perishable fruit and storage life may be less than a week. In these investigations strawberries were treated with one of the following treatments: I) 1 % calcium chloride dips (1 % CaCl 2 ), II) 2 % irradiated (150 kGy in the solid state) chitosan (CS) (2 % Irr. CS) and III) with a coating formulation containing 2 % Irr. CS + 1 % CaCl 2 . They were then stored at 6 degree C for up to 24 days. The effectiveness of the different treatments was assessed by evaluating the microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberries during the storage period. Results indicated that no sign of strawberries decay were observed in the fruits treated with CS formulation containing 2 % Irr. CS + 1 % CaCl 2 up to 20 days, where 6.1 % wt loss was detected. This treatment slowed the ripening of strawberries as shown by their retention of firmness and delayed changes in their external colour anthocyanin. To a lesser extent titratable acidity and ph were also affected by coatings. This treatment decreased the initial log counts of total aerobic bacteria, mould and yeast, coliform and E. coli. After 20 days of cold storage, the log counts of these micro organisms were lower than the log count of uncoated strawberries. Thus, CS can be used as a natural antimicrobial coating on fresh strawberries to improve microbiological quality and extend shelf-life. CS formulation contains 2 % Irr. CS + 1 % CaCl 2 extended the shelf-life of strawberries to 20 days in cold storage at 6 degree C with acceptable appearance, firmness, flavour and colour, while uncoated strawberries only lasted for 4 days as a result of mould growth and loss of surface appearance

  17. Biosynthesis of oleamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Gregory P; Driscoll, William J

    2009-01-01

    Oleamide (cis-9-octadecenamide) is the prototype long chain primary fatty acid amide lipid messenger. The natural occurrence of oleamide was first reported in human serum in 1989. Subsequently oleamide was shown to accumulate in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats and to induce sleep when administered to experimental animals. Accordingly, oleamide first became known for its potential role in the mechanisms that mediate the drive to sleep. Oleamide also has profound effects on thermoregulation and acts as an analgesic in several models of experimental pain. Although these important pharmacologic effects are well establish, the biochemical mechanism for the synthesis of oleamide has not yet been defined. This chapter reviews the biosynthetic pathways that have been proposed and highlights two mechanisms which are most supported by experimental evidence: the generation of oleamide from oleoylglycine by the neuropeptide processing enzyme, peptidylglycine alpha-amidating monooxygenase (PAM), and alternatively, the direct amidation of oleic acid via oleoyl coenzyme A by cytochrome c using ammonia as the nitrogen source. The latter mechanism is discussed in the context of apoptosis where oleamide may play a role in regulating gap junction communication. Lastly, several considerations and caveats pertinent to the future study oleamide biosynthesis are discussed.

  18. Glycolipid biosynthesis in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dusen, W.J.; Jaworski, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    The biosynthesis of monogalactosyldiacyl-glycerol (MGDG) was studied in five different cyanobacteria. Previous work has shown Anabaena variabilis to synthesize both MGDG and monoglucosyl-diacylglycerol (MG1cDG) with MG1cDG being the precursor of MGDG. They have examined four other cyanobacteria to determine if a similar relationship exists. The cyanobacteria studied were Anabaena variabilis, Chlorogloeopsis sp., Schizothrix calcicola, Anacystis nidulans, and Anacystis marina. Each were grown in liquid culture and lipids were labeled with 14 C]CO 2 for 20 min., 1.0 hr, 1.0 hr + 10 hr chase. Glycolipids were analyzed by initial separation of MGDG and MG1cDG by TLC followed by further analysis by HPLC. Complete separation of molecular species was obtained isocratically on an ODS column. All of the cyanobacteria labeled 16-C and 18-C fatty acids except for A. marina which labeled only 14-C and 16-C fatty acids. Desaturation of the fatty acids could be observed in the 1.0 hr and chase experiments. All were capable of labeling both MG1cDG and MGDG with the precursor-product relationship being observed. There does not appear to be a direct relationship between the epimerization of the sugar moiety and fatty acid desaturation

  19. Production of medium-chain volatile flavour esters in Pichia pastoris whole-cell biocatalysts with extracellular expression of Saccharomyces cerevisiae acyl-CoA: ethanol O-acyltransferase Eht1 or Eeb1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhuang, Shiwen; Fu, Junshu; Powell, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Medium-chain volatile flavour esters are important molecules since they have extensive applications in food, fragrance, cosmetic, paint and coating industries, which determine different characteristics of aroma or taste in commercial products. Biosynthesis of these compounds by alcoholysis...... pastoris yeasts with functional extracellular expression of Eht1 or Eeb1 were constructed. Flavour production was established through an integrated process with coupled enzyme formation and ester biosynthesis in the recombinant yeasts in one pot, leading to the formation of volatile C6-C14 methyl and ethyl...

  20. Carotenoid composition of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Pelayo, Raúl; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso

    2016-05-15

    The carotenoid composition of strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) fruits has been characterised in detail and quantified for the first time. According to the total carotenoid content (over 340 μg/g dw), mature strawberry tree berries can be classified as fruits with very high carotenoid content (>20 μg/g dw). (all-E)-Violaxanthin and 9Z-violaxanthin were found to be the major carotenoid pigments, accounting for more than 60%, responsible for the bright colour of the flesh of ripe fruits. In addition other 5,6-epoxide carotenoids, such as (all-E)-neoxanthin, (9'Z)-neoxanthin (all-E)-antheraxanthin and lutein 5,6-epoxide, together with (all-E)-lutein, (all-E)-zeaxanthin and (all-E)-β-carotene were found at high levels (>5-20 μg/g dw). The LC-MS (APCI+) analysis of the xanthophyll fraction in their native state (direct extract) revealed that most of them (>90%) were totally esterified with saturated fatty acids (capric, lauric, myristic, palmitic and stearic). Monoesters, homodiesters and heterodiesters of (all-E)-violaxanthin and 9Z-violaxanthin were the major pigments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. The memory of iron stress in strawberry plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gama, Florinda; Saavedra, Teresa; da Silva, José Paulo; Miguel, Maria Graça; de Varennes, Amarilis; Correia, Pedro José; Pestana, Maribela

    2016-07-01

    To provide information towards optimization of strategies to treat Fe deficiency, experiments were conducted to study the responses of Fe-deficient plants to the resupply of Fe. Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) was used as model plant. Bare-root transplants of strawberry (cv. 'Diamante') were grown for 42 days in Hoagland's nutrient solutions without Fe (Fe0) and containing 10 μM of Fe as Fe-EDDHA (control, Fe10). For plants under Fe0 the total chlorophyll concentration of young leaves decreased progressively on time, showing the typical symptoms of iron chlorosis. After 35 days the Fe concentration was 6% of that observed for plants growing under Fe10. Half of plants growing under Fe0 were then Fe-resupplied by adding 10 μM of Fe to the Fe0 nutrient solution (FeR). Full Chlorophyll recovery of young leaves took place within 12 days. Root ferric chelate-reductase activity (FCR) and succinic and citric acid concentrations increased in FeR plants. Fe partition revealed that FeR plants expressively accumulated this nutrient in the crown and flowers. This observation can be due to a passive deactivation mechanism of the FCR activity, associated with continuous synthesis of succinic and citric acids at root level, and consequent greater uptake of Fe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Chemical composition and antioxidant activity of two strawberry cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đilas Sonja M.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The macro- and micro-chemical composition, as well as antioxidant activity of two strawberry cultivars, Marmolada and Clery, were studied. Results showed a noticeable difference in the sugar, protein and pectin contents. Clery had 6.92% and Marmolada 4.93% of total sugar. Also, protein and pectin contents were higher in the Clery cultivar. No significant difference was observed in acidity, as well as in ash and cellulose content. Marmolada had a higher content of total phenolics and flavonoids (228.04 mg GAE /100 g FW and 136.01 mg RE/100 g FW, respectively . The anthocyanins content in Marmolada (32.0 mg CGE/100 g FW was slightly lower than in Clery (36.0 mg CGE/100 g FW. The antioxidant activity was evaluated spectrophotometrically, using 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity assay. The DPPH free radical scavenging activity, expressed as EC50 value, of Marmolada (0.77 mg/ml was higher than of Clery (0.83 mg/ml. There was a significant positive correlation (R2>0.90 between the concentration of phenolics/flavonoids/anthocyanins and DPPH radical scavenging activity of both strawberry cultivars. These results also showed that the antioxidant value of 100 g FW Marmolada and Clery is equivalent to 237.91 mg and 219.01 mg of vitamin C, respectively.

  3. Radiation processing of fruits: application to strawberries and prunes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levillain, M.

    1986-10-01

    Extending the shelf-life of fresh fruit by means of low-dose irradiation (radurization) is not a new idea: experiments in that field started in the early sixties. These experiments have actually proved that, in some cases, irradiation can achieve shelf-life extension, either through a delay in ripening (bananas), or through rot inhibition (soft cherries, apricots, tomatoes, strawberries). Alas, they have also highlighted the intolerance showed by a number of fruits when radurized: irradiation is apt to have them ripen more rapidly (peaches, nectarines) or to soften them too much (pears, table grapes, oranges, apples, plums, grapefruit, melons, honeydew melons). Even in those cases where irradiation results in a benefit, this benefit varies depending on the variety of fruit involved, as can be seen from a deep survey of the irradiation of strawberries. Preservation of dehydrated fruit is a different matter. Prunes, for instance, would be contamined by molds, wasn't it for the addition of sorbic acid during the fabrication process. Ionization of prunes can allow producers to avoid the use of a chemical, and to keep the prunes at a greater degree of humidity [fr

  4. Effect of gamma irradiation on storability of strawberry (Fragaria sp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Bachir, M; Farah, S [Atomic Energy Commission, Dept. of Agriculture, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    1998-02-01

    Despite the increased production of strawberry in Syria, the storability and marketability of fruits were not well studied. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation on storability of Senga sengana strawberry produced in Syria and the effect of gamma irradiation on fungal sp. i.e. Botrytis; Penicillium; Rhizopus. The fruits were treated with 1 , 2 and 3 KGy of gamma rays. Treated and untreated fruits were stored at 2 to 4 centigrade and 80 to 90 % relative humidity (RH). In order to investigate their marketability, the fruits where held at room temperature (25 to 30 centigrade). Weight loss, microbial decay, and total loss, juice production, pH, total soluble solids of the juice and organoleptic qualities were evaluated throughout the different storage and marketing periods. The results indicate that gamma irradiation decreased the microbial decay and increased the storability and marketability of fruits by 50 and 100% after using 2 and 3 kGy, respectively. D10 were 1.8 and 2.4 for Botrytis and Rhizopus respectively. One day after irradiation total soluble solids and its pH values were increased. Fourteen days later, irradiated fruits produced more juice with higher pH, but total soluble solids were less. Gamma irradiation did not have an effect on aroma and colour of fruits, whereas, 3 kGy of gamma irradiation had an adverse negative effect on taste. (author)

  5. Mycorrhizal inoculation affects the phytochemical content in strawberry fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Cecatto

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of the inoculation date of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on the fruit quality and the content of phytochemicals in a strawberry soilless growing system. The experiment was performed in Huelva (Spain and was conducted in a greenhouse on the La Rábida Campus of Huelva University under natural light and temperature from October 2013 to June 2014. Three short-day strawberry cultivars (‘Splendor’, ‘Sabrina’ and ‘Fortuna’ were grown in polyethylene bags filled with coconut fibres. Randomized block design, with 3 repetitions and factorial arrangement (3 cultivars x 3 treatments, was established. Each replicate consisted of one bag with 12 plants supporting structures at 40 cm height. The treatments were: T1 = mycorrhizal inoculation in the transplantation; T2 = mycorrhizal inoculation 30 days after transplantation (DAT; and T0 = control treatment, without inoculation. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi inoculation significantly affected the contents of anthocyanin and phenolics. When the inoculation is performed in the transplantation, the fruits showed a high content of anthocyanin and total phenolics. The mycorrhizal inoculation influences decreasing the acidity in fruit throughout the growing season and increase firmness only during the early stage of production.

  6. Modelling formulae of strawberry whey drinks of prophylactic application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Tkachenko

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Expediency of the development of formulae and innovative technologies for production of prophylactic application drinks possessing antioxidant, probiotic and hepatoprotective properties with the use of the secondary dairy product – whey, as well as the domestic vegetable raw materials having a high content of bioactive substances has been substantiated.Formulation composition of the prophylactic drinks based on cheese whey, extract of Tagetes patula flowers and the berry filler “Strawberry” with the use of the response surface method has been developed. Bioactivity of the drinks and the complex quality indicator which accounts for the total influence of the bioactivity, organoleptic assessment and weight coefficients of the specified unit indicators were taken as the optimization criteria; as the independent factors that were varied in the course of the experiment, the mass fractions of the marigold flowers extract and the strawberries filler were selected. It is recommended that the mass fractions of the berry filler “Strawberry” and the extract of Tagetes patula flowers in the prophylactic drinks are set as 7 and 20 % of the finished product, accordingly. The practical mass fraction of the citric acid of 0.2 % was determined as it ensures high organoleptic characteristics of the finished drinks. Recommendations are given concerning development of innovative technologies of unfermented and fermented strawberry whey drinks of prophylactic application enriched with the extract of Tagetes patula flowers.

  7. Regulation of cell wall biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ruiqin; Ye, Zheng-Hua

    2007-12-01

    Plant cell walls differ in their amount and composition among various cell types and even in different microdomains of the wall of a given cell. Plants must have evolved regulatory mechanisms controlling biosynthesis, targeted secretion, and assembly of wall components to achieve the heterogeneity in cell walls. A number of factors, including hormones, the cytoskeleton, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, phosphoinositides, and sugar nucleotide supply, have been implicated in the regulation of cell wall biosynthesis or deposition. In the past two years, there have been important discoveries in transcriptional regulation of secondary wall biosynthesis. Several transcription factors in the NAC and MYB families have been shown to be the key switches for activation of secondary wall biosynthesis. These studies suggest a transcriptional network comprised of a hierarchy of transcription factors is involved in regulating secondary wall biosynthesis. Further investigation and integration of the regulatory players participating in the making of cell walls will certainly lead to our understanding of how wall amounts and composition are controlled in a given cell type. This may eventually allow custom design of plant cell walls on the basis of our needs.

  8. Screening for anthracnose disease resistance in strawberry using a detached leaf assay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoculation of detached strawberry leaves with Colletotrichum species may provide a rapid, non-destructive method of identifying anthracnose resistant germplasm. The reliability and validity of assessing disease severity is critical to disease management decisions. We inoculated detached strawberr...

  9. Rheological properties of strawberry fruit coating with methylcellulose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Nadim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The maintenance of the quality of fresh products is still a major challenge for the consumers. The most important quality attributes contributing to the marketability of fresh fruit include appearance, color, texture, flavor, nutritional value and microbial safety. Strawberry fruits should be firm but not crunchy. Decreased quality during postharvest handling is most often associated with water loss and decay. The postharvest life of strawberries can be extended by coating technique combined with refrigeration. Application of edible coatings is a conventional method to increase shelf life and maintain fruit quality. Edible coatings can provide an alternative to enlarge fresh fruits’ postharvest life. In this study, the effects of application of methyl cellulose edible coatings and storage time on some mechanical properties, including: the yield stress, yield strain, energy of rupture and modulus of elasticity and also, the viscoelastic behavior of the strawberry fruit was investigated. Materials and Methods: MC (Methocel, Dow Chemical Company, Midland, MI coating was prepared by solubilizing MC powder (3.0 g per 100 mL in a water–ethyl alcohol mixture (2:1 at 75ºC under the high speedmixer (900 rpm for 15 min. Coatings were used directly on the fruit surface. The physical and mechanical characteristics of fruits were analyzed on 2, 5, 8 and 11 days of storage. The puncture test and relaxation test were done using a texture analyzer (Zwick/Roell Model BT1_FR0.5TH.D14, Zwick GmbH Co., Ulm, Germany; using Xforce HP model of loadcell with capacity of 500 N, by 2 mv/v characteristic. General Maxwell model is widely used to analyze experimental results of the stress tests applied for relaxation. The obtained model coefficients were determined and evaluated from relaxation stress curves. Residues were determined using the sequential model. Usually, multicomponent models can properly describe the actual behavior of agricultural

  10. Preparation and Application of LDPE/ZnO Nanocomposites for Extending Shelf Life of Fresh Strawberries

    OpenAIRE

    Emamifar, Aryou; Mohammadizadeh, Mehri

    2015-01-01

    Strawberries have a very short post-harvest life mostly due to their relatively high water content, intense metabolic activity and susceptibility to microbial rot. Antimicrobial low-density polyethylene nanocomposite films containing ZnO nanoparticles at different mass fractions were prepared by melt mixing and followed by compression moulding using a hot press machine. Fresh strawberries were packed in nanocomposite films and stored at 4 °C. Their microbial stability, ascorbic acid content a...

  11. Teeth re-whitening effect of strawberry juice on coffee stained teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Annisya Pramesti; Tadeus Arufan Jasrin; Opik Taofik Hidayat

    2018-01-01

    Many people favor coffee. However, regarding health and aesthetic dentistry, coffee gives a negative effect. Tanin in coffee causes a brown stain on the tooth surface. Therefore, in aesthetic dental care, teeth whitening has become popular matter. One of the natural ingredients used for teeth whitening treatment is strawberry. The purpose of this study was to obtained data regarding the effect of strawberry juice on the re-whitening process of the coffee-stained tooth enamel surface. This stu...

  12. Ester Tuiksoo. Proua Suhkru kibedad päevad / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Piret Tali

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2005-01-01

    Põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo, kellel peagi täitub ministri ametis aasta Euroopa Liidu suhkrutrahvist, maaettevõtlusest, põllumajandusest, Euroopa Liidu toetustest, ministri elu- ja teenistuskäigust. Lisa: Ester Tuiksoo

  13. Transcription profile data of phorbol esters biosynthetic genes during developmental stages in Jatropha curcas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadid, Nurul; Mardika, Rizal Kharisma; Purwani, Kristanti Indah; Permatasari, Erlyta Vivi; Prasetyowati, Indah; Irawan, Mohammad Isa

    2018-06-01

    Jatropha curcas is currently known as an alternative source for biodiesel production. Beside its high free fatty acid content, J. curcas also contains typical diterpenoid-toxic compounds of Euphorbiaceae plant namely phorbol esters. This article present the transcription profile data of genes involved in the biosynthesis of phorbol esters at different developmental stages of leaves, fruit, and seed in Jatropha curcas . Transcriptional profiles were analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). We used two genes including GGPPS (Geranylgeranyl diphospate synthase), which is responsible for the formation of common diterpenoid precursor (GGPP) and CS (Casbene Synthase), which functions in the synthesis of casbene. Meanwhile, J. curcas Actin ( ACT ) was used as internal standard. We demonstrated dynamic of GGPPS and CS expression among different stage of development of leaves, fruit and seed in Jatropha .

  14. Yeast: the soul of beer's aroma--a review of flavour-active esters and higher alcohols produced by the brewing yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Eduardo J; Teixeira, José A; Brányik, Tomás; Vicente, António A

    2014-03-01

    Among the most important factors influencing beer quality is the presence of well-adjusted amounts of higher alcohols and esters. Thus, a heavy body of literature focuses on these substances and on the parameters influencing their production by the brewing yeast. Additionally, the complex metabolic pathways involved in their synthesis require special attention. More than a century of data, mainly in genetic and proteomic fields, has built up enough information to describe in detail each step in the pathway for the synthesis of higher alcohols and their esters, but there is still place for more. Higher alcohols are formed either by anabolism or catabolism (Ehrlich pathway) of amino acids. Esters are formed by enzymatic condensation of organic acids and alcohols. The current paper reviews the up-to-date knowledge in the pathways involving the synthesis of higher alcohols and esters by brewing yeasts. Fermentation parameters affecting yeast response during biosynthesis of these aromatic substances are also fully reviewed.

  15. Method of making a cyanate ester foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celina, Mathias C.; Giron, Nicholas Henry

    2014-08-05

    A cyanate ester resin mixture with at least one cyanate ester resin, an isocyanate foaming resin, other co-curatives such as polyol or epoxy compounds, a surfactant, and a catalyst/water can react to form a foaming resin that can be cured at a temperature greater than 50.degree. C. to form a cyanate ester foam. The cyanate ester foam can be heated to a temperature greater than 400.degree. C. in a non-oxidative atmosphere to provide a carbonaceous char foam.

  16. α,β-Unsaturated monoterpene acid glucose esters: structural diversity, bioactivities and functional roles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodger, Jason Q D; Woodrow, Ian E

    2011-12-01

    The glycosylation of lipophilic small molecules produces many important plant secondary metabolites. The majority of these are O-glycosides with relatively fewer occurring as glucose esters of aromatic or aliphatic acids. In particular, monoterpene acid glucose esters have much lower structural diversity and distribution compared to monoterpene glycosides. Nevertheless, there have been over 20 monoterpene acid glucose esters described from trees in the genus Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae) in recent years, all based on oleuropeic acid, menthiafolic acid or both. Here we review all of the glucose esters containing these monoterpenoids identified in plants to date. Many of the compounds contain phenolic aglycones and all contain at least one α,β-unsaturated carbonyl, affording a number of important potential therapeutic reactivities such as anti-tumor promotion, carcinogenesis suppression, and anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Additional properties such as cytotoxicity, bitterness, and repellency are suggestive of a role in plant defence, but we also discuss their localization to the exterior of foliar secretory cavity lumina, and suggest they may also protect secretory cells from toxic terpenes housed within these structures. Finally we discuss how the use of a recently developed protocol to isolate secretory cavities in a functional state could be used in conjunction with systems biology approaches to help characterize their biosynthesis and roles in plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Use of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi to Improve Strawberry Production in Coir Substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louisa Robinson Boyer

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry is an important fruit crop within the UK. To reduce the impact of soil-borne diseases and extend the production season, more than half of the UK strawberry production is now in substrate (predominantly coir under protection. Substrates such as coir are usually depleted of microbes including arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF and consequently the introduction of beneficial microbes is likely to benefit commercial cropping systems. Inoculating strawberry plants in substrate other than coir has been shown to increase plants tolerance to soil-borne pathogens and water stress. We carried out studies to investigate whether AMF could improve strawberry production in coir under low nitrogen input and regulated deficit irrigation. Application of AMF led to an appreciable increase in the size and number of class I fruit, especially under either deficient irrigation or low nitrogen input condition. However, root length colonisation by AMF was reduced in strawberry grown in coir compared to soil and Terragreen. Furthermore, the appearance of AMF colonising strawberry and maize roots grown in coir showed some physical differences from the structure in colonised roots in soil and Terragreen: the colonization structure appeared to be more compact and smaller in coir.

  18. Successful strategy for the selection of new strawberry-associated rhizobacteria antagonistic to Verticillium wilt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berg, G; Kurze, S; Buchner, A; Wellington, E M; Smalla, K

    2000-12-01

    In order to isolate and characterize new strawberry-associated bacteria antagonistic to the soil-borne pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb., rhizobacterial populations from two different strawberry species, Greenish Strawberry (Fragaria viridis) and Garden Strawberry (F. x ananassa) obtained after plating onto King's B and glycerol-arginine agar, were screened for in vitro antagonism toward V. dahliae. The proportion of isolates with antifungal activity determined in in vitro assay against V. dahliae was higher for the Garden Strawberry than for the Greenish Strawberry. From 300 isolates, 20 isolates with strong antifungal activity were selected characterized by physiological profiling and molecular fingerprinting methods. Diversity among the isolates was characterized with molecular fingerprints using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and the more discriminating BOX-PCR fingerprint method. The physiological profiles were well correlated with molecular fingerprinting pattern analysis. Significant reduction of Verticillium wilt by bacterial dipping bath treatment was shown in the greenhouse and in fields naturally infested by V. dahliae. The relative increase of yield ranged from 117% (Streptomyces albidoflavus S1) to 344% (Pseudomonas fluorescens P10) in greenhouse trials, and 113% (Streptomyces albidoflavus S1) to 247% (Pseudomonas fluorescens P6) in field trials. Evaluation resulted in the selection of three effective biocontrol agents (Pseudomonas fluorescens P6, P10, and Streptomyces diastatochromogenes S9) antagonistic to the Verticillium wilt pathogen.

  19. Effect of Storage on the Physico-Chemical and Antioxidant Properties of Strawberry and Kiwi Leathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha-Meyer, Anibal A; D'Ignoti, Valeria; Saez, Barbara; Diaz, Ricardo I; Torres, Carolina A

    2016-03-01

    Strawberry and kiwi leathers were used to develop a new healthy and preservative-free fruit snack for new markets. Fruit puree was dehydrated at 60 °C for 20 h and subjected to accelerated storage. Soluble solids, titratable acidity, pH, water activity (aw ), total phenolic (TP), antioxidant activity (AOA) and capacity (ORAC), and color change (browning index) were measured in leathers, cooked, and fresh purees. An untrained panel was used to evaluate consumer acceptability. Soluble solids of fresh purees were 11.24 to 13.04 °Brix, whereas pH was 3.46 to 3.39. Leathers presented an aw of 0.59 to 0.67, and a moisture content of 21 kg water/100 kg. BI decreased in both leathers over accelerated storage period. TP and AOA were higher (P ≤ 0.05) in strawberry formulations. ORAC decreased 57% in strawberry and 65% in kiwi leathers when compared to fruit puree. TP and AOA increased in strawberries during storage. Strawberry and Kiwi leathers may be a feasible new, natural, high antioxidant, and healthy snack for the Chilean and other world markets, such as Europe, particularly the strawberry leather, which was preferred by untrained panelists. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  20. Fate and activity of fungal BCAs delivered to strawberry flowers and their potential for integration with fungicides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgit; Andersen, Birgitte; Thrane, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    Grey mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is a serious strawberry disease. Yield loss is prevented by repeated fungicide treatments during flowering which increases the risk of pesticide residues in berries. Fruit lesions are typically initiated from B. cinerea infected stamens or from dead infected......) the interaction between BCAs and B. cinerea on strawberry flowers, 2) the sensitivity of BCAs to strawberry fungicides, and 3) the effect of combined BCA+fungicide treatment on BCAs and on the indigenous mycobiota....

  1. Scalable preparation of high purity rutin fatty acid esters following enzymatic synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lue, Bena-Marie; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    2010-01-01

    Investigations into expanded uses of modified flavonoids are often limited by the availability of these high purity compounds. As such, a simple, effective and relatively fast method for isolation of gram quantities of both long and medium chain fatty acid esters of rutin following scaled......-up biosynthesis reactions was established. Acylation reactions of rutin and palmitic or lauric acids were efficient in systems containing dried acetone and molecular sieves, yielding from 70–77% bioconversion after 96 h. Thereafter, high purity isolates (>97%) were easily obtained in significant quantities...

  2. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Biotechnology Division, Applied Science Department, University of ... Abstract. In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic ... example of the biosynthesis using fungi was that the cell-.

  3. Composition and biosynthesis of lipids in the healthy human skeletal muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlenska, K.

    1979-01-01

    The skeletal muscle samples were ground in a Warburg Apparatus under oxygen, incubated for 20 to 120 min. at 37 0 C together with the three precursors of lipid biosynthesis, and oxygen uptake and 14 Co 2 -formation measured. Both parameters showed increasing values during the incubation time. The total lipid extract was isolated from the labelled skeletal muscle samples and was separated, following chromatographic purification on Sephatex-G 25 with the aid of thin-layer chromatography on silica gel, into the following fractions in order of decreasing concentration: phospholipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, mono- and diglyceride fraction, cholesterol ester fraction. Following in-vitro labelling with the three precursors, of the phospholipid fraction [ 3 H] palmilic and showed the highest, increasing incorporation rate, and [ 14 C] acetate the lowest level and slow rate of incorporation. For the central fat fraction labelling incorporation rate decreased in the order: monoglycerides > diglycerides > triglycerides. [ 14 C] acetate labelling occurred to a greater extent in cholestorol esters than in the cholestorol fraction. These findings indicate a de-novo biosynthesis of fatty acids from acetate and their incorporation in mono-, di-and triglycerides and in cholesterol ester. Moreover, incorporation of palmitic and in these fractions, de-novo synthesis of cholesterol, and incorporation of PO 4 3 - and labelled fatty acids in the phospholipid fraction are also suggested. (orig./MG) [de

  4. An anthocyanin rich strawberry extract induces apoptosis and ROS while decreases glycolysis and fibrosis in human uterine leiomyoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Md Soriful; Giampieri, Francesca; Janjusevic, Milijana; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Mazzoni, Luca; Greco, Stefania; Giannubilo, Stefano Raffaele; Ciavattini, Andrea; Mezzetti, Bruno; Capocasa, Franco; Castellucci, Mario; Battino, Maurizio; Ciarmela, Pasquapina

    2017-04-04

    Uterine leiomyomas are highly prevalent benign tumors in reproductive aged women. Unfortunately, medical treatments are still limited and no preventive therapies have been developed. In the present study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of strawberry extract on uterine leiomyoma cells. Leiomyoma and myometrial cells were treated with strawberry (cultivar Alba) extract (250 μg/ml) for 48 h to measure apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS), oxidative phosphorylation (OCR, oxygen consumption rate) and glycolysis (ECAR, extracellular acidification rate) as well as fibrosis associated gene and/or protein expression. In leiomyoma cells, strawberry increased the percentage of apoptotic and dead cells. Strawberry significantly increased ROS concentration in leiomyoma cells, while decreased it in myometrial cells. After strawberry treatment, leiomyoma cells showed a significant decreased rate of ECAR, while OCR was unchanged in both myometrial and leiomyoma cells. Strawberry significantly decreased collagen1A1, fibronectin and versican mRNA expression in leiomyoma cells. The reduced protein expression of fibronectin was observed by strawberry extract in leiomyoma cells as well. Furthermore, strawberry was able to reduce activin A induced fibronectin, collagen1A1, and versican as well as activin A and PAI-1 mRNA expression in leiomyoma cells. This study suggests that strawberry can be developed as therapeutic and/or preventive agent for uterine leiomyomas.

  5. Detection of irradiation of strawberries by determining their microbial characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamminga, S.K.; Beumer, R.R.; Kampelmacher, E.H.

    1978-01-01

    A system was elaborated to determine whether strawberries have been irradiated, using 3 criteria, namely the number of Enterobacteriaceae, the percentage of yeasts on total microflora (or total absence of microorganisms) and the number of Pseudomonas. The higher the numbers of Enterobacteriaceae and/or Pseudomonas, the lower the probability that the strawberries have been irradiated. The higher the yeast percentage, the more the conclusion is justified that irradiation has taken place. The same holds true for total absence of microorganisms. By combining results for the 3 criteria an identification scheme was drawn up that would have led to 189 correct decisions (92.2%) on 205 samples (102 irradiated with 200krad, 103 unirradiated). In only 3 samples (1.5%) the combination of properties resembled that generally shown by the opposite group in such a way that they would have been classified in the wrong category. Some combinations of results for the 3 criteria were found in about equal numbers for both irradiated and unirradiated samples. These samples and others showing contradictory results, totalling 13 samples (6.3%), had to be placed in a separate 'intermediate' category, about which no opinion could be given. The only possibility in such cases is to investigate new samples. Sixty of the samples were investigated without the investigators knowing whether the samples had been irradiated; 56 of them would have been classified in the right category with the help of the scheme made up using the previous data; the remaining 4 had to be classified in the intermediate category. (author)

  6. Triphenyltin derivatives of sulfanylcarboxylic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, José S; Couce, María D; Sánchez, Agustín; Seoane, Rafael; Sordo, José; Perez-Estévez, Antonio; Vázquez-López, Ezequiel

    2018-03-01

    The reaction of 3-(aryl)-2-sulfanylpropenoic acids [H 2 xspa; x: p=3-phenyl-, f=3-(2-furyl)-, t=3-(2-thienyl)-] with methanol or ethanol gave the corresponding methyl (Hxspme) or ethyl (Hxspee) esters. The reaction of these esters (HL) with triphenyltin(IV) hydroxide gave compounds of the type [SnPh 3 L], which were isolated and characterized as solids by elemental analysis, IR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry and in solution by multinuclear ( 1 H, 13 C and 119 Sn) NMR spectroscopy. The structures of [SnPh 3 (pspme)], [SnPh 3 (fspme)] and [SnPh 3 (fspee)] were determined by X-ray diffractometry and the antimicrobial activity against E. coli, S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, Resistant P. aeruginosa (a strain resistant to 'carbapenem'), and C. albicans was tested and the in vitro cytotoxic activity against the HeLa-229, A2780 and A2780cis cell lines was determined for all compounds. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of glutathione biosynthesis in endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Espinosa-Díez

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Glutathione (GSH biosynthesis is essential for cellular redox homeostasis and antioxidant defense. The rate-limiting step requires glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL, which is composed of the catalytic (GCLc and the modulatory (GCLm subunits. To evaluate the contribution of GCLc to endothelial function we generated an endothelial-specific Gclc haplo-insufficient mouse model (Gclc e/+ mice. In murine lung endothelial cells (MLEC derived from these mice we observed a 50% reduction in GCLc levels compared to lung fibroblasts from the same mice. MLEC obtained from haplo-insufficient mice showed significant reduction in GSH levels as well as increased basal and stimulated ROS levels, reduced phosphorylation of eNOS (Ser 1177 and increased eNOS S-glutathionylation, compared to MLEC from wild type (WT mice. Studies in mesenteric arteries demonstrated impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Gclc(e/+ male mice, which was corrected by pre-incubation with GSH-ethyl-ester and BH4. To study the contribution of endothelial GSH synthesis to renal fibrosis we employed the unilateral ureteral obstruction model in WT and Gclc(e/+ mice. We observed that obstructed kidneys from Gclc(e/+ mice exhibited increased deposition of fibrotic markers and reduced Nrf2 levels. We conclude that the preservation of endothelial GSH biosynthesis is not only critical for endothelial function but also in anti-fibrotic responses. Keywords: Glutamate-cysteine ligase, ROS, Glutathione, Endothelial dysfunction, Kidney Fibrosis

  8. Role of glutathione biosynthesis in endothelial dysfunction and fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinosa-Díez, Cristina; Miguel, Verónica; Vallejo, Susana; Sánchez, Francisco J; Sandoval, Elena; Blanco, Eva; Cannata, Pablo; Peiró, Concepción; Sánchez-Ferrer, Carlos F; Lamas, Santiago

    2018-04-01

    Glutathione (GSH) biosynthesis is essential for cellular redox homeostasis and antioxidant defense. The rate-limiting step requires glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCL), which is composed of the catalytic (GCLc) and the modulatory (GCLm) subunits. To evaluate the contribution of GCLc to endothelial function we generated an endothelial-specific Gclc haplo-insufficient mouse model (Gclc e/+ mice). In murine lung endothelial cells (MLEC) derived from these mice we observed a 50% reduction in GCLc levels compared to lung fibroblasts from the same mice. MLEC obtained from haplo-insufficient mice showed significant reduction in GSH levels as well as increased basal and stimulated ROS levels, reduced phosphorylation of eNOS (Ser 1177) and increased eNOS S-glutathionylation, compared to MLEC from wild type (WT) mice. Studies in mesenteric arteries demonstrated impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation in Gclc(e/+) male mice, which was corrected by pre-incubation with GSH-ethyl-ester and BH 4 . To study the contribution of endothelial GSH synthesis to renal fibrosis we employed the unilateral ureteral obstruction model in WT and Gclc(e/+) mice. We observed that obstructed kidneys from Gclc(e/+) mice exhibited increased deposition of fibrotic markers and reduced Nrf2 levels. We conclude that the preservation of endothelial GSH biosynthesis is not only critical for endothelial function but also in anti-fibrotic responses. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The effects of strawberry cropping practices on the strawberry tortricid (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), its naturel enemies, and the presences of nematodes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigsgaard, Lene; Naulin, Cyril; Haukeland, Solveig

    2014-01-01

    of organic and conventional farms to test the hypothesis that farming practice (organic versus conventional) will affect the level of pest infestation and will affect the natural enemies. In addition, the number of years with strawberries on the farm, field age, and other factors that may affect pests...... and their natural enemies were considered. Farms were characterized by their cropping practices, cropping history, and other parameters. Field-collected larvae were laboratory reared to assess mortality from parasitoids and entomopathogenic fungi. In 2010, a survey of nematodes was made to assess the response......-year fields in 2010. Cropping practice did not lead to significant differences in the level of total parasitism or in C. aretas parasitism; however, C. aretas contributed to a higher proportion of the parasitized larvae on conventional farms than on organic farms. Mortality from unknown causes of A. comariana...

  10. Preparation of Spirocyclic β-Proline Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fjelbye, Kasper; Marigo, Mauro; Clausen, Rasmus Prætorius

    2017-01-01

    A series of novel N-Bn-protected spirocyclic β-proline esters were prepared using [3+2] cycloaddition and subsequently converted into their corresponding aldehydes. In addition, two novel N-Cbz-protected spirocyclic β-proline esters were prepared using intramolecular cyclization starting from...

  11. Anticholinesterase activity of fluorochloronitroacetic acid esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivanov, Yu.Ya.; Brel, V.K. Martynov, I.V.

    1984-11-01

    Results are presented from pharmacologic and biochemical experiments leading to the conclusion that fluorochloronitroacetic acid esters have anticholinesterase activity. Since the esters caused muscular weakness in mice, experiments were performed on isolated tissue preparation. The biochemical experiments consisted of finding the biomolecular constants of irreversible inhibition of acetylcholinesterase by the esters, using acetylcholinesterase from human erythrocytes, as well as horse serum cholinesterase. The ethyl and n-propyl esters of halogen nitroacetic acid were used in all experiments. It was found that the propyl ester caused an increase in the force of individual contractions in the isolated muscle specimens, plus an inability of the muscle to retain tetanus. The substances were determined to have an anticholinesterase effect. The mechanism of cholinesterase inhibition is not yet known. It is probable that the substances acylate the serine hydroxyl of the esterase center of the cholinestersase. 7 references, 1 figure.

  12. Characterization of soil chemical properties of strawberry fields using principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gláucia Oliveira Islabão

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the largest strawberry-producing municipalities of Rio Grande do Sul (RS is Turuçu, in the South of the State. The strawberry production system adopted by farmers is similar to that used in other regions in Brazil and in the world. The main difference is related to the soil management, which can change the soil chemical properties during the strawberry cycle. This study had the objective of assessing the spatial and temporal distribution of soil fertility parameters using principal component analysis (PCA. Soil sampling was based on topography, dividing the field in three thirds: upper, middle and lower. From each of these thirds, five soil samples were randomly collected in the 0-0.20 m layer, to form a composite sample for each third. Four samples were taken during the strawberry cycle and the following properties were determined: soil organic matter (OM, soil total nitrogen (N, available phosphorus (P and potassium (K, exchangeable calcium (Ca and magnesium (Mg, soil pH (pH, cation exchange capacity (CEC at pH 7.0, soil base (V% and soil aluminum saturation(m%. No spatial variation was observed for any of the studied soil fertility parameters in the strawberry fields and temporal variation was only detected for available K. Phosphorus and K contents were always high or very high from the beginning of the strawberry cycle, while pH values ranged from very low to very high. Principal component analysis allowed the clustering of all strawberry fields based on variables related to soil acidity and organic matter content.

  13. Partial activation of SA- and JA-defensive pathways in strawberry upon Colletotrichum acutatum interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FRANCISCO AMIL-RUIZ

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the nature of pathogen host interaction may help improve strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa cultivars. Plant resistance to pathogenic agents usually operates through a complex network of defense mechanisms mediated by a diverse array of signaling molecules. In strawberry, resistance to a variety of pathogens has been reported to be mostly polygenic and quantitatively inherited, making it difficult to associate molecular markers with disease resistance genes. Colletotrichum acutatum spp. is a major strawberry pathogen, and completely resistant cultivars have not been reported. Moreover, strawberry defense network components and mechanisms remain largely unknown and poorly understood. Assessment of the strawberry response to C. acutatum included a global transcript analysis, and acidic hormones SA and JA measurements were analyzed after challenge with the pathogen. Induction of transcripts corresponding to the SA and JA signaling pathways and key genes controlling major steps within these defense pathways was detected. Accordingly, SA and JA accumulated in strawberry after infection. Contrastingly, induction of several important SA, JA, and oxidative stress-responsive defense genes, including FaPR1-1, FaLOX2, FaJAR1, FaPDF1, and FaGST1, was not detected, which suggests that specific branches in these defense pathways (those leading to FaPR1-2, FaPR2-1, FaPR2-2, FaAOS, FaPR5 and FaPR10 were activated. Our results reveal that specific aspects in SA and JA dependent signaling pathways are activated in strawberry upon interaction with C. acutatum. Certain described defense-associated transcripts related to these two known signaling pathways do not increase in abundance following infection. This finding suggests new insight into a specific putative molecular strategy for defense against this pathogen.

  14. Gamma radiolysis and vinyl esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Bruyn, H.; Balic, R.; Gilbert, R.G.

    1998-01-01

    The principle behind γ relaxation of free-radical polymerizations is that the source of initiating radicals can be switched off 'instantaneously'. In the absence of initiating radicals the only kinetic events remaining are propagation, transfer and termination. For monomers whose propagation rate coefficients have been determined, relaxation behaviour can be interpreted to determine radical-loss rate coefficients and test models of loss mechanisms. This technique has been employed successfully on styrene and MMA emulsion polymerizations. In the present study, vinyl acetate and vinyl neo-decanoate (a ten-carbon-branched homologue of vinyl acetate) were studied, with the propagation rate coefficients for both monomers being established by pulsed-laser polymerization. Both were found to exhibit rapid γ relaxation rates in emulsion polymerization. This is a surprising result because mechanisms for rapid relaxation in emulsion polymerizations require that chain transfer to monomer (which is rapid for both monomers) is followed by exit from the particle into the aqueous phase with subsequent re-entry into a radical-containing particle leading to bimolecular termination. It is not unreasonable to suppose that this may be possible for vinyl acetate which is fairly water soluble (∼0.3 M). However, vinyl neo-decanoate is virtually insoluble (∼0.00004 M) and hence desorption is extremely unlikely. The most likely explanation for the observed rapid relaxations is that some of the radicals produced by γ radiolysis are slow to initiate vinyl esters and hence act as radical traps. As vinyl esters are known to be particularly unreactive monomers. it is feasible that this experimental artifact affects them to a much greater extent than some of the monomers studied successfully with this technique in the past

  15. Inactivation of E.coli O157:H7 and Salmonella on fresh strawberries by antimicrobial washing and coating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antimicrobial washing, antimicrobial coating, and a combination of both treatments were evaluated for their ability to inactivate artificially inoculated foodborne pathogens and native microflora on strawberries stored at 4 degrees C. Strawberries were inoculated with a six-strain composite of E. co...

  16. Polyphenol-Rich Strawberry Extract Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Hydrogen Peroxide Oxidative Damage and Improves Mitochondrial Functionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Giampieri

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry bioactive compounds are widely known to be powerful antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract were evaluated using human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2. Firstly, the phenol and flavonoid contents of strawberry extract were studied, as well as the antioxidant capacity. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to determine the vitamin C and β-carotene concentration, while HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis was used for anthocyanin identification. Strawberry extract presented a high antioxidant capacity, and a relevant concentration of vitamins and phenolics. Pelargonidin- and cyanidin-glycosides were the most representative anthocyanin components of the fruits. Fibroblasts incubated with strawberry extract and stressed with H2O2 showed an increase in cell viability, a smaller intracellular amount of ROS, and a reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Strawberry extract was also able to improve mitochondrial functionality, increasing the basal respiration of mitochondria and to promote a regenerative capacity of cells after exposure to pro-oxidant stimuli. These findings confirm that strawberries possess antioxidant properties and provide new insights into the beneficial role of strawberry bioactive compounds on protecting skin from oxidative stress and aging.

  17. Polyphenol-rich strawberry extract protects human dermal fibroblasts against hydrogen peroxide oxidative damage and improves mitochondrial functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Mazzoni, Luca; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Gonzàlez-Paramàs, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Quiles, José L; Bompadre, Stefano; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2014-06-11

    Strawberry bioactive compounds are widely known to be powerful antioxidants. In this study, the antioxidant and anti-aging activities of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract were evaluated using human dermal fibroblasts exposed to H2O2. Firstly, the phenol and flavonoid contents of strawberry extract were studied, as well as the antioxidant capacity. HPLC-DAD analysis was performed to determine the vitamin C and β-carotene concentration, while HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis was used for anthocyanin identification. Strawberry extract presented a high antioxidant capacity, and a relevant concentration of vitamins and phenolics. Pelargonidin- and cyanidin-glycosides were the most representative anthocyanin components of the fruits. Fibroblasts incubated with strawberry extract and stressed with H2O2 showed an increase in cell viability, a smaller intracellular amount of ROS, and a reduction of membrane lipid peroxidation and DNA damage. Strawberry extract was also able to improve mitochondrial functionality, increasing the basal respiration of mitochondria and to promote a regenerative capacity of cells after exposure to pro-oxidant stimuli. These findings confirm that strawberries possess antioxidant properties and provide new insights into the beneficial role of strawberry bioactive compounds on protecting skin from oxidative stress and aging.

  18. Effect of high pressure treatment on the survival of Shiga-Toxin producing Escherichia coli in strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Most fresh produce, such as strawberries, receives minimal processing and is often eaten raw. Contamination of produce with pathogenic bacteria may occur during growth, harvest, processing, transportation, and storage and presents a serious public health risk. Strawberries have been implicated in ...

  19. Impact of High-Power Pulsed Light on Microbial Contamination, Health Promoting Components and Shelf Life of Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Buchovec

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to evaluate the impact of high-power pulsed light (HPPL on the microbial control and nutritional properties of strawberries. Berries were treated with HPPL and afterwards analyzed in terms of microbial contamination, shelf life extension, antioxidant capacity, firmness, total phenolic, total anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content, and colour. Results indicate that the decontamination of strawberries by HPPL was significant compared to control. Naturally distributed mesophilic bacteria on the surface of strawberries were inactivated by 2.2 log, and inoculated Bacillus cereus and Listeria monocytogenes were inactivated by 1.5 and 1.1 log, respectively. Yeasts/microfungi distributed on the surface of strawberries were inactivated by 1 log. The shelf life of treated strawberries was extended by 2 days. The increase of temperature on the surface of fruit never exceeded 42 °C. No significantly important differences were observed in total phenolic, total anthocyanin and ascorbic acid content, and antioxidant capacity of strawberry fruits before and after pulsed light treatment. Moreover, no impact on the strawberry colour or firmness was found after HPPL treatment. In conclusion, HPPL is fast, effective, non-thermal and environmentally friendly technique which can be applied for microbial control of strawberries.

  20. Plant probiotic bacteria Bacillus and Paraburkholderia improve growth, yield and content of antioxidants in strawberry fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Mosaddiqur; Sabir, Abdullah As; Mukta, Julakha Akter; Khan, Md Mohibul Alam; Mohi-Ud-Din, Mohammed; Miah, Md Giashuddin; Rahman, Mahfuzur; Islam, M Tofazzal

    2018-02-06

    Strawberry is an excellent source of natural antioxidants with high capacity of scavenging free radicals. This study evaluated the effects of two plant probiotic bacteria, Bacillus amylolequefaciens BChi1 and Paraburkholderia fungorum BRRh-4 on growth, fruit yield and antioxidant contents in strawberry fruits. Root dipping of seedlings (plug plants) followed by spray applications of both probiotic bacteria in the field on foliage significantly increased fruit yield (up to 48%) over non-treated control. Enhanced fruit yield likely to be linked with higher root and shoot growth, individual and total fruit weight/plant and production of phytohormone by the probiotic bacteria applied on plants. Interestingly, the fruits from plants inoculated with the isolates BChi1 and BRRh-4 had significantly higher contents of phenolics, carotenoids, flavonoids and anthocyanins over non-treated control. Total antioxidant activities were also significantly higher (p < 0.05) in fruits of strawberry plants treated with both probiotic bacteria. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of significant improvement of both yield and quality of strawberry fruits by the application of plant probiotic bacteria BChi1 and BRRh-4 in a field condition. Further study is needed to elucidate underlying mechanism of growth and quality improvement of strawberry fruits by probiotic bacteria.

  1. Nutritional and nutraceutical comparison of Jamaican Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) and Psidium guajava (common guava) fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCook-Russell, Kayanne P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Facey, Petrea C; Bowen-Forbes, Camille S

    2012-09-15

    Psidium cattleianum (strawberry guava) is one of many underutilised edible fruits that grow wild in Jamaica, and could potentially be commercially exploited to yield health and economic benefits. In this study, the total phenolics, proximate contents, and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities of P. cattleianum and P. guajava (common guava), a well-known species, were compared. Strawberry guavas were found to be superior to common guavas in antioxidant and antimicrobial activities, total phenolics and vitamin C content. They also possessed relatively high fibre content (24.9%). The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of strawberry guavas showed cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme inhibitory activities of 18.3% and 26.5%, respectively (250 μg/mL), indicating anti-inflammatory activity. The EtOAc and MeOH extracts of P. guajava showed 56.4% (COX-2) and 44.1% (COX-1) inhibitory activity, respectively. Additionally, nine compounds were isolated from strawberry guava fruits, some of which demonstrated anti-inflammatory activity. These results indicate that strawberry guavas are beneficial for health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Energy and economic analysis of greenhouse strawberry production in Tehran province of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaeian, Narges; Omid, Mahmoud; Ahmadi, Hojat

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine energy use pattern, to investigate the energy use efficiency, and to make an economical analysis in greenhouse strawberry production in Iran. Data used in this study were obtained from 25 greenhouse strawberry growers using a face to face questionnaire method. The results indicate that greenhouse strawberry production consumed a total energy of 121891.33 MJ ha -1 . About 78% of this was generated by diesel fuel, 10% from chemical fertilizers, and 4.5% from electricity. Energy ratio, specific energy, net energy and energy intensiveness of greenhouse strawberry production were 0.15, 12.55 MJ kg -1 , -683488.37 MJ ha -1 and 8.18 MJ $ -1 , respectively. Determination of the efficient allocation of energy resources were modeled by Cobb-Douglas production function. Econometric model evaluation showed the impact of human labor, fertilizers, installation of equipment and transportation costs for strawberry production were all significant at 1% level. The elasticity estimates indicated that among the cost inputs, transportation is the most important input (-0.75) that influences total cost of production, followed by labor (0.31), fertilizers (0.18) and installation of equipments (0.22). The benefit-cost ratio and net return were obtained as 1.74 and 151907.91 $ ha -1 , respectively.

  3. Chemical evaluation of strawberry plants produced by tissue culturing of gamma irradiated seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraei, R.W.

    2007-01-01

    studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of gamma irradiation as a supplementary factor precedes tissue culture application on strawberry seedlings (c.v.Rosa Linda). the strawberry seedling were irradiated using 8 doses of co 60 gamma rays 50.75.100.125 ,150,250, 350 and 500 gray. tissue culture technique was applied on irradiated and unirradiated strawberry seedling. different characteristics of plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry produced from the double treatment (irradiation followed by tissue culture) were studied as well as the early, total and exportable fruit yields. data indicated that, low radiation doses 50,75 and 100 gray increased all morphological and chemical characteristics of the plantlets, plant and fruit of strawberry, whereas radiation doses higher than 100 gray decreased them significantly. moreover 350 and gray were lethal doses. radiation dose 50 gray increased the survival percentage and the length of plantlets by 1.5% and 50% respectively more than the unirradiated treatment in all multiplication stages

  4. Spatial distribution of phytophagous mites (Aca ri: Tetranychidae) on strawberry plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadini, Marcos A.M.; Venzon, Madelaine; Oliveira, Hamilton G.; Pallini, Angelo; Vilela, Evaldo F.

    2007-01-01

    Many phytophagous mites can attack strawberry plants, Fragaria x ananassa, among them the southern red mite, Oligonychus ilicis McGregor, and the two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch. They are found together feeding on the same plant on the upper and underside of the leaves, respectively. Here we studied the choice for feeding sites of O. ilicis and T. urticae on strawberry plants. The first hypothesis tested whether the feeding site choice would be related to the fitness of the species. The second hypothesis dealt whether the feeding site would be determined by the presence of a heterospecific mite. We evaluated the preference, biology and reproductive success of O. ilicis and T. urticae on the under and upper side surface of strawberry leaves infested or not by the heterospecific. O. ilicis preferred to stay on the upper side surface while T. urticae preferred the underside. The preference for the leaf surface correlated with the reproductive success of the species (measured by the intrinsic growth rate). The choice pattern of feeding sites did not alter when the choice test was applied using sites previously infested by heterospecific. Although O. ilicis and T. urticae, apparently, do not interact directly for feeding sites, there is a chance that the first species induces defenses in strawberry plant enabling to reduce the fitness of the second species. The possibility of those species stay together on strawberry plant increases the damage capacity to the culture. (author)

  5. Engineered Production of Short-Chain Acyl-Coenzyme A Esters in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krink-Koutsoubelis, Nicolas; Loechner, Anne C.; Lechner, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Short-chain acyl-coenzyme A esters serve as intermediate compounds in fatty acid biosynthesis, and the production of polyketides, biopolymers and other value-added chemicals. S. cerevisiae is a model organism that has been utilized for the biosynthesis of such biologically and economically valuable...... compounds. However, its limited repertoire of short-chain acyl-CoAs effectively prevents its application as a production host for a plethora of natural products. Therefore, we introduced biosynthetic metabolic pathways to five different acyl-CoA esters into S. cerevisiae. Our engineered strains provide......-CoA at 0.5 μM; and isovaleryl-CoA, n-butyryl-CoA, and n-hexanoyl-CoA at 6 μM each. The acyl-CoAs produced in this study are common building blocks of secondary metabolites and will enable the engineered production of a variety of natural products in S. cerevisiae. By providing this toolbox of acyl...

  6. INFLUENCE OF CHEMICAL FERTILIZATION ON STRAWBERRY FRUIT PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Florea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional control of strawberry is very difficult, because a large number of factors influence the absorption and availability of nutrients through mechanisms that are not fully understood. Aim is to establish concrete measures for improving crop technology by applying optimum dose of fertilizers, leading to increased productivity and fruit quality of strawberry culture. The research was conducted during 2009-2011, in a two-way experience. It was located at the Institute of Research - Institute for Fruit Growing Pitesti. Experimental factors were: A - cultivars: a1 - Onebor, a2 – Real, a3 - Elsanta a3, a4 - Magic, a5 - Alba, a6 – Premial; a7-Queen Elisa; B – Fertilizer with 6 graduations: b1 - unfertilized, and five graduations b2 - b6 were applied mixtures of the below fertilizers, thus: b2 - 6.4 kg/ha/week, b3 - 14.3 kg/ha/week, b4 - 21.4 kg/ha/week, b5 - 28.5 kg/ha/week and b6 - 35.8 kg/ha/week. The fertilizers applied were: Polyfeed (N19: P19: K19, potassium nitrate (N12: P0: K43: Mg2 and Magnisal (N11: P0: K0: Mg15. Mixtures were applied at 2 weeks intervals, as follows: 1 April to 15 May (flowering time, 2 applications, containing macroelements N: P: K: Mg - 14:6,3:20,7:5,7 g/100 g mixed fertilizers; May 15 - June 15 (in the picking period, 2 applications of N: P: K: Mg 10,2:6,3:13,5:2,83 g/100 g blend fertilizer and August 1 to September 15 (2 applications with N: P: K: Mg 12,2:6,3:20,7:31,6 g/100 g mixed fertilizers. Following determinations were made: number of fruit per plant, average weight of fruit (g by weighing a sample of 250 fruits and production in tons/hectare. Experimental treatments have led to differences in fruit production. Thus, the analysis of fertilizer doses on the chemical components of the fruits of the seven studied cultivars, we concluded that V5 and V6 treatments had a positive influence on number of fruit per plant and on yielding capacity. Treatments induced also, highest average fruit weight in

  7. Structural changes in cell wall pectins during strawberry fruit development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paniagua, Candelas; Santiago-Doménech, Nieves; Kirby, Andrew R; Gunning, A Patrick; Morris, Victor J; Quesada, Miguel A; Matas, Antonio J; Mercado, José A

    2017-09-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria × anannasa Duch.) is one of the most important soft fruit. Rapid loss of firmness occurs during the ripening process, resulting in a short shelf life and high economic losses. To get insight into the role of pectin matrix in the softening process, cell walls from strawberry fruit at two developmental stages, unripe-green and ripe-red, were extracted and sequentially fractionated with different solvents to obtain fractions enriched in a specific component. The yield of cell wall material as well as the per fresh weight contents of the different fractions decreased in ripe fruit. The largest reduction was observed in the pectic fractions extracted with a chelating agent (trans-1,2- diaminocyclohexane-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid, CDTA fraction) and those covalently bound to the wall (extracted with Na 2 CO 3 ). Uronic acid content of these two fractions also decreased significantly during ripening, but the amount of soluble pectins extracted with phenol:acetic acid:water (PAW) and water increased in ripe fruit. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy of the different fractions showed that the degree of esterification decreased in CDTA pectins but increased in soluble fractions at ripen stage. The chromatographic analysis of pectin fractions by gel filtration revealed that CDTA, water and, mainly PAW polyuronides were depolymerised in ripe fruit. By contrast, the size of Na 2 CO 3 pectins was not modified. The nanostructural characteristics of CDTA and Na 2 CO 3 pectins were analysed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). Isolated pectic chains present in the CDTA fractions were significantly longer and more branched in samples from green fruit than those from red fruit. No differences in contour length were observed in Na 2 CO 3 strands between samples of both stages. However, the percentage of branched chains decreased from 19.7% in unripe samples to 3.4% in ripe fruit. The number of pectin aggregates was higher in green fruit samples of both

  8. The enzymology of polyether biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tiangang; Cane, David E; Deng, Zixin

    2009-01-01

    Polyether ionophore antibiotics are a special class of polyketides widely used in veterinary medicine, and as food additives in animal husbandry. In this article, we review current knowledge about the mechanism of polyether biosynthesis, and the genetic and biochemical strategies used for its study. Several clear differences distinguish it from traditional type I modular polyketide biosynthesis: polyether backbones are assembled by modular polyketide synthases but are modified by two key enzymes, epoxidase and epoxide hydrolase, to generate the product. All double bonds involved in the oxidative cyclization in the polyketide backbone are of E geometry. Chain release in the polyether biosynthetic pathway requires a special type II thioesterase which specifically hydrolyzes the polyether thioester. All these discoveries should be very helpful for a deep understanding of the biosynthetic mechanism of this class of important natural compounds, and for the targeted engineering of polyether derivatives.

  9. Establishing very long-chain fatty alcohol and wax ester biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenning, Leonie; Yu, Tao; David, Florian

    2017-01-01

    used WEs are mainly isolated from Simmondsia chinensis (jojoba), but the high extraction costs and limited harvest areas constrain their use. The use of FARs in combination with different WSs to achieve a synthesis of jojoba-like WEs in bacteria and yeast has been reported previously, but the products...... were restricted to C28-C36 WEs. These rather short WEs make up only a very small percentage of the total WEs in natural jojoba oil. The synthesis of longer chain WEs (up to C44) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae has so far only been achieved after substrate feeding. Here we identified new routes......, respectively, after 48h. Moreover, we enabled the synthesis of jojoba-like WEs up to a chain length of C42, catalyzed by a combination of Maqu_2220 together with the WS from S. chinensis (SciWS) and the S. cerevisiae elongase Elo2p, with a maximum yield of 12.24±3.35mg/g CDW after 48h....

  10. DGAT enzymes and triacylglycerol biosynthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Stone, Scot J.; Koliwad, Suneil; Harris, Charles; Farese, Robert V.

    2008-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) (TGs) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and FAs in most living organisms. Excessive accumulation of TGs, however, is associated with human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. The final and the only committed step in the biosynthesis of TGs is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. The genes encoding two DGAT enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, were identified in the past decade, ...

  11. Strawberry polyphenols attenuate ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats by activation of antioxidant enzymes and attenuation of MDA increase.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M Alvarez-Suarez

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. CONCLUSIONS: Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in

  12. Strawberry Polyphenols Attenuate Ethanol-Induced Gastric Lesions in Rats by Activation of Antioxidant Enzymes and Attenuation of MDA Increase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M.; Dekanski, Dragana; Ristić, Slavica; Radonjić, Nevena V.; Petronijević, Nataša D.; Giampieri, Francesca; Astolfi, Paola; González-Paramás, Ana M.; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Tulipani, Sara; Quiles, José L.; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aim Free radicals are implicated in the aetiology of gastrointestinal disorders such as gastric ulcer, colorectal cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. Strawberries are common and important fruit due to their high content of essential nutrient and beneficial phytochemicals which seem to have relevant biological activity on human health. In the present study we investigated the antioxidant and protective effects of three strawberry extracts against ethanol-induced gastric mucosa damage in an experimental in vivo model and to test whether strawberry extracts affect antioxidant enzyme activities in gastric mucosa. Methods/Principal Findings Strawberry extracts were obtained from Adria, Sveva and Alba cultivars. Total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging capacity were performed by TEAC, ORAC and electron paramagnetic resonance assays. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins was carried out by HPLC-DAD-MS analyses. Different groups of animals received 40 mg/day/kg body weight of strawberry crude extracts for 10 days. Gastric damage was induced by ethanol. The ulcer index was calculated together with the determination of catalase and SOD activities and MDA contents. Strawberry extracts are rich in anthocyanins and present important antioxidant capacity. Ethanol caused severe gastric damage and strawberry consumption protected against its deleterious role. Antioxidant enzyme activities increased significantly after strawberry extract intake and a concomitantly decrease in gastric lipid peroxidation was found. A significant correlation between total anthocyanin content and percent of inhibition of ulcer index was also found. Conclusions Strawberry extracts prevented exogenous ethanol-induced damage to rats' gastric mucosa. These effects seem to be associated with the antioxidant activity and phenolic content in the extract as well as with the capacity of promoting the action of antioxidant enzymes. A diet rich in strawberries might exert a

  13. 21 CFR 172.854 - Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. 172.854 Section... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.854 Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids. Polyglycerol esters of fatty acids, up to and including the decaglycerol esters, may be safely used in food in...

  14. Cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to alcohols: unexpected reactivity trend indicates ester enolate intermediacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srimani, Dipankar; Mukherjee, Arup; Goldberg, Alexander F G; Leitus, Gregory; Diskin-Posner, Yael; Shimon, Linda J W; Ben David, Yehoshoa; Milstein, David

    2015-10-12

    The atom-efficient and environmentally benign catalytic hydrogenation of carboxylic acid esters to alcohols has been accomplished in recent years mainly with precious-metal-based catalysts, with few exceptions. Presented here is the first cobalt-catalyzed hydrogenation of esters to the corresponding alcohols. Unexpectedly, the evidence indicates the unprecedented involvement of ester enolate intermediates. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Vegetative and reproductive performances of irradiated strawberry plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velchev, V.; Stoyanov, S.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of radioactive gamma-irradiation (Cs 137 source with 600 rad/min intensity) at 250 to 1500 rad of the vegetative and reproductive performances of the strawberry was studied, under field conditions with the cvs. Gorella, Cambridge Favourite, and Zenga Zengana. It was found that in all cvs. the highest stimulating effect in respect to number of leaves was produced by rates of 1000 and 1500 rad. Irradiation with 750 and 1000 rad had a stimulating effect on the formation of more flower buds and flowers in Gorella and Cambridge Favourite, while similar effect was evident in Zenga Zengana only at 1000 rad. Radioactive irradiation had different effect on the yield of the cultivars studied. A positive after-effect was observed in the second year in Gorella at 1000 rad - 117512 kg/ha; by Zenga Zengana at 750 rad - 337237 kg/ha; and by Cambridge Favourite at 250 rad - 199766 kg/ha, which represented 113,02; 111,25 and 105.00% respectively as compared to the control

  16. Post-harvest conservation of organic strawberries coated with cassava starch and chitosan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel P Campos

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The strawberry is as non-climacteric fruit, but has a high post-harvest respiration rate, which leads to a rapid deterioration at room temperature. This study aimed to evaluate the application of biodegradable coating on postharvest conservation of organic strawberries, cv. Camarosa, packed in plastic hinged boxes and stored at 10ºC. The treatments consisted of: a control; b 2% cassava starch; c 1% chitosan; and d 2% cassava starch + 1% chitosan. Physical and chemical characteristics of fruits were evaluated at 3, 6 and 9 days of storage, and microbiological and sensory analyses were carried out at the end of the storage period. The treatments influenced positively the post-harvest quality of organic strawberries. The coating cassava starch + chitosan provided the best results, with less than 6% of loss in fruit mass, lower counts of yeast and psychrophilic microorganisms and the best appearance according to the sensory analysis.

  17. Cloning and expression analysis of FaPR-1 gene in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Fan; Luo, Ya; Ge, Cong; Mo, Qin; Ling, Yajie; Luo, Shu; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    The FaPR-1 gene was cloned by RT-PCR from `Benihoppe' strawberry and its bioinformatics analysis was conducted. The results showed that the open reading frame was 483 bp encoding encoding l60 amino acids which protein molecular weight and theoretical isoelectricity were 17854.17 and 8.72 respectively. Subcellular localization prediction shows that this gene is located extracellularly. By comparing strawberry FaPR-l and other plant Pathogenesis-related protein, homology and phylogenetic tree construction showed that the homology with grapes, peach is relatively close. In the treatments of ABA, sucrose and the mixture of the two, the expression of FaPR-1 in strawberry fruit were significantly increased.

  18. Suitability of Dukat strawberries for studying effects on shelf life of irradiation combined with cold storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zegota, H.

    1988-01-01

    A new Dukat variety of strawberries was used to study the effect of irradiation combined with cold storage on their shelf life and chemical composition. Strawberries, with or without stems, were irradiated with a dose of 2.5 or 3.0 kGy within 6-10 or 20-24 h after harvesting. Results of the sensory evaluation showed that the minimum storage time for the fruits could be extended by a minimum of 9 days. If the time between harvest and irradiation was shorter, better results for storage experiments were obtained. Fruits with stems were more suitable for cold storage after irradiation than those without stems. Irradiation of strawberries did not change the titratable acidity and content of the reducing sugars. Colour intensity and ascorbic acid levels decreased in proportion to the absorbed dose and storage time. (orig.)

  19. The effect of irradiation on the macro- and microstructure of strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voeroes, Zsuzsanna; Kovacs, Etelka; Zackel, Erna

    1985-01-01

    Samples of Gorella, Pocahontas and Rival strawberry varieties were irradiated (2,5 kGy) by means of a sup(60)Co source to increase storage life. The packaged fruits were stored in cabinets of 80-90% relative vapour content at 5 and 10 deg C, respectively. No significant differences could be found in the refraction % and pH values of the irradiated and control samples and of the packeged and unpackaged samples. Due to irradiation the consistency of fruits softened. At the measurements of strawberries with Instron consistometer the optimal quality marks seem to be obtainable by measuring the deformation steadiness. By means of optical microscopy it was stated that the tissue structure of various strawberry varieties did not alter essentially due to irradiation. (author)

  20. Trophic Interactions between Generalist Predators and the Two Spotted Spide Mite, Tetranychus urticae in, Strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Stine Kramer

    The two spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae Koch (Acari: Tetranychidae), is a major cause of pest damage worldwide. Its host range includes among many the strawberry crop, a high value crop in Denmark as well as in many other temperate and subtropical regions. Chemical control of T. urticae...... occurrence and diversity of predatory insects and predatory mites in Danish strawberry fields and surrounding vegetation is lacking, as is the knowledge of the potential of generalist insect predators to control T. urticae. The overall objective of this PhD thesis was to investigate the trophic interactions...... between natural enemies, in particular generalist predators and the two spotted spider mite, T. urticae, in strawberry. This was done by investigating interactions of T. urticae and its natural enemies as influenced by cropping practice and the surrounding vegetation (Manuscript I) as well as more...

  1. Strawberry gingivitis as the first presenting sign of wegener's granulomatosis: report of a case

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Wegener's granulomatosis is a rare multi-system disease characterized by the classic triad of necrotizing granulomas affecting the upper and lower respiratory tracts, disseminated vasculitis and glomerulonephritis. Oral lesions as a presenting feature are only encountered in 2% of these cases. Hyperplastic gingival lesions or strawberry gingivitis, is a characteristic sign of Wegener's granulomatosis. The latter consists of reddish-purple exophytic gingival swellings with petechial haemorrhages thus resembling strawberries. Recognition of this feature is of utmost importance for timely diagnosis and definitive management of this potentially fatal disease. A case of strawberry gingivitis as the first presenting sign of Wegener's granulomatosis affecting a 50-year-old Malay male is reported here. The differential diagnosis of red lesions that may present in the gingiva is discussed. PMID:21813375

  2. THE IMPACT OF ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY POSTHARVEST TREATMENTS ON THE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF STRAWBERRY FRUITS DURING STORAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivna Štolfa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Proper postharvest storage is an effective way to maintain the quality and nutritional values of fruits. The aim of this study was to determine how environmentally friendly postharvest treatments with salicylic acid solution, colloidal silver solution and ozone, affect the antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits (Fragaria x ananassa Duch. cv. Albion during 7 days of storage at 4°C. The content of ascorbic acid, total phenols and antioxidant activity of strawberry fruits were determined spec-trophotometrically. After 7 days of storage in strawberry fruits treated with all three treatments separately, the contents of ascorbic acid were higher than in the control fruits, supporting the usefulness of these treatments for preserving fruit quality and nutritional value during storage. The treatment with salicylic acid solution showed the most beneficial effect during storage causing a significant increase in the content of ascorbic acid, phenols and antioxidant activity at the end of the storage period.

  3. Preparation of micro-encapsulated strawberry fragrance and its application in the aromatic wallpaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Zuobing

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Micro-encapsulated strawberry fragrance was successfully prepared with wall materials including maltodextrin, sodium octenylsuccinate and gum Arabic. The micro-capsule was added to wallpaper and aromatic wallpaper with strawberry characteristics was obtained. The particle distribution, surface morphology, chemical structure, thermal property and controlled release performance of micro-encapsulated fragrance and aromatic wallpaper were investigated using laser particle size analyzer, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-TR, thermal gravity analysis (TGA and chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS. The results showed that the average diameter of micro-capsule was 2 μm and the particles mainly distributed in the tissues of wallpaper. The result of TGA showed that the micro-capsule had a good stability. Meanwhile, the aromatic wallpaper had strawberry aroma more than 3 months and took on excellent controlled release performance.

  4. Interactions among spectral components of radiation in the growth responses of rice, tomato and strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inada, K.; Matsuno, A.

    1985-01-01

    Effects of spectral components and their ratios of radiation on simultaneous growth responses were investigated with rice, tomato and strawberry plants exposed to lights with a high fluence rate (350 or 408 μmol m -2 s -1 , 400-700 nm) during every daytime. Both elongation growth and Ieaf area development in rice and strawberry were promoted by red (R) but inhibited by blue (B) component depending on the each fluence rate. However, leaf area in tomato responded in opposite direction to these. The elongation growth was remarkably increased with the fluence rate of far-red (FR) in tomato and strawberry, but not in rice. These responses were lineary increased, except FR and UV effects, with logarithmic R/B ratio in rice and strawberry but not in tomato. A very low R/FR ratio caused a strong promotion of both elongation and leaf area in tomato, while it promoted petiole elengation but inhibited leaf area development in strawberry. The elongation and leaf area development responded to R/FR in reverse way between rice and strawberry. Chlorophyll content of leaves was generally decreased with the increase of logarithmic R/B ratio in all the species. Areal weight of leaf and dry weight increment/leaf area were more or less increased with R/B and R/ FR ratios, Dry weight increment varied with the spectral ratios in almost the same way as leaf area, suggesting that spectral dependence of photosynthetic production was not much different between the species. Some discussions were made on the photoreceptor pigments involved in the elongation growth and leaf area development, and on the selection of light quantity to ensure a normal growth of each plant species

  5. Attempts to increase storage stability of strawberry yoghurt by combination treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, I.

    1975-01-01

    The aim of the experiments was to establish whether the microbiological stability of strawberry yoghurt might be improved by decreasing the microbial load of the fruit. The effect of heat treatment, freezing, irradiation and various combinations of these treatments upon cell count and sensory quality was investigated. It was established that none of the individual treatments was entirely satisfactory. Surfacial heat treatment at 55 0 C, freezing and irradiation with 0.4-0.6 Mrad substantially increased the storage life of strawberries or that of the yoghurt prepared with this fruit; when compared to yoghurt made with frozen strawberries by the dairy factory, the increase was 2.5 fold at 15 0 C and 3.5 fold at 2 0 C. The relative increase of storage life was lower at lower yeast-cell counts. The strawberries irradiated with doses above 0.2 Mrad showed aroma and flavour changes immediately upon treatment. This effect, however, was eliminated after some days. The yoghurt made with strawberries given a radiation treatment of 0.57 Mrad did not differ organoleptically from the yoghurt made with untreated strawberries. In the knowledge of the survival rate of yeasts after irradiation the D 10 values were established. These were found in the dose range between 0.043 and 0.087 Mrad. It was established that the applied heat treatment, freezing and irradiation at these dose levels and at 10 3 -10 4 cells per gram were not sufficient from the point of view of microbiological stability. (F.J.)

  6. Supercritical CO2 extract from strawberry seeds as a valuable component of mild cleansing compositions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, E; Michorczyk, P; Olszańska, M; Ogonowski, J

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this work was an elaboration of mild cleansing compositions, containing supercritical CO2 extract from strawberry seeds (SC-CO2 strawberry seed oil), as a moisturizing and skin-softening agent. The influence of concentration of the oil on user properties of shower/bath products was studied. A series of products (shower/bath cosmetics) composed mainly of mild surfactants (amphoacetates, sulfosuccinates, betaines) and containing different amounts of the oil (0.5 up to 5.0%) were prepared. For the stable products (formulations containing up to 2% of the oil), the influence of the SC-CO2 strawberry seed oil addition on the products' stability, foam ability, surface tension, pH and rheological properties was studied. Moreover, the skin compatibility and moisturizing efficiency of the cleansing products were recorded in a group of 15 volunteers (including 10 women and five men, aged 20-30 years), using skin diagnosis system AramoTS, Aram Huvis Co. Additionally, characterization of CO2 extract from strawberry seeds was performed. Measurements of the oil's analytical constants, that is acid value and saponification number, were conducted according to Polish Standard PN-EN ISO 660:2010 and PN-EN ISO 3657:2013, respectively. The oil concentration influences stability of the products. Only the formulations containing 0.5-2% of the extract have shown high stability. Moreover, used in the amount up to 2% the SC-CO2, strawberry seed oil does not affect significantly the cleansing and foaming properties of the products. The obtained shower/bath cosmetics showed good user properties and additionally good skin-moisturizing effect. The supercritical CO2 extract from strawberry seeds, rich source of unsaturated fatty acid, could be successfully used in the formulation of body washing compositions as a moisturizing and skin-softening agent. © 2015 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  7. Synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez, David E [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate esters have been known as useful energetic materials since the discovery of nitroglycerin by Ascanio Sobrero in 1846. The development of methods to increase the safety and utility of nitroglycerin by Alfred Nobel led to the revolutionary improvement in the utility of nitroglycerin in explosive applications in the form of dynamite. Since then, many nitrate esters have been prepared and incorporated into military applications such as double-based propellants, detonators and as energetic plasticizers. Nitrate esters have also been shown to have vasodilatory effects in humans and thus have been studied and used for treatments of ailments such as angina. The mechanism of the biological response towards nitrate esters has been elucidated recently. Interestingly, many of the nitrate esters used for military purposes are liquids (ethylene glycol dinitrate, propylene glycol dinitrate, etc). Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is one of the only solid nitrate esters, besides nitrocellulose, that is used in any application. Unfortunately, PETN melting point is above 100 {sup o}C, and thus must be pressed as a solid for detonator applications. A more practical material would be a melt-castable explosive, for potential simplification of manufacturing processes. Herein we describe the synthesis of a new energetic nitrate ester (1) that is a solid at ambient temperatures, has a melting point of 85-86 {sup o}C and has the highest density of any known nitrate ester composed only of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. We also describe the chemical, thermal and sensitivity properties of 1 as well as some preliminary explosive performance data.

  8. Occurrence of fatty acid short-chain-alkyl esters in fruits of Celastraceae plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorov, Roman A; Zhukov, Anatoly V; Pchelkin, Vasily P; Vereshchagin, Andrei G; Tsydendambaev, Vladimir D

    2013-06-01

    Small amounts of a mixture of fatty acid short-chain-alkyl esters (FASCAEs) were obtained from the fruits of twelve plant species of Celastraceae family, and in five of them the FASCAEs were present not only in the arils but also in the seeds. These mixtures contained 32 individual FASCAE species, which formed four separate fractions, viz. FA methyl, ethyl, isopropyl, and butyl esters (FAMEs, FAEEs, FAIPEs, and FABEs, resp.). The FASCAE acyl components included the residues of 16 individual C₁₄-C₂₄ saturated, mono-, di-, and trienoic FAs. Linoleic, oleic, and palmitic acids, and, in some cases, also α-linolenic acid predominated in FAMEs and FAEEs, while myristic acid was predominant in FAIPEs. It can be suggested that, in the fruit arils of some plant species, FAMEs and FAEEs were formed at the expense of a same FA pool characteristic of a given species and were strongly different from FAIPEs and FABEs esters regarding the mechanism of their biosynthesis. However, as a whole, the qualitative and quantitative composition of various FASCAE fractions, as well as their FA composition, varied considerably depending on various factors. Therefore, separate FASCAE fractions seem to be synthesized from different FA pools other than those used for triacylglycerol formation. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  9. Allied, MGC link on cyanate esters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, A.

    1993-01-01

    In the latest of a line of joint ventures in its plastics business, Allied Signal has reached agreement with Mitsubishi Gas Chemical (MGC) to jointly develop thermoset cyanate ester resins and blends. The deal will involve further development of Allied Signal's Primaset phenol-formaldehyde cyanate ester resins, a new entrant in the thermoset arena. Although the Primaset resins were discovered in the 1960s, this would be the first time they are available commercially. The deal will marry Primaset technology with MGC's Skylex bisphenol A cyanate ester resins, says Fred DiAntonis, director/advanced materials at Allied Signal. The two firms are looking at marketing blends of the two materials. The potential market for these resins, used commercially by the electronics industry in printed circuit boards and by the aerospace industry in composites, is significant, says Robert P. Viarengo, Allied Signal president/performance materials. By aligning ourselves with MGC, the world leader in cyanate ester resin, we anticipate moving forward aggressively. The main competitor is Ciba, which acquired bisphenol A cyanate ester resins with its purchase of Rhone-Poulenc's high temperature resins business. DiAntonis estimates the market for cyanate ester resins could be worth $150 million by the end of the decade, although development costs have been in the tens of millions of dollars range

  10. Homogentisic acid: a phenolic acid as a marker of strawberry-tree (Arbutus unedo) honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Tuberoso, C; Floris, I; Reniero, F; Guillou, C; Ghelli, S

    1999-10-01

    Analysis of organic acids in strawberry-tree (Arbutus unedo) honey showed the presence of an unknown acid as the main constituent. This compound was isolated and identified as homogentisic acid (2, 5-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid) by MS and NMR techniques. Its average content in honey was 378 +/- 92 mg/kg. Analysis of nectar confirmed the floral origin of the compound found in honey. Since this acid was not detected in any of the different monofloral honeys, it could be used as a marker of strawberry-tree (A. unedo) honey.

  11. A comprehensive approach to evaluate the freshness of strawberries and carrots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peneau, S.; Brockhoff, Per B.; Escher, F.

    2007-01-01

    of strawberries and carrots that varied in cultivar, as well as with time and conditions of storage. Product characteristics measured by descriptive sensory and physico-chemical analyses were related to consumer and expert panel (individual and consensus) ratings of freshness. Results showed that a large number...... of attributes contributed to the freshness of strawberries and carrots and that those were also indicators of the physiological ageing of these products. Our results suggest that consumer evaluation of fruit and vegetable freshness corresponds to an evaluation of this ageing process through the observation...

  12. Cultivo sem solo do morangueiro Strawberry soilless cultivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Giménez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O morangueiro é uma cultura importante em vários países, principalmente nos Estados Unidos e na Europa, por suas características sensoriais, propriedades nutritivas e por sua rentabilidade. O cultivo comercial sem solo de morangueiro está bem desenvolvido na Europa, onde tem permitido um aumento da produtividade e qualidade da produção assim como a ampliação da oferta do produto ao longo do ano. Predomina o sistema aberto, em sacolas ou vasos com diferentes tipos de substratos, utilizando-se densidades de 8 a 12plantas m-2. As produtividades obtidas estão entre 5 e 10kg m-2. Para isolar as plantas do solo e facilitar o manejo da cultura, os vasos ou sacolas são suspensos a uma altura entre 0,8 e 1m da superfície do solo. A composição da solução nutritiva é variável, refletindo as diferentes condições produtivas. As mudas são produzidas principalmente em bandejas com substrato, a partir de pontas de estolões obtidas da multiplicação de plantas matrizes provenientes da propagação in vitro. No Brasil, o cultivo sem solo de morangueiro é ainda incipiente e os resultados produtivos e econômicos têm sido insatisfatórios, principalmente por falta de informações de pesquisas capazes de indicar sistemas apropriados de cultivo para as condições locais. É necessário desenvolver sistemas sustentáveis, preferencialmente fechados, combinando alta produtividade e elevada eficiência de utilização da água e dos nutrientes. No presente trabalho, são revisados os principais aspectos da produção em sistemas de cultivo sem solo de mudas e fruta de morangueiro. São descritos a produção de mudas, os sistemas e as soluções nutritivas empregadas em diferentes países. Ao final, são feitas inferências sobre a possibilidade de adoção e geração do sistema de cultivo sem solo apropriado para as condições brasileiras.Strawberry is a very important crop in Europe and USA due to its nutritional and sensorial

  13. Methyl esters from vegetable oils with hydroxy fatty acids: Comparison of lesquerella and castor methyl esters

    Science.gov (United States)

    The search for alternative feedstocks for biodiesel as partial replacement for petrodiesel has recently extended to castor oil. In this work, the castor oil methyl esters were prepared and their properties determined in comparison to the methyl esters of lesquerella oil, which in turn is seen as alt...

  14. Pollinator communities in strawberry crops - variation at multiple spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenfeldt, E J; Klatt, B K; Arildsen, J; Trandem, N; Andersson, G K S; Tscharntke, T; Smith, H G; Sigsgaard, L

    2015-08-01

    Predicting potential pollination services of wild bees in crops requires knowledge of their spatial distribution within fields. Field margins can serve as nesting and foraging habitats for wild bees and can be a source of pollinators. Regional differences in pollinator community composition may affect this spill-over of bees. We studied how regional and local differences affect the spatial distribution of wild bee species richness, activity-density and body size in crop fields. We sampled bees both from the field centre and at two different types of semi-natural field margins, grass strips and hedges, in 12 strawberry fields. The fields were distributed over four regions in Northern Europe, representing an almost 1100 km long north-south gradient. Even over this gradient, daytime temperatures during sampling did not differ significantly between regions and did therefore probably not impact bee activity. Bee species richness was higher in field margins compared with field centres independent of field size. However, there was no difference between centre and margin in body-size or activity-density. In contrast, bee activity-density increased towards the southern regions, whereas the mean body size increased towards the north. In conclusion, our study revealed a general pattern across European regions of bee diversity, but not activity-density, declining towards the field interior which suggests that the benefits of functional diversity of pollinators may be difficult to achieve through spill-over effects from margins to crop. We also identified dissimilar regional patterns in bee diversity and activity-density, which should be taken into account in conservation management.

  15. Synthesis of complex intermediates for the study of a dehydratase from borrelidin biosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Hahn

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Herein, we describe the syntheses of a complex biosynthesis-intermediate analogue of the potent antitumor polyketide borrelidin and of reference molecules to determine the stereoselectivity of the dehydratase of borrelidin polyketide synthase module 3. The target molecules were obtained from a common precursor aldehyde in the form of N-acetylcysteamine (SNAc thioesters and methyl esters in 13 to 15 steps. Key steps for the assembly of the polyketide backbone of the dehydratase substrate analogue were a Yamamoto asymmetric carbocyclisation and a Sakurai allylation as well as an anti-selective aldol reaction. Reference compounds representing the E- and Z-configured double bond isomers as potential products of the dehydratase reaction were obtained from a common precursor aldehyde by Wittig olefination and Still–Gennari olefination. The final deprotection of TBS ethers and methyl esters was performed under mildly acidic conditions followed by pig liver esterase-mediated chemoselective hydrolysis. These conditions are compatible with the presence of a coenzyme A or a SNAc thioester, suggesting that they are generally applicable to the synthesis of complex polyketide-derived thioesters suited for biosynthesis studies.

  16. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis Pathways in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demidenko, Aleksandr; Akberdin, Ilya R; Allemann, Marco; Allen, Eric E; Kalyuzhnaya, Marina G

    2016-01-01

    Methane utilization by methanotrophic bacteria is an attractive application for biotechnological conversion of natural or biogas into high-added-value products. Haloalcaliphilic methanotrophic bacteria belonging to the genus Methylomicrobium are among the most promising strains for methane-based biotechnology, providing easy and inexpensive cultivation, rapid growth, and the availability of established genetic tools. A number of methane bioconversions using these microbial cultures have been discussed, including the derivation of biodiesel, alkanes, and OMEGA-3 supplements. These compounds are derived from bacterial fatty acid pools. Here, we investigate fatty acid biosynthesis in Methylomicrobium buryatense 5G(B1) . Most of the genes homologous to typical Type II fatty acid biosynthesis pathways could be annotated by bioinformatics analyses, with the exception of fatty acid transport and regulatory elements. Different approaches for improving fatty acid accumulation were investigated. These studies indicated that both fatty acid degradation and acetyl- and malonyl-CoA levels are bottlenecks for higher level fatty acid production. The best strain generated in this study synthesizes 111 ± 2 mg/gDCW of extractable fatty acids, which is ~20% more than the original strain. A candidate gene for fatty acid biosynthesis regulation, farE , was identified and studied. Its deletion resulted in drastic changes to the fatty acid profile, leading to an increased pool of C18-fatty acid methyl ester. The FarE-regulon was further investigated by RNA-seq analysis of gene expression in farE -knockout mutants and farE -overexpressing strains. These gene profiles highlighted a novel set of enzymes and regulators involved in fatty acid biosynthesis. The gene expression and fatty acid profiles of the different farE -strains support the hypothesis that metabolic fluxes upstream of fatty acid biosynthesis restrict fatty acid production in the methanotroph.

  17. Oleic acid biosynthesis in cyanobacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanDusen, W.J.; Jaworski, J.G.

    1986-01-01

    The biosynthesis of fatty acids in cyanobacteria is very similar to the well characterized system found in green plants. However, the initial desaturation of stearic acid in cyanobacteria appears to represent a significant departure from plant systems in which stearoyl-ACP is the exclusive substrate for desaturation. In Anabaena variabilis, the substrate appears to be monoglucosyldiacylglycerol, a lipid not found in plants. The authors examined five different cyanobacteria to determine if the pathway in A. variabilis was generally present in other cyanobacteria. The cyanobacteria studied were A. variabilis, Chlorogloeopsis sp., Schizothrix calcicola, Anacystis marina, and Anacystis nidulans. Each were grown in liquid culture, harvested, and examined for stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity or incubated with 14 CO 2 . None of the cyanobacteria contained any stearoyl-ACP desaturase activity in whole homogenates or 105,000g supernatants. All were capable of incorporating 14 CO 2 into monoglucosyldiacylglycerol and results from incubations of 20 min, 1 hr, 1 hr + 10 hr chase were consistent with monoglucosyldiacylglycerol serving as precursor for monogalctosyldiacylglycerol. Thus, initial evidence is consistent with oleic acid biosynthesis occurring by desaturation of stearoyl-monoglucosyldiacylglycerol in all cyanobacteria

  18. Lights and shadows of the red gold. An integrated assessment of Spanish strawberry production and its impacts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madrid-Lopez, Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Spanish strawberries are an export success. Spain is the second largest producer of this fruit and it has been the world's leading strawberry exporter for years. In 2012, strawberry exports were approximately 95% of total strawberry production in Spain. The production of the red gold is concentrated in around 7000 hectares of intensive farming in the province of Huelva (south west Spain). At least 85% of all Spanish strawberries are produced in this region, in an area close to the UNESCO World Heritage Site Doñana National Park. The case of the strawberry production in Huelva makes an interesting case study for the integrated analysis of the water-food-land-political economy nexus. Its combination of bio-physical and socio-economic characteristics (local climatic conditions, agricultural techniques, environmental issues, food value chains, trade networks and socio-economic factors) are quite particular and form a case where social and natural issues coevolve. Supporters of the activity argue a high contribution to local GDP and job market and its strategic position in international markets. Critics maintain that this industry creates social and environmental conflicts. The strawberry from Huelva supplies early season strawberries to the richer markets of Germany and France and at the same time seems to fail in alleviating a provincial unemployment rate of 34%. The viability of the system is in danger: production costs are 70% higher than 20 years ago while the price per kilo has not changed or even decreased. In environmental terms, the strawberries of Huelva are irrigated with ground water withdrawn from aquifers that feed the water streams of the natural park. Half of the wells that extract the water are not legally registered for what the total amount of water withdrawal remains unknown. Should we promote the continuity of this activity? In this work, I perform a Multi-Scale Integrated Assessment of Societal and Ecosystem Metabolism (MuSIASEM) of Water for the

  19. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of modified antifreeze protein gene in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srisulak Dheeranupattana

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The optimum condition for shoot regeneration from leaf explants of strawberry cultivar Tiogar was investigated. It was found that the best regeneration condition was MS medium containing N6-Benzyladenine (BA and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid (2,4-D at concentrations of 1 mg.l-1 and 0.2 mg.l-1, respectively. Antibiotics sensitivity test found that shoot regeneration from leaf explant was inhibited more than 90% at the concentration of kanamycin (Km as low as 5 mg.l-1. The modified gene encoding antifreeze protein isoform HPLC 6 was successfully constructed using codons which were optimally expressed in the strawberry plant. The antifreeze protein genes, naturally in plasmid pSW1 and modified in plasmid BB, were transformed to strawberry leaf explants by Agrobacterium tumefaciens LBA 4404. The strawberry plants, transformed with both AFP genes, were able to root in MS media containing 50 mg.l-1 Km, while no roots grew from nontransformed plant in this condition. Polymerase chain reaction indicated that the transgenes were integrated in the genome of transformants.

  20. Inactivation of E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella enterica on strawberries by sanitizing solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent foodborne outbreak of E. coli O157:H7 in Oregon associated with the consumption of fresh strawberries highlights the need for effective sanitizing washes, suitable for the inactivation of pathogens on fresh produce. Sanitizing solutions were screened for decontaminating E. coli O157:H7 (E...

  1. Greenhouse and Field Evaluation of the Natural Saponin CAY-1, for Control of Several Strawberry Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    The steroidal saponin from cayenne pepper, CAY-1, was tested as a potential fungicide in detached leaf assays and field trials. Efficacy of CAY-1 against strawberry anthracnose was compared to the commercial fungicide azoxystrobin. Both fungicides prevented anthracnose leaf lesions when applied to...

  2. Defence activation in strawberry and pine- Epigenetic changes in treated plants

    OpenAIRE

    Komajda, Ludwika

    2016-01-01

    Strawberry plants (Fragaria x ananassa) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) represent species, withinagriculture and forestry respectively, that are traditionally protected by utilization of pesticidesincluding neurotoxic insecticides. More environmentally friendly protection strategies are thereforehighly desirable. Treating plants with specific metabolites naturally occurring in their tissues might alterepigenetic mechanisms, which in turn may strengthen plants self-defense against diseases a...

  3. Evaluation of Sanitizing Methods for Reducing Microbial Contamination on Fresh Strawberry, Cherry Tomato, and Red Bayberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Wei

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries, cherry tomatoes, and red bayberries, which are the most popular types of fresh produce in China, are vulnerable to microbial contamination. In this study, different sanitizing methods [treatment with 2% organic acids, 0.02% sodium hypochlorite (SH, 0.1% sodium chlorite (SC, and 0.1% acidified sodium chlorite (ASC] were applied to fresh strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry, and their abilities to reduce aerobic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, mold, yeast, and Salmonella Typhimurium were evaluated. The commercially used SH method reduced the background microbiota on strawberry, cherry tomato, and red bayberry by 0.20–2.07 log cfu/g. The ASC method reduced background microbiota (except for mold on strawberry and cherry tomato by more than 3.0 log cfu/g. ASC was the only sanitizer that significantly reduced mold on red bayberry, and lactic acid was the only organic acid sanitizer that effectively reduced yeast on red bayberry. The ASC method had the best sterilizing effect on the three fresh fruits and also required the shortest sanitizing time and low chlorite content. The application of ASC method significantly reduced the microbiota on retail grocery samples, and the effect was similar to that achieved by sanitizing methods comparison.

  4. Strawberry Achenes Are an Important Source of Bioactive Compounds for Human Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Ariza

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries are highly appreciated for their taste, nutritional value and antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolics. Fruit antioxidants derive from achenes and flesh, but achene contribution to the total fruit antioxidant capacity and to the bioaccessibility after intake is still unknown. In this work, the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity (TEAC, FRAP and DPPH of achenes and flesh were compared in non-digested as well as in gastric and intestinal extracts after in vitro digestion. Results showed that, despite strawberry achenes represent a small fraction of the fruit, their contribution to total fruit antioxidant content was more than 41% and accounted for 81% of antioxidant capacity (TEAC. Achenes have higher quantity and different quality of antioxidants in non-digested and digested extracts. Antioxidant release was higher in the in vitro gastric digested extracts, but digestion conditions did not only affect quantity but quality, resulting in differences in antioxidant capacity and highlighting the importance of simulating physiological-like extraction conditions for assessing fruit antioxidant properties on human health. These results give new insights into the use of strawberry achenes as a source of bioactive compounds to be considered in strawberry breeding programs for improving human health.

  5. Whole genome sequences of the raspberry and strawberry pathogens Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phytophthora rubi and P. fragariae are two closely related oomycete plant pathogens that exhibit strong morphological and physiological similarities, but are specialized to infect different hosts of economic importance, namely raspberry and strawberry. Here, we report the draft genome sequences of t...

  6. CZE separation of strawberry anthocyanins with acidic buffer and comparison with HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comandini, Patrizia; Blanda, Giampaolo; Cardinali, Andrea; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra; Caboni, Maria Fiorenza

    2008-10-01

    Anthocyanins, the major colourants of strawberries, are polar pigments that are positively charged at low pH. Herein, we have assessed a new analytical method for the separation of anthocyanins using CZE. Acidic buffer solutions (pH pigments in the cation flavylium form and achieve high molar absorptivity at 510 nm. These spectral properties enabled us to identify strawberry anthocyanins in a preliminary stage by detection in the visible range, although the method was optimised at 280 nm to obtain the best S/N. The effects of buffer composition highlighted the necessity of adding an organic modifier to the running buffer to obtain a suitable separation. The electrophoretic method permitted the separation of the three main anthocyanins of strawberry extracts, namely pelargonidin 3-glucoside (Pg-glu), pelargonidin 3-rutinoside and cyanidin 3-glucoside. The electrophoretic results, expressed as retention time and separation efficiency of the major anthocyanin (Pg-glu), were compared to those achieved in HPLC, the analytical technique traditionally used for the investigation of anthocyanins in vegetable matrix. The content of Pg-glu in strawberries (cv. Camarosa), calculated with HPCE and HPLC methods, resulted respectively in 11.41 mg/L and 11.37 mg/L.

  7. Molecular characterization of a stable antisense chalcone synthase phenotype in strawberry (Fragaria ananassa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lunkenbein, S.; Coiner, H.; Vos, de C.H.; Schaart, J.G.; Boone, M.J.; Krens, F.A.; Schwab, W.; Salentijn, E.M.J.

    2006-01-01

    An octaploid (Fragaria × ananassa cv. Calypso) genotype of strawberry was transformed with an antisense chalcone synthase (CHS) gene construct using a ripening related CHS cDNA from Fragaria × ananassa cv. Elsanta under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter via Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

  8. Heat shock and salicylic acid on postharvest preservation of organic strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidiane Coltro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock and salicylic acid have been studied on shelf-life extension of fruits. The benefits of these techniques have been related to their effect on inducing physiological defense responses against the oxidative stress and pathogen development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat shock and salicylic acid on the postharvest preservation and contents of total phenolics, anthocyanins, ascorbic acid, fresh weight loss and microbiological quality of organic strawberries cv. Dover. Strawberries produced organically and stored at 5 ºC were subjected to heat shock (45 ºC ± 3 ºC for 3 h, application of salicylic acid (soaking in 2.0 mmol L-1 solution, heat shock in combination with salicylic acid and control. After treatment, the fruits were packed and stored in a climatic chamber at 5 ºC ± 2 ºC. At 1, 7 and 14 days, the experimental units were removed from refrigeration and kept at room temperature of approximately 20 ºC for two days. There was no effect of treatments on fresh weight loss, incidence of pathogens or chemical variations in strawberry fruits during the storage period. In natural conditions, organically grown strawberries remained in good condition for sale up to seven days of storage in all treatments.

  9. Screening strawberry plants for anthracnose disease resistance using traditional and molecular techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthracnose is one of the most destructive diseases of strawberry which may cause fruit rot, leaf and petiole lesions, crown rot, wilt, and death. Crop loss due to anthracnose diseases can reach into the millions of dollars. Three species of Colletotrichum are considered causative agents of anthr...

  10. Genomics tools available for unravelling mechanisms underlying agronomical traits in strawberry with more to come

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the last few years, high-throughput genomics promised to bridge the gap between plant physiology and plant sciences. In addition, high-throughput genotyping technologies facilitate marker-based selection for better performing genotypes. In strawberry, Fragaria vesca was the first reference sequen...

  11. Pollinator communities in strawberry crops – variation at multiple spatial scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenfeldt, Erica Juel; Klatt, B.K.; Arildsen, Julie

    2015-01-01

    and hedges, in 12 strawberry fields. The fields were distributed over four regions in Northern Europe, representing an almost 1100 km long north-south gradient. Even over this gradient, daytime temperatures during sampling did not differ significantly between regions and did therefore probably not impact bee...

  12. Influence of growing conditions at different latitudes of Europe on strawberry growth performance, yield and quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, E.; Josuttis, M.; Nestby, R.

    2012-01-01

    The site effect of five locations from north (Stjørdal, Norway, 63°36'N) to south (Ancona, Italy, 43°31'N) was evaluated in strawberry regarding yield performance, fruit quality, length of fruit developing time from anthesis to harvest start and length of the harvest season. Cv. Elsanta was grown...

  13. Agricultural Change and the Rise of the British Strawberry Industry, 1920-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja, E. J.; Ilbery, B.; Mills, P. R.

    2012-01-01

    Little research has been conducted on structural change within the UK horticultural sector. This paper examines long-term changes, over a 90-year period, in one particular part of the UK horticultural sector: strawberries. It follows its growth from being a minor crop in 1920 to becoming the biggest grossing horticultural crop in 2009. Using a…

  14. Influence of gamma-irradiation on the total volatile acids content in strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curzio, O.A.; Piccini, J.L.; Quaranta, H.O.; Perez, S.

    1983-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine if there exist some kind of correlation between the evolution of the organoleptic characteristics of control and irradiated strawberry and the measured volatile acids content. Affirmative results would suggest that the V.A. content really corresponds to a quality index of the fruit. (orig./AJ)

  15. A comparison of bioactive compounds of strawberry fruit from Europe affected by genotype and latitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josuttis, M.; Carlen, C.; Nestby, R.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of four different growing locations from Stjørdal, Norway (63°36'N) to Conthey, Switzerland (46°12'N) on the composition of bioactives in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) of three genotypes (cvs Clery, Elsanta and Korona) was evaluated. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used...

  16. Teeth re-whitening effect of strawberry juice on coffee stained teeth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annisya Pramesti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Many people favor coffee. However, regarding health and aesthetic dentistry, coffee gives a negative effect. Tanin in coffee causes a brown stain on the tooth surface. Therefore, in aesthetic dental care, teeth whitening has become popular matter. One of the natural ingredients used for teeth whitening treatment is strawberry. The purpose of this study was to obtained data regarding the effect of strawberry juice on the re-whitening process of the coffee-stained tooth enamel surface. This study was a pure experimental in-vitro using Friedman and Wilcoxon Matched Pairs Tests for statistical analysis. The population of this study was anterior teeth. The samples were maxillary central incisors. The sampling technique using sample size determination based on the testing formulas of the difference of two average data pairs resulted in 11 specimens. The result of the research showed that all coffee-stained teeth sample had an increasing enamel colour index. The samples were then applied with strawberry juice resulted in a significant average difference colour index value indicated by p<0.001. The conclusion of this research indicated that there was an effect of strawberry juice on the coffee-stained teeth re-whitening process.

  17. Impact of climate change on the timing of strawberry phenological processes in the Baltic States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Līga Bethere

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Climate change has been shown to impact aspects of agriculture and phenology. This study aims to quantify changes in the timing of garden strawberry blooms and harvests in the Baltic States using Regional Climate Models (RCMs. First, parameters for a strawberry phenology model based on the growing degree day (GDD methodology were determined. Growing degree days were calculated using a modified sine wave method that estimates the diurnal temperature cycle from the daily maximum and minimum temperature. Model parameters include the base temperature and the required cumulative GDD sum, estimated from phenological and meteorological observations in Latvia for the years 2010–2013 via iterative calibration. Then an ensemble of bias-corrected RCM results (ENSEMBLES project was used as input to the phenological model to estimate the timing of strawberry phenological processes for the years 1951–2099. The results clearly show that strawberry phenological processes can be expected to occur earlier in the future, with a significant change in regional patterns. Differences between coastal and inland regions are expected to decrease over time. The uncertainty of the results was estimated using the RCM ensemble spread, with northern coastal locations showing the largest spread.

  18. CATT: a New and Non-Chemical Pest and Nematode Control Method in Strawberry Planting Stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruistum, van G.; Evenhuis, B.; Hoek, J.; Kastelein, P.; Wolf, van der J.M.; Verschoor, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to MeBr fumigation a 48h Controlled Atmosphere Temperature Treatment (CATT) was developed and scaled up by Wageningen UR in cooperation with the Dutch plant propagating association Plantum. This results in an excellent de-infestation and 99.8 % mortality of the strawberry

  19. CATT as a sustainable method for disinfestation of strawberry mother planting stock

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruistum, van G.; Hoek, H.; Verschoor, J.; Molendijk, L.P.G.

    2014-01-01

    From 2009 Controlled Atmosphere Temperature Treatment (CATT) is scaled up to a commercial level and widely applied by Dutch producers of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) mother planting stock. CATT is a non-chemical and sustainable method to disinfest plant material from insect pests. Frigo plants

  20. Dynamics of predation on Lygus hesperus (Hemiptera: Miridae) in alfalfa trap cropped organic strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) can be strategically planted as a trap crop for Lygus spp. in California’s organic strawberry fields. Alfalfa has been shown to attract both Lygus spp. and, in turn, a Lygus-specific parasitoid, Peristenus relictus (Ruthe). However, the impact of alfalfa trap-cropped st...

  1. Order of 29 December 1988 on treatment of strawberries by ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    This order specifies the conditions for authorizing with a view to selling or putting on sale strawberries whose preservation has been obtained through exposure to cobalt 60 or caesium 137 radiation or to electron beams with an energy below or equal to 10 million electron-volts (10 MeV). (NEA) [fr

  2. Validation of a pulsed electric field process to pasteurize strawberry puree

    Science.gov (United States)

    An inexpensive data acquisition method was developed to validate the exact number and shape of the pulses applied during pulsed electric fields (PEF) processing. The novel validation method was evaluated in conjunction with developing a pasteurization PEF process for strawberry puree. Both buffered...

  3. Effect of spray application technique on spray deposition in greenhouse strawberries and tomatoes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braekman, Pascal; Foque, Dieter; Messens, Winy; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine; Pieters, Jan G; Nuyttens, David

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly, Flemish greenhouse growers are using spray booms instead of spray guns to apply plant protection products. Although the advantages of spray booms are well known, growers still have many questions concerning nozzle choice and settings. Spray deposition using a vertical spray boom in tomatoes and strawberries was compared with reference spray equipment. Five different settings of nozzle type, size and pressure were tested with the spray boom. In general, the standard vertical spray boom performed better than the reference spray equipment in strawberries (spray gun) and in tomatoes (air-assisted sprayer). Nozzle type and settings significantly affected spray deposition and crop penetration. Highest overall deposits in strawberries were achieved using air-inclusion or extended-range nozzles. In tomatoes, the extended-range nozzles and the twin air-inclusion nozzles performed best. Using smaller-size extended-range nozzles above the recommended pressure range resulted in lower deposits, especially inside the crop canopy. The use of a vertical spray boom is a promising technique for applying plant protection products in a safe and efficient way in tomatoes and strawberries, and nozzle choice and setting should be carefully considered.

  4. An R2R3-MYB Transcription Factor Regulates Eugenol Production in Ripe Strawberry Fruit Receptacles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Medina-Puche, L.; Molina-Hidalgo, F.J.; Boersma, M.; Schuurink, R.C.; López-Vidriero, I.; Solano, R.; Franco-Zorrilla, J.M.; Caballero, J.L.; Blanco-Portales, R.; Muñoz-Blanco, J.

    2015-01-01

    Eugenol is a volatile phenylpropanoid that contributes to flower and ripe fruit scent. In ripe strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) fruit receptacles, eugenol is biosynthesized by eugenol synthase (FaEGS2). However, the transcriptional regulation of this process is still unknown. We have identified and

  5. Strawberry Achenes Are an Important Source of Bioactive Compounds for Human Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariza, María Teresa; Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; Mazzoni, Luca; Forbes-Hernández, Tamara Yuliett; Giampieri, Francesca; Afrin, Sadia; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Soria, Carmen; Martínez-Ferri, Elsa; Battino, Maurizio; Mezzetti, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Strawberries are highly appreciated for their taste, nutritional value and antioxidant compounds, mainly phenolics. Fruit antioxidants derive from achenes and flesh, but achene contribution to the total fruit antioxidant capacity and to the bioaccessibility after intake is still unknown. In this work, the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity (TEAC, FRAP and DPPH) of achenes and flesh were compared in non-digested as well as in gastric and intestinal extracts after in vitro digestion. Results showed that, despite strawberry achenes represent a small fraction of the fruit, their contribution to total fruit antioxidant content was more than 41% and accounted for 81% of antioxidant capacity (TEAC). Achenes have higher quantity and different quality of antioxidants in non-digested and digested extracts. Antioxidant release was higher in the in vitro gastric digested extracts, but digestion conditions did not only affect quantity but quality, resulting in differences in antioxidant capacity and highlighting the importance of simulating physiological-like extraction conditions for assessing fruit antioxidant properties on human health. These results give new insights into the use of strawberry achenes as a source of bioactive compounds to be considered in strawberry breeding programs for improving human health. PMID:27409612

  6. Application of multispectral imaging to determine quality attributes and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changhong Liu

    Full Text Available Multispectral imaging with 19 wavelengths in the range of 405-970 nm has been evaluated for nondestructive determination of firmness, total soluble solids (TSS content and ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. Several analysis approaches, including partial least squares (PLS, support vector machine (SVM and back propagation neural network (BPNN, were applied to develop theoretical models for predicting the firmness and TSS of intact strawberry fruit. Compared with PLS and SVM, BPNN considerably improved the performance of multispectral imaging for predicting firmness and total soluble solids content with the correlation coefficient (r of 0.94 and 0.83, SEP of 0.375 and 0.573, and bias of 0.035 and 0.056, respectively. Subsequently, the ability of multispectral imaging technology to classify fruit based on ripeness stage was tested using SVM and principal component analysis-back propagation neural network (PCA-BPNN models. The higher classification accuracy of 100% was achieved using SVM model. Moreover, the results of all these models demonstrated that the VIS parts of the spectra were the main contributor to the determination of firmness, TSS content estimation and classification of ripeness stage in strawberry fruit. These results suggest that multispectral imaging, together with suitable analysis model, is a promising technology for rapid estimation of quality attributes and classification of ripeness stage in strawberry fruit.

  7. Managing conflict over biological control: the case of strawberry guava in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy Johnson

    2016-01-01

    Biological control researchers commonly avoid targets with potential for high conflict, but for certain highly damaging invaders with no viable management alternatives, it may be necessary to consider biological control even when it is likely to generate conflict. Discussed here is a case study, strawberry guava (Psidium cattleianum Sabine...

  8. An Efficient Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Strawberry cv. Camarosa by a Dual Plasmid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Haddadi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An Agrobacterium-mediated transformation method was applied to introduce the luciferase reporter gene under the control of the CaMV35S promoter in the pGreen0049 binary vector into strawberry cv. Camarosa. The in vitro regeneration system of strawberry leaves to be used in the transformation was optimized using different TDZ concentrations in MS medium. TDZ at 16 µM showed the highest percentage (100% of shoot formation and the highest mean number of shoots (24 produced per explant. Studies on the effects of different antibiotics, namely timentin, cefotaxime, carbenicillin and ampicillin, on shoot regeneration of strawberry leaf explants showed the best shoot regeneration in the presence of 300 mg/L timentin and 150 mg/L cefotaxime. Assessment of the different factors affecting Agrobacterium mediated-transformation of strawberry with the luciferase gene showed the highest efficiency of putative transformant production (86% in the treatment with no preculture, bacterial OD600 of 0.6 and the addition of 150 mg/L cefotaxime in the pre-selection and selection media. The presence of the luciferase gene in the plant genome was verified by the luciferase reporter gene assay, nested PCR amplification and dot blot of genomic DNA isolated from the young leaves of each putatively transformed plantlet.

  9. Effects of gamma radiation and packaging on conservation of toyonoka strawberries stored under refrigeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, Danielle Marinelli

    2000-01-01

    Strawberries have short post harvest life due to the rapid spoilage caused by fungal infections, even when stored under refrigeration. The effects of gamma radiation (0.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 kGy) and two kinds of packages (plastic boxes with or without PVC film wrapping) were evaluated using Toyonoka strawberries kept under refrigeration (3 to 6 deg C and relative humidity of 55%) for 1, 8, 15 and 22 days after irradiation, applied 1 day after harvesting. Deterioration progression and loss of weight occurred in the course of storage and although the content of ascorbic acid had also increased, total titratable acidity, p H and ratio remained constant during all the experimental period, independent of the samples treatments. The use of PVC film packing inhibited dehydration of the strawberries along the storage and also caused reduction in soluble solid content of the fruits stored for more than 8 days. The treatments with 2.0 and 2.5 kGy had caused significant losses of ascorbic acid the higher dose also significantly reduced the texture of the fruits. Sensorial analysis has been performed with 30 untrained judges to evaluate the acceptability of strawberries packed without the PVC wrapping and irradiated with doses of 0.0, 1.5 or 2.0 kGy. No irradiation effects were observed and the samples were acceptable with no significant difference between samples stored for 1 or 8 days after irradiation. PVC film packaging and irradiation were not efficient in delaying post harvest decay of Toyonoka strawberries in the conditions used in these experiments. (author)

  10. Ultrasound improves chemical reduction of natural contaminant microbiota and Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica on strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Rosário, Denes Kaic Alves; da Silva Mutz, Yhan; Peixoto, Jaqueline Moreira Curtis; Oliveira, Syllas Borburema Silva; de Carvalho, Raquel Vieira; Carneiro, Joel Camilo Souza; de São José, Jackline Freitas Brilhante; Bernardes, Patrícia Campos

    2017-01-16

    New sanitization methods have been evaluated to improve food safety and food quality and to replace chlorine compounds. However, these new methods can lead to physicochemical and sensory changes in fruits and vegetables. The present study evaluated the effects of acetic acid, peracetic acid, and sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate isolated or combined with 5min of ultrasound treatment (40kHz, 500W) on strawberry quality over 9days of storage at 8°C. The strawberry natural contaminant microbiota (molds and yeasts, mesophilic aerobic and lactic acid bacteria), physicochemical quality (pH, total titratable acidity, total soluble solids, vitamin C, and color), sensory quality (triangle test) and inactivation of Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica intentionally inoculated onto strawberries were analyzed. Ultrasound increased the effect of all chemical compounds in the reduction of aerobic mesophilic, molds and yeasts. The best treatment for those groups of microorganisms was ultrasound combined with peracetic acid (US+PA) that reduced 1.8 and 2.0logcfu/g during 9days of storage. Bactericidal effect of peracetic acid was also improved by ultrasound inactivation of S. enterica, reaching a decimal reduction of 2.1logcfu/g. Moreover, synergistic effects were observed in contaminant natural microbiota inactivation for all tested compounds during storage, without any major physicochemical or sensory alteration to the strawberries. Therefore, ultrasound treatment can improve the effect of sanitizers that are substitutes of chlorine compounds without altering the quality of strawberries during storage. Acetic acid (PubChem CID: 176); Peracetic acid (PubChem CID: 6585); Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (PubChem CID: 18372154). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Energy use and economic analysis of strawberry production in Sanandaj zone of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salami, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the energy consumption and economic analysis for strawberry production. The data were collected from 60 farmers growing strawberry in the Sanandaj zone of Iran by using a face-to-face questionnaire in August-September 2009. The plowing operation at the study area was done by two methods; manually plow (P1 and machinery plow (P2. Also the irrigation operation was done by two methods; pumping irrigation (P and non pumping irrigation (NP. Univariate analysis of variance was used for finding the differences among the total energy used for production and profitability of this crop in the different methods at the 5% and 1% level. Total energy used in various farm operations during strawberry production was 53,605 MJ.ha-1. Total energy output was 17,338 MJ.ha-1, and the average annual yield of strawberry farms was 9,125 kg.ha-1. Energy efficiency was 0.32, and energy productivity calculated as 0.17 kg.MJ-1. This means a production of 0.17 kg per unit energy. The difference between total input energy in the different irrigation types (NP and P is significant at 1% level. There is not any significant difference between different plow types at the 5% level. The interaction of irrigation types and plow types is significant at 5% level. The profit-cost ratio, productivity, and net profit in the strawberry production are 1.2, 0.99, and 1,825 $.ha-1, respectively. The difference between net return in the different irrigation types (NP and P is significant at 5% level. The difference between net return in the different plow types (P1 and P2 is significant at 1% level.

  12. Genetic similarity among strawberry cultivars assessed by RAPD and ISSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gustavo Ferreira Morales

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Most strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duchesne cultivars used in Brazil are developed in other countries, it became clear the need to start the strawberry breeding program in the country. To start a breeding program is necessary the genetic characterization of the germplasm available. Molecular markers are important tools that can be used for this purpose. The objectives of the present study were to assess the genetic similarity among 11 strawberry cultivars using RAPD and ISSR molecular markers and to indicate the possible promising crosses. The DNA of the eleven strawberry cultivars was extracted and amplified by PCR with RAPD and ISSR primers. The DNA fragments were separated in agarose gel for the RAPD markers and in polyacrylamide gel for the ISSR markers. The genetic similarity matrix was estimated by the Jaccard coefficient. Based on this matrix, the cultivars were grouped using the UPGMA method. The dendogram generated by the RAPD markers distributed the cultivars in three groups while the ISSR markers generated two groups. There was no direct relationship between the marker groups when the two types of markers were compared. The grouping proposed by the ISSR markers was more coherent with the origin and the genealogy of the cultivars than that proposed by the RAPD markers, and it can be considered the most efficient method for the study of genetic divergence in strawberry. The most promising crosses, based on the genetic divergence estimated from the RAPD and ISSR molecular data were between the Tudla and Ventana and the Oso Grande and Ventana cultivars, respectively.

  13. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the storage life elongation of fresh strawberries and raspberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tencheva, S.; Todorov, S.

    1975-01-01

    The possibility of preserving strawberries and raspberries at room temperature by irradiation is studied. The fruits were packed in perforated plastic bags and irradiated on gamma-device (Cobalt-60) at a dose power of 1900 rad/min. Strawberries were irradiated with 250 krad, raspberries of ''Rubin'' variety with 150 or 200 krad. Irratiated and control fruits were stored at 20sup(o) - 22sup(o)C and examined every day until the first signs of microbial decay appeared. It is found that the total number of microorganisms drops immediately after irradiation. The earliest signs of decay in control strawberries appeared on the second day after they had been packed; in irradiated strawberries - on the fourth or fifth day, with a rapid progress of decay thereafter. Decay of control raspberries started on the first day and by the fourth day all packages were completely moldy, while irradiated fruits had a very good appearance. Single mold spots appeared on the third or fourth day after exposure to 150 krad and later than the fifth day after exposure to 200 krad. Physico-chemical studies disclosed a tendency toward decrease in the sugar content immediately after irradiation. A post-irradiation decrease in the content of total pectine substances and ascorbic acid was also observed. At the end of preservation ascorbic acid in strawberries was reduced by 33 per cent and in raspberries by 19 - 70 per cent. The spectra of antecyonic substances showed that during the preservation of irradiated fruits oxidation has been more intensive. (Ch.K.)

  14. The European source term code ESTER - basic ideas and tools for coupling of ATHLET and ESTER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, F.; Schuch, A.; Hinkelmann, M.

    1993-04-01

    The French software house CISI and IKE of the University of Stuttgart have developed during 1990 and 1991 in the frame of the Shared Cost Action Reactor Safety the informatic structure of the European Source TERm Evaluation System (ESTER). Due to this work tools became available which allow to unify on an European basis both code development and code application in the area of severe core accident research. The behaviour of reactor cores is determined by thermal hydraulic conditions. Therefore for the development of ESTER it was important to investigate how to integrate thermal hydraulic code systems with ESTER applications. This report describes the basic ideas of ESTER and improvements of ESTER tools in view of a possible coupling of the thermal hydraulic code system ATHLET and ESTER. Due to the work performed during this project the ESTER tools became the most modern informatic tools presently available in the area of severe accident research. A sample application is given which demonstrates the use of the new tools. (orig.) [de

  15. De novo biosynthesis of biodiesel by Escherichia coli in optimized fed-batch cultivation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yangkai Duan

    Full Text Available Biodiesel is a renewable alternative to petroleum diesel fuel that can contribute to carbon dioxide emission reduction and energy supply. Biodiesel is composed of fatty acid alkyl esters, including fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs and fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs, and is currently produced through the transesterification reaction of methanol (or ethanol and triacylglycerols (TAGs. TAGs are mainly obtained from oilseed plants and microalgae. A sustainable supply of TAGs is a major bottleneck for current biodiesel production. Here we report the de novo biosynthesis of FAEEs from glucose, which can be derived from lignocellulosic biomass, in genetically engineered Escherichia coli by introduction of the ethanol-producing pathway from Zymomonas mobilis, genetic manipulation to increase the pool of fatty acyl-CoA, and heterologous expression of acyl-coenzyme A: diacylglycerol acyltransferase from Acinetobacter baylyi. An optimized fed-batch microbial fermentation of the modified E. coli strain yielded a titer of 922 mg L(-1 FAEEs that consisted primarily of ethyl palmitate, -oleate, -myristate and -palmitoleate.

  16. Application conditions for ester cured alkaline phenolic resin sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ren-he Huang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Five organic esters with different curing speeds: propylene carbonate (i.e. high-speed ester A; 1, 4-butyrolactone; glycerol triacetate (i.e. medium-speed ester B; glycerol diacetate; dibasic ester (DBE (i.e. low-speed ester C, were chosen to react with alkaline phenolic resin to analyze the application conditions of ester cured alkaline phenolic resin. The relationships between the curing performances of the resin (including pH value, gel pH value, gel time of resin solution, heat release rate of the curing reaction and tensile strength of the resin sand and the amount of added organic ester and curing temperature were investigated. The results indicated the following: (1 The optimal added amount of organic ester should be 25wt.%-30wt.% of alkaline phenolic resin and it must be above 20wt.%-50 wt.% of the organic ester hydrolysis amount. (2 High-speed ester A (propylene carbonate has a higher curing speed than 1, 4-butyrolactone, and they were both used as high-speed esters. Glycerol diacetate is not a high-speed ester in alkaline phenolic resin although it was used as a high-speed ester in ester cured sodium silicate sand; glycerol diacetate and glycerol triacetate can be used as medium-speed esters in alkaline phenolic resin. (3 High-speed ester A, medium-speed ester B (glycerol triacetate and low-speed ester C (dibasic ester, i.e., DBE should be used below 15 ìC, 35 ìC and 50 ìC, respectively. High-speed ester A or low-speed ester C should not be used alone but mixed with medium-speed ester B to improve the strength of the resin sand. (4 There should be a suitable solid content (generally 45wt.%-65wt.% of resin, alkali content (generally 10wt.%-15wt.% of resin and viscosity of alkaline phenolic resin (generally 50-300 mPa≤s in the preparation of alkaline phenolic resin. Finally, the technique conditions of alkaline phenolic resin preparation and the application principles of organic ester were discussed.

  17. DGAT enzymes and triacylglycerol biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yen, Chi-Liang Eric; Stone, Scot J.; Koliwad, Suneil; Harris, Charles; Farese, Robert V.

    2008-01-01

    Triacylglycerols (triglycerides) (TGs) are the major storage molecules of metabolic energy and FAs in most living organisms. Excessive accumulation of TGs, however, is associated with human diseases, such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. The final and the only committed step in the biosynthesis of TGs is catalyzed by acyl-CoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase (DGAT) enzymes. The genes encoding two DGAT enzymes, DGAT1 and DGAT2, were identified in the past decade, and the use of molecular tools, including mice deficient in either enzyme, has shed light on their functions. Although DGAT enzymes are involved in TG synthesis, they have distinct protein sequences and differ in their biochemical, cellular, and physiological functions. Both enzymes may be useful as therapeutic targets for diseases. Here we review the current knowledge of DGAT enzymes, focusing on new advances since the cloning of their genes, including possible roles in human health and diseases. PMID:18757836

  18. The variation in firmness measurements of individual non-irradiated and irradiated parfaite strawberries using a modified Ballauf penetrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visser, C.J.; Truter, A.B.; De Villiers, F.

    1977-01-01

    This paper discusses the results of extensive measurements on the firmness of healthy and unmarked strawberries of export size after irradiation at a dose of 200 krad and after no irradiation treatment

  19. Identification of urinary biomarkers after consumption of sea buckthorn and strawberry, by untargeted LC-MS metabolomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cuparencu, Catalina Sinziana; Andersen, Maj-Britt Schmidt; Gürdeniz, Gözde

    2016-01-01

    , strawberry and sea buckthorn, in humans. A randomized controlled single-blinded three-way cross-over meal study was conducted in 16 overweight men. The intervention meals consisted of sea buckthorn puree, strawberry puree or an iso-caloric control drink. Urine samples were collected on each test day at t...... in very low concentrations and therefore not identified. Nine and 11 markers were (tentatively) identified for strawberry and sea buckthorn, respectively, the most specific being conjugates of aroma compounds and coloring flavonoids. Metabolites reflecting the step-wise aromatization of quinic to hippuric...... profiling after consumption of sea buckthorn or strawberries. Combinations of these markers are proposed as potentially specific for intake of each of these berries, but need further validation in larger and less-controlled study settings....

  20. Palladium-catalysed arylation of acetoacetate esters to yield 2-arylacetic acid esters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zeevaart, JG

    2004-05-24

    Full Text Available , was developed simultaneously by Hart- wig and Buchwald.5 Typically the tert-butyl ester of propionic acid is treated with an aryl halide (bromide or chloride) in the presence of a strong base, palladium and a bulky phosphine ligand or a bulky imidazolinium CO2t... novel palladium- catalysed conditions for the arylation of acetoacetate esters resulting in the formation of 2-arylacetic acid esters. When we attempted the arylation of tert-butyl aceto- acetate 1a with bromobenzene 2a using mild reaction conditions (K3...

  1. Segmented poly(ether ester)s and poly(ether ester amide)s for use in tissue engineering

    OpenAIRE

    Deschamps, A.A.

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the studies described in this thesis is to investigate the applicability of these slowly degradable thermoplastic elastomers as scaffolds for tissue engineering, with emphasis on their phase separation and degradation properties. A second thermoplastic elastomer in which the terephthalic moieties have been replaced by ester-amide segments, is also investigated for use in scaffolding.

  2. In-home versus laboratory sensory testing using non-expert consumers: A comparable study using testing of varieties of Danish strawberries as cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Peder

    varieties of strawberries, which are able to satisfy both consumer and producer demands, in which both testing approaches have been used. As part of the project the following methodological steps were taken in order to identify consumer preferences for strawberries: focus group interviews aiming at finding...... the relevant question for a large scale survey among Danish households (n=1162), showing the households general knowledge, attitudes and behaviour when buying and consuming strawberries. From this large scale survey n=120 persons were randomly selected for participation in experiments, where 9 new varieties...... and 2 well-known varieties of strawberries were tested. The testing used a split-over design where each person participated in sensory testing of 5 different varieties of strawberries. Besides all the participant in the experiment were asked to do an in-home test of 2 of the 5 varieties of strawberries...

  3. Statement on the dossier for a derogation request of the US authorities concerning cold-treated strawberry plants intended for planting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.

    2009-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Plant Health examined the report “Evaluation of Strawberry Nursery Plant Cold Treatments on Survival of the Whitefly, Bemisia tabaci”, submitted to the European Commission by the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA...... the effectiveness of the cold treatment proposed for the elimination of B. tabaci from strawberry plant consignments prepared for shipment to the EU. In addition, the Panel conducted a preliminary review of the available literature on viruses of strawberry and concluded that no B. tabaci-transmitted viruses...... are currently known to infect strawberry and that no viruses of Fragaria listed in European Council Directive 2000/29/EC are known to be transmitted by B. tabaci. However, adult whiteflies of B. tabaci on strawberry consignments can carry plant viruses irrespective of whether strawberry is a host plant...

  4. Mechanistic Insight into the Biosynthesis and Detoxification of Fumonisin Mycotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Kevin M N; Renaud, Justin B; McDowell, Tim; Sumarah, Mark W

    2016-09-16

    Fumonisins, notably FB1, FB2, FB3, and FB4, are economically important mycotoxins produced by a number Fusarium sp. that occur on corn, rice, and sorghum as well as by Aspergillus sp. on grapes. The fumonisin scaffold is comprised of a C18 polyketide backbone functionalized with two tricarballylic esters and an alanine derived amine. These functional groups contribute to fumonisin's ability to inhibit sphingolipid biosynthesis in animals, plants, and yeasts. We report for the first time the isolation and structure elucidation of two classes of nonaminated fumonisins (FPy and FLa) produced by Aspergillus welwitschiae. Using a Lemna minor (duckweed) bioassay, these new compounds were significantly less toxic in comparison to the fumonisin B mycotoxins, providing new insight into the mechanism of fumonisin toxicity. Time course fermentations monitoring the production of FB4, FPy4, and FLa4, as well as (13)C and (15)N stable isotope incorporation, suggest a novel postbiosynthetic oxidative deamination process for fumonisins. This pathway was further supported by a feeding study with FB1, a fumonisin not produced by Aspergillus sp., which resulted in its transformation to FPy1. This study demonstrates that Aspergillus have the ability to produce enzymes that could be used for fumonisin detoxification.

  5. A New Perspective on Polyploid Fragaria (Strawberry) Genome Composition Based on Large-Scale, Multi-Locus Phylogenetic Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Yilong; Davis, Thomas M

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The subgenomic compositions of the octoploid (2n = 8× = 56) strawberry (Fragaria) species, including the economically important cultivated species Fragaria x ananassa, have been a topic of long-standing interest. Phylogenomic approaches utilizing next-generation sequencing technologies offer a new window into species relationships and the subgenomic compositions of polyploids. We have conducted a large-scale phylogenetic analysis of Fragaria (strawberry) species using the Fluidigm Ac...

  6. The Spatial Organization of Glucosinolate Biosynthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nintemann, Sebastian

    cells is an open question. Likewise, it is not known how glucosinolate biosynthesis is orchestrated at the subcellular level. These open questions were addressed with several approaches in this project, with the aim of shedding light on the spatial organization of glucosinolate biosynthesis from...... between the individual classes of glucosinolates under constitutive and induced conditions and identified the source tissues of these defense compounds. Protein-protein interaction studies were carried out to investigate the subcellular organization of glucosinolate biosynthesis. We identified a family...

  7. Molecular Diversity of Anthracnose Pathogen Populations Associated with UK Strawberry Production Suggests Multiple Introductions of Three Different Colletotrichum Species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Baroncelli

    Full Text Available Fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l. is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production.

  8. Improved Stable Isotope Dilution Assay for Dietary Folates Using LC-MS/MS and Its Application to Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Striegel

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Folates play an important role in the human body and a deficiency of this vitamin can cause several diseases. Therefore, a reliable analytical method is crucial for the determination of folate vitamers in strawberries and other dietary folate sources. A stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method for analyzing folates in food was developed and validated. The folate vitamers Pteroylmonoglutamic acid, tetrahydrofolate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, and 5-formyltetrahydrofolate were quantified using 13C-labeled internal standards. Validation of the assay was accomplished by determining linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection, and limit of quantification and revealed to be a precise, sensitive, and accurate method to determine folate vitamers. Strawberries are worldwide consumed and known to be a good dietary source of nutritive compounds. Using this method, folate concentrations in selected commercial strawberry cultivars and experimental breeding lines grown in Germany and Australia were investigated. Total folates varied from 59 to 153 μg/100 g on fresh weight basis. Furthermore, folate content after lyophilizing or freezing did not show any significant differences compared to fresh strawberries. However, significant losses of total folates in pureed strawberries could be observed after 5 days of storage with only 16% of the original concentration retained. In summary, some of the investigated strawberry cultivars/breeding lines can be considered as rich dietary sources of natural folates.

  9. Molecular Diversity of Anthracnose Pathogen Populations Associated with UK Strawberry Production Suggests Multiple Introductions of Three Different Colletotrichum Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroncelli, Riccardo; Zapparata, Antonio; Sarrocco, Sabrina; Sukno, Serenella A.; Lane, Charles R.; Thon, Michael R.; Vannacci, Giovanni; Holub, Eric; Sreenivasaprasad, Surapareddy

    2015-01-01

    Fragaria × ananassa (common name: strawberry) is a globally cultivated hybrid species belonging to Rosaceae family. Colletotrichum acutatum sensu lato (s.l.) is considered to be the second most economically important pathogen worldwide affecting strawberries. A collection of 148 Colletotrichum spp. isolates including 67 C. acutatum s.l. isolates associated with the phytosanitary history of UK strawberry production were used to characterize multi-locus genetic variation of this pathogen in the UK, relative to additional reference isolates that represent a worldwide sampling of the diversity of the fungus. The evidence indicates that three different species C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae are associated with strawberry production in the UK, which correspond to previously designated genetic groups A2, A4 and A3, respectively. Among these species, 12 distinct haplotypes were identified suggesting multiple introductions into the country. A subset of isolates was also used to compare aggressiveness in causing disease on strawberry plants and fruits. Isolates belonging to C. nymphaeae, C. godetiae and C. fioriniae representative of the UK anthracnose pathogen populations showed variation in their aggressiveness. Among the three species, C. nymphaeae and C. fioriniae appeared to be more aggressive compared to C. godetiae. This study highlights the genetic and pathogenic heterogeneity of the C. acutatum s.l. populations introduced into the UK linked to strawberry production. PMID:26086351

  10. Improved stable isotope dilution assay for dietary folates using LC-MS/MS and its application to strawberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel, Lisa; Chebib, Soraya; Netzel, Michael E.; Rychlik, Michael

    2018-02-01

    Folates play an important role in the human body and a deficiency of this vitamin can cause several diseases. Therefore, a reliable analytical method is crucial for the determination of folate vitamers in strawberries and other dietary folate sources. A stable isotope dilution LC-MS/MS method for analyzing folates in food was developed and validated. The folate vitamers Pteroylmonoglutamic acid, tetrahydrofolate, 5-methyltetrahydrofolate and 5-formyltetrahydrofolate were quantified using 13C-labelled internal standards. Validation of the assay was accomplished by determining linearity, precision, recovery, limit of detection and limit of quantification and revealed to be a precise, sensitive and accurate method to determine folate vitamers. Strawberries are worldwide consumed and known to be a good dietary source of nutritive compounds. Using this method, folate concentrations in selected commercial strawberry cultivars and experimental breeding lines grown in Germany were investigated. Total folates varied from 59 to 153 µg/100 g on fresh weight basis. Furthermore, folate content after lyophilizing or freezing did not show any significant differences compared to fresh strawberries. However, significant losses of total folates in pureed strawberries could be observed after 5 days of storage with only 16 % of the original concentration retained. In summary, some of the investigated strawberry cultivars/breeding lines can be considered as rich dietary sources of natural folates.

  11. Novel Fungal Pathogenicity and Leaf Defense Strategies Are Revealed by Simultaneous Transcriptome Analysis of Colletotrichum fructicola and Strawberry Infected by This Fungus

    OpenAIRE

    Liqing Zhang; Xin Huang; Chengyong He; Chengyong He; Qing-Yu Zhang; Xiaohua Zou; Ke Duan; Ke Duan; Qinghua Gao

    2018-01-01

    Colletotrichum fructicola, which is part of the C. gloeosporioides species complex, can cause anthracnose diseases in strawberries worldwide. However, the molecular interactions between C. fructicola and strawberry are largely unknown. A deep RNA-sequencing approach was applied to gain insights into the pathogenicity mechanisms of C. fructicola and the defense response of strawberry plants at different stages of infection. The transcriptome data showed stage-specific transcription accompanied...

  12. Correlation and prediction of mixing thermodynamic properties of ester-containing systems: Ester + alkane and ester + ester binary systems and the ternary dodecane + ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pérez, Noelia; Fernández, Luís; Ortega, Juan; Toledo, Francisco J.; Wisniak, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Excess enthalpies and volumes were measured for ester–ester–alkane. ► Mixing behaviour for ester–ester, ester–alkane and ester–ester–alkane are analyzed. ► Correlations with a new polynomial model reproduce well the mixing properties. ► UNIFAC predictions for h E result acceptable excluding the ester–ester mixtures. - Abstract: Excess thermodynamic properties V m E and H m E , have been measured for the ternary mixture dodecane + ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate and for the corresponding binaries dodecane + ethyl pentanoate, dodecane + ethyl ethanoate, ethyl pentanoate + ethyl ethanoate at 298.15 K. All mixtures show endothermic and expansive effects. Experimental results are correlated with a suitable equation whose final form for the excess ternary quantity M E contains the particular contributions of the three binaries (i–j) and a last term corresponding to the ternary, all of them obtained considering fourth-order interactions. The fit goodness for all mixtures is good and comparable to others equations taken from the literature. In this work the dissolution model for the binaries and ternary is analyzed with a special attention to ester–ester binaries whose behaviour is discussed. The application of the UNIFAC group contribution model to estimate the H m E yields acceptable results for the binaries (with the exception of ester–ester) and for the ternary mixture.

  13. Naturally Occurring Cinnamic Acid Sugar Ester Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxin Tian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives (CASEDs are a class of natural product with one or several phenylacrylic moieties linked with the non-anomeric carbon of a glycosyl skeleton part through ester bonds. Their notable anti-depressant and brains protective activities have made them a topic of great interest over the past several decades. In particular the compound 3′,6-disinapoylsucrose, the index component of Yuanzhi (a well-known Traditional Chinese Medicine or TCM, presents antidepressant effects at a molecular level, and has become a hotspot of research on new lead drug compounds. Several other similar cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives are reported in traditional medicine as compounds to calm the nerves and display anti-depression and neuroprotective activity. Interestingly, more than one third of CASEDs are distributed in the family Polygalaceae. This overview discusses the isolation of cinnamic acid sugar ester derivatives from plants, together with a systematic discussion of their distribution, chemical structures and properties and pharmacological activities, with the hope of providing references for natural product researchers and draw attention to these interesting compounds.

  14. Ester Tuiksoo - Eesti esimene naissoost põllumajandusminister / Ester Tuiksoo ; interv. Toomas Verrev

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tuiksoo, Ester, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Ametist lahkuv põllumajandusminister Ester Tuiksoo räägib saadud juhtimiskogemusest, Euroopa Liidu ühise põllumajanduspoliitika juurutamisest, rahvuskala valimisest, Rahvaliidu käekäigust parlamendivalimistel

  15. QSAR for cholinesterase inhibition by organophosphorus esters and CNDO/2 calculations for organophosphorus ester hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, H.; Kenley, R. A.; Rynard, C.; Golub, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationships were derived for acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase inhibition by various organophosphorus esters. Bimolecular inhibition rate constants correlate well with hydrophobic substituent constants, and with the presence or absence of catonic groups on the inhibitor, but not with steric substituent constants. CNDO/2 calculations were performed on a separate set of organophosphorus esters, RR'P(O)X, where R and R' are alkyl and/or alkoxy groups and X is fluorine, chlorine or a phenoxy group. For each subset with the same X, the CNDO-derived net atomic charge at the central phosphorus atom in the ester correlates well with the alkaline hydrolysis rate constant. For the whole set of esters with different X, two equations were derived that relate either charge and leaving group steric bulk, or orbital energy and bond order to the hydrogen hydrolysis rate constant.

  16. An oxidoreductase from 'Alphonso' mango catalyzing biosynthesis of furaneol and reduction of reactive carbonyls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Ram; Chidley, Hemangi; Deshpande, Ashish; Schmidt, Axel; Pujari, Keshav; Giri, Ashok; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Gupta, Vidya

    2013-01-01

    Two furanones, furaneol (4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone) and mesifuran (2,5-dimethyl-4-methoxy-3(2H)-furanone), are important constituents of flavor of the Alphonso cultivar of mango (Mangifera indica). To get insights into the biosynthesis of these furanones, we isolated an enone oxidoreductase gene from the Alphonso mango. It has high sequence similarity to an alkenal/one oxidoreductase from cucumber (79% identity) and enone oxidoreductases from tomato (73% identity) and strawberry (72% identity). The complete open reading frame was expressed in E. coli and the (his)6-tagged recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. The purified protein assayed with NADH as a reducing agent converted D-fructose-1,6-diphosphate into furaneol, the immediate precursor of mesifuran. The enzyme was also able to convert two highly reactive carbonyls, 3-buten-2-one and 1-penten-3-one, produced by lipid peroxidation in plants, into their saturated derivatives. Expression profiling in various ripening stages of Alphonso fruits depicted an expression maxima at 10 days after harvest stage, shortly before the appearance of the maximum amount of furanones (completely ripe stage, 15 days after harvest). Although no furanones were detected at the 0 day after harvest stage, significant expression of this gene was detected in the fruits at this stage. Overall, the results suggest that this oxidoreductase plays important roles in Alphonso mango fruits.

  17. Technetium and rhenium tracers with metabolizable ester functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syhre, R.; Seifert, S.; Schneider, F.; Pietzsch, H.J.; Spies, H.; Johannsen, B.

    1993-01-01

    Re-DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) ester complexes were prepored by ligand exchange reactions. To determine whether the ester band in Re-DMSA ester complexes is susceptible to cleavage by esterases, incubation experiments with tissue homogenates and plasma were carried out. (BBR)

  18. 21 CFR 172.848 - Lactylic esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Lactylic esters of fatty acids. 172.848 Section 172... CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.848 Lactylic esters of fatty acids. Lactylic esters of fatty acids... prepared from lactic acid and fatty acids meeting the requirements of § 172.860(b) and/or oleic acid...

  19. Celorbicol, isocelorbicol, and their esters: new sesquiterpenoids from Celastrus orbiculatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.R. Jr. (Dept. of Agriculture, Peoria, IL); Miller, R.W.; Weisleder, D.; Rohwedder, W.K.; Eickman, N.; Clardy, J.

    1976-10-01

    Esters of two new sesquiterpenoid polyalcohols - celorbicol and isocelorbicol - have been isolated from Celastrus orbiculatus. Structures of the parent alcohols have been established by x-ray crystallography, and those of the derived esters have been assigned by NMR spectroscopy. These compounds are structurally related to other polyesters and ester alkaloids from the Celastraceae, all of which are based on the dihydroagarofuran ring system.

  20. [Comparative assessment of Cladophora, Spirogyra and Oedogonium biomass for the production of fatty acid methyl esters].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, I; Muhammad, A; Hameed, U

    2014-01-01

    The use of alternative fuels for the mitigation of ecological impacts by use of diesel has been focus of intensive research. In the present work, algal oils extracted from cultivated biomass of Cladophora sp., Spirogyra sp. and Oedogonium sp. were evaluated for the lipase-mediated synthesis of fatty acid monoalkyl esters (FAME, biodiesel). To optimize the transesterification of these oils, different parameters such as the alkyl group donor, reaction temperature, stirring time and oil to alcohol ratio were investigated. Four different alcohols i.e. methanol, ethanol, n-propanol and n-butanol were tested as alkyl group donor for the biosynthesis FAME and methanol was found to be the best. Similarly, temperature 50 C and stirring time of 6 h were optimized for the transesterification of oils with methanol. The maximum biodiesel conversions from Cladophora (75.0%), Spirogyra (87.5%) and Oedogonium (92.0%) were obtained when oil to alcohol ratio was 1 : 8.

  1. Function and application of a non-ester-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase discovered in tulip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Taiji

    2017-01-01

    Plants have evolved secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathways of immense rich diversity. The genes encoding enzymes for secondary metabolite biosynthesis have evolved through gene duplication followed by neofunctionalization, thereby generating functional diversity. Emerging evidence demonstrates that some of those enzymes catalyze reactions entirely different from those usually catalyzed by other members of the same family; e.g. transacylation catalyzed by an enzyme similar to a hydrolytic enzyme. Tuliposide-converting enzyme (TCE), which we recently discovered from tulip, catalyzes the conversion of major defensive secondary metabolites, tuliposides, to antimicrobial tulipalins. The TCEs belong to the carboxylesterase family in the α/β-hydrolase fold superfamily, and specifically catalyze intramolecular transesterification, but not hydrolysis. This non-ester-hydrolyzing carboxylesterase is an example of an enzyme showing catalytic properties that are unpredictable from its primary structure. This review describes the biochemical and physiological aspects of tulipalin biogenesis, and the diverse functions of plant carboxylesterases in the α/β-hydrolase fold superfamily.

  2. Synthesis of 11C labelled methyl esters: transesterification of enol esters versus BF3 catalysed esterification-a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, Uwe; Blanc, Paul; Falzon, Cheryl L.; Issa, William; White, Jonathan; Tochon-Danguy, Henri J.; Sachinidis, John I.; Scott, Andrew M.

    2006-01-01

    C-11 labelled methyl esters have been synthesized via the transesterification of enol esters in the presence of C-11 methanol and 1,3 dichlorodibutylstannoxane as catalyst. This method leaves functional groups intact and allows access to a wider variety of C-11 labelled methyl esters compared to the BF 3 catalysed ester formation, which uses carboxylic acids and C-11 methanol as starting materials

  3. Rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters with thallium trinitrate: synthesis of indans bearing a beta-keto ester moiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Jr. Luiz F.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The rearrangement of beta,gamma-unsaturated esters, such as 2-(3,4-dihydronaphthalen-1-yl-propionic acid ethyl ester, with thallium trinitrate (TTN in acetic acid leads to 3-indan-1-yl-2-methyl-3-oxo-propionic acid ethyl ester in good yield, through a ring contraction reaction. The new indans thus obtained feature a beta-keto ester moiety, which would be useful for further functionalization.

  4. Poly(ester-anhydride):poly(beta-amino ester) micro- and nanospheres: DNA encapsulation and cellular transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Blaine A; Burdick, Jason A; Little, Steve R; Langer, Robert

    2005-11-04

    Poly(ester-anhydride) delivery devices allow flexibility regarding carrier dimensions (micro- versus nanospheres), degradation rate (anhydride versus ester hydrolysis), and surface labeling (through the anhydride functional unit), and were therefore tested for DNA encapsulation and transfection of a macrophage P388D1 cell line. Poly(l-lactic acid-co-sebacic anhydride) and poly(l-lactic acid-co-adipic anhydride) were synthesized through melt condensation, mixed with 25 wt.% poly(beta-amino ester), and formulated with plasmid DNA (encoding firefly luciferase) into micro- and nanospheres using a double emulsion/solvent evaporation technique. The micro- and nanospheres were then characterized (size, morphology, zeta potential, DNA release) and assayed for DNA encapsulation and cellular transfection over a range of poly(ester-anhydride) copolymer ratios. Poly(ester-anhydride):poly(beta-amino ester) composite microspheres (6-12 microm) and nanospheres (449-1031 nm), generated with copolymers containing between 0 and 25% total polyanhydride content, encapsulated plasmid DNA (>or=20% encapsulation efficiency). Within this polyanhydride range, poly(adipic anhydride) copolymers provided DNA encapsulation at an increased anhydride content (10%, microspheres; 10-25%, nanospheres) compared to poly(sebacic anhydride) copolymers (1%, microspheres and nanospheres) with cellular transfection correlating with the observed DNA encapsulation.

  5. Monoterpene biosynthesis potential of plant subcellular compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, L.; Jongedijk, E.J.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Krol, van der A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular monoterpene biosynthesis capacity based on local geranyl diphosphate (GDP) availability or locally boosted GDP production was determined for plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. A geraniol synthase (GES) was targeted to plastids, cytosol, or mitochondria. Transient expression in Nicotiana

  6. Method for determining heterologous biosynthesis pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Xin; Kuwahara, Hiroyuki; Alazmi, Meshari Saud; Cui, Xuefeng

    2017-01-01

    suitable pathways for the endogenous metabolism of a host organism because the efficacy of heterologous biosynthesis is affected by competing endogenous pathways. The present invention is called MRE (Metabolic Route Explorer), and it was conceived

  7. Expanding the chemical diversity of natural esters by engineering a polyketide-derived pathway into Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menendez-Bravo, Simón; Comba, Santiago; Sabatini, Martín; Arabolaza, Ana; Gramajo, Hugo

    2014-07-01

    Microbial fatty acid (FA)-derived molecules have emerged as promising alternatives to petroleum-based chemicals for reducing dependence on fossil hydrocarbons. However, native FA biosynthetic pathways often yield limited structural diversity, and therefore restricted physicochemical properties, of the end products by providing only a limited variety of usually linear hydrocarbons. Here we have engineered into Escherichia coli a mycocerosic polyketide synthase-based biosynthetic pathway from Mycobacterium tuberculosis and redefined its biological role towards the production of multi-methyl-branched-esters (MBEs) with novel chemical structures. Expression of FadD28, Mas and PapA5 enzymes enabled the biosynthesis of multi-methyl-branched-FA and their further esterification to an alcohol. The high substrate tolerance of these enzymes towards different FA and alcohol moieties resulted in the biosynthesis of a broad range of MBE. Further metabolic engineering of the MBE producer strain coupled this system to long-chain-alcohol biosynthetic pathways resulting in de novo production of branched wax esters following addition of only propionate. Copyright © 2014 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Cellulose biosynthesis in higher plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Kudlicka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the control and regulation of cellulose synthesis is fundamental to an understanding of plant development since cellulose is the primary structural component of plant cell walls. In vivo, the polymerization step requires a coordinated transport of substrates across membranes and relies on delicate orientations of the membrane-associated synthase complexes. Little is known about the properties of the enzyme complexes, and many questions about the biosynthesis of cell wall components at the cell surface still remain unanswered. Attempts to purify cellulose synthase from higher plants have not been successful because of the liability of enzymes upon isolation and lack of reliable in vitro assays. Membrane preparations from higher plant cells incorporate UDP-glucose into a glucan polymer, but this invariably turns out to be predominantly β -1,3-linked rather than β -1,4-linked glucans. Various hypotheses have been advanced to explain this phenomenon. One idea is that callose and cellulose-synthase systems are the same, but cell disruption activates callose synthesis preferentially. A second concept suggests that a regulatory protein as a part of the cellulose-synthase complex is rapidly degraded upon cell disruption. With new methods of enzyme isolation and analysis of the in vitro product, recent advances have been made in the isolation of an active synthase from the plasma membrane whereby cellulose synthase was separated from callose synthase.

  9. Study about the use of ionizing radiation to delay the putrefaction of strawberries 'Tioga'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritacco, M.

    1988-01-01

    The influence of the ionizing radiation has been studied in fresh strawberries of the variety 'Tioga', with the purpose to extend its commercialization period. After the packaging in semi-permeable polyethylene, the material was procesed using 60 Co source of 400kCi. The strawberries were irradiated with a dose of 2kGy. The treated products and the unirradiated ones were stored refrigerated at 5 deg C with a relative humidity of 90 % and in absence of light. Each 4 days, chemical, organoleptics and microbiological studies were carried out and conditions of expense and transport post-irradiation were simulated. The results obtained would indicate the technological viability of ionizing radiations on this type of berries, keeping them in a good state during a period of 28 days post-treatment, the unirradiated material showed undiserable microbiological, organoleptics and chemical alterations after the 4th day of storage. (Autor) [es

  10. The stability of dichlofluanid and vinclozolin and their influence on the quality of strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davídek, J; Hajslová, J; Svobodová, Z

    1981-05-01

    The content of dichlofluanid and vinclozolin found on strawberries treated with Euoparen and/or Ronilan, respectively, did not exceed the residue tolerance. Further decrease of the amount of these fungicides occurred during heatsterilisation of the fruit and storage of the products. The rate of decomposition of dichlofluanid and/or vincolozolin in model solutions (pH 3.0-6.0) followed pseudo-first-order kinetics. The taste and flavour of untreated fruit was preferred to those of strawberries treated with fungicides. There were differences in the content of reducing sugars, volatile fatty acids and titrable acidity in individual samples. Gas-chromatographic profiles of volatile substances isolated from treated and untreated berries also differed.

  11. Effect of pasteurisation and freezing method on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of strawberry pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gilma Auxiliadora Santos; Resende, Nathane Silva; Carvalho, Elisângela Elena Nunes; Resende, Jaime Vilela de; Vilas Boas, Eduardo Valério de Barros

    2017-09-01

    This study evaluated the stability of strawberry pulp subjected to three factors, pasteurisation (pasteurised and unpasteurised), freezing method (static air and forced air) and storage time (0, 2, 4 and 6 months). Pasteurisation favoured vitamin C retention during storage but enhanced the total loss of phenolics without affecting anthocyanin levels. Freezing by forced air was more effective in retaining phenolics during the first 4 months of storage, although the freezing method did not affect the anthocyanin levels. Processing and storage reduced the levels of individual phenolics. Freezing by forced air was more effective than static air in retaining antioxidant activity of the pulp. Polyphenol oxidase and peroxidase enzyme levels were relatively stable and independent of pasteurisation, freezing and storage time. Even after 6 months of frozen storage, strawberry pulp is a significant source of nutrients and bioactive compounds and retains high antioxidant capacity independent of pasteurisation and freezing method.

  12. Vernalização em cinco cultivares de morangueiro Vernalization on five cultivars of strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Fontanetti Verdial

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A produção de morango é sazonal, e os melhores preços dos frutos são obtidos fora da estação. Buscando obter frutos fora da estação, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da vernalização em mudas de cinco cultivares de morangueiro. As mudas foram produzidas no sistema de vasos suspensos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi blocos ao acaso em fatorial 5x2x4, com cinco cultivares ("IAC-Campinas", "Dover", "Sweet Charlie", "Cartuno" e "Oso Grande", dois tratamentos (com e sem vernalização das mudas e quatro tempos, com quatro repetições. Para vernalização, as mudas foram levadas para câmara fria à temperatura de 10+2°C e fotoperíodo de 8h de luz dia-1 durante 28 dias, e em seguida transplantadas. Foram avaliadas as percentagens de sobrevivência, florescimento, frutificação, emissão de estolhos, a massa e o número de frutos produzidos por planta. A sobrevivência de mudas não foi afetada pela vernalização. Houve efeito significativo no florescimento e na frutificação das plantas vernalizadas. O estolonamento de plantas foi mais precoce nas mudas vernalizadas. Para todas as cultivares e tratamentos, a produção de frutos foi insignificante e comercialmente inviável.The strawberry production is seasonal, and the best fruit prices are obtained during the off season. Seeking to get fruits off season, this research was aimed at evaluating the effect of the seedling vernalization of five strawberry cultivars. The strawberry seedling were produced in suspended pot system. The experimental design was is completely randomized blocks with the factorial design 5x2x4, with five strawberry cultivars (IAC-Campinas, Dover, Sweet Charlie, Cartuno and Oso Grande, two treatments (with and without strawberry runners vernalization and four times. For vernalization, the strawberry seedling was taken to cold chamber at 10±2°C, and photoperiod of 8h of light day-1 for 28 days, after this they were transplanted. The

  13. Extending shelf-life and economic evaluation of strawberry irradiated in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    This study was made on ''Egypt's mega gamma I'' irradiator the radiation which is cobalt-60. The following dose was studied in detail 3.5 KGy, was compared with unirradiated sample was studied at the same time. The storage conditions for refrigeration were 4+-1 0 C. During storage periodic fruits were carried out as certain organoleptic properties. The refrigerated irradiated fruits have a shelf life of more than 30 days, whereas the unirradiated ones last only up to 14 days. On the other side the study of economic evaluation of irradiated strawberry showed that the activity of cobalt-60 source needed to satisfy requirement of gamma-irradiation processing of the annual strawberry production in Egypt has been figured a 0.563 Mci for a total activity

  14. Synthesis of Estolide 2-ethylhexyl Ester from Ricinus communis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazrizawati Ahmad Tajuddin; Nor Habibah Rosli

    2013-01-01

    Estolide 2-ethylhexyl ester synthesized through condensation reaction between ricinoleic acid from castor oil (Ricinus communis) and lauric acid, and then capped with 2-ethylhexyl alcohol. The reaction was continuously conducted under vacuum for 24 hours. Product of 2-ethylhexyl ester was characterized by using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) to determine functional group and Nuclear Magnetic Resonans (NMR) for structure's determination. The presence of ester group at 1738.23 cm -1 wavenumber indicates that the formation of estolide ester has occurred. The vibration peak of C-O at 1174.60 cm -1 and 1117.10 cm -1 support the formation of ester. The presence of CH 2 bending indicated the long-chain compound. The ester methine signal at 3.8669 ppm indicated the estolide linkage in the 1 H-NMR spectrum while the 13 C-NMR showed two carbonyl signals at 173.41 ppm for acid and 173.56 ppm for ester. (author)

  15. Correlation between Strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. Productivity and Photosynthesis-related Parameters under Various Growth Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyo Gil Choi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated changes in chlorophyll fluorescence, photosynthetic parameters and fruit yields, as well as fruit phytochemical accumulation of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa Duch. that had been cultivated in a greenhouse under different combinations of light intensity and temperature. In plants grown with low light (LL photosystem II chlorophyll fluorescence was found to increase as compared with those grown under high light (HL. When strawberry plants were grown with temperature higher than 5◦C in addition to LL, they showed decrease in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ, photochemical quenching (qP, as well as chlorophyll fluorescence decrease ratio (RFd when compared with other combinations of light and temperature. Moreover, fruit yield of strawberry was closely correlated with chlorophyll fluorescence-related parameters such as NPQ, qP, and RFd, but not with the maximum efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm. Although plant groups grown under different combinations of light and temperature showed almost comparable levels of photosynthesis rates (Pr when irradiated with low-intensity light, they displayed clear differences when measured with higher irradiances. Plants grown under HL with temperature above 10◦C showed the highest Pr, in contrast to the plants grown under LL with temperature above 5◦C. When the stomatal conductance and the transpiration rate were measured, plants of each treatment showed clear differences even when analyzed with lower irradiances. We also found that fruit production during winter season was more strongly influenced by growth temperature than light intensity. We suggest that fruit productivity of strawberry is closely associated with chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis-related parameters during cultivation under different regimes of temperature and light.

  16. Transcriptome profiling of postharvest strawberry fruit in response to exogenous auxin and abscisic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jingxin; Mao, Linchun; Lu, Wenjing; Ying, Tiejin; Luo, Zisheng

    2016-01-01

    Auxin and abscisic acid regulate strawberry fruit ripening and senescence through cross-talk of their signal transduction pathways that further modulate the structural genes related to physico-chemical properties of fruit. The physiological and transcriptomic changes in harvested strawberry fruits in responses to IAA, ABA and their combination were analyzed. Exogenous IAA delayed the ripening process of strawberries after harvest while ABA promoted the postharvest ripening. However, treatment with a combination of IAA and ABA did not slow down nor accelerate the postharvest ripening in the strawberry fruits. At the molecular level, exogenous IAA up regulated the expressions of genes related to IAA signaling, including AUX/IAA, ARF, TOPLESS and genes encoding E3 ubiquitin protein ligase and annexin, and down regulated genes related to pectin depolymerization, cell wall degradation, sucrose and anthocyanin biosyntheses. In contrast, exogenous ABA induced genes related to fruit softening, and genes involved in signaling pathways including SKP1, HSPs, CK2, and SRG1. Comparison of transcriptomes in responses to individual treatments with IAA or ABA or the combination revealed that there were cooperative and antagonistic actions between IAA and ABA in fruit. However, 17% of the differentially expressed unigenes in response to the combination of IAA and ABA were unique and were not found in those unigenes responding to either IAA or ABA alone. The analyses also found that receptor-like kinases and ubiquitin ligases responded to both IAA and ABA, which seemed to play a pivotal role in both hormones' signaling pathways and thus might be the cross-talk points of both hormones.

  17. Sawdust and Bark-Based Substrates for Soilless Strawberry Production: Irrigation and Electrical Conductivity Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depardieu, Claire; Prémont, Valérie; Boily, Carole; Caron, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work was to optimize a soilless growing system for producing bare-root strawberry transplants in three organic substrates. Three trials were conducted in the Quebec City area to determine the productivity potential of a peat-sawdust mixture (PS25) and an aged bark (AB) material compared to conventional coconut fiber (CF) substrate. A first experiment was carried out to define appropriate irrigation set points for each substrate that allowed optimal plant growth and fruit yields. For all substrates, wetter conditions (irrigation started at -1.0 kPa for CF; -1.5 kPa for AB and PS25, relative to -1.5 kPa for CF; -2.5 kPa for AB and PS25) enhanced plant growth and fruit production. The second trial was carried out to test the productivity potential for commercial production of the three substrates using high-tunnels. After the addition of an initial fertilizer application to PS25, we successfully established bare-root plants that gave similar fruit yields than those in CF and AB. The productivity potential of PS25 and AB were further confirmed during a third trial under greenhouse conditions. The critical factor for plant establishment in PS25 was attributed to consistent N, P and S immobilization by microorganisms, as well as the retention of other elements (Mg2+, K+) in the growth media. Taken together, our results showed that PS25 and AB are promising alternative substrates to coconut coir dust for strawberry cultivation. This paper also provides a useful guide for strawberry cultivation in Quebec, and suggests future research that might be conducted to optimize soilless systems for cold-climate strawberry production in Northern America.

  18. Sawdust and Bark-Based Substrates for Soilless Strawberry Production: Irrigation and Electrical Conductivity Management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Depardieu

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to optimize a soilless growing system for producing bare-root strawberry transplants in three organic substrates. Three trials were conducted in the Quebec City area to determine the productivity potential of a peat-sawdust mixture (PS25 and an aged bark (AB material compared to conventional coconut fiber (CF substrate. A first experiment was carried out to define appropriate irrigation set points for each substrate that allowed optimal plant growth and fruit yields. For all substrates, wetter conditions (irrigation started at -1.0 kPa for CF; -1.5 kPa for AB and PS25, relative to -1.5 kPa for CF; -2.5 kPa for AB and PS25 enhanced plant growth and fruit production. The second trial was carried out to test the productivity potential for commercial production of the three substrates using high-tunnels. After the addition of an initial fertilizer application to PS25, we successfully established bare-root plants that gave similar fruit yields than those in CF and AB. The productivity potential of PS25 and AB were further confirmed during a third trial under greenhouse conditions. The critical factor for plant establishment in PS25 was attributed to consistent N, P and S immobilization by microorganisms, as well as the retention of other elements (Mg2+, K+ in the growth media. Taken together, our results showed that PS25 and AB are promising alternative substrates to coconut coir dust for strawberry cultivation. This paper also provides a useful guide for strawberry cultivation in Quebec, and suggests future research that might be conducted to optimize soilless systems for cold-climate strawberry production in Northern America.

  19. Some biochemical reactions of strawberry plants to infection with Botrytis cinerea and salicylic acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Małolepsza

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of strawberry plants to infection with B. cinerea and treatment with salicylic acid has been studied. Infection of leaves with B. cinerea resulted in early increases in active oxygen species generation, superoxide dismutase and peroxidase activities and phenolic compounds content. Some increases of the above reactions were noticed in plants treated with salicylic acid but not in the plants treated with SA and then later infected with B. cinerea.

  20. Modelling Fresh Strawberry Supply “From-Farm-to-Fork” as a Complex Adaptive Network

    OpenAIRE

    Engelseth, Per; Karlsen, Anniken; Verwaart, Tim

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to model and thereby enable simulation of the complete business entity of fresh food supply. A case narrative of fresh strawberry supply provides basis for this modelling. Lamming et al. (2000) point to the importance of discerning industry-specific product features (or particularities) regarding managing supply networks when discussing elements in “an initial classification of a supply network” while Fisher (1997) and Christopher et al. (2006, 2009) point to the ...

  1. Signum, a new fungicide with interesting properties in resistance management of fungal diseases in strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauke, K; Creemers, P; Brugmans, W; Van Laer, S

    2004-01-01

    Signum, a new fungicide developed by BASF, was applied during 6 successive years against fungal diseases in strawberries. The product is formulated as a water dispersible granule, containing 6.7 % pyraclostrobin and 26.7 % boscalid. Pyraclostrobin is similar in chemistry to other strobilurin fungicides like kresoxim-methyl and trifloxystrobin, registered for fruit disease control. Boscalid belongs to the class of carboxyanilides. Both components in the premix formulation combine two different biochemical modes of action in the fungal cell respiration. Therefore, this co-formulation gives a broad-spectrum activity and also a reduced resistance risk for different target pathogens. Botrytis cinerea is the most important disease on strawberry-fruits and thus the control of fruit rot is mainly focused on this fungus. In average over 6 years, Signum has not only given a very good control against Botrytis fruit rot, but it has also shown a high performance in the control of Colletotrichum. Besides, Signum provides good control of powdery mildew (Podosphaera aphanis) and limits the shift to other fruit rots like leather rot (Phytophthora cactorum and leak (Rhizopus, Mucor). The availability of several categories of fungicide families with a different mode of action gives opportunities in alternating different fungicides and is the best guarantee for a sustainable control of fruit rot in all kinds of strawberry production methods. Signum should be integrated in an overall disease management program. Trials, in which the applications of Signum were timed on disease forecasting, based on environmental factors favorable for Botrytis development, were very promising. This tool can also help in establishing the IPM-concept in the production of strawberries.

  2. Biosynthesis of lipids by bovine meibomian glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolattukudy, P.E.; Rogers, L.M.; Nicolaides, N.

    1985-01-01

    Isolated bovine meibomian glands incorporated exogenous [1- 14 C]acetate into lipids. Thin layer chromatographic analysis of the lipids showed that wax esters and sterol esters contained 61% of the total label. Radio gas liquid chromatographic analysis of the acid and alcohol moieties of both ester fractions showed the label was distributed equally between the two portions of the ester in both cases. Cholesterol and 5-alpha-cholest-7-en-3 beta-ol were the major labeled sterols, and anteiso-C25, anteiso-C27 and anteiso-C23 were the most highly labeled alcohols. The major labeled fatty acids in the wax esters were anteiso-C15, n-C16, anteiso-C17 and n-C18:1, whereas anteiso-C25 and anteiso-C27 were the major labeled acids in the sterol esters. The diester region with 6% of the total label contained labeled fatty acids and fatty alcohols each with anteiso-C25 as the major component and omega-hydroxy acids in which n-C32:1 was the major labeled component. The triglyceride fraction which contained 8% of the total lipids was composed of labeled fatty acids similar to those found in both sterol and wax ester fractions. Chromatographic analyses of the labeled lipids derived from exogenous labeled isoleucine showed that anteiso-branched products were preferentially labeled. The labeled triglyceride fraction derived from [U- 14 C] isoleucine also contained esterified C15, C13, C11, C9, C7 and possibly shorter anteiso-branched acids

  3. Mobilization of steryl esters from lipid particles of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Andrea; Grillitsch, Karlheinz; Leitner, Erich; Daum, Günther

    2009-02-01

    In the yeast as in other eukaryotes, formation and hydrolysis of steryl esters (SE) are processes linked to lipid storage. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the three SE hydrolases Tgl1p, Yeh1p and Yeh2p contribute to SE mobilization from their site of storage, the lipid particles/droplets. Here, we provide evidence for enzymatic and cellular properties of these three hydrolytic enzymes. Using the respective single, double and triple deletion mutants and strains overexpressing the three enzymes, we demonstrate that each SE hydrolase exhibits certain substrate specificity. Interestingly, disturbance in SE mobilization also affects sterol biosynthesis in a type of feedback regulation. Sterol intermediates stored in SE and set free by SE hydrolases are recycled to the sterol biosynthetic pathway and converted to the final product, ergosterol. This recycling implies that the vast majority of sterol precursors are transported from lipid particles to the endoplasmic reticulum, where sterol biosynthesis is completed. Ergosterol formed through this route is then supplied to its subcellular destinations, especially the plasma membrane. Only a minor amount of sterol precursors are randomly distributed within the cell after cleavage from SE. Conclusively, SE storage and mobilization although being dispensable for yeast viability contribute markedly to sterol homeostasis and distribution.

  4. Influence of NaCl salinity on growth analysis of strawberry cv. Camarosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mirdehghan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to study of salinity effect on growth analysis of strawberry, a greenhouse experiment was conducted in Vali-e-Asr University of Rafsanjan in 2010. This study was carried out RCBD design with 4 replications to determine the influence of salinity (30, 60, 90 Mmol and control with distilled water on strawberry growth analysis. Results indicated that relative growth rate (RGR, crop growth rate (CGR, leaf area ratio (LAR and dry matter accumulation were decreased with increasing salinity. The lowest RGR, CGR and LAR were observed in 90 Mmol NaCl salinity. Results also indicated that maximum dry matter accumulations were observed in 1050, 1200 and 1400 degree days in 30, 60 and 90 Mmol NaCl salinity, respectively. Water salinity more than 30 Mmol NaCl L-1 will decreased fresh fruit yield more than 50 percent in hydroponics strawberry production. Dry mass partitioning in NaCl-stressed plants was in favor of crown and petioles and at expense of root, stem and leaf whereas leaf, stem and root DM progressively declined with an increase in salinity.

  5. Workload and awkward posture problems among small-scale strawberry farmers in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumudini, Ganga; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2009-12-01

    Farmers handle heavy workloads, often in awkward postures and experiencing some work related problems. Farmers perceive them as no more than inevitable consequences of farming activities. Although many problems can be prevented or reduced by simple and inexpensive modifications to work, these problems are increasing among farmers. The main focus of the paper was to investigate workload and awkward postures among strawberry farmers and suggest possible solutions to overcome the identified problems. Questionnaires, direct observations and intertwining methods were used to collect the data. Low-level strawberry beds and long working hours were recognized as critical factors that led to farmers' health problems including suffering from low back pain, heavy fatigue, unsteady feeling after work, etc. There was a substantial increase in fatigue in busy seasons compared with slack seasons. When compared with the other workers such as office, technical, sales and blue-collar workers, female farmers' general fatigue level was considerably high. Findings indicated that strawberry farming was a stressful occupation and farmers were strained under heavy workload, monotonous and repetitive work and poor working conditions with frequent fatigue symptoms and severe influence on health.

  6. Preparation and Application of LDPE/ZnO Nanocomposites for Extending Shelf Life of Fresh Strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamifar, Aryou; Mohammadizadeh, Mehri

    2015-12-01

    Strawberries have a very short post-harvest life mostly due to their relatively high water content, intense metabolic activity and susceptibility to microbial rot. Antimicrobial low-density polyethylene nanocomposite films containing ZnO nanoparticles at different mass fractions were prepared by melt mixing and followed by compression moulding using a hot press machine. Fresh strawberries were packed in nanocomposite films and stored at 4 °C. Their microbial stability, ascorbic acid content and titratable acidity were evaluated after 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days of storage. Microbial growth rate was significantly reduced up to 16 days as a result of the use of nanocomposite packaging material containing ZnO nanoparticles. By increasing the ZnO nanoparticle mass fraction to 5%, the antimicrobial activity of the film increased. All packages containing the ZnO nanoparticles kept the microbial load of fresh strawberries below the level that affects shelf life (5 log CFU/g) up to 16 days. The lowest degradation of ascorbic acid content (6.55 mg per 100 g), and loss of acidity (0.68%) were observed in packages containing 3% of ZnO nanoparticles with 10% polyethylene-grafted maleic anhydride.

  7. Abiotic Stress-Related Expressed Sequence Tags from the Diploid Strawberry Fragaria vesca f. semperflorens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximo. Rivarola

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry ( spp. is a eudicotyledonous plant that belongs to the Rosaceae family, which includes other agronomically important plants such as raspberry ( L. and several tree-fruit species. Despite the vital role played by cultivated strawberry in agriculture, few stress-related gene expression characterizations of this crop are available. To increase the diversity of available transcriptome sequence, we produced 41,430 L. expressed sequence tags (ESTs from plants growing under water-, temperature-, and osmotic-stress conditions as well as a combination of heat and osmotic stresses that is often found in irrigated fields. Clustering and assembling of the ESTs resulted in a total of 11,836 contigs and singletons that were annotated using Gene Ontology (GO terms. Furthermore, over 1200 sequences with no match to available Rosaceae ESTs were found, including six that were assigned the “response to stress” GO category. Analysis of EST frequency provided an estimate of steady state transcript levels, with 91 sequences exhibiting at least a 20-fold difference between treatments. This EST collection represents a useful resource to advance our understanding of the abiotic stress-response mechanisms in strawberry. The sequence information may be translated to valuable tree crops in the Rosaceae family, where whole-plant treatments are not as simple or practical.

  8. Biological parameters and fertility life table of Aphis forbesi Weed, 1889 (Hemiptera: Aphididae on strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. S. Araujo

    Full Text Available Abstract This study provides the first contribution of the biology and life table of Aphis forbesi Weed, 1889 (Hemiptera: Aphididae, an important strawberry pest throughout the world. This species lives in the crown and leaf petioles of the plant. It is difficulty to rear this species in laboratory due to protocooperation with ants observed only in the field. We studied the life cycle of A. forbesi on the leaves of the Albion strawberry cultivar at 25 ± 2 °C, 60 ± 10% relative humidity, and a 12-h photophase. The experiment was randomised with 100 replicates. The parameters of the fertility life table were calculated using TabVida. In the population studied, 25% and 46% had four and three instars, respectively. A mean of 1.43 nymphs per female per day was generated. The mean reproductive period was seven days and the mean longevity was 10 days. In every 11 days there is a generation of A. forbesi, where each female has the potential to generate between 6 to 9 individuals daily, increasing its population by 1.2 times. The average life cycle was 16.8 days. High viability observed in all instars and the resulting values of R0, rm and λ suggest that A. forbesi has the capacity to increase their numbers in a short period of time, while generating high populations in strawberry crops, requiring differential management.

  9. Glycosidically bound aroma compounds and impact odorants of four strawberry varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Cristina; San-Juan, Felipe; Concejero, Belén; Callejón, Raquel M; Troncoso, Ana M; Morales, M Lourdes; Ferreira, Vicente; Hernández-Orte, Purificación

    2012-06-20

    This paper reports the determination of glycosidically bound aroma compounds and the olfactometric analysis in four strawberry varieties (Fuentepina, Camarosa, Candonga and Sabrina). Different hydrolytic strategies were also studied. The results showed significant differences between acid and enzymatic hydrolysis. In general terms, the greater the duration of acid hydrolysis, the higher was the content of norisoprenoids, volatile phenols, benzenes, lactones, Furaneol, and mesifurane. A total of 51 aglycones were identified, 38 of them unreported in strawberry. Olfactometric analyses revealed that the odorants with higher modified frequencies were Furaneol, γ-decalactone, ethyl butanoate, ethyl hexanoate, ethyl 3-methylbutanoate, diacetyl, hexanoic acid, and (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one. This last compound, described as geranium/green/pepper/lettuce (linear retention index = 1378), was identified for the first time. Differences with regard to fruity, sweet, floral, and green aroma characters were observed among varieties. In Candonga and Fuentepina, the green character overpowered the sweet. In the other two strawberry varieties sweet attributes were stronger than the rest.

  10. Etiology and Population Genetics of Colletotrichum spp. Causing Crown and Fruit Rot of Strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ureña-Padilla, A R; Mackenzie, S J; Bowen, B W; Legard, D E

    2002-11-01

    ABSTRACT Isolates of Colletotrichum spp. from diseased strawberry fruit and crowns were evaluated to determine their genetic diversity and the etiology of the diseases. Isolates were identified to species using polymerase chain reaction primers for a ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region and their pathogenicity was evaluated in bioassays. Isolates were scored for variation at 40 putative genetic loci with random amplified polymorphic DNA and microsatellite markers. Only C. acutatum was recovered from diseased fruit. Nearly all isolates from crowns were C. gloeosporioides. In crown bioassays, only isolates of C. gloeosporioides from strawberry caused collapse and death of plants. A dendrogram generated from the genetic analysis identified several primary lineages. One lineage included isolates of C. acutatum from fruit and was characterized by low diversity. Another lineage included isolates of C. gloeosporioides from crowns and was highly polymorphic. The isolates from strawberry formed distinctive clusters separate from citrus isolates. Evaluation of linkage disequilibrium among polymorphic loci in isolates of C. gloeosporioides from crowns revealed a low level of disequilibrium as would be expected in sexually recombining populations. These results suggest that epidemics of crown rot are caused by Glomerella cingulata (anamorph C. gloeosporioides) and that epidemics of fruit rot are caused by C. acutatum.

  11. Detection of irradiated strawberries by identifying ESR peak of irradiated cellulose component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Michiko; Tanabe, Hiroko

    2002-01-01

    The method of detecting low-dose irradiated strawberries by identifying ESR peak of irradiated cellulose component was studied. Ratio of peak height (S) of high magnetic field cellulose component, and noise width (N) of either irradiated or unirradiated seeds of strawberries were compared. In this study, sample was identified to be irradiated when S/N ratio of ESR spectrum of 4 min. sweep time was above 0.7. In the case of S/N ratio below 0.7, when the S/N ratio of integrated ESR spectrum, obtained from measuring 10 times with 1 min. sweep time was above 1.0, the sample was identified to be irradiated. The result suggests that S/N ratio is a good marker to detect the irradiation. The strawberries irradiated above 0.5kGy was able to be detected after 3 days storage at room temperature, after 21 days refrigeration and after 60 days freezing, respectively. (author)

  12. Irradiation and evolution of the gray rot botrytis cinerea at the strawberry plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Labidi, Arbia

    2005-01-01

    Strawberry was introduced since french colonization in tunisia as one of plants cultivated. At the end of the 1970's the strawberries (Fragaria ananassa) was developed in area of Cap Bon. grey mold, caused by botrytis cinerea is by far the most widespread and serious of strawberry fruit diseases and an ever-present threat to the crop. A wide variety of symptoms is caused by B. Cinerea such as a rot on fruit and blight on leaves. this fungus causes domages bith in the field and during storage. In order to reduce severity of grey mold, biological control in field and radiation on post-harvest are developed. The objective of this study was to determine the antagonism of some microorganisms against B.Cinerea such as Trichoderma and Bacillus in greenhouse. On the other hand we tested the efficacity of biological products such as Prev-Am and BM 86on enhancing plant defense. For the post-harvest studies, the goal is to provide a wear tool to manage better the fungus by gamma rays radiation. (author). 29 refs

  13. Influence of Irradiated Chicken Manure on Productivity and Fruit Quality of Strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.

    2014-01-01

    A field experiment was carried out on Strawberry fruits (Fragaria×ananassa) cv. camarosa at Atomic Energy Authority, Experimental farm, Inshas, Egypt during the two successive seasons 2011 and 2012. Chicken manure at rates of 15 and 30 m 3 fed -1 were irradiated with 10 KGy gamma were applied in combination with 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 . Untreated control but fertilized with 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed-1was also included. Generally chicken manure rates significantly increased vegetative growth, and total yield quality of strawberry fruits. The superiority data with 30 m 3 fed -1 irradiated chicken manure was observed on strawberry of plant height, number of leaves plant, and number of crowns plant, root length and dry weight of shoots. Also total soluble solids and acidity, vitamin C, total sugars and anthocyanin content were significantly increased comparable to control. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents non significantly affected most of treatments except the combined treatment of chicken manure at rate 30 m 3 fed -1 and 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 that induced the best results. This was true at the 2nd season. Moreover these results were nearly closed those of irradiated dry chicken manure at rate of 30 m 3 fed -1 plus 206 N + 31 P 2 O 5 + 240 K 2 O unit fed -1 , for both seasons

  14. Preparation and Application of LDPE/ZnO Nanocomposites for Extending Shelf Life of Fresh Strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehri Mohammadizadeh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries have a very short post-harvest life mostly due to their relatively high water content, intense metabolic activity and susceptibility to microbial rot. Antimicrobial low-density polyethylene nanocomposite films containing ZnO nanoparticles at different mass fractions were prepared by melt mixing and followed by compression moulding using a hot press machine. Fresh strawberries were packed in nanocomposite films and stored at 4 °C. Their microbial stability, ascorbic acid content and titratable acidity were evaluated after 0, 4, 8, 12 and 16 days of storage. Microbial growth rate was significantly reduced up to 16 days as a result of the use of nanocomposite packaging material containing ZnO nanoparticles. By increasing the ZnO nanoparticle mass fraction to 5 %, the antimicrobial activity of the film increased. All packages containing the ZnO nanoparticles kept the microbial load of fresh strawberries below the level that affects shelf life (5 log CFU/g up to 16 days. The lowest degradation of ascorbic acid content (6.55 mg per 100 g, and loss of acidity (0.68 % were observed in packages containing 3 % of ZnO nanoparticles with 10 % polyethylene-grafted maleic anhydride.

  15. Organochlorine pesticide residues in strawberries from integrated pest management and organic farming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Virginia C; Domingues, Valentina F; Mateus, Nuno; Delerue-Matos, Cristina

    2011-07-27

    A rapid, specific, and sensitive method based on the Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged and Safe (QuEChERS) method and a cleanup using dispersive solid-phase extraction with MgSO(4), PSA, and C18 sorbents has been developed for the routine analysis of 14 pesticides in strawberries. The analyses were performed by three different analytical methodologies: gas chromatography (GC) with electron capture detection (ECD), mass spectrometry (MS), and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The recoveries for all the pesticides studied were from 46 to 128%, with relative standard deviation of residue limits (MRL) accepted in Portugal for organochlorine pesticides (OCP). A survey study of strawberries produced in Portugal in the years 2009-2010 obtained from organic farming (OF) and integrated pest management (IPM) was developed. Lindane and β-endosulfan were detected above the MRL in OF and IPM. Other OCP (aldrin, o,p'-DDT and their metabolites, and methoxychlor) were found below the MRL. The OCP residues detected decreased from 2009 to 2010. The QuEChERS method was successfully applied to the analysis of strawberry samples.

  16. Strawberry-Based Cosmetic Formulations Protect Human Dermal Fibroblasts against UVA-Induced Damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Gasparrini

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Extreme exposure of skin to Ultraviolet A (UVA-radiation may induce a dysregulated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS which can interact with cellular biomolecules leading to oxidative stress, inflammation, DNA damage, and alteration of cellular molecular pathways, responsible for skin photoaging, hyperplasia, erythema, and cancer. For these reasons, the use of dietary natural bioactive compounds with remarkable antioxidant activity could be a strategic tool to counteract these UVA-radiation-caused deleterious effects. Thus, the purpose of the present work was to test the efficacy of strawberry (50 μg/mL-based formulations supplemented with Coenzyme Q10 (100 μg/mL and sun protection factor 10 in human dermal fibroblasts irradiated with UVA-radiation. The apoptosis rate, the amount of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS production, the expression of proteins involved in antioxidant and inflammatory response, and mitochondrial functionality were evaluated. The results showed that the synergic topical use of strawberry and Coenzyme Q10 provided a significant (p < 0.05 photoprotective effect, reducing cell death and ROS, increasing antioxidant defense, lowering inflammatory markers, and improving mitochondrial functionality. The obtained results suggest the use of strawberry-based formulations as an innovative, natural, and useful tool for the prevention of UVA exposure-induced skin diseases in order to decrease or substitute the amount of synthetic sunscreen agents.

  17. Comparative genomic sequence analysis of strawberry and other rosids reveals significant microsynteny

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbott Albert

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fragaria belongs to the Rosaceae, an economically important family that includes a number of important fruit producing genera such as Malus and Prunus. Using genomic sequences from 50 Fragaria fosmids, we have examined the microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant models. Results In more than half of the strawberry fosmids, we found syntenic regions that are conserved in Populus, Vitis, Medicago and/or Arabidopsis with Populus containing the greatest number of syntenic regions with Fragaria. The longest syntenic region was between LG VIII of the poplar genome and the strawberry fosmid 72E18, where seven out of twelve predicted genes were collinear. We also observed an unexpectedly high level of conserved synteny between Fragaria (rosid I and Vitis (basal rosid. One of the strawberry fosmids, 34E24, contained a cluster of R gene analogs (RGAs with NBS and LRR domains. We detected clusters of RGAs with high sequence similarity to those in 34E24 in all the genomes compared. In the phylogenetic tree we have generated, all the NBS-LRR genes grouped together with Arabidopsis CNL-A type NBS-LRR genes. The Fragaria RGA grouped together with those of Vitis and Populus in the phylogenetic tree. Conclusions Our analysis shows considerable microsynteny between Fragaria and other plant genomes such as Populus, Medicago, Vitis, and Arabidopsis to a lesser degree. We also detected a cluster of NBS-LRR type genes that are conserved in all the genomes compared.

  18. Epidemiology and Control of Strawberry Bacterial Angular Leaf Spot Disease Caused by Xanthomonas fragariae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ran Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Strawberry bacterial angular leaf spot (ALS disease, caused by Xanthomonas fragariae has become increasingly problematic in the strawberry agro-industry. ALS causes small angular water-soaked lesions to develop on the abaxial leaf surface. Studies reported optimum temperature conditions for X. fragariae are 20°C and the pathogen suffers mortality above 32°C. However, at the nursery stage, disease symptoms have been observed under high temperature conditions. In the present study, results showed X. fragariae transmission was via infected maternal plants, precipitation, and sprinkler irrigation systems. Systemic infections were detected using X. fragariae specific primers 245A/B and 295A/B, where 300-bp and 615-bp were respectively amplified. During the nursery stage (from May to August, the pathogen was PCR detected only in maternal plants, but not in soil or irrigation water through the nursery stage. During the cultivation period, from September to March, the pathogen was detected in maternal plants, progeny, and soil, but not in water. Additionally, un-infected plants, when planted with infected plants were positive for X. fragariae via PCR at the late cultivation stage. Chemical control for X. fragariae with oxolinic acid showed 87% control effects against the disease during the nursery period, in contrast to validamycin-A, which exhibited increased efficacy against the disease during the cultivation stage (control effect 95%. To our knowledge, this is the first epidemiological study of X. fragariae in Korean strawberry fields.

  19. Fuzzy classification for strawberry diseases-infection using machine vision and soft-computing techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altıparmak, Hamit; Al Shahadat, Mohamad; Kiani, Ehsan; Dimililer, Kamil

    2018-04-01

    Robotic agriculture requires smart and doable techniques to substitute the human intelligence with machine intelligence. Strawberry is one of the important Mediterranean product and its productivity enhancement requires modern and machine-based methods. Whereas a human identifies the disease infected leaves by his eye, the machine should also be capable of vision-based disease identification. The objective of this paper is to practically verify the applicability of a new computer-vision method for discrimination between the healthy and disease infected strawberry leaves which does not require neural network or time consuming trainings. The proposed method was tested under outdoor lighting condition using a regular DLSR camera without any particular lens. Since the type and infection degree of disease is approximated a human brain a fuzzy decision maker classifies the leaves over the images captured on-site having the same properties of human vision. Optimizing the fuzzy parameters for a typical strawberry production area at a summer mid-day in Cyprus produced 96% accuracy for segmented iron deficiency and 93% accuracy for segmented using a typical human instant classification approximation as the benchmark holding higher accuracy than a human eye identifier. The fuzzy-base classifier provides approximate result for decision making on the leaf status as if it is healthy or not.

  20. Cancer-Related Constituents of Strawberry Jam as Compared with Fresh Fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Flores

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The health awareness recently shown by consumers has led to a demand for health beneficial products. In particular, researchers are currently focusing their studies on the search for foods for cancer prevention activity. In the present work, we study comparatively the effect of two different processing methods on the contents of phenolic compounds (i.e., ellagic acid, myricetin, quercetin and kaempferol with antioxidant and antitumor properties in strawberry jams. In turn, the results obtained were compared with those of unprocessed fruit. Additionally carcinogenic heat-induced compounds formed by the two jam making methods were evaluated. Decreases of total ellagic acid from 138.4 µg/g to 86.5 µg/g were measured in jam as compared with the intact fruit. Even higher losses of up to 90% of total flavonols were found in strawberry after the jam-making process. A comparison between the two processing methods proved shorter heating periods (around 60 min even at temperatures as high as 100 °C enabled losses of antioxidant phenolics to be minimized. Carcinogenic heat-induced volatile compounds, mainly Maillard reaction products, were formed as a result of thermal treatment during jam processing. However, shorter heating periods also helped reduce the formation of these harmful compounds. These results are deeply discussed. From a practical standpoint, the processing conditions here proposed can be used by industry to obtain strawberry jam with higher content of antioxidant flavonoids and, at the same time, reduced amounts of carcinogenic compounds.

  1. Enzymatic synthesizing of phytosterol oleic esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xinxin; Chen, Biqiang; Wang, Juan; Zhang, Xinzhi; Zhul, Biyun; Tan, Tianwei

    2012-09-01

    A method of synthesizing the phytosterol esters from oleic acid and sterols was studied, using immobilized lipase Candida sp. 99-125 as catalyst. Molar ratio (oleic acid/phytosterols), temperature, reaction period, organic solvents, catalyst, and silica-gel drier were optimized, and the result showed that 93.4% of the sterols had been esterified under the optimal synthetic condition: the molar ratio of oleic acid/phytosterol is 1:1 in 10 mL iso-octane, immobilized lipase (w, 140% of the sterols), incubated in an orbital shaker (200 rpm) at a temperature of 45 °C for 24 h. The immobilized lipase could be reused for at least 13 times with limited loss of esterification activity. The conversion still maintained up to 86.6%. Hence, this developed process for synthesizing phytosterol esters could be considered as simple and low-energy consumption compared to existing chemical processes.

  2. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, M.S.; Shahnaz; Tabassum, S.; Ogunwande, I.A.; Pervez, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  3. Naturally occurring antifungal aromatic esters and amides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ali, M S; Shahnaz,; Tabassum, S; Ogunwande, I A; Pervez, M K [University of Karachi (Pakistan). HEJ Research Inst. of Chemistry, International Centre for Chemical and Biological Sciences

    2010-08-15

    During the search of antifungal natural products from terrestrial plants, a new long chained aromatic ester named grandiflorate along with spatazoate from Portulaca grandiflora and N-[2-methoxy-2-(4-methoxyphenyl) ethyl]-trans-cinnamide and aegeline from Solanum erianthum of Nigeria were isolated and tested against six fungal species. The known constituents have not been reported so far from mentioned investigated plants. Structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including two dimensional NMR experiments. Among the compounds, the esters found more potent than amides against Candida albicans and Aspergillus flavus. The new compound grandiflorate gave response against all tested fungal species while aegeline was found to give lowest inhibition during this study. (author)

  4. Atmospheric oxidation of selected alcohols and esters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, K H; Cavalli, F

    2001-03-01

    The decision whether it is appropriate and beneficial for the environment to deploy specific oxygenated organic compounds as replacements for traditional solvent types requires a quantitative assessment of their potential atmospheric impacts including tropospheric ozone and other photooxidant formation. This involves developing chemical mechanisms for the gasphase atmospheric oxidation of the compounds which can be reliably used in models to predict their atmospheric reactivity under a variety of environmental conditions. Until this study, there was very little information available concerning the atmospheric fate of alcohols and esters. The objectives of this study were to measure the atmospheric reaction rates and to define atmospheric reaction mechanisms for the following selected oxygenated volatile organic compounds: the alcohols, 1-butanol and 1-pentanol, and the esters, methyl propionate and dimethyl succinate. The study has successfully addressed these objectives. (orig.)

  5. Stereochemistry of Endogenous Palmitic Acid Ester of 9-Hydroxystearic Acid and Relevance of Absolute Configuration to Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Andrew T; Kolar, Matthew J; Chu, Qian; Syed, Ismail; Kahn, Barbara B; Saghatelian, Alan; Siegel, Dionicio

    2017-04-05

    Lipids have fundamental roles in the structure, energetics, and signaling of cells and organisms. The recent discovery of fatty acid esters of hydroxy fatty acids (FAHFAs), lipids with potent antidiabetic and anti-inflammatory activities, indicates that our understanding of the composition of lipidome and the function of lipids is incomplete. The ability to synthesize and test FAHFAs was critical in elucidating the roles of these lipids, but these studies were performed with racemic mixtures, and the role of stereochemistry remains unexplored. Here, we synthesized the R- and S- palmitic acid ester of 9-hydroxystearic acid (R-9-PAHSA, S-9-PAHSA). Access to highly enantioenriched PAHSAs enabled the development of a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method to separate and quantify R- and S-9-PAHSA, and this approach identified R-9-PAHSA as the predominant stereoisomer that accumulates in adipose tissues from transgenic mice where FAHFAs were first discovered. Furthermore, biochemical analysis of 9-PAHSA biosynthesis and degradation indicate that the enzymes and pathways for PAHSA production are stereospecific, with cell lines favoring the production of R-9-PAHSA and carboxyl ester lipase (CEL), a PAHSA degradative enzyme, selectively hydrolyzing S-9-PAHSA. These studies highlight the role of stereochemistry in the production and degradation of PAHSAs and define the endogenous stereochemistry of 9-PAHSA in adipose tissue. This information will be useful in the identification and characterization of the pathway responsible for PAHSA biosynthesis, and access to enantiopure PAHSAs will elucidate the role of stereochemistry in PAHSA activity and metabolism in vivo.

  6. Cytosolic cholesterol ester hydrolase in adrenal cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Tocher, Douglas R.

    1983-01-01

    Cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH) in adrenocortical cytosol was known to be phosphorylated and activated, in response to ACTH in a cAMPdependent protein kinase mediated process. The purification of CEH from bovine adrenocortical cytosol was attempted. The use of detergents to solubilise the enzyme from lipid-rich aggregates was investigated and sodium cholate was found to be effective. A purification procedure using cholate solubilised enzyme was developed. The detergent int...

  7. Synthetic Methods for Ester Bond Formation and Conformational Analysis of Ester-Containing Carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackbusch, Sven

    This dissertation encompasses work related to synthetic methods for the formation of ester linkages in organic compounds, as well as the investigation of the conformational influence of the ester functional group on the flexibility of inter-saccharide linkages, specifically, and the solution phase structure of ester-containing carbohydrate derivatives, in general. Stereoselective reactions are an important part of the field of asymmetric synthesis and an understanding of their underlying mechanistic principles is essential for rational method development. Here, the exploration of a diastereoselective O-acylation reaction on a trans-2-substituted cyclohexanol scaffold is presented, along with possible reasons for the observed reversal of stereoselectivity dependent on the presence or absence of an achiral amine catalyst. In particular, this work establishes a structure-activity relationship with regard to the trans-2-substituent and its role as a chiral auxiliary in the reversal of diastereoselectivity. In the second part, the synthesis of various ester-linked carbohydrate derivatives, and their conformational analysis is presented. Using multidimensional NMR experiments and computational methods, the compounds' solution-phase structures were established and the effect of the ester functional group on the molecules' flexibility and three-dimensional (3D) structure was investigated and compared to ether or glycosidic linkages. To aid in this, a novel Karplus equation for the C(sp2)OCH angle in ester-linked carbohydrates was developed on the basis of a model ester-linked carbohydrate. This equation describes the sinusoidal relationship between the C(sp2)OCH dihedral angle and the corresponding 3JCH coupling constant that can be determined from a J-HMBC NMR experiment. The insights from this research will be useful in describing the 3D structure of naturally occurring and lab-made ester-linked derivatives of carbohydrates, as well as guiding the de novo-design of

  8. Methyl and ethyl soybean esters production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pighinelli, Anna Leticia Montenegro Turtelli; Park, Kil Jin; Zorzeto, Thais Queiroz [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (FEAGRI/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Fac. de Engenharia Agricola], E-mail: annalets@feagri.unicamp.br; Bevilaqua, Gabriela [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (IQ/UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2008-07-01

    Biodiesel is a fuel obtained from triglycerides found in nature, like vegetable oils and animal fats. Nowadays it has been the subject of many researches impulses by the creation of the Brazilian law that determined the blend of 2% of biodiesel with petrodiesel. Basically, there are no limitations on the oilseed type for chemical reaction, but due to high cost of this major feedstock, it is important to use the grain that is available in the region of production. Soybean is the oilseed mostly produced in Brazil and its oil is the only one that is available in enough quantity to supply the current biodiesel demand. The objective of this work was to study the effects of reaction time and temperature on soybean oil transesterification reaction with ethanol and methanol. A central composite experimental design with five variation levels was used and response surface methodology applied for the data analysis. The statistical analysis of the results showed that none of the factors affected the ethyl esters production. However, the methyl esters production suffered the influence of temperature (linear effect), reaction time (linear and quadratic) and interaction of these two variables. None of the generated models showed significant regression consequently it was not possible to build the response surface. The experiments demonstrated that methanol is the best alcohol for transesterification reactions and the ester yield was up to 85%. (author)

  9. Effect of strawberry (Fragaria x ananasa) as antidepresant activity on mice induced by stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazar, Siti; Fitri, Lulu L.

    2015-09-01

    Depression is a physiological disorder on the brain and may induce the reduction levels of monoamine neurotransmitters, serotonin and the increased levels of stress hormone, corticosterone. The use of antidepressant drugs causing side effect, therefore natural agents are used as alternative therapy. The objectives of this study are to determine the effect of strawberries in the murine experiments in increasing serotonin level as well as decreasing in the immobility time of mice on Forced Swimming Task (FST). Forty-eight male outbreed of 4 weeks old mice strain Swiss Webster with average body weight of 18-22 grams were divided into six groups of eight mice, as follows: (1) non-stressed, (2) Chronic Mild Stressed (CMS), (3) strawberry extract (with dose of 464.1 mg/kg) and CMS, (4) strawberry extract (with dose of 928.2 mg/kg) and CMS, (5) fisetin (with a dose of 10 mg/kg) and CMS, and (6) amitriptyline (an antidepressant, with a dose of 3.25 mg/kg) and CMS as a comparison group. Chronic Mild Stress (CMS) method were used as induction of stress consisted of seven different stressors and assigned randomly for 35 days. Provision of treatment was made during the 14 days preparations on day 22 to day 35. At the end of treatments, all mice were assigned on FST test for immobility time measurements. Next, all mice were decapitated and the brains were isolated. Serotonin levels were measured using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with UV-visible light detector. The results showed that the immobility time of group mice which were given by the strawberries (928.2 mg/kg) and fisetin had shorter duration than the positive control group. Furthermore, the level of serotonin in the test group increased compared to CMS group. Corticosterone levels of treatment mice were increased significantly compared to non-stressed mice. Therefore, it can be concluded that strawberries are able to improve depressive symptoms by decreasing immobility time and increasing levels of

  10. Inactivation of an E.coli 0157:H7 and Salmonella composite on fresh strawberries by varying antimicrobial washes and vacuum perfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 2011 outbreak of hemorrhagic colitis, which resulted in the death of two individuals, was associated with contaminated strawberries. A study was conducted to identify antimicrobial washes effective at inactivating E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella enterica from the surface of fresh whole strawberrie...

  11. Contaminated Frozen Strawberries in School Lunches. Hearing before the Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry. United States Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, First Session (June 5, 1997).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry.

    This hearing includes testimony on contaminated strawberries in school lunches. Contaminated strawberries were determined to be the cause of an outbreak of hepatitis in the state of Michigan. In addition to statements by the committee members, testimony was given by: (1) Mary Ann Keeffe, Acting Under Secretary, Food Nutrition and Consumer…

  12. A combination of baiting and different PCR formats, including measurement of real-time quantitative fluorescence, for the detection of Phytophthora fragariae in strawberry plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonants, P.J.M.; Gent-Pelzer, van M.P.E.; Hooftman, R.; Cooke, D.E.L.; Guy, D.C.; Duncan, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Phytophthora fragariae, the cause of strawberry red stele disease, is a quarantine pathogen in Europe. Detecting low levels of infection requires sensitive and specific methods. In the past, Dutch and English inspection services have used bait plants to test strawberry propagation stocks destined

  13. Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia M. J. Pinent

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Species of thrips (Insecta, Thysanoptera in two strawberry production systems in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Thrips are tiny insects responsible for the reduction of strawberry fruit quality. The work aimed to record and quantify the thysanopterofauna present in two strawberry production systems, low tunnel and semi-hydroponic. Leaves, flowers and fruits were collected weekly, from July 2005 to December 2006 in Caxias do Sul and Bom Princípio municipalities, RS. A total of 664 individuals were collected, representing two families, four genus and 10 species: Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895, F. schultzei (Trybom, 1910, F. rodeos Moulton, 1933, F. simplex (Priesner, 1924, F. williamsi (Hood, 1915, F. gemina (Bagnall, 1919, Frankliniella sp., Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Thrips tabaci (Lindeman, 1888, Caliothrips fasciatus (Pergande 1895 from Thripidae and Heterothrips sp. from Heterothripidae. Frankliniella occidentalis represented 89.7% of the samples with 95.8% of the species collected in flowers, 3.9% in fruits and 0.8% in leaves. The results show that flowers are the most important food resource for these insects on strawberry plants. Frankliniella rodeos, F. simplex, F. williamsi, C. fasciatus, and Heterothrips sp. are new records on strawberry for Brazil.

  14. Maturity stages affect the postharvest quality and shelf-life of fruits of strawberry genotypes growing in subtropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Moshiur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The postharvest changes of five promising strawberry genotypes viz. Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 at ambient temperature were studied under sub tropical region during the winter season (December–April of 2010–2011 and 2011–2012 in Bangladesh. Irrespective of maturity stages percent fruit decay and weight of fruits were noted minimum in Camarosa and maximum in FA 008 up to day 4 of storage. The shelf life of fruits was maximum in Camarosa and minimum in FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 regardless of maturity stage throughout the storage period. The TSS, total sugar and ascorbic acid content of fruits were increased with the increase in maturity stage during the storage period. In 1/3rd and 2/3rd maturity stages, the TSS and total sugar content were found the highest in Festival but at full maturity stage those were recorded higher in Camarosa. The titratable acidity was noticed the highest in 1/3rd matured fruits and gradually decreased with the increase in maturity stage as well as storage duration in all the genotypes. Ascorbic acid content of strawberry gradually decreases during the storage period. Fully matured fresh fruits of Festival contained maximum ascorbic acid content while BARI Strawberry-1 contained minimum ascorbic acid that was reduced after 3 days of storage.

  15. Strawberry Phytochemicals Inhibit Azoxymethane/Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colorectal Carcinogenesis in Crj: CD-1 Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Shi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Human and experimental colon carcinogenesis are enhanced by a pro-inflammatory microenvironment. Pharmacologically driven chemopreventive agents and dietary variables are hypothesized to have future roles in the prevention of colon cancer by targeting these processes. The current study was designed to determine the ability of dietary lyophilized strawberries to inhibit inflammation-promoted colon carcinogenesis in a preclinical animal model. Mice were given a single i.p. injection of azoxymethane (10 mg kg−1 body weight. One week after injection, mice were administered 2% (w/v dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water for seven days and then an experimental diet containing chemically characterized lyophilized strawberries for the duration of the bioassay. Mice fed control diet, or experimental diet containing 2.5%, 5.0% or 10.0% strawberries displayed tumor incidence of 100%, 64%, 75% and 44%, respectively (p < 0.05. The mechanistic studies demonstrate that strawberries reduced expression of proinflammatory mediators, suppressed nitrosative stress and decreased phosphorylation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase and nuclear factor kappa B. In conclusion, strawberries target proinflammatory mediators and oncogenic signaling for the preventive efficacies against colon carcinogenesis in mice. This works supports future development of fully characterized and precisely controlled functional foods for testing in human clinical trials for this disease.

  16. A comparative study on aromatic profiles of strawberry vinegars obtained using different conditions in the production process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ubeda, Cristina; Callejón, Raquel M; Troncoso, Ana M; Moreno-Rojas, Jose M; Peña, Francisco; Morales, M Lourdes

    2016-02-01

    Impact odorants in strawberry vinegars produced in different containers (glass, oak and cherry barrels) were determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry using modified frequency (MF) technique, and dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aromatic profile of vinegar from strawberry cooked must was also studied. All strawberry vinegars retained certain impact odorants from strawberries: 3-nonen-2-one, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, guaiacol, nerolidol, pantolactone+furaneol, eugenol, γ-dodecalactone and phenylacetic acid. Isovaleric acid, pantolactone+furaneol, p-vinylguaiacol, phenylacetic acid and vanillin were the most important aroma-active compounds in all vinegars. The strawberry cooked must vinegar accounted for the highest number of impact odorants. Wood barrels provided more aroma complexity than glass containers. Impact odorants with grassy characteristics were predominant in vinegar from glass containers, and those with sweet and fruity characteristics in vinegars from wood barrels. Principal component analysis indicated that the production process led to differences in the impact odorants. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cadmium toxicity affects chlorophyll a and b content, antioxidant enzyme activities and mineral nutrient accumulation in strawberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhad Muradoglu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd is well known as one of the most toxic metals affecting the environment and can severely restrict plant growth and development. In this study, Cd toxicities were studied in strawberry cv. Camarosa using pot experiment. Chlorophyll and malondialdehyde (MDA contents, catalase (CAT, superoxide dismutase (SOD, ascorbate peroxidase (APX activities and mineral nutrient concentrations were investigated in both roots and leaves of strawberry plant after exposure Cd. RESULTS: Cd content in both roots and leaves was increased with the application of increasing concentrations of Cd. We found higher Cd concentration in roots rather than in leaves. Chlorophyll a and b was decreased in leaves but MDA significantly increased under increased Cd concentration treatments in both roots and leaves. SOD and CAT activities was also increased with the increase Cd concentrations. K, Mn and Mg concentrations were found higher in leaves than roots under Cd stress. In general, increased Cd treatments increased K, Mg, Fe, Ca, Cu and Zn concentration in both roots and leaves. Excessive Cd treatments reduced chlorophyll contents, increased antioxidant enzyme activities and changes in plant nutrition concentrations in both roots and leaves. CONCLUSION: The results presented in this work suggested that Cd treatments have negative effect on chlorophyll content and nearly decreased 30% of plant growth in strawberry. Strawberry roots accumulated higher Cd than leaves. We found that MDA and antioxidant enzyme (CAT, SOD and APX contents may have considered a good indicator in determining Cd tolerance in strawberry plant.

  18. Enhancement of antioxidant activity and physicochemical properties of yogurt enriched with concentrated strawberry pulp obtained by block freeze concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaster, Henrique; Arend, Giordana Demaman; Rezzadori, Katia; Chaves, Vitor Clasen; Reginatto, Flávio Henrique; Petrus, José Carlos Cunha

    2018-02-01

    Strawberry juice was concentrated using block freeze concentration process. The concentrate was used to produce two yogurts with different concentrations of cryoconcentrated strawberry pulp (15% and 30%). Total lactic acid bacteria count, physicochemical and rheological properties was evaluated during storage (7days) for all yogurts. Also, the beverages produced were compared with two commercial trademarks. It was observed that the total lactic acid bacteria count remained higher than 10 8 CFU·mL -1 during the storage time for all beverages studied. The viscosity of the yogurts decreased when the ratio of strawberry cryoconcentrate was increased. The Power Law model was successfully applied to describe the flow of the yogurts, which had a thixotropic behaviour. The incorporation of the cryoconcentrated strawberry pulp in the yogurt resulted in a product with 3-fold more anthocyanins content and antioxidant activity. The enrichment of natural yogurt with strawberry cryoconcentrated pulp proved to be effective in the production of a beverage with higher nutritional characteristics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Early steps of biosynthesis of ether lipids in archaebacteria; Eteru shishitsu seigosei no shoki dankai

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishino, T. [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-20

    Membrane lipids in archaebacteria are different from those of eubacteria and eukaryote which are fatty acid esters of glycerol. Archaebacterial lipids are mainly ether-linked lipids composed of glycerol linked to two molecules of isoprenoid phytanyl groups or of ether-linked glycerol with phytanyl group. This structural feature is one of the origins of survival and growth of archaebacteria in extreme conditions of high temperature, strong acid or alkali. It is considered that geranylgeranyl phosphate (GGPP) is synthesized and attached to glycerol phosphate, followed by reduction of the double bond in the geranylgeranyl moieties to form the diether lipids while the head-to-heat condensation of the phytanyl groups produces the tetraether lipids. Aiming to elucidate the lipid biosynthesis mechanism in a hyperthermophilic archaebacterium, Sulfolobus acidocaldarius, the gene of GGPP synthase was cloned with the aid of carotenoid synthesis in phytopathogenic Erwinia uredovora and its sequence was studied. 29 refs., 9 figs.

  20. Biosynthesis and function of chondroitin sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikami, Tadahisa; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) are principal pericellular and extracellular components that form regulatory milieu involving numerous biological and pathophysiological phenomena. Diverse functions of CSPGs can be mainly attributed to structural variability of their polysaccharide moieties, chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAG). Comprehensive understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for CS biosynthesis and its catabolic processes is required in order to understand those functions. Here, we focus on recent advances in the study of enzymatic regulatory pathways for CS biosynthesis including successive modification/degradation, distinct CS functions, and disease phenotypes that have been revealed by perturbation of the respective enzymes in vitro and in vivo. Fine-tuned machineries for CS production/degradation are crucial for the functional expression of CS chains in developmental and pathophysiological processes. Control of enzymes responsible for CS biosynthesis/catabolism is a potential target for therapeutic intervention for the CS-associated disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I 50 concentration of 3.2 μM. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I 50 of 4 μM. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4- 3 H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and 14 C-mevalonic acid. From the 3 H/ 14 C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs

  2. Triterpenoid biosynthesis in Euphorbia lathyris latex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, D.R.

    1987-11-01

    The structures of triterpenols, not previously been known, from Euphorbia lathyris latex are reported. A method for quantifying very small amounts of these compounds was developed. Concerning the biochemistry of the latex, no exogenous cofactors were required for the biosynthesis and the addition of compounds such as NADPAH and ATP do not stimulate the biosynthesis. The addition of DTE or a similar anti-oxidant was found to help reduce the oxidation of the latex, thus increasing the length of time that the latex remains active. The requirement of a divalent cation and the preference for Mn in the pellet was observed. The effect of several inhibitors on the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids was examined. Mevinolin was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of the triterpenoids from acetate, but not mevalonate. A dixon plot of the inhibition of acetate incorporation showed an I/sub 50/ concentration of 3.2 ..mu..M. Fenpropimorph was found to have little or no effect on the biosynthesis. Tridemorph was found to inhibit the biosynthesis of all of the triterpenoids with an I/sub 50/ of 4 ..mu..M. It was also observed that the cyclopropyl containing triterpenols, cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol were inhibited much more strongly than those containing an 8-9 double bond, lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol. The evidence indicates, but does not definetely prove, that lanosterol and 24-methylenelanosterol are not made from cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol via a ring-opening enzyme such as cycloeucalenol-obtusifoliol isomerase. The possibilty that cycloartenol is made via lanosterol was investigated by synthesizing 4-R-4-/sup 3/H-mevalonic acid and incubating latex with a mixture of this and /sup 14/C-mevalonic acid. From the /sup 3/H//sup 14/C ratio it was shown that cycloartenol and 24-methylenecycloartenol are not made via an intermediate containing as 8-9 double bond. 88 refs., 15 figs., 30 tabs.

  3. Environmentally friendly properties of vegetable oil methyl esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gateau Paul

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Measurements were carried out on Vegetable Oil Methyl Esters (VOME or FAME answering the most recent specifications. The products tested are RME (Rapeseed oil Methyl Ester, ERME (Erucic Rapeseed oil Methyl Esters, SME (Sunflower oil Methyl Esters, and HOSME (High Oleic Sunflower oil Methyl Esters. They contain more than 99.5% of fatty acid mono esters. The compositions are given. VOME are not volatile and they are not easily flammable. They are not soluble in water and they are biodegradable. According to the methods implemented for the determination of the German classification of substances hazardous to waters WGK, they are not toxic on mammals and unlike diesel fuel they are not toxic on fish, daphnia, algae and bacteria. The RME is not either toxic for shrimps. According to tests on rabbits, RME and SME are not irritating for the skin and the eyes. VOME display particularly attractive environmental properties.

  4. Convergent Evolution of Ergothioneine Biosynthesis in Cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Cangsong; Seebeck, Florian P

    2017-11-02

    Biosynthesis of N-α-trimethyl-2-thiohistidine (ergothioneine) is a frequent trait in cyanobacteria. This sulfur compound may provide essential relief from oxidative stress related to oxygenic photosynthesis. The central steps in ergothioneine biosynthesis are catalyzed by a histidine methyltransferase and an iron-dependent sulfoxide synthase. In this report, we present evidence that some cyanobacteria recruited and adapted a sulfoxide synthase from a different biosynthetic pathway to make ergothioneine. The discovery of a second origin of ergothioneine production underscores the physiological importance of this metabolite and highlights the evolutionary malleability of the thiohistidine biosynthetic machinery. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Method for determining heterologous biosynthesis pathways

    KAUST Repository

    Gao, Xin

    2017-08-10

    The present invention relates to a method and system for dynamically analyzing, determining, predicting and displaying ranked suitable heterologous biosynthesis pathways for a specified host. The present invention addresses the problem of finding suitable pathways for the endogenous metabolism of a host organism because the efficacy of heterologous biosynthesis is affected by competing endogenous pathways. The present invention is called MRE (Metabolic Route Explorer), and it was conceived and developed to systematically and dynamically search for, determine, analyze, and display promising heterologous pathways while considering competing endogenous reactions in a given host organism.

  6. Nucleoside antibiotics: biosynthesis, regulation, and biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Guoqing; Tan, Huarong

    2015-02-01

    The alarming rise in antibiotic-resistant pathogens has coincided with a decline in the supply of new antibiotics. It is therefore of great importance to find and create new antibiotics. Nucleoside antibiotics are a large family of natural products with diverse biological functions. Their biosynthesis is a complex process through multistep enzymatic reactions and is subject to hierarchical regulation. Genetic and biochemical studies of the biosynthetic machinery have provided the basis for pathway engineering and combinatorial biosynthesis to create new or hybrid nucleoside antibiotics. Dissection of regulatory mechanisms is leading to strategies to increase the titer of bioactive nucleoside antibiotics. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. The expanding universe of alkaloid biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, V; Laflamme, P

    2001-06-01

    Characterization of many of the major gene families responsible for the generation of central intermediates and for their decoration, together with the development of large genomics and proteomics databases, has revolutionized our capability to identify exotic and interesting natural-product pathways. Over the next few years, these tools will facilitate dramatic advances in our knowledge of the biosynthesis of alkaloids, which will far surpass that which we have learned in the past 50 years. These tools will also be exploited for the rapid characterization of regulatory genes, which control the development of specialized cell factories for alkaloid biosynthesis.

  8. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles by Aspergillus niger , Fusarium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results indicate the synthesis of silver nanoparticles in the reaction mixture. The synthesis of nanoparticles would be suitable for developing a microbial nanotechnology biosynthesis process for mass scale production. Keywords: Silver nanoparticles, biosynthesis, fungi, Aspergillus.

  9. Isolation and identification of an ester from a crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, H.F.; Breger, I.A.

    1958-01-01

    A dioctylphthalate has been isolated from a crude oil by means of adsorption column chromatography. The ester was identified by means of elemental analysis, refractive index, and its infra-red absorption spectrum. Saponification of the isolate and examination of the resultant alcohol by means of infrared absorption spectra led to the conclusion that the ester is a branched chain dioctylphthalate. This is the first reported occurrence of an ester in crude petroleum. ?? 1958.

  10. Mutagenic activity of phthalate esters in bacterial liquid suspension assays.

    OpenAIRE

    Seed, J L

    1982-01-01

    The mutagenic activities of several phthalate esters have been evaluated in an 8-azaguanine resistance assay in Salmonella typhimurium. Three phthalate esters were found to be mutagenic: dimethyl phthalate, diethyl phthalate and di-n-butyl phthalate. A number of other phthalate esters were not found to be mutagenic, including di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, di-n-octyl phthalate, diallyl phthalate, diisobutyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate. A metabolite of di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, 2-ethylhe...

  11. Importance of microbial pest control agents and their metabolites In relation to the natural microbiota on strawberry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgit; Knudsen, Inge M. B.; Jensen, Dan Funck

    control. A series of laboratory, growth chamber, semi-field and field experiments using strawberry as a model plant focusing on commercial microbial pest control products (MPCPs) or laboratory MPCAs expected to be on the market within 10 years served as our experimental platform. Initially the background...... level of indigenous microbial communities and their mycotoxins/metabolites on strawberries was examined in a field survey with 4 conventional and 4 organic growers with different production practise and geographic distribution. Culturable bacteria, yeasts and filamentous fungi were isolated...... and identified using both chemotaxonomy (fatty acids and metabolite profiling) and morphological characteristics. Microbial communities on strawberries were complex including potential plant pathogens, opportunistic human pathogens, plant disease biocontrol agents and mycotoxin producers. Bacteria were the most...

  12. Analysis of Strawberry Farmer’s Satisfaction for Utilization of “X” Fungicide in Pandanrejo Village, Batu City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baskoro Aji Prihatmojo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research are to understand some factors that are affecting strawberry farmers satisfaction in utilization of ”X” fungicide and the level of farmer satisfaction. The location of this research in Pandanrejo Village, Batu City with 50 respndents. The method which was used in this research are decriptive statistics, Logistic Regression, and Customer Satisfaction Index (CSI. Measuring factors that affect satisfaction used four dummy variables, such as education level, group refference, training experience, and information source. And then to measure the level of satisfaction used variable of product attributes such as variety of product size, composition, expire date, procedure, permite of distribution, product availability, benefit, product information, completeness, rate of extermination ,and price. The result of logistic regression that group reference and source information are affecting the satisfaction of strawberry farmer. The obtained result of Customer Satisfaction Index method got 73,43% which means that strawberry farmer are satisfied with fungicide “X”.

  13. Investigation of bifunctional ester additives for methanol-gasoline system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Yang, C.; Tang, Y.; Du, Q.; Song, N.; Zhang, Z.

    2014-01-01

    To explore new and multifunctional additives for methanol-gasoline, tartaric ester were synthesized and screened as phase stabilizer and saturation vapor pressure depressor for methanol-gasoline. The effect of the esters structure on the efficiency was discussed. The results show that the stabilities of the blends depend on the length of the glycolic esters alkoxy group. In addition, the tartaric esters also can depress the saturation vapor pressure of methanol-gasoline effectively in M15. Effect of the structure on the efficiency was also discussed. (author)

  14. Estereótipos e mulheres na cultura marroquina

    OpenAIRE

    Sadiqi,Fatima

    2008-01-01

    Estereótipos sobre as mulheres no Marrocos podem ser caracterizados como crenças culturais incompletas e inexatas mantidas por algumas pessoas e que se encontram inscritos em expressões lingüísticas ou em discursos subliminares. A cultura popular marroquina emprega representações poderosas para transmitir e sustentar tais estereótipos. Embora existam alguns estereótipos positivos, a maioria dos estereótipos sobre as mulheres no Marrocos é negativa e reflete ditames patriarcais subliminares qu...

  15. Emission and Mechanical Evaluations of Vinyl-Ester Resin Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sands, James

    2003-01-01

    Vinyl-ester resins (VE) are frequently used in liquid molding of composite materials for several applications including naval and army structures, commercial boat manufacturing, and building construction...

  16. Phenology and yield of strawberry as influenced by planting time and genotypes in a sub tropical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.M.; Islam, N.

    2016-01-01

    Effects of planting time on phenology of five strawberry genotypes Sweet Charlie, Festival, Camarosa, FA 008, and BARI strawberry-1 were evaluated at Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute in two consecutive years 2009-2010 and 2010-2011. Sweet Charlie took the shorter time to begin flowering, followed by BARI Strawberry-1 and Festival when planted in 1st October. Genotype FA 008 took longer time to flower when planted in 1st December. Days to flowering of all the varieties was found to decrease with the increase in air temperature. Regardless of planting year, the genotype FA 005 followed by Camarosa and Festival, planted on 1st September, exhibited the longest harvest duration, while Sweet Charlie planted on 1st December exhibited the shortest harvest duration in both years. Genotype Festival planted on October yielded fruit with the greatest fruit weight, followed by Sweet Charlie and Camarosa planted on the same date. Plants of FA 008 and BARI Strawberry-1 planted in December produced minimum fruit weight. Maximum number of fruits/plant as well as yield/plant obtained from Sweet Charlie planted in October, while BARI Strawberry-1 planted in December yielded the least. With the use of quadratic equation it was estimated that maximum yield was obtained at ambient temperature 18.5 degree C then it was decreased with the increase of temperature. Strawberry planted in early October was found to be the most suitable in Bangladesh. Among the studied genotypes, Sweet Charlie was found to be superior in yield and early planting, and Camarosa was suitable for late planting. Festival was found less sensitive to planting date. (author)

  17. Conservation biological control in strawberry: effect of different pollen on development, survival, and reproduction of Neoseiulus californicus (Acari: Phytoseiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugole Ottaviano, María F; Cédola, Claudia V; Sánchez, Norma E; Greco, Nancy M

    2015-12-01

    Wild vegetation surrounding crops may provide temporary habitat and potential food sources for phytoseiids in different seasons. Monthly vegetation samples of wild plants adjacent to strawberry plants and wild plants in a vegetation strip close to the crop were taken. The frequency of Neoseiulus californicus, Tetranychus urticae and other mites and insects was recorded. In addition, in a laboratory assay, the survival, developmental time and fecundity of females fed on pollen of strawberry and pollen of wild plants where N. californicus was recorded during their flowering, were estimated. Pollen from Urtica urens, Lamium amplexicaule, Convolvulus arvensis, Sonchus oleraceous, Galega officinalis, and Fragaria x ananassa (strawberry) allowed development of N. californicus to adult, but not reproduction. Survival was 70-80 % when fed on pollen from S. oleraceus, G. officinalis and C. arvensis, 80-90 % when fed on pollen from U. urens and F. x ananassa, and more than 90 % when fed on T. urticae and on pollen from L. amplexicaule. In autumn and winter, U. urens, L. amplexicaule and S. oleraceous could promote the persistence of N. californicus when prey density in strawberry is low, offering T. urticae, thrips and pollen. In summer, pollen of C. arvensis and G. officinalis would contribute to the persistence of N. californicus when the strawberry crop is ending and offers scarce food resources. Although the pollen of these plants would not enable the predator population to increase, the presence of these plants in the vicinity of strawberry could contribute to the persistence of N. californicus population and help to limit T. urticae growth when this pest begins to colonize the crop.

  18. Identification, Isolation, and Expression Analysis of Heat Shock Transcription Factors in the Diploid Woodland Strawberry Fragaria vesca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang eHu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Heat shock transcription factors (Hsfs are known to play dominant roles in plant responses to heat, as well as other abiotic or biotic stress stimuli. While the strawberry is an economically important fruit plant, little is known about the Hsf family in the strawberry. To explore the functions of strawberry Hsfs in abiotic and biotic stress responses, this study identified 17 Hsf genes (FvHsfs in a wild diploid woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca, 2n = 2x = 14 and isolated 14 of these genes. Phylogenetic analysis divided the strawberry FvHsfs genes into three main groups. The evolutionary and structural analyses revealed that the FvHsf family is conserved. The promoter sequences of the FvHsf genes contain upstream regulatory elements corresponding to different stress stimuli. In addition, 14 FvHsf-GFP fusion proteins showed differential subcellular localization in Arabidopsis mesophyll protoplasts. Furthermore, we examined the expression of the 17 FvHsf genes in wild diploid woodland strawberries under various conditions, including abiotic stresses (heat, cold, drought, and salt, biotic stress (powdery mildew infection, and hormone treatments (abscisic acid, ethephon, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid. Fifteen of the 17 FvHsf genes exhibited distinct changes on the transcriptional level during heat treatment. Of these 15 FvHsfs, 8 FvHsfs also exhibited distinct responses to other stimuli on the transcriptional level, indicating versatile roles in the response to abiotic and biotic stresses. Taken together, the present work may provide the basis for further studies to dissect FvHsf function in response to stress stimuli.

  19. Half esters and coating compositions comprising reactions products of half esters and polyepoxides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blaauw, R.; Mulder, W.J.; Koelewijn, R.; Boswinkel, G.

    2006-01-01

    The present invention relates to half esters based on dicarboxylic acid derivatives and dimer fatty diols, wherein the dimer fatty dio ls are based on dimerised and/or trimerised and/or oligomerised unsaturated fatty acids. The present invention further relates to resin compositions based on the

  20. Occurrence of 3-monochloropropanediol esters and glycidyl esters in commercial infant formulas in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, Jessica; MacMahon, Shaun

    2017-03-01

    This work presents occurrence data for fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD) and glycidol in 98 infant formula samples purchased in the United States. These contaminants are considered potentially carcinogenic and/or genotoxic, making their presence in refined oils and foods a potential health risk. Recently, attention has focused on methodology to quantify MCPD and glycidyl esters in infant formula for risk-assessment purposes. Occurrence data for 3-MCPD and glycidyl esters were produced using a procedure for extracting fat from infant formula and an LC-MS/MS method for analysing fat extracts for intact esters. Infant formulas were produced by seven manufacturers, five of which use palm oil and/or palm olein in their formulations. In formulas containing palm/palm olein, concentrations for bound 3-MCPD and glycidol ranged from 0.021 to 0.92 mg kg - 1 (ppm) and from 3-MCPD and glycidol concentrations ranged from 0.072 to 0.16 mg kg - 1 (ppm) and from 0.005 to 0.15 mg kg - 1 (ppm), respectively. Although formulas from manufacturers A and G did not contain palm/palm olein, formulas from manufacturer E (containing palm olein) had the lowest concentrations of bound 3-MCPD and glycidol, demonstrating the effectiveness of industrial mitigation strategies.

  1. Effect of gamma-irradiation and refrigerated storage on mold growth and keeping quality of strawberry (Fragaria sp) cv 'Confitura'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, P.R.; Meena, R.S.; Dar, M.A.; Wani, A.M.; Mir, M.A.; Shafi, F.

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-irradiation of fresh matured strawberries at 0.5-2.0 kGy and storage under ambient and refrigerated conditions was tested for delaying the mold appearance and extension of storage life. Radiation dose of 2.0 kGy was effective in extending the storage life of fresh strawberries by 2 days under ambient conditions. Samples irradiated at 1.5 and 2.0 kGy followed by refrigerated storage delayed the mold growth significantly (p≤0.05) and extended the storage life by 8 days. (author)

  2. Combinatorial biosynthesis of medicinal plant secondary metabolites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julsing, Mattijs K.; Koulman, Albert; Woerdenbag, Herman J.; Quax, Wim J.; Kayser, Oliver

    2006-01-01

    Combinatorial biosynthesis is a new tool in the generation of novel natural products and for the production of rare and expensive natural products. The basic concept is combining metabolic pathways in different organisms on a genetic level. As a consequence heterologous organisms provide precursors

  3. Peroxidase enzymes regulate collagen extracellular matrix biosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeNichilo, Mark O; Panagopoulos, Vasilios; Rayner, Timothy E; Borowicz, Romana A; Greenwood, John E; Evdokiou, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    Myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase are heme-containing enzymes often physically associated with fibrotic tissue and cancer in various organs, without any direct involvement in promoting fibroblast recruitment and extracellular matrix (ECM) biosynthesis at these sites. We report herein novel findings that show peroxidase enzymes possess a well-conserved profibrogenic capacity to stimulate the migration of fibroblastic cells and promote their ability to secrete collagenous proteins to generate a functional ECM both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanistic studies conducted using cultured fibroblasts show that these cells are capable of rapidly binding and internalizing both myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase. Peroxidase enzymes stimulate collagen biosynthesis at a post-translational level in a prolyl 4-hydroxylase-dependent manner that does not require ascorbic acid. This response was blocked by the irreversible myeloperoxidase inhibitor 4-amino-benzoic acid hydrazide, indicating peroxidase catalytic activity is essential for collagen biosynthesis. These results suggest that peroxidase enzymes, such as myeloperoxidase and eosinophil peroxidase, may play a fundamental role in regulating the recruitment of fibroblast and the biosynthesis of collagen ECM at sites of normal tissue repair and fibrosis, with enormous implications for many disease states where infiltrating inflammatory cells deposit peroxidases. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Investigative Pathology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanotes in wildtype yeasts | Desuoky ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biosynthesis of the biodegradable polymers polyhydroxyalkanotes (PHAs) are studied extensively in wild type and genetically modified prokaryotic cells, however the content and structure of PHA in wild type yeasts are not well documented. The purpose of this study was to screen forty yeast isolates collected from different ...

  5. Metabolic engineering for improved heterologous terpenoid biosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ryden, A.; Melillo, E.; Czepnik, M.; Kayser, O.

    Terpenoids belong to the largest class of natural compounds and are produced in all living organisms. The isoprenoid skeleton is based on assembling of C5 building blocks, but the biosynthesis of a great variety of terpenoids ranging from monoterpenoids to polyterpenoids is not fully understood

  6. Biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles synthesized by Aspergillus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the present study, biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and its antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities were investigated. Silver nanoparticles were extracellularly synthesized using Aspergillus flavus and the formation of nanoparticles was observed after 72 h of incubation. The results recorded from colour ...

  7. Biosynthesis of furanochromones in Pimpinella monoica

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    polyketide origin of their aromatic and pyrone rings while the furan ring originates via an acetate-mevalonate pathway. The plant also utilises glycine and leucine as substrate via acetate. Biotransformation of 3-H-visnagin to (6) but not to (2) was also observed. Keywords. Biosynthesis; furochromones; polyketide origin; ...

  8. Cassava starch edible coating incorporated with propolis on bioactive compounds in strawberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariela Betsy Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Strawberry is a fruit appreciated throughout the world due to its attractive quality attributes and stands out due to its high phenolic compound content, which positively contribute to biological properties of nutritional interest. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of cassava starch coatings incorporated with propolis combinations on the phytochemical content and the maintenance and increase of the strawberry antioxidant activity. The treatments were 3% cassava starch (CS, 3% cassava starch + 33% ethanolic propolis extract (CS + P33%, 3% cassava starch + 66% ethanolic propolis extract (CS + P66% and control (C. The fruits were stored at 4 °C ± 0.5 ºC and 90%RH for 16 days, making up a completely randomized design with 4 treatments and 5 time evaluations. Vitamin C, phenolic compound, anthocyanin, and antioxidant activity levels were evaluated through two methods. The coating with 66% of propolis promoted higher Vitamin C content than fruits submitted to the other treatments at 8 and 12 days of storage. For antioxidant activity, fruits treated with CS maintained a higher FRS percentage (free radical scavenging at all time evaluations. Control fruits presented higher anthocyanin content at the last evaluation time when the highest antioxidant capacity, by the ABTS method (2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid, was observed in fruits with CS and CS + P66% treatments. There was an increase tendency of the phenolic content during storage in all evaluated fruits. The propolis concentrations used, however, were not sufficient to increase or maintain the antioxidant capacity and phenolic contents of strawberries.

  9. Combined heat and gamma-irradiation treatments for the control of strawberry diseases under market conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodrick, H.T.; Thomas, A.C.; Van Tonder, A.J.; Terblanche, J.C.

    1977-02-01

    The spoilage of strawberries under local market conditions was investigated. It was confirmed that the major losses are due to 'leak' disease caused by Rhizopus stolonifer (Ehr. ex Fr.) Lind. It was also established that further fruit losses in summer are due to anthracnose caused by the fungus Colletotrichum acutatum Simmonds. This is the first time that the latter pathogen has been isolated and identified and recognised as a problem on strawberries in South Africa. Studies with R. stolonifer in culture showed that 46 degrees Celsius for 20 min (the previous international standard heat treatment for fruit) was disappointing, while a treatment at 50 degrees Celsius for 10 min effectively inhibited spore germination. Irradiation studies with cultures of R. stolonifer and C. acutatum showed that a dose of 200 and 100 krad, respectively, resulted in excellent inhibition of spore germination. However, irradiating in nitrogen gas resulted in a tenfold reduction in the effectiveness of the irradiation treatments. The use of nitrogen during irradiation, therefore, cannot be considered, especially where an effective control of the fungal pathogens is desired. Investigations with different cultivars clearly demonstrated the synergistic effect on disease control obtained when combining heat and irradiation treatments. The combination treatment (moist heat at 50-52 degrees Celsius for 10 min plus 200 krad), besides effectively controlling both diseases in strawberries, did not adversely affect berry quality. In simulated transport tests it was shown that a minimal amount of berry softening did occur with this treatment, but this adverse effect was negligible compared with the beneficial effect obtained from disease control. In semi-commercial experiments it was shown that the combination heat and irradiation treatment effectively controlled spoilage diseases for a period of several days from picking, thus allowing sufficient time to market the fruit under local market

  10. Are Polyphosphates or Phosphate Esters Prebiotic Reagents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, Anthony D.; Miller, Stanley L.

    1995-01-01

    It is widely held that there was a phosphate compound in prebiotic chemistry that played the role of adenosine triphosphate and that the first living organisms had ribose-phosphate in the backbone of their genetic material. However, there are no known efficient prebiotic synthesis of high-energy phosphates or phosphate esters. We review the occurrence of phosphates in nature, the efficiency of the volcanic synthesis of P4O10, the efficiency of polyphosphate synthesis by heating phosphate minerals under geological conditions, and the use of high-energy organic compounds such as cyanamide or hydrogen cyanide. These are shown to be inefficient processes especially when the hydrolysis of the polyphosphates is taken into account. For example, if a whole atmosphere of methane or carbon monoxide were converted to cyanide which somehow synthesized polyphosphates quantitatively, the polyphosphate concentration in the ocean would still have been insignificant. We also attempted to find more efficient high-energy polymerizing agents by spark discharge syntheses, but without success. There may still be undiscovered robust prebiotic syntheses of polyphosphates, or mechanisms for concentrating them, but we conclude that phosphate esters may not have been constituents of the first genetic material. Phosphoanhydrides are also unlikely as prebiotic energy sources.

  11. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of flavonoids of the strawberry tree - Arbutus unedo L. (Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Males, Zeljan; Plazibat, Misko; Vundać, Vjera Bilusić; Zuntar, Irena

    2006-06-01

    The leaves and fruits of strawberry tree - Arbutus unedo L., collected from two separate geographic locations in Croatia were investigated to determine their flavonoid composition and content. Quercitrin, isoquercitrin, hyperoside and rutin were identified in all leaf samples by means of thin-layer chromatography; the fruits contained only isoquercitrin. Chlorogenic acid was present in some leaf samples. The content of flavonoids depended on the plant organ investigated, date of collection and the locality. Spectrophotometric determination of the flavonoids indicated that the leaves are richer in flavonoids (0.52-2.00%) than fruits (0.10-0.29%).

  12. Somatic Embryogenesis Induction and Plant Regeneration in Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, João F; Correia, Sandra I; Canhoto, Jorge M

    2016-01-01

    Somatic embryogenesis is a powerful tool both for cloning and studies of genetic transformation and embryo development. Most protocols for somatic embryogenesis induction start from zygotic embryos or embryonic-derived tissues which do not allow the propagation of elite trees. In the present study, a reliable protocol for somatic embryogenesis induction from adult trees of strawberry tree is described. Leaves from in vitro proliferating shoots were used to induce somatic embryo formation on a medium containing an auxin and a cytokinin. Somatic embryos germinated in a plant growth regulator-free medium.

  13. Product environmental footprint of strawberries: Case studies in Estonia and Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soode-Schimonsky, Eveli; Richter, Klaus; Weber-Blaschke, Gabriele

    2017-12-01

    The environmental impacts of strawberries have been assessed in several studies. However, these studies either present dissimilar results or only focus on single impact categories without offering a comprehensive overview of environmental impacts. We applied the product environmental footprint (PEF) methodology to broadly indicate the environmental impacts of various strawberry production systems in Germany and Estonia by 15 impact categories. Data for the 7 case studies were gathered from two farms with organic and two farms with conventional open field production systems in Estonia and from one farm with conventional open field and one farm with a polytunnel and greenhouse production system in Germany. The greenhouse production system had the highest environmental impact with a PEF of 0.0040. In the field organic production systems, the PEF was 0.0029 and 0.0028. The field conventional production systems resulted in a PEF of 0.0008, 0.0009 and 0.0002. Polytunnel PEF was 0.0006. Human toxicity cancer effects, particulate matter and human toxicity non-cancer effects resulted in the highest impact across all analysed production systems. The main contributors were electricity for cooling, heating the greenhouse and the use of agricultural machinery including fuel burning. While production stage contributed 85% of the total impact in the greenhouse, also other life cycle stages were important contributors: pre-chain resulted in 71% and 90% of impact in conventional and polytunnels, respectively, and cooling was 47% in one organic system. Environmental impact from strawberry cooling can be reduced by more efficient use of the cooling room, increasing the strawberry yield or switching from oil shale electricity to other energy sources. Greenhouse heating is the overall impact hotspot even if it based on renewable resources. A ranking of production systems based on the environmental impact is possible only if all relevant impacts are included. Future studies should aim

  14. Hyperbaric storage at room temperature for food preservation: A study in strawberry juice

    OpenAIRE

    Segovia-Bravo, Kharla A.; Guignon, Bérengère; Bermejo-Prada, Ana; Sanz Martínez, Pedro D.; Otero, Laura

    2012-01-01

    Hyperbaric storage at room temperature was evaluated as a new food preservation method. To do that, strawberry juices maintained at different pressure levels (0.1, 25, 100 or 220 MPa) and 20°C for 15 days were compared to raw and thermally pasteurized samples stored at atmospheric pressure and 5°C for the same period. Hyperbaric storage reduced the initial microbial load of the juices by more than 2 log units to levels below the limit of detection. Moreover, pressure was effective to attenuat...

  15. Strawberries packaged with Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC film/ Morangos embalados com filme de Ppolicloreto de Vinila (PVC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Ruffo Roberto

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Strawberries cv. Dover with approximately 75% of their surface with red color was packaged in disposable polyethylene terephthalate (PET container and sealed with PVC film of 15mm thick. Strawberries without film serves as control. The fruits were stored at 12°C for ten days and there were determined during storage time the titratable acidity, solid soluble and vitamin C contents, color, respiration rate, texture and weight loss. After 6 days the strawberries packaged without film had decayed while the fruits packaged with PVC film were in conditions of consumption and commercialization. After 10 days all fruits were inappropriate to consumption. Packages with PVC film extended the shelf life of strawberries preserving the color characteristic of the product and vitamin C content, reducing the respiration rate and weight loss, characterizing this packaging as being adequate to this kind of product.Foram utilizados morangos cv. Dover com aproximadamente 75% de sua superfície com coloração vermelha e embalados em potes de polietileno tereftalato (PET. No tratamento CONTROLE os morangos foram acondicionados sem filme e no tratamento FILME, as embalagens foram seladas com filme de PVC de 15mm de espessura. As frutas foram armazenadas a 12°C por dez dias e foram determinadas ao longo do tempo acidez titulável, sólidos solúveis, vitamina C, cor, taxa de respiração, textura e perda de massa. Após 6 dias de armazenagem os morangos CONTROLE estavam impróprios para consumo pois apresentavam deterioração visível por bolores enquanto que os embalados com PVC estavam em condições de consumo e comercialização. Após 10 dias todos os morangos estavam impróprios para consumo. A embalagem utilizando filme de PVC aumentou a vida de prateleira de morangos em relação aos sem embalagem pois preservou melhor a coloração característica do produto e teor de vitamina C e reduziu as taxas de respiração e de perda de massa, caracterizando a

  16. Determination of Phthalate Esters in the Aquatic Environment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of solid phase extraction and capillary GLC provides the basis for selective determination of phthalate ester plasticizers in rivers and marine water samples. Of the several solvent ratios (methanol in dichloromethane) that were tried for selective elution of phthalate esters from the C18 solid phase glass catridge, the ...

  17. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of sucrose esters on the physicochemical properties of wheat starch. Methods: Sucrose ester was mixed with wheat starch extracted from normal soft wheat cultivars and heated. Change in starch properties arising from the interaction between were assessed for starch blue value, viscosity ...

  18. Alternative Production of Fatty Acid Methyl Esters from Triglycerides ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The catalysts activity was tested in thermocatalytic cracking of triglyceride; a direct conversion process for fatty acid methyl esters (biodiesel). The SZ1 not only exhibited higher conversion of triglycerides but higher fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) yields of approximately 59% after 3h as compared to SZ2 (32%). In addition ...

  19. 13-week oral toxicity study with stanol esters in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turnbull, D.; Whittaker, M.H.; Frankos, V.H.; Jonker, D.

    1999-01-01

    Plant sterols and their saturated derivatives, known as stanols, reduce serum cholesterol when consumed in amounts of approximately 2 g per day. Stanol fatty acid esters have been developed as a highly fat-soluble form that may lower cholesterol more effectively than stanols. Stanol esters occur

  20. Preparation of esters of gallic acid with higher primary alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerk, G.J.M. van der; Verbeek, J.H.; Cleton, J.C.F.

    1951-01-01

    The esters of gallic acid and higher primary alcohols, especially fatty alcohols, have recently gained considerable interest as possible antioxidants for fats. Two independent methods for the preparation of these esters are described. In the first method the hitherto unknown compound galloyl

  1. Distribution of phthalate esters in underground water from power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the distribution of phthalateacid esters (PAEs) in groundwater from some power stations in Delta State. Groundwater samples were collected from eight power transmission and distribution stations. Concentrations (μg/L) of six phthalate acid esters compounds in the groundwater ranged from ...

  2. SYNTHESIS OF FATTY ACID ETHYL ESTER FROM CHICKEN FAT ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    synthesis of fatty acid ethyl ester from chicken fat waste using ZnO/SiO fatty acid ethyl ester ... obtained in the range of 56−88%and a second order quadratic polynomial regression model that established the ... Transesterification is a chemical.

  3. Rapid NIR determination of alkyl esters in virgin olive oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cayuela, J.A.

    2017-01-01

    The regulation of The European Union for olive oil and olive pomace established the limit of 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acids ethyl ester contents in extra virgin olive oils, from grinding seasons after 2016. In this work, predictive models have been established for measuring fatty acid ethyl and methyl esters and to measure the total fatty acid alkyl esters based on near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), and used successfully for this purpose. The correlation coefficients from the external validation exercises carried out with these predictive models ranged from 0.84 to 0.91. Different classification tests using the same models for the thresholds 35 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid ethyl esters and 75 mg·kg-1 for fatty acid alkyl esters provided success percentages from 75.0% to 95.2%. [es

  4. High-level accumulation of oleyl oleate in plant seed oil by abundant supply of oleic acid substrates to efficient wax ester synthesis enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Hornung, Ellen; Iven, Tim; Feussner, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Biotechnology enables the production of high-valued industrial feedstocks from plant seed oil. The plant-derived wax esters with long-chain monounsaturated acyl moieties, like oleyl oleate, have favorite properties for lubrication. For biosynthesis of wax esters using acyl-CoA substrates, expressions of a fatty acyl reductase (FAR) and a wax synthase (WS) in seeds are sufficient. For optimization of the enzymatic activity and subcellular localization of wax ester synthesis enzymes, two fusion proteins were created, which showed wax ester-forming activities in Saccharomyces cerevisiae . To promote the formation of oleyl oleate in seed oil, WSs from Acinetobactor baylyi ( Ab WSD1) and Marinobacter aquaeolei ( Ma WS2), as well as the two created fusion proteins were tested in Arabidopsis to evaluate their abilities and substrate preference for wax ester production. The tested seven enzyme combinations resulted in different yields and compositions of wax esters. Expression of a FAR of Marinobacter aquaeolei ( Ma FAR) with Ab WSD1 or Ma WS2 led to a high incorporation of C 18 substrates in wax esters. The Ma FAR/TM Mm AWAT2- Ab WSD1 combination resulted in the incorporation of more C 18:1 alcohol and C 18:0 acyl moieties into wax esters compared with Ma FAR/ Ab WSD1. The fusion protein of a WS from Simmondsia chinensis ( Sc WS) with MaFAR exhibited higher specificity toward C 20:1 substrates in preference to C 18:1 substrates. Expression of Ma FAR/ Ab WSD1 in the Arabidopsis fad2 fae1 double mutant resulted in the accumulation of oleyl oleate (18:1/18:1) in up to 62 mol% of total wax esters in seed oil, which was much higher than the 15 mol% reached by Ma FAR/ Ab WSD1 in Arabidopsis Col-0 background. In order to increase the level of oleyl oleate in seed oil of Camelina , lines expressing Ma FAR/ Sc WS were crossed with a transgenic high oleate line. The resulting plants accumulated up to >40 mg g seed -1 of wax esters, containing 27-34 mol% oleyl oleate. The

  5. Discrimination of processing grades of olive oil and other vegetable oils by monochloropropanediol esters and glycidyl esters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, Jing; Oey, Sergio B.; Leeuwen, van Stefan P.J.; Ruth, van Saskia M.

    2018-01-01

    In this study, the processing derived contaminants 2- and 3-monochloropropanediol (2- and 3-MCPD) esters and glycidyl esters (GEs) were analysed in 84 oil samples by GC–MS/MS for the discrimination of processing grades of olive oils as a potential authentication tool. Concentrations of 2- and 3-MCPD

  6. A loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay and sample preparation procedure for sensitive detection of Xanthomonas fragariae in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthomonas fragariae is a bacterium that causes angular leaf spot of strawberry. Asymptomatic infections are common and contribute to the difficulties in disease management. The aim of this study was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay with a bacterial enrichment proced...

  7. The impact of cold chain temperature abuses on the quality of frozen strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Cruz

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The quality of frozen foods can be negatively affected if improper storage and distribution temperatures are allowed. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of freeze-thaw cycles, which may occur in the cold chain, on colour (Lab, Total Colour Differences (TCD, chroma and hue angle and vitamin C (ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids content of frozen strawberries (Fragaria ×ananassa, Duschesne, cv. Selva. A plan of temperature abuses (TAs was established, based on a real situation, and applied to frozen strawberries during a four month frozen storage period. The results showed that the lightness (L was the only parameter that was not significantly affected by range of TAs studied. The colour showed some variation on the parameters a, b, TCD, chroma and hue angle. During TAs, ascorbic acid decreased about 75% and dehydroascorbic acid increased 73%. The non-abused strawberry samples showed better overall appearance than the abused samples. This work contributes to an understanding of the quality changes of frozen strawberries that might occur during frozen storage and cold chain distribution.

  8. Use of low-dose UV-C irradiation to control powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera aphanis on strawberry plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powdery mildew of strawberry plants, caused by Podoshaera aphanis, can cause severe losses by reducing fruit yield, quality and predisposing fruit to other diseases. Fungicides have been routinely used to control this disease. However, limitations mainly related to their effectiveness, re-entry pe...

  9. Influence of mist-chilling on post-harvest quality of fresh strawberries Cv. Mara des Bois and Gariguette

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allais, Irene [Cemagref, UMR Genial, 24, avenue des Landais B.P. 50085, 63172 Aubiere Cedex (France); Letang, Guy [Cemagref, UMR Genial, Parc de Tourvoie, B.P. 44, 92163 Antony Cedex (France)

    2009-09-15

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of mist-chilling on high-grade strawberry post-harvest quality (Cultivars ''Gariguette'' and ''Mara des Bois''). Strawberries were chilled at 2 C using three processes: air blast chilling at 0.3 m s{sup -1} or 1 m s{sup -1} and mist-chilling at 1 m s{sup -1}. After chilling, fruits were submitted to different distribution chains characterised by different handling conditions and storage temperatures (2 C or 7 C) and by a 12 h retailing step at 20 C. Strawberry quality was assessed by measuring 7 parameters: weight loss, commercial loss, firmness, sugar content, acidity, colour and sensory quality. Compared to air-chilling, mist-chilling did not reduce chilling time but it reduced weight loss by 20-40%. Mist-chilling had no detrimental effect on commercial loss defined as the percentage of fruit more than 1/3 of surface affected. It did not induce any major changes on strawberry quality. Temperature fluctuations undergone during cold storage and retailing had a detrimental effect on weight loss. The beneficial effect of packaging on weight loss was confirmed. (author)

  10. Antimicrobial Effects of Blueberry, Raspberry, and Strawberry Aqueous Extracts and their Effects on Virulence Gene Expression in Vibrio cholerae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Hazim O; Kamimoto, Maki; Shimamoto, Toshi; Shimamoto, Tadashi

    2015-11-01

    The antimicrobial effects of aqueous extracts of blueberry, raspberry, and strawberry on 13 pathogenic bacteria were evaluated. The minimum inhibitory concentrations and minimum bactericidal concentrations of the extracts were determined before and after neutralization to pH 7.03 ± 0.15. Both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria were selectively inhibited by the non-neutralized berries. Blueberry was the best inhibitor, and Vibrio and Listeria were the most sensitive bacteria. After neutralization, blueberry affected only Vibrio and Listeria, whereas the antimicrobial activities of raspberry and strawberry were abolished. The total contents of phenolics, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins in the extracts were measured with colorimetric methods and were highest in strawberry, followed by raspberry, and then blueberry. We also studied the effects of sub-bactericidal concentrations of the three berry extracts on virulence gene expression in Vibrio cholerae. Real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction revealed that the three berry extracts effectively repressed the transcription of the tcpA gene. Raspberry also repressed the transcription of the ctxA gene, whereas blueberry and strawberry did not. However, the three berry extracts did not affect the transcription of toxT. These results suggest that the three berry extracts exert potent antimicrobial effects and inhibit the expression of the virulence factors of V. cholerae. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Effects of azadirachtin on Tetranychus urticae (Acari: Tetranychidae) and its compatibility with predatory mites (Acari: Phytoseiidae) on strawberry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, Daniel; Botton, Marcos; da Cunha, Uemerson Silva; Bernardi, Oderlei; Malausa, Thibaut; Garcia, Mauro Silveira; Nava, Dori Edson

    2013-01-01

    The spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is the major strawberry pest in Brazil. The main strategies for its control comprise synthetic acaricides and predatory mites. The recent register of a commercial formula of azadirachtin (Azamax(®) 12 g L(-1) ) can be viable for control of T. urticae. In this work, the effects of azadirachtin on T. urticae and its compatibility with predatory mites Neoseiulus californicus and Phytoseiulus macropilis in the strawberry crop were evaluated. Azadirachtin was efficient against T. urticae, with a mortality rate similar to that of abamectin. In addition, the azadirachtin showed lower biological persistence (7 days) than abamectin (21 days). Azadirachtin did not cause significant mortality of adult predatory mites (N. californicus and P. macropilis), but it did reduce fecundity by 50%. However, egg viability of the azadirachtin treatments was similar to that of the control (>80% viability). The use of azadirachtin and predatory mites is a valuable tool for controlling T. urticae in strawberry crop. Azadirachtin provided effective control of T. urticae and is compatible with the predatory mites N. californicus and P. macropilis. It is an excellent tool to be incorporated into integrated pest management for strawberry crop in Brazil. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Joint analysis by the Nordic countries of a hepatitis Ao utbreak, October 2012 to June 2013: frozen strawberries suspected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Gillesberg Lassen, S.; Mølbak, K.

    2013-01-01

    The Nordic countries faced a food-borne outbreak of hepatitis A that started in October 2012 and was ongoing with 103 reported cases as of 27 June 2013. A case–control study in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden, combined with trace-back investigations, has identified frozen strawberries...

  13. The Effect of Potassium on Growth and Yield of Strawberry (Fragaria Ananassa (Duchesne ex Weston) Duchesne ex Rozier)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibi, S; Rhaman, I.; Ijaz, F.; Afzal, A.; Khan, M.; Khan, R.

    2016-01-01

    Fragaria ananassa (Duchesne ex Weston) Duchesne ex-Rozier (Strawberry) variety chandler of Agriculture Research Station (ARS) Baffa, Mansehra was evaluated for different growth and yield parameters under five treatments. In this experiment Potassium was used in 5 different treatments of 3 replications (T0 = Control, T1 = 200 g/6.75m/sup 2/, T2 = 400 g/6.75m/sup 2/, T3 = 600 g/6.75m/sup 2/, T4 = 800 g/6.75m/sup 2/). The results showed maximum value under T3 (405g/6.75m/sup 2/) for characteristics like survival percentage (83.54 percent), plant height (32.05 cm), canopy size (13.62 cm), crown diameter (2.73 cm), number of branches (35.83), number of leaves (67.00), leaf length (5.87 cm), root length (3.51 cm), total number of fruits (43.93), days to 50 percent fruiting (233.67), fruit diameter (3.96 cm), fruit weight (411.40g). Moreover, transplanting date (20 Sep, 2013) is suitable to get maximum yield of strawberry variety Chandler. The findings of this experiment showed that great variations in morphological, physical and agronomic traits of strawberry variety and can be utilized to develop high yield and better quality of strawberry. (author)

  14. Effect of Gamma Radiations on the Quality and Shelf Life of Strawberry Fruit of the Uttrakhand Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Prianka; Rastogi, Meetu

    2016-08-01

    Present study was conducted to investigate the effect of gamma radiations on the quality and shelf life of strawberries. The aim of this study was to evaluate gamma radiation doses in range of 0.3- 1.5 kGy. The irradiated strawberries were stored in ambient (temperature 25 +- 2oC, RH 70 %) and refrigerated (3 +-1oC, RH 80%) conditions. In samples treated with dose 1.2-1.5 kGy no decay was recorded up to 9 days of ambient conditions. Under refrigerated conditions, strawberry samples of unirradiated and irradiated in the range of 0.3-0.9 kGy started decaying after 14 days of storage. No decay was observed in the samples treated with 1.2-1.5 kGy up to 28 days of refrigerated storage. Dose of 1.2 kGy was significantly effective in reducing the weight loss and in maintaining the higher overall acceptability under both the storage conditions compared to the other treatments. This dose also proved effective in retention of significantly higher levels of total sugars compared to the other treatments. Thus, it was established that irradiating strawberries with dose of 1.2 kGy can prove beneficial in facilitating the marketing of the fruit to distant places other than the local markets, thereby benefiting the growers.

  15. 77 FR 22557 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-16

    ... Inspection Service [Docket No. APHIS-2012-0009] Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the... the public that we have prepared a pest risk analysis that evaluates the risks associated with the... importation of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. We are making the pest risk analysis available to the public...

  16. 78 FR 13304 - Notice of Decision To Issue Permits for the Importation of Strawberry Fruit From Egypt Into the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... continental United States of fresh strawberry fruit from Egypt. Based on the findings of a pest risk analysis... importation of commodities that, based on the findings of a pest risk analysis (PRA), can be safely imported... risks of introducing or disseminating plant pests or noxious weeds via the importation of fresh...

  17. Gene-for-gene relationships between strawberry and the causal agent of red stele root rot, Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weg, van de W.E.

    1997-01-01

    Red stele (red core) root rot is the major soil-borne disease of strawberries (Fragaria spp.) in many areas with cool, moist soil conditions. It is caused by the soil-borne fungus Phytophthora fragariae var. fragariae. Red stele

  18. Application of lemon peel essential oil with edible coating agent to prolong shelf life of tofu and strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmawati, Della; Chandra, Mega; Santoso, Stefanus; Puteri, Maria Gunawan

    2017-01-01

    The essential oil of sweet orange, lemon, and key lime peel were analyzed for their antimicrobial activity. The antimicrobial activity of each citrus essential oil with different concentration was assessed using broth macro-dilution against Bacillus sp, Eschericia coli, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Botrytis sp which represented specific spoilage microorganism in tofu and fresh strawberry. Among all the citrus peel essential oils tested, lemon peel essential oil with 0.6% concentration showed significant activity as an antimicrobial agent against Escherichia coli and Bacillus sp. In other hand 1% of lemon peel essential oil is also considered to be the best concentration of inhibiting the Rhizopus Stolonifer and Botrytis sp. Lemon peel essential oil which has the highest antimicrobial activity was combined with two different kind of edible coating agents (cassava starch and sodium alginate) and was applied in both tofu and strawberry to observe whether it had possibility to decrease the degradation rate of tofu and strawberry. The addition of 0.6% and 1% lemon peel essential oil with each of edible coating agents was significantly able to reduce the degradation of tofu and fresh strawberry.

  19. Effect of Nutrition Solution pH and Electrical Conductivity on Fusarium Wilt on Strawberry Plants in Hydroponic Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myeong Hyeon Nam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium wilt on strawberry plants caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. fragariae (Fof is a major disease in Korea. The prevalence of this disease is increasing, especially in hydroponic cultivation in strawberry field. This study assessed the effect of nutrition solution pH and electrical conductivity (EC on Fusarium wilt in vitro and in field trials. pH levels of 5.0, 5.5, 6.0, 6.5, 7.0, and 7.5 were assayed in vitro and in field trials. EC levels at 0, 0.5, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.5 dS∙m⁻¹ were assayed in field trials. Mycelial growth of Fof increased with increasing pH and was highest at 25°C pH 7 and lowest at 20°C, pH 5.0 in vitro. The incidence of Fusarium wilt was lowest in the pH 6.5 treatment and highest in the pH 5 treatment in field trials. At higher pH levels, the EC decreased in the drain solution and the potassium content of strawberry leaves increased. In the EC assay, the severity of Fusarium wilt and nitrogen content of leaves increased as the EC increased. These results indicate that Fusarium wilt is related to pH and EC in hydroponic culture of strawberry plants.

  20. Effect of different Gramineae carbon inputs on efficacy of ASD for control of Macrophomina phaseolina in strawberry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD), using either orchard grass (GR) or wheat shoots (WH) as the carbon input, was examined for the control of M. phaseolina in strawberry. The pathogen was artificially infested at a density of 2.5 sclerotia g-1 soil. Treatments included in the study were ASD with or...

  1. Selenium Biofortification in Fragaria × ananassa: Implications on Strawberry Fruits Quality, Content of Bioactive Health Beneficial Compounds and Metabolomic Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanja Mimmo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Selenium (Se is an essential nutrient for humans, due to its antioxidant properties, whereas, to date, its essentiality to plants still remains to be demonstrated. Nevertheless, if added to the cultivation substrate, plants growth resulted enhanced. However, the concentration of Se in agricultural soils is very variable, ranging from 0.01 mg kg-1 up to 10 mg kg-1 in seleniferous areas. Therefore several studies have been performed aimed at bio-fortifying crops with Se and the approaches exploited were mainly based on the application of Se fertilizers. The aim of the present research was to assess the biofortification potential of Se in hydroponically grown strawberry fruits and its effects on qualitative parameters and nutraceutical compounds. The supplementation with Se did not negatively affect the growth and the yield of strawberries, and induced an accumulation of Se in fruits. Furthermore, the metabolomic analyses highlighted an increase in flavonoid and polyphenol compounds, which contributes to the organoleptic features and antioxidant capacity of fruits; in addition, an increase in the fruits sweetness also was detected in biofortified strawberries. In conclusion, based on our observations, strawberry plants seem a good target for Se biofortification, thus allowing the increase in the human intake of this essential micronutrient.

  2. Large multistate outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with frozen strawberries, Germany, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, H; Faber, M; Wilking, H; Haller, S; Höhle, M; Schielke, A; Ducomble, T; Siffczyk, C; Merbecks, S S; Fricke, G; Hamouda, O; Stark, K; Werber, D

    2014-02-27

    From 20 September through 5 October 2012, the largest recorded food-borne outbreak in Germany occurred. Norovirus was identified as the causative agent. We conducted four analytical epidemiological studies, two case–control studies and two surveys (in total 150 cases) in secondary schools in three different federal states. Overall, 390 institutions in five federal states reported nearly 11,000 cases of gastroenteritis. They were predominantly schools and childcare facilities and were supplied almost exclusively by one large catering company. The analytical epidemiological studies consistently identified dishes containing strawberries as the most likely vehicle, with estimated odds ratios ranging from 2.6 to 45.4. The dishes had been prepared in different regional kitchens of the catering company and were served in the schools two days before the peaks of the respective outbreaks. All affected institutions had received strawberries of one lot, imported frozen from China. The outbreak vehicle was identified within a week, which led to a timely recall and prevented more than half of the lot from reaching the consumer. This outbreak exemplifies the risk of large outbreaks in the era of global food trade. It underlines the importance of timely surveillance and epidemiological outbreak investigations for food safety.

  3. Physiological role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in cold acclimation of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Yu, Dingqun; Luo, Ya; Wang, Xiaorong; Chen, Qing; Sun, Bo; Wang, Yan; Liu, Zejing; Tang, Haoru

    2018-04-01

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in study of new resistance mechanism in fruit trees. All these regard the climate change and subsequent fruit production. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) catalyzes the first and rate-limiting step of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), and the expression of this enzyme is related to different biotic and abiotic stresses. Under accumulation of low temperature stress, the significant increase in G6PDH activity was found to be closely correlated to the levels of antioxidant enzymes, malondialdehyde (MDA) contents, sugar contents as well as changes of superoxide (O2•-). It is suggested that the enhancement of cold resistance of strawberry, which induced by cold acclimation, related to the significant increase in G6PDH activity. On one hand, G6PDH activates NADPH oxidase to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS); on the other hand, it may be involved in the activation of antioxidant enzymes, and accelerates many other important NADPH-dependent enzymatic reactions. Then further result in the elevation of membrane stability and cold resistance of strawberry. Interestingly, even though the plants were placed again under a temperature of 25°C for 1 d, the higher cold resistance, enzyme activities and soluble sugar content acquired.

  4. Production of strawberry cultivars in closed hydroponic systems and coconut fibre substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rodrigues de Miranda

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate yield and average fruit weight of strawberry cultivars Albion, Camarosa, Festival and Oso Grande, in two closed hydroponic systems (gutters and grow bags, using coconut fibre as substrate. The experimental design was of randomised blocks, divided into strips, with five replications. The hydroponic systems did not differ significantly as to yield, with advantages, such as savings in water and fertilizer and reduced environmental impact, over open systems. The most productive cultivar was Festival, followed by Oso Grande, with average yields of 6.99 kg m-2 and 5.56 kg m-2 respectively. The cultivars with the greatest fruit weight were Oso Grande and Albion, having averages of 11.8 and 11.1 g respectively, with the former being significantly superior to the latter. The highest yield (7.4 kg m-2 was obtained from the cultivar Festival under the gutter system. The Ibiapaba region has conditions which are favourable to strawberry production in relation to precocity (harvesting starts in the 6th week of growth and production continues throughout the year; however there is a need to test new cultivars and to improve the cultivation techniques with an aim to producing larger-sized fruit.

  5. Antioxidant properties and neuroprotective capacity of strawberry tree fruit (Arbutus unedo).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortalezas, Sofia; Tavares, Lucélia; Pimpão, Rui; Tyagi, Meenu; Pontes, Vera; Alves, Paula M; McDougall, Gordon; Stewart, Derek; Ferreira, Ricardo B; Santos, Cláudia N

    2010-02-01

    Berries contain significant amounts of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which are reported to reduce cancer risk, coronary heart disease and other degenerative diseases. These effects are mainly attributed to the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols found in berries. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo) berries are used in folk medicine but seldom eaten as fresh fruits. Their phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity reveal a high potential, but they are not well characterized as a "health promoting food". The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant properties of the edible strawberry tree fruit in vitro and in a neurodegeneration cell model. Raspberry (Rubus idaeus), a well documented health-promoting fruit, was used as a control for comparison purposes. A. unedo yielded a similar content in polyphenols and a slightly lower value of total antioxidant capacity in comparison to R. idaeus. Although the chemically-measured antioxidant activity was similar between both fruits, R. idaeus increased neuroblastoma survival in a neurodegeneration cell model by 36.6% whereas A. unedo extracts caused no effect on neuroblastoma viability. These results clearly demonstrate that a promising level of chemically-determined antioxidant activity of a plant extract is not necessarily correlated with biological significance, as assessed by the effect of A. unedo fruit in a neurodegeneration cell model.

  6. BIOACTIVE COMPOUNDS IN CONVENTIONAL AND NO ADDED SUGARS RED STRAWBERRY GUAVA (Psidium cattleianum Sabine JELLIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA NIEMEYER REISSIG

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study aimed to prepare jellies of conventional type of red strawberry guava (with added sucrose and no added sugar and evaluate the physical and chemical composition and content of bioactive compounds in them. Four jellies formulations were prepared: conventional with addition of sucrose (F1, aspartame (F2, saccharin and cyclamate (F3, acesulfame and sucralose (F4. Physicochemical analysis of pH were carried out, as well as analysis of titratable acidity, total soluble solids, ashes, proteins, lipids, moisture, carbohydrates, calories, lightness, color tone, total phenols, anthocyanins, carotenoids, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity, by the capture of DPPH and ABTS radicals. Conventional and no added sugars jellies did not differ for total phenols, total anthocyanins and ascorbic acid. However, processing exerted significant influence (p=0.05 on total carotenoids and antioxidant activity. It is feasible to use red strawberry guava for the preparation of conventional and no added sugar jellies. The products, however, show a significant difference in carotenoids content, with the highest content of these and higher antioxidant activity in processed jellies without sugars addition.

  7. The Content of Secondary Metabolites and Antioxidant Activity of Wild Strawberry Fruit (Fragaria vesca L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Dyduch-Siemińska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical analyses carried out in 2011–2013 aimed at evaluating the contents of flavonoids, free phenolic acids, tannins, anthocyanins, and antioxidant activity (% by means of DPPH radical neutralization ability in fresh and air-dried fruits of three wild strawberry cultivars. Examinations revealed differences in contents of biologically active substances determined in raw versus dried material depending on the cultivar. Mean concentrations of flavonoids and tannins were highest in raw fruits of “Baron von Solemacher” cv., which amounted to 1.244 mg·g−1 and 6.09%, respectively. Fresh fruits of “Regina” cv. were characterized by the highest average content of phenolic acids and anthocyanins: 4.987 mg·g−1 and 0.636 mg·100 g−1. The pattern of mean contents of biologically active substances analyzed in air-dried fruits was similar. Significant differences in abilities to neutralize the DPPH radical to diphenylpicrylhydrazine by extracts made of examined wild strawberry fruits were also indicated.

  8. Resistance of Botrytis cinerea to fungicides controlling gray mold on strawberry in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ueder Pedro Lopes

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the resistance of Botrytis cinerea to the fungicides currently used for its control in Brazil. Isolates of the fungus were collected from different strawberry-producing fields in the states of Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais, and São Paulo, Brazil. First, a total of 183 isolates were identified at the species level using specific primers for the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (G3PDH gene. The isolates were grown on potato dextrose agar (PDA containing the fungicides procymidone, iprodione, and thiophanate-methyl in different concentrations: 0.0 (control, 0.1; 1.0; 10.0; 100.0 and 1,000.0 μg∙mL−1. The percentage of mycelial growth inhibition was used to determine the effective concentration of the fungicide that was able to inhibit colony growth by 50% (EC50. Approximately 25.7% of the isolates were resistant to iprodione, 53.0% were resistant to procymidone, and 93.0% were resistant to thiophanate-methyl. Moreover, crossresistance and multiple resistance were verified, with 19.7% of the isolates showing resistance to 3 fungicides simultaneously. This finding explains the ineffectiveness of fungicides application to control gray mold in strawberry fields in Brazil and highlights the need for new strategies to manage this disease in the culture.

  9. Influence of sweetener stevia on the quality of strawberry flavoured fresh yoghurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Lisak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Stevia is a natural, non energetic sweetener, 200-300 times sweeter than sucrose, and is obtained by leaves extraction of the Stevia rebaudiana. According to the low energy value of stevia to sweeten food products, it is a great possibility of its use in the dairy industry. This study examined the differences in the sweetness of the strawberry flavoured yoghurt with the addition of sucrose, stevia and equal portions of sucrose and stevia; each combination was used at three different concentrations (3, 4.5 and 6 % / 100 g yoghurt. Stevia was diluted in a concentration which, according to the literature, matches the sweetness profile of sucrose. Viscosity of the yoghurts was determined by the rheometer, and sensory profiling of the products was evaluated by a panel using the ranking test and weighted factors methods. The level of sweetness of all yoghurt samples (using sucrose, stevia and mixture of sucrose and stevia was judged by a test panel, and products were rated in the terms of degree of sweetness as sucrose > sucrose + stevia > stevia. The recommended level by panelists of any type or combination of sweeteners for strawberry yoghurt was 4.5 g sweetner/100 g. The apparent viscosity was lower in sucrose yoghurts compared to products made with stevia or stevia + sucrose which was also reflected in the sensory scores.

  10. Nitrogen for growth of stock plants and production of strawberry runner tips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeimi Isabel Janisch

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to determine growth and dry matter partitioning among organs of strawberry stock plants under five Nitrogen concentrations in the nutrient solution and its effects on emission and growth of runner tips. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions, from September 2010 to March 2011, in a soilless system with Oso Grande and Camino Real cultivars. Nitrogen concentrations of 5.12, 7.6, 10.12 (control, 12.62 and 15.12 mmol L-1 in the nutrient solution were studied in a 5x2 factorial randomised experimental design. All runner tips bearing at least one expanded leaf (patent requested were collected weekly and counted during the growth period. The number of leaves, dry matter (DM of leaves, crown and root, specific leaf area and leaf area index (LAI was determined at the final harvest. Increasing N concentration in the nutrient solution from 5.12 to 15.12 mmol L-1 reduces growth of crown, roots and LAI of strawberry stock plants but did not affect emission and growth of runner tips. It was concluded that for the commercial production of plug plants the optimal nitrogen concentration in the nutrient solution should be 5.12 mmol L-1.

  11. Application of carboxymethyl cellulose and chitosan coatings containing Mentha spicata essential oil in fresh strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Yasser

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) and chitosan (CH) coatings containing Mentha spicata essential oil (MSO 0.1 and 0.2%) on survival of Listeria monocytogenes, and physicochemical (weight loss, titratable acidity and pH), microbial (total viable count, psychrotrophic bacteria as well as yeasts and molds) and sensory (appearance, color, texture and overall acceptability) properties of fresh strawberries during refrigerated storage. The treatments of fruits with CH+MSO 0.2% and CMC+MSO 0.2% resulted in the best microbial, physicochemical and organoleptic properties after 12days storage. The final population of L. monocytogenes in treated samples was decreased by 3.92-3.69 compared to control groups. It can be concluded that CH and CMC coatings enriched with MSO can be used as appropriate active packaging materials to preserve fresh strawberries in the food industry. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Differentiation of Colletotrichum species responsible for anthracnose of strawberry by arbitrarily primed PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeman, S.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1995-01-01

    A collection of 39 isolates of Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae and C. gloeosporioides, which cause anthracnose on strawberry, was grouped into species based on the arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (ap-PCR). All isolates used had previously been identified according to classical taxonomic morphology. Ap-PCR amplification of genomic DNA using four different primers allowed for reliable differentiation between isolates of C. acutatum, C. fragariae and two genotypes of C. gloeosporioides. Fifteen of the 18 C. acutatum isolates were very similar, although three isolates which produced a red pigment had distinctly different banding patterns. Nearly identical banding patterns were observed for all nine isolates of C. fragariae. The 12 C. gloeosporioides isolates were more diverse and two separate genotypes, Cgl-1 (six isolates) and Cgl-2 (five isolates) were distinguished by ap-PCR. An additional isolate did not conform to either the Cgl-1 or Cgl-2 genotypes. The utility of ap-PCR compared with other molecular techniques for reliable identification of Colletotrichum isolates pathogenic on strawberry is discussed.

  13. Detection of Colletotrichum acutatum Latent Infections in Strawberry Petioles and Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nataša Duduk

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Colletotrichum acutatum is the most significant agent of anthracnose strawberry fruit rot. Besides being a necrotrophic pest, it can spend a part of its life cycle as an epiphyte, in a form of latent infection. The presence of the fungi on symptomless plant tissue is considered one of the main ways of distribution of this economically harmful pathogen in the world. Investigation of latent C. acutatum infection was carried out on artificially inoculated strawberries. The initiation of fungi sporulation on symptomless petioles and leaves was carried out by exposing them to the herbicide paraquat (0.25% and low temperatures, which caused plant tissue decay in different ways. Surface sterilization with 0.5% NaOCl precedes the exposure of plant material to paraquat. The freezing procedure was carried out by exposure of plant material to the temperature of -20°C for 2h. After the freezing, one group was rinsed in Tween 20 (18 μl/l, and another group underwent surface sterilization in 0.0525% NaOCl with an addition of Tween 20 (18 μl/l. After 6 days of incubation, the appearance of acervuli and conidia was detected in 93.33 to 100% plant parts exposed to paraquat treatment and freezing procedure. In inoculated parts which were not exposed to herbicides or low temperatures, the presence of acervuli was detected in 3.33% tested petioles and 6.67% leaves.

  14. Physicochemical Parameters and Bioactive Compounds of Strawberry Tree (Arbutus unedo L. Honey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo A. Ulloa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical origin, physicochemical properties (ash, colour, diastase activity, electrical conductivity (EC, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF, moisture, optical rotation (OP, pH, reducing sugars, total acidity, total soluble solids, and water activity, bioactive compounds (BC, and antioxidant activity obtained from strawberry tree honey from South Portugal were investigated. Results showed that the pollen analysis and physicochemical parameters were found within to meet international honey specifications. Significant differences (P<0.05 in results of ash content, EC, HMF, OP and colour when were compared with analogous famous Italian honey (Sardinia island. For BC, total phenolic and total flavonoid content were 94.47 mg gallic acid/100 g and 5.33 mg quercetin/100 g, respectively. Concerning Portuguese honey, it was also found that radical scavenging activity (DPPH assay was 43.46% and antioxidant activity was 18.85 mg ascorbic acid equivalent/100 g and 9.92 mg quercetin equivalent/100 g. These results confirmed that Portuguese strawberry tree honey has the highest antioxidant activity, when compared with other kinds of honey. This complete report demonstrates advantages and can help to promote consumption and shown their benefical properties (e.g., antioxidant; which will may increase the commercial value.

  15. Different growing conditions affect nutrient content, fruit yield and growth in strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demirsory, L.; Demirsoy, H.; Balci, G.

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of organic and conventional growing on contents of some nutrient elements, nitrogen (N), phosphorous (P), potassium (K), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn), yield and some growth parameters such as leaf area, petiole length, petiole diameter, crown number, crow n diameter, leaf, root dry weight in 'Sweet Charlie' and 'Camarosa' strawberry cultivars. This study consisted of two strawberry cultivars ('Camarosa' and 'Sweet Charlie'), two growing systems (organic and conventional growing) and two different mulches (black and floating sheet). There was significant difference among treatments in terms of P, K, and Mn content in root and Fe content in leaf and yield and some growth parameters. The best treatment in terms of yield and growth parameters was conventional growing with black plastic in 'Camarosa' while the best treatments were organic growing with floating sheet and black plastic in 'Sweet Charlie' in terms of P, K in root and organic growing with floating sheet in 'Sweet Charlie' in terms of Fe in leaf. (author)

  16. Development of bioactive coatings based on γ-irradiated proteins to preserve strawberries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vu, K.D.; Hollingsworth, R.G.; Salmieri, S.; Takala, P.N.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-01-01

    Gamma irradiation was applied for creating cross-linked proteins to enhance the physicochemical properties of edible films made of calcium caseinate, whey protein isolate and glycerol. The characteristics of γ irradiated cross-linked proteins were analyzed by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy. A second derivative spectra exhibited changes in band intensities that were correlated to an increase of β-sheet structure and a decrease of α-helix and unordered fractions of γ irradiated-cross-linked proteins as compared to the control without irradiation. Furthermore, on addition of methylcellulose to the irradiated protein matrix it was found that it has potential in enhancing the puncture strength and has no detrimental effect on water vapor permeability of protein based films. Finally, these film formulations were used as bioactive edible coatings containing natural antimicrobial agents (limonene and peppermint) to preserve the shelf life of fresh strawberries during storage. The bioactive coatings containing peppermint was found to be more efficient as preserving coatings than the formulations containing limonene. Irradiated proteins/methylcellulose/peppermint formulation had only 40% of decay at day 8 while it was 65% for the control. - Highlights: ► Crosslinked proteins and antimicrobials agents was able to preserve strawberries. ► Crosslinked protein structure was more ordered. ► Films based on crosslinked proteins and methylcellulose enhanced puncture strength.

  17. Effect of Gamma Irradiation and Natural Antitranspirant on the Storage Ability of Strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fath El-Bab, T.Sh.; Abdeldaiem, M.H.; Helaly, A.A.

    2013-01-01

    The study was conducted in seasons 2010 and 2011 to investigate the effect of gamma irradiation combined with natural antitranspirant of Carboxy Methyl Cellulose (CMC) on physical and chemical properties of fresh strawberries fruits ( Fragaria spp.) cv. Camarosa at the age 120 days under cold storage at (5 + 1 degree C and 85- 95 % R.h) in the Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Inshas, Egypt. The results revealed that gamma irradiation combined with natural antitranspirant (CMC) treatments were more significantly effective than the control, whereas all treatments induced less loss of weight and unmarketable fruits percentage during storage. The most effective dose decreasing the loss of weight and unmarketable percentage was 50 Gy gamma rays combined with (CMC) at 3 %. Also treatments significantly improved fruits compositions, particularly titratable acidity, total soluble solids and total sugars content, but the ascorbic acid content led to a significant decrease in strawberries fruits than the control. The best results with these fruits which treated by 50 Gy with 3% CMC combined

  18. Methodology for determination of benzimidazolic fungicides residues in strawberry and lettuce by HPLC-DAD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dangond Araujo, Jose Jairo; Guerrero dallos, Jairo Arturo

    2006-01-01

    systemic fungicides like benzimidazolic compounds are used to protect several crops of fruits and vegetables. in this work a new method for analysis of Benomyl, carbendazim and thiabendazol in strawberry and lettuce by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) was validated. benomyl residues were determined after its conversion to carbendazim. pesticide residues were extracted from strawberry and lettuce samples with ethyl acetate and these extracts were cleaned up by gel permeation chromatography (GPC). final determination was carried out by HPLC-DAD in reverse phase column. the method is selective, specific, precise and accurate. the calibration curves show linearity over concentration range of 1.24 to 6.19 mg/kg, with detection limits of 0.40 and 0.27 mg/kg and quantification limits of 1.35 and 0.81 mg/kg for carbendazim and thiabendazole respectively. the recovery experiments yielding averages of 90 %. n o residues of these compounds were found in collected samples from specific areas of Cundinamarca, Colombia

  19. Foliar uptake of 134Cs and 85Sr in strawberry as function by leaf age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortunati, P.; Brambilla, M.; Speroni, F.; Carini, F.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper a study of the foliar uptake and translocation of 134 Cs and 85 Sr in a herbaceous fruit plant is presented. In particular, absorption, translocation and loss of these radionuclides in strawberry plants have been studied in relation to the age of contaminated leaves. Strawberry plants were contaminated by distributing droplets of an aqueous solution containing 134 CsCl and 85 SrCl 2 on the surface of two leaves per plant. One half of the plants was contaminated through two young leaves, a second half through two old leaves. Sets of plants were collected 1 day, 7 days and 15 days after contamination. One half of them was rinsed with double distilled water before gamma analysis. Rinsing contaminated leaves removes on average 55% of the applied 134 Cs and 45% of 85 Sr. The activity removed decreases during the 15 days of the experimental study, both for 134 Cs and for 85 Sr, suggesting an increase in foliar absorption during this period. The activity removed does not differ between old and young leaves. 'External loss' is lower for young than old contaminated leaves. 'Internal loss' through translocation occurs mainly for 134 Cs. Translocation coefficients from contaminated leaves to fruits are two orders of magnitude higher for 134 Cs (4.0%), than for 85 Sr (0.05%). Leaf to fruit translocation coefficients for 134 Cs are higher from young leaves (5.8%), than from old leaves (2.3%)

  20. Analysis of water movement in peatbags used for the Kagawa strawberry substrate culture system [Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, M.; Ushida, H.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted an investigation of water movement in peatbags and growth accompanying changes in solar radiation and irrigation in the Kagawa strawberry substrate culture system (Rakuchin). 1. The water content of the substrate increased constantly for five days after setting and thereafter remained almost level. The water content rate became high from the start in the parts containing the roots. 2. At the bottom of the peatbag, the water content increased from the central part where roots were present at the time of setting, and rate of the increase was accelerated by shading and high irrigation. 3. In fine weather, there was no stagnation in the peatbag. In cloudy weather, water movement to the upper part of the peatbag was slow. 4. With plentiful irrigation, there were no symptoms of weak coloration among veins of new leaves or slow growth. 5. It was concluded that in the Rakuchin system, peatbags at the beginning of irrigation do not suffer water excess or deficiency, nor do they develop water stagnation. Furthermore, it seems that an increase of irrigation has no influence on the growth of the 'Nyohou' strawberry cultivar

  1. Health and taste related compounds in strawberries under various irrigation regimes and bio-stimulant application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapur, Burcak; Sarıdaş, Mehmet Ali; Çeliktopuz, Eser; Kafkas, Ebru; Paydaş Kargı, Sevgi

    2018-10-15

    Strawberry has a unique status within the fruit species in terms of health and taste related compounds. This experimental study concerned the application of a bio-stimulant at various drip irrigation levels (IR125, IR100, IR75 and IR50). The effects of the bio-stimulant (seaweed extract) on the eating quality, i.e., the taste-related (TSS, fructose, glucose, sucrose and citric, malic, l-ascorbic acid), and health-related (antioxidant activity, total phenol, myricetin and quercetin) compounds were studied in two strawberry cultivars. The 'Rubygem' with its higher sugar and lower acid content has been more preferable than the 'Kabarla' cultivar. The bio-stimulant contributes to taste by improving the TSS, fructose, sucrose and also to health by increasing the quercetin content of the fruit which is associated to the cardiovascular properties and cancer reducing agents. The experiment conducted revealed significant increases only in the TSS contents and antioxidant activity under the IR50 and IR75 deficit irrigation treatments. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Inhibition of Xanthomonas fragariae, Causative Agent of Angular Leaf Spot of Strawberry, through Iron Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Henry

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In commercial production settings, few options exist to prevent or treat angular leaf spot of strawberry, a disease of economic importance and caused by the bacterial pathogen Xanthomonas fragariae (Xfr. In the process of isolating and identifying Xfr bacteria from symptomatic plants, we observed growth inhibition of Xfr by bacterial isolates from the same leaf macerates. Identified as species of Pseudomonas and Rhizobium, these isolates were confirmed to suppress growth of Xfr in agar overlay plates and in microtiter plate cultures, as did our reference strain Pseudomonas putida KT2440. Screening of a transposon mutant library of KT2440 revealed that disruption of the biosynthetic pathway for the siderophore pyoverdine resulted in complete loss of Xfr antagonism, suggesting iron competition as a mode of action. Antagonism could be replicated on plate and in culture by addition of purified pyoverdine or by addition of the chelating agents tannic acid and dipyridyl, while supplementing the medium with iron negated the inhibitory effects of pyoverdine, tannic acid and dipyridyl. When co-inoculated with tannic acid onto strawberry plants, Xfr’s ability to cause foliar symptoms was greatly reduced, suggesting a possible opportunity for iron-based management of angular leaf spot. We discuss our findings in the context of ‘nutritional immunity’, the idea that plant hosts restrict pathogens access to iron, either directly, or indirectly through their associated microbiota.

  3. Antioxidant Properties and Neuroprotective Capacity of Strawberry Tree Fruit (Arbutus unedo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo B. Ferreira

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Berries contain significant amounts of phytochemicals, including polyphenols, which are reported to reduce cancer risk, coronary heart disease and other degenerative diseases. These effects are mainly attributed to the antioxidant capacity of polyphenols found in berries. Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo berries are used in folk medicine but seldom eaten as fresh fruits. Their phenolic profile and antioxidant capacity reveal a high potential, but they are not well characterized as a “health promoting food”. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant properties of the edible strawberry tree fruit in vitro and in a neurodegeneration cell model. Raspberry (Rubus idaeus, a well documented health-promoting fruit, was used as a control for comparison purposes. A. unedo yielded a similar content in polyphenols and a slightly lower value of total antioxidant capacity in comparison to R. idaeus. Although the chemically-measured antioxidant activity was similar between both fruits, R. idaeus increased neuroblastoma survival in a neurodegeneration cell model by 36.6% whereas A. unedo extracts caused no effect on neuroblastoma viability. These results clearly demonstrate that a promising level of chemically-determined antioxidant activity of a plant extract is not necessarily correlated with biological significance, as assessed by the effect of A. unedo fruit in a neurodegeneration cell model.

  4. Improving Storability of Strawberries with Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide in Perforated Clamshell Packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiabrando Valentina

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available A chlorine dioxide generating pad has been used as postharvest treatment to maintain the quality and safety of strawberries in two different storage conditions. During the short storage time (3 days at 4°C + 2 days at 20°C fruit treated with ClO2 maintained better quality parameters, as color, titratable acidity, total soluble solids, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity and lower values of weight loss. During the long storage time (12 days at 2°C, the parameters related to postharvest quality were generally preserved and the effect of ClO2 was positive to reduce the total yeast and mold, except the last period of the experiment when the ClO2 gas-generating pad was probably exhausted. The sensory evaluation revealed that the sanitization with ClO2 maintained a global positive acceptance in particular during the short storage time. The results suggest that this treatment may be suitable to maintain the quality during short storage and long storage until 8 days and it may be an important alternative sanitizer thanks to the positive action against the yeast and mold without modifying the quality of the strawberries.

  5. Replacing sugar with S. rebaudiana extracts on the physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberry ice cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma Aranda-Gonzalez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Ice cream is a product whose formulation requires considerable amounts of sugar. In addition to providing flavor, sugar contributes to the physicochemical characteristics of ice cream but its consumption in large quantities is related to chronic diseases such as diabetes and obesity. For this reason, the food industry seeks to formulate products with sweeteners that preserve the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the original product. Stevia rebaudiana is a plant that naturally contains glycosides with no calories and high sweetening capacity and it is considered safe for consumption. Therefore the aim of this research was to evaluate the effect of replacing sugar with different levels of extracts of S. rebaudiana Morita II and Criolla, on the physicochemical and sensory properties of strawberry ice cream. Using a 2x2 factorial experimental design, a total of 4 formulations were prepared with two levels of concentration of the aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana (5 or 8% and the variety of S. rebaudiana (Morita II or Criolla. Proximate composition, physicochemical properties and sensory evaluation were determined in processed products. The proximate analysis of strawberry ice cream varied significantly (P<0.05 depending of variety and level used on the formulation. The viscosities of all ice cream mixes were decreasing as the shear rate was increased, indicating a pseudoplastic behavior. The sensory analysis showed differences (P<0.05 among the formulations tested, however the score of all products were above the indifference point, suggesting that all of these formulations may have a commercial potential.

  6. Improved Sustainability through Novel Water Management Strategies for Strawberry Transplant Establishment in Florida, United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel A. Torres-Quezada

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Establishing bare-root transplants in Florida, United States, is an inefficient water-consuming activity. Between 3500 and 5500 m3/ha are applied with sprinkler irrigation to lower temperatures around the transplant crown and aid early root development, but more than 97% of the water volume runs off the polyethylene-covered beds. Research has been conducted to evaluate the feasibility of producing containerized (plug short-day cultivar transplants under Florida conditions, the effect of continuous and intermittent low-volume sprinklers on transplant establishment and the use of kaolin clay to reduce stress on young transplants. Research results demonstrated that growers may have alternatives to reduce water use and pumping costs during strawberry transplant establishment by the following: (a plug transplants can be produced from mother plants from Florida’s subtropical weather without chilling conditioning and still be competitive in the winter market; (b using continuous and intermittent low-volume sprinkler irrigation saves between 16% and 33% of the water volumes for strawberry establishment; and (c using kaolin clay showed to be a low-cost (US$63/ha plus application costs investment to reduce irrigation volumes by at least 30%.

  7. Lipase-Catalyzed Production of 6-O-cinnamoyl-sorbitol from D-sorbitol and Cinnamic Acid Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Ho; Bhatia, Shashi Kant; Yoo, Dongwon; Seo, Hyung Min; Yi, Da-Hye; Kim, Hyun Joong; Lee, Ju Hee; Choi, Kwon-Young; Kim, Kwang Jin; Lee, Yoo Kyung; Yang, Yung-Hun

    2015-05-01

    To overcome the poor properties of solubility and stability of cinnamic acid, cinnamate derivatives with sugar alcohols were produced using the immobilized Candida antarctica lipase with vinyl cinnamate and D-sorbitol as substrate at 45 °C. Immobilized C. antarctica lipase was found to synthesize 6-O-cinnamoyl-sorbitol and confirmed by HPLC and (1)H-NMR and had a preference for vinyl cinnamate over other esters such as allyl-, ethyl-, and isobutyl cinnamate as co-substrate with D-sorbitol. Contrary to D-sorbitol, vinyl cinnamate, and cinnamic acid, the final product 6-O-cinnamoyl-sorbitol was found to have radical scavenging activity. This would be the first report on the biosynthesis of 6-O-cinnamoyl-sorbitol with immobilized enzyme from C. antarctica.

  8. Structural basis for phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Oliver B.; Tomasek, David; Jorge, Carla D.; Dufrisne, Meagan Belcher; Kim, Minah; Banerjee, Surajit; Rajashankar, Kanagalaghatta R.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Hendrickson, Wayne A.; Santos, Helena; Mancia, Filippo

    2015-10-01

    Phosphatidylinositol is critical for intracellular signalling and anchoring of carbohydrates and proteins to outer cellular membranes. The defining step in phosphatidylinositol biosynthesis is catalysed by CDP-alcohol phosphotransferases, transmembrane enzymes that use CDP-diacylglycerol as donor substrate for this reaction, and either inositol in eukaryotes or inositol phosphate in prokaryotes as the acceptor alcohol. Here we report the structures of a related enzyme, the phosphatidylinositol-phosphate synthase from Renibacterium salmoninarum, with and without bound CDP-diacylglycerol to 3.6 and 2.5 Å resolution, respectively. These structures reveal the location of the acceptor site, and the molecular determinants of substrate specificity and catalysis. Functional characterization of the 40%-identical ortholog from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, a potential target for the development of novel anti-tuberculosis drugs, supports the proposed mechanism of substrate binding and catalysis. This work therefore provides a structural and functional framework to understand the mechanism of phosphatidylinositol-phosphate biosynthesis.

  9. Occurrence and biosynthesis of carotenoids in phytoplankton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jim Junhui; Lin, Shaoling; Xu, Wenwen; Cheung, Peter Chi Keung

    2017-09-01

    Naturally occurring carotenoids are important sources of antioxidants, anti-cancer compounds and anti-inflammatory agents and there is thus considerable market demand for their pharmaceutical applications. Carotenoids are widely distributed in marine and freshwater organisms including microalgae, phytoplankton, crustaceans and fish, as well as in terrestrial plants and birds. Recently, phytoplankton-derived carotenoids have received much attention due to their abundance, rapid rate of biosynthesis and unique composition. The carotenoids that accumulate in particular phytoplankton phyla are synthesized by specific enzymes and play unique physiological roles. This review focuses on studies related to the occurrence of carotenoids in different phytoplankton phyla and the molecular aspects of their biosynthesis. Recent biotechnological advances in the isolation and characterization of some representative carotenoid synthases in phytoplankton are also discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Stability of a metabolizable ester bond in radioimmunoconjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arano, Yasushi; Wakisaka, Kouji; Mukai, Takahiro; Uezono, Takashi; Motonari, Hiroshi; Akizawa, Hiromichi; Kairiyama, Claudia; Ohmomo, Yoshiro; Tanaka, Chiaki; Ishiyama, Munetaka; Sakahara, Harumi; Konishi, Junji; Yokoyama, Akira

    1996-01-01

    Ester bonds have been used as metabolizable linkages to reduce radioactivity levels in non-target tissues following the administration of antibodies labeled with metallic radionuclides. In this radiochemical design of antibodies, while the ester bonds should be cleaved rapidly in non-target tissues, high stability of the ester bonds in plasma is also required to preserve target radioactivity levels. To assess the structural requirements to stabilize the ester bond, a new benzyl-EDTA-derived bifunctional chelating agent with an ester bond, (1-[4-[4-(2-maleimidoethoxy)succinamido]benzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'- tetraacetic acid; MESS-Bz-EDTA), was developed. MESS-Bz-EDTA was coupled with a thiolated monoclonal antibody (OST7, IgG 1 ) prepared by reducing its disulfide bonds to introduce the ester bond close and proximal to the antibody molecule. For comparison, 1-[4-(5-maleimidopentyl)aminobenzyl]ethylenediamine-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EMCS-Bz-EDTA) and meleimidoethyl 3-[ 131 I]iodohippurate (MIH) was coupled to OST7 under the same conjunction chemistry. When incubated in 50% murine plasma or a buffered-solution of neutral pH, OST7-MESS-Bz-EDTA- 111 In rapidly released the radioactivity, and more than 95% of the initial radioactivity was liberated after a 24 h incubation in both solutions, due to a cleavage of the ester bond. On the other hand, only about 20% of the radioactivity was released from OST7-MIH- 131 I in both solutions during the same incubation period. In mice biodistribution studies, while a slightly faster radioactivity clearance from the blood with less radioactivity levels in the liver and kidneys was observed with OST7-MIH- 131 I than with OST7-EMCS-Bz-EDTA- 111 In, OST7-MESS-Bz-EDTA- 111 In indicated radioactivity clearance from the blood much faster than and almost comparable to that of OST7-MIH- 131 I and succinamidobenzyl-EDTA- 111 In, respectively. These findings as well as previous findings on radiolabeled antibodies with ester bonds

  11. Analysis of five rice 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activity and stress response for potential roles in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis in rice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Haiyan [National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Biomass and Bioenergy Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); School of Biology and Food Engineering, Changshu Institute of Technology, Changshu 215500 (China); Li, Ying; Feng, Shengqiu; Zou, Weihua [National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Biomass and Bioenergy Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Guo, Kai [National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Biomass and Bioenergy Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Fan, Chunfen [National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Biomass and Bioenergy Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Plant Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Si, Shengli [National Key Laboratory of Crop Genetic Improvement, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Biomass and Bioenergy Research Centre, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); and others

    2013-01-18

    Highlights: ► 4CLs play important roles in both lignin and flavonoids biosynthesis. ► PA and FA are the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for lignin biosynthesis. ► Os4CL2 is suggested for flavonoid formation in defense against UV radiation. -- Abstract: 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) catalyzes the conversion of hydroxycinnamates into corresponding CoA esters for biosynthesis of flavonoids and lignin. In this study, five members of the 4CL gene family from rice were cloned and analyzed. Recombinant 4CL data revealed that 4-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for monolignol biosynthesis in rice. Os4CL2 was specifically expressed in the anther and was strongly activated by UV irradiation, suggesting its potential involvement in flavonoid formation. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis showed that the existence of valine residue at the substrate-binding pocket may mainly affect rice 4CL activities toward sinapic acid.

  12. Analysis of five rice 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase enzyme activity and stress response for potential roles in lignin and flavonoid biosynthesis in rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Haiyan; Li, Ying; Feng, Shengqiu; Zou, Weihua; Guo, Kai; Fan, Chunfen; Si, Shengli

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► 4CLs play important roles in both lignin and flavonoids biosynthesis. ► PA and FA are the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for lignin biosynthesis. ► Os4CL2 is suggested for flavonoid formation in defense against UV radiation. -- Abstract: 4-Coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL) catalyzes the conversion of hydroxycinnamates into corresponding CoA esters for biosynthesis of flavonoids and lignin. In this study, five members of the 4CL gene family from rice were cloned and analyzed. Recombinant 4CL data revealed that 4-coumaric acid and ferulic acid were the two main substrates of 4CL (Os4CL1/3/4/5) for monolignol biosynthesis in rice. Os4CL2 was specifically expressed in the anther and was strongly activated by UV irradiation, suggesting its potential involvement in flavonoid formation. Moreover, bioinformatics analysis showed that the existence of valine residue at the substrate-binding pocket may mainly affect rice 4CL activities toward sinapic acid

  13. Microbial biosynthesis of nontoxic gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, Swarup; Das, Tapan Kumar; Maiti, Guru Prasad; Basu, Utpal

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The manuscript deals with the fungus mediated optimized biologically synthesized GNPs using Aspergillus foetidus and characterization of biosynthesized GNPs using various physico-chemical methods. The fairly stable synthesized nanoparticles have size in the range of 10–40 nm. Cytotoxicity study of biosynthesized GNPs on Human lung cancer cell line A549 showed no significant toxicity of GNPs. - Highlights: • A novel biosynthesis process of GNPs using Aspergillus foetidus. • Biosynthesized GNPs are in the range of 10–40 nm as observed from TEM. • This process of synthesis is an optimized biosynthesis process of GNPs. • Biosynthesized GNPs are noncytotoxic against A549 cell line. - Abstract: We study the extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using the fungal species Aspergillus foetidus. The formation of GNPs were initially monitored by visual observation and then characterized with the help of various characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed distinctive formation of face centered cubic crystalline GNPs. From field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) the morphology of the nanoparticles were found to be roughly spherical and within the size range of 30–50 nm. The spherical and polydispersed GNPs in the range of 10–40 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. It was established that alkaline pH, 1 mM gold salt concentration and 75 °C temperature were the respective optimum parameter for biosynthesis of GNPs. Cell cytotoxicity of GNP was compared with that of normal gold salt solution on A549 cell. The A549 cell growth in presence of GNPs was found to be comparatively less toxic than the gold ion.

  14. Microbial biosynthesis of nontoxic gold nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roy, Swarup, E-mail: swaruproy@klyuniv.ac.in [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Das, Tapan Kumar [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Maiti, Guru Prasad [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India); Department of Anesthesiology, Texas Tech University Health science Center, 3601 4th Street, Lubbock, TX 79430 (United States); Basu, Utpal [Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Kalyani, Kalyani 741235, West Bengal (India)

    2016-01-15

    Graphical abstract: The manuscript deals with the fungus mediated optimized biologically synthesized GNPs using Aspergillus foetidus and characterization of biosynthesized GNPs using various physico-chemical methods. The fairly stable synthesized nanoparticles have size in the range of 10–40 nm. Cytotoxicity study of biosynthesized GNPs on Human lung cancer cell line A549 showed no significant toxicity of GNPs. - Highlights: • A novel biosynthesis process of GNPs using Aspergillus foetidus. • Biosynthesized GNPs are in the range of 10–40 nm as observed from TEM. • This process of synthesis is an optimized biosynthesis process of GNPs. • Biosynthesized GNPs are noncytotoxic against A549 cell line. - Abstract: We study the extracellular biosynthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) using the fungal species Aspergillus foetidus. The formation of GNPs were initially monitored by visual observation and then characterized with the help of various characterization techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed distinctive formation of face centered cubic crystalline GNPs. From field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) the morphology of the nanoparticles were found to be roughly spherical and within the size range of 30–50 nm. The spherical and polydispersed GNPs in the range of 10–40 nm were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. It was established that alkaline pH, 1 mM gold salt concentration and 75 °C temperature were the respective optimum parameter for biosynthesis of GNPs. Cell cytotoxicity of GNP was compared with that of normal gold salt solution on A549 cell. The A549 cell growth in presence of GNPs was found to be comparatively less toxic than the gold ion.

  15. A Chemo-Enzymatic Road Map to the Synthesis of CoA Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik M. Peter

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme A (CoA is a ubiquitous cofactor present in every known organism. The thioesters of CoA are core intermediates in many metabolic processes, such as the citric acid cycle, fatty acid biosynthesis and secondary metabolism, including polyketide biosynthesis. Synthesis of CoA-thioesters is vital for the study of CoA-dependent enzymes and pathways, but also as standards for metabolomics studies. In this work we systematically tested five chemo-enzymatic methods for the synthesis of the three most abundant acyl-CoA thioester classes in biology; saturated acyl-CoAs, α,β-unsaturated acyl-CoAs (i.e., enoyl-CoA derivatives, and α-carboxylated acyl-CoAs (i.e., malonyl-CoA derivatives. Additionally we report on the substrate promiscuity of three newly described acyl-CoA dehydrogenases that allow the simple conversion of acyl-CoAs into enoyl-CoAs. With these five methods, we synthesized 26 different CoA-thioesters with a yield of 40% or higher. The CoA esters produced range from short- to long-chain, include branched and α,β-unsaturated representatives as well as other functional groups. Based on our results we provide a general guideline to the optimal synthesis method of a given CoA-thioester in respect to its functional group(s and the commercial availability of the precursor molecule. The proposed synthetic routes can be performed in small scale and do not require special chemical equipment, making them convenient also for biological laboratories.

  16. Aroma Quality of Fruits of Wild and Cultivated Strawberry (FRAGARIA SPP. in Relation to the Flavour-Related Gene Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianchi Giulia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Expression profiles of flavour-related genes and the aroma quality of fruit headspace were investigated in the four strawberry genotypes ‘Reine des Vallées’ (Fragaria vesca, ‘Profumata di Tortona’ (F mos-chata, ‘Onda’ and VR 177 selection (F” x ananassa. Differences in the expression level of genes coding of strawberry alcohol acyltransferase (SAAT, F. x ananassa nerolidol synthase 1 (FaNESl and F vesca monoterpene and sesquiterpene synthases (FvPINS and PINS1, respectively were detected among these genotypes. In fruits of F. x ananassa the terpenoid profile was dominated by nerolidol, whereas wild spe–cies produced mainly monoterpenes. It was correlated with the higher induction of FaNES1 in cultivated and PINS gene in the wild Fragaria species. The flavour biogenesis in ripening fruits was determined by the expression of SAAT gene, especially visible for ‘Profumata di Tortona’ and ‘Onda’ strawberries. The fruit solid-phase microextraction (SPME headspace was analysed using the Gas Chromatography-Olfac–tometry (GC-O, that allows for the chromatographic separation of volatiles together with their olfactomet-ric evaluation. ‘Reine des Vallées’ fruits have a peculiar profile characterized by high concentrations of limonene, linalool and mesifurane that resulted in “spiced”, “citrus, floral” and “sweet, baked” descriptors. The character impact compound in ‘Profumata di Tortona’ fruits was ethyl butanoate, responsible for “sweet” and “fruity, strawberry” descriptors. However, it was detected in lower amount in comparison to the data obtained for F. x ananassa strawberries. The sesquiterpene nerolidol was identified in both culti–vated strawberry genotypes.

  17. Development of Anastrepha fraterculus (Diptera: Tephritidae) Related to the Phenology of Blueberry, Blackberry, Strawberry Guava, and Surinam Cherry Fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisognin, M; Nava, D E; Diez-Rodríguez, G I; Valgas, R A; Garcia, M S; Krolow, A C R; Antunes, L E C

    2015-02-01

    Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann, 1830) is the main pest of temperate climate orcharding. The study investigated the development of A. fraterculus related to phenological stage of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees. The phenological stages I (green fruits), II (intermediate ripening stage of fruits), and III (fruits close to harvesting) were determined, and they are from 8th, 10th, and 11th week; 6th, 8th, and 9th week; 8th, 13th, and 16th week; and 5th, 6th, and 7th week after the first flowering of blueberry, blackberry, strawberry guava, and Surinam cherry trees, respectively. We collected fruits from orchards to determine the infestation index using the formula: number of pupa/fruit weight. To investigate the development of A. fraterculus, we determined the following biological parameters: egg-to-adult period, weight of pupae, oviposition period, fecundity, number of pupae, and number of infested fruits. The infestation index for the fruits collected in the field was greater in strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits. In the laboratory, the development of A. fraterculus occurred in stage III of blueberry. In blackberry, besides stage III, we also observed the development in stage II, however, at lower infestation. In strawberry guava, the development of A. fraterulus occurred in stages II and III, and the development in both stages was similar. For Surinam cherry, the development occurred in the three phenological stages with similar values for biological parameters. Overall, of the four hosts studied, the strawberry guava and Surinam cherry fruits allowed a better biological development of A. fraterculus, corroborating its preference for fruits native to Brazil. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Loss of ferulate 5-hydroxylase leads to Mediator-dependent inhibition of soluble phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in Arabidopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Nickolas; Bonawitz, Nicholas D.; Nyffeler, Kayleigh E.; Chapple, Clint

    2015-06-05

    Phenylpropanoids are phenylalanine-derived specialized metabolites and include important structural components of plant cell walls, such as lignin and hydroxycinnamic acids, as well as ultraviolet and visible light-absorbing pigments, such as hydroxycinnamate esters (HCEs) and anthocyanins. Previous work has revealed a remarkable degree of plasticity in HCE biosynthesis, such that most Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) mutants with blockages in the pathway simply redirect carbon flux to atypical HCEs. In contrast, the ferulic acid hydroxylase1 (fah1) mutant accumulates greatly reduced levels of HCEs, suggesting that phenylpropanoid biosynthesis may be repressed in response to the loss of FERULATE 5-HYDROXYLASE (F5H) activity. Here, we show that in fah1 mutant plants, the activity of HCE biosynthetic enzymes is not limiting for HCE accumulation, nor is phenylpropanoid flux diverted to the synthesis of cell wall components or flavonol glycosides. We further show that anthocyanin accumulation is also repressed in fah1 mutants and that this repression is specific to tissues in which F5H is normally expressed. Finally, we show that repression of both HCE and anthocyanin biosynthesis in fah1 mutants is dependent on the MED5a/5b subunits of the transcriptional coregulatory complex Mediator, which are similarly required for the repression of lignin biosynthesis and the stunted growth of the phenylpropanoid pathway mutant reduced epidermal fluorescence8. Taken together, these observations show that the synthesis of HCEs and anthocyanins is actively repressed in a MEDIATOR-dependent manner in Arabidopsis fah1 mutants and support an emerging model in which MED5a/5b act as central players in the homeostatic repression of phenylpropanoid metabolism.

  19. Preparation of polyol esters based on vegetable and animal fats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gryglewicz, S; Piechocki, W; Gryglewicz, G

    2003-03-01

    The possibility of using some natural fats: rapeseed oil, olive oil and lard, as starting material for the preparation of neopentyl glycol (NPG) and trimethylol propane (TMP) esters is reported. The syntheses of final products were performed by alcoholysis of fatty acid methyl esters, obtained from natural fats studied, with the appropriate polyhydric alcohol using calcium methoxide as a catalyst. The basic physicochemical properties of the NPG and TMP esters synthesized were the following: viscosity at 40 degrees C in the range of 13.5-37.6 cSt, pour point between -10.5 and -17.5 degrees C and very high viscosity indices, higher than 200. Generally, the esters of neopentyl alcohols were characterized by higher stability in thermo-oxidative conditions in comparison to native triglycerides. Due to the low content of polyunsaturated acids, the olive oil based esters showed the highest thermo-oxidative resistance. Also, methyl esters of fatty acids of lard would constitute a good raw material for the synthesis of lubricating oils, provided that their saturated acids content was lowered. This permits synthesis of NPG and TMP esters with a lower pour point (below -10 degrees C) than natural lard (+33 degrees C).

  20. Thermal and mechanical properties of fatty acid starch esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, H; Vorwerg, W; Rihm, R

    2014-02-15

    The current study examined thermal and mechanical properties of fatty acid starch esters (FASEs). All highly soluble esters were obtained by the sustainable, homogeneous transesterification of fatty acid vinyl esters in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Casted films of products with a degree of substitution (DS) of 1.40-1.73 were compared with highly substituted ones (DS 2.20-2.63). All films were free of any plasticizer additives. Hydrophobic surfaces were characterized by contact angle measurements. Dynamic scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) revealed thermal transitions (T(g), T(m)) which were influenced by the internal plasticizing effect of the ester groups. Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements showed the increased thermal stability toward native starch. Tensile tests revealed the decreasing strength and stiffness of the products with increasing ester-group chain length while the elongation increased up to the ester group laurate and after that decreased. Esters of the longest fatty acids, palmitate and stearate turned out to be brittle materials due to super molecular structures of the ester chains such as confirmed by X-ray. Summarized products with a DS 1.40-1.73 featured more "starch-like" properties with tensile strength up to outstanding 43 MPa, while products with a DS >2 behaved more "oil-like". Both classes of esters should be tested as a serious alternative to commercial starch blends and petrol-based plastics. The term Cnumber is attributed to the number of total C-Atoms of the fatty acid (e.g. C6=Hexanoate). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sugar ester surfactants: enzymatic synthesis and applications in food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neta, Nair S; Teixeira, José A; Rodrigues, Lígia R

    2015-01-01

    Sugar esters are non-ionic surfactants that can be synthesized in a single enzymatic reaction step using lipases. The stability and efficiency of lipases under unusual conditions and using non-conventional media can be significantly improved through immobilization and protein engineering. Also, the development of de novo enzymes has seen a significant increase lately under the scope of the new field of synthetic biology. Depending on the esterification degree and the nature of fatty acid and/or sugar, a range of sugar esters can be synthesized. Due to their surface activity and emulsifying capacity, sugar esters are promising for applications in food industry.

  2. Catalytic Oxidation of Allylic Alcohols to Methyl Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gallas-Hulin, Agata; Kotni, Rama Krishna; Nielsen, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Aerobic oxidation of allylic alcohols to methyl esters using gold nanoparticles supported on different metal oxide carriers has been performed successfully under mild conditions (room temperature, 0.1 MPa O2) without significant loss of catalytic activity. The effects of different reaction...... parameters are studied to find the suitable reaction conditions. All catalysts are characterised by XRD, XRF and TEM. Among these catalysts, Au/TiO2 showed the most efficient catalytic activity towards the selective oxidation of allylic alcohols to the corresponding esters. Moreover, the same Au/TiO2...... to synthesize methyl esters from allylic alcohols....

  3. Persistence of Brazilian isolates of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae and M. robertsii in strawberry crop soil after soil drench application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro, Thiago; Mayerhofer, Johanna; Enkerli, Jürg

    2016-01-01

    Establishment, persistence and local dispersal of the entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae (ESALQ1037) and M. robertsii (ESALQ1426) (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) were investigated in the soil and rhizosphere following soil drench application in strawberries between 2012 and 2013 at a single...... sequence repeat analysis. Both applied fungal isolates were frequently recovered from bulk soil and rhizosphere samples of the treated plots, suggesting that they were able to establish and disperse within the soil. Persistence within the soil and strawberry rhizosphere for both fungal isolates...

  4. Effect of planting density and growing media on growth and yield of strawberry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tariq, R.; Qureshi, K.M.; Hassan, I.; Rasheed, M.; Qureshi, U.S.

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria ananasa), belonging to Rosaceae family, is a rich source of vitamins and minerals with delicate flavors. It is perishable crop which is exceedingly in demand for its taste, profitability, high yield and good quality. To make the plant growth successful in the container, the requirement of special media is very important step because plant growth is largely depended on the physiochemical properties of the growing media used. Winter strawberry production in a greenhouse using high plant densities and various media may be a viable alternative to open-field production system. Planting density can be increased thrice by using different production systems. Studies were conducted to see the impact of different planting densities and media on growth and yield of strawberry. The treatments were T 1 = Control, with normal planting distance of 30 cm x 60 cm and growing media silt, sand and farm yard manure (FYM); T 2 = 15 cm 2 x 30 cm and silt, sand and FYM; T 3 = 30 cm x 60 cm and coir; T 4 = 15 cm x 30 cm and coir; T 5 = 30 cm x 60 cm and peat moss; T 6 = 15 cm x 30 cm and 5 6 peat moss. Results showed that plants grown at low planting distance on all growth media showed more pronounced results as compared to high planting distance. Plants grown in peat moss at both planting densities moderately increased the plant height, canopy size, leaf area, number of fruits, fruit size, fruit weight and titratable acidity. A significant increase in fresh and dry weight of leaves, number of leaves, fruit yield in term of fruit number, fruit size and fruit weight, and fruit quality with high ascorbic acid contents were observed. On the other hand, plants grown in silt, sand and FYM (1 : 1 : 1) at both planting densities showed significant increment in vegetative growth resulting in early flowering with more flowers per plant, better fruit setting and fruit set percentage, greater fruit size and weight but fruit number per plant was reduced which lowered the overall

  5. Components of male aggregation pheromone of strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi herbst. (Coleoptera:Curculionidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innocenzi, P J; Hall, D R; Cross, J V

    2001-06-01

    The strawberry blossom weevil, Anthonomus rubi, is a major pest of strawberries in the United Kingdom and continental Europe. As part of a project to develop noninsecticidal control methods, the pheromone system of this species was investigated. Comparison of volatiles produced by field-collected, overwintering individuals of each sex led to identification of three male-specific compounds--(Z)-2-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)ethanol, (cis)-1-methyl-2-(1-methylethenyl)cyclobutaneethanol, and 2-(1-methylethenyl)-5-methyl-4-hexen-1-ol (lavandulol)--in amounts of 6.1, 1.2, and 0.82 microg/day/ male. The first two compounds are components of the aggregation pheromone of the boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, grandlure II and grandlure I, respectively. Grandlure I was the (1R,2S)-(+) enantiomer and lavandulol was a single enantiomer, although the absolute configuration was not determined. Trace amounts of the other two grandlure components (Z)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure III) and (E)-(3,3-dimethylcyclohexylidene)acetaldehyde (grandlure IV) were also detected. (E,E)-1-(1-Methylethyl)-4-methylene-8-methyl-2,7-cyclo-decadiene (germacrene-D), a known volatile from strawberry plants, Fragaria ananassa, was collected in increased amounts in the presence of pheromone-producing weevils. Male weevils only produced pheromone on F. ananassa and not on scented mayweed, Matracaria recutita, or cow parsley, Anthriscus sylvestris, although these are known food sources. In field trials using various combinations of synthetic grandlures I, II, III, and IV and lavandulol, significantly more weevils were caught in traps baited with blends containing grandlure I and II and lavandulol than in those baited with blends without lavandulol or unbaited controls. Addition of grandlure III and IV had no significant effect on attractiveness. Horizontal sticky traps were found to be more effective than vertical sticky traps or standard boll weevil traps. In mid-season females

  6. Integrated options for the management of black root rot of strawberry caused by Rhizoctonia solani Kuhn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad-Uz-Zaman, Md; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Rejwan; Khan, Mohammad Ashik Iqbal; Alam Bhuiyan, Md Khurshed; Latif, Mohammad Abdul

    2015-02-01

    An investigation was made to manage strawberry black root rot caused by Rhizoctonia solani (R. solani) through the integration of Trichoderma harzianum (T. harzianum) isolate STA7, mustard oil cake and Provax 200. A series of preliminary experiments were conducted to select a virulent isolate of R. solani, an effective isolate of T. harzianum, a suitable organic amendment, and a suitable fungicide before setting the experiment for integration. The pathogenicity of the selected four isolates of R. solani was evaluated against strawberry and isolate SR1 was selected as the test pathogen due to its highest virulent (95.47% mortality) characteristics. Among the 20 isolates of T. harzianum, isolate STA7 showed maximum inhibition (71.97%) against the test pathogen (R. solani). Among the fungicides, Provax-200 was found to be more effective at lowest concentration (100 ppm) and highly compatible with Trichoderma isolates STA7. In the case of organic amendments, maximum inhibition (59.66%) of R. solani was obtained through mustard oil cake at the highest concentration (3%), which was significantly superior to other amendments. Minimum percentages of diseased roots were obtained with pathogen (R. solani)+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment, while the highest was observed with healthy seedlings with a pathogen-inoculated soil. In the case of leaf and fruit rot diseases, significantly lowest infected leaves as well as fruit rot were observed with a pathogen+Trichoderma+mustard oil cake+Provax-200 treatment in comparison with the control. A similar trend of high effectiveness was observed by the integration of Trichoderma, fungicide and organic amendments in controlling root rot and fruit diseases of strawberry. Single application of Trichoderma isolate STA7, Provax 200 or mustard oil cake did not show satisfactory performance in terms of disease-free plants, but when they were applied in combination, the number of healthy plants increased significantly. The

  7. Phyllochron estimation in intercropped strawberry and monocrop systems in a protected environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloísa Ferro Constâncio Mendonça

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The phyllochron is defined as the time required for the appearance of successive leaves on a plant; this characterises plant growth, development and adaptation to the environment. To check the growth and adaptation in cultivars of strawberry grown intercropped with fig trees, it was estimated the phyllochron in these production systems and in the monocrop. The experiment was conducted in greenhouses at the University of Passo Fundo (28º15'41'' S, 52º24'45'' W and 709 m from June 8th to September 4th, 2009; this comprised the period of transplant until the 2nd flowering. The cultivars Aromas, Camino Real, Albion, Camarosa and Ventana, which seedlings were originated from the Agrícola LLahuen Nursery in Chile, as well as Festival, Camino Real and Earlibrite, originated from the Viansa S.A. Nursery in Argentina, were grown in white polyethylene bags filled with commercial substrate (Tecnomax® and evaluated. The treatments were arranged in a randomised block design and four replicates were performed. A linear regression was realized between the leaf number (LN in the main crown and the accumulated thermal time (ATT. The phyllochron (degree-day leaf-1 was estimated as the inverse of the angular coefficient of the linear regression. The data were submitted to ANOVA, and when significance was observed, the means were compared using the Tukey test (p < 0.05. The mean and standard deviation of phyllochrons of strawberry cultivars intercropped with fig trees varied from 149.35ºC day leaf-1 ± 31.29 in the Albion cultivar to 86.34ºC day leaf-1 ± 34.74 in the Ventana cultivar. Significant differences were observed among cultivars produced in a soilless environment with higher values recorded for Albion (199.96ºC day leaf-1 ± 29.7, which required more degree-days to produce a leaf, while cv. Ventana (85.76ºC day leaf-1 ± 11.51 exhibited a lower phyllochron mean value. Based on these results, Albion requires more degree-days to issue a leaf as

  8. 21 CFR 172.852 - Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. 172.852... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.852 Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids. Glyceryl-lacto esters of fatty acids (the lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides) may be safely used in food in...

  9. Complex formation of technetium with the methyl esters of MAG2 and MAG1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, B.; Noll, S.; Grosse, B.; Johannsen, B.; Spies, H.

    1993-01-01

    Mercaptoacetylglycine methyl ester (MAG 2 ester) and mercaptoacetyldiglycine methyl ester (MAG 1 ester) were included to investigate complex formation of SH/amide ligands with technetium. The studies are aimed at finding out how blocking the carboxylic groups influences the complexation reaction, with a view to finding an approach to new lipophilic species. (orig./BBR)

  10. Chilean Strawberry Consumption Protects against LPS-Induced Liver Injury by Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Capability in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Molinett

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Chilean strawberry fruit has high content of antioxidants and polyphenols. Previous studies evidenced antioxidant properties by in vitro methods. However, the antioxidant effect and its impact as functional food on animal health have not been evaluated. In this study, rats were fed with a Chilean strawberry aqueous extract (4 g/kg of animal per day and then subjected to LPS-induced liver injury (5 mg/kg. Transaminases and histological studies revealed a reduction in liver injury in rats fed with strawberry aqueous extract compared with the control group. Additionally, white strawberry supplementation significantly reduced the serum levels and gene expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β cytokines compared with nonsupplemented rats. The level of F2-isoprostanes and GSH/GSSG indicated a reduction in liver oxidative stress by the consumption of strawberry aqueous extract. Altogether, the evidence suggests that dietary supplementation of rats with a Chilean white strawberry aqueous extract favours the normalization of oxidative and inflammatory responses after a liver injury induced by LPS.

  11. Chilean Strawberry Consumption Protects against LPS-Induced Liver Injury by Anti-Inflammatory and Antioxidant Capability in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinett, Sebastian; Nuñez, Francisca; Moya-León, María Alejandra; Zúñiga-Hernández, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    The Chilean strawberry fruit has high content of antioxidants and polyphenols. Previous studies evidenced antioxidant properties by in vitro methods. However, the antioxidant effect and its impact as functional food on animal health have not been evaluated. In this study, rats were fed with a Chilean strawberry aqueous extract (4 g/kg of animal per day) and then subjected to LPS-induced liver injury (5 mg/kg). Transaminases and histological studies revealed a reduction in liver injury in rats fed with strawberry aqueous extract compared with the control group. Additionally, white strawberry supplementation significantly reduced the serum levels and gene expression of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β cytokines compared with nonsupplemented rats. The level of F2-isoprostanes and GSH/GSSG indicated a reduction in liver oxidative stress by the consumption of strawberry aqueous extract. Altogether, the evidence suggests that dietary supplementation of rats with a Chilean white strawberry aqueous extract favours the normalization of oxidative and inflammatory responses after a liver injury induced by LPS.

  12. Comparison of physiochemical changes in two popular strawberry cultivars grown in Iran (cvs. Kurdistan & Selva during storage time at 4°C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jouki Mohammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the effect of storage time on some quality parameters of two strawberry cultivars fruits storage at 4°C have been evaluated. Several quality parameters were monitored during the storage period. The samples were analyzed 1, 7, 14 and 21days during storage. Fruits were analyzed about fruit weight, sugar content, chromatic parameters L*, a*, b*, fruit firmness, total titrable acidity, pH, and sensory evaluation. The Kurdistan strawberries retained their weight throughout the experiment as opposed to the Selva strawberries which lost 0.6% of their weight per day because of dehydration. The Selva cultivar was exceptionally firmer than Kurdistan strawberries. Two cultivars were rich in vitamin C and sugar but these values were more in Kurdistan cultivar. As expected, Chroma decreased and over the storage time in two cultivars. The results of this study showed that packaged Kurdistan strawberries could prove suitable for 7 days at 4°C compare with 4 days for selva strawberries.

  13. An anthocyanin-rich strawberry extract protects against oxidative stress damage and improves mitochondrial functionality in human dermal fibroblasts exposed to an oxidizing agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampieri, Francesca; Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Mazzoni, Luca; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Y; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Gonzàlez-Paramàs, Ana M; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Quiles, Josè L; Bompadre, Stefano; Mezzetti, Bruno; Battino, Maurizio

    2014-08-01

    This study investigates the protective effect of the Sveva strawberry polyphenol-rich extract on human dermal fibroblasts against AAPH-induced oxidative stress. The HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS analysis was used for evaluating the phenolic composition of the fruits. Sveva strawberry presented a high anthocyanin content (639.79 mg per kg fresh fruit), representing ∼86.08% of the total phenolic content, with Pg-3-glc as the most abundant representative (611.18 mg per kg fresh fruit). Only one ellagitannin (agrimoniin) was identified, while two quercetins, three kaempherol derivates, and three ellagic acid derivatives were detected and quantified. Strawberry pre-treatment (0.5 mg ml(-1)) markedly increased human dermal fibroblast viability, with a significant reduction of apoptotic and dead cells, and suppressed AAPH-induced ROS generation, after only 30 minutes of incubation with the oxidizing agent, and lipid peroxidation, against a range of AAPH concentrations tested. Notably, the strawberry extract also improved the mitochondrial functionality: the basal respiratory performance after treatment was ∼1.59-fold higher compared to control cells, while pre-treatment with strawberry extract before oxidative damage increased ∼2.70-fold compared to stressed cells. Our results confirm that the strawberry possesses antioxidant properties, and may be useful for the prevention of free radical-induced skin damage.

  14. Hydrolytic Stability of Boronate Ester-Linked Covalent Organic Frameworks

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Huifang; Li, Haoyuan; Dai, Qingqing; Li, Hong; Bredas, Jean-Luc

    2018-01-01

    by reducing the energy barrier by a factor of 3. Importantly, the hydrolysis of boronate ester bonds situated in a COF environment follows reaction pathways that are different and have increased energy barriers. These results point to an enhanced hydrolytic

  15. ESTER: a new approach in modelling severe accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, I.; Jones, A.; Schmidt, F.

    1993-01-01

    ESTER is a set of codes for calculating phenomena during severe accidents in thermal reactors. It makes use of software tools that allow the data to be defined as a tree-structured data base and this data to be stored and retrieved by the code modules. The tools include generalized input and output routines that are independent of the particular code being used. Severe accident research codes are in a continual state of development and the structure of ESTER is such that modifications can be introduced easily and safely. The ESTER framework also facilitates the coupling together of codes. A preliminary version of ESTER containing a complete set of tools and a limited number of applications has already been released. 9 refs., 5 figs

  16. Evaluation of the levels of phthalate ester plasticizers in surface ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of the levels of phthalate ester plasticizers in surface water of Ethiope ... Gas chromatography (GC) coupled with mass spectrometer (MS) was used to ... with their common use in plastic materials and other industrial chemicals.

  17. Production of both esters and biogas from Mexican poppy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJL

    scale industries and agricultural farms. Key words: Transestrification, energy conservation, anaerobic digestion, methane, biogas, methyl ester. INTRODUCTION. For advancement of civilization and socioeconomic developmental progress, the world is dependent on various energy resources like petrochemicals, coal,.

  18. Baker's yeast: production of D- and L-3-hydroxy esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Allan Carsten; Madsen, Jørgen Øgaard

    1998-01-01

    harvested while growing. In contrast, the stereoselectivity was shifted towards L-hydroxy esters when the oxo esters were added slowly to ordinary baker's yeast supplied with gluconolactone as co-substrate. The reduction rate with gluconolactone was increased by active aeration. Ethyl L-(S)-3......Baker's yeast grown under oxygen limited conditions and used in the reduction of 3-oxo esters results in a shift of the stereoselectivity of the yeast towards D-hydroxy esters as compared with ordinary baker's yeast. The highest degree of stereoselectivity was obtained with growing yeast or yeast......-hydroxybutanoate was afforded in >99% ee. Both enantiomers of ethyl 3-hydroxypentanoate, D-(R) in 96% ee and L-(S) in 93% ee, and of ethyl 4-chloro-3-hydroxybutanoate, D-(S) in 98% ee and L-(R) in 94% ee, were obtained. The results demonstrate that the stereoselectivity of baker's yeast can be controlled...

  19. α-Imino Esters in Organic Synthesis: Recent Advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eftekhari-Sis, Bagher; Zirak, Maryam

    2017-06-28

    α-Imino esters are useful precursors for the synthesis of a variety of types of natural and unnatural α-amino acid derivatives, with a wide range of biological activities. Due to the adjacent ester group, α-imino esters are more reactive relative to other types of imines and undergo different kinds of reactions, including organometallics addition, metal catalyzed vinylation and alkynylation, aza-Henry, aza-Morita-Baylis-Hillman, imino-ene, Mannich-type, and cycloaddition reactions, as well as hydrogenation and reduction. This review discusses the mechanism, scope, and applications of the reactions of α-imino esters and related compounds in organic synthesis, covering the literature from the last 12 years.

  20. Effect of Sucrose Esters on the Physicochemical Properties of Wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    In addition, the structure and thermodynamic properties of the ... Journal Citation Reports/Science Edition, Directory of Open Access Journals ... functional differences between wheat starches ..... esters cosurfactant microemulsion systems for.